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1

Aphasia  

MedlinePLUS

... damage there is. There are four main types: Expressive aphasia - you know what you want to say, ... recover from aphasia without treatment. Most, however, need language therapy as soon as possible. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

2

Aphasia  

MedlinePLUS

... Disorders conduct and support a broad range of scientific investigations to increase our understanding of aphasia, find better treatments, and discover improved methods to restore lost function to people who have ...

3

Progressive Non-Fluent Aphasia in Malayalam: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) is a degenerative condition characterized by deterioration in language for at least two years without deterioration in other cognitive domains. This report highlights the language profile in a 79-year-old male with progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) who was assessed using the Western Aphasia Battery and the…

George, Annamma; Mathuranath, P. S.

2010-01-01

4

Normative data on the boston diagnostic aphasia examination, parietal lobe battery, and the boston naming Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes normative data for the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, the “Parietal Lobe Battery” (Goodglass & Kaplan, 1972), and the Boston Naming Test (Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 1978). These tests were administered to 147 neurologically normal adult males, who were right-handed and native English-speaking. For each age and education group, means, standard deviations, and the range are reported. The

Joan C. Borod; Harold Goodglass; Edith Kaplan

1980-01-01

5

Ideomotor Apraxia in Agrammatic and Logopenic Variants of Primary Progressive Aphasia  

PubMed Central

There are few studies examining praxis in subjects with primary progressive aphasia. The aim of this study was to examine the pattern and severity of ideomotor apraxia in subjects with logopenic and agrammatic variants of primary progressive aphasia and to determine if the presence of ideomotor apraxia correlated with specific neuroanatomical structural abnormalities. Subjects with primary progressive aphasia were prospectively recruited and classified according to published criteria. Using the apraxia subtest of the Western Aphasia Battery, pattern and severity of ideomotor apraxia was examined in all subjects diagnosed with agrammatic and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia. The study included 47 subjects, 21 diagnosed with agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia and 26 with logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia. Subjects with agrammatic aphasia were older at onset than the logopenic variant (67.2 versus 61.7 years, p=0.02), but there was no difference in illness duration prior to evaluation. Those with logopenic aphasia showed more cognitive impairment on the Mini-Mental Status Examination (agrammatic=26.7/30, logopenic=22/30, p=0.002), and a trend for more severe language impairment as measured by Western Aphasia Battery-Aphasia Quotient (agrammatic=82.3, logopenic=75.2, p=0.11). Strong correlations were found between Western Aphasia Battery-Aphasia Quotient and total apraxia, instrumental apraxia, and complex apraxia, while average correlation were seen with upper limb apraxia and modest correlation with facial apraxia. After adjusting for age, mental status performance, and Western Aphasia Battery-Aphasia Quotient score, those with agrammatic aphasia had a higher degree of total apraxia (p=0.004), facial apraxia (p=0.03), instrumental apraxia (p=0.0006), and complex apraxia (p=0.0006) than those with logopenic aphasia. The agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia was associated with greater praxis deficits but less cognitive impairment than the logopenic variant. The presence of ideomotor apraxia was associated with grey matter loss in the left lateral premotor cortex with extension into the motor cortex. These findings suggest that although some affected areas in the agrammatic and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia overlap, there exists an area that is more affected in the agrammatic variant than the logopenic variant that accounts for the greater association of agrammatic aphasia with apraxia. PMID:23358624

Adeli, Anahita; Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Duffy, Joseph R.; Strand, Edyth A.; Josephs, Keith A.

2013-01-01

6

A Comparison of the BAT and BDAE-SF Batteries in Determining the Linguistic Ability in Greek-Speaking Patients with Broca's Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to test the validity and reliability of the Bilingual Aphasia Test as a measure of language impairment in a Greek-speaking Broca's aphasic population and to investigate relationships with the same aphasic group's performance on the Greek version of the short form of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination battery, mainly…

Peristeri, Eleni; Tsapkini, Kyrana

2011-01-01

7

Western Europe: Battery forecast report - status 1995 and outlook. Summary  

SciTech Connect

This presentation will cover the following main topics: (1) The market situation and the market players; (2) The Western European starter battery market in 1995 and outlook and 3. New European starter battery coding system: European Type Number (ETN). The current situation in the Western Europe lead battery market has the following features: (a) Market globalization; (b) a dramatic erosion of prices; (c) the acceleration of technological change; (d) {open_quotes}time to market{close_quotes} as a new competitive dimension and, (e) a strong German currency in the foreseeable future.

Kellinghusen, G. [VARTA, Hannover (Germany)

1996-09-01

8

Conduction aphasia with intact visual object naming.  

PubMed

Conduction aphasia, most often caused by damage to the inferior parietal lobe and arcuate fasciculus, is usually characterized by mildly dysfluent speech with frequent phonemic paraphasic errors, impaired repetition, and impaired word finding and naming, but with relatively spared comprehension. We report an 86-year-old right-handed man with conduction aphasia caused by an infarction that damaged his right temporoparietal region. On testing with the Western Aphasia Battery, however, he named objects almost perfectly. To test his naming ability further, we showed him half the items in the Boston Naming Test; we described or defined the other half of the items, but did not show them to the patient. He performed excellently when naming the objects that he could see, but he had difficulty naming the objects that were only described or defined. These observations suggest that visual word naming may be mediated by a network that is somewhat independent of the networks that mediate spontaneous word finding and word finding based on verbal descriptions or definitions. PMID:24968010

Pandey, Ajay Kumar; Heilman, Kenneth M

2014-06-01

9

Aphasia and sensory-perceptual deficits in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the child version of Reitan's book on aphasia and sensory perceptual disorders in adults (see review by Graves, this issue). It includes a manual for two tests from the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery (the Reitan-Indiana Aphasia Screening Test and the Reitan-Kløve Sensory-Perceptual Examination), and provides versions of the two tests for children aged 5-8 years and 9-14 years. In

Jack M. Fletcher

1987-01-01

10

Anatomical predictors of aphasia recovery: a tractography study of bilateral perisylvian language networks.  

PubMed

Stroke-induced aphasia is associated with adverse effects on quality of life and the ability to return to work. For patients and clinicians the possibility of relying on valid predictors of recovery is an important asset in the clinical management of stroke-related impairment. Age, level of education, type and severity of initial symptoms are established predictors of recovery. However, anatomical predictors are still poorly understood. In this prospective longitudinal study, we intended to assess anatomical predictors of recovery derived from diffusion tractography of the perisylvian language networks. Our study focused on the arcuate fasciculus, a language pathway composed of three segments connecting Wernicke's to Broca's region (i.e. long segment), Wernicke's to Geschwind's region (i.e. posterior segment) and Broca's to Geschwind's region (i.e. anterior segment). In our study we were particularly interested in understanding how lateralization of the arcuate fasciculus impacts on severity of symptoms and their recovery. Sixteen patients (10 males; mean age 60 ± 17 years, range 28-87 years) underwent post stroke language assessment with the Revised Western Aphasia Battery and neuroimaging scanning within a fortnight from symptoms onset. Language assessment was repeated at 6 months. Backward elimination analysis identified a subset of predictor variables (age, sex, lesion size) to be introduced to further regression analyses. A hierarchical regression was conducted with the longitudinal aphasia severity as the dependent variable. The first model included the subset of variables as previously defined. The second model additionally introduced the left and right arcuate fasciculus (separate analysis for each segment). Lesion size was identified as the only independent predictor of longitudinal aphasia severity in the left hemisphere [beta = -0.630, t(-3.129), P = 0.011]. For the right hemisphere, age [beta = -0.678, t(-3.087), P = 0.010] and volume of the long segment of the arcuate fasciculus [beta = 0.730, t(2.732), P = 0.020] were predictors of longitudinal aphasia severity. Adding the volume of the right long segment to the first-level model increased the overall predictive power of the model from 28% to 57% [F(1,11) = 7.46, P = 0.02]. These findings suggest that different predictors of recovery are at play in the left and right hemisphere. The right hemisphere language network seems to be important in aphasia recovery after left hemispheric stroke. PMID:24951631

Forkel, Stephanie J; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Kalra, Lalit; Murphy, Declan G M; Williams, Steven C R; Catani, Marco

2014-07-01

11

Aphasia Classification Using Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A web-based software model (http:\\/\\/fuzzy.iau.dtu.dk\\/aphasia.nsf) was developed as an example for classification of aphasia using neural networks. Two multilayer perceptrons were used to classify the type of aphasia (Broca, Wernicke, anomic, global) according to the results in some subtests of the Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT). First a coarse classification was achieved by using an assessment of spontaneous speech of the

Hubertus Axer; Jan Jantzen; Georg Berks; RWTH Aachen

2000-01-01

12

Gesture and aphasia: Helping hands?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The study of communicative gestures is one of considerable interest for aphasia, in relation to theory, diagnosis, and treatment. Significant limitations currently permeate the general (psycho)linguistic literature on gesture production, and attention to these limitations is essential for both continued investigation and clinical application of gesture for people with aphasia.Aims: The aims of this paper are to discuss issues

Victoria L. Scharp; Connie A. Tompkins; Jana M. Iverson

2007-01-01

13

Grammatical impairment in developmental aphasia.  

PubMed

The language production of a 23 year old patient with developmental aphasia caused by birth injury was analyzed in detail within the framework of Chomsky's generative grammar. It was shown that different stages of grammatical development occur simultaneously, without the predominance of those grammatical forms which are identical with or close to adult grammar. Thus the language of this patient with developmental aphasia is quite comparable to the language of children from 3 to 6, and shares many features with grammatical impairment well known from agrammatism and paragrammatism in adult aphasia. It was suggested that in developmental aphasia incomplete linguistic generalizations are related to an incomplete maturation of inhibitory functions during language acquisition, whereas in adult aphasia comparable forms of less advanced grammars are set free by dissolution of function. PMID:1204367

Kerschensteiner, M; Huber, W

1975-09-01

14

Agnosia for accents in primary progressive aphasia.  

PubMed

As an example of complex auditory signal processing, the analysis of accented speech is potentially vulnerable in the progressive aphasias. However, the brain basis of accent processing and the effects of neurodegenerative disease on this processing are not well understood. Here we undertook a detailed neuropsychological study of a patient, AA with progressive nonfluent aphasia, in whom agnosia for accents was a prominent clinical feature. We designed a battery to assess AA's ability to process accents in relation to other complex auditory signals. AA's performance was compared with a cohort of 12 healthy age and gender matched control participants and with a second patient, PA, who had semantic dementia with phonagnosia and prosopagnosia but no reported difficulties with accent processing. Relative to healthy controls, the patients showed distinct profiles of accent agnosia. AA showed markedly impaired ability to distinguish change in an individual's accent despite being able to discriminate phonemes and voices (apperceptive accent agnosia); and in addition, a severe deficit of accent identification. In contrast, PA was able to perceive changes in accents, phonemes and voices normally, but showed a relatively mild deficit of accent identification (associative accent agnosia). Both patients showed deficits of voice and environmental sound identification, however PA showed an additional deficit of face identification whereas AA was able to identify (though not name) faces normally. These profiles suggest that AA has conjoint (or interacting) deficits involving both apperceptive and semantic processing of accents, while PA has a primary semantic (associative) deficit affecting accents along with other kinds of auditory objects and extending beyond the auditory modality. Brain MRI revealed left peri-Sylvian atrophy in case AA and relatively focal asymmetric (predominantly right sided) temporal lobe atrophy in case PA. These cases provide further evidence for the fractionation of brain mechanisms for complex sound analysis, and for the stratification of progressive aphasia syndromes according to the signature of nonverbal auditory deficits they produce. PMID:23721780

Fletcher, Phillip D; Downey, Laura E; Agustus, Jennifer L; Hailstone, Julia C; Tyndall, Marina H; Cifelli, Alberto; Schott, Jonathan M; Warrington, Elizabeth K; Warren, Jason D

2013-08-01

15

Batteries  

MedlinePLUS

... liquid electrolyte, commonly power automobiles, boats, or motorcycles. Mercury was phased out of certain types of batteries in conjunction with the ?Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act,? passed in ...

16

Language as a stressor in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Persons with aphasia often report feeling anxious when using language while communicating. While many patients, caregivers, clinicians, and researchers would agree that language might be a stressor for persons with aphasia, systematic empirical studies of stress and\\/or anxiety in aphasia remain scarce.Aim: The aim of this paper is to review the existing literature discussing language as a stressor in

Dalia Cahana-Amitay; Martin L. Albert; Sung-Bom Pyun; Andrew Westwood; Theodore Jenkins; Sarah Wolford; Mallory Finley

2011-01-01

17

Aphasia and computerised writing aid supported treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Individuals with aphasia often experience difficulties in writing. Word processors with a spell checker and a grammar checker can compensate for some of the writing difficulties associated with aphasia.Aims: To determine if writing difficulties associated with aphasia may be reduced by the use of a computerised writing aid when training patients.Methods & Procedures: The writing aids used in this

Ingrid Behrns; Lena Hartelius; Åsa Wengelin

2009-01-01

18

ACES: Promoting Empathy Towards Aphasia Through Language Distortion Emulation Software  

E-print Network

living with aphasia [17]. Aphasia is an acquired language disorder that impairs expressive and receptive function. However, the problem resides in the individual's receptive and expressive languageACES: Promoting Empathy Towards Aphasia Through Language Distortion Emulation Software Joshua

Karahalios, Karrie G.

19

Aphasia and communicative speech therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thus far, aphasiological research has focused primarily on a linguistic framework within which language is regarded in terms of a code consisting of vocabulary and grammar. Aphasia has been seen in terms of a linguistic code breakdown, due to brain damage. The relevance of a linguistic classification of the symptoms, however, has also been challenged. In a recent paper, Miceli

Matti Leiwo

1994-01-01

20

An Aphasia Mentoring Program: Perspectives of Speech-Language Pathology Students and of Mentors with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In contrast to clinician-as-expert models, social models of clinical practice typically acknowledge people with aphasia as equal partners in intervention. Given this, there may be a place within speech-language pathology education for programs situating people with aphasia as experts. This paper describes an aphasia mentoring program that…

Purves, Barbara A.; Petersen, Jill; Puurveen, Gloria

2013-01-01

21

Spaced versus massed practice in aphasia therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aphasia is a common consequence of stroke. Unfortunately, speech-language therapy (SLT) for persons with chronic aphasia is typically not financially supported by third-party payers and many of these patients go untreated. The effectiveness of speech-language therapy for persons with chronic aphasia has evoked some controversy, although several recent studies and meta-analyses indicate that it is effective if delivered in adequate

Kristen Elizabeth Loeher

2007-01-01

22

The Main Concept Analysis in Cantonese Aphasic Oral Discourse: External Validation and Monitoring Chronic Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The 1st aim of this study was to further establish the external validity of the main concept (MC) analysis by examining its relationship with the Cantonese Linguistic Communication Measure (CLCM; Kong, 2006; Kong & Law, 2004)--an established quantitative system for narrative production--and the Cantonese version of the Western Aphasia

Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin

2011-01-01

23

BIOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO APHASIA TREATMENT  

PubMed Central

Herein, we review the basic mechanisms neural regeneration and repair and attempt to correlate the findings from animal models of stroke recovery to clinical trials for aphasia. Several randomized, controlled clinical trials that have involved manipulation of different neurotransmitter systems, including noradrenergic, dopaminergic, cholinergic and glutamatergic systems, have shown signals of efficacy. Biological approaches such as anti-Nogo and cell-replacement therapy have shown efficacy in preclinical models, but have yet to reach proof of concept in the clinic. Finally, noninvasive cortical stimulation techniques have been used in a few small trials, and have shown promising results. It appears that the efficacy of all of these platforms can be potentiated through coupling with speech-language therapy. Given this array of potential mechanisms that exist to augment and/or stimulate neural reorganization after stroke, we are optimistic that approaches to aphasia therapy will transition from compensatory models to models where brain reorganization is the goal. PMID:19818231

Small, Steven L.; Llano, Daniel A.

2010-01-01

24

Semantic Dementia and Persisting Wernicke's Aphasia: Linguistic and Anatomical Profiles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have directly compared the clinical and anatomical characteristics of patients with progressive aphasia to those of patients with aphasia caused by stroke. In the current study we examined fluent forms of aphasia in these two groups, specifically semantic dementia (SD) and persisting Wernicke's aphasia (WA) due to stroke. We compared…

Ogar, J. M.; Baldo, J. V.; Wilson, S. M.; Brambati, S. M.; Miller, B. L.; Dronkers, N. F.; Gorno-Tempini, M. L.

2011-01-01

25

[Current status of aphasia therapy].  

PubMed

Aphasia therapy in adults has been established to a larger extent relatively lately in the history of aphasiology, i.e. after its social medical importance had been realized and one of the cardinal problems of neurology solved more satisfactorily--lesion localization by imaging techniques. In order to evaluate the efficiency of aphasia therapy--which is still not quite uncontradicted--it was necessary to acquire sufficient knowledge of the spontaneous recovery process. It takes place--e.g. after stroke--mainly during the first 3 months, coming, as a rule, to a halt during the first year. Longer recovery periods, however, have been described. Next to etiology neurological status, overall health condition, type and severity of aphasia, and time delay between onset of the disease and start of therapy have been ascertained, whereas age and handedness seem to be of minor relevance. If syndrome change occurs the boundary between Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia is not surpassed; this taken apart almost any change from a more severe to a milder form of aphasia is possible. To isolate the therapeutic effect from spontaneous recovery in larger groups is difficult. There are, however, more recent investigations which suggest, that a correctly indicated therapy, which is sufficiently intensive and lasts long enough, will be effective. One of the corner-stones of any therapeutic effort ist adequate stimulation, oriented toward the patients needs and his aphasic syndrome, and taking into account the systemic nature of language and its most important linguistic structural components. Furthermore, a phase-specific and interdisciplinary approach and integration of closely related persons play an important role. We divide the numerous therapeutic techniques into 3 groups: direct or stimulation approach, indirect or circumventory approach, compensatory or alternative strategies approach. Representatives of all 3 groups are presented briefly, e.g. auditory stimulation, divergent semantic intervention, promoting aphasics communicative effectiveness, language enrichment therapy, programmed instruction; then the deblocking method, melodic intonation therapy, imagery, a sample of linguistically oriented methods for the reeducation of syntax, semantics, and phonemics along with special methods for the treatment of alexia and agraphia; finally compensatory techniques like visual communication, visual action therapy, and bliss symbolics. Some particular problems encountered in working with aphasics are addressed. A point is made about the feasibility and profit of lay therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2423425

Lang, C; von Stockert, T R

1986-04-01

26

Bilingual Aphasia: A Theoretical and Clinical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To provide an overview of the potential bilingual client population in the United States, present current neurolinguistic and psycholinguis- tic views of bilingualism in adults with and without aphasia, review related bilingual aphasia recov- ery patterns and the factors that might influence these recovery patterns, and provide insight into diagnostic and therapy procedures for addressing the needs of bilingual

Bonnie Lorenzen; Laura L. Murray

2008-01-01

27

Pharmacotherapy of Aphasia: Myth or Reality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pharmacotherapy of aphasia had been discussed for the last twenty years with first bromocriptine and amphetamine and then serotoninergic, GABAergic and cholinergic agents. Here, we reviewed the MEDLINE available reports of drug therapy for aphasia. So far, proofs of efficiency were found indubitable for none of the studied molecules. However, some…

de Boissezon, Xavier; Peran, Patrice; de Boysson, Chloe; Demonet, Jean-Francois

2007-01-01

28

Language as a Stressor in Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Background Persons with aphasia often report feeling anxious when using language while communicating. While many patients, caregivers, clinicians and researchers would agree that language may be a stressor for persons with aphasia, systematic empirical studies of stress and/or anxiety in aphasia remain scarce. Aim The aim of this paper is to review the existing literature discussing language as a stressor in aphasia, identify key issues, highlight important gaps, and propose a program for future study. In doing so, we hope to underscore the importance of understanding aspects of the emotional aftermath of aphasia, which plays a critical role in the process of recovery and rehabilitation. Main Contribution Post stroke emotional dysregulation in persons with chronic aphasia clearly has adverse effects for language performance and prospects of recovery. However, the specific role anxiety might play in aphasia has yet to be determined. As a starting point, we propose to view language in aphasia as a stressor, linked to an emotional state we term “linguistic anxiety.” Specifically, a person with linguistic anxiety is one in whom the deliberate, effortful production of language involves anticipation of an error, with the imminence of linguistic failure serving as the threat. Since anticipation is psychologically linked to anxiety and also plays an important role in the allostatic system, we suggest that examining physiologic stress responses in persons with aphasia when they are asked to perform a linguistic task would be a productive tool for assessing the potential relation of stress to “linguistic anxiety.” Conclusion Exploring the putative relationship between anxiety and language in aphasia, through the study of physiologic stress responses, could establish a platform for investigating language changes in the brain in other clinical populations, such as in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease or persons with post traumatic stress disorder, or even with healthy aging persons, in whom “linguistic anxiety” might be at work when they have trouble finding words. PMID:22701271

Cahana-Amitay, Dalia; Albert, Martin L.; Pyun, Sung-Bom; Westwood, Andrew; Jenkins, Theodore; Wolford, Sarah; Finley, Mallory

2012-01-01

29

The Aphasia project: designing technology for and with individuals who have aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aphasia Project is a multi-disciplinary research project spanning computer science, psychology, and speech-language pathology, investigating how technology can be designed to support individuals with aphasia in their daily life. Aphasia is a cognitive disorder affecting approximately 100,000 individuals in Canada and 1 million people in the United States [1]. It is usually acquired as a result of stroke, brain

Karyn Moffatt; Rhian Davies

2004-01-01

30

AphasiaBank: Methods for Studying Discourse.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: AphasiaBank is a computerized database of interviews between persons with aphasia (PWAs) and clinicians. By February 2011, the database had grown to include 145 PWAs and 126 controls from 12 sites across the United States. The data and related analysis programs are available free over the web. AIMS: The overall goal of AphasiaBank is the construction of a system for accumulating and sharing data on language usage by PWAs. To achieve this goal, we have developed a standard elicitation protocol and systematic automatic and manual methods for transcription, coding, and analysis. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: We present sample analyses of transcripts from the retelling of the Cinderella story. These analyses illustrate the application of our methods for the study of phonological, lexical, semantic, morphological, syntactic, temporal, prosodic, gestural, and discourse features. MAIN CONTRIBUTION: AphasiaBank will allow researchers access to a large, shared database that can facilitate hypothesis testing and increase methodological replicability, precision, and transparency. CONCLUSIONS: AphasiaBank will provide researchers with an important new tool in the study of aphasia. PMID:22923879

Macwhinney, Brian; Fromm, Davida; Forbes, Margaret; Holland, Audrey

2011-01-01

31

AphasiaBank: Methods for Studying Discourse  

PubMed Central

Background AphasiaBank is a computerized database of interviews between persons with aphasia (PWAs) and clinicians. By February 2011, the database had grown to include 145 PWAs and 126 controls from 12 sites across the United States. The data and related analysis programs are available free over the web. Aims The overall goal of AphasiaBank is the construction of a system for accumulating and sharing data on language usage by PWAs. To achieve this goal, we have developed a standard elicitation protocol and systematic automatic and manual methods for transcription, coding, and analysis. Methods & Procedures We present sample analyses of transcripts from the retelling of the Cinderella story. These analyses illustrate the application of our methods for the study of phonological, lexical, semantic, morphological, syntactic, temporal, prosodic, gestural, and discourse features. Main Contribution AphasiaBank will allow researchers access to a large, shared database that can facilitate hypothesis testing and increase methodological replicability, precision, and transparency. Conclusions AphasiaBank will provide researchers with an important new tool in the study of aphasia. PMID:22923879

MacWhinney, Brian; Fromm, Davida; Forbes, Margaret; Holland, Audrey

2011-01-01

32

Fluent Aphasia in Telugu: A Case Comparison Study of Semantic Dementia and Stroke Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents two cases with fluent aphasia in Telugu with semantic dementia and post-stroke fluent aphasia. Comparable scores were obtained on the conventional neuropsychological and language tests that were administered on the two cases. Both cases demonstrated fluent, grammatical and well-articulated speech with little content, impaired…

Alladi, Suvarna; Mridula, Rukmini; Mekala, Shailaja; Rupela, Vani; Kaul, Subhash

2010-01-01

33

Insights from the Aphasia Project: Designing Technology For and With People who have Aphasia  

E-print Network

multi-disciplinary research project investigating how technology can be designed to support individuals, brain tumor, or other brain injury, that results in an impairment of language, affecting the productionInsights from the Aphasia Project: Designing Technology For and With People who have Aphasia Joanna

Findlater, Leah

34

A MEG investigation of lexical access in aphasia  

E-print Network

Aphasia is an acquired impairment of language ability that occurs secondary to brain damage, and auditory comprehension deficits are a defining component of aphasia. At the single-word level, these deficits are thought to ...

Zipse, Lauryn Rose

2008-01-01

35

Aphasia  

MedlinePLUS

... an adult. Minimize distractions, such as a loud radio or TV, whenever possible. Include the person with ... are also looking at how treatment of other cognitive deficits involving attention and memory can improve communication ...

36

Ambient Experience in Restitutive Treatment of Aphasia  

PubMed Central

One of the greatest challenges to language rehabilitation is reconciling the fact that the same therapeutic intervention, provided to different individuals with similar types of stroke-induced aphasia, may result in divergent outcomes. In this paper, the authors reviewed existing literature to identify relevant ambient factors – those outside the control of the clinician – that may potentially influence functional language recovery in aphasia and response to treatment. The goal was to develop a clinical history-taking tool to assist clinicians in gathering information germane to each individual's unique circumstances and environment, elements that may have previously been underestimated, to provide a complete inventory of potentially potent prognostic factors. First, two of the authors, speech–language pathologists experienced in aphasia rehabilitation, identified and categorized factors that seemed likely to influence aphasia outcomes. Then, a wide range of literature was reviewed in an effort to identify factors empirically found to be potent influences on aphasia recovery. Where studies relating these factors to aphasia were not found, relevant research from allied fields that examined recovery from brain injury is reported. Moreover, some factors thought to be potentially potent have yet to be examined. Finally, the ambient factors supported by evidence were categorized as facilitators or barriers to functional improvement, and the Ambient Influences on Outcome Checklist (AOC) was developed, including only those factors shown to be potent in the recovery process. It is hoped that this checklist can be used to more broadly assess potential prognostic influences in aphasia restitution, as well as spawn further research. PMID:21103021

McClung, Jill S.; Rothi, Leslie J. Gonzalez; Nadeau, Stephen E.

2010-01-01

37

Progressive logopenic\\/phonological aphasia: erosion of the language network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary progressive aphasias (PPA) are paradigmatic disorders of language network breakdown associated with focal degeneration of the left cerebral hemisphere. Here we addressed brain correlates of PPA in a detailed neuroanatomical analysis of the third canonical syndrome of PPA, logopenic\\/phonological aphasia (LPA), in relation to the more widely studied clinico-anatomical syndromes of semantic dementia (SD) and progressive nonfluent aphasia

Jonathan D. Rohrer; Gerard R. Ridgway; Sebastian J. Crutch; Julia Hailstone; Johanna C. Goll; Matthew J. Clarkson; Simon Mead; Jonathan Beck; Cath Mummery; Sebastien Ourselin; Elizabeth K. Warrington; Martin N. Rossor; Jason D. Warren

2010-01-01

38

Effects of language proficiency and language of the environment on aphasia therapy in a multilingual  

PubMed Central

We examined the relative proficiency of four languages (Spanish, German, French, English) of a multilingual speaker with aphasia, JM. JM’s self-rated proficiency was consistent with his naming accuracy for nouns and verbs (The Object and Action Naming Battery, Druks & Masterson, 2000) and with his performance on selected subtests of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (Paradis & Libben, 1987). Within and between-language changes were measured following two periods of language treatment, one in a highly-proficient language (Spanish) and one in a less-proficient language (English). The various outcome measures differed in their sensitivity to treatment-associated changes. Cross-language treatment effects were linked to the language of the environment at the time of testing and to relative language proficiency. PMID:23185107

Goral, Mira; Rosas, Jason; Conner, Peggy S.; Maul, Kristen K.; Obler, Loraine K.

2011-01-01

39

Passive imaging technology in aphasia therapy.  

PubMed

We describe a brief pilot study undertaken to investigate the potential benefit(s) of using a SenseCam in aphasia therapy. Five post-stroke persons with aphasia and their caregivers agreed to participate. Each person with aphasia wore the SenseCam for 1 day during the daytime. Slide shows and printed images were created from the images obtained and presented at a (videotaped) weekly group conversation session. Therapists' observations, reflections, and opinions were subsequently elicited in a group interview and online survey. Wearable, sensor-triggered automatic imaging devices offer potential advantages over both conventional cameras and generic pictures when used in aphasia therapy. We identified three advantages of a SenseCam over conventional imaging methods: Images can be acquired without the presence of the researcher, no action is required by the wearer for image acquisition and the continuous point of view is that of the wearer. Acquired images are of personal relevance to the wearer and may have greater efficacy for the person with aphasia in aiding conversation, and for the speech language therapist in setting functional language goals. PMID:21391108

Burke, Kiernan; Franklin, Sue; Gowan, Olive

2011-10-01

40

Aphasia therapy on a neuroscience basis  

PubMed Central

Background Brain research has documented that the cortical mechanisms for language and action are tightly interwoven and, concurrently, new approaches to language therapy in neurological patients are being developed that implement language training in the context of relevant linguistic and non-linguistic actions, therefore taking advantage of the mutual connections of language and action systems in the brain. A further well-known neuroscience principle is that learning at the neuronal level is driven by correlation; consequently, new approaches to language therapy emphasise massed practice in a short time, thus maximising therapy quantity and frequency and, therefore, correlation at the behavioural and neuronal levels. Learned non-use of unsuccessful actions plays a major role in the chronification of neurological deficits, and behavioural approaches to therapy have therefore employed shaping and other learning techniques to counteract such non-use. Aims Advances in theoretical and experimental neuroscience have important implications for clinical practice. We exemplify this in the domain of aphasia rehabilitation. Main Contribution Whereas classical wisdom had been that aphasia cannot be significantly improved at a chronic stage, we here review evidence that one type of intensive language-action therapy (ILAT)—constraint-induced aphasia therapy—led to significant improvement of language performance in patients with chronic aphasia. We discuss perspectives for further improving speech-language therapy, including drug treatment that may be particularly fruitful when applied in conjunction with behavioural treatment. In a final section we highlight intensive and rapid therapy studies in chronic aphasia as a unique tool for exploring the cortical reorganisation of language. Conclusions We conclude that intensive language action therapy is an efficient tool for improving language functions even at chronic stages of aphasia. Therapy studies using this technique can open new perspectives for research into the plasticity of human language circuits. PMID:18923644

Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Berthier, Marcelo L.

2008-01-01

41

Dementia and aphasia in motor neuron disease: an underrecognised association?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To determine the prevalence and nature of global cognitive dysfunction and language deficits in an unselected population based cohort of patients with motor neuron disease (MND).?METHODS——A battery of neuropsychological and language tests was administered to patients presenting consecutively over a 3 year period to a regional neurology service with a new diagnosis of sporadic motor neuron disease.?RESULTS—The 18 patients could be divided on the basis of their performance into three groups: Three patients were demented and had impaired language function (group 1); two non-demented patients had an aphasic syndrome characterised by word finding difficulties and anomia (group 2). Major cognitive deficits were therefore found in five of the 18 patients (28%). The remaining 13 performed normally on the test battery apart from decreased verbal fluency (group 3).?CONCLUSIONS—The prevalence of cognitive impairment in MND in this population based study of an unselected cohort was higher than has been previously reported. Language deficits, especially anomia, may be relatively frequent in the MND population. Aphasia in MND may be masked by dysarthria and missed if not specifically examined.?? PMID:9854965

Rakowicz, W.; Hodges, J.

1998-01-01

42

Further Evidence of Auditory Extinction in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Preliminary research ( Shisler, 2005) suggests that auditory extinction in individuals with aphasia (IWA) may be connected to binding and attention. In this study, the authors expanded on previous findings on auditory extinction to determine the source of extinction deficits in IWA. Method: Seventeen IWA (M[subscript age] = 53.19 years)…

Marshall, Rebecca Shisler; Basilakos, Alexandra; Love-Myers, Kim

2013-01-01

43

Counseling and Aphasia Treatment: Missed Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During clinical interactions between speech-language pathologists and adults with aphasia, a variety of emotional issues arise. The literature suggests that while counseling is within the scope of practice, SLPs tend to avoid emotional issues in therapy (A. Holland, 2007a). The precise mechanisms employed for circumventing emotional issues in…

Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Damico, Jack S.

2011-01-01

44

Writing Treatment for Severe Aphasia: Who Benefits?  

E-print Network

Writing Treatment for Severe Aphasia: Who Benefits? P61agie M. Beeson Kindle Rising Jennifer Volk spoken language does not improve with treatment, and the utilization of other communication modalities, Chiat, & Pring, 2001). To appreciate the improvement in writing in the face of marked impairment

45

Writing Treatment for Aphasia: A Texting Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Treatment studies have documented the therapeutic and functional value of lexical writing treatment for individuals with severe aphasia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such retraining could be accomplished using the typing feature of a cellular telephone, with the ultimate goal of using text messaging for…

Beeson, Pelagie M.; Higginson, Kristina; Rising, Kindle

2013-01-01

46

A Computational Account of Bilingual Aphasia Rehabilitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current research on bilingual aphasia highlights the paucity in recommendations for optimal rehabilitation for bilingual aphasic patients (Edmonds & Kiran, 2006; Roberts & Kiran, 2007). In this paper, we have developed a computational model to simulate an English-Spanish bilingual language system in which language representations can vary by age…

Kiran, Swathi; Grasemann, Uli; Sandberg, Chaleece; Miikkulainen, Risto

2013-01-01

47

Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical structures and…

Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

2003-01-01

48

Rehabilitation of argument structure deficits in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The syntactic impairment which frequently emerges in aphasia is mostly due to damage to the ability to map thematic information to the corresponding verb argument structure (VAS). In agrammatic patients this disorder is usually associated with initiation difficulties.Aims: The present study describes a new technique for the rehabilitation of VAS deficits in the matrix clause.Methods & Procedure: The treatment

Anna Bazzini; Giuseppina Zonca; Angela Craca; Elisabetta Cafforio; Fara Cellamare; Caterina Guarnaschelli; Guido Felicetti; Claudio Luzzatti

2012-01-01

49

An fMRI study showing the effect of acupuncture in chronic stage stroke patients with aphasia.  

PubMed

Acupuncture is used as a treatment in stroke patients with aphasia, yet the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. This study aims to examine the relationship between changes in language function and brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging in chronic stroke patients with aphasia who underwent an 8-week acupuncture protocol. Seven chronic stroke patients were identified from a stroke database of a regional acute hospital in Hong Kong between January and July 2007. Patients were treated three times a week over a period of 8 weeks. Four acupoints were stimulated on the weak side of the patient's body. No other rehabilitation was given during the study period. Changes in language function were measured by aphasia quotient (AQ) of Cantonese Aphasia Battery (CAB). Functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygen level dependent signals were used to demonstrate the correlation between changes in AQ and brain activation after treatment. The patients were divided into well-recovered and poorly- recovered groups based on their CAB scores at entry. The well-recovered group showed significant improvement in CAB scores after receiving acupuncture treatment. A significant correlation between changes in AQ and blood oxygen level dependent activation in the lesioned Wernicke's speech area was found. These preliminary results suggest that acupuncture may be beneficial to language recovery in chronic stroke patients. PMID:20633517

Chau, Anson C M; Fai Cheung, Raymond Tak; Jiang, Xianyong; Au-Yeung, Paul K M; Li, Leonard S W

2010-03-01

50

Aphasia Therapy in the Age of Globalization: Cross-Linguistic Therapy Effects in Bilingual Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Globalization imposes challenges to the field of behavioural neurology, among which is an increase in the prevalence of bilingual aphasia. Thus, aphasiologists have increasingly focused on bilingual aphasia therapy and, more recently, on the identification of the most efficient procedures for triggering language recovery in bilinguals with aphasia. Therapy in both languages is often not available, and, thus, researchers have focused on the transfer of therapy effects from the treated language to the untreated one. Aim. This paper discusses the literature on bilingual aphasia therapy, with a focus on cross-linguistic therapy effects from the language in which therapy is provided to the untreated language. Methods. Fifteen articles including two systematic reviews, providing details on pre- and posttherapy in the adult bilingual population with poststroke aphasia and anomia are discussed with regard to variables that can influence the presence or absence of cross-linguistic transfer of therapy effects. Results and Discussion. The potential for CLT of therapy effects from the treated to the untreated language depends on the word type, the degree of structural overlap between languages, the type of therapy approach, the pre- and postmorbid language proficiency profiles, and the status of the cognitive control circuit. PMID:24825963

Ansaldo, Ana Ines; Saidi, Ladan Ghazi

2014-01-01

51

The Nature of Naming Errors in Primary Progressive Aphasia Versus Acute Post-Stroke Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the distribution of error types across subgroups of primary progressive aphasia and poststroke aphasia in different vascular locations. Method We analyzed naming errors in 49 individuals with acute left hemisphere ischemic stroke and 55 individuals with three variants of primary progressive aphasia. Location of atrophy or ischemic stroke was characterized using MRI. Results We found that distribution of error types was very similar across all subgroups, irrespective of the site or etiology of the lesion. The only significant difference across groups was the percentage of circumlocutions (F(7, 96) = 3.02, p = .005). Circumlocution errors were highest among logopenic variant PPA (24%) and semantic variant PPA (24%). Semantic coordinate errors were common in all groups, probably because they can arise from disruption of different cognitive processes underlying naming and, therefore, from different locations of brain damage. Conclusions Semantic errors are common among all types of primary progressive aphasia and poststroke aphasia, and the type of error depends in part on the location of damage. PMID:20804246

Budd, Maggi A.; Kortte, Kathleen; Cloutman, Lauren; Newhart, Melissa; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Davis, Cameron; Heidler-Gary, Jennifer; Seay, Margaret W.; Hillis, Argye E.

2011-01-01

52

Musical syntactic processing in agrammatic Broca's aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Growing evidence for overlap in the syntactic processing of language and music in non?brain?damaged individuals leads to the question of whether aphasic individuals with grammatical comprehension problems in language also have problems processing structural relations in music.Aims: The current study sought to test musical syntactic processing in individuals with Broca's aphasia and grammatical comprehension deficits, using both explicit and

Aniruddh D. Patel; John R. Iversen; Marlies Wassenaar; Peter Hagoort

2008-01-01

53

Binding in agrammatic aphasia: Processing to comprehension  

PubMed Central

Background Theories of comprehension deficits in Broca’s aphasia have largely been based on the pattern of deficit found with movement constructions. However, some studies have found comprehension deficits with binding constructions, which do not involve movement. Aims This study investigates online processing and offline comprehension of binding constructions, such as reflexive (e.g., himself) and pronoun (e.g., him) constructions in unimpaired and aphasic individuals in an attempt to evaluate theories of agrammatic comprehension. Methods & Procedures Participants were eight individuals with agrammatic Broca’s aphasia and eight age-matched unimpaired individuals. We used eyetracking to examine online processing of binding constructions while participants listened to stories. Offline comprehension was also tested. Outcomes & Results The eye movement data showed that individuals with Broca’s aphasia were able to automatically process the correct antecedent of reflexives and pronouns. In addition, their syntactic processing of binding was not delayed compared to normal controls. Nevertheless, offline comprehension of both pronouns and reflexives was significantly impaired compared to the control participants. This comprehension failure was reflected in the aphasic participants’ eye movements at sentence end, where fixations to the competitor increased. Conclusions These data suggest that comprehension difficulties with binding constructions seen in agrammatic aphasic patients are not due to a deficit in automatic syntactic processing or delayed processing. Rather, they point to a possible deficit in lexical integration. PMID:20535243

Janet Choy, Jungwon; Thompson, Cynthia K.

2010-01-01

54

Alzheimer's pathology in primary progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative disorder with language impairment as the primary feature. Different subtypes have been described and the 3 best characterized are progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), semantic dementia (SD) and logopenic/phonological aphasia (LPA). Of these subtypes, LPA is most commonly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. However, the features of PPA associated with AD have not been fully defined. Here we retrospectively identified 14 patients with PPA and either pathologically confirmed AD or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers consistent with AD. Analysis of neurological and neuropsychological features revealed that all patients had a syndrome of LPA with relatively nonfluent spontaneous speech, phonemic errors, and reduced digit span; most patients also had impaired verbal episodic memory. Analysis of the pattern of cortical thinning in these patients revealed left posterior superior temporal, inferior parietal, medial temporal, and posterior cingulate involvement and in patients with more severe disease, increasing involvement of left anterior temporal and frontal cortices and right hemisphere areas in the temporo-parietal junction, posterior cingulate, and medial temporal lobe. We propose that LPA may be a “unihemispheric” presentation of AD, and discuss this concept in relation to accumulating evidence concerning language dysfunction in AD. PMID:20580129

Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Rossor, Martin N.; Warren, Jason D.

2012-01-01

55

Snapshots of success: An insider perspective on living successfully with aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:?While the negative impact of aphasia has been the focus of much research, few studies have investigated more positive examples of people living with aphasia. Exploring the concept of living successfully with aphasia from an insider perspective can enhance current research by providing positively framed data that balance this negative skew. Collectively, the perspectives of people with aphasia on themes

Kyla Brown; Linda Worrall; Bronwyn Davidson; Tami Howe

2010-01-01

56

Principles Underlying the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) and Its Uses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) is designed to be objective (so it can be administered by a lay native speaker of the language) and equivalent across languages (to allow for a comparison between the languages of a given patient as well as across patients from different institutions). It has been used not only with aphasia but also with any…

Paradis, Michel

2011-01-01

57

Conceptualising and measuring working memory and its relationship to aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: General agreement exists in the literature that individuals with aphasia can exhibit a working memory deficit that contributes to their language-processing impairments. Although conceptualised within different working memory frameworks, researchers have suggested that individuals with aphasia have limited working memory capacity and impaired attention-control processes as well as impaired inhibitory mechanisms. However, across studies investigating working memory ability in

Heather Harris Wright; Gerasimos Fergadiotis

2012-01-01

58

Conceptualising and measuring working memory and its relationship to aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: General agreement exists in the literature that individuals with aphasia can exhibit a working memory deficit that contributes to their language-processing impairments. Although conceptualised within different working memory frameworks, researchers have suggested that individuals with aphasia have limited working memory capacity and impaired attention-control processes as well as impaired inhibitory mechanisms. However, across studies investigating working memory ability in

Heather Harris Wright; Gerasimos Fergadiotis

2011-01-01

59

Measuring and Inducing Brain Plasticity in Chronic Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brain plasticity associated with anomia recovery in aphasia is poorly understood. Here, I review four recent studies from my lab that focused on brain modulation associated with long-term anomia outcome, its behavioral treatment, and the use of transcranial brain stimulation to enhance anomia treatment success in individuals with chronic aphasia

Fridriksson, Julius

2011-01-01

60

Insights from the Aphasia Project: Designing Technology For and With People who have Aphasia  

E-print Network

Purves , Sarah Yang aphasia-ubc@cs.ubc.ca Department of Computer Science Department of Psychology School Descriptors K.4.2 [Computers and Society]: Social Issues - Assistive technologies for persons with this population of users. For instance, a search for "cognitive impairments" (or cognitive disabilities, disorders

McGrenere, Joanna

61

The anterior temporal lobes support residual comprehension in Wernicke's aphasia  

PubMed Central

Wernicke’s aphasia occurs after a stroke to classical language comprehension regions in the left temporoparietal cortex. Consequently, auditory–verbal comprehension is significantly impaired in Wernicke’s aphasia but the capacity to comprehend visually presented materials (written words and pictures) is partially spared. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural basis of written word and picture semantic processing in Wernicke’s aphasia, with the wider aim of examining how the semantic system is altered after damage to the classical comprehension regions. Twelve participants with chronic Wernicke’s aphasia and 12 control participants performed semantic animate–inanimate judgements and a visual height judgement baseline task. Whole brain and region of interest analysis in Wernicke’s aphasia and control participants found that semantic judgements were underpinned by activation in the ventral and anterior temporal lobes bilaterally. The Wernicke’s aphasia group displayed an ‘over-activation’ in comparison with control participants, indicating that anterior temporal lobe regions become increasingly influential following reduction in posterior semantic resources. Semantic processing of written words in Wernicke’s aphasia was additionally supported by recruitment of the right anterior superior temporal lobe, a region previously associated with recovery from auditory-verbal comprehension impairments. Overall, the results provide support for models in which the anterior temporal lobes are crucial for multimodal semantic processing and that these regions may be accessed without support from classic posterior comprehension regions. PMID:24519979

Robson, Holly; Zahn, Roland; Keidel, James L.; Binney, Richard J.; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

2014-01-01

62

The anterior temporal lobes support residual comprehension in Wernicke's aphasia.  

PubMed

Wernicke's aphasia occurs after a stroke to classical language comprehension regions in the left temporoparietal cortex. Consequently, auditory-verbal comprehension is significantly impaired in Wernicke's aphasia but the capacity to comprehend visually presented materials (written words and pictures) is partially spared. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural basis of written word and picture semantic processing in Wernicke's aphasia, with the wider aim of examining how the semantic system is altered after damage to the classical comprehension regions. Twelve participants with chronic Wernicke's aphasia and 12 control participants performed semantic animate-inanimate judgements and a visual height judgement baseline task. Whole brain and region of interest analysis in Wernicke's aphasia and control participants found that semantic judgements were underpinned by activation in the ventral and anterior temporal lobes bilaterally. The Wernicke's aphasia group displayed an 'over-activation' in comparison with control participants, indicating that anterior temporal lobe regions become increasingly influential following reduction in posterior semantic resources. Semantic processing of written words in Wernicke's aphasia was additionally supported by recruitment of the right anterior superior temporal lobe, a region previously associated with recovery from auditory-verbal comprehension impairments. Overall, the results provide support for models in which the anterior temporal lobes are crucial for multimodal semantic processing and that these regions may be accessed without support from classic posterior comprehension regions. PMID:24519979

Robson, Holly; Zahn, Roland; Keidel, James L; Binney, Richard J; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

2014-03-01

63

Adaptation to aphasia: grammar, prosody and interaction.  

PubMed

This paper investigates recurrent use of the phrase very good by a speaker with non-fluent agrammatic aphasia. Informal observation of the speaker's interaction reveals that she appears to be an effective conversational partner despite very severe word retrieval difficulties that result in extensive reliance on variants of the phrase very good. The question that this paper addresses using an essentially conversation analytic framework is: What is the speaker achieving through these variants of very good and what are the linguistic and interactional resources that she draws on to achieve these communicative effects? Tokens of very good in the corpus were first analyzed in a bottom-up fashion, attending to sequential position, structure and participant orientation. This revealed distinct uses that were subsequently subjected to detailed acoustic analysis in order to investigate specific prosodic characteristics within and across the interactional variants. We identified specific clusters of prosodic cues that were exploited by the speaker to differentiate interactional uses of very good. The analysis thus shows how, in the adaptation to aphasia, the speaker exploits the rich interface between prosody, grammar and interaction both to manage the interactional demands of conversation and to communicate propositional content. PMID:23237417

Rhys, Catrin S; Ulbrich, Christiane; Ordin, Mikhail

2013-01-01

64

Judgment of functional morphology in agrammatic aphasia  

PubMed Central

Individuals with agrammatic Broca’s aphasia show deficits in production of functional morphemes like complementizers (e.g., that and if) and tense and agreement markers (e.g., –ed and –s), with complementizers often being more impaired than verbal morphology. However, there has been comparatively little work examining patients’ ability to comprehend or judge the grammaticality of these morphemes. This paper investigates comprehension of complementizers and verb inflections in two timed grammaticality-judgment experiments. In Experiment 1, participants with agrammatic Broca’s aphasia and grammatical-morphology production deficits (n=10) and unimpaired controls (n=10) heard complement clause sentences, subject relative clause sentences, and conjoined sentences. In Experiment 2, the same participants heard sentences with finite auxiliaries, sentences with finite main verbs, and sentences with uninflected verbs. Results showed above-chance accuracy in aphasic participants’ judgments for complementizer sentences in Experiment 1, but chance performance for verb inflections in Experiment 2. This pattern held regardless of whether the verb inflections were affixes or free-standing auxiliaries. Implications of these results for theories of agrammatic morphological impairments, including feature underspecification accounts (Wenzlaff & Clahsen, 2004; Burchert, Swoboda-Moll & DeBleser, 2005a) and hierarchical structure-based accounts (Friedmann & Grodzinsky, 1997; Izvorski & Ullman, 1999), are discussed. PMID:18438453

Dickey, Michael Walsh; Milman, Lisa H.; Thompson, Cynthia K.

2008-01-01

65

Writing Treatment for Aphasia: A Texting Approach  

PubMed Central

Purpose Treatment studies have documented the therapeutic and functional value of lexical writing treatment for individuals with severe aphasia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such retraining could be accomplished using the typing feature of a cellular telephone, with the ultimate goal of using text messaging for communication. Method A 31-year-old man with persistent Broca’s aphasia, severe apraxia of speech, global dysgraphia, and right hemiparesis participated in this study. Using a multiple baseline design, relearning and maintenance of single-word spellings (and oral naming) of targeted items were examined in response to traditional Copy and Recall Treatment (CART) for handwriting and a new paradigm using 1-handed typing on a cell phone keyboard (i.e., a texting version of CART referred to as T-CART). Results Marked improvements were documented in spelling and spoken naming trained in either modality, with stronger maintenance for handwriting than cell phone typing. Training resulted in functional use of texting that continued for 2 years after treatment. Conclusions These results suggest that orthographic retraining using a cell phone keyboard has the potential to improve spelling knowledge and provide a means to improve functional communication skills. Combined training with both handwriting and cell phone typing should be considered in order to maximize the durability of treatment effects. PMID:23811474

Beeson, Pelagie M.; Higginson, Kristina; Rising, Kindle

2014-01-01

66

Implicit and explicit learning in individuals with agrammatic aphasia.  

PubMed

Implicit learning is a process of acquiring knowledge that occurs without conscious awareness of learning, whereas explicit learning involves the use of overt strategies. To date, research related to implicit learning following stroke has been largely restricted to the motor domain and has rarely addressed implications for language. The present study investigated implicit and explicit learning of an auditory word sequence in 10 individuals with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia and 18 healthy age-matched participants using an adaptation of the Serial Reaction Time task. Individuals with aphasia showed significant learning under implicit, but not explicit, conditions, whereas age-matched participants learned under both conditions. These results suggest significant implicit learning ability in agrammatic aphasia. Furthermore, results of an auditory sentence span task indicated working memory deficits in individuals with agrammatic aphasia, which are discussed in relation to explicit and implicit learning processes. PMID:23532578

Schuchard, Julia; Thompson, Cynthia K

2014-06-01

67

Research with rTMS in the treatment of aphasia.  

PubMed

This review of our research with rTMS to treat aphasia contains four parts: Part 1 reviews functional brain imaging studies related to recovery of language in aphasia with emphasis on nonfluent aphasia. Part 2 presents the rationale for using rTMS to treat nonfluent aphasia patients (based on results from functional imaging studies). Part 2 also reviews our current rTMS treatment protocol used with nonfluent aphasia patients, and our functional imaging results from overt naming fMRI scans, obtained pre- and post- a series of rTMS treatments. Part 3 presents results from a pilot study where rTMS treatments were followed immediately by constraint-induced language therapy (CILT). Part 4 reviews our diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study that examined white matter connections between the horizontal, midportion of the arcuate fasciculus (hAF) to different parts within Broca's area (pars triangularis, PTr; pars opercularis, POp), and the ventral premotor cortex (vPMC) in the RH and in the LH. Part 4 also addresses some of the possible mechanisms involved with improved naming and speech, following rTMS with nonfluent aphasia patients. PMID:20714075

Naeser, Margaret A; Martin, Paula I; Treglia, Ethan; Ho, Michael; Kaplan, Elina; Bashir, Shahid; Hamilton, Roy; Coslett, H Branch; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

2010-01-01

68

Quality of life measurement and outcome in aphasia  

PubMed Central

Background Quality of life (QL) can be defined as the individual’s perception of their own well-being. Aphasia is the most important potential consequence of stroke and has a profound effect on a patient’s life, causing emotional distress, depression, and social isolation, due to loss of language functions. Aims To draw up a QL questionnaire for aphasics (QLQA) focusing particularly on difficulties in interpersonal relationships and on the loss of independence as a result of language disorders. We reported the results of a psychometric evaluation of this measure. Moreover, we experimentally focused on the differences in QLQA between patients affected only by neurological motor impairment and hemiparetic patients with aphasia (PWA) in order to verify the specific role of aphasia on QL. We also explored if the QLQA is sensitive to the severity of aphasia and to the time elapsing from the stroke. Methods A total of 146 consecutive PWA and 37 control subjects were enrolled to evaluate the reliability (internal consistency and test–retest reliability) and validity of the QLQA, using standard psychometric methods. Patients were divided into acute (within 3 months since stroke) and chronic (beyond 3 months) groups, and into mild and severe according to the severity of aphasia. The experimental group of only acute PWA was compared to control subjects, with right hemispherical lesion and without aphasia in QLQA total and partial scores. Results The QLQA had good internal consistency and test–retest reliability. Acute and chronic PWA and mild and severe ones differed in QLQA total, communication, and autonomy subscales. No differences were found in psychological condition. Between aphasic and control patients, significant differences were found in all QLQA subscales. Conclusion The QLQA is a valid measure of QL in PWA, contributing to a better distinction between severe and mild aphasia, and it is sensitive also to the variations in QL depending on the time interval from stroke. PMID:24368886

Spaccavento, Simona; Craca, Angela; Del Prete, Marina; Falcone, Rosanna; Colucci, Antonia; Di Palma, Angela; Loverre, Anna

2014-01-01

69

Neural Correlates of Phonological and Semantic-Based Anomia Treatment in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most naming treatments in aphasia either assume a phonological or semantic emphasis or a combination thereof. However, it is unclear whether semantic or phonological treatments recruit the same or different cortical areas in chronic aphasia. Employing three persons with aphasia, two of whom were non-fluent, the present study compared changes in…

Fridriksson, Julius; Moser, Dana; Bonilha, Leonardo; Morrow-Odom, K. Leigh; Shaw, Heather; Fridriksson, Astrid; Baylis, Gordon C.; Rorden, Chris

2007-01-01

70

A multi-level approach to the analysis of narrative language in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several studies have shown that traditional standardised aphasia tests may not be sensitive enough to adequately assess linguistic deficits and recovery patterns in persons with aphasia. As a result, both functional and structural methods for the analysis of connected language samples from people with aphasia have been devised (see Armstrong, 2000; Prins & Bastiaanse, 2004).Aims: The present article focuses

Andrea Marini; Sara Andreetta; Silvana del Tin; Sergio Carlomagno

2011-01-01

71

Is Isolated Aphasia Associated with Atrial Fibrillation? A Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Background A cardioembolic source, usually atrial fibrillation (AF), is detected in 14-30% of strokes. If AF is found, anticoagulation therapy provides a substantial decrease of the risk of recurrent cerebrovascular ischemic events. AF is often paroxysmal, and extensive diagnostic procedures may be necessary to detect it in patients. Considering cost-effectiveness and patient burden, however, not every suspected patient can be thoroughly screened. Therefore, the identification of risk factors for AF may be helpful. Previous studies have identified isolated aphasia as a risk factor for AF as the cause of the stroke. These studies, however, were performed with small population samples, in a retrospective setting or focused on a specific subtype of aphasia. The aim of this observational study is to prospectively evaluate whether there is a relation between isolated aphasia and AF as the cause of cerebrovascular ischemia. Methods All patients admitted to the Atrium Medical Centre, Heerlen, the Netherlands, with cerebrovascular ischemia or transient ischemic attack in the period of August 2009 to March 2010 or October 2013 to January 2014 were included. The patients were evaluated by a neurologist and admitted to the Brain Care Unit for 24-48 h. Medical history, physical examination and diagnostic results were entered in a database. A diagnosis of isolated aphasia was assigned at admission using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). Presence of AF was determined using a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) on admission and continuous ECG monitoring for 1-2 days. During admission, aphasia tests were done, notably the ScreeLing Test and the Boston Naming Test. Data were analyzed using Pearson's ?2 test, Fisher's exact test, the Mann-Whitney U test and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results A total of 347 patients were included, of which 115 (33.1%) met the criteria for aphasia, with 26 (7.5%) meeting the criteria for isolated aphasia. Of all patients, 90 had a history of AF (66.7%) or AF was found during hospitalization (33.3%). Patients with AF, in contrast to those without, tended to present more often with any type of aphasia (41.1 vs. 30.4%) and isolated aphasia (10.0 vs. 6.6%), but these differences were not significant. A significant relation was found between global aphasia and AF (p = 0.011). Patients with AF scored significantly lower on the ScreeLing Test alone and on both aphasia tests together (p = 0.034). A history of transient ischemic attack significantly increased the risk for isolated aphasia (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.09-6.47). Conclusions A statistically significant relation between isolated aphasia and AF could not be established in this study. However, our results showed a tendency towards significance. Further studies, in which rhythm is observed for a longer period of time, may be required to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:25276118

Giesbers, Carlijn P.A.; Koehler, Peter J.; Schreuder, Tobien H.

2014-01-01

72

Wernicke's Aphasia Reflects a Combination of Acoustic-Phonological and Semantic Control Deficits: A Case-Series Comparison of Wernicke's Aphasia, Semantic Dementia and Semantic Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wernicke's aphasia (WA) is the classical neurological model of comprehension impairment and, as a result, the posterior temporal lobe is assumed to be critical to semantic cognition. This conclusion is potentially confused by (a) the existence of patient groups with semantic impairment following damage to other brain regions (semantic dementia and…

Robson, Holly; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

2012-01-01

73

Parallel recovery in a trilingual speaker: the use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test as a diagnostic complement to the Comprehensive Aphasia Test  

PubMed Central

We illustrate the value of the Bilingual Aphasia Test in the diagnostic assessment of a trilingual speaker post-stroke living in England for whom English was a non-native language. The Comprehensive Aphasia Test is routinely used to assess patients in English but only in combination with the Bilingual Aphasia Test is it possible and practical to provide a fuller picture of the language impairment. We describe our test selection and the assessment it allows us to make. PMID:21453044

GREEN, DAVID W.; RUFFLE, LOUISE; GROGAN, ALICE; ALI, NILUFA; RAMSDEN, SUE; SCHOFIELD, TOM; LEFF, ALEX P.; CRINION, JENNY; PRICE, CATHY J.

2011-01-01

74

Rapid improvement in verbal fluency and aphasia following perispinal etanercept in Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Background Recent clinical studies point to rapid and sustained clinical, cognitive, and behavioral improvement in both Alzheimer's disease and primary progressive aphasia following weekly perispinal administration of etanercept, a TNF-alpha inhibitor that acts by blocking the binding of this cytokine to its receptors. This outcome is concordant with recent basic science studies suggesting that TNF-alpha functions in vivo as a gliotransmitter that regulates synaptic function in the brain. We hypothesized that perispinal etanercept had the potential to improve verbal function in Alzheimer's disease, so we included several standarized measures of verbal ability to evaluate language skills in a clinical trial of perispinal etanercept for Alzheimer's disease. Methods This was a prospective, single-center, open-label, pilot study, in which 12 patients with mild-to-severe Alzheimer's disease were administered etanercept, 25–50 mg, weekly by perispinal administration for six months. Two additional case studies are presented. Results Two-tailed, paired t-tests were conducted comparing baseline performance to 6-month performance on all neuropsychological measures. Test batteries included the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition, Adult Version; Logical Memory I and II(WMS-LM-II) from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Abbreviated; the Comprehensive Trail Making Test (TMT); Boston Naming Test; and letter(FAS) and category verbal fluency. All measures revealed a significant effect except for the Boston Naming Test and the TMT-4, with WMS-LM-II being marginally significant at p = .05. The FAS test for letter fluency was most highly significant with a p < 0.0007. In addition, rapid improvement in verbal fluency and aphasia in two patients with dementia, beginning minutes after perispinal etanercept administration, is documented. Conclusion In combination with the previously reported results of perispinal etanercept in Alzheimer's disease and primary progressive aphasia, these results further argue that larger scale studies of this therapeutic intervention, including Phase 3 trials, are warranted in dementias. In addition, these results may provide insight into the basic pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's disease and related forms of dementia, and suggest the existence of novel, rapidly reversible, TNF-mediated pathophysiologic mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease which are worthy of further investigation. PMID:18644112

Tobinick, Edward L; Gross, Hyman

2008-01-01

75

Capturing multidimensionality in stroke aphasia: mapping principal behavioural components to neural structures.  

PubMed

Stroke aphasia is a multidimensional disorder in which patient profiles reflect variation along multiple behavioural continua. We present a novel approach to separating the principal aspects of chronic aphasic performance and isolating their neural bases. Principal components analysis was used to extract core factors underlying performance of 31 participants with chronic stroke aphasia on a large, detailed battery of behavioural assessments. The rotated principle components analysis revealed three key factors, which we labelled as phonology, semantic and executive/cognition on the basis of the common elements in the tests that loaded most strongly on each component. The phonology factor explained the most variance, followed by the semantic factor and then the executive-cognition factor. The use of principle components analysis rendered participants' scores on these three factors orthogonal and therefore ideal for use as simultaneous continuous predictors in a voxel-based correlational methodology analysis of high resolution structural scans. Phonological processing ability was uniquely related to left posterior perisylvian regions including Heschl's gyrus, posterior middle and superior temporal gyri and superior temporal sulcus, as well as the white matter underlying the posterior superior temporal gyrus. The semantic factor was uniquely related to left anterior middle temporal gyrus and the underlying temporal stem. The executive-cognition factor was not correlated selectively with the structural integrity of any particular region, as might be expected in light of the widely-distributed and multi-functional nature of the regions that support executive functions. The identified phonological and semantic areas align well with those highlighted by other methodologies such as functional neuroimaging and neurostimulation. The use of principle components analysis allowed us to characterize the neural bases of participants' behavioural performance more robustly and selectively than the use of raw assessment scores or diagnostic classifications because principle components analysis extracts statistically unique, orthogonal behavioural components of interest. As such, in addition to improving our understanding of lesion-symptom mapping in stroke aphasia, the same approach could be used to clarify brain-behaviour relationships in other neurological disorders. PMID:25348632

Butler, Rebecca A; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Woollams, Anna M

2014-12-01

76

Capturing multidimensionality in stroke aphasia: mapping principal behavioural components to neural structures  

PubMed Central

Stroke aphasia is a multidimensional disorder in which patient profiles reflect variation along multiple behavioural continua. We present a novel approach to separating the principal aspects of chronic aphasic performance and isolating their neural bases. Principal components analysis was used to extract core factors underlying performance of 31 participants with chronic stroke aphasia on a large, detailed battery of behavioural assessments. The rotated principle components analysis revealed three key factors, which we labelled as phonology, semantic and executive/cognition on the basis of the common elements in the tests that loaded most strongly on each component. The phonology factor explained the most variance, followed by the semantic factor and then the executive-cognition factor. The use of principle components analysis rendered participants’ scores on these three factors orthogonal and therefore ideal for use as simultaneous continuous predictors in a voxel-based correlational methodology analysis of high resolution structural scans. Phonological processing ability was uniquely related to left posterior perisylvian regions including Heschl’s gyrus, posterior middle and superior temporal gyri and superior temporal sulcus, as well as the white matter underlying the posterior superior temporal gyrus. The semantic factor was uniquely related to left anterior middle temporal gyrus and the underlying temporal stem. The executive-cognition factor was not correlated selectively with the structural integrity of any particular region, as might be expected in light of the widely-distributed and multi-functional nature of the regions that support executive functions. The identified phonological and semantic areas align well with those highlighted by other methodologies such as functional neuroimaging and neurostimulation. The use of principle components analysis allowed us to characterize the neural bases of participants’ behavioural performance more robustly and selectively than the use of raw assessment scores or diagnostic classifications because principle components analysis extracts statistically unique, orthogonal behavioural components of interest. As such, in addition to improving our understanding of lesion–symptom mapping in stroke aphasia, the same approach could be used to clarify brain–behaviour relationships in other neurological disorders. PMID:25348632

Butler, Rebecca A.

2014-01-01

77

Patterns of Dysgraphia in Primary Progressive Aphasia Compared to Post-Stroke Aphasia  

PubMed Central

We report patterns of dysgraphia in participants with primary progressive aphasia that can be explained by assuming disruption of one or more cognitive processes or representations in the complex process of spelling. These patterns are compared to those described in participants with focal lesions (stroke). Using structural imaging techniques, we found that damage to the left extrasylvian regions, including the uncinate, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and sagittal stratum (including geniculostriate pathway and inferior longitudinal fasciculus), as well as other deep white and grey matter structures, was significantly associated with impairments in access to orthographic word forms and semantics (with reliance on phonology-to-orthography to produce a plausible spelling in the spelling to dictation task). These results contribute not only to our understanding of the patterns of dysgraphia following acquired brain damage but also the neural substrates underlying spelling. PMID:22713396

Faria, Andreia V.; Crinion, Jenny; Tsapkini, Kyrana; Newhart, Melissa; Davis, Cameron; Cooley, Shannon; Mori, Susumu; Hillis, Argye E.

2013-01-01

78

Treatment of word retrieval impairment in chronic Broca's aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background : The present study describes a treatment approach that was applied to improve word retrieval for an individual with chronic Broca's aphasia. The procedure combined elements of loose training with aspects of structured treatment. Treatment involved presentation of semantic cues according to semantic feature analysis [SFA] (Boyle & Coelho, 1995), as well as a forward chaining technique as in

Annamari Conley; Carl Coelho

2003-01-01

79

Prosodic Disturbance in Aphasia: Speech Timing versus Intonation Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Temporal control has often been suspected to be a critical factor in intonation production. In particular, disturbance in the production of fundamental frequency (F0) associated with intonation in patients with aphasia has been attributed to a primary underlying deficit in speech timing. The present study examined the speech timing abilities of…

Seddoh, S. Amebu

2004-01-01

80

How do people with aphasia view their discharge from therapy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aphasiology literature contains very little on how therapy ends. However, the events surrounding discharge are complex and are an integral part of therapy as a whole.Aims: This article focuses on how people with aphasia view their discharge from therapy in order to shed some light on this rarely explored issue.Methods & Procedures: This research is based on the

Deborah Hersh

2009-01-01

81

Identifying Behavioral Measures of Stress in Individuals with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To develop valid indicators of stress in individuals with aphasia (IWA) by examining the relationship between certain language variables (error frequency [EF] and word productivity [WP]) and cortisol reactivity. Method: Fourteen IWA and 10 controls participated in a speaking task. Salivary cortisol was collected pre- and posttask. WP and…

Laures-Gore, Jacqueline S.; DuBay, Michaela F.; Duff, Melissa C.; Buchanan, Tony W.

2010-01-01

82

The Neural Basis of Syntactic Deficits in Primary Progressive Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) vary considerably in terms of which brain regions are impacted, as well as in the extent to which syntactic processing is impaired. Here we review the literature on the neural basis of syntactic deficits in PPA. Structural and functional imaging studies have most consistently associated syntactic…

Wilson, Stephen M.; Galantucci, Sebastiano; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

2012-01-01

83

Working Memory in Aphasia: Theory, Measures, and Clinical Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, researchers have suggested that deficits in working memory capacity contribute to language-processing difficulties observed in individuals with aphasia (e.g., I. Caspari, S. Parkinson, L. LaPointe, & R. Katz, 1998; R. A. Downey et al., 2004; N. Friedmann & A. Gvion, 2003; H. H. Wright, M. Newhoff, R. Downey, & S. Austermann, 2003). A…

Wright, Heather Harris; Shisler, Rebecca J.

2005-01-01

84

Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Three Individuals with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is evidence to suggest that people with aphasia (PWA) may have deficits in attention stemming from the inefficient allocation of resources. The inaccurate perception of task demand, or sense of effort, may underlie the misallocation of the available attention resources. Given the lack of treatment options for improving attention…

Orenstein, Ellen; Basilakos, Alexandra; Marshall, Rebecca Shisler

2012-01-01

85

A Study of Syntactic Processing in Aphasia II: Neurological Aspects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of a study of the effects of left hemisphere strokes on syntactically-based comprehension in aphasic patients. We studied 42 patients with aphasia secondary to left hemisphere strokes and 25 control subjects for the ability to assign and interpret three syntactic structures (passives, object extracted relative…

Caplan, David; Waters, Gloria; Kennedy, David; Alpert, Nathanial; Makris, Nikos; DeDe, Gayle; Michaud, Jennifer; Reddy, Amanda

2007-01-01

86

Executive function and conversational strategies in bilingual aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Deficits of executive function (EF) have been proposed as all or part of the underlying mechanisms of language impairment in at least some types of aphasia. Executive functions also play a role in the recovery process. There is evidence that bilingual persons have some executive functioning advantages compared to monolingual persons. In this paper we combine two lines of

Claire Penn; Tali Frankel; Jennifer Watermeyer; Nicole Russell

2010-01-01

87

Deep Dyslexia in a Patient with Crossed Aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single case study of a 33-year-old right-handed man who suddenly developed left hemiplegia and nonfluent aphasia is reported. Extensive testing of the patient’s reading ability revealed the symptom complex of deep dyslexia. The relevance of crossed deep dyslexia in a reader of Italian is discussed.Copyright © 1984 S. Karger AG, Basel

Giuseppe Sartori; Sandro Bruno; Mirko Serena; Piergiorgio Bardin

1984-01-01

88

Measuring Lexical Diversity in Narrative Discourse of People with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: A microlinguistic content analysis for assessing lexical semantics in people with aphasia (PWA) is lexical diversity (LD). Sophisticated techniques have been developed to measure LD. However, validity evidence for these methodologies when applied to the discourse of PWA is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four measures…

Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather H.; West, Thomas M.

2013-01-01

89

Psychomotor therapy of aphasia: A general framework and preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for the treatment of aphasia has been developed (psychomotor therapy) which concentrates on the treatment of expressive skills, circumvents the problems of poor comprehension and applies to impairments that remain substantial after spontaneous recovery. The technique addresses control functions that regulate rate-related speech processes and is based on the co-ordination of head movement with breathing, articulatory gestures and

Urihadar; Ritatwiston-davies; Timothy J. Steiner; F. Cliffordrose

1987-01-01

90

Rosenbek, J., LaPointe, L, & Wertz, R. (1989) Aphasia: a clinical approach, Austin, Texas: Pro. Schuell, H., Jenkins, J., & JimenezPabon, E. (1964). Aphasia in adults: Diagnosis, prognosis,  

E-print Network

of Cognitive Psychology, Vol. 2, No.3, p. 205­228. Kertesz, A. (1979). Aphasia and associated disorders. ed. Schuell, H., Jenkins, J., & Jimenez­Pabon, E. (1964). Aphasia in adults: Diagnosis, prognosis, Lincoln. Weisenberg, T. & McBride, K. (1935). Aphasia: A clinical and psychological study. New York

McCoy, Kathleen F.

91

Manipulating hemispheric attentional mechanisms to modulate word retrieval in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Emerging evidence suggests that left hemisphere damage may create an attentional bias towards stimuli initially processed in the right hemisphere.Aims: The current study aimed to investigate whether this hemispheric attentional bias influences spoken word production in a picture–word interference task.Methods & Procedures: Two participants with aphasia and seven healthy controls named centrally presented pictures that were preceded by a

Sophia J. van Hees; Erin R. Smith; David A. Copland

2011-01-01

92

Cognition and Anatomy in Three Variants of Primary Progressive Aphasia  

PubMed Central

We performed a comprehensive cognitive, neuroimaging, and genetic study of 31 patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA), a decline in language functions that remains isolated for at least 2 years. Detailed speech and language evaluation was used to identify three different clinical variants: nonfluent progressive aphasia (NFPA; n = 11), semantic dementia (SD; n = 10), and a third variant termed logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA; n = 10). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on MRIs showed that, when all 31 PPA patients were analyzed together, the left perisylvian region and the anterior temporal lobes were atrophied. However, when each clinical variant was considered separately, distinctive patterns emerged: (1) NFPA, characterized by apraxia of speech and deficits in processing complex syntax, was associated with left inferior frontal and insular atrophy; (2) SD, characterized by fluent speech and semantic memory deficits, was associated with anterior temporal damage; and (3) LPA, characterized by slow speech and impaired syntactic comprehension and naming, showed atrophy in the left posterior temporal cortex and inferior parietal lobule. Apolipoprotein E ?4 haplotype frequency was 20% in NFPA, 0% in SD, and 67% in LPA. Cognitive, genetic, and anatomical features indicate that different PPA clinical variants may correspond to different underlying pathological processes. PMID:14991811

Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Dronkers, Nina F.; Rankin, Katherine P.; Ogar, Jennifer M.; Phengrasamy, La; Rosen, Howard J.; Johnson, Julene K.; Weiner, Michael W.; Miller, Bruce L.

2008-01-01

93

Lexical and Prosodic Effects on Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution in Aphasia  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine whether and when individuals with aphasia and healthy controls use lexical and prosodic information during on-line sentence comprehension. Individuals with aphasia and controls (n = 12 per group) participated in a self-paced listening experiment. The stimuli were early closure sentences, such as “While the parents watched(,) the child sang a song.” Both lexical and prosodic cues were manipulated. The cues were biased toward the subject- or object- of the ambiguous noun phrase (the child). Thus, there were two congruous conditions (in which both lexical cues and prosodic cues were consistent) and two incongruous conditions (in which lexical and prosodic cues conflicted). The results showed that the people with aphasia had longer listening times for the ambiguous noun phrase (the child) when the cues were conflicting, rather than consistent. The controls showed effects earlier in the sentence, at the subordinate verb (watched or danced). Both groups showed evidence of reanalysis at the main verb (sang). These effects demonstrate that the aphasic group was sensitive to the lexical and prosodic cues, but used them on a delayed time course relative to the control group. PMID:22143353

DeDe, Gayle

2012-01-01

94

C-Speak Aphasia Alternative Communication Program for People with Severe Aphasia: Importance of Executive Functioning and Semantic Knowledge  

PubMed Central

Learning how to use a computer-based communication system can be challenging for people with severe aphasia even if the system is not word-based. This study explored cognitive and linguistic factors relative to how they affected individual patients’ ability to communicate expressively using C-Speak Aphasia, (CSA), an alternative communication computer program that is primarily picture-based. Ten individuals with severe non-fluent aphasia received at least six months of training with CSA. To assess carryover of training, untrained functional communication tasks (i.e., answering autobiographical questions, describing pictures, making telephone calls, describing a short video, and two writing tasks) were repeatedly probed in two conditions: 1) using CSA in addition to natural forms of communication, and 2) using only natural forms of communication, e.g., speaking, writing, gesturing, drawing. Four of the ten participants communicated more information on selected probe tasks using CSA than they did without the computer. Response to treatment also was examined in relation to baseline measures of non-linguistic executive function skills, pictorial semantic abilities, and auditory comprehension. Only nonlinguistic executive function skills were significantly correlated with treatment response. PMID:21506045

Nicholas, Marjorie; Sinotte, Michele P.; Helm-Estabrooks, Nancy

2011-01-01

95

Releasing the Constraints on Aphasia Therapy: The Positive Impact of Gesture and Multimodality Treatments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: There is a 40-year history of interest in the use of arm and hand gestures in treatments that target the reduction of aphasic linguistic impairment and compensatory methods of communication (Rose, 2006). Arguments for constraining aphasia treatment to the verbal modality have arisen from proponents of constraint-induced aphasia therapy…

Rose, Miranda L.

2013-01-01

96

Controversies about CP: A Comparison of Language Acquisition and Language Impairments in Broca's Aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In both language acquisition research and the study of language impairments in Broca's aphasia there is an ongoing debate whether or not phrase-structure representations contain the Complementizer Phrase (CP) layer. To shed some light on this debate, I will provide data on German child language and on German agrammatic Broca's aphasia. Analyses of subordinate clauses, wh-questions, and verb placement indicate

Martina Penke

2001-01-01

97

Linguistic and Neuropsychological Deficits in Crossed Conduction Aphasia: Report of Three Cases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes the linguistic and neuropsychological findings in three right-handed patients with crossed conduction aphasia. Despite the location of the lesion in the right hemisphere, all patients displayed a combination of linguistic deficits typically found in conduction aphasia following analogous damage to the left hemisphere.…

Bartha, Lisa; Marien, Peter; Poewe, Werner; Benke, Thomas

2004-01-01

98

The contribution of the Department of Veterans Affairs to neuroimaging of aphasia: One perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has made important contributions to the neuroimaging of aphasia. Through the affiliations of VA researchers with medical faculties, a broad range of questions has been addressed regarding the structural, metabolic, and functional changes that occur in the brain of individuals who develop aphasia.Aims: This report examines some of the work that has been

Jeffrey E. Metter; Anthony Mlcoch

2009-01-01

99

Singing Therapy Can Be Effective for a Patient with Severe Nonfluent Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patients with severe aphasia are rarely treated using speech therapy. We used music therapy to continue to treat a 79-year-old patient with chronic severe aphasia. Interventions 1, 2, and 3 were to practice singing a song that the patient knew, to practice singing a song with a therapist, and to practice saying a greeting using a song with lyrics,…

Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Akanuma, Kyoko; Hatayama, Yuka; Otera, Masako; Meguro, Kenichi

2012-01-01

100

Animal-assisted therapy for persons with aphasia: A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the effects and effectiveness of animal-assisted therapy (AAT) for persons with aphasia. Three men with aphasia from left-hemisphere strokes participated in this study. The men received one semester of traditional ther- apy followed by one semester of AAT. While both therapies were effective, in that each participant met his goals, no significant differences existed between test results

Beth L. Macauley

2006-01-01

101

The Participatory Design of a Sound and Image Enhanced Daily Planner for People with Aphasia  

E-print Network

technology, universal usability, multi-modal interaction, participatory design, handheld devices, cognitive disabilities. INTRODUCTION Aphasia is a cognitive disorder that affects about 1 million people in the United Aphasia is a cognitive disorder that impairs speech and language. From interviews with aphasic individuals

McGrenere, Joanna

102

Training Undergraduate Students in Communication Sciences and Disorders As Conversational Partners for Persons with Aphasia  

E-print Network

Training Undergraduate Students in Communication Sciences and Disorders As Conversational Partners for Persons with Aphasia This Educational Enhancement Grant was funded for the 2009-10 academic year with aphasia as part of a training module in neurogenic communication disorders within the CSD 482 ­ Clinical

Hayes, Jane E.

103

Development of a Short Form of the Boston Naming Test for Individuals with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a short form of the Boston Naming Test (BNT; Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001) for individuals with aphasia and compare it with 2 existing short forms originally analyzed with responses from people with dementia and neurologically healthy adults. Method: Development of the new BNT-Aphasia Short…

del Toro, Christina M.; Bislick, Lauren P.; Comer, Matthew; Velozo, Craig; Romero, Sergio; Rothi, Leslie J. Gonzalez; Kendall, Diane L.

2011-01-01

104

Communication Difficulties and the Use of Communication Strategies: From the Perspective of Individuals with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: To enhance communicative ability and thereby the possibility of increased participation of persons with aphasia, the use of communication strategies has been proposed. However, little is known about how persons with aphasia experience having conversations and how they perceive their own and their conversation partner's use of…

Johansson, Monica Blom; Carlsson, Marianne; Sonnander, Karin

2012-01-01

105

Changes in N400 topography following intensive speech language therapy for individuals with aphasia  

E-print Network

of Psychiatry, Surgery, and Pediatrics (Division of Neurology), Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada B3H 4R before and after 4 weeks of intensive speech-language therapy, people with aphasia performed a task tested twice over the same 4 week inter- val. Since the distribution of the N400 after aphasia therapy

106

Speech-Like and Non-Speech Lip Kinematics and Coordination in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In addition to the well-known linguistic processing impairments in aphasia, oro-motor skills and articulatory implementation of speech segments are reported to be compromised to some degree in most types of aphasia. Aims: This study aimed to identify differences in the characteristics and coordination of lip movements in the production…

Bose, Arpita; van Lieshout, Pascal

2012-01-01

107

Long-term maintenance of novel vocabulary in persons with chronic aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The study of novel word learning in aphasia can shed light on the functionality of patients' learning mechanisms and potentially help in treatment planning. Previous studies have indicated that persons with aphasia are able to learn some new vocabulary. However, these learning outcomes appear short-lived and evidence for the ability to use the newly learned words in the long

Leena Tuomiranta; Pirkko Rautakoski; Juha O. Rinne; Nadine Martin; Matti Laine

2012-01-01

108

Developing an evidence?base for accessibility for people with aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Discrimination on the basis of disability is prohibited in many countries and therefore research on communication accessibility for people with aphasia has become a priority.Aims: The aim of this paper is to summarise and discuss the results of a series of research studies, carried out in one Centre, into accessibility issues for people with aphasia, focusing on the accessibility

Linda Worrall; Tanya Rose; Tami Howe; Kryss McKenna; Louise Hickson

2007-01-01

109

Using mobile technology with individuals with aphasia: native iPad features and everyday apps.  

PubMed

The use of mobile technology, including smartphones and tablet devices, is a growing trend among adults nationwide, and its potential use in aphasia rehabilitation has generated widespread interest. Despite this trend, adults living with disability are less likely than other adults to go online. Complicating things further, most adults living with aphasia come from a generation where computers and technology were not an integral part of their lives. Additionally, training adults with aphasia requires a different approach than training those in the same age bracket without a disability. This article describes the mobile technology program at the Adler Aphasia Center in Maywood, New Jersey. The goal of this program is to improve access to mobile technology for people with aphasia. The use of mobile devices is the focus of the article. Mobile technology concepts and skills needed to establish a strong foundation for successful iPad (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA) use are suggested. We discuss how apps may be used to support aphasia therapy with a focus on apps that are native to the iPad and on other apps that were not specifically developed for aphasia rehabilitation. Challenges in implementing a mobile technology program for people with aphasia and individual member success stories are included. PMID:24449461

Szabo, Gretchen; Dittelman, Janice

2014-02-01

110

The effect of typicality on online category verification of inanimate category exemplars in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A previous study (Kiran & Thompson, 2003a) investigated the effect of typicality on online category verification of animate categories in patients with fluent or nonfluent aphasia and their normal controls. Results revealed a robust effect of typicality: typical examples were faster and more accurate than atypical examples of animate categories. Patients with fluent aphasia did not demonstrate the expected

Swathi Kiran; Katerina Ntourou; Megan Eubank

2007-01-01

111

Use of the BAT with a Cantonese-Putonghua Speaker with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this article is to illustrate the use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) with a Cantonese-Putonghua speaker. We describe G, who is a relatively young Chinese bilingual speaker with aphasia. G's communication abilities in his L2, Putonghua, were impaired following brain damage. This impairment caused specific difficulties in…

Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Weekes, Brendan Stuart

2011-01-01

112

Real-Time Comprehension of Wh- Movement in Aphasia: Evidence from Eyetracking while Listening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sentences with non-canonical wh- movement are often difficult for individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia to understand (Carramazza & Zurif, 1976, inter alia). However, the explanation of this difficulty remains controversial, and little is known about how individuals with aphasia try to understand such sentences in real time. This study uses…

Dickey, Michael Walsh; Choy, JungWon Janet; Thompson, Cynthia, K.

2007-01-01

113

Support for Anterior Temporal Involvement in Semantic Error Production in Aphasia: New Evidence from VLSM  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Semantic errors in aphasia (e.g., naming a horse as "dog") frequently arise from faulty mapping of concepts onto lexical items. A recent study by our group used voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) methods with 64 patients with chronic aphasia to identify voxels that carry an association with semantic errors. The strongest associations were…

Walker, Grant M.; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Kimberg, Daniel Y.; Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Brecher, Adelyn; Dell, Gary S.; Coslett, H. Branch

2011-01-01

114

Supervised Home Training of Dialogue Skills in Chronic Aphasia: A Randomized Parallel Group Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of this study was to prove the efficacy of supervised self-training for individuals with aphasia. Linguistic and communicative performance in structured dialogues represented the main study parameters. Method: In a cross-over design for randomized matched pairs, 18 individuals with chronic aphasia were examined during 12 weeks of…

Nobis-Bosch, Ruth; Springer, Luise; Radermacher, Irmgard; Huber, Walter

2011-01-01

115

Masked Priming Effects in Aphasia: Evidence of Altered Automatic Spreading Activation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Previous research has suggested that impairments of automatic spreading activation may underlie some aphasic language deficits. The current study further investigated the status of automatic spreading activation in individuals with aphasia as compared with typical adults. Method: Participants were 21 individuals with aphasia (12 fluent, 9…

Silkes, JoAnn P.; Rogers, Margaret A.

2012-01-01

116

Using Semantic Feature Analysis to Improve Contextual Discourse in Adults with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Semantic feature analysis (SFA) was used to determine whether training contextually related words would improve the discourse of individuals with nonfluent aphasia in preselected contexts. Method: A modified multiple-probes-across-behaviors design was used to train target words using SFA in 3 adults with nonfluent aphasia. Pretreatment,…

Rider, Jill Davis; Wright, Heather Harris; Marshall, Robert C.; Page, Judith L.

2008-01-01

117

Exploring the interactional dimension of social communication: A collective case study of older people with aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Increasingly, clinicians and researchers emphasise the need to investigate the social consequences of living with aphasia. While the importance of social affiliation and conversations has been acknowledged, there has been limited research that specifically addresses the impact of aphasia on this interactional dimension of communication.Aims: The aims of this study were to explore the insider perspective on the impact

Bronwyn Davidson; Linda Worrall; Louise Hickson

2008-01-01

118

Changes in N400 Topography Following Intensive Speech Language Therapy for Individuals with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our goal was to characterize the effects of intensive aphasia therapy on the N400, an electrophysiological index of lexical-semantic processing. Immediately before and after 4 weeks of intensive speech-language therapy, people with aphasia performed a task in which they had to determine whether spoken words were a "match" or a "mismatch" to…

Wilson, K. Ryan; O'Rourke, Heather; Wozniak, Linda A.; Kostopoulos, Ellina; Marchand, Yannick; Newman, Aaron J.

2012-01-01

119

A 3-Year Evolution of Linguistic Disorders in Aphasia after Stroke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aphasia recovery after stroke has been the subject of several studies, but in none the deficits on the various linguistic levels were examined, even though in the diagnosis and treatment of aphasia the emphasis lays more and more on these linguistic level disorders. In this observational prospective follow-up study, we explored whether it is…

El Hachioui, Hanane; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke W. M. E.; Dippel, Diederik W. J.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Visch-Brink, Evy G.

2011-01-01

120

Recycling batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hundreds of millions of large and billions of small batteries are used up annually in the service of all manner of electronic devices. Until recently, the tons of toxic materials in these batteries would wind up in the garbage, but the systematic collection and recycling of spent batteries is growing. Effective recycling involves changes at all stages of battery life,

F. C. McMichael; C. Henderson

1998-01-01

121

Dissociations Between Fluency And Agrammatism In Primary Progressive Aphasia.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Classical aphasiology, based on the study of stroke sequelae, fuses speech fluency and grammatical ability. Nonfluent (Broca's) aphasia often is accompanied by agrammatism; whereas in the fluent aphasias grammatical deficits are not typical. The assumption that a similar relationship exists in primary progressive aphasia (PPA) has led to the dichotomization of this syndrome into fluent and nonfluent subtypes. AIMS: This study compared elements of fluency and grammatical production in the narrative speech of individuals with PPA to determine if they can be dissociated from one another. METHOD: Speech samples from 37 individuals with PPA, clinically assigned to agrammatic (N=11), logopenic (N=20) and semantic (N=6) subtypes, and 13 cognitively healthy control participants telling the "Cinderella Story" were analyzed for fluency (i.e., words per minute (WPM) and mean length of utterance in words (MLU-W)) and grammaticality (i.e., the proportion of grammatically correct sentences, open-to-closed-class word ratio, noun-to-verb ratio, and correct production of verb inflection, noun morphology, and verb argument structure.) Between group differences were analyzed for each variable. Correlational analyses examined the relation between WPM and each grammatical variable, and an off-line measure of sentence production. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: Agrammatic and logopenic groups both had lower scores on the fluency measures and produced significantly fewer grammatical sentences than did semantic and control groups. However, only the agrammatic group evinced significantly impaired production of verb inflection and verb argument structure. In addition, some semantic participants showed abnormal open-to-closed and noun-to-verb ratios in narrative speech. When the sample was divided on the basis of fluency, all the agrammatic participants fell in the nonfluent category. The logopenic participants varied in fluency but those with low fluency showed variable performance on measures of grammaticality. Correlational analyses and scatter plots comparing fluency and each grammatical variable revealed dissociations within PPA participants, with some nonfluent participants showing normal grammatical skill. CONCLUSIONS: Grammatical production is a complex construct comprised of correct usage of several language components, each of which can be selectively affected by disease. This study demonstrates that individuals with PPA show dissociations between fluency and grammatical production in narrative speech. Grammatical ability, and its relationship to fluency, varies from individual to individual, and from one variant of PPA to another, and can even be found in individuals with semantic PPA in whom a fluent aphasia is usually thought to accompany preserved ability to produce grammatical utterances. PMID:22199417

Thompson, Cynthia K; Cho, Soojin; Hsu, Chien-Ju; Wieneke, Christina; Rademaker, Alfred; Weitner, Bing Bing; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Weintraub, Sandra

2012-01-01

122

Dissociations Between Fluency And Agrammatism In Primary Progressive Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Background Classical aphasiology, based on the study of stroke sequelae, fuses speech fluency and grammatical ability. Nonfluent (Broca's) aphasia often is accompanied by agrammatism; whereas in the fluent aphasias grammatical deficits are not typical. The assumption that a similar relationship exists in primary progressive aphasia (PPA) has led to the dichotomization of this syndrome into fluent and nonfluent subtypes. Aims This study compared elements of fluency and grammatical production in the narrative speech of individuals with PPA to determine if they can be dissociated from one another. Method Speech samples from 37 individuals with PPA, clinically assigned to agrammatic (N=11), logopenic (N=20) and semantic (N=6) subtypes, and 13 cognitively healthy control participants telling the “Cinderella Story” were analyzed for fluency (i.e., words per minute (WPM) and mean length of utterance in words (MLU-W)) and grammaticality (i.e., the proportion of grammatically correct sentences, open-to-closed-class word ratio, noun-to-verb ratio, and correct production of verb inflection, noun morphology, and verb argument structure.) Between group differences were analyzed for each variable. Correlational analyses examined the relation between WPM and each grammatical variable, and an off-line measure of sentence production. Outcomes And Results Agrammatic and logopenic groups both had lower scores on the fluency measures and produced significantly fewer grammatical sentences than did semantic and control groups. However, only the agrammatic group evinced significantly impaired production of verb inflection and verb argument structure. In addition, some semantic participants showed abnormal open-to-closed and noun-to-verb ratios in narrative speech. When the sample was divided on the basis of fluency, all the agrammatic participants fell in the nonfluent category. The logopenic participants varied in fluency but those with low fluency showed variable performance on measures of grammaticality. Correlational analyses and scatter plots comparing fluency and each grammatical variable revealed dissociations within PPA participants, with some nonfluent participants showing normal grammatical skill. Conclusions Grammatical production is a complex construct comprised of correct usage of several language components, each of which can be selectively affected by disease. This study demonstrates that individuals with PPA show dissociations between fluency and grammatical production in narrative speech. Grammatical ability, and its relationship to fluency, varies from individual to individual, and from one variant of PPA to another, and can even be found in individuals with semantic PPA in whom a fluent aphasia is usually thought to accompany preserved ability to produce grammatical utterances. PMID:22199417

Thompson, Cynthia K.; Cho, Soojin; Hsu, Chien-Ju; Wieneke, Christina; Rademaker, Alfred; Weitner, Bing Bing; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Weintraub, Sandra

2011-01-01

123

Global aphasia without hemiparesis caused by a dural arteriovenous fistula.  

PubMed

A 61-year-old Japanese woman with chronic renal failure suddenly became silent at the end of hemodialysis. On a neurological examination, she was unable to respond to one-step commands, state the names of objects, repeat single words, read words aloud or write her name. Because she exhibited no paralysis of the extremities, we diagnosed her as having global aphasia without hemiparesis (GAWH). Cerebral angiography showed a dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in the left isolated transverse sinus with leptomeningeal venous drainage (Borden type 3, Lalwani grade 4). This case highlights dural AVF as an etiology of GAWH. PMID:24429454

Togawa, Jumpei; Ohi, Takekazu; Kawarazaki, Satoru

2014-01-01

124

Grammatical encoding in aphasia: evidence from a "processing prosthesis".  

PubMed

Agrammatic aphasia is characterized by severely reduced grammatical structure in spoken and written language, often accompanied by apparent insensitivity to grammatical structure in comprehension. Does agrammatism represent loss of linguistic competence or rather performance factors such as memory or resource limitations? A considerable body of evidence supports the latter hypothesis in the domain of comprehension. Here we present the first strong evidence for the performance hypothesis in the domain of production: an augmentative communication system that markedly increases the grammatical structure of agrammatic speech while providing no linguistic information, functioning merely to reduce on-line processing demands. PMID:11112295

Linebarger, M C; Schwartz, M F; Romania, J R; Kohn, S E; Stephens, D L

2000-12-01

125

A tutorial on aphasia test development in any language: Key substantive and psychometric considerations  

PubMed Central

Background There are a limited number of aphasia language tests in the majority of the world's commonly spoken languages. Furthermore, few aphasia tests in languages other than English have been standardized and normed, and few have supportive psychometric data pertaining to reliability and validity. The lack of standardized assessment tools across many of the world's languages poses serious challenges to clinical practice and research in aphasia. Aims The current review addresses this lack of assessment tools by providing conceptual and statistical guidance for the development of aphasia assessment tools and establishment of their psychometric properties. Main Contribution A list of aphasia tests in the 20 most widely spoken languages is included. The pitfalls of translating an existing test into a new language versus creating a new test are outlined. Factors to consider in determining test content are discussed. Further, a description of test items corresponding to different language functions is provided, with special emphasis on implementing important controls in test design. Next, a broad review of principal psychometric properties relevant to aphasia tests is presented, with specific statistical guidance for establishing psychometric properties of standardized assessment tools. Conclusions This article may be used to help guide future work on developing, standardizing and validating aphasia language tests. The considerations discussed are also applicable to the development of standardized tests of other cognitive functions. PMID:23976813

Ivanova, Maria V.; Hallowell, Brooke

2013-01-01

126

Effects of Syntactic Complexity, Semantic Reversibility and Explicitness on Discourse Comprehension in Persons with Aphasia and in Healthy Controls  

PubMed Central

Purpose Prior studies of discourse comprehension have concluded that the deficits of persons with aphasia (PWA) in syntactically based comprehension of sentences in isolation are not predictive of deficits in comprehending sentences in discourse (Brookshire & Nicholas, 1984; Caplan & Evans, 1990). However, these studies used semantically constrained sentences in discourse, which do not require syntactic analysis to be understood. We developed a discourse task to assess the effect of syntactic complexity, among other factors, upon discourse comprehension. Method 38 PWA and 30 healthy control subjects were presented with passages that contained 2 – 3 semantically reversible sentences that were either syntactically simple or syntactically complex. The passages were presented auditorily and comprehension was assessed with the auditory and written presentation of four multiple-choice questions immediately following each passage. Results Passages with syntactically simple sentences were better understood than passages with syntactically complex sentences. Moreover, semantically constrained sentences were more likely to be accurately interpreted than semantically reversible sentences. Comprehension accuracy on our battery correlated positively with comprehension accuracy on an existing battery. Conclusions The results show that the presence of semantically reversible syntactically complex sentences in a passage affects comprehension of the passage in both PWA and neurologically healthy individuals. PMID:22355004

Levy, Joshua; Hoover, Elizabeth; Waters, Gloria; Kiran, Swathi; Caplan, David; Berardino, Alex; Sandberg, Chaleece

2012-01-01

127

Button batteries  

MedlinePLUS

... Also, you can call the National Button Battery Ingestion Hotline (202-625-3333). ... Clark L, White NC, Marsolek M: Emerging battery ingestion hazard: Clinical implications. Pediatrics. 2010;125(6): 1168- ...

128

Neural correlates of high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation improvement in post-stroke non-fluent aphasia: a case study.  

PubMed

Damage to the left inferior frontal gyrus (lIFG) affects language and can cause aphasia in stroke. Following left hemisphere damage it has been suggested that the homologue area in the right hemisphere compensates for lost functions. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that inhibitory 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) targeting the right IFG can be useful for enhancing recovery in aphasic patients. In the present study we applied activating high frequency (10-Hz) rTMS, which increases cortical excitability, to the damaged lIFG daily for 3 weeks. Pre- and post-TMS EEG are performed, as well as language function assessments with the Aachener Aphasia Test Battery. Results demonstrate a decrease in rIFG activity post rTMS and normalization for the lIFG for beta3 frequency band. Also increased activity was in the right supplementary motor area for beta3 frequency band. In comparison to pre-TMS the aphasic patient improved on repetition tests, for naming and comprehension. After rTMS increased functional connectivity was shown in comparison to before between the lIFG and the rIFG for theta and beta3 frequency band. This case report suggests that 10 Hz rTMS of the lIFG can normalize activity in the lIFG and right IFG possibly mediated via altered functional connectivity. PMID:22963195

Dammekens, Els; Vanneste, Sven; Ost, Jan; De Ridder, Dirk

2014-01-01

129

Neuroplasticity, Dosage, and Repetition Priming Effects in Individuals with Stroke-Induced Aphasia.  

E-print Network

??Intensity significantly impacts aphasia treatment efficacy, yet research protocols have not answered questions about optimal intensity and/or dosage. A single-subject ABA design investigated the influence… (more)

Griffin, Jenna Ray

2014-01-01

130

TMS suppression of right pars triangularis, but not pars opercularis, improves naming in aphasia.  

PubMed

This study sought to discover if an optimum 1 cm(2) area in the non-damaged right hemisphere (RH) was present, which could temporarily improve naming in chronic, nonfluent aphasia patients when suppressed with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Ten minutes of slow, 1Hz rTMS was applied to suppress different RH ROIs in eight aphasia cases. Picture naming and response time (RT) were examined before, and immediately after rTMS. In aphasia patients, suppression of right pars triangularis (PTr) led to significant increase in pictures named, and significant decrease in RT. Suppression of right pars opercularis (POp), however, led to significant increase in RT, but no change in number of pictures named. Eight normals named all pictures correctly; similar to aphasia patients, RT significantly decreased following rTMS to suppress right PTr, versus right POp. Differential effects following suppression of right PTr versus right POp suggest different functional roles for these regions. PMID:21864891

Naeser, Margaret A; Martin, Paula I; Theoret, Hugo; Kobayashi, Masahito; Fregni, Felipe; Nicholas, Marjorie; Tormos, Jose M; Steven, Megan S; Baker, Errol H; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

2011-12-01

131

Learning ability in post-stroke aphasia : success, strategy use and implications for therapy  

E-print Network

Aphasia is an impairment in the expression or comprehension of language that results from stroke, traumatic brain injury or progressive neurological disease. Approximately one million people in the United States suffer ...

Rohter, Sofia Vallila

2014-01-01

132

Battery separator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A battery separator is described that is embossed with a configuration that is neither vertical corrugation or vertical rib and yet in which all of the surface areas of the two separator faces open or slant upwardly except the portions actually directly engaged against a battery plate. Thus all intended recesses in the faces of the battery separator are open

N. J. Lin; D. D. ORell

1980-01-01

133

Development of a Partial Balint's Syndrome in a Congenitally Deaf Patient Presenting as Pseudo-Aphasia  

PubMed Central

We present a 56 year-old, right-handed, congenitally deaf, female who exhibited a partial Balint's syndrome accompanied by positive visual phenomena restricted to her lower right visual quadrant (e.g., color band, transient unformed visual hallucinations). Balint's syndrome is characterized by a triad of visuo-ocular symptoms that typically occur following bilateral parieto-occipital lobe lesions. These symptoms include the inability to perceive simultaneous events in one's visual field (simultanagnosia), an inability to fixate and follow an object with one's eyes (optic apraxia), and an impairment of target pointing under visual guidance (optic ataxia). Our patient exhibited simultanagnosia, optic ataxia, left visual-field neglect, and impairment of all complex visual-spatial tasks, yet demonstrated normal visual acuity, intact visual-fields, and an otherwise normal neurocognitive profile. The patient's visuo-ocular symptoms were noticed while she was participating in rehabilitation for a small right pontine stroke. White matter changes involving both occipital lobes had been incidentally noted on the CT scan revealing the pontine infarction. As the patient relied upon sign language and reading ability for communication, these visuo-perceptual limitations hindered her ability to interact with others and gave the appearance of aphasia. We discuss the technical challenges of assessing a patient with significant barriers to communication (e.g., the need for a non-standardized approach, a lack of normative data for such special populations), while pointing out the substantial contributions that can be made by going beyond the standard neuropsychological test batteries. PMID:18923965

Drane, Daniel L.; Lee, Gregory P.; Huthwaite, Justin S.; Tirschwell, David L.; Baudin, Brett C.; Jurado, Miguel; Ghodke, Basavaraj; Marchman, Holmes B.

2010-01-01

134

Significance of Aphasia after First-Ever Acute Stroke: Impact on Early and Late Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We assessed the incidence and determinants of aphasia attributable to first-ever acute stroke. We also investigated early and long-term mortality and 1-year dependence in post-stroke patients. Methods: A 10-year prospective hospital-based study was conducted in the prefecture of Athens, Greece. Results: In total, 2,297 patients were included in the study, of whom 806 (35.1%) had aphasia. The presence of

S. Tsouli; A. P. Kyritsis; G. Tsagalis; E. Virvidaki; K. N. Vemmos

2009-01-01

135

Battery separators.  

PubMed

The ideal battery separator would be infinitesimally thin, offer no resistance to ionic transport in electrolytes, provide infinite resistance to electronic conductivity for isolation of electrodes, be highly tortuous to prevent dendritic growths, and be inert to chemical reactions. Unfortunately, in the real world the ideal case does not exist. Real world separators are electronically insulating membranes whose ionic resistivity is brought to the desired range by manipulating the membranes thickness and porosity. It is clear that no single separator satisfies all the needs of battery designers, and compromises have to be made. It is ultimately the application that decides which separator is most suitable. We hope that this paper will be a useful tool and will help the battery manufacturers in selecting the most appropriate separators for their batteries and respective applications. The information provided is purely technical and does not include other very important parameters, such as cost of production, availability, and long-term stability. There has been a continued demand for thinner battery separators to increase battery power and capacity. This has been especially true for lithiumion batteries used in portable electronics. However, it is very important to ensure the continued safety of batteries, and this is where the role of the separator is greatest. Thus, it is essential to optimize all the components of battery to improve the performance while maintaining the safety of these cells. Separator manufacturers should work along with the battery manufacturers to create the next generation of batteries with increased reliability and performance, but always keeping safety in mind. This paper has attempted to present a comprehensive review of literature on separators used in various batteries. It is evident that a wide variety of separators are available and that they are critical components in batteries. In many cases, the separator is one of the major factors limiting the life and/or performance of batteries. Consequently, development of new improved separators would be very beneficial for the advanced high capacity batteries. PMID:15669158

Arora, Pankaj; Zhang, Zhengming John

2004-10-01

136

A qualitative study of legal and social justice needs for people with aphasia.  

PubMed

Abstract This paper presents an exploratory investigation of situations in which people with aphasia may be vulnerable to legal and access to justice issues. The study used a qualitative descriptive approach to analyse 167 de-identified transcriptions of previously collected interviews, with 50 participants with mild-to-severe aphasia following stroke, 48 family members, and their treating speech-language pathologists. Situations experienced by people with aphasia and their family members were coded using key-word searches based on the previously published framework developed by Ellison and colleagues to describe situations of vulnerability to legal and access to justice needs for older people. Health and financial and consumer situations were most frequently identified in the data. Additionally, there were a number of situations found specifically relating to people with aphasia involving their signatures and credit card use. Instances of discrimination and abuse were also identified, and, although infrequent, these issues point to the profound impact of aphasia on the ability to complain and, hence, to ensure rights to care are upheld. The findings of this study are consistent with previous research in suggesting that legal and access to justice needs are an important issue for people with aphasia and their families. PMID:24228890

Morris, Karen; Ferguson, Alison; Worrall, Linda

2014-12-01

137

Battery management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A battery management system is described, comprising: a main battery; main battery charging system means coupled to the main battery for charging the main battery during operation of the main battery charging system means; at least one auxiliary battery; primary switching means for coupling the auxiliary battery to a parallel configuration with the main battery charging system means and with

Albright

1993-01-01

138

Dry cell battery poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries Manganese dioxide

139

Setting a research agenda to inform intensive comprehensive aphasia programs.  

PubMed

Research into intensive comprehensive aphasia programs (ICAPs) has yet to show that this service delivery model is efficacious, effective, has cost utility, or can be broadly implemented. This article describes a phased research approach to the study of ICAPs and sets out a research agenda that considers not only the specific issues surrounding ICAPs, but also the phase of the research. Current ICAP research is in the early phases, with dosing and outcome measurement as prime considerations as well as refinement of the best treatment protocol. Later phases of ICAP research are outlined, and the need for larger scale collaborative funded research is recognized. The need for more rapid translation into practice is also acknowledged, and the use of hybrid models of phased research is encouraged within the ICAP research agenda. PMID:24091283

Hula, William D; Cherney, Leora R; Worrall, Linda E

2013-01-01

140

Inflectional morphology in primary progressive aphasia: an elicited production study.  

PubMed

Inflectional morphology lies at the intersection of phonology, syntax and the lexicon, three language domains that are differentially impacted in the three main variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). To characterize spared and impaired aspects of inflectional morphology in PPA, we elicited inflectional morphemes in 48 individuals with PPA and 13 healthy age-matched controls. We varied the factors of regularity, frequency, word class, and lexicality, and used voxel-based morphometry to identify brain regions where atrophy was predictive of deficits on particular conditions. All three PPA variants showed deficits in inflectional morphology, with the specific nature of the deficits dependent on the anatomical and linguistic features of each variant. Deficits in inflecting low-frequency irregular words were associated with semantic PPA, with lexical/semantic deficits, and with left temporal atrophy. Deficits in inflecting pseudowords were associated with non-fluent/agrammatic and logopenic variants, with phonological deficits, and with left frontal and parietal atrophy. PMID:25129631

Wilson, Stephen M; Brandt, Temre H; Henry, Maya L; Babiak, Miranda; Ogar, Jennifer M; Salli, Chelsey; Wilson, Lisa; Peralta, Karen; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

2014-09-01

141

Elicitation of specific syntactic structures in primary progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

Many patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) are impaired in syntactic production. Because most previous studies of expressive syntax in PPA have relied on quantitative analysis of connected speech samples, which is a relatively unconstrained task, it is not well understood which specific syntactic structures are most challenging for these patients. We used an elicited syntactic production task to identify which syntactic structures pose difficulties for 31 patients with three variants of PPA: non-fluent/agrammatic, semantic and logopenic. Neurodegenerative and healthy age-matched participants were included as controls. As expected, non-fluent/agrammatic patients made the most syntactic errors. The structures that resulted in the most errors were constructions involving third person singular present agreement, and constructions involving embedded clauses. Deficits on this elicited production task were associated with atrophy of the left posterior inferior frontal gyrus. PMID:23046707

DeLeon, Jessica; Gesierich, Benno; Besbris, Max; Ogar, Jennifer; Henry, Maya L.; Miller, Bruce L.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Wilson, Stephen M.

2012-01-01

142

Hidden word learning capacity through orthography in aphasia.  

PubMed

The ability to learn to use new words is thought to depend on the integrity of the left dorsal temporo-frontal speech processing pathway. We tested this assumption in a chronic aphasic individual (AA) with an extensive left temporal lesion using a new-word learning paradigm. She exhibited severe phonological problems and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) suggested a complete disconnection of this left-sided white-matter pathway comprising the arcuate fasciculus (AF). Diffusion imaging tractography confirmed the disconnection of the direct segment and the posterior indirect segment of her left AF, essential components of the left dorsal speech processing pathway. Despite her left-hemispheric damage and moderate aphasia, AA learned to name and maintain the novel words in her active vocabulary on par with healthy controls up to 6 months after learning. This exceeds previous demonstrations of word learning ability in aphasia. Interestingly, AA's preserved word learning ability was modality-specific as it was observed exclusively for written words. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) revealed that in contrast to normals, AA showed a significantly right-lateralized activation pattern in the temporal and parietal regions when engaged in reading. Moreover, learning of visually presented novel word-picture pairs also activated the right temporal lobe in AA. Both AA and the controls showed increased activation during learning of novel versus familiar word-picture pairs in the hippocampus, an area critical for associative learning. AA's structural and functional imaging results suggest that in a literate person, a right-hemispheric network can provide an effective alternative route for learning of novel active vocabulary. Importantly, AA's previously undetected word learning ability translated directly into therapy, as she could use written input also to successfully re-learn and maintain familiar words that she had lost due to her left hemisphere lesion. PMID:24262200

Tuomiranta, Leena M; Càmara, Estela; Froudist Walsh, Seán; Ripollés, Pablo; Saunavaara, Jani P; Parkkola, Riitta; Martin, Nadine; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Laine, Matti

2014-01-01

143

Beyond the temporal pole: limbic memory circuit in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia.  

PubMed

Despite accruing evidence for relative preservation of episodic memory in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (previously semantic dementia), the neural basis for this remains unclear, particularly in light of their well-established hippocampal involvement. We recently investigated the Papez network of memory structures across pathological subtypes of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and demonstrated severe degeneration of all relay nodes, with the anterior thalamus in particular emerging as crucial for intact episodic memory. The present study investigated the status of key components of Papez circuit (hippocampus, mammillary bodies, anterior thalamus, cingulate cortex) and anterior temporal cortex using volumetric and quantitative cell counting methods in pathologically-confirmed cases with semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (n = 8; 61-83 years; three males), behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia with TDP pathology (n = 9; 53-82 years; six males) and healthy controls (n = 8, 50-86 years; four males). Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia cases with TDP pathology were selected because of the association between the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia and TDP pathology. Our findings revealed that the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia and behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia show similar degrees of anterior thalamic atrophy. The mammillary bodies and hippocampal body and tail were preserved in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia but were significantly atrophic in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. Importantly, atrophy in the anterior thalamus and mild progressive atrophy in the body of the hippocampus emerged as the main memory circuit regions correlated with increasing dementia severity in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia. Quantitation of neuronal populations in the cingulate cortices confirmed the selective loss of anterior cingulate von Economo neurons in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. We also show that by end-stage these neurons selectively degenerate in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia with preservation of neurons in the posterior cingulate cortex. Overall, our findings demonstrate for the first time, severe atrophy, although not necessarily neuronal loss, across all relay nodes of Papez circuit with the exception of the mammillary bodies and hippocampal body and tail in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia. Despite the longer disease course in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia compared with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, we suggest here that the neural preservation of crucial memory relays (hippocampal?mammillary bodies and posterior cingulate?hippocampus) likely reflects the conservation of specific episodic memory components observed in most patients with semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia. PMID:24844729

Tan, Rachel H; Wong, Stephanie; Kril, Jillian J; Piguet, Olivier; Hornberger, Michael; Hodges, John R; Halliday, Glenda M

2014-07-01

144

Profiling Performance in L1 and L2 Observed in Greek-English Bilingual Aphasia Using the Bilingual Aphasia Test: A Case Study from Cyprus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Greek and the English versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) were used to assess the linguistic abilities of a premorbidly highly proficient late bilingual female after a haemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident involving the left temporo-parietal lobe. The BAT was administered in the two languages on separate occasions by the first author,…

Kambanaros, Maria; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.

2011-01-01

145

Using statistical parsing to detect agrammatic aphasia Kathleen C. Fraser1, Graeme Hirst1, Jed A. Meltzer2,  

E-print Network

and Disorders, Northwestern University 4Dept. of Neurology, Northwestern University 4Cognitive Neurology language. The type of aphasia depends on the location of the lesion. However, even two patients with the same type of aphasia may experience different symptoms. A careful analysis of narrative speech can

Toronto, University of

146

Using Computers to Enable Self-Management of Aphasia Therapy Exercises for Word Finding: The Patient and Carer Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Speech and language therapy (SLT) for aphasia can be difficult to access in the later stages of stroke recovery, despite evidence of continued improvement with sufficient therapeutic intensity. Computerized aphasia therapy has been reported to be useful for independent language practice, providing new opportunities for continued…

Palmer, Rebecca; Enderby, Pam; Paterson, Gail

2013-01-01

147

Improved Vocabulary Production after Naming Therapy in Aphasia: Can Gains in Picture Naming Generalise to Connected Speech?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Naming accuracy for nouns and verbs in aphasia can vary across different elicitation contexts, for example, simple picture naming, composite picture description, narratives, and conversation. For some people with aphasia, naming may be more accurate to simple pictures as opposed to naming in spontaneous, connected speech; for others,…

Conroy, Paul; Sage, Karen; Ralph, Matt Lambon

2009-01-01

148

Paintable battery.  

PubMed

If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations. PMID:22745900

Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M

2012-01-01

149

Paintable Battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations.

Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

2012-06-01

150

Why Is It Difficult to Predict Language Impairment and Outcome in Patients with Aphasia after Stroke?  

PubMed Central

One of the most devastating consequences of stroke is aphasia. Communication problems after stroke can severely impair the patient's quality of life and make even simple everyday tasks challenging. Despite intense research in the field of aphasiology, the type of language impairment has not yet been localized and correlated with brain damage, making it difficult to predict the language outcome for stroke patients with aphasia. Our primary objective is to present the available evidence that highlights the difficulties of predicting language impairment after stroke. The different levels of complexity involved in predicting the lesion site from language impairment and ultimately predicting the long-term outcome in stroke patients with aphasia were explored. Future directions and potential implications for research and clinical practice are highlighted. PMID:24829592

Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Varkanitsa, Maria; Selai, Caroline; Potagas, Constantin; Evdokimidis, Ioannis

2014-01-01

151

Recovery from aphasia: a longitudinal study on language recovery, lateralization patterns, and attentional resources.  

PubMed

Despite the large body of evidence on the neural basis of the recovery from aphasia, the role of either cerebral hemisphere remains controversial. This paper reports the results of a longitudinal single-case study on the patterns of lateralization for lexical semantic processing during the recovery from aphasia. The experimental protocol included a lateralized lexical decision task (LDT), an attentional task and a language test. There was no presentation site effect on the LDT, and the performance was jointly influences by attentional and language factors. These findings suggest that the recovery of lexical semantic processing may be sustained by both cerebral hemispheres, and highlights the importance of experimental protocols that allow examining both language and attentional factors modulating factors modulating the recovery from aphasia. PMID:15370384

Ansaldo, Ana Inés; Arguin, Martin; Lecours, André Roch

2004-08-01

152

Progression of logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia to apraxia and semantic memory deficits  

PubMed Central

Background Due to the nature of neurodegenerative disorders, patients with primary progressive aphasia develop cognitive impairment other than aphasia as the disorder progresses. The progression of logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA), however, has not been well described. In particular, praxic disorders and semantic memory deficits have rarely been reported. Case presentations We report three patients in the initial stage of lvPPA who subsequently developed apraxia in the middle stage and developed clinically evident semantic memory deficits in the advanced stages. Conclusions The present case series suggests that some patients with lvPPA develop an atypical type of dementia with apraxia and semantic memory deficits, suggesting that these cases should be classified as a type of early-onset Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24176108

2013-01-01

153

Delayed auditory feedback simulates features of nonfluent primary progressive aphasia.  

PubMed

The pathophysiology of nonfluent primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA) remains poorly understood. Here, we compared quantitatively speech parameters in patients with nfvPPA versus healthy older individuals under altered auditory feedback, which has been shown to modulate normal speech output. Patients (n=15) and healthy volunteers (n=17) were recorded while reading aloud under delayed auditory feedback [DAF] with latency 0, 50 or 200ms and under DAF at 200ms plus 0.5 octave upward pitch shift. DAF in healthy older individuals was associated with reduced speech rate and emergence of speech sound errors, particularly at latency 200ms. Up to a third of the healthy older group under DAF showed speech slowing and frequency of speech sound errors within the range of the nfvPPA cohort. Our findings suggest that (in addition to any anterior, primary language output disorder) these key features of nfvPPA may reflect distorted speech input signal processing, as simulated by DAF. DAF may constitute a novel candidate pathophysiological model of posterior dorsal cortical language pathway dysfunction in nfvPPA. PMID:25305712

Maruta, Carolina; Makhmood, Sonya; Downey, Laura E; Golden, Hannah L; Fletcher, Phillip D; Witoonpanich, Pirada; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Warren, Jason D

2014-12-15

154

Disrupted brain connectome in semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia.  

PubMed

Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and graph analysis, the topological organization of the functional brain network connectivity was explored in patients with left-sided onset semantic variant (SV) of primary progressive aphasia relative to healthy controls. Functional brain networks in SV patients were characterized by a significantly lower mean network degree, clustering coefficient, and global efficiency, longer characteristic path length and higher assortativity compared with controls. SV patients showed also a strongly left-lateralized loss of hubs, and reduced nodal degree in the inferior and ventral temporal regions and occipital cortices. In SV, the decreased nodal degree extended into the medial and ventral frontal cortex bilaterally, left amygdala and/or hippocampus, and left caudate nucleus. These findings provide evidence that the focal structural degeneration of the inferior temporal, and perysilvian language regions in SV patients ultimately results in a distributed pattern of functional connectivity abnormalities. The local network analysis shows that SV is associated with a functional degradation in the "pan-modal" inferior and/or ventral temporal regions, and the "modality-specific" visual cortical origin of the ventral processing pathway. PMID:24970567

Agosta, Federica; Galantucci, Sebastiano; Valsasina, Paola; Canu, Elisa; Meani, Alessandro; Marcone, Alessandra; Magnani, Giuseppe; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo

2014-11-01

155

Naming vs knowing faces in primary progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study examines the anatomical correlates of naming vs recognizing faces using a novel measure that utilizes culturally relevant and age-appropriate items, the Northwestern University Famous Faces (NUFFACE) Test, in primary progressive aphasia (PPA), a syndrome characterized by progressive language deficits and associated with cortical atrophy in areas important for word and object representations. Methods: NUFFACE Test performance of 27 controls (mean age 62.3 years) was compared with that of 30 patients with PPA (mean age 62 years). Associations between NUFFACE Test performance and cortical thickness measures were quantified within the PPA group. Results: Patients with PPA displayed significant impairment on the NUFFACE Test, demonstrating that it is a useful measure of famous-face identification for individuals with relatively young-onset dementias. Despite widespread distribution of atrophy in the PPA group, face naming impairments were correlated with atrophy of the left anterior temporal lobe while face recognition impairments were correlated with bitemporal atrophy. Conclusions: In addition to their clinical relevance for highlighting the distinction between face naming and recognition impairments in individuals with young-onset dementia, these findings add new insights into the dissociable clinico-anatomical substrates of lexical retrieval and object knowledge. PMID:23940020

Wieneke, Christina; Martersteck, Adam; Whitney, Kristen; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M.-Marsel; Rogalski, Emily

2013-01-01

156

Subdivision of frontal cortex mechanisms for language production in aphasia  

PubMed Central

Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) has long been linked to language production, but the precise mechanisms are still being elucidated. Using neuropsychological case studies, we explored possible sub-specialization within this region for different linguistic and executive functions. Frontal patients with different lesion profiles completed two sequencing tasks, which were hypothesized to engage partially overlapping components. The multi-word priming task tested the sequencing of co-activated representations and the overriding of primed word orders. The sequence reproduction task tested the sequencing of co-activated representations, but did not employ a priming manipulation. We compared patients’ performance on the two tasks to that of healthy, age-matched controls. Results are partially consistent with an anterior-posterior gradient of cognitive control within lateral prefrontal cortex (Koechlin & Summerfield, 2007). However, we also found a stimulus-specific pattern, which suggests that sub-specialization might be contingent on type of representation as well as type of control signal. Isolating such components functionally and anatomically might lead to a better understanding of language production deficits in aphasia. PMID:23022077

Thothathiri, Malathi; Gagliardi, Maureen; Schwartz, Myrna F.

2012-01-01

157

Subdivision of frontal cortex mechanisms for language production in aphasia.  

PubMed

Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) has long been linked to language production, but the precise mechanisms are still being elucidated. Using neuropsychological case studies, we explored possible sub-specialization within this region for different linguistic and executive functions. Frontal patients with different lesion profiles completed two sequencing tasks, which were hypothesized to engage partially overlapping components. The multi-word priming task tested the sequencing of co-activated representations and the overriding of primed word orders. The sequence reproduction task tested the sequencing of co-activated representations, but did not employ a priming manipulation. We compared patients' performance on the two tasks to that of healthy, age-matched controls. Results are partially consistent with an anterior-posterior gradient of cognitive control within lateral prefrontal cortex (Koechlin & Summerfield, 2007). However, we also found a stimulus-specific pattern, which suggests that sub-specialization might be contingent on type of representation as well as type of control signal. Isolating such components functionally and anatomically might lead to a better understanding of language production deficits in aphasia. PMID:23022077

Thothathiri, Malathi; Gagliardi, Maureen; Schwartz, Myrna F

2012-12-01

158

Speech Therapy in Primary Progressive Aphasia: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative disorder with no effective pharmacological treatment. Cognition-based interventions are adequate alternatives, but their benefit has not been thoroughly explored. Our aim was to study the effect of speech and language therapy (SLT) on naming ability in PPA. Methods An open parallel prospective longitudinal study involving two centers was designed to compare patients with PPA submitted to SLT (1 h/week for 11 months) with patients receiving no therapy. Twenty patients were enrolled and undertook baseline language and neuropsychological assessments; among them, 10 received SLT and 10 constituted an age- and education-matched historical control group. The primary outcome measure was the change in group mean performance on the Snodgrass and Vanderwart naming test between baseline and follow-up assessments. Results Intervention and control groups did not significantly differ on demographic and clinical variables at baseline. A mixed repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant main effect of therapy (F(1,18) = 10.763; p = 0.005) on the performance on the Snodgrass and Vanderwart naming test. Conclusion Although limited by a non-randomized open study design with a historical control group, the present study suggests that SLT may have a benefit in PPA, and it should prompt a randomized, controlled, rater-blind clinical trial. PMID:22962556

Farrajota, Luisa; Maruta, Carolina; Maroco, Joao; Martins, Isabel Pavao; Guerreiro, Manuela; de Mendonca, Alexandre

2012-01-01

159

Measuring Lexical Diversity in Narrative Discourse of People With Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Purpose A microlinguistic content analysis for assessing lexical semantics in people with aphasia (PWA) is lexical diversity (LD). Sophisticated techniques have been developed to measure LD. However, validity evidence for these methodologies when applied to the discourse of PWA is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four measures of LD to determine how effective they were at measuring LD in PWA. Method Four measures of LD were applied to short discourse samples produced by 101 PWA: (a) the Measure of Textual Lexical Diversity (MTLD; McCarthy, 2005), (b) the Moving-Average Type-Token Ratio (MATTR; Covington, 2007), (c) D (McKee, Malvern, & Richards, 2000), and (d) the Hypergeometric Distribution (HD-D; McCarthy & Jarvis, 2007). LD was estimated using each method, and the scores were subjected to a series of analyses (e.g., curve-fitting, analysis of variance, confirmatory factor analysis). Results Results from the confirmatory factor analysis suggested that MTLD and MATTR reflect LD and little of anything else. Further, two indices (HD-D and D) were found to be equivalent, suggesting that either one can be used when samples are >50 tokens. Conclusion MTLD and MATTR yielded the strongest evidence for producing unbiased LD scores, suggesting that they may be the best measures for capturing LD in PWA. PMID:23695912

Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather H.; West, Thomas M.

2013-01-01

160

Short Term Memory, Working Memory, and Syntactic Comprehension in Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Sixty one people with aphasia were tested on ten tests of short term memory (STM) and for the ability to use syntactic structure to determine the meanings of eleven types of sentences in three tasks – object manipulation, picture matching and picture matching with self-paced listening. Multilevel models showed relationships between measures of the ability to retain and manipulate item and order information in STM and accuracy and RT, and a greater relationship between these STM measures and accuracy and RT for several more complex sentence types in individual tasks. There were no effects of measures of STM that reflect the use of phonological codes or rehearsal on comprehension. There was only one effect of STM measures on self-paced listening times. There were double dissociations between performance on STM and individual comprehension tasks, indicating that normal STM is not necessary to perform normally on these tasks. The results are most easily related to the view that STM plays a facilitatory role in supporting the use of the products of the comprehension process to accomplish operations related to tasks. PMID:23865692

Caplan, David; Michaud, Jennifer; Hufford, Rebecca

2013-01-01

161

Bipolar battery  

DOEpatents

A bipolar battery having a plurality of cells. The bipolar battery includes: a negative electrode; a positive electrode and a separator element disposed between the negative electrode and the positive electrode, the separator element electrically insulating the electrodes from one another; an electrolyte disposed within at least one of the negative electrode, the positive electrode and the separator element; and an electrode containment structure including a cup-like electrode holder.

Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

1992-01-01

162

Verbal creativity in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia.  

PubMed

Emergence of visual and musical creativity in the setting of neurologic disease has been reported in patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), also called semantic dementia (SD). It is hypothesized that loss of left anterior frontotemporal function facilitates activity of the right posterior hemispheric structures, leading to de novo creativity observed in visual artistic representation. We describe creativity in the verbal domain, for the first time, in three patients with svPPA. Clinical presentations are carefully described in three svPPA patients exhibiting verbal creativity, including neuropsychology, neurologic exam, and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed to quantify brain atrophy patterns in these patients against age-matched healthy controls. All three patients displayed new-onset creative writing behavior and produced extensive original work during the course of disease. Patient A developed interest in wordplay and generated a large volume of poetry. Patient B became fascinated with rhyming and punning. Patient C wrote and published a lifestyle guidebook. An overlap of their structural MR scans showed uniform sparing in the lateral portions of the language-dominant temporal lobe (superior and middle gyri) and atrophy in the medial temporal cortex (amygdala, limbic cortex). New-onset creativity in svPPA may represent a paradoxical functional facilitation. A similar drive for production is found in visually artistic and verbally creative patients. Mirroring the imaging findings in visually artistic patients, verbal preoccupation and creativity may be associated with medial atrophy in the language-dominant temporal lobe, but sparing of lateral dominant temporal and non-dominant posterior cortices. PMID:24329034

Wu, Teresa Q; Miller, Zachary A; Adhimoolam, Babu; Zackey, Diana D; Khan, Baber K; Ketelle, Robin; Rankin, Katherine P; Miller, Bruce L

2015-02-01

163

9-Volt Battery Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169 9-volt Battery 9-volt 9-volt batteries power our smoke ... away with other metal items. Storing 9-volt batteries KKK Keep batteries in original packaging until you ...

164

Auto Battery Safety Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... 2010 Prevent Blindness America ® All rights reserved. The Battery’s Purpose: A motor vehicle battery does the following ... the air conditioner or radio are turned on. Battery Safety Precautions To prevent an accident that could ...

165

Written Language Impairments in Primary Progressive Aphasia: A Reflection of Damage to Central  

E-print Network

was to evaluate the primary systems account in a mixed group of individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA. INTRODUCTION Acquired disorders of reading (dyslexia) and spelling (dysgraphia) result from damage to distinct that disorders of spoken and written language tend to co-occur in individual patients. However, there is dis

166

The Effects of Modified Melodic Intonation Therapy on Nonfluent Aphasia: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Positive results have been reported with melodic intonation therapy (MIT) in nonfluent aphasia patients with damage to their left-brain speech processes, using the patient's intact ability to sing to promote functional language. This pilot study sought to determine the immediate effects of introducing modified melodic intonation therapy…

Conklyn, Dwyer; Novak, Eric; Boissy, Adrienne; Bethoux, Francois; Chemali, Kamal

2012-01-01

167

Fluent versus nonfluent primary progressive aphasia: A comparison of clinical and functional neuroimaging features  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better characterize fluent and nonfluent variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Although investigators have recognized both fluent and nonfluent patients with PPA (Mesulam, 2001), the clinical and neuroimaging features of these variants have not been fully defined. We present clinical and neuropsychological data on 47 PPA patients comparing the fluent (n=21) and nonfluent (n=26) subjects. We further compared language

David Glenn Clark; Anthony Charuvastra; Bruce L. Miller; Jill S. Shapira; Mario F. Mendez

2005-01-01

168

Category and Letter Fluency in Semantic Dementia, Primary Progressive Aphasia, and Alzheimer's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of various degenerative dementias on access to semantic knowledge and the status of semantic representations. Patients with semantic dementia, primary progressive aphasia, and Alzheimer's disease were compared with elderly controls on tasks of category and letter fluency, with number of words generated, mean lexical…

Marczinski, Cecile A.; Kertesz, Andrew

2006-01-01

169

Induction of neuroplasticity and recovery in post-stroke aphasia by non-invasive brain stimulation  

PubMed Central

Stroke victims tend to prioritize speaking, writing, and walking as the three most important rehabilitation goals. Of note is that two of these goals involve communication. This underscores the significance of developing successful approaches to aphasia treatment for the several hundred thousand new aphasia patients each year and over 1 million stroke survivors with chronic aphasia in the U.S. alone. After several years of growth as a research tool, non-invasive brain stimulation (NBS) is gradually entering the arena of clinical aphasiology. In this review, we first examine the current state of knowledge of post-stroke language recovery including the contributions from the dominant and non-dominant hemispheres. Next, we briefly discuss the methods and the physiologic basis of the use of inhibitory and excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as research tools in patients who experience post-stroke aphasia. Finally, we provide a critical review of the most influential evidence behind the potential use of these two brain stimulation methods as clinical rehabilitative tools. PMID:24399952

Shah, Priyanka P.; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Allendorfer, Jane; Hamilton, Roy H.

2013-01-01

170

Patterns of Comprehension Performance in Agrammatic Broca's Aphasia: A Test of the Trace Deletion Hypothesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested the core prediction of the Trace Deletion Hypothesis (TDH) of agrammatic Broca's aphasia, which contends that such patients' comprehension performance is normal for active reversible sentences but at chance level for passive reversible sentences. We analyzed the comprehension performance of 38 Italian Broca's aphasics with verified…

Caramazza, A.; Capasso, R.; Capitani, E.; Miceli, G.

2005-01-01

171

Task-modulated neural activation patterns in chronic stroke patients with aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Neuroimaging research on language recovery in patients with aphasia due to left hemisphere damage has generated some intriguing results. However, it is still not clear what role the right hemisphere plays in supporting recovered language functions in the chronic phase for patients with different site and size of lesion when different tasks are used.Aims: The present study aimed at

Rajani Sebastian; Swathi Kiran

2011-01-01

172

Effect of Semantic Naming Treatment on Crosslinguistic Generalization in Bilingual Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The effect of semantic naming treatment on crosslinguistic generalization was investigated in 3 participants with English-Spanish bilingual aphasia. Method: A single-subject experimental designed was used. Participants received semantic treatment to improve naming of English or Spanish items, while generalization was tested to untrained…

Edmonds, Lisa A.; Kiran, Swathi

2006-01-01

173

Transcortical aphasia from ischaemic infarcts of the thalamus: a report of two cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thalamic injury from various natural causes, including tumours an haemorrhage, has been reported to lead abnormalities of language. The pathophysiology of these language disorders remains controversial because the naturally occurring thalamic lesions often are associated with mass effects. Two patients are described with hypodense left thalamic lesions, shown by computed tomography, probably representing infarction. Both patients had aphasia, but neither

D McFarling; L J Rothi; K M Heilman

1982-01-01

174

Model Choice and Sample Size in Item Response Theory Analysis of Aphasia Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the most appropriate item response theory (IRT) measurement model for aphasia tests requiring 2-choice responses and to determine whether small samples are adequate for estimating such models. Method: Pyramids and Palm Trees (Howard & Patterson, 1992) test data that had been collected from…

Hula, William D.; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Martin, Nadine

2012-01-01

175

Department of Veterans Affairs' contributions to treatment outcomes research in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Since at least 1948, Veterans Administration (VA) clinicians have been reporting the outcomes of treatment administered to mend aphasia. These range from retrospective clinical observations to controlled, multicentre clinical trials. While the rigour of research varies among reports, the body of work is considerable.Aims: The purpose of this paper is to review VA contributions to treatment outcomes research in

Robert T. Wertz; Michael de Riesthal; William H. Irwin; Katherine B. Ross

2009-01-01

176

Should Pantomime and Gesticulation Be Assessed Separately for Their Comprehensibility in Aphasia? A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Gesticulation (gestures accompanying speech) and pantomime (gestures in the absence of speech) can each be comprehensible. Little is known about the differences between these two gesture modes in people with aphasia. Aims: To discover whether there are differences in the communicative use of gesticulation and pantomime in QH, a person…

van Nispen, Karin; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke; Mol, Lisette; Krahmer, Emiel

2014-01-01

177

The Effect of a Therapy Dog on the Communication Skills of an Adult with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little evidence-based research has been published within the field of communication disorders on the role of dogs as catalysts for human communication. This single participant study, a point of entry into this realm of research, explores the effects of a therapy dog on the communication skills of a patient with aphasia receiving intensive speech…

LaFrance, Caroline; Garcia, Linda J.; Labreche, Julianne

2007-01-01

178

Production and comprehension of English and Hindi in multilingual transcortical aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study takes advantage of the multilingual competence of two individuals with transcortical aphasia (right basal ganglia lesion in GN and brain stem lesion in GS) to investigate the impact of their condition on their two later-acquired but proficient languages, English and Hindi. Dissociation between lexical and syntactic profiles in both the languages with a uniform performance across the languages

Malathy Venkatesh; Susan Edwards; James Douglas Saddy

179

A Proposed Regional Hierarchy in Recovery of Post-Stroke Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Activation studies in patients with aphasia due to stroke or tumours in the dominant hemisphere have revealed effects of disinhibition in ipsilateral perilesional and in contralateral homotopic cortical regions, referred to as collateral and transcallosal disinhibition. These findings were supported by studies with selective disturbance of…

Heiss, W.-D.; Thiel, A.

2006-01-01

180

Are regular and irregular verbs dissociated in non-fluent aphasia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cognitive mechanisms and neuroantomical substrates used by the brain to effortlessly generate morphologically complex words (write+ing?writing) are little understood. The left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG, including Broca's area) is often implicated as being involved, although its specific role is unclear. Data from brain damaged individuals, particularly those with Broca's aphasia, are often used as evidence to support or refute

Yasmeen Faroqi-Shah

2007-01-01

181

The Aphasia Database on the Web: Description of a Model for Problems of Classification in Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In aphasiology many inconsistencies exist in the definition and interpretation of aphasic syndromes. These syndromes are the co-occurrence of a set of symptoms. Thus, ambiguities in these clinical, aphasic categories are suited to be generalized to many problems of classification in medicine. In this paper the aphasia database is launched as a model for data mining in medicine. Nominal and

Hubertus Axer; Jan Jantzen; Georg Berks; Dagmar Südfeld; RWTH Aachen

2000-01-01

182

Treatment Fidelity: Its Importance and Reported Frequency in Aphasia Treatment Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Treatment fidelity is a measure of the reliability of the administration of an intervention in a treatment study. It is an important aspect of the validity of a research study, and it has implications for the ultimate implementation of evidence-supported interventions in typical clinical settings. Method: Aphasia treatment studies…

Hinckley, Jacqueline J.; Douglas, Natalie F.

2013-01-01

183

Health-Related Quality of Life in People with Severe Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) measures are increasingly used to help us understand the impact of disease or disability on a person's life and to measure the effectiveness of interventions. A small number of studies have looked at perceived HRQL in people with mild or moderate aphasia. They report that reduced HRQL is associated…

Hilari, Katerina; Byng, Sally

2009-01-01

184

Regional White Matter Damage Predicts Speech Fluency in Chronic Post-Stroke Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Recently, two different white matter regions that support speech fluency have been identified: the aslant tract and the anterior segment of the arcuate fasciculus (ASAF). The role of the ASAF was demonstrated in patients with post-stroke aphasia, while the role of the aslant tract shown in primary progressive aphasia. Regional white matter integrity appears to be crucial for speech production; however, the degree that each region exerts an independent influence on speech fluency is unclear. Furthermore, it is not yet defined if damage to both white matter regions influences speech in the context of the same neural mechanism (stroke-induced aphasia). This study assessed the relationship between speech fluency and quantitative integrity of the aslant region and the ASAF. It also explored the relationship between speech fluency and other white matter regions underlying classic cortical language areas such as the uncinate fasciculus and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). Damage to these regions, except the ILF, was associated with speech fluency, suggesting synergistic association of these regions with speech fluency in post-stroke aphasia. These observations support the theory that speech fluency requires the complex, orchestrated activity between a network of pre-motor, secondary, and tertiary associative cortices, supported in turn by regional white matter integrity. PMID:25368572

Basilakos, Alexandra; Fillmore, Paul T.; Rorden, Chris; Guo, Dazhou; Bonilha, Leonardo; Fridriksson, Julius

2014-01-01

185

Poster: the development of a semantic feature analysis based mobile application for individuals with aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a Semantic Feature Analysis based mobile application and paired web application, which have been developed in order to facilitate speech and language therapy with a Person with Aphasia (PWA). The goal of this research is to streamline current speech and language therapy practices, by enabling rapid data entry, aggregation and remote analysis. The mobile application has been developed

Conor Higgins; Áine Kearns; Sue Franklin

2012-01-01

186

Naming practice for people with aphasia as a mobile web application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bangagears is a new version of Banga, a smart phone application that supports word finding practice, a form of therapy for people with aphasia [1]. While Banga was implemented as a native application, a program specific to a particular kind of phone, Bangagears uses the emerging HTML5 technology to operate, in principle, on many different kinds of phones and other

Skye Chandler; Jesse Harris; Alex Moncrief; Clayton Lewis

2009-01-01

187

Sparing of Written Production of Proper Nouns and Dates in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aphasia is a total or partial loss of the ability to produce or understand language, usually caused by brain disease or injury. In this case study, the aphasic patient (BMW) has a profound impairment of oral production and a very moderate impairment in comprehension. Several years of informal observation lead to the current study that contrasts…

Schmidt, Darren; Buchanan, Lori

2004-01-01

188

A Comparison of Two Theoretically Driven Treatments for Verb Inflection Deficits in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Errors in the production of verb inflections, especially tense inflections, are pervasive in agrammatic Broca's aphasia ("*The boy eat"). The neurolinguistic underpinnings of these errors are debated. One group of theories attributes verb inflection errors to disruptions in encoding the verb's morphophonological form, resulting from either a…

Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen

2008-01-01

189

The Time Course of Neurolinguistic and Neuropsychological Symptoms in Three Cases of Logopenic Primary Progressive Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a rare clinical dementia syndrome affecting predominantly language abilities. Word-finding difficulties and comprehension deficits despite relatively preserved cognitive functions are characteristic symptoms during the first two years, and distinguish PPA from other dementia types like Alzheimer's disease.…

Etcheverry, Louise; Seidel, Barbara; Grande, Marion; Schulte, Stephanie; Pieperhoff, Peter; Sudmeyer, Martin; Minnerop, Martina; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Huber, Walter; Grodzinsky, Yosef; Amunts, Katrin; Heim, Stefan

2012-01-01

190

ILLITERACY AND BRAIN DAMAGE-l. APHASIA TESTING IN CULTURALLY CONTRASTED POPULATIONS (CONTROL  

E-print Network

ing in ~,NJ. ILLITERACY AND BRAIN DAMAGE-l. APHASIA TESTING IN CULTURALLY CONTRASTED POPULATIONS illiterates and 43 were fluent readers. Statistically significant dilTerences were found to exist between on these cultural differences. the discussion bears on: (a) the interaction between linguistic and iconographic

Mehler, Jacques

191

Typicality of Inanimate Category Exemplars in Aphasia Treatment: Further Evidence for Semantic Complexity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The typicality treatment approach on improving naming was investigated within 2 inanimate categories ("furniture" and "clothing") using a single-subject experimental design across participants and behaviors in 5 patients with aphasia. Method: Participants received a semantic feature treatment to improve naming of either typical or…

Kiran, Swathi

2008-01-01

192

Stronger Accent Following a Stroke: The Case of a Trilingual with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study documents patterns of change in speech production in a multilingual with aphasia following a cerebrovascular accident (CVA). EC, a right-handed Hebrew-English-French trilingual man, had a left fronto-temporo-parietal CVA, after which he reported that his (native) Hebrew accent became stronger in his (second language) English. Recordings…

Levy, Erika S.; Goral, Mira; De Diesbach, Catharine Castelluccio; Law, Franzo, II

2011-01-01

193

Lexical diversity for adults with and without aphasia across discourse elicitation tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Differences in lexical diversity (LD) across different discourse elicitation tasks have been found in neurologically intact adults (NIA) (Fergadiotis, Wright, & Capilouto, 2010) but have not been investigated systematically in people with aphasia (PWA). Measuring lexical diversity in PWA may serve as a useful clinical tool for evaluating the impact of word retrieval difficulties at the discourse level. Aims: The

Gerasimos Fergadiotis; Heather Harris Wright

2011-01-01

194

Participatory Design with Proxies: Developing a Desktop-PDA System to Support People with Aphasia  

E-print Network

of a hybrid desktop-handheld system developed to support individuals with aphasia, a disorder which impairs the ability to speak, read, write, or understand language. The system allows its users to develop speech and portability issues. A modified participatory design approach was used in which proxies, that is, speech-language

Pratt, Vaughan

195

Role of Importance and Distinctiveness of Semantic Features in People with Aphasia: A Replication Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies suggest that people with aphasia have incomplete lexical-semantic representations with decreased low-importance distinctive (LID) feature knowledge. In addition, decreased LID feature knowledge correlates with ability to discriminate among semantically related words. The current study seeks to replicate and extend previous…

Mason-Baughman, Mary Beth; Wallace, Sarah E.

2014-01-01

196

Learning to Fail in Aphasia: An Investigation of Error Learning in Naming  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine if the naming impairment in aphasia is influenced by error learning and if error learning is related to type of retrieval strategy. Method Nine participants with aphasia and ten neurologically-intact controls named familiar proper noun concepts. When experiencing tip-of-the-tongue naming failure (TOT) in an initial TOT-elicitation phase, participants were instructed to adopt phonological or semantic self-cued retrieval strategies. In the error learning manipulation, items evoking TOT states during TOT-elicitation were randomly assigned to a short or long time condition where participants were encouraged to continue to try to retrieve the name for either 20 seconds (short interval) or 60 seconds (long). The incidence of TOT on the same items was measured on a post test after 48-hours. Error learning was defined as a higher rate of recurrent TOTs (TOT at both TOT-elicitation and post test) for items assigned to the long (versus short) time condition. Results In the phonological condition, participants with aphasia showed error learning whereas controls showed a pattern opposite to error learning. There was no evidence for error learning in the semantic condition for either group. Conclusion Error learning is operative in aphasia, but dependent on the type of strategy employed during naming failure. PMID:23816662

Middleton, Erica L.; Schwartz, Myrna F.

2013-01-01

197

Jean-Martin Charcot's Role in the 19th Century Study of Music Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-93) was a well-known French neurologist. Although he is widely recognized for his discovery of several neurological disorders and his research into aphasia, Charcot's ideas about how the brain processes music are less well known. Charcot discussed the music abilities of several patients in the context of his "Friday…

Johnson, Julene K.; Lorch, Marjorie; Nicolas, Serge; Graziano, Amy

2013-01-01

198

A theoretical account of lexical and semantic naming deficits in bilingual aphasia  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine pre-morbid language proficiency and lexical and semantic processing deficits in bilingual aphasia and develop a theoretical account of bilingual language processing. Method Nineteen Spanish-English patients with bilingual aphasia completed a language use questionnaire (LUQ) and were administered Spanish and English standardized language assessments. We analyzed the data to (a) identify patterns of lexical and semantic processing deficits in bilingual aphasia and conceptualize a theoretical framework that accounts for language deficits, (b) determine LUQ measures that predict post-stroke language deficits, and (c) evaluate the relationship between predictive LUQ measures and post-stroke language deficits in order to identify impairment patterns. Results Based on results we obtained significant correlations on several measures between language input and output. We identified pre-stroke language ability rating as the strongest predictor of post-stroke outcomes. Based on this data, two distinct groups were identified: patients who lost the same amount of language in Spanish and English and patients who lost different amounts of Spanish and English. Conclusions Our findings suggest it is possible to identify relationships between language patterns and deficits in patients with bilingual aphasia and that these trends will be instrumental in clinical assessments of this understudied population. PMID:23816660

Gray, Teresa; Kiran, Swathi

2013-01-01

199

Model?driven intervention in bilingual aphasia: Evidence from a case of pathological language mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Speech?language pathologists are meeting an increasing number of bilingual clients. This poses a special challenge to clinical practice, given that bilingualism adds to the complexity of aphasia patterns and clinical decisions must be made accordingly. One question that has come to the attention of clinical aphasiologists is that of the language in which therapy should be administered. This issue

Ana Inés Ansaldo; Ladan Ghazi Saidi; Adelaida Ruiz

2010-01-01

200

TMS Suppression of Right Pars Triangularis, but Not Pars Opercularis, Improves Naming in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to discover if an optimum 1 cm[squared] area in the non-damaged right hemisphere (RH) was present, which could temporarily improve naming in chronic, nonfluent aphasia patients when suppressed with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Ten minutes of slow, 1 Hz rTMS was applied to suppress different RH ROIs in…

Naeser, Margaret A.; Martin, Paula I.; Theoret, Hugo; Kobayashi, Masahito; Fregni, Felipe; Nicholas, Marjorie; Tormos, Jose M.; Steven, Megan S.; Baker, Errol H.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

2011-01-01

201

Beginning to Teach the End: The Importance of Including Discharge from Aphasia Therapy in the Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Discharging clients with long-term aphasia from therapy services constitutes a challenging dilemma for practising clinicians for a multitude of reasons. Although discharge was raised and discussed as a contentious issue in the field of aphasiology ten years ago, it remains an aspect of practice which is complex and underexplored. We…

Hersh, Deborah; Cruice, Madeline

2010-01-01

202

Word-Category Violations in Patients with Broca's Aphasia: An ERP Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An event-related brain potential experiment was carried out to investigate on-line syntactic processing in patients with Broca's aphasia. Subjects were visually presented with sentences that were either syntactically correct or contained violations of word-category. Three groups of subjects were tested: Broca patients (N=11), non-aphasic patients…

Wassenaar, Marlies; Hagoort, Peter

2005-01-01

203

Primary progressive aphasia New insights paving the way toward clinical research tools  

E-print Network

. Dickerson, MD Neurology® 2010;75:582­583 When a patient presents with acute aphasia, today's neurologist has an ischemic process that merits thrombo- lytic intervention. We can only hope that tomor- row that 9 of the patients had a motor speech disorder. The study by Rohrer et al.7 provides complemen- tary

Dickerson, Brad

204

Aphasia and Cognitive Sciences: Problems of Appraisal Tests in Indian Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the urgency of therapeutic appraisal tests for various types of aphasia in India, where the clinical population comes from multilingual, multiethnic, and multicultural backgrounds; has a low literacy level; and hails from various geographical regions. The need for good diagnostic tests is imperative for a detailed evaluation of language…

Gupta, Santosh

2000-01-01

205

Bilingual Aphasia and Language Control: A Follow-Up fMRI and Intrinsic Connectivity Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a world that is becoming more multilingual, bilingual aphasia is a clinical problem with a major clinical impact. However, at present we lack causal explanations of the many features of recovery patterns and there is no consensus about the language in which the patient should receive speech therapy. Further advance requires an understanding of…

Abutalebi, Jubin; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Tettamanti, Marco; Green, David W.; Cappa, Stefano F.

2009-01-01

206

Coverbal Gestures in the Recovery from Severe Fluent Aphasia: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This post hoc study investigated coverbal gesture patterns in two persons with chronic Wernicke's aphasia. They had both received therapy focusing on multimodal communication therapy, and their pre- and post-therapy verbal and gestural skills in face-to-face conversational interaction with their speech therapist were analysed by administering a…

Carlomagno, Sergio; Zulian, Nicola; Razzano, Carmelina; De Mercurio, Ilaria; Marini, Andrea

2013-01-01

207

Mismatch Negativity Elicited by Tones and Speech Sounds: Changed Topographical Distribution in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used the event-related brain potential mismatch negativity (MMN) to investigate preconscious discrimination of harmonically rich tones (differing in duration) and consonant-vowel syllables (differing in the initial consonant) in aphasia. Eighteen Norwegian aphasic patients, examined on average 3 months after brain injury, were compared…

Becker, Frank; Reinvang, Ivar

2007-01-01

208

The Merest L"ogomachy": The 1868 Norwich Discussion of Aphasia by Hughlings Jackson and Broca  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reconsiders the events that took place at the 1868 meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BA) in Norwich. Paul Broca and John Hughlings Jackson were invited to speak on the new and controversial subject of aphasia. Over the ensuing decades, there have been repeated references made to a debate between Broca…

Lorch, Marjorie Perlman

2008-01-01

209

Listening to the Voice of Living Life with Aphasia: Anne's Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Listening to how people talk about the consequences of acquired aphasia helps one gain insight into how people construe disability and communication disability in particular. It has been found that some of these construals can be more of a disabling barrier in re-engaging with life than the communication impairment itself. Aims: To…

Barrow, Rozanne

2008-01-01

210

Automated battery test system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Battery testing is required for a wide range of applications. This includes quality assurance, design verification and performance assessment purposes for battery manufacturers, validation purposes for battery users, and battery behavioural research purposes for engineers developing behavioural prediction algorithms. Regardless of the application, determining the behavioural characteristics of batteries is a non-trivial problem. The electrochemical processes of a battery are

Phillip E Pascoe; Adnan H Anbuky

2003-01-01

211

Activation of syntax in lexical production in healthy speakers and in aphasia.  

PubMed

Theories of spoken word production agree that semantic and phonological representations are activated in spoken word production. There is less agreement concerning the role of syntax. In this study we investigated noun syntax activation in English bare noun naming, using mass and count nouns. Fourteen healthy controls and 13 speakers with aphasia took part. Participants named mass and count nouns, and completed a related noun syntax judgement task. We analysed speakers' noun syntax knowledge when naming accurately, and when making errors in production. Healthy speakers' noun syntax judgement was accurate for words they named correctly, but this did not correlate with naming accuracy. Speakers with aphasia varied in their noun syntax judgement, and this also did not correlate with naming accuracy. Healthy speakers' syntax for semantic errors was less accurate, as was that for speakers with aphasia. For phonological errors half the participants with aphasia could access syntax, half could not, indicating two types of phonological error. Individual differences were found in no responses. Finally, we found no effect of frequency for any of the above. The lack of a relationship between syntax and naming accuracy suggests that syntax is available, but access is not obligatory. This finding supports theories incorporating non-obligatory syntactic processing, which is independent of phonological access. The semantic error data are best explained within such a theory where there is damage to phonological access and hence to independent syntax. For the aphasia group we identify two types of phonological error, one implicating syntax and phonology, and one implicating phonology only, again supporting independent access to these systems. Overall the data support a model within which syntax is independent of phonology, and activation of syntax operates flexibly dependent on task demands and integrity of other processing routines. PMID:24922623

Herbert, Ruth; Anderson, Elizabeth; Best, Wendy; Gregory, Emma

2014-08-01

212

Lithium batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical principles and technology of commercial Li batteries operating at ambient temperatures are reviewed in chapters contributed by international specialists. An overview of Li battery systems is presented, and organic and inorganic electrolytes are characterized in terms of properties, structure, conductivity, Li stability, and film formation. Individual chapters are devoted to Li/CuO cells; cells with Pb, Bi, Pb/Bi, or Bi/Cu oxides; Li/FeS2, Li/CuS, Li/MnO2, Li/CF, Li/Ag2CrO4, Li/AgBi(CrO4)2, Li/V2O5, Li/SO2, and Li/oxyhalide cells, secondary Li cells, and solid-electrolyte Li cells. Graphs and tables of performance parameters and drawings and photographs of typical batteries are included. No individual items are abstracted in this volume

Gabano, J.-P.

213

SUMMARY Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by insidious and progressive loss of language. Current diagnostic criteria  

E-print Network

. Among the few studies of this topic that have been performed, there is consistent agreement Unit & Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital of neuropsychiatric symptoms in primary progressive aphasia, but a few studies suggest that neurodegeneration

Dickerson, Brad

214

The Design and Field Evaluation of PhotoTalk: a Digital Image Communication Application for People with Aphasia  

E-print Network

Terms Design, Human Factors. Keywords AAC devices, aphasia, cognitive disability, participatory design with two speech-language pathologists acting as representative users, (2) an informal usability study with 5 aphasic participants, which caught usability problems and provided preliminary feedback

McGrenere, Joanna

215

A case of foreign accent syndrome without aphasia caused by a lesion of the left precentral gyrus.  

PubMed

We report a case of foreign accent syndrome (FAS) without aphasia. The patient was a right-handed, 44-year-old woman, a native Japanese. Disposition and inversion of pitch accents and appearance of unnecessary stress accents made her speech sound foreign, like that of a Korean. MRI demonstrated an infarction in the middle fifth of the posterior lateral aspect of the left precentral gyrus. Limited motor cortex damage causes FAS without dysarthria, apraxia of speech, or aphasia. PMID:8327139

Takayama, Y; Sugishita, M; Kido, T; Ogawa, M; Akiguchi, I

1993-07-01

216

Battery separators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel, improved battery separator and process for making the separator. Essentially, the separator carries a plurality of polymeric ribs bonded to at least one surface and the ribs have alternating elevated segments of uniform maxiumum heights and depressed segments along the length of the ribs.

R. Le Bayon; R. Faucon; J. Legrix

1984-01-01

217

Battery separators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of a synthetic pulp separator for a lead acid battery, the separator having two or more plies and a ribbed profile the surface adapted to face the positive having a higher content of synthetic pulp than the other surface.

G. A. Clegg; E. J. Pearson

1981-01-01

218

Battery separator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention disclosed relates to a novel paper is a composition for use as a separator material in electrical batteries. The paper composition 30-50%\\/w of glass fibers and 70-59%\\/w of a co-polymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate.

W. A. Armstrong; J. A. Wheat

1980-01-01

219

Battery separator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The instant invention is directed to a sheet product capable of forming an improved battery separator. The present sheet product is formed from a thin, acid-stable, porous material and has a first and a second major face with a plurality of separate, continuous, open channels on each face such that each channel on each major face defines a separation between

N. J. Lin; D. D. Orell

1983-01-01

220

Alkaline battery  

SciTech Connect

A zinc alkaline secondary battery is described having an excellent cycle characteristic, having a negative electrode which comprises a base layer of zinc active material incorporating cadmium metal and/or a cadmium compound and an outer layer made up of cadmium metal and/or a cadmium compound and applied to the surface of the base layer of zinc active material.

Furukawa, N.; Inoue, K.; Murakami, S.

1984-01-24

221

Digital Batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy density in conventional capacitors is limited by sparking. We present nano-capacitor arrays, where - like in laser diodes and quantum wells [1] - quantization prevents dielectric breakthrough. We show that the energy density and the power/weight ratio are very high, possibly larger than in hydrogen [2]. Digital batteries are a potential clean energy source for cars, laptops, and mobile devices. The technology is related to flash drives. However, because of the high energy density, safety is a concern. Digital batteries can be easily and safely charged and discharged. In the discharged state they pose no danger. Even if a charged digital battery were to explode, it would produce no radioactive waste, no long-term radiation, and probably could be designed to produce no noxious chemicals. We discuss methodologies to prevent shorts and other measures to make digital batteries safe. [1] H. Higuraskh, A. Toriumi, F. Yamaguchi, K. Kawamura, A. Hubler, Correlation Tunnel Device, U. S. Patent No. 5,679,961 (1997) [2] Alfred Hubler, http://server10.how-why.com/blog/

Hubler, Alfred

2009-03-01

222

Battery separators  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of a synthetic pulp separator for a lead acid battery, the separator having two or more plies and a ribbed profile the surface adapted to face the positive having a higher content of synthetic pulp than the other surface.

Clegg, G.A.; Pearson, E.J.

1981-01-13

223

Secondary batteries: Recent advances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information drawn from U.S. patents issued since July 1975 is incorporated in this discussion of secondary batteries and their commercial technology. Topics include lead-acid batteries, zinc electrodes and batteries, nickel-cadmium and other alkaline batteries, sodium-sulfur solid electrolyte batteries, lithium batteries, and other battery systems. Besides providing technical information, the book serves as a guide to U.S. patent literature, and a

R. W. Graham

1978-01-01

224

Effects of Noun-Verb Conceptual/ Phonological Relatedness on Verb Production Changes in Broca's Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals with Broca’s aphasia show better performance on nouns than on verbs, but distinction between nouns and verbs is not always clear; some verbs are conceptually and/ or phonologically related to nouns, while others are not. Inconsistent results on effects of noun-verb relatedness on verb production have been reported in the literature. Aims We investigated (1) whether verb instrumentality (a conceptual relationship to nouns) or homonymy (a phonological relationship to nouns) would affect verb production in individuals with Broca’s aphasia and (2) whether conceptual/ phonological noun-verb relationship would affect responsiveness to aphasia therapy that focused on verb production. Methods & Procedures Three English speaking individuals with Broca’s aphasia produced 96 verbs in sentences in response to picture stimuli. The target verbs included those that use an instrument and those that do not (e.g., to hammer vs. to yawn) and verbs that are phonologically identical to a related noun (e.g., to comb – a comb), morpho-phonologically-related to a noun (e.g., to grind – a grinder), and verbs for which there is no phonologically similar noun (e.g., to lean). The participants’ verb retrieval ability was assessed before and after a 4-week period of aphasia therapy. Outcomes & Results The participants produced more accurate instrumental than non-instrumental verbs both pre- and post-treatment. They also produced more verbs correctly that are homonyms of nouns than verbs that are phonologically related or unrelated to nouns before treatment. However, the effect of homonymy was not observed following treatment. Conclusion Individuals with Broca’s aphasia were more accurate in their production of verbs that were conceptually and phonologically related to nouns than on verb that were not. The performance on verb production improved significantly after therapy. We interpret the results to indicate that whereas prior to treatment the participants relied on phonologically related nouns to retrieve the target verbs, this reliance on knowledge of nouns decreased following therapy that was designed to improve verb production. PMID:23914001

Goral, Mira; Verkuilen, Jay; Kempler, Daniel

2013-01-01

225

Metal-Air Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

2011-08-01

226

Battery Safety Basics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

Roy, Ken

2010-01-01

227

Lead-acid batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of producing a lead-acid battery capable of activation by the addition of electrolyte thereto, comprises the steps of: starting with a battery container accommodating at least one pack of battery plate grids having insulating separators interposed between adjacent grids, each of said grids carrying the lead-acid battery paste required to produce a positive or a negative battery plate

J. A. Bant; V. J. Raban

1980-01-01

228

Batteries for Electric Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

Conover, R. A.

1985-01-01

229

Battery separator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A battery separator and a method of forming the same is described. The separator has good electrical conductivity and a high degree of inhibition to dendrite formation, and is in the form of a thin sheet formed from a substantially uniform mixture of a thermoplastic rubber and a filler in a volume ratio of from about 1:0.15 to 1:0.6. The

R. A. Balouskus; S. C. Feinberg; J. T. Lundquist; C. B. Lundsager

1980-01-01

230

Battery separator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A battery separator comprises a microporous sheet formed substantially of a mixture of polymeric constituents. One of the polymeric constituents is an ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyolefin having a standard load melt index of substantially 0 and an intrinsic viscosity greater than about 3.0. The other polymeric constituent is either a copolymer of an olefin and an ethylenically unsaturated monocarboxylic acid selected from

Versteegh

1977-01-01

231

Singing therapy can be effective for a patient with severe nonfluent aphasia.  

PubMed

Patients with severe aphasia are rarely treated using speech therapy. We used music therapy to continue to treat a 79-year-old patient with chronic severe aphasia. Interventions 1, 2, and 3 were to practice singing a song that the patient knew, to practice singing a song with a therapist, and to practice saying a greeting using a song with lyrics, respectively. In addition, practice of uttering names of body parts was initiated using touch and rhythm. After intervention 1, the patient could sing spontaneously and repeat lyrics. After intervention 2, she could sing with the therapist, and sing spontaneously and repeat lyrics. After intervention 3, she could memorize words with meaning, say the words in context, and use them. The patient could utter the names of two body parts after therapy with touch and rhythm. These suggest that rehabilitation therapy can still be used in patients with severe cognitive impairment. PMID:22274592

Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Akanuma, Kyoko; Hatayama, Yuka; Otera, Masako; Meguro, Kenichi

2012-03-01

232

Examining the Value of Lexical Retrieval Treatment in Primary Progressive Aphasia: Two Positive Cases  

PubMed Central

Individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) suffer a gradual decline in communication ability as a result of neurodegenerative disease. Language treatment shows promise as a means of addressing these difficulties but much remains to be learned with regard to the potential value of treatment across variants and stages of the disorder. We present two cases, one with semantic variant of PPA and the other with logopenic PPA, each of whom underwent treatment that was unique in its focus on training self-cueing strategies to engage residual language skills. Despite differing language profiles and levels of aphasia severity, each individual benefited from treatment and showed maintenance of gains as well as generalization to untrained lexical items. These cases highlight the potential for treatment to capitalize on spared cognitive and neural systems in individuals with PPA, improving current language function as well as potentially preserving targeted skills in the face of disease progression. PMID:23871425

Rising, K.; DeMarco, A.T.; Miller, B.L.; Gorno-Tempini, M.L.; Beeson, P.M.

2013-01-01

233

Intensive therapy induces contralateral white matter changes in chronic stroke patients with Broca's aphasia.  

PubMed

Using a pre-post design, eleven chronic stroke patients with large left hemisphere lesions and nonfluent aphasia underwent diffusion tensor imaging and language testing before and after receiving 15weeks of an intensive intonation-based speech therapy. This treated patient group was compared to an untreated patient group (n=9) scanned twice over a similar time period. Our results showed that the treated group, but not the untreated group, had reductions in fractional anisotropy in the white matter underlying the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, pars opercularis and pars triangularis), the right posterior superior temporal gyrus, and the right posterior cingulum. Furthermore, we found that greater improvements in speech production were associated with greater reductions in FA in the right IFG (pars opercularis). Thus, our findings showed that an intensive rehabilitation program for patients with nonfluent aphasia led to structural changes in the right hemisphere, which correlated with improvements in speech production. PMID:25041868

Wan, Catherine Y; Zheng, Xin; Marchina, Sarah; Norton, Andrea; Schlaug, Gottfried

2014-09-01

234

From primary progressive aphasia to corticobasal syndrome: two clinical and rCBF functional reports.  

PubMed

We describe two cases, both presenting with a 2-year history of isolated language disorders, one compatible with logopenic variant and the other with non-fluent variant of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Afterwards, each developed a corticobasal syndrome (CBS) with alien limb phenomenon and a multi-domain cognitive impairment. Regional cerebral perfusion (rCBF) study using 99mTc-ECD single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) revealed hypoperfusion patterns consistent with these aphasia types and with the presence of limb apraxia. We report two cases of PPA variants associated with CBS and we suggest that SPECT rCBF correlates can be useful in making a differential diagnosis within the PPA spectrum. PMID:22512772

Caso, F; Onofrio, F; Falautano, M; Todeschini, P; Migliaccio, R; Comi, G; Perani, D; Magnani, G

2013-04-01

235

Functional MRI of Language in Aphasia: A Review of the Literature and the Methodological Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal analogue studies show that damaged adult brains reorganize to accommodate compromised functions. In the human arena,\\u000a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and other functional neuroimaging techniques have been used to study reorganization\\u000a of language substrates in aphasia. The resulting controversy regarding whether the right or the left hemisphere supports language\\u000a recovery and treatment progress must be reframed. A more

Bruce Crosson; Keith McGregor; Kaundinya S. Gopinath; Tim W. Conway; Michelle Benjamin; Yu-Ling Chang; Anna Bacon Moore; Anastasia M. Raymer; Richard W. Briggs; Megan G. Sherod; Christina E. Wierenga; Keith D. White

2007-01-01

236

Application of computers to the treatment of US veterans with aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Over the course of years, a variety of computer programs and related technologies have been developed by clinicians and researchers in the Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care System (VA) in an effort to improve understanding of and develop accessible and effective treatment for aphasia.Aims: To review the development of computer?based speech?language pathology services in the VA.Methods and Procedures:

Richard C. Katz

2009-01-01

237

Placebo-induced conversion reaction: A neurobehavioral and EEG study of hysterical aphasia, seizure, and coma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient in her mid-20's with an alleged idiosyncratic reaction to phenytoin (Dilantin) was studied by an objective double-dissociation method. Under carefully monitored conditions an iv saline placebo was administered. A variety of dose-dependent pseudoneurologic symptoms developed, including hysterical aphasia, pseudoseizures, and profound unresponsiveness. Optokinetic nystagmus, the visual threat reflex, corneal reflex, the auditory startle response, and responses to deep

Ronald S. Levy; Joseph Jankovic

1983-01-01

238

Naming practice for people with aphasia in a mobile web application: early user experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bangaten is a new version of Banga [2,3], a smart phone application that supports word finding practice, a form of therapy for people with aphasia. Early user experience shows that Bangaten offers useful cross-platform operation, on both Android and iPhone devices, including remote management of a client's device. Bangaten demonstrates the growing usefulness of emerging HTML5 technology for implementing assistive

Khalyle Hagood; Terrance Moore; Tiffany Pierre; Paula Messamer; Gail Ramsberger; Clayton Lewis

2010-01-01

239

Cognitive neuropsychological approaches to word production in aphasia: Beyond boxes and arrows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The cognitive neuropsychological approach aims to describe aphasic disorders of word production by identifying the specific cognitive process(es) that are impaired in each individual. This approach is becoming increasingly influential in the assessment, investigation, and treatment of word production difficulties in aphasia. The classical cognitive neuropsychological approach, with its signature box?and?arrow diagrams, is now highly familiar to most aphasiologists.

Carolyn E. Wilshire

2008-01-01

240

Persistent pure verbal amnesia and transient aphasia after left thalamic infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 57-year-old right-handed man suffered persistent pure verbal amnesia (PPVA) and transient aphasia after left thalamic infarction. A neuroanatomical study with magnetic resonance imaging to identify the site of the lesion showed destruction of the internal medullary lamina (IML), mammillothalamic tract (MTT), the ventrolateral nucleus (VL) and the lower one-third of the medial nucleus. As regions critical for PPVA are

Nobuyuki Sodeyama; Mitsuyuki Tamaki; Morihiro Sugishita

1995-01-01

241

Contrasting Effects of Errorless Naming Treatment and Gestural Facilitation for Word Retrieval in Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Purpose We compared the effects of two treatments for aphasic word retrieval impairments, errorless naming treatment (ENT) and gestural facilitation of naming (GES), within the same individuals, anticipating that the use of gesture would enhance the effect of treatment over errorless treatment alone. In addition to picture naming, we evaluated results for other outcome measures that were largely untested in earlier ENT studies. Methods In a single participant crossover treatment design, we examined the effects of ENT and GES in eight individuals with stroke-induced aphasia and word retrieval impairments (three semantic anomia, five phonologic anomia) in counterbalanced phases across participants. We evaluated effects of the two treatments for a daily picture naming/gesture production probe measure and in standardized aphasia tests and communication rating scales administered across phases of the experiment. Results Both treatments led to improvements in naming of trained words (small-to-large effect sizes) in individuals with semantic and phonologic anomia. Small generalized naming improvements were noted for three individuals with phonologic anomia. GES improved use of corresponding gestures for trained words (large effect sizes). Results were largely maintained at one month post treatment completion. Increases in scores on standardized aphasia testing also occurred for both ENT and GES training. Discussion Both ENT and GES led to improvements in naming measures, with no clear difference between treatments. Increased use of gestures following GES providing a potential compensatory means of communication for those who did not improve verbal skills. Both treatments are considered to be effective methods to promote recovery of word retrieval and verbal production skills in individuals with aphasia. PMID:22047100

Raymer, Anastasia M.; McHose, Beth; Smith, Kimberly G.; Iman, Lisa; Ambrose, Alexis; Casselton, Colleen

2011-01-01

242

Lexical competition for production in a case of nonfluent aphasia: Converging evidence from four different tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an individual with Broca's aphasia (J.H.M.), who exhibited powerful lexical context effects in word production tasks. In an adjective–noun production task (Experiment 1), J.H.M.'s production accuracy decreased as the number of adjectives in the phrase increased (e.g., curly hair vs. long curly hair). In a picture pair naming task (Experiment 2), J.H.M.'s naming accuracy was high, but her

Rebecca M. Scott; Carolyn E. Wilshire

2010-01-01

243

Executive dysfunction as an explanatory basis for conversation symptoms of aphasia: A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Lack of communicative success for people with aphasia is no longer seen as purely a linguistic deficit. Instead, the integrity of the executive functions (EF) is thought to be at least partly responsible for successful communication, particularly during conversation. In order to inform clinicians regarding both conversation and EF, a merging of two paradigms—conversational and neuropsychological approaches—is proposed.This paper

Tali Frankel; Claire Penn

2007-01-01

244

A longitudinal study of sentence comprehension difficulty in primary progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

Context: Patients with primary progressive aphasia have sentence comprehension difficulty, but the longitudinal course of this deficit has not been investigated. Objective: To determine how grammatical, single word meaning, and working memory factors contribute to longitudinal decline of sentence comprehension in primary progressive aphasia. We hypothesised partially distinct patterns of sentence comprehension difficulty in subgroups of patients with progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA) and semantic dementia (SD). Design: Cohort. Setting: Institutional out patient referral centre. Patients: PNFA (n = 14), SD (n = 10). Main outcome measure: Sentence comprehension accuracy. Results: PNFA patients were significantly impaired at understanding grammatically complex sentences when first seen, and this was more evident than impairment of their comprehension of grammatically simple sentences (p<0.05). Comprehension of grammatically complex sentences correlated with their working memory deficit at presentation (p<0.05). PNFA patients showed modest decline over time in grammatical comprehension. In SD, comprehension of grammatically complex sentences was not more impaired than comprehension of grammatically simple sentences when first seen, but these patients demonstrated a significant longitudinal decline in understanding grammatically complex sentences (p<0.05). Cox regression analyses showed that a deficit in single word meaning contributes to the progressive impairment for grammatically complex sentences in SD (p<0.05), but working memory does not contribute to longitudinal decline in PNFA. Conclusion: Patients with PNFA and SD have sentence comprehension difficulty, but distinct factors contribute to this impairment during the course of their disease. PMID:15834020

Grossman, M; Moore, P

2005-01-01

245

Psychometric properties of the communication Confidence Rating Scale for Aphasia (CCRSA): phase 1.  

PubMed

Confidence is a construct that has not been explored previously in aphasia research. We developed the Communication Confidence Rating Scale for Aphasia (CCRSA) to assess confidence in communicating in a variety of activities and evaluated its psychometric properties using rating scale (Rasch) analysis. The CCRSA was administered to 21 individuals with aphasia before and after participation in a computer-based language therapy study. Person reliability of the 8-item CCRSA was .77. The 5-category rating scale demonstrated monotonic increases in average measures from low to high ratings. However, one item ("I follow news, sports, stories on TV/movies") misfit the construct defined by the other items (mean square infit = 1.69, item-measure correlation = .41). Deleting this item improved reliability to .79; the 7 remaining items demonstrated excellent fit to the underlying construct, although there was a modest ceiling effect in this sample. Pre- to posttreatment changes on the 7-item CCRSA measure were statistically significant using a paired samples t test. Findings support the reliability and sensitivity of the CCRSA in assessing participants' self-report of communication confidence. Further evaluation of communication confidence is required with larger and more diverse samples. PMID:21914599

Cherney, Leora R; Babbitt, Edna M; Semik, Patrick; Heinemann, Allen W

2011-01-01

246

TRAINING VERB PRODUCTION IN COMMUNICATIVE CONTEXT: EVIDENCE FROM A PERSON WITH CHRONIC NON-FLUENT APHASIA  

PubMed Central

Background The use of constraint-induced treatment in aphasia therapy has yielded promising but mixed results. Aims We conducted a treatment study with an individual with chronic non-fluent aphasia. The goal of the treatment was to improve verb production in sentence- and narrative- contexts. Methods & Procedures We administered a modified constraint-induced aphasia treatment in a single-subject design. Treatment emphasized the production of verbs within informative exchanges. Verb production in narratives was assessed before and after the treatment. Outcomes & Results Results demonstrated a significant increase in the number of verbs produced during narrative generation following treatment. Moreover, a positive change was perceived by naïve listeners who rated the social-communicative impact of the participant’s narratives. Conclusions The increase in verb production seen in the post-treatment measures is attributed to a combination of the constraints imposed on sentence production during the treatment sessions, the informative nature of the treatment exchanges, and the relative intensity of the treatment schedule. PMID:19911035

Goral, Mira; Kempler, Daniel

2008-01-01

247

Recycling advanced batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This abstract introduces results from OnTo Technology's innovative recycling process to produce new materials for new batteries from materials from spent batteries. Recycling spent batteries is a growing problem for the consumer electronics electric vehicle industries.

Steven E. Sloop

2008-01-01

248

Bipolar-Battery Construction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bipolar batteries fabricated in continuous quasi-automated process. Components of battery configured so processing steps run sequentially. Key components of battery, bipolar plate and bipolar separator, fabricated separately and later joined together.

Rippel, Wally E.; Edwards, Dean B.

1988-01-01

249

Electric storage batteries  

SciTech Connect

Recombination lead acid electric storage battery of sealed or recombinant type in which the gas evolved during operation or charging is induced to recombine within the battery at the battery electrodes.

Culpin, B.; Peters, K.

1983-02-08

250

Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh\\/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO, was

Doeff; Marca M

2010-01-01

251

Rechargeable batteries in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history and the present status of technology of the Japanese lead-acid battery industry is examined and various developments related to lead-acid batteries are considered, taking into account high performance automobile lead acid batteries, dry charged lead-acid batteries for automobile applications, glass fiber tubular type industrial batteries, sealed lead acid stationary batteries with catalyst plug, auxiliary electrode gas recombination sealed

Y. Miyake; A. Kozawa

1977-01-01

252

Battery cell feedthrough apparatus  

DOEpatents

A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

1995-01-01

253

Verb production in agrammatic aphasia: The influence of semantic class and argument structure properties on generalisation  

PubMed Central

Background Some individuals with agrammatic aphasia have difficulty producing verbs when naming and generating sentences (Miceli, Silveri, Villa, & Caramazza, 1984; Saffran, Schwartz, & Marin, 1980; Zingeser & Berndt, 1990). And when verbs are produced there is an over-reliance on verbs requiring simple argument structure arrangements (Thompson, Lange, Schneider, & Shapiro, 1997; Thompson, Shapiro, Schneider, & Tait, 1994). Verbs, as argument-taking elements, show especially complex semantic and argument structure properties. This study investigated the role these properties have on verb production in individuals with agrammatic aphasia. Aim This treatment study examined the extent to which semantic class and argument structure properties of verbs influenced the ability of seven individuals with agrammatic Broca’s aphasia to retrieve verbs and then use them in correct sentence production. Verbs from two semantic classes and two argument structure categories were trained using either a semantic or an argument structure verb retrieval treatment. Specifically, acquisition and generalisation to trained and untrained verbs within and across semantic and argument structure categories was examined. In addition, the influence of verb production on each participant’s sentence production was also examined. Methods & Procedures Utilising a single-subject crossover design in combination with a multiple baseline design across subjects and behaviours, seven individuals with agrammatic aphasia were trained to retrieve verbs with specific argument structures from two semantic classes under two treatment conditions—semantic verb retrieval treatment and verb argument structure retrieval treatment. Treatment was provided on two-place and three-place motion or change of state verbs, counterbalanced across subjects and behaviours. A total of 102 verbs, depicted in black and white drawings, were utilised in the study, divided equally into motion and change of state verbs (semantic classes) and one-place, two-place, and three-place verbs (argument structure arrangements). Verbs were controlled for syllable length, picturability, phonological complexity, and frequency. These same stimulus items were used to elicit the sentence production probe. Outcomes & Results Both treatments revealed significant effects in facilitating acquisition of verb retrieval in all participants. Minimal within and across verb category generalisation occurred. However, it was found that as retrieval of verbs improved, grammatical sentence production improved. This occurred without direct treatment on sentence production. Conclusions The results of this study lend support for treatment focused on verb production with individuals with agrammatic aphasia and support the use of linguistic-based treatment strategies. PMID:21311720

Schneider, Sandra L.; Thompson, Cynthia K.

2011-01-01

254

Effects of Cognate Status and Language of Therapy during Intensive Semantic Naming Treatment in a Case of Severe Nonfluent Bilingual Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As bilingualism becomes less exceptional in the world, and with the growing incidence of stroke and aphasia, a better understanding of how bilingualism affects aphasia recovery is increasingly important. The present study examined the effect of intensive semantic naming therapy in three phases (Spanish, English and mixed) on within- and…

Kurland, Jacquie; Falcon, Marahu

2011-01-01

255

Talk about IT: Views of people with aphasia and their partners on receiving remotely monitored computer?based word finding therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Research into computerised aphasia therapy has investigated effects of computer therapy on language skills. Little is known about views of people with aphasia on using computers in therapy. New technology has made possible delivery of therapy via the Internet ( “remotely”), without face?to?face contact with the therapist. The acceptability to clients and carers of this novel mode of delivering

Julia Wade; Jane Mortley; Pam Enderby

2003-01-01

256

Can impairment-focused therapy change the everyday conversations of people with aphasia? A review of the literature and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The ultimate goal in any programme of aphasia rehabilitation is that behaviours targeted in therapy will generalise to everyday use for people with aphasia (PWA). The pervasiveness of conversation in everyday life has undoubtedly contributed to the recent interest in aphasiology regarding how we facilitate, and capture evidence of, change in conversation following therapy. Given the rich nature of

Marcella Carragher; Paul Conroy; Karen Sage; Ray Wilkinson

2012-01-01

257

Piezonuclear battery  

DOEpatents

A piezonuclear battery generates output power arising from the piezoelectric voltage produced from radioactive decay particles interacting with a piezoelectric medium. Radioactive particle energy may directly create an acoustic wave in the piezoelectric medium or a moderator may be used to generate collision particles for interacting with the medium. In one embodiment a radioactive material (.sup.252 Cf) with an output of about 1 microwatt produced a 12 nanowatt output (1.2% conversion efficiency) from a piezoelectric copolymer of vinylidene fluoride/trifluorethylene.

Bongianni, Wayne L. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01

258

Automotive battery management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Battery management system (BMS) is an integral part of an automobile. It protects the battery from damage, predicts battery life and maintains the battery in an operational condition. The BMS performs these tasks by integrating one or more of the functions, such as protecting the cell, controlling the charge, determining the state of charge (SOC), the state of health (SOH),

Bharath Pattipati; Krishna Pattipati; Jon P. Christopherson; Setu Madhavi Namburu; Danil V. Prokhorov; Liu Qiao

2008-01-01

259

Aqueous Electrolyte Batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the growing interest in advanced lithium batteries, the overwhelming majority of batteries manufactured today are still based on aqueous electrolytes, mostly sulphuric acid or potassium hydroxide solution. The ubiquitous lead-acid battery is, after 150 years, still being improved as regards its design and materials of construction. Rechargeable batteries based on potassium hydroxide electrolyte have nickel oxide or silver oxide

R. M. dell

1996-01-01

260

Galileo Probe Battery System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conclusions of the Galileo probe battery system are: the battery performance met mission requirements with margin; extensive ground-based and flight tests of batteries prior to probe separation from orbiter provided good prediction of actual entry performance at Jupiter; and the Li-SO2 battery was an important choice for the probe's main power.

Dagarin, B. P.; Taenaka, R. K.; Stofel, E. J.

1997-01-01

261

[Non-pharmacological therapies for language deficits in the agrammatic and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia: a literature review].  

PubMed

Primary progressive aphasia is a neurodegenerative condition characterised by a progressive and isolated disorder of expressive language, associated with atrophy of the left posterior frontoinsular region (nonfluent/agrammatic variant) or with atrophy of the left temporoparietal junction area (logopenic variant). This literature review reports studies about language therapies for these two variants of primary progressive aphasia. More precisely, the review presents the behavioral interventions and the augmentative/alternative communication tools reported in the literature to improve language performances or to compensate for language difficulties. Most of these studies reported that interventions are efficient. However, inconsistent results are found regarding maintenance of improvement and generalization to untreated language abilities. Other studies are still required to establish the clinical relevance of interventions for language and communication disorders in primary progressive aphasia. In these studies, the use of more ecological interventions focusing on the specific needs of people living with this disease should be specifically addressed. PMID:23508325

Routhier, Sonia; Gravel-Laflamme, Karine; Macoir, Joël

2013-03-01

262

Lithium Ion Batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

1997-01-01

263

Neural mechanisms underlying the facilitation of naming in aphasia using a semantic task: an fMRI study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous attempts to investigate the effects of semantic tasks on picture naming in both healthy controls and people with aphasia have typically been confounded by inclusion of the phonological word form of the target item. As a result, it is difficult to isolate any facilitatory effects of a semantically-focused task to either lexical-semantic or phonological processing. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study examined the neurological mechanisms underlying short-term (within minutes) and long-term (within days) facilitation of naming from a semantic task that did not include the phonological word form, in both participants with aphasia and age-matched controls. Results Behavioral results showed that a semantic task that did not include the phonological word form can successfully facilitate subsequent picture naming in both healthy controls and individuals with aphasia. The whole brain neuroimaging results for control participants identified a repetition enhancement effect in the short-term, with modulation of activity found in regions that have not traditionally been associated with semantic processing, such as the right lingual gyrus (extending to the precuneus) and the left inferior occipital gyrus (extending to the fusiform gyrus). In contrast, the participants with aphasia showed significant differences in activation over both the short- and the long-term for facilitated items, predominantly within either left hemisphere regions linked to semantic processing or their right hemisphere homologues. Conclusions For control participants in this study, the short-lived facilitation effects of a prior semantic task that did not include the phonological word form were primarily driven by object priming and episodic memory mechanisms. However, facilitation effects appeared to engage a predominantly semantic network in participants with aphasia over both the short- and the long-term. The findings of the present study also suggest that right hemisphere involvement may be supportive rather than maladaptive, and that a large distributed perisylvian network in both cerebral hemispheres supports the facilitation of naming in individuals with aphasia. PMID:22882806

2012-01-01

264

Materials for advanced batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The requirements of battery systems are considered along with some recent studies of materials of importance in aqueous electrochemical energy-storage systems, lithium-aluminum\\/iron sulfide batteries, solid electrolytes, molten salt electrolytes in secondary batteries, the recharging of the lithium electrode in organic electrolytes, intercalation electrodes, and interface phenomena in advanced batteries. Attention is given to a lead-acid battery overview, the design and

D. W. Murphy; J. Broadhead; B. C. H. Steele

1980-01-01

265

Silver-zinc batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until about a decade ago, only lead-acid storage batteries were utilized as a reserve source of dc power for aircraft applications. However, technological advances in the alkaline family of batteries have introduced new electrochemical systems having significant advantages over the lead-acid battery. One of these electrochemical systems is the silver-zinc battery. The silver-zinc battery derives its name from its active

R. Coss; J. Denson

1965-01-01

266

Batteries and environmental requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presently all lead-acid batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries, mercury and silver cells can be recycled. The main substances used in batteries, recycling or disposal of used batteries, and general measures to solve the environmental problems are considered. No recycling exists for zinc-carbon and alkaline cells, but pilot plants are under construction. In March 1991, the European Community adopted a directive on batteries

H.-A. Kiehne

1991-01-01

267

Comparison of metabolic rates, language, and memory in subcortical aphasias. [Tomographic studies using /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglulcose  

SciTech Connect

Four patients with subcortical lesions and either aphasia or amnesia were compared to four patients with cortical lesions and aphasia. Each patient had /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission computed tomography and language and memory evaluations. Metabolic depression was found in the thalamus and caudate in both groups, while only the cortical group showed cortical changes. Language changes were mild in the subcortical, while moderate to severe in the cortical group. Both groups showed severe verbal memory dysfunction. The only common abnormalities in the two groups were metabolic changes in thalamus, and severity of verbal memory dysfunction. These findings suggest a relationship between verbal memory and thalamic function.

Metter, E.J.; Riege, W.H.; Hanson, W.R.

1981-01-01

268

Progress in the last decade in our understanding of primary progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a focal neurodegeneration of the brain affecting the language network. Patients can have isolated language impairment for years without impairment in other areas. PPA is classified as primary progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), semantic dementia (SD), and logopenic aphasia, which have distinct patterns of atrophy on neuroimaging. PNFA and SD are included under frontotemporal lobar degenerations. PNFA patients have effortful speech with agrammatism, which is frequently associated with apraxia of speech and demonstrate atrophy in the left Broca’s area and surrounding region on neuroimaging. Patients with SD have dysnomia with loss of word and object (or face) meaning with asymmetric anterior temporal lobe atrophy. Logopenic aphasics have word finding difficulties with frequent pauses in conversation, intact grammar, and word comprehension but impaired repetition for sentences. The atrophy is predominantly in the left posterior temporal and inferior parietal regions. Recent studies have described several progranulin mutations on chromosome 17 in PNFA. The three clinical syndromes have a less robust relationship to the underlying pathology, which is heterogeneous and includes tauopathy, ubiquitinopathy, Pick’s disease, corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, and Alzheimer’s disease. Recent studies, however, seem to indicate that a better characterization of the clinical phenotype (apraxic, agrammatic, semantic, logopenic, jargon) increases the predictive value of the underlying pathology. Substantial advances have been made in our understanding of PPAs but developing new biomarkers is essential in making accurate causative diagnoses in individual patients. This is critically important in the development and evaluation of disease-modifying drugs. PMID:21369415

Ratnavalli, Ellajosyula

2010-01-01

269

Elevated occipital ?-amyloid deposition is associated with widespread cognitive impairment in logopenic progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

Background Most subjects with logopenic primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA) have beta-amyloid (A?) deposition on Pittsburgh Compound B PET (PiB-PET), usually affecting prefrontal and temporoparietal cortices, with less occipital involvement. Objectives To assess clinical and imaging features in lvPPA subjects with unusual topographic patterns of A? deposition with highest uptake in occipital lobe. Methods Thirty-three lvPPA subjects with A? deposition on PiB-PET were included in this case-control study. Line-plots of regional PiB uptake were created, including frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital regions, for each subject. Subjects in which the line sloped downwards in occipital lobe (lvPPA-low), representing low uptake, were separated from those where the line sloped upwards in occipital lobe (lvPPA-high), representing unusually high occipital uptake compared to other regions. Clinical variables, atrophy on MRI, hypometabolism on F18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET, and presence and distribution of microbleeds and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) were assessed. Results Seventeen subjects (52%) were classified as lvPPA-high. Mean occipital PiB uptake in lvPPA-high was higher than all other regions, and higher than all regions in lvPPA-low. The lvPPA-high subjects performed more poorly on cognitive testing, including executive and visuospatial testing, but the two groups did not differ in aphasia severity. Proportion of microbleeds and WMH was higher in lvPPA-high than lvPPA-low. Parietal hypometabolism was greater in lvPPA-high than lvPPA-low. Conclusions Unusually high occipital A? deposition is associated with widespread cognitive impairment and different imaging findings in lvPPA. These findings help explain clinical heterogeneity in lvPPA, and suggest that A? influences severity of overall cognitive impairment but not aphasia. PMID:23946416

Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Lowe, Val J.; Duffy, Joseph R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Machulda, Mary M.; Kantarci, Kejal; Wille, Samantha M.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Murphy, Matthew C.; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Jack, Clifford R.; Josephs, Keith A.

2014-01-01

270

Extended turn construction and test question sequences in the conversations of three speakers with agrammatic aphasia  

PubMed Central

The application of Conversation Analysis (CA) to the investigation of agrammatic aphasia reveals that utterances produced by speakers with agrammatism engaged in everyday conversation differ significantly from utterances produced in response to decontextualised assessment and therapy tasks. Early studies have demonstrated that speakers with agrammatism construct turns from sequences of nouns, adjectives, discourse markers and conjunctions, packaged by a distinct pattern of prosody. This article presents examples of turn construction methods deployed by three people with agrammatism as they take an extended turn, in order to recount a past event, initiate a discussion or have a disagreement. This is followed by examples of sequences occurring in the talk of two of these speakers that result in different, and more limited, turn construction opportunities, namely “test” questions asked in order to initiate a new topic of talk, despite the conversation partner knowing the answer. The contrast between extended turns and test question sequences illustrates the effect of interactional context on aphasic turn construction practices, and the potential of less than optimal sequences to mask turn construction skills. It is suggested that the interactional motivation for test question sequences in these data are to invite people with aphasia to contribute to conversation, rather than to practise saying words in an attempt to improve language skills. The idea that test question sequences may have their origins in early attempts to deal with acute aphasia, and the potential for conversation partnerships to become “stuck” in such interactional patterns after they may have outlived their usefulness, are discussed with a view to clinical implications. PMID:23848370

Beckley, Firle; Best, Wendy; Johnson, Fiona; Edwards, Susan; Maxim, Jane

2013-01-01

271

A novel frontal pathway underlies verbal fluency in primary progressive aphasia.  

PubMed

The frontal aslant tract is a direct pathway connecting Broca's region with the anterior cingulate and pre-supplementary motor area. This tract is left lateralized in right-handed subjects, suggesting a possible role in language. However, there are no previous studies that have reported an involvement of this tract in language disorders. In this study we used diffusion tractography to define the anatomy of the frontal aslant tract in relation to verbal fluency and grammar impairment in primary progressive aphasia. Thirty-five patients with primary progressive aphasia and 29 control subjects were recruited. Tractography was used to obtain indirect indices of microstructural organization of the frontal aslant tract. In addition, tractography analysis of the uncinate fasciculus, a tract associated with semantic processing deficits, was performed. Damage to the frontal aslant tract correlated with performance in verbal fluency as assessed by the Cinderella story test. Conversely, damage to the uncinate fasciculus correlated with deficits in semantic processing as assessed by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Neither tract correlated with grammatical or repetition deficits. Significant group differences were found in the frontal aslant tract of patients with the non-fluent/agrammatic variant and in the uncinate fasciculus of patients with the semantic variant. These findings indicate that degeneration of the frontal aslant tract underlies verbal fluency deficits in primary progressive aphasia and further confirm the role of the uncinate fasciculus in semantic processing. The lack of correlation between damage to the frontal aslant tract and grammar deficits suggests that verbal fluency and grammar processing rely on distinct anatomical networks. PMID:23820597

Catani, Marco; Mesulam, Marsel M; Jakobsen, Estrid; Malik, Farah; Martersteck, Adam; Wieneke, Christina; Thompson, Cynthia K; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily

2013-08-01

272

A novel frontal pathway underlies verbal fluency in primary progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

The frontal aslant tract is a direct pathway connecting Broca’s region with the anterior cingulate and pre-supplementary motor area. This tract is left lateralized in right-handed subjects, suggesting a possible role in language. However, there are no previous studies that have reported an involvement of this tract in language disorders. In this study we used diffusion tractography to define the anatomy of the frontal aslant tract in relation to verbal fluency and grammar impairment in primary progressive aphasia. Thirty-five patients with primary progressive aphasia and 29 control subjects were recruited. Tractography was used to obtain indirect indices of microstructural organization of the frontal aslant tract. In addition, tractography analysis of the uncinate fasciculus, a tract associated with semantic processing deficits, was performed. Damage to the frontal aslant tract correlated with performance in verbal fluency as assessed by the Cinderella story test. Conversely, damage to the uncinate fasciculus correlated with deficits in semantic processing as assessed by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Neither tract correlated with grammatical or repetition deficits. Significant group differences were found in the frontal aslant tract of patients with the non-fluent/agrammatic variant and in the uncinate fasciculus of patients with the semantic variant. These findings indicate that degeneration of the frontal aslant tract underlies verbal fluency deficits in primary progressive aphasia and further confirm the role of the uncinate fasciculus in semantic processing. The lack of correlation between damage to the frontal aslant tract and grammar deficits suggests that verbal fluency and grammar processing rely on distinct anatomical networks. PMID:23820597

Mesulam, Marsel M.; Jakobsen, Estrid; Malik, Farah; Martersteck, Adam; Wieneke, Christina; Thompson, Cynthia K.; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily

2013-01-01

273

Quantitative classification of primary progressive aphasia at early and mild impairment stages.  

PubMed

The characteristics of early and mild disease in primary progressive aphasia are poorly understood. This report is based on 25 patients with aphasia quotients >85%, 13 of whom were within 2 years of symptom onset. Word-finding and spelling deficits were the most frequent initial signs. Diagnostic imaging was frequently negative and initial consultations seldom reached a correct diagnosis. Functionality was preserved, so that the patients fit current criteria for single-domain mild cognitive impairment. One goal was to determine whether recently published classification guidelines could be implemented at these early and mild disease stages. The quantitative testing of the recommended core and ancillary criteria led to the classification of ?80% of the sample into agrammatic, logopenic and semantic variants. Biological validity of the resultant classification at these mild impairment stages was demonstrated by clinically concordant cortical atrophy patterns. A two-dimensional template based on orthogonal mapping of word comprehension and grammaticality provided comparable accuracy and led to a flexible road map that can guide the classification process quantitatively or qualitatively. Longitudinal evaluations of initially unclassifiable patients showed that the semantic variant can be preceded by a prodromal stage of focal left anterior temporal atrophy during which prominent anomia exists without word comprehension or object recognition impairments. Patterns of quantitative tests justified the distinction of grammar from speech abnormalities and the desirability of using the 'agrammatic' designation exclusively for loss of grammaticality, regardless of fluency or speech status. Two patients with simultaneous impairments of grammatical sentence production and word comprehension displayed focal atrophy of the inferior frontal gyrus and the anterior temporal lobe. These patients represent a fourth variant of 'mixed' primary progressive aphasia. Quantitative criteria were least effective in the distinction of the agrammatic from the logopenic variant and left considerable latitude to clinical judgement. The widely followed recommendation to wait for 2 years of relatively isolated and progressive language impairment before making a definitive diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia has promoted diagnostic specificity, but has also diverted attention away from early and mild disease. This study shows that this recommendation is unnecessarily restrictive and that quantitative guidelines can be implemented for the valid root diagnosis and subtyping of mildly impaired patients within 2 years of symptom onset. An emphasis on early diagnosis will promote a better characterization of the disease stages where therapeutic interventions are the most likely to succeed. PMID:22525158

Mesulam, M-Marsel; Wieneke, Christina; Thompson, Cynthia; Rogalski, Emily; Weintraub, Sandra

2012-05-01

274

The confidence of speech-language pathology students regarding communicating with people with aphasia  

PubMed Central

Background Aphasia is an acquired language disorder that can present a significant barrier to patient involvement in healthcare decisions. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are viewed as experts in the field of communication. However, many SLP students do not receive practical training in techniques to communicate with people with aphasia (PWA) until they encounter PWA during clinical education placements. Methods This study investigated the confidence and knowledge of SLP students in communicating with PWA prior to clinical placements using a customised questionnaire. Confidence in communicating with people with aphasia was assessed using a 100-point visual analogue scale. Linear, and logistic, regressions were used to examine the association between confidence and age, as well as confidence and course type (graduate-entry masters or undergraduate), respectively. Knowledge of strategies to assist communication with PWA was examined by asking respondents to list specific strategies that could assist communication with PWA. Results SLP students were not confident with the prospect of communicating with PWA; reporting a median 29-points (inter-quartile range 17–47) on the visual analogue confidence scale. Only, four (8.2%) of respondents rated their confidence greater than 55 (out of 100). Regression analyses indicated no relationship existed between confidence and students‘ age (p?=?0.31, r-squared?=?0.02), or confidence and course type (p?=?0.22, pseudo r-squared?=?0.03). Students displayed limited knowledge about communication strategies. Thematic analysis of strategies revealed four overarching themes; Physical, Verbal Communication, Visual Information and Environmental Changes. While most students identified potential use of resources (such as images and written information), fewer students identified strategies to alter their verbal communication (such as reduced speech rate). Conclusions SLP students who had received aphasia related theoretical coursework, but not commenced clinical placements with PWA, were not confident in their ability to communicate with PWA. Students may benefit from an educational intervention or curriculum modification to incorporate practical training in effective strategies to communicate with PWA, before they encounter PWA in clinical settings. Ensuring students have confidence and knowledge of potential communication strategies to assist communication with PWA may allow them to focus their learning experiences in more specific clinical domains, such as clinical reasoning, rather than building foundation interpersonal communication skills. PMID:23806028

2013-01-01

275

Rechargeable batteries and battery management systems design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimated worldwide sales for rechargeable batteries, was around US$36 billion in 2008 and this is expected to grow towards US$51 billion by 2013. As per market reports, US demand for primary and secondary batteries will increase by 2.5% annually to 16.8 billion in 2012, while primary batteries will account for 5.8 billion with a growth rate of 3%. The insatiable

N. Kularatna

2010-01-01

276

Battery management systems (BMS) for increasing battery life time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life time of the battery depends of many different parameters. One parameter set is the internal battery parameters which are influenced by the battery manufacturers, and the second set is the external battery parameters which are influenced by the battery users. The external parameter can have an enormous influence on the life time. By use of a battery management

A. Jossen; V. Spath; H. Doring; J. Garche

1999-01-01

277

Graphene nanoarchitecture in batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare three different carbon nanoarchitectures used to produce standard coin cell batteries: graphene monolayer, graphite paper and graphene foam. The batteries' electrochemical performances are characterised using cyclic voltammetry, constant-current discharge and dynamic galvanostatic techniques. Even though graphene is the fundamental building block of graphite its properties are intrinsically different when used in batteries because there is no ion intercalation in graphene. The nanoarchitecture of the graphene electrode is shown to have a strong influence over the battery's electrochemical performance. This provides a versatile way to design various battery electrodes on different demands.We compare three different carbon nanoarchitectures used to produce standard coin cell batteries: graphene monolayer, graphite paper and graphene foam. The batteries' electrochemical performances are characterised using cyclic voltammetry, constant-current discharge and dynamic galvanostatic techniques. Even though graphene is the fundamental building block of graphite its properties are intrinsically different when used in batteries because there is no ion intercalation in graphene. The nanoarchitecture of the graphene electrode is shown to have a strong influence over the battery's electrochemical performance. This provides a versatile way to design various battery electrodes on different demands. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Morphologies of graphene battery electrodes after discharge, energy capacities of batteries and several hundred times battery discharge results. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02089h

Wei, Di; Astley, Michael R.; Harris, Nadine; White, Richard; Ryhänen, Tapani; Kivioja, Jani

2014-07-01

278

Solar battery energizer  

SciTech Connect

A battery energizer for button batteries, such as zinc-silver oxide or zinc-mercuric oxide batteries, that are normally considered unchargeable, provides for energizing of the batteries in a safe and simple manner. A solar cell having a maximum current output (e.g., 20 milliamps) is operatively connected to terminals for releasably receiving a button battery. A light emitting diode, or like indicator, provides an indication of when the battery is fully energized, and additionally assists in preventing overenergization of the battery. The solar cell, terminals, LED, and the like can be mounted on a nonconductive material mounting plate which is mounted by a suction cup and hook to a window, adjacent a light bulb, or the like. A battery charger for conventional dry cell rechargeable batteries (such as nickel-cadmium batteries) utilizes the solar cells, and LED, and a zener diode connected in parallel with terminals. An adaptor may be provided with the terminal for adapting them for use with any conventional size dry cell battery, and a simple dummy battery may be utilized so that less than the full complement of batteries may be charged utilizing the charger.

Thompson, M. E.

1985-09-03

279

The Relationship between Phonological and Morphological Deficits in Broca's Aphasia: Further Evidence from Errors in Verb Inflection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A previous study of 10 patients with Broca's aphasia demonstrated that the advantage for producing the past tense of irregular over regular verbs exhibited by these patients was eliminated when the two sets of past-tense forms were matched for phonological complexity (Bird, Lambon Ralph, Seidenberg, McClelland, & Patterson, 2003). The…

Braber, N.; Patterson, K.; Ellis, K.; Lambon Ralph, M.A.

2005-01-01

280

[Neuropsychological intervention in memory consolidation in patients with acoustic-mnestic aphasia. An exploratory and preliminary study].  

PubMed

Neuropsychological alterations after stroke depend on the type and site of the injury and may result in cognitive, mood or social disabilities. The disorders may disturb daily motor activities and may alter language and short- and long-term memory. Patients that have suffered a stroke in the left temporal hemisphere may present acoustic-mnestic aphasia and memory alterations. Our objective was to evaluate the results of the implementation of a memory reinforcement training program in patients with acoustic-mnestic aphasia, and to know if the program improves memory consolidation for a better patient's quality of life. We performed a case-report study, before and after implementation of a memory reinforcement program in two patients with acoustic-mnestic aphasia and memory alterations. The program was constructed with 20 supra-ordinal categories, each with 10 sub-ordinal words, with a total of 200 words to evoke. We found significant differences in the number of evoked words and in memory consolidation after the implementation of the program in the two studied patients. Our observations suggest that implementation of a memory reinforcement program in subjects with acoustic-mnestic aphasia may be useful in the rehabilitation of memory alterations in these patients. PMID:24502178

Sánchez-Cortés, Norma A; Reyna-Cervantes, Karla P; Poblano, Adrián

2013-12-01

281

The effects of decreasing and increasing cue therapy on improving naming speed and accuracy for verbs and nouns in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Verb impairments in aphasia have generated considerable theoretical interest in the literature (Druks, 2002; Druks & Masterson, 2003; Marshall, 2003) but this is not reflected in the number of studies investigating therapies for verb impairments (Conroy, Sage, & Lambon Ralph, 2006). Recent anomia therapy studies have compared errorless and errorful techniques (Abel, Schultz, Radermacher, Willmes, & Huber, 2005; Fillingham,

Paul Conroy; Karen Sage; Matthew A. Lambon Ralph

2009-01-01

282

The impact of semantic impairment on verbal short-term memory in stroke aphasia and semantic dementia: A comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the first direct comparison of immediate serial recall in semantic dementia (SD) and transcortical sensory aphasia (TSA). Previous studies of the effect of semantic impairment on verbal short-term memory (STM) have led to important theoretical advances. However, different conclusions have been drawn from these two groups. This research aimed to explain these inconsistencies. We observed (a) qualitative

Elizabeth Jefferies; Paul Hoffman; Roy Jones; Matthew A. Lambon Ralph

2008-01-01

283

Measuring Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in Aphasia: Reliability, Validity, and Sensitivity to Change of the Scenario Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study explores the psychometric qualities of the Scenario Test, a new test to assess daily-life communication in severe aphasia. The test is innovative in that it: (1) examines the effectiveness of verbal and non-verbal communication; and (2) assesses patients' communication in an interactive setting, with a supportive…

van der Meulen, Ineke; van de Sandt-Koenderman, W. Mieke E.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Ribbers, Gerard M.

2010-01-01

284

Economic Aspects of a Therapy and Support Service for People with Long-Term Stroke and Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This paper considers some economic aspects of a therapy and support service for people with stroke and aphasia. This material was part of a broader evaluation of the service, which is reported elsewhere (van der Gaag et al. 2005, van der Gaag and Mowles 2005). Aims: The purpose of this part of the study was to investigate the…

van der Gaag, Anna; Brooks, Richard

2008-01-01

285

Treatment of word retrieval impairments in aphasia: Evaluation of a self-administered home programme using personally chosen words  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: While previous research has shown that a number of tasks can be successful in improving word retrieval following aphasia, the majority of studies result in improvement restricted to treated items. This has two major implications: first it is essential that personally relevant items of communicative value are treated. Second, treatment is likely to be required long term. Therapy provided

Catherine Mason; Lyndsey Nickels; Belinda McDonald; Melanie Moses; Kate Makin; Christine Taylor

2011-01-01

286

Stimulating Conversation: Enhancement of Elicited Propositional Speech in a Patient with Chronic Non-Fluent Aphasia following Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although evidence suggests that patients with left hemisphere strokes and non-fluent aphasia who receive 1Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the intact right inferior frontal gyrus experience persistent benefits in naming, it remains unclear whether the effects of rTMS in these patients generalize to other language…

Hamilton, Roy H.; Sanders, Linda; Benson, Jennifer; Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Norise, Catherine; Naeser, Margaret; Martin, Paula; Coslett, H. Branch

2010-01-01

287

Improved Picture Naming in Chronic Aphasia after Tms to Part of Right Broca's Area: An Open-Protocol Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional imaging studies with nonfluent aphasia patients have observed ''over-activation'' in right (R) language homologues. This may represent a maladaptive strategy; suppression may result in language improvement. We applied slow, 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to an anterior portion of R Broca's homologue daily, for…

Naeser, M.A.; Martin, P.I.; Nicholas, M.; Baker, E.H.; Seekins, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Theoret, H.; Fregni, F.; Maria-Tormos, J.; Kurland, J.; Doron, K.W.; Pascual-Leone, A.

2005-01-01

288

The Role of Semantic Complexity in Treatment of Naming Deficits: Training Semantic Categories in Fluent Aphasia by Controlling Exemplar Typicality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of typicality of category exemplars on naming was investigated using a single subject experimental design across participants and behaviors in 4 patients with fluent aphasia. Participants received a semantic feature treatment to improve naming of either typical or atypical items within semantic categories, while generalization was tested to untrained items of the category. The order of typicality and

Swathi Kiran; Cynthia K. Thompson

2003-01-01

289

Still Picture Telephones for People with Aphasia and Mental Retardation. Technology, Communication, and Disability. Report No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the results of two studies in the area of telecommunication for people with aphasia and mental retardation in Sweden. A brief outline of the use of still picture telephones for picture based distance communication is presented. Overall, still picture telephones were effective as a communication aid for people with either…

Brodin, Jane; Magnusson, Magnus

290

Communicative speech therapy in aphasia: What does it mean, can it be effective and how should it be done?  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decade interest in spontaneous speech and functional communication of aphasic patients has clearly increased. This growing interest is quite appropriate, as disorders in spontaneous speech and the resulting problems in functional communication are not only the most apparent, but also the most distressing, phenomena in aphasia. Hence, improvement in spontaneous speech and functional communication should be considered

Roelien Bastiaanse; Ronald S. Prins

1994-01-01

291

Effects of PROMPT therapy on speech motor function in a person with aphasia and apraxia of speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined the effectiveness of PROMPT treatment, a tactile-kinaesthetic speech motor treatment, on the acquisition and generalisation of precision and automaticity of speech movements in an individual with Broca's aphasia and apraxia of speech. Using a single subject multiple probe design across behaviours, treatment effects and generalisation were examined for three linguistically different forms of sentences including imperatives, active

Arpita Bose; Paula A. Square; Pascal van Lieshout

2001-01-01

292

Verbal and visuospatial span in logopenic progressive aphasia and Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA) is a form of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) characterized by hesitant speech with marked impairment in naming and repetition. LPA is associated with brain atrophy in the left temporal and inferior parietal cortices and is predominantly associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. In contrast to LPA, ‘‘typical’’ AD is commonly associated with episodic memory disturbance and bilateral medial temporal lobe atrophy. Recent evidence suggests verbal short-term memory is more impaired than visuospatial short-term memory in LPA. This study investigated verbal and visuospatial short-term memory in 12 LPA and 12 AD patients matched for disease severity, and in 12 age- and education-matched healthy controls. Overall, both patient groups showed significantly reduced verbal and visuospatial spans compared with controls. In addition, LPA patients performed significantly worse than AD patients on both forward and backward conditions of the Digit Span task. In contrast, no difference was present between patient groups on either version of the Spatial Span task. Importantly, LPA patients showed better visuospatial than verbal span whereas AD patients and controls did not differ across modality. This study demonstrates the specificity of the short-term memory disturbance in LPA, which arises from a breakdown of the phonological system. PMID:23298815

Foxe, David G; Irish, Muireann; Hodges, John R; Piguet, Olivier

2013-03-01

293

Treatment of category generation and retrieval in aphasia: Effect of typicality of category items.  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Kiran and colleagues (Kiran, 2007, 2008; Kiran & Johnson, 2008; Kiran & Thompson, 2003) have previously suggested that training atypical examples within a semantic category is a more efficient treatment approach to facilitating generalization within the category than training typical examples. The present study extended our previous work examining the notion of semantic complexity within goal-derived (ad-hoc) categories in individuals with aphasia. Methods: Six individuals with fluent aphasia (range = 39-84 years) and varying degrees of naming deficits and semantic impairments were involved. Thirty typical and atypical items each from two categories were selected after an extensive stimulus norming task. Generative naming for the two categories was tested during baseline and treatment. Results: As predicted, training atypical examples in the category resulted in generalization to untrained typical examples in five out the five patient-treatment conditions. In contrast, training typical examples (which was in examined three conditions) produced mixed results. One patient showed generalization to untrained atypical examples, whereas two patients did not show generalization to untrained atypical examples. Conclusions: Results of the present study supplement our existing data on the effect of a semantically based treatment for lexical retrieval by manipulating the typicality of category exemplars. PMID:21173393

Kiran, Swathi; Sandberg, Chaleece; Sebastian, Rajani

2011-01-01

294

Development of a Theoretically Based Treatment for Sentence Comprehension Deficits in Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Purpose We piloted two new treatments, one based on sentence to picture matching (SPM) and the other based on object manipulation (OM), that train participants on the thematic roles of sentences using pictures or by manipulating objects. Methods Using a single subject multiple baseline design, sentence comprehension was trained on the affected sentence type in one task-related protocol in 15 participants with aphasia. The two tasks were SPM and OM and the treatment stimuli were Object relatives; Object clefts; Passives and Unaccusatives as well as two control structures; Object relatives with a complex NP, active sentences with three NPs. Results The criteria for efficacious treatment was an increase in the level of performance from the pre-treatment probes to post-treatment probes for the treated structure such that accuracy rose from at or below chance to above chance and either a) accuracy on rose by 33% or b) the effect size was 2.6. Based on these criteria, the success rate for training the target structure was 4/7 participants in the OM condition and 2/6 participants in the SPM condition. Conclusions The outcome of this study illustrates the utility of this theoretically-motivated and efficacious treatment for sentence comprehension deficits in participants with aphasia. PMID:22411773

Kiran, Swathi; Caplan, David; Sandberg, Chaleece; Levy, Joshua; Berardino, Alex; Ascenso, Elsa; Villard, Sarah; Tripodis, Yorghos

2012-01-01

295

Integrating the iPad into an intensive, comprehensive aphasia program.  

PubMed

The proliferation of tablet technology and the development of apps to support aphasia rehabilitation offer increasing opportunities for speech-language pathologists in a clinical setting. This article describes the components of an Intensive Comprehensive Aphasia Program at Boston University and details how usage of the iPad (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA) was incorporated. We describe how the iPad was customized for use in individual, dyadic, and group treatment formats and how its use was encouraged through home practice tasks. In addition to providing the participants with step-by-step instructions for the usage of each new app, participants had multiple opportunities for practice across various treatment formats. Examples of how the participants continued using their iPad beyond the program suggest how the usage of this device has generalized into their day-to-day life. An overall summary of performance on targeted linguistic measures as well as an analysis of functional and quality-of-life measures reveal statistically significant improvements pre- to posttreatment. PMID:24449463

Hoover, Elizabeth L; Carney, Anne

2014-02-01

296

Support for Anterior Temporal Involvement in Semantic Error Production in Aphasia: New Evidence from VLSM  

PubMed Central

Semantic errors in aphasia (e.g., naming a horse as “dog”) frequently arise from faulty mapping of concepts onto lexical items. A recent study by our group used voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) methods with 64 patients with chronic aphasia to identify voxels that carry an association with semantic errors. The strongest associations were found in the left anterior temporal lobe (L-ATL), in the mid- to anterior MTG region. The absence of findings in Wernicke’s area was surprising, as were indications that ATL voxels made an essential contribution to the post-semantic stage of lexical access. In this follow-up study, we sought to validate these results by re-defining semantic errors in a manner that was less theory dependent and more consistent with prior lesion studies. As this change also increased the robustness of the dependent variable, it made it possible to perform additional statistical analyses that further refined the interpretation. The results strengthen the evidence for a causal relationship between ATL damage and lexically-based semantic errors in naming and lend confidence to the conclusion that chronic lesions in Wernicke’s area are not causally implicated in semantic error production. PMID:20961612

Walker, Grant M.; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Kimberg, Daniel Y.; Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Brecher, Adelyn; Dell, Gary S.; Coslett, H. Branch

2010-01-01

297

TDP-43 pathology in primary progressive aphasia and frontotemporal dementia with pathologic Alzheimer disease  

PubMed Central

The clinical syndrome of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) can be associated with a variety of neuropathologic diagnoses at autopsy. Thirty percent of cases have Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology, most often in the usual distribution, which defies principles of brain–behavior organization, in that aphasia is not symptomatic of limbic disease. The present study investigated whether concomitant TDP-43 pathology could resolve the lack of clinicoanatomic concordance. In this paper, 16 cases of clinical PPA and 10 cases of primarily non-aphasic frontotemporal dementia (FTD), all with AD pathology, were investigated to determine whether their atypical clinical phenotypes reflected the presence of additional TDP-43 pathology. A comparison group consisted of 27 cases of pathologic AD with the typical amnestic clinical phenotype of probable AD. Concomitant TDP-43 pathology was discovered in only three of the FTD and PPA but in more than half of the typical amnestic clinical phenotypes. Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) was closely associated with TDP-43 pathology when all groups were combined for analysis. Therefore, the clinical phenotypes of PPA and FTD in cases with pathologic AD are only rarely associated with TDP-43 proteinopathy. Furthermore, medial temporal TDP-43 pathology is more tightly linked to HS than to clinical phenotype. These findings challenge the current notions about clinicopathologic correlation, especially about the role of multiple pathologies. PMID:20361198

Mishra, Manjari; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J.; White, Charles L.; Johnson, Nancy; Rademaker, Alfred; Weitner, Bing Bing; Deng, Han-Xiang; Dubner, Steven D.; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, Marsel

2010-01-01

298

Protocol evaluation for effective music therapy for persons with nonfluent aphasia.  

PubMed

Although the notion of the language specificity of neural correlates has been widely accepted in the past (e.g., lefthemispheric dominance including Broca's and Wernike's area, N400 ERP component of semantic processing, and the P600 ERP component of syntactic processing, etc.), recent studies have shown that music and language share some important neurological aspects in their processing, both involving bilateral hemispheric activities. In line with this are the frequent behavioral clinical observations that persons with aphasia show improved articulation and prosody of speech in musically assisted phrases. Connecting recent neurological findings with clinical observations would not only inform clinical practice but would enhance understanding of the neurological mechanisms involved in the processing of speech/language and music. This article presents a music therapy treatment protocol study of 7 nonfluent patients with aphasia. The data and findings are discussed with regard to some of the recent focuses and issues addressed in the experimental studies using cognitive-behavioral, electrophysiological, and brain-imaging techniques. PMID:19158063

Kim, Mijin; Tomaino, Concetta M

2008-01-01

299

Semantic complexity in treatment of naming deficits in aphasia: Evidence from well-defined categories  

PubMed Central

Purpose Our previous work on manipulating typicality of category exemplars during treatment of naming deficits has shown that training atypical examples generalizes to untrained typical examples but not vice versa. In contrast to natural categories that consist of fuzzy boundaries, well-defined categories (e.g., shapes) have rigid category boundaries. Whether these categories illustrate typicality effects similar to natural categories is under debate. The present study addressed this question in the context of treatment for naming deficits in aphasia. Methods Using a single subject experiment design, three participants with aphasia received a semantic feature treatment to improve naming of either typical or atypical items of shapes, while generalization was tested to untrained items of the category. Results For two of the three participants, training naming of atypical examples of shapes resulted in improved naming of untrained typical examples. Training typical examples in one participant did not improve naming of atypical examples. All three participants, however, showed weak acquisition trends. Conclusions Results of the present study show equivocal support for manipulating typicality as a treatment variable within well defined categories. Instead, these results indicate that acquisition and generalization effects within well defined categories such as shapes are overshadowed by their inherent abstractness. PMID:18845698

Kiran, Swathi; Johnson, Lauren

2009-01-01

300

Standard Missile Block IV Battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1980s a trend in automatic primary battery technologies was the replacement of silver-zinc batteries by thermal battery designs. The Standard Missile (SM 2) Block IV development is a noteworthy reversal of this trend. The SM 2, Block IV battery was originally attempted as a thermal battery with multiple companies attempting to develop a thermal battery design. These attempts

J. Martin

1996-01-01

301

Speech entrainment enables patients with Broca's aphasia to produce fluent speech  

PubMed Central

A distinguishing feature of Broca’s aphasia is non-fluent halting speech typically involving one to three words per utterance. Yet, despite such profound impairments, some patients can mimic audio-visual speech stimuli enabling them to produce fluent speech in real time. We call this effect ‘speech entrainment’ and reveal its neural mechanism as well as explore its usefulness as a treatment for speech production in Broca’s aphasia. In Experiment 1, 13 patients with Broca’s aphasia were tested in three conditions: (i) speech entrainment with audio-visual feedback where they attempted to mimic a speaker whose mouth was seen on an iPod screen; (ii) speech entrainment with audio-only feedback where patients mimicked heard speech; and (iii) spontaneous speech where patients spoke freely about assigned topics. The patients produced a greater variety of words using audio-visual feedback compared with audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. No difference was found between audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. In Experiment 2, 10 of the 13 patients included in Experiment 1 and 20 control subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine the neural mechanism that supports speech entrainment. Group results with patients and controls revealed greater bilateral cortical activation for speech produced during speech entrainment compared with spontaneous speech at the junction of the anterior insula and Brodmann area 47, in Brodmann area 37, and unilaterally in the left middle temporal gyrus and the dorsal portion of Broca’s area. Probabilistic white matter tracts constructed for these regions in the normal subjects revealed a structural network connected via the corpus callosum and ventral fibres through the extreme capsule. Unilateral areas were connected via the arcuate fasciculus. In Experiment 3, all patients included in Experiment 1 participated in a 6-week treatment phase using speech entrainment to improve speech production. Behavioural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected before and after the treatment phase. Patients were able to produce a greater variety of words with and without speech entrainment at 1 and 6 weeks after training. Treatment-related decrease in cortical activation associated with speech entrainment was found in areas of the left posterior-inferior parietal lobe. We conclude that speech entrainment allows patients with Broca’s aphasia to double their speech output compared with spontaneous speech. Neuroimaging results suggest that speech entrainment allows patients to produce fluent speech by providing an external gating mechanism that yokes a ventral language network that encodes conceptual aspects of speech. Preliminary results suggest that training with speech entrainment improves speech production in Broca’s aphasia providing a potential therapeutic method for a disorder that has been shown to be particularly resistant to treatment. PMID:23250889

Hubbard, H. Isabel; Hudspeth, Sarah Grace; Holland, Audrey L.; Bonilha, Leonardo; Fromm, Davida; Rorden, Chris

2012-01-01

302

Lightweight High Energy Battery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The characteristics of a newly devised high energy output battery are described. This battery utilizes aluminum and chlorine as the reactive materials. The electrochemical reactions take place in a molten salt electrolyte maintained at 125-200C. The prope...

A. A. Fannin, D. W. Seegmiller, L. A. King

1971-01-01

303

Ionene membrane battery separator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ionic transport characteristics of ionenes, insoluble membranes from soluble polyelectrolyte compositions, are studied for possible application in a battery separator. Effectiveness of the thin film of separator membrane essentially determines battery lifetime.

Moacanin, J.; Tom, H. Y.

1969-01-01

304

Series/Parallel Batteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is important for students to understand how resistors, capacitors, and batteries combine in series and parallel. The combination of batteries has a lot of practical applications in science competitions. This lab also reinforces how to use a voltmeter t

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

305

Secondary Alkaline Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report on secondary alkaline batteries covers the overall reactions (charge/discharge characteristics), electrode structures and materials, and cell construction. The following batteries are studied, nickel oxide-cadmium, nickel oxide-iron, nickel ox...

J. McBreen

1984-01-01

306

Battery cell feedthrough apparatus  

DOEpatents

A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

Kaun, T.D.

1995-03-14

307

Handbook of Battery Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Batteries find their applications in an increasing range of every-day products: discmen, mobile phones and electric cars need very different battery types. This handbook gives a concise survey about the materials used in modern battery technology. The physico-chemical fundamentals are as well treated as are the environmental and recycling aspects. It will be a profound reference source for anyone working in the research and development of new battery systems, regardless if chemist, physicist or engineer.

Besenhard, J. O.

1999-04-01

308

Batteries for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric-vehicle batteries are under development in programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy with the main objectives of accelerating development in industry when the program began and of developing new high-performance systems. To achieve the first objective, lead-acid, nickel-iron, nickel-zinc and zinc chlorine batteries are under development. Of these batteries, the lead-acid battery is most certain of achieving its

P. A. Nelson; W. H. Webster; H. Shimotake

1981-01-01

309

Handling difficult materials: Batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batteries run the gamut from tiny button cells to the large, lead-acid batteries used in automobiles. While these two extremes pose some of the highest environmental risks of the battery waste stream and are the targets of many recycling programs, recycling technology has yet to catch up with the bulk of the less-harmful, consumer-oriented, dry-cell batteries, used in everything from

Malloy

1994-01-01

310

Electric-vehicle batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power

Henry Oman; Sid Gross

1995-01-01

311

Dual-hemisphere repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for rehabilitation of poststroke aphasia: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial.  

PubMed

Background. Recent neuroimaging studies on poststroke aphasia revealed maladaptive cortical changes in both hemispheres, yet their functional contribution in language recovery remains elusive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy of dual-hemisphere repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on poststroke aphasia. Methods. Thirty patients with subacute poststroke nonfluent aphasia were randomly allocated to receive real or sham rTMS. Each patient received 1000 rTMS pulses (1 Hz at 110% of resting motor threshold [rMT] over the right unaffected Broca's area and 1000 pulses (20 Hz at 80% rMT) over the left affected Broca's area for 10 consecutive days followed by speech/language training. The language section of the Hemispheric Stroke Scale (HSS), the Stroke Aphasic Depression Questionnaire-Hospital Version (SADQ-H), and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) were measured before, immediately after the 10 sessions, and 1 and 2 months after the last session. Results. At baseline, there were no significant differences between groups in demographic and clinical rating scales. However, there was a significantly greater improvement in the HSS language score as well as in the SADQ-H after real rTMS compared with sham rTMS, which remained significant 2 months after the end of the treatment sessions. Conclusion. This is the first clinical study of dual-hemisphere rTMS in poststroke aphasia. Combining dual-hemisphere rTMS with language training might be a feasible treatment for nonfluent aphasia; further multicenter studies are needed to confirm this result. PMID:24503205

Khedr, Eman M; Abo El-Fetoh, Noha; Ali, Anwer M; El-Hammady, Dina H; Khalifa, Hosam; Atta, Haisam; Karim, Ahmed A

2014-10-01

312

Precision Battery Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a new battery management system for a lithium ion battery pack for more efficient operation and sturdy. The new system contains an embedded microcontroller to track the energy content of cell battery, optimize the output current, and to provide extensive feedback of all the measurements taken. This system sends all data to a telemetry system so that

J. A. Asumadu; Mohammed Haque; Helio Vogel; Charles Willards

2005-01-01

313

Balanced Lithium Ion Battery,.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A battery system uses passive nonlinear electronic devices, such as zener diodes, respectively connected in parallel to each of the serially connected battery cells, such as lithium ion battery cells, connected in a string, to maintain all of the cells at...

A. H. Zimmerman

2004-01-01

314

Batteries for solar electricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the small scale storage of solar electricity in cases when no main back-up supply is available. A systems optimization study of the solar cell\\/battery is included with an analysis of solar cell size based on battery capacity for specific insolation patterns and load constraints. Various types of batteries are considered, noting that the following parameters are important:

J. Jensen; C. Perram; R. M. dell

1979-01-01

315

Handbook of Battery Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batteries find their applications in an increasing range of every-day products: discmen, mobile phones and electric cars need very different battery types. This handbook gives a concise survey about the materials used in modern battery technology. The physico-chemical fundamentals are as well treated as are the environmental and recycling aspects. It will be a profound reference source for anyone working

J. O. Besenhard

1999-01-01

316

Secondary alkaline batteries  

SciTech Connect

This report on secondary alkaline batteries covers the overall reactions (charge/discharge characteristics), electrode structures and materials, and cell construction. The following batteries are studied, nickel oxide-cadmium, nickel oxide-iron, nickel oxide-hydrogen, nickel oxide-zinc, silver oxide-zinc, and silver oxide-cadmium, silver oxide-iron, and manganese dioxide-zinc batteries.

McBreen, J.

1984-03-01

317

Chemically rechargeable battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Batteries (50) containing oxidized, discharged metal electrodes such as an iron-air battery are charged by removing and storing electrolyte in a reservoir (98), pumping fluid reductant such as formalin (aqueous formaldehyde) from a storage tank (106) into the battery in contact with the surfaces of the electrodes. After sufficient iron hydroxide has been reduced to iron, the spent reductant is drained, the electrodes rinsed with water from rinse tank (102) and then the electrolyte in the reservoir (106) is returned to the battery. The battery can be slowly electrically charged when in overnight storage but can be quickly charged in about 10 minutes by the chemical procedure of the invention.

Graf, James E. (Inventor); Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

1984-01-01

318

Battery power source  

SciTech Connect

A low voltage DC power-supply is described for an electronic circuit load which comprises: at least one battery; means for regulating the voltage delivered from the battery to the load; and means for charging the battery from AC line power source comprising: means for controlling the charging voltage applied to the battery in function of the net current flowing in and out of the battery; switchable means for rectifying the AC line power; means for detecting the full-cycle zero-axis crossing time of the AC line power; and means for switching the means for rectifying at the zero-axis crossing time.

Ball, N.E.

1986-12-16

319

Aphasia due to lesions confined to the right hemisphere in right handed patients: a review of the literature including the Italian cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review most of the work published, to our knowledge, between 1880 and 1988 on aphasia due to right cerebral lesions in right-handed patients (“crossed aphasia”). We summarize the 87 cases found in chronological order within defined groups, dealing in greater detail with the less well-known cases in English-language publications and with the cases from other sources that we consider

L. Faglia; M. R. Rottoli; L. A. Vignolo

1990-01-01

320

Improved picture naming in chronic aphasia after TMS to part of right Broca’s area: An open-protocol study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional imaging studies with nonfluent aphasia patients have observed “over-activation” in right (R) language homologues. This may represent a maladaptive strategy; suppression may result in language improvement. We applied slow, 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to an anterior portion of R Broca’s homologue daily, for 10 days in four aphasia patients who were 5–11 years poststroke. Significant improvement

Margaret A. Naeser; Paula I. Martin; Marjorie Nicholas; Errol H. Baker; Heidi Seekins; Masahito Kobayashi; Hugo Theoret; Felipe Fregni; Jose Maria-Tormos; Jacquie Kurland; Karl W. Doron; Alvaro Pascual-Leone

2005-01-01

321

Silicon Carbide Radioisotope Batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The substantial radiation resistance and large bandgap of SiC semiconductor materials makes them an attractive candidate for application in a high efficiency, long life radioisotope battery. To evaluate their potential in this application, simulated batteries were constructed using SiC diodes and the alpha particle emitter Americium Am-241 or the beta particle emitter Promethium Pm-147. The Am-241 based battery showed high initial power output and an initial conversion efficiency of approximately 16%, but the power output decayed 52% in 500 hours due to radiation damage. In contrast the Pm-147 based battery showed a similar power output level and an initial conversion efficiency of approximately 0.6%, but no degradation was observed in 500 hours. However, the Pm-147 battery required approximately 1000 times the particle fluence as the Am-242 battery to achieve a similar power output. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of battery and suggestions for future improvements will be discussed.

Rybicki, George C.

2005-01-01

322

Handling difficult materials: Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Batteries run the gamut from tiny button cells to the large, lead-acid batteries used in automobiles. While these two extremes pose some of the highest environmental risks of the battery waste stream and are the targets of many recycling programs, recycling technology has yet to catch up with the bulk of the less-harmful, consumer-oriented, dry-cell batteries, used in everything from flashlights and radios to toys and other essentials of modern life. Major US battery firms are spending millions of dollars working with European and Japanese companies to seek more efficient technologies to recycle dry-cell batteries. The next step in the recycling evolution may be to reclaim the metals in alkaline batteries as secondary metals.

Malloy, M.

1994-09-01

323

Foreign accent syndrome as the initial sign of primary progressive aphasia.  

PubMed

Foreign accent syndrome (FAS) is a rare speech disorder characterised by the emergence of a new accent, perceived by listeners as foreign. FAS has usually been described following focal brain insults, such as stroke. We describe the unusual case of a woman presenting with FAS as the earliest symptom of progressive degenerative brain disease. At presentation, she showed no language or other cognitive impairment, and functional and structural brain imaging were normal. Follow-up 1 year later revealed the emergence of mild expressive language problems. Repeat functional neuroimaging showed mild hypoperfusion of the perisylvian speech area of the left hemisphere, and structural imaging showed mild left perisylvian atrophy. We interpret the case as an unusual presentation of primary progressive non-fluent aphasia. The case provides further evidence of the variable and circumscribed nature of the clinical presentation of focal cerebral degeneration. PMID:17635973

Luzzi, S; Viticchi, G; Piccirilli, M; Fabi, K; Pesallaccia, M; Bartolini, M; Provinciali, L; Snowden, J S

2008-01-01

324

Neuroimaging in aphasia treatment research: Standards for establishing the effects of treatment  

PubMed Central

The goal of this paper is to discuss experimental design options available for establishing the effects of treatment in studies that aim to examine the neural mechanisms associated with treatment-induced language recovery in aphasia, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We present both group and single-subject experimental or case-series design options for doing this and address advantages and disadvantages of each. We also discuss general components of and requirements for treatment research studies, including operational definitions of variables, criteria for defining behavioral change and treatment efficacy, and reliability of measurement. Important considerations that are unique to neuroimaging-based treatment research are addressed, pertaining to the relation between the selected treatment approach and anticipated changes in language processes/functions and how such changes are hypothesized to map onto the brain. PMID:23063559

Kiran, Swathi; Ansaldo, Ana; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Cherney, Leora R.; Howard, David; Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Meinzer, Marcus; Thompson, Cynthia K

2012-01-01

325

Standard Missile Block IV battery  

SciTech Connect

During the 1980`s a trend in automatic primary battery technologies was the replacement of silver-zinc batteries by thermal battery designs. The Standard missile (SM 2) Block IV development is a noteworthy reversal of this trend. The SM2, Block IV battery was originally attempted as a thermal battery with multiple companies attempting to develop a thermal battery design. These attempts resulted in failure to obtain a production thermal battery. A decision to pursue a silver-zinc battery design resulted in the development of a battery to supply the SM 2, Block IV (thermal battery design goal) and also the projected power requirements of the evolving SM 2, Block IVA in a single silver-zinc battery design. Several advancements in silver-zinc battery technology were utilized in this design that improve the producibility and extend the boundaries of silver-zinc batteries.

Martin, J. [Eagle-Picher Industries, inc., Joplin, MO (United States)

1996-11-01

326

Training verb argument structure production in agrammatic aphasia: Behavioral and neural recovery patterns  

PubMed Central

Introduction Neuroimaging and lesion studies indicate a left hemisphere network for verb and verb argument structure processing, involving both frontal and temporoparietal brain regions. Although their verb comprehension is generally unimpaired, it is well known that individuals with agrammatic aphasia often present with verb production deficits, characterized by an argument structure complexity hierarchy, indicating faulty access to argument structure representations for production and integration into syntactic contexts. Recovery of verb processing in agrammatism, however, has received little attention and no studies have examined the neural mechanisms associated with improved verb and argument structure processing. In the present study we trained agrammatic individuals on verbs with complex argument structure in sentence contexts and examined generalization to verbs with less complex argument structure. The neural substrates of improved verb production were examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods Eight individuals with chronic agrammatic aphasia participated in the study (four experimental and four control participants). Production of three-argument verbs in active sentences was trained using a sentence generation task emphasizing the verb’s argument structure and the thematic roles of sentential noun phrases. Before and after training, production of trained and untrained verbs was tested in naming and sentence production and fMRI scans were obtained, using an action naming task. Results Significant pre- to post-training improvement in trained and untrained (one- and two-argument) verbs was found for treated, but not control, participants, with between-group differences found for verb naming, production of verbs in sentences, and production of argument structure. fMRI activation derived from post-treatment compared to pre-treatment scans revealed upregulation in cortical regions implicated for verb and argument structure processing in healthy controls. Conclusions Training verb deficits emphasizing argument structure and thematic role mapping is effective for improving verb and sentence production and results in recruitment of neural networks engaged for verb and argument structure processing in healthy individuals. PMID:23514929

Thompson, Cynthia K.; Riley, Ellyn A.; den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Meltzer-Asscher, Aya; Lukic, Sladjana

2013-01-01

327

Lexical diversity for adults with and without aphasia across discourse elicitation tasks  

PubMed Central

Background Differences in lexical diversity (LD) across different discourse elicitation tasks have been found in neurologically intact adults (NIA) (Fergadiotis, Wright, & Capilouto, 2010) but have not been investigated systematically in people with aphasia (PWA). Measuring lexical diversity in PWA may serve as a useful clinical tool for evaluating the impact of word retrieval difficulties at the discourse level. Aims The study aims were (a) to explore the differences between the oral language samples of PWA and NIA in terms of LD as measured by dedicated computer software (voc-D), (b) to determine whether PWA are sensitive to discourse elicitation task in terms of LD, and (c) to identify whether differences between PWA and NIA vary in magnitude as a function of discourse task. Method & Procedures Oral language samples from 25 PWA and 27 NIA were analysed. Participants completed three commonly used discourse elicitation tasks (single pictures, sequential pictures, story telling) and voc-D was used to obtain estimates of their LD. Outcomes & Results A mixed 2 × 3 ANOVA revealed a significant group task interaction that was followed by an investigation of simple main effects and tetrad×comparisons. Different patterns of LD were uncovered for each group. For the NIA group results were consistent with previous findings in the literature according to which LD varies as a function of elicitation technique. However, for PWA sequential pictures and story telling elicited comparable estimates of LD. Conclusions Results indicated that LD is one of the microlinguistic indices that are influenced by elicitation task and the presence of aphasia. These findings have important implications for modelling lexical diversity and selecting and interpreting results from different discourse elicitation tasks. PMID:23125474

Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather Harris

2012-01-01

328

1992 five year battery forecast  

SciTech Connect

Five-year trends for automotive and industrial batteries are projected. Topic covered include: SLI shipments; lead consumption; automotive batteries (5-year annual growth rates); industrial batteries (standby power and motive power); estimated average battery life by area/country for 1989; US motor vehicle registrations; replacement battery shipments; potential lead consumption in electric vehicles; BCI recycling rates for lead-acid batteries; US average car/light truck battery life; channels of distribution; replacement battery inventory end July; 2nd US battery shipment forecast.

Amistadi, D.

1992-12-01

329

Battery Management in Mobile Systems  

E-print Network

1 Battery Management in Mobile Systems Enrico Macii Politecnico di Torino Torino, Italy 2 Outline for battery-driven optimization capabilities. 4 Dynamic Power Management (DPM) · One of the most effective the "battery is doing" during system operation. · Open-loop policies. 5 Battery-Driven DPM · For battery

Bogliolo, Alessandro

330

The 1975 GSFC Battery Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proceedings of the 1975 Goddard Space Flight Center Battery Workshop are presented. The major topics of discussion were nickel cadmium batteries and, to a lesser extent, nickel hydrogen batteries. Battery design, manufacturing techniques, testing programs, and electrochemical characteristics were considered. The utilization of these batteries for spacecraft power supplies was given particular attention.

1975-01-01

331

Remote Control Inserting the batteries  

E-print Network

Top View Rear View Inserting the batteries 1 3Press in on the arrow mark and slide in the direction of the arrow to remove the battery cover. 2 Insert two AA size batteries, making sure their polarities match the and marks inside the battery compartment. Insert the side tabs of the battery cover into their slots

Kostic, Milivoje M.

332

Building a Cleaner Battery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video excerpt from NOVA's Making Stuff: Cleaner with host and New York Times technology columnist David Pogue, learn how materials scientists are designing new kinds of batteries that could power the next generation of electric vehicles. Watch one of the worldâs fastest electric motorcycles, powered by the equivalent of 150 car batteries, accelerate to 60 mph in less than one second. In a related activity, students build their own environmentally cleaner batteries using common materials while learning about batteries, circuits, issues surrounding battery disposal, and the efforts of materials scientists to build cleaner batteries. An informational text is included on What is Materials Science? that has a reading level of 12.7 on a Flesch-Kincaid scale.

2011-12-01

333

Efficacy of semantic-phonological treatment combined with tDCS for verb retrieval in a patient with aphasia.  

PubMed

Recent studies reported enhanced performance on language tasks induced by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with aphasia. One chronic patient with non-fluent aphasia received 20 sessions of a verb anomia training combined with off-line bihemispheric tDCS applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) - anodal tDCS over left DLPFC plus cathodal tDCS over right DLPFC. A significant improvement in verb naming was observed at all testing times (4, 12, 24, and 48 weeks from post-entry/baseline testing) for treated and untreated verbs. Our findings show beneficial effects of verb anomia training in combination with tDCS in chronic aphasic patient, suggesting a long-lasting effect of this treatment. PMID:24417248

Manenti, Rosa; Petesi, Michela; Brambilla, Michela; Rosini, Sandra; Miozzo, Antonio; Padovani, Alessandro; Miniussi, Carlo; Cotelli, Maria

2015-02-01

334

Polymeric battery separators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Configurations of cross-linked or vulcanized amphophilic or quaternized block copolymer of haloalkyl epoxides and hydroxyl terminated alkadiene polymers are useful as battery separators in both primary and secondary batteries, particularly nickel-zinc batteries. The quaternized block copolymers are prepared by polymerizing a haloalkyl epoxide in the presence of a hydroxyl terminated 1,3-alkadiene to form a block copolymer that is then reacted

R. J. Minchak; W. N. Schenk

1985-01-01

335

Battery utilizing ceramic membranes  

DOEpatents

A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

Yahnke, Mark S. (Berkeley, CA); Shlomo, Golan (Haifa, IL); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

1994-01-01

336

Battery charge condition monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic techniques are presented for determining the charge condition of electric-vehicle propulsion batteries of both the lead--acid and nickel--cadmium types. The techniques presented include those employing measurement of battery parameters, such as electrolyte properties, voltage, and internal resistance, and those utilizing coulometric measurements. An application example employing the coulometric approach is described to demonstrate the usefulness of an accurate battery

Christianson

1974-01-01

337

Study of bipolar batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of development of bipolar batteries with an aqueous electrolyte was determined. Included in the study were lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-zinc, nickel-iron, and nickel-hydrogen batteries. The technical and patent literature is reviewed and a bibliography covering the past 15 years is presented. Literature data are supplemented by a survey of organizations. The principal interest was in bipolar lead-acid batteries and

J. E. Clifford

1984-01-01

338

Lithium battery management system  

DOEpatents

Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

Dougherty, Thomas J. (Waukesha, WI)

2012-05-08

339

Viking lander spacecraft battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Viking Lander was the first spacecraft to fly a sterilized nickel-cadmium battery on a mission to explore the surface of a planet. The significant results of the battery development program from its inception through the design, manufacture, and test of the flight batteries which were flown on the two Lander spacecraft are documented. The flight performance during the early phase of the mission is also presented.

Newell, D. R.

1976-01-01

340

The Use of Non-invasive Brain Stimulation Techniques to Facilitate Recovery from Post-stroke Aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aphasia is a common symptom after left hemispheric stroke. Neuroimaging techniques over the last 10–15 years have described\\u000a two general trends: Patients with small left hemisphere strokes tend to recruit perilesional areas, while patients with large\\u000a left hemisphere lesions recruit mainly homotopic regions in the right hemisphere. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques\\u000a such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current

Gottfried Schlaug; Sarah Marchina; Catherine Y. Wan

2011-01-01

341

[Right hemiplegia and spatial neglect with apraxia and agraphia without aphasia in a right-handed patient].  

PubMed

A 65 year-old right-handed woman was admitted after the sudden onset of a right dense hemiplegia. C.T. showed a large left infarction in the middle cerebral artery territory. There was a slight anosognosia and neglect of the right space without confusion. She had aprosodia but no aphasia. On the other hand, there was a severe apraxia and all the components of Gerstmann's syndrome were present. This suggests an unusual sattering of hemispheric functional dominances. PMID:2371472

Lanoe, Y; Liger, C; Fabry, B; Lanoe, A; Sahloul, M R; Benoit, T; Ghnassia, R

1990-01-01

342

Clusters of Cognitive and Behavioral Disorders Clearly Distinguish Primary Progressive Aphasia from Frontal Lobe Dementia, and Alzheimer’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Frontal lobe dementia (FLD) and primary nonfluent progressive aphasia (PnPA) are two forms of frontotemporal lobe degeneration. The relationship between these conditions remains unclear. Our study aimed to better define the behavioral and cognitive clusters characterizing PnPA patients. Methods: We cognitively and behaviorally evaluated three groups of newly diagnosed patients affected by Alzheimer’s disease (AD, n = 20), FLD

C. Marra; D. Quaranta; M. Zinno; S. Misciagna; A. Bizzarro; C. Masullo; A. Daniele; G. Gainotti

2007-01-01

343

Nonleaking battery terminals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45 percent KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide (PPO) plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte in a plastic case are discussed.

Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

1972-01-01

344

Nonleaking battery terminals.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45% KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a KOH electrolyte in a plastic case are considered.

Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

1972-01-01

345

iPractice: piloting the effectiveness of a tablet-based home practice program in aphasia treatment.  

PubMed

The current study investigated the effectiveness of a home practice program based on the iPad (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA), implemented after 2 weeks of intensive language therapy, for maintaining and augmenting treatment gains in people with chronic poststroke aphasia. Five of eight original participants completed the 6-month home practice program in which they autonomously practiced retrieving words for objects and actions. Half of these words had been trained and half were untrained during therapy. Practice included tasks such as naming to confrontation, repeating from a video model, and picture/word matching presented on an iPad. All participants maintained advances made on words trained during the intensive treatment and additionally were able to learn new words by practicing daily over a 6-month period. The iPad and other tablet devices have great potential for personalized home practice to maintain and augment traditional aphasia rehabilitation. It appears that motivation to use the technology and adequate training are more important factors than age, aphasia type or severity, or prior experience with computers. PMID:24449465

Kurland, Jacquie; Wilkins, Abigail R; Stokes, Polly

2014-02-01

346

Recycle Batteries CSM recycles a variety of battery types including automotive, sealed lead acid, nickel  

E-print Network

Battery Per Bag Please sort the batteries by battery type, using a separate receptacle for nickel cadmiumRecycle Batteries CSM recycles a variety of battery types including automotive, sealed lead acid, and alkaline batteries. All batteries need to be sorted by battery type. Each battery type must be accumulated

347

Battery Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Battery management system is designed with MCU module, measurement module, alarm module, input module, output module and communication module. It can be able to timely report the states to the user in order to maximize using of battery storage capacity and cycle life.

Li Yamei; Zhen Liping

2010-01-01

348

Lithium battery management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the

Thomas J

2012-01-01

349

Battery separator assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

A separator assembly for use in batteries is described comprising a film bearing a thermal fuse in the form of a layer of wax coated fibers; wherein the assembly is sufficiently porous to allow continuous flow of ions in the battery.

M. A. Faust; M. R. Suchanski; H. W. Osterhoudt

1988-01-01

350

Batteries for terrestrial applications  

SciTech Connect

Extensive research has been conducted in the design and manufacture of very long life vented and sealed maintenance free nickel-cadmium aircraft batteries. These batteries have also been used in a number of terrestrial applications with good success. This study presents an overview of the Ni-Cd chemistry and technology as well as detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the Ni-Cd couple for terrestrial applications. The performance characteristics of both sealed and vented Ni-Cd's are presented. Various charge algorithms are examined and evaluated for effectiveness and ease of implementation. Hardware requirements for charging are also presented and evaluated. The discharge characteristics of vented and sealed Ni-Cd's are presented and compared to other battery chemistries. The performance of Ni-Cd's under extreme environmental conditions is also compared to other battery chemistries. The history of various terrestrial applications is reviewed and some of the lessons learned are presented. Applications discussed include the NASA Middeck Payload Battery, Raytheon Aegis Missile System Battery, THAAD Launcher battery, and the Titan IV battery. The suitability of the Ni-Cd chemistry for other terrestrial applications such as electric vehicles and Uninterruptible Power Supply is discussed.

Kulin, T.M.

1998-07-01

351

Battery and Lightbulb  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The number of batteries used in this lab is determined by the type of lightbulbs that are used. A 3 V lightbulb will require two batteries. Students should perform this activity after being instructed how to use the multimeter. Instructions will vary base

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

352

Aluminum-Air Battery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation of aluminum alloyed with small amounts (less than 0.1%) of In, Ga, and Tl in an aluminum-air battery with 2M NaCl as the electrolyte is reported. The tested laboratory model of the battery with a total weight of about 500 g operated at a ...

A. Despic, D. Drazic, S. Zecevic

1979-01-01

353

Aerospace applications of batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has developed battery technology to meet the demanding requirements for aerospace applications; specifically, the space vacuum, launch loads, and high duty cycles. Because of unique requirements and operating environments associated with space applications, NASA has written its own standards and specifications for batteries.

Habib, Shahid

1993-01-01

354

Battery and LED  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An LED should never be connected directly to a battery or it will be damaged. A current-limiting resistor must be attached to either leg to prevent this damage. The value of the resistor will depend on the battery that you use and the LED that you use. Be

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

355

The new batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of advanced battery concept development is reviewed, noting advantages of battery use such as modular design, short lead time from order to installation, and widely varying load operation. Compact design, quietness, pollution free operation, and low maintenance are also favorable; utility uses are foreseen as load leveling for base load capacity, the opportunity for a spinning reserve, and

J. Hopkinson

1981-01-01

356

The GSFC Battery Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proceedings of a conference on electric storage batteries are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) a low cost/standardization program, (2) test and flight experience, (3) materials and cell components, and (4) new developments in the nickel/hydrogen system. The application of selected batteries in specific space vehicles is examined.

1974-01-01

357

Storage battery systems analysis  

SciTech Connect

Storage Battery Systems Analysis supports the battery Exploratory Technology Development and Testing Project with technical and economic analysis of battery systems in various end-use applications. Computer modeling and simulation techniques are used in the analyses. Analysis objectives are achieved through both in-house efforts and outside contracts. In-house studies during FY82 included a study of the relationship between storage battery system reliability and cost, through cost-of-investment and cost-of-service interruption inputs; revision and update of the SOLSTOR computer code in standard FORTRAN 77 form; parametric studies of residential stand-alone photovoltaic systems using the SOLSTOR code; simulation of wind turbine collector/storage battery systems for the community of Kalaupapa, Molokai, Hawaii.

Murphy, K.D.

1982-01-01

358

Research on Battery Identification of Electric Vehicle Battery Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of electric vehicle depends on power battery performance to a great extent. Accurate assessment of the power battery status is the premise of power battery playing its best performance under the existing technology conditions. The order 2 RC battery model is verified by comparing simulation result with experiment data. A standard identification form which is suitable for gradient

Gu Qiang; Cheng Xiusheng

2010-01-01

359

Battery status identification of battery management system with asynchronous sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Battery management system (BMS) which measures battery status with high accuracy has a critical effect on the performance of power battery and the entire car. To solve the problem of identification precision decreasing for the reason of BMS asynchronous sampling, the original computing method is improved by using gradient adjustment method and based on order 2 RC battery model. A

Qiang Gu; Xiusheng Cheng; Zhonghua Lu; Xi Liu; Yongdao Song

2011-01-01

360

Battery management systems (BMS) for increasing battery life time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability and costs of an energy storage system are two very important parameters for uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) and other battery applications. The increasing of battery life and the prediction of battery failure are therefore two important features of a battery management system (BMS). A couple of other helpful features can be implemented in a BMS. In the case of

J. Garche; A. Jossen

2000-01-01

361

Battery capacity measurement and analysis using lithium coin cell battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we look at different battery capacity models that have been introduced in the literatures. These models describe the battery capacity utilization based on how the battery is discharged by the circuits that consume power. In an attempt to validate these models, we characterize a commercially available lithium coin cell battery through careful measurements of the current and

Sung Park; Andreas Savvides; Mani B. Srivastava

2001-01-01

362

Real-time comprehension of wh- movement in aphasia: Evidence from eyetracking while listening  

PubMed Central

Sentences with non-canonical wh- movement are often difficult for individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia to understand (Caramazza & Zurif, 1976, inter alia). However, the explanation of this difficulty remains controversial, and little is known about how individuals with aphasia try to understand such sentences in real time. This study uses an eyetracking while listening paradigm (Tanenhaus, et al., 1995) to examine agrammatic aphasic individuals' on-line comprehension of movement sentences. Participants' eye-movements were monitored while they listened to brief stories. These stories were followed by comprehension probes involving wh- movement, and looked at visual displays depicting elements mentioned in the story. In line with previous results for young normal listeners (Sussman & Sedivy, 2003), the study finds that both older unimpaired control participants (n=8) and aphasic individuals (n=12) showed visual evidence of successful automatic comprehension of wh- questions (like “Who did the boy kiss that day at school?”). Specifically, both groups fixated on a picture corresponding to the moved element (“who,” the person kissed in the story) at the position of the verb. Interestingly, aphasic participants showed qualitatively different fixation patterns for trials eliciting correct and incorrect responses. Aphasic individuals looked to first the moved-element picture and then to a competitor following the verb in the incorrect trials, indicating initially correct automatic processing. However, they only showed looks to the moved-element picture for the correct trials, parallel to control participants. Furthermore, aphasic individuals' fixations during movement sentences were just as fast as control participants' fixations. These results are unexpected under slowed-processing accounts of aphasic comprehension deficits, in which the source of failed comprehension should be delayed application of the same processing routines used in successful comprehension. This pattern is also unexpected if aphasic individuals are using qualitatively different strategies to comprehend such sentences, as under impaired-representation accounts of agrammatism (Grodzinsky, 1990, 2000; Mauner, Fromkin & Cornell, 1993). Instead, it suggests that agrammatic aphasic individuals may process wh- questions similarly to unimpaired individuals, but that this process often fails. However, even in cases of failed comprehension, aphasic individuals showed visual evidence of successful automatic processing. PMID:16844211

Dickey, Michael Walsh; Choy, JungWon Janet; Thompson, Cynthia K.

2007-01-01

363

Closed loop recycling of lead/acid batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional lead/acid battery is a recycleable product, irrespective whether it is of an automotive, traction or standby design. The product benefits from the traditional lead metallurgy that has been developed for both primary (mines) and secondary (recycling) smelting. Secondary smelting accounts for 60% of total lead production in Europe, and this market lead the most effectively metal. In secondary smelters, scrapped batteries are crushed and smelted. The polypropylene from the boxes is recycled to produce secondary plastic for battery, automotive, or other miscellaneous uses. The lead metal is refined to be re-used in the battery industry. The acid is retreated. Recycling requires a collection network. The lead/acid battery benefits from the traditional collection network that has been established for scrap-iron and non-ferrous metal scrap. In Western Europe, the recycling rate for scrapped batteries is estimated to be 80 to 90%. All participants in the battery recycling loop agree that the process must be a clean cycle for it to be credible. The collection organization is improving the quality of storage and transportation, especially with regard to the acid that can only be neutralized in correctly-controlled facilities, generally located at the smelters. The smelters themselves tend, through local regulations, to run at the optimum level of protection of the environment.

Bied-Charreton, B.

364

Rechargeable batteries with aqueous electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, rechargeable batteries (RB’s) have found important new applications in rapidly expanding markets, such as portable computers (laptops), telecommunication equipment (handies), camcorders and tools. The interest in electric vehicles has continued to stimulate research on RB’s having improved specific energy. Attention has been focussed on nonaqueous battery systems, in particular on lithium batteries. Small rechargeable lithium batteries, available

Fritz Beck; Paul Rüetschi

2000-01-01

365

Mathematical Storage-Battery Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Empirical formula represents performance of electrical storage batteries. Formula covers many battery types and includes numerous coefficients adjusted to fit peculiarities of each type. Battery and load parameters taken into account include power density in battery, discharge time, and electrolyte temperature. Applications include electric-vehicle "fuel" gages and powerline load leveling.

Chapman, C. P.; Aston, M.

1985-01-01

366

Secondary Batteries: Lead Acid Battery Thermal Runaway.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thermal runaway effect observed in sealed lead acid batteries is reviewed and reassessed as a means for understanding the effect at a more fundamental level. It is to be noted that a popular explanation for the heat generated when a sealed cell is ove...

H. A. Catherino

2007-01-01

367

The Impact of Interface Design During an Initial High-Technology AAC Experience: A Collective Case Study of People with Aphasia.  

PubMed

Abstract The purpose of this collective case study was to describe the communication behaviors of five people with chronic aphasia when they retold personal narratives to an unfamiliar communication partner using four variants of a visual scene display (VSD) interface. The results revealed that spoken language comprised roughly 70% of expressive modality units; variable patterns of use for other modalities emerged. Although inconsistent across participants, several people with aphasia experienced no trouble sources during the retells using VSDs with personally relevant photographs and text boxes. Overall, participants perceived the personally relevant photographs and the text as helpful during the retells. These patterns may serve as a springboard for future experimental investigations regarding how interface design influences the communicative and linguistic performance of people with aphasia. PMID:25420490

Dietz, Aimee; Weissling, Kristy; Griffith, Julie; McKelvey, Miechelle; Macke, Devan

2014-12-01

368

Clinical, Cognitive and Anatomical Evolution from Nonfluent Progressive Aphasia to Corticobasal Syndrome: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Recent clinical and pathological studies have suggested that frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and corticobasal syndrome (CBS) show clinical and pathological overlap. We present four years of longitudinal clinical, cognitive and anatomical data in the case of a 56-year-old woman, AS, whose clinical picture evolved from FTLD to CBS. For the first three years, AS showed a progressive speech and language disorder compatible with a diagnosis of the nonfluent aphasia variant of FTLD. At year four, 10 years after her first symptom, AS developed the classical clinical signs of CBS, including alien limb phenomenon and dystonia. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) applied to AS’s four annual scans showed progression of atrophy from the inferior posterior frontal gyrus, to the left insula and finally to the medial frontal lobe. This case demonstrates the clinical overlap between FTLD and CBS and shows that the two can appear in the same patient at different stages of the disease in relation to the progression of anatomical damage. PMID:15788282

Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Murray, Ryan C.; Rankin, Katherine P.; Weiner, Michael W.; Miller, Bruce L.

2008-01-01

369

Rhythm in disguise: why singing may not hold the key to recovery from aphasia  

PubMed Central

The question of whether singing may be helpful for stroke patients with non-fluent aphasia has been debated for many years. However, the role of rhythm in speech recovery appears to have been neglected. In the current lesion study, we aimed to assess the relative importance of melody and rhythm for speech production in 17 non-fluent aphasics. Furthermore, we systematically alternated the lyrics to test for the influence of long-term memory and preserved motor automaticity in formulaic expressions. We controlled for vocal frequency variability, pitch accuracy, rhythmicity, syllable duration, phonetic complexity and other relevant factors, such as learning effects or the acoustic setting. Contrary to some opinion, our data suggest that singing may not be decisive for speech production in non-fluent aphasics. Instead, our results indicate that rhythm may be crucial, particularly for patients with lesions including the basal ganglia. Among the patients we studied, basal ganglia lesions accounted for more than 50% of the variance related to rhythmicity. Our findings therefore suggest that benefits typically attributed to melodic intoning in the past could actually have their roots in rhythm. Moreover, our data indicate that lyric production in non-fluent aphasics may be strongly mediated by long-term memory and motor automaticity, irrespective of whether lyrics are sung or spoken. PMID:21948939

Kotz, Sonja A.; Henseler, Ilona; Turner, Robert; Geyer, Stefan

2011-01-01

370

Praxis and writing in a right-hander with crossed aphasia.  

PubMed

Studies of patients with brain lesions have demonstrated that language and praxis are mediated by dissociable networks. However, language has the capacity to influence the selection of purposeful actions. The abilities to use language and to program purposeful movements are often mediated by networks that have anatomic proximity. With hemispheric injury, the diagnosis of apraxia is often confounded by the specific influence of language impairments on the ability to select and produce transitive gestures. We report a patient who illustrates this confound. This patient is a right-handed man who developed global aphasia and neglect after a right hemispheric stroke. His right hand remained deft, and when asked to produce specific transitive gestures (pantomimes), he often performed normally but did make some body part as object and perseverative errors. However, he did not demonstrate the temporal or spatial errors typical of ideomotor apraxia. He also had a perseverative agraphia. Our patient's left hemisphere praxis system appeared to be intact, and the error types demonstrated during production of transitive gestures cannot be attributed to a degradation of postural and movement (praxis) programs mediated by his left hemisphere. The praxis errors types are most consistent with a deficit in the ability to select the necessary praxis programs. Thus, our patient appeared to have dissociation between language and praxis programs that resulted in body part as object and perseverative errors. PMID:23557340

Falchook, Adam D; Burtis, D Brandon; Acosta, Lealani M; Salazar, Liliana; Shushrutha Hedna, Vishnumurthy; Khanna, Anna Y; Heilman, Kenneth M

2014-06-01

371

Formal Education, Socioeconomic Status, and the Severity of Aphasia After Stroke  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the role of education and socioeconomic status on the severity of aphasia after stroke. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Stroke units of 2 affiliated medical centers. Participants Stroke patients (n = 173) within 24 hours of symptom development and hospitalized controls (n = 62) matched for age, education, and socioeconomic status (SES) with normative brain magnetic resonance imaging. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Percent error on 9 language tasks (auditory and written comprehension, naming [oral, written, and tactile], oral reading, oral spelling, written spelling, and repetition). Education was recorded in years and dichotomized as less than 12 years or 12 years and above for data analysis. Demographic characteristics (age, sex, race) and stroke volume were recorded for adjustment. SES was obtained from census tract data as 2 variables: mean neighborhood household income and family income. Results The percentage of errors for participants with 12 or more years of education was significantly lower for auditory and written comprehension, written naming, oral reading, oral spelling, and written spelling of fifth grade vocabulary words, even after adjusting for age, sex, stroke volume, and SES. Conclusions These findings suggest that even once learned, access to written word forms may become less vulnerable to disruption by stroke with increasing years of education. PMID:21840498

Gonzalez-Fernandez, Marlis; Davis, Cameron; Molitoris, John J.; Newhart, Melissa; Leigh, Richard; Hillis, Argye E.

2012-01-01

372

Semantic Interference during Object Naming in Agrammatic and Logopenic Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA)  

PubMed Central

This study examined the time course of object naming in 21 individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) (8 agrammatic (PPA-G); 13 logopenic (PPA-G)) and healthy age-matched speakers (n=17) using a semantic interference paradigm with related and unrelated interfering stimuli presented at stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) of ?1000, ?500, ?100 and 0 ms. Results showed semantic interference (SI) (i.e. significantly slower RTs in related compared to unrelated conditions) for all groups at ?500, ?100 and 0 ms, indicating timely spreading activation to semantic competitors. However, both PPA groups showed a greater magnitude of SI than normal across SOAs. The PPA-L group and six PPA-G participants also evinced SI at ?1000 ms, suggesting an abnormal time course of semantic interference resolution, and concomitant left hemisphere cortical atrophy in brain regions associated with semantic processing. These subtle semantic mapping impairments in non-semantic variants of PPA may contribute to the anomia of these patients. PMID:22244508

Thompson, Cynthia K.; Cho, Soojin; Price, Charis; Wieneke, Christina; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Rogalski, Emily; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel

2011-01-01

373

The On-Line Processing of Verb-Phrase Ellipsis in Aphasia  

PubMed Central

We investigated the on-line processing of verb-phrase ellipsis (VPE) constructions in two brain injured populations: Broca’s and Anomic aphasics. VPE constructions are built from two simple clauses; the first is the antecedent clause and the second is the ellipsis clause. The ellipsis clause is missing its verb and object (i.e., its verb phrase (VP)), which receives its reference from the fully specified VP in the antecedent clause. VPE constructions are unlike other sentence types that require displacement of an argument NP; these latter constructions (e.g., object-relatives, wh-questions) yield either on-time or delayed antecedent reactivation. Our results demonstrate that Anomics, like unimpaired individuals, evince reactivation of the direct object NP (within the VP) at the elided position. Broca’s patients, on the other hand, do not show reactivation of the antecedent. We consider several interpretations for our data, including explanations focusing on the larger ‘grain size’ of the reconstructed material in the ellipsis clause, the properties of the auxiliary that carries tense and agreement features, and the possibility that the cost-free syntactic copy procedure claimed to underlie VPE may be modulated by the functional deficit in Broca’s aphasia. PMID:19350393

Shapiro, Lewis P.; Love, Tracy; Grodzinsky, Yosef

2009-01-01

374

Differentiating primary progressive aphasias in a brief sample of connected speech  

PubMed Central

Objective: A brief speech expression protocol that can be administered and scored without special training would aid in the differential diagnosis of the 3 principal forms of primary progressive aphasia (PPA): nonfluent/agrammatic PPA, logopenic variant PPA, and semantic variant PPA. Methods: We used a picture-description task to elicit a short speech sample, and we evaluated impairments in speech-sound production, speech rate, lexical retrieval, and grammaticality. We compared the results with those obtained by a longer, previously validated protocol and further validated performance with multimodal imaging to assess the neuroanatomical basis of the deficits. Results: We found different patterns of impaired grammar in each PPA variant, and additional language production features were impaired in each: nonfluent/agrammatic PPA was characterized by speech-sound errors; logopenic variant PPA by dysfluencies (false starts and hesitations); and semantic variant PPA by poor retrieval of nouns. Strong correlations were found between this brief speech sample and a lengthier narrative speech sample. A composite measure of grammaticality and other measures of speech production were correlated with distinct regions of gray matter atrophy and reduced white matter fractional anisotropy in each PPA variant. Conclusions: These findings provide evidence that large-scale networks are required for fluent, grammatical expression; that these networks can be selectively disrupted in PPA syndromes; and that quantitative analysis of a brief speech sample can reveal the corresponding distinct speech characteristics. PMID:23794681

Evans, Emily; O'Shea, Jessica; Powers, John; Boller, Ashley; Weinberg, Danielle; Haley, Jenna; McMillan, Corey; Irwin, David J.; Rascovsky, Katya; Grossman, Murray

2013-01-01

375

Behavioral Interventions for Enhancing Life Participation in behavioral variant Frontotemporal Dementia and Primary Progressive Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are clinical syndromes under the umbrella term “frontotemporal dementia (FTD)” and are caused by a neurodegenerative disease with an onset most typically in the productive years of adulthood. The cognitive and behavioral impairments associated with FTD interfere with the successful engagement in typical life roles, such as parenting, working, and maintenance of interpersonal relationships. There are currently no treatments to stop or slow the degenerative process and there are only very limited medication options for the management of the cognitive-behavioral symptoms. However, alternative, non-pharmacological interventions may offer significant benefit to the quality of life of the diagnosed individual. The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of the approaches available through neurorehabilitation and community-based services that facilitate successful engagement in life activities and promote optimal quality of life for the individuals and families living with FTD. It is hoped that as medical providers become more familiar with behavioral interventions, referrals for services will increase thereby allowing individuals with FTD and their caregivers to learn ways to adapt, adjust, and participate in life to the fullest despite the impairments from this progressive disease. PMID:23611353

Kortte, Kathleen B.; Rogalski, Emily J.

2013-01-01

376

Phonological facilitation of object naming in agrammatic and logopenic primary progressive aphasia (PPA)  

PubMed Central

Phonological processing deficits are characteristic of both the agrammatic and logopenic subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-G and PPA-L). However, it is an open question which substages of phonological processing (i.e., phonological word form retrieval, phonological encoding) are impaired in these subtypes of PPA, as well as how phonological processing deficits contribute to anomia. In the present study, participants with PPA-G (n=7), PPA-L (n=7), and unimpaired controls (n=17) named objects as interfering written words (phonologically related/unrelated) were presented at different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) of 0, +100, +300, and +500 ms. Phonological facilitation (PF) effects (faster naming times with phonologically related interfering words) were found for the controls and PPA-L group only at SOA=0 and +100 ms. However, the PPA-G group exhibited protracted PF effects (PF at SOA=0, +100, and +300 ms). These results may reflect deficits in phonological encoding in PPA-G, but not in PPA-L, supporting the neuropsychological reality of this substage of phonological processing and the distinction between these two PPA subtypes. PMID:24070176

Mack, Jennifer E.; Cho-Reyes, Soojin; Kloet, James D.; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Thompson, Cynthia K.

2013-01-01

377

White Matter Disease Correlates with Lexical Retrieval Deficits in Primary Progressive Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Objective: To relate fractional anisotropy (FA) changes associated with the semantic and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) to measures of lexical retrieval. Methods: We collected neuropsychological testing, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging, and diffusion-weighted imaging on semantic variant PPA (svPPA) (n?=?11) and logopenic variant PPA (lvPPA) (n?=?13) patients diagnosed using published criteria. We also acquired neuroimaging data on a group of demographically comparable healthy seniors (n?=?34). FA was calculated and analyzed using a white matter (WM) tract-specific analysis approach. This approach utilizes anatomically guided data reduction to increase sensitivity and localizes results within canonically defined tracts. We used non-parametric, cluster-based statistical analysis to relate language performance to FA and determine regions of reduced FA in patients. Results: We found widespread FA reductions in WM for both variants of PPA. FA was related to both confrontation naming and category naming fluency performance in left uncinate fasciculus and corpus callosum in svPPA and left superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi in lvPPA. Conclusion: SvPPA and lvPPA are associated with distinct disruptions of a large-scale network implicated in lexical retrieval, and the WM disease in each phenotype may contribute to language impairments including lexical retrieval. PMID:24409166

Powers, John P.; McMillan, Corey T.; Brun, Caroline C.; Yushkevich, Paul A.; Zhang, Hui; Gee, James C.; Grossman, Murray

2013-01-01

378

Brain atrophy in primary progressive aphasia involves the cholinergic basal forebrain and Ayala's nucleus.  

PubMed

Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by left hemispheric frontotemporal cortical atrophy. Evidence from anatomical studies suggests that the nucleus subputaminalis (NSP), a subnucleus of the cholinergic basal forebrain, may be involved in the pathological process of PPA. Therefore, we studied the pattern of cortical and basal forebrain atrophy in 10 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PPA and 18 healthy age-matched controls using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We determined the cholinergic basal forebrain nuclei according to Mesulam's nomenclature and the NSP in MRI reference space based on histological sections and the MRI scan of a post-mortem brain in cranio. Using voxel-based analysis, we found left hemispheric cortical atrophy in PPA patients compared with controls, including prefrontal, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobe areas. We detected cholinergic basal forebrain atrophy in left predominant localizations of Ch4p, Ch4am, Ch4al, Ch3 and NSP. For the first time, we have described the pattern of basal forebrain atrophy in PPA and confirmed the involvement of NSP that had been predicted based on theoretical considerations. Our findings may enhance understanding of the role of cholinergic degeneration for the regional specificity of the cortical destruction leading to the syndrome of PPA. PMID:24434193

Teipel, Stefan J; Flatz, Wilhelm; Ackl, Nibal; Grothe, Michel; Kilimann, Ingo; Bokde, Arun L W; Grinberg, Lea; Amaro, Edson; Kljajevic, Vanja; Alho, Eduardo; Knels, Christina; Ebert, Anne; Heinsen, Helmut; Danek, Adrian

2014-03-30

379

GNB battery recycling plant  

SciTech Connect

The most technologically and environmentally advanced recycling plant in the world has just been completed in Columbus, Georgia, according to GNB. GNB Technologies is a wholly owned subsidiary of Pacific Dunlop. With a capacity of 9 million spent batteries per year, or 30,000 batteries a day, this new $50 million dollar plant replaces GNB`s 35-year old recycling plant in Columbus and increases recycling capacity there five-fold. The new plant will not produce any hazardous waste or sulfur emissions and the operation continuously reuses process water, completely eliminating effluent. The plant produces sodium sulfate from the battery acid, creating a third marketable product besides plastic and lead.

Hopkins, G.E.

1995-08-01

380

Synthetic battery cycling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of interactive computer graphics is suggested as an aid in battery system development. Mathematical representations of simplistic but fully representative functions of many electrochemical concepts of current practical interest will permit battery level charge and discharge phenomena to be analyzed in a qualitative manner prior to the assembly and testing of actual hardware. This technique is a useful addition to the variety of tools available to the battery system designer as he bridges the gap between interesting single cell life test data and reliable energy storage subsystems.

Thaller, L. H.

1981-01-01

381

BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries  

SciTech Connect

BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

None

2010-07-01

382

Bipolar battery construction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lightweight, bipolar battery construction for lead acid batteries in which a plurality of thin, rigid, biplates each comprise a graphite fiber thermoplastic composition in conductive relation to lead stripes plated on opposite flat surfaces of the plates, and wherein a plurality of nonconductive thermoplastic separator plates support resilient yieldable porous glass mats in which active material is carried, the biplates and separator plates with active material being contained and maintained in stacked assembly by axial compression of the stacked assembly. A method of assembling such a bipolar battery construction.

Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor); Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor)

1981-01-01

383

Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

2008-01-01

384

SOLAR BATTERY CHARGERS FOR NIMH BATTERIES1 Abstract -This paper proposes new solar battery  

E-print Network

chargers for NiMH batteries. Used with portable solar panels, existing charge control methods are shownSOLAR BATTERY CHARGERS FOR NIMH BATTERIES1 Abstract - This paper proposes new solar battery of consumer portable solar arrays. These new arrays are lightweight, durable, and flexible and have been

Lehman, Brad

385

Ecological modernisation beyond Western Europe: the case of Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preventative innovation is central to ecological modernisation (EM). Evaluating the role of international actors in promoting EM in middle-income countries (MICs), the authors review existing studies of EM outside Western Europe, and distinguish ‘internationally oriented’ from ‘domestically driven’ EM. Policy agreements concerning battery and tyre waste, the Cleaner Production Programme, and technological changes in the pulp and paper industry show

Bruno Milanez; Ton Bührs

2008-01-01

386

Batteries and Power Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Batteries and Power Systems, is the eleventh chapter in Volume I âÂÂDirect Current. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Battery construction, Battery ratings, Special-purpose batteries, and Electron activity in chemical reactions. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-14

387

Honeycomb battery plaque  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance of porous electrodes in batteries and other electrochemical cells is greatly improved when supports for active material have pores of uniform size, extending completely through electrodes, from side to side, with no interconnections between pores.

Schaer, G. R.

1974-01-01

388

Advances in alkaline batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alkaline rechargeable battery systems have been under development for more than 100 years yet. Different electrochemical couples of positive and negative materials have been subject of research and development, but only the nickel-cadmium system (NiCd) and, since about 10 years, the nickel-metal hydride system (NiMH) have achieved the stage of large volume production. Particularly, sealed NiCd and NiMH cells have been established in a variety of applications. Recent advances with the NiMH system have brought about portable batteries with energy storing capabilities coming close to those of alkaline primary cells. Although representing a technically interesting solution even for electric vehicles, relatively high cost will limit the use of rechargeable alkaline batteries to small high power batteries for hybrid electric vehicles. Basic technological developments for materials suitable for high energy and high power design are described.

Köhler, Uwe; Antonius, Christina; Bäuerlein, Peter

389

Parallel flow diffusion battery  

DOEpatents

A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

Yeh, Hsu-Chi (Albuquerque, NM); Cheng, Yung-Sung (Albuquerque, NM)

1984-08-07

390

Parallel flow diffusion battery  

DOEpatents

A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

1984-01-01

391

GNB battery recycling plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most technologically and environmentally advanced recycling plant in the world has just been completed in Columbus, Georgia, according to GNB. GNB Technologies is a wholly owned subsidiary of Pacific Dunlop. With a capacity of 9 million spent batteries per year, or 30,000 batteries a day, this new $50 million dollar plant replaces GNB`s 35-year old recycling plant in Columbus

1995-01-01

392

Make Your Own Batteries!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into conductivity. Learners will harness the surprising electricity of fruit when they create a battery out of a lemon stuck with copper and zinc nails. Wiring the nails to a volt meter starts the experimenting stage, trying different wiring connections, different fruit and even making a series of fruit and veggie batteries to make more power. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Body Electricity.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

393

Aluminum-air battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum alloyed with small amounts (less than 0.1%) of In, Ga, and Tl in an aluminum air battery with 2M NaCl as the electrolyte is reported. The tested laboratory model of the battery with a total weight of about 500 g operated at a total current of 8 A (j = 30 mA\\/cu cm) and a voltage of about 1

A. R. Despic; D. Drazic; S. Zecevic

1979-01-01

394

Battery packaging - Technology review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows "lessons learned" in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

Maiser, Eric

2014-06-01

395

Repeating with the right hemisphere: reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic systems in crossed aphasia?  

PubMed Central

Knowledge on the patterns of repetition amongst individuals who develop language deficits in association with right hemisphere lesions (crossed aphasia) is very limited. Available data indicate that repetition in some crossed aphasics experiencing phonological processing deficits is not heavily influenced by lexical-semantic variables (lexicality, imageability, and frequency) as is regularly reported in phonologically-impaired cases with left hemisphere damage. Moreover, in view of the fact that crossed aphasia is rare, information on the role of right cortical areas and white matter tracts underpinning language repetition deficits is scarce. In this study, repetition performance was assessed in two patients with crossed conduction aphasia and striatal/capsular vascular lesions encompassing the right arcuate fasciculus (AF) and inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), the temporal stem and the white matter underneath the supramarginal gyrus. Both patients showed lexicality effects repeating better words than non-words, but manipulation of other lexical-semantic variables exerted less influence on repetition performance. Imageability and frequency effects, production of meaning-based paraphrases during sentence repetition, or better performance on repeating novel sentences than overlearned clichés were hardly ever observed in these two patients. In one patient, diffusion tensor imaging disclosed damage to the right long direct segment of the AF and IFOF with relative sparing of the anterior indirect and posterior segments of the AF, together with fully developed left perisylvian white matter pathways. These findings suggest that striatal/capsular lesions extending into the right AF and IFOF in some individuals with right hemisphere language dominance are associated with atypical repetition patterns which might reflect reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic processes. PMID:24151460

De-Torres, Irene; Davila, Guadalupe; Berthier, Marcelo L.; Walsh, Sean Froudist; Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael

2013-01-01

396

Lead-acid battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A light weight lead-acid battery (30) having a positive terminal (36) and a negative terminal (34) and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates (10, 20) with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers (26, 28) positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars (42, 43) are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates (10) with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars (38, 39) on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates (20) with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive (42, 43) and negative (38, 39) bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals (36, 34) but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates (10, 20) is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

1983-01-01

397

Sensory-specific anomic aphasia following left occipital lesions: Data from free oral descriptions of concrete word meanings  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated hierarchical lexical semantic structure in oral descriptions of concrete word meanings produced by a subject (ZZ) diagnosed with anomic aphasia due to left occipital lesions. The focus of the analysis was production of a) nouns at different levels of semantic specificity (e.g., “robin”–“bird”–“animal”) and b) words describing sensory or motor experiences (e.g., “blue,” “soft,” “fly”). Results show that in contrast to healthy and aphasic controls, who produced words at all levels of specificity and mainly vision-related sensory information, ZZ produced almost exclusively nouns at the most non-specific levels and words associated with sound and movement. PMID:23425233

Martensson, F.; Roll, M.; Lindgren, M.; Apt, P.; Horne, M.

2013-01-01

398

Competitive systems - High temperature batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature batteries utilizing solid or fused salt electrolytes operating above 200 C are discussed. Special consideration is given to the principles of operation, construction design, and performance characteristics of lithium/iron sulfide batteries (which use LiCl-KCl electrolytes), sodium/sulfur batteries (with beta alumina as an electrolyte), and fused salt/solid hybrid batteries. High-temperature batteries are presently employed in the military field as a power source for the guidance system of missiles. Future applications include uses as secondary batteries for satellites, in electric road vehicles, and for bulk electricity storage at the generating stations.

dell, R. M.

399

46 CFR 183.354 - Battery installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...354 Battery installations. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be located in a locker, room or enclosed box solely dedicated to the storage of batteries. Ventilation must be provided in...

2011-10-01

400

46 CFR 120.354 - Battery installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...354 Battery installations. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be located in a locker, room or enclosed box solely dedicated to the storage of batteries. Ventilation must be provided in...

2011-10-01

401

46 CFR 120.354 - Battery installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...354 Battery installations. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be located in a locker, room or enclosed box solely dedicated to the storage of batteries. Ventilation must be provided in...

2012-10-01

402

46 CFR 183.354 - Battery installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...354 Battery installations. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be located in a locker, room or enclosed box solely dedicated to the storage of batteries. Ventilation must be provided in...

2010-10-01

403

46 CFR 183.354 - Battery installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...354 Battery installations. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be located in a locker, room or enclosed box solely dedicated to the storage of batteries. Ventilation must be provided in...

2012-10-01

404

A User Programmable Battery Charging System  

E-print Network

Rechargeable batteries are found in almost every battery powered application. Be it portable, stationary or motive applications, these batteries go hand in hand with battery charging systems. With energy harvesting being targeted in this day and age...

Amanor-Boadu, Judy M

2013-05-07

405

COBE battery overview: History, handling, and performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following topics are presented in viewgraph format: Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission background; battery background and specifications; cell history; battery mechanical/structural design; battery test data; and flowcharts of the various battery approval procedures.

Yi, Thomas; Tiller, Smith; Sullivan, David

1991-01-01

406

Lithium use in batteries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

Goonan, Thomas G.

2012-01-01

407

The Role of Broca's area in Speech Perception: Evidence from Aphasia Revisited  

PubMed Central

Motor theories of speech perception have been re-vitalized as a consequence of the discovery of mirror neurons. Some authors have even promoted a strong version of the motor theory, arguing that the motor speech system is critical for perception. Part of the evidence that is cited in favor of this claim is the observation from the early 1980s that individuals with Broca’s aphasia, and therefore inferred damage to Broca’s area, can have deficits in speech sound discrimination. Here we re-examine this issue in 24 patients with radiologically confirmed lesions to Broca’s area and various degrees of associated non-fluent speech production. Patients performed two same-different discrimination tasks involving pairs of CV syllables, one in which both CVs were presented auditorily, and the other in which one syllable was auditorily presented and the other visually presented as an orthographic form; word comprehension was also assessed using word-to-picture matching tasks in both auditory and visual forms. Discrimination performance on the all-auditory task was four standard deviations above chance, as measured using d’, and was unrelated to the degree of non-fluency in the patients’ speech production. Performance on the auditory-visual task, however, was worse than, and not correlated with, the all-auditory task. The auditory-visual task was related to the degree of speech non-fluency. Word comprehension was at ceiling for the auditory version (97% accuracy) and near ceiling for the orthographic version (90% accuracy). We conclude that the motor speech system is not necessary for speech perception as measured both by discrimination and comprehension paradigms, but may play a role in orthographic decoding or in auditory-visual matching of phonological forms. PMID:21920592

Hickok, Gregory; Costanzo, Maddalena; Capasso, Rita; Miceli, Gabriele

2011-01-01

408

What Goes Wrong during Passive Sentence Production in Agrammatic Aphasia: An Eyetracking Study.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Production of passive sentences is often impaired in agrammatic aphasia and has been attributed both to an underlying structural impairment (e.g., Schwartz, Saffran, Fink, Myers, & Martin, 1994) and to a morphological deficit (e.g., Caplan & Hanna, 1998; Faroqi-Shah & Thompson, 2003). However, the nature of the deficit in passive sentence production is not clear due to methodological issues present in previous studies. AIMS: This study examined active and passive sentence production in nine agrammatic aphasic speakers under conditions of structural priming using eyetracking to test whether structural impairments occur independently of morphological impairments and whether the underlying nature of error types is reflected in on-line measures, i.e., eye movements and speech onset latencies. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: Nine participants viewed and listened to a prime sentence in either active or passive voice, and then repeated it aloud. Next, a target picture appeared on the computer monitor and participants were instructed to describe it using the primed sentence structure. OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: Participants made substantial errors in sentence structure, i.e., passives with role reversals (RRs) and actives-for-passives, but few errors in passive morphology. Longer gaze durations to the first-produced noun for passives with RRs as compared to correct passives were found before and during speech. For actives-for-passives, however, this pattern was found during speech, but not before speech. CONCLUSIONS: The deficit in passive sentence production does not solely arise from a morphological deficit, rather it stems, at least in part, from a structural level impairment. The underlying nature of passives with RRs is qualitatively different from that of actives-for-passives, which cannot be clearly differentiated with off-line testing methodology. PMID:21188294

Cho, Soojin; Thompson, Cynthia K

2010-07-12

409

Patterns of longitudinal brain atrophy in the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

The logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterised by impaired sentence repetition and word retrieval difficulties. Post mortem studies, amyloid imaging and CSF tau/A? measurements suggest Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology as the underlying cause. Relatively little is known about patterns of progression in patients with the logopenic variant of PPA. 21 patients (3 with post mortem confirmation of AD and 5 with positive amyloid PIB-PET scans) were studied with longitudinal T1-weighted MR imaging (mean interscan interval 1.2 years) using volumetric analysis and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Baseline imaging showed asymmetrical (left greater than right) involvement of the posterior superior temporal and inferior parietal lobes as well as posterior cingulate and medial temporal lobes. The whole brain rate of volume loss was 2.0% per year with a greater rate of left hemisphere atrophy (2.3%/year) than right hemisphere (1.6%/year). Longitudinal VBM analysis showed increasing involvement of other areas in the left hemisphere (temporal, parietal, frontal and caudate) and atrophy of areas in the right hemisphere that had been involved earlier in the disease in the left hemisphere, particularly posterior cingulate/precuneus. With disease progression there was worsening of anomia, sentence repetition and sentence comprehension but consistent with the spread of imaging changes also deficits in single word comprehension, single word repetition and verbal memory. This study shows that the logopenic variant of PPA remains an asymmetrical disease, with spread through the left hemisphere language network but also involvement to a lesser degree of regions in the right hemisphere that mirror the earlier left hemisphere changes. PMID:23395096

Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Caso, Francesca; Mahoney, Colin; Henry, Maya; Rosen, Howard J.; Rabinovici, Gil; Rossor, Martin N.; Miller, Bruce; Warren, Jason D.; Fox, Nick C.; Ridgway, Gerard R.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

2013-01-01

410

Battery venting system and method  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve. 8 figs.

Casale, T.J.; Ching, L.K.W.; Baer, J.T.; Swan, D.H.

1999-01-05

411

Battery venting system and method  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

Casale, Thomas J. (Aurora, CO); Ching, Larry K. W. (Littleton, CO); Baer, Jose T. (Gaviota, CA); Swan, David H. (Monrovia, CA)

1999-01-05

412

Battery Vent Mechanism And Method  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

Ching, Larry K. W. (Littleton, CO)

2000-02-15

413

Children with a History of Acquired Aphasia: Residual Language and Academic Impairments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a battery of academic and language tests administered to aphasic children and adolescents (N=15) 10 years after onset revealed that the subjects generally performed more poorly than non-brain-injured subjects on the language measures. Academic difficulties were characteristic of the population. Poor performance on arithmetic…

Cooper, Judith A.; Flowers, Charles R.

1987-01-01

414

Circulating current battery heater  

DOEpatents

A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

Ashtiani, Cyrus N. (West Bloomfield, MI); Stuart, Thomas A. (Toledo, OH)

2001-01-01

415

Advanced battery development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to promote national security by ensuring that the United States has an adequate supply of safe, assured, affordable, and environmentally acceptable energy, the Storage Batteries Division at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, is responsible for engineering development of advanced rechargeable batteries for energy applications. This effort is conducted within the Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing (ETD) Lead center, whose activities are coordinated by staff within the Storage Batteries Division. The ETD Project, directed by SNL, is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Systems Research, Energy Storage and Distribution Division (DOE/OESD). SNL is also responsible for technical management of the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EV-ABS) Development Project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS). The ETD Project is operated in conjunction with the Technology Base Research (TBR) Project, which is under the direction of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Together these two projects seek to establish the scientific feasibility of advanced electrochemical energy storage systems, and conduct the initial engineering development on systems suitable for mobile and stationary commercial applications.

416

Mapping of temporal and parietal cortex in progressive nonfluent aphasia and Alzheimer's disease using chemical shift imaging, voxel-based morphometry and positron emission tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little and controversial evidence is available from neuroimaging studies in progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNA). The goal of this study was to combine information from different imaging modalities in PNA compared with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Chemical shift imaging (CSI), voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) were used in 5 PNA, 10 AD patients and 10 normal subjects. Group

Roland Zahn; Martin Buechert; Jan Overmans; Jochen Talazko; Karsten Specht; Cheng-Weng Ko; Thorsten Thiel; Robert Kaufmann; Petra Dykierek; Freimut Juengling; Michael Hüll

2005-01-01

417

Performance of individuals with left hemisphere stroke and aphasia and individuals with right brain damage on forward and backward digit span tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Working memory (WM) limitations have been suggested as a significant source of the linguistic processing deficits observed in individuals with aphasia (IWA). Digits forward (DF) and digits backward (DB) span tasks are frequently used to study WM in both healthy and clinical populations. Unfortunately only a handful of studies have explored digit span in IWA.Aims: The purpose of the

Jacqueline Laures-Gore; Rebecca Shisler Marshall; Erin Verner

2011-01-01

418

Self-Awareness and Self-Monitoring of Cognitive and Behavioral Deficits in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia, Primary Progressive Aphasia and Probable Alzheimer's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lack of insight is a core diagnostic criterion for behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), and is believed to be intact in the early stages of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). In other neurological conditions, symptom-specific insight has been noted, with behavioral symptoms appearing especially vulnerable to reduced insight.…

Banks, Sarah; Weintraub, Sandra

2008-01-01

419

Medium-fi EvaluationMedium-fi PrototypesMedium-fi DesignLow-fi EvaluationLow-fi Prototypes What is Aphasia?  

E-print Network

is Aphasia? ·A cognitive disorder that impairs language abilities: some or all of speaking, listening is acquired: it occurs in someone who previously had language ability ·It is not a deficit of sensation participants have an opportunity to express themselves. Discussions require the use of alternative

Findlater, Leah

420

The Use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test for Assessment and Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation to Modulate Language Acquisition in Minimally Verbal Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Minimally verbal children with autism commonly demonstrate language dysfunction, including immature syntax acquisition. We hypothesised that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) should facilitate language acquisition in a cohort (n = 10) of children with immature syntax. We modified the English version of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT)…

Schneider, Harry D.; Hopp, Jenna P.

2011-01-01

421

Brain regions underlying repetition and auditory-verbal short-term memory deficits in aphasia: Evidence from voxel-based lesion symptom mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A deficit in the ability to repeat auditory-verbal information is common among individuals with aphasia. The neural basis of this deficit has traditionally been attributed to the disconnection of left posterior and anterior language regions via damage to a white matter pathway, the arcuate fasciculus. However, a number of lesion and imaging studies have called this notion into question.Aims:

Juliana V. Baldo; Shira Katseff; Nina F. Dronkers

2012-01-01

422

Brain regions underlying repetition and auditory-verbal short-term memory deficits in aphasia: Evidence from voxel-based lesion symptom mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A deficit in the ability to repeat auditory-verbal information is common among individuals with aphasia. The neural basis of this deficit has traditionally been attributed to the disconnection of left posterior and anterior language regions via damage to a white matter pathway, the arcuate fasciculus. However, a number of lesion and imaging studies have called this notion into question.Aims:

Juliana V. Baldo; Shira Katseff; Nina F. Dronkers

2011-01-01

423

Semantic Diversity Accounts for the "Missing" Word Frequency Effect in Stroke Aphasia: Insights Using a Novel Method to Quantify Contextual Variability in Meaning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Word frequency is a powerful predictor of language processing efficiency in healthy individuals and in computational models. Puzzlingly, frequency effects are often absent in stroke aphasia, challenging the assumption that word frequency influences the behavior of any computational system. To address this conundrum, we investigated divergent…

Hoffman, Paul; Rogers, Timothy T.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

2011-01-01

424

Writing with Voice: An Investigation of the Use of a Voice Recognition System as a Writing Aid for a Man with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: People with aphasia may experience difficulties that prevent them from demonstrating in writing what they know and can produce orally. Voice recognition systems that allow the user to speak into a microphone and see their words appear on a computer screen have the potential to assist written communication. Aim: This study investigated…

Bruce, Carolyn; Edmundson, Anne; Coleman, Michael

2003-01-01

425

Battery Management System Based on Battery Nonlinear Dynamics Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method of determining electromotive force and battery internal resistance as time functions, which are depicted as functions of state of charge (SOC) because . The model is based on battery discharge and charge characteristics under different constant currents that are tested by a laboratory experiment. This paper further presents the method of determining the battery SOC

Antoni Szumanowski; Yuhua Chang

2008-01-01

426

Handbook of batteries and fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed information is given on the properties, performance characteristics, and applications of all major battery and fuel cell power sources currently being manufactured. The basic concepts, comparative features, and selection criteria that apply to all battery systems are first discussed. Comprehensive coverage is then given to primary batteries, secondary batteries, advanced secondary batteries, reserve and special batteries, and fuel cells.

David Linden

1984-01-01

427

How justice can affect jury: training abstract words promotes generalisation to concrete words in patients with aphasia.  

PubMed

Developing language treatments that not only improve trained items but also promote generalisation to untrained items is a major focus in aphasia research. This study is a replication and extension of previous work which found that training abstract words in a particular context-category promotes generalisation to concrete words but not vice versa (Kiran, Sandberg, & Abbott, 2009 ). Twelve persons with aphasia (five female) with varying types and degrees of severity participated in a generative naming treatment based on the Complexity Account of Treatment Efficacy (CATE; Thompson, Shapiro, Kiran, & Sobecks, 2003 ). All participants were trained to generate abstract words in a particular context-category by analysing the semantic features of the target words. Two other context-categories were used as controls. Ten of the twelve participants improved on the trained abstract words in the trained context-category. Eight of the ten participants who responded to treatment also generalised to concrete words in the same context-category. These results suggest that this treatment is both efficacious and efficient. We discuss possible mechanisms of training and generalisation effects. PMID:24805853

Sandberg, Chaleece; Kiran, Swathi

2014-10-01

428

Improvement of white matter and functional connectivity abnormalities by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in crossed aphasia in dextral  

PubMed Central

As a special aphasia, the occurrence of crossed aphasia in dextral (CAD) is unusual. This study aims to improve the language ability by applying 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We studied multiple modality imaging of structural connectivity (diffusion tensor imaging), functional connectivity (resting fMRI), PET, and neurolinguistic analysis on a patient with CAD. Furthermore, we applied rTMS of 1 Hz for 40 times and observed the language function improvement. The results indicated that a significantly reduced structural and function connectivity was found in DTI and fMRI data compared with the control. The PET imaging showed hypo-metabolism in right hemisphere and left cerebellum. In conclusion, one of the mechanisms of CAD is that right hemisphere is the language dominance. Stimulating left Wernicke area could improve auditory comprehension, stimulating left Broca’s area could enhance expression, and the results outlasted 6 months by 1 Hz rTMS balancing the excitability inter-hemisphere in CAD. PMID:25419415

Lu, Haitao; Wu, Haiyan; Cheng, Hewei; Wei, Dongjie; Wang, Xiaoyan; Fan, Yong; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Tong

2014-01-01

429

Task-dependent changes in brain activation following therapy for nonfluent aphasia: discussion of two individual cases.  

PubMed

The complex process of cortical reorganization of language-related brain regions during recovery from aphasia and the effects of therapeutic interventions on brain systems are poorly understood. We studied two patients with chronic aphasia and compared their functional neuroanatomical responses to a younger control group on two tasks, an oral-reading task involving overt speech and a "passive" audiovisual story-comprehension task. Following identical therapy, we re-examined behavioral (language) and functional neuroanatomical changes using the same functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tasks. We hypothesized that better recovery would be associated with brain activation patterns more closely resembling healthy controls, whereas positive responses to language treatment would be associated with increased activity in undamaged left perisylvian areas and/or right-hemisphere areas homologous to the damaged regions. For the participant with a frontal lesion who was most responsive to therapy, brain activation increased in the right hemisphere during oral-reading, but decreased bilaterally in most regions on story-comprehension. The other participant with a temporal-parietal lesion showed decreased activation, particularly in the right hemisphere, during oral-reading but increased activation bilaterally on story-comprehension. Results highlight individual variability following language therapy, with brain activation changes depending on lesion site and size, language skill, type of intervention, and the nature of the fMRI task. PMID:17064446

Cherney, Leora R; Small, Steven L

2006-11-01

430

Structural neuroimaging of social cognition in progressive non-fluent aphasia and behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia  

PubMed Central

Social cognition impairments are pervasive in the frontotemporal dementias (FTD). These deficits would be triggered by (a) basic emotion and face recognition processes as well as by (b) higher level social cognition (e.g., theory of mind, ToM). Both emotional processing and social cognition impairments have been previously reported in the behavioral variant of FTD (bvFTD) and also in other versions of FTDs, including primary progressive aphasia. However, no neuroanatomic comparison between different FTD variants has been performed. We report selective behavioral impairments of face recognition, emotion recognition, and ToM in patients with bvFTD and progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA) when compared to controls. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) shows a classical impairment of mainly orbitofrontal (OFC), anterior cingulate (ACC), insula and lateral temporal cortices in patients. Comparative analysis of regional gray matter related to social cognition deficits (VBM) reveals a differential pattern of fronto-insulo-temporal atrophy in bvFTD and an insulo-temporal involvement in PNFA group. Results suggest that in spite of similar social cognition impairments reported in bvFTD and PNFA, the former represents an inherent ToM affectation whereas in the PNFA these deficits could be related to more basic processes of face and emotion recognition. These results are interpreted in the frame of the fronto-insulo-temporal social context network model (SCNM). PMID:23966929

Couto, Blas; Manes, Facundo; Montanes, Patricia; Matallana, Diana; Reyes, Pablo; Velasquez, Marcela; Yoris, Adrian; Baez, Sandra; Ibanez, Agustin

2013-01-01

431

Mechanical design of flow batteries  

E-print Network

The purpose of this research is to investigate the design of low-cost, high-efficiency flow batteries. Researchers are searching for next-generation battery materials, and this thesis presents a systems analysis encompassing ...

Hopkins, Brandon J. (Brandon James)

2013-01-01

432

Chymist.com: Batteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of five lab guides for constructing various types of batteries: 1) voltaic pile, 2) electrochemical cell, 3) lemon cell, 4) storage cell, and 5) a zinc-carbon dry cell battery. It was developed by David Katz, chemistry instructor and author of Chemistry in the Toy Store. For grades 4-8, the voltaic pile experiment and the lemon cell would be most appropriate, as there are no safety hazards. Safety Precautions The electrochemical cell and the storage call use sulfuric acid, which is corrosive. The zinc-carbon dry cell battery uses zinc chloride, which is a skin and eye irritant. This item is part of a much larger collection of resources that include lesson plans for K-12, labs and hands-on activities, authentic assessments, projects spanning several days, and detailed guides for demonstrations.

Katz, David

2010-05-26

433

Large nickel alkaline batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Actual service data on the best commercial cells are examined to see if large batteries in the range of 2000 Ah can be built on the basis of existing technology used in cells of medium size (100-250 Ah) without further research. The systems examined are lead-acid, nickel-zinc, nickel-cadmium, nickel-iron, and silver-zinc batteries. An analysis of the data shows that of all viable systems which can be engineered in a relatively short term in the range of 2000 Ah and are capable of higher energy densities than the lead-acid battery, only the nickel-iron and nickel cadmium systems are promising and close to the imposed requirements (500 deep cycles and a 5-year life).

Himy, A.

434

Automated battery charger\\/analyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will provide an overview of equipment being developed, by Eagle-Picher Technologies, for the US Navy's Automated Battery Charger\\/Analyzer Program. The objective of the program is to reduce the cost and improve the effectiveness of battery maintenance. This will require a comprehensive battery support solution. This solution will be accomplished through the timely insertion of state-of-the-art battery charger\\/analyzer units.

S. Girard; A. Maynard; R. Tallon; D. Mains; W. Darrow; B. Kempin

1998-01-01

435

New electric-vehicle batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors' impact, for example, uses starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but

Henry Oman

1994-01-01

436

BUS high current battery model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention is given to an empirical model for voltage and equivalent series resistance (ESR) developed for lead acid batteries used as a pulsed power source. The Battery Upgraded Supply (BUS) for Elgin Air Force Base is a 5 MA, 500 MJ inductive power supply charged by batteries for use as a railgun power supply. BUS is designed to reach peak

J. P. Kajs; R. C. Zowarka

1993-01-01

437

BUS high current battery model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An empirical model for voltage and equivalent series resistance (ESR) has been developed for lead acid batteries used as a pulsed power source. During the design of the battery upgraded supply (BUS) for Eglin Air Force Base, the Center for Electromechanics at the University of Texas at Austin (CEM-UT) developed a model for the batteries to be used in this

J. P. Kajs; R. C. Zowarka

1993-01-01

438

Batteries, from Cradle to Grave  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As battery producers and vendors, legislators, and the consumer population become aware of the consequences of inappropriate disposal of batteries to landfill sites instead of responsible chemical neutralization and reuse, the topic of battery recycling has begun to appear on the environmental agenda. In the United Kingdom, estimates of annual…

Smith, Michael J.; Gray, Fiona M.

2010-01-01

439

New separators for battery systems  

SciTech Connect

Batteries convert the energy of chemical reactions into electrical energy. Since this conversion is not Carnot-limited, the thermodynamic efficiency can be higher than that of a thermal power plant. This paper deals with separators for miniature cells like Silver/Zinc button cells, for chargeable batteries like aircraft Nickel/Cadmium batteries, and for others under evaluation. 4 refs.

Lee, J.; D'Agostino, V.

1981-01-01

440

Battery-Charge-State Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Charge-state model for lead/acid batteries proposed as part of effort to make equivalent of fuel gage for battery-powered vehicles. Models based on equations that approximate observable characteristics of battery electrochemistry. Uses linear equations, easier to simulate on computer, and gives smooth transitions between charge, discharge, and recuperation.

Vivian, H. C.

1985-01-01

441

Soluble Lead Flow Battery: Soluble Lead Flow Battery Technology  

SciTech Connect

GRIDS Project: General Atomics is developing a flow battery technology based on chemistry similar to that used in the traditional lead-acid battery found in nearly every car on the road today. Flow batteries store energy in chemicals that are held in tanks outside the battery. When the energy is needed, the chemicals are pumped through the battery. Using the same basic chemistry as a traditional battery but storing its energy outside of the cell allows for the use of very low cost materials. The goal is to develop a system that is far more durable than today’s lead-acid batteries, can be scaled to deliver megawatts of power, and which lowers the cost of energy storage below $100 per kilowatt hour.

None

2010-09-01

442

Rechargeable lead-acid batteries.  

PubMed

Batteries used in medical equipment, like their counterparts in consumer products, attract little attention until they fail to function effectively. In some applications, such as in emergency medical devices, battery failure can have fatal consequences. While modern batteries are usually quite reliable, ECRI has received 53 written problem reports and countless verbal reports or questions related to battery problems in hospitals during the past five years. This large number of reports is due, at least in part, to the enormous quality of batteries used to operate or provide backup power in contemporary hospital equipment. As part of an ongoing evaluation of rehabilitation assistive equipment, ECRI has been studying the performance of 12 V rechargeable deep-cycle lead-acid batteries used in powered wheelchairs. During the course of this evaluation, it has become apparent that many professionals, both clinical and industrial, regard batteries as "black box" devices and know little about proper care and maintenance--and even less about battery selection and purchase. Because equipment performance and reliability can be strongly influenced by different battery models, an understanding of battery characteristics and how they affect performance is essential when selecting and purchasing batteries. The types of rechargeable batteries used most commonly in hospitals are lead-acid and nickel-cadmium (nicad), which we compare below; however, the guidance we provide in this article focuses on lead-acid batteries. While the examples given are for high-capacity 12 V deep-cycle batteries, similar analyses can be applied to smaller lead-acid batteries of different voltages. PMID:2211174

1990-09-01

443

United States Advanced Battery Consortium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) is a collaboration between DaimlerChrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation and is part of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR). USABC conducts research and development of advanced energy systems with applications for electric vehicles. The website reviews the goals for the battery systems under investigation, provides information on submitting proposals for research funding, and posts manuals on USABC Abuse Test Procedures, Electric Vehicle Battery Test Procedures, the FreedomCAR Power Assist Battery, and 42 Volt Battery Test procedures. Related Links offer additional information on projects such as the Electrochemical Energy Storage Tech Team and the 42 Volt Working Group.

444

Battery testing for photovoltaic applications  

SciTech Connect

Battery testing for photovoltaic (PV) applications is funded at Sandia under the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Photovoltaic Balance of Systems (BOS) Program. The goal of the PV BOS program is to improve PV system component design, operation, reliability, and to reduce overall life-cycle costs. The Sandia battery testing program consists of: (1) PV battery and charge controller market survey, (2) battery performance and life-cycle testing, (3) PV charge controller development, and (4) system field testing. Test results from this work have identified market size and trends, PV battery test procedures, application guidelines, and needed hardware improvements.

Hund, T.

1996-11-01

445

Bipolar lead acid battery development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modular bipolar battery configuration is under development at Johnson Control, Inc. (JCI) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The battery design, incorporating proven lead acid electrochemistry, yields a rechargeable, high-power source that is light weight and compact. This configuration offers advantages in power capability, weight, and volume over conventional monopolar batteries and other battery chemistries. The lead acid bipolar battery operates in a sealed, maintenance-free mode allowing for maximum application flexibility. It is ideal for high-voltage and high-power applications.

Eskra, Michael; Vidas, Robin; Miles, Ronald; Halpert, Gerald; Attia, Alan; Perrone, David

1991-01-01

446

Logopenic and Nonfluent Variants of Primary Progressive Aphasia Are Differentiated by Acoustic Measures of Speech Production  

PubMed Central

Differentiation of logopenic (lvPPA) and nonfluent/agrammatic (nfvPPA) variants of Primary Progressive Aphasia is important yet remains challenging since it hinges on expert based evaluation of speech and language production. In this study acoustic measures of speech in conjunction with voxel-based morphometry were used to determine the success of the measures as an adjunct to diagnosis and to explore the neural basis of apraxia of speech in nfvPPA. Forty-one patients (21 lvPPA, 20 nfvPPA) were recruited from a consecutive sample with suspected frontotemporal dementia. Patients were diagnosed using the current gold-standard of expert perceptual judgment, based on presence/absence of particular speech features during speaking tasks. Seventeen healthy age-matched adults served as controls. MRI scans were available for 11 control and 37 PPA cases; 23 of the PPA cases underwent amyloid ligand PET imaging. Measures, corresponding to perceptual features of apraxia of speech, were periods of silence during reading and relative vowel duration and intensity in polysyllable word repetition. Discriminant function analyses revealed that a measure of relative vowel duration differentiated nfvPPA cases from both control and lvPPA cases (r2?=?0.47) with 88% agreement with expert judgment of presence of apraxia of speech in nfvPPA cases. VBM analysis showed that relative vowel duration covaried with grey matter intensity in areas critical for speech motor planning and programming: precentral gyrus, supplementary motor area and inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally, only affected in the nfvPPA group. This bilateral involvement of frontal speech networks in nfvPPA potentially affects access to compensatory mechanisms involving right hemisphere homologues. Measures of silences during reading also discriminated the PPA and control groups, but did not increase predictive accuracy. Findings suggest that a measure of relative vowel duration from of a polysyllable word repetition task may be sufficient for detecting most cases of apraxia of speech and distinguishing between nfvPPA and lvPPA. PMID:24587083

Ballard, Kirrie J.; Savage, Sharon; Leyton, Cristian E.; Vogel, Adam P.; Hornberger, Michael; Hodges, John R.

2014-01-01

447

Sentence comprehension in aphasia in two clear case-marking languages.  

PubMed

Studies of aphasia in Indo-European languages point to a selective vulnerability of morphological case marking in sentence comprehension. However, in case-marking languages such as German and Serbo-Croatian, the use of case marking to express formal grammatical gender diminishes the clarity of grammatical role marking. In Hungarian and Turkish, there are simple and reliable markings for the direct object. These markings are not linked to grammatical gender. Compared to Hungarian, the Turkish accusative marking is somewhat lower in availability, but somewhat higher in detectability. The processing of these cues by aphasics was tested using the design of MacWhinney, Pléh, and Bates (1985. Cognitive Psychology, 17, 178-209). Simple sentences with two nouns and one transitive verb were read to Broca's and Wernicke's aphasics, anomics, and control subjects in both Turkey and Hungary. The main effect of case marking was extremely strong. However, this was not true for all groups. The aphasics used the case cue far less than the normals, with the Hungarian Wernicke's group showing the greatest loss. Word order variations were largely ignored in all groups whenever the case-marking cue was present. When case marking was absent, Turkish subjects had a clear SOV interpretation for NNV sentences and Hungarians had a clear SVO interpretation for NVN sentences, in accord with basic patterns in their languages. When there was a contrast between the animacy of the two nouns, subjects choose the animate nouns significantly more often. The effect of animacy was particularly strong in Turkish, in accord with basic facts of Turkish grammar. In Hungarian, VNN sentences without case marking were interpreted as VOS when the first noun was inanimate. In Turkish, VNN sentences without case marking were often interpreted as VSO. In general, the aphasic subjects showed a clear preservation of virtually all aspects of their native languages, albeit in a much noisier form. Despite the high reliability of the case-marking cue, it was damaged more than the word order cue in English subjects. The near-chance processing of the case cue by the Wernicke's aphasics in Hungarian can probably be attributed to the relatively greater difficulty involved in detecting the Hungarian accusative suffix. PMID:1933259

MacWhinney, B; Osmán-Sági, J; Slobin, D I

1991-08-01

448

Silver hydrogen batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of silver hydrogen batteries was investigated. Cell configurations and cell cycling were discussed. Energy density was found to be 65 to 100 watt hours per kilogram. Electrolyte management was considered critical to the cell's performance. Factors of electrolyte management which were particularly important were: (1) the nature of the separator system, and (2) the amount of electrolyte.

Holleck, G.

1978-01-01

449

Storage Battery Charging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamental reactions in accordance with the generally accepted ``double-sulphate'' theory of storage battery charging are comparatively simple. Additional reactions and phenomena, such as gas evolution, acid concentration, heating, and local action are factors which affect charging conditions. Data showing the effects of these factors are given in this paper. The ampere-hour law regarding charging rates is illustrated. Results of

J. Lester Woodbridge

1935-01-01

450

Energy Efficient Battery Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

A challenging aspect of mobile communications consists in exploring ways in which the available run time of the terminals can be maximized. In this paper we investigate battery management techniques that can dramatically improve the energy efficiency of radio communi- cation devices. We consider an array of electrochemical cells connected in parallel. Through simple scheduling algorithms the discharge from each

Carla-fabiana Chiasserini; Ramesh R. Rao

2000-01-01

451

Building a Cleaner Battery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video excerpt from NOVA’s Making Stuff: Cleaner and accompanying activity guide for grades K–8 introduce students to the design and use of batteries and the rapidly developing science of clean energy and clean materials.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2011-12-15

452

Battery electrode growth accommodation  

DOEpatents

An electrode for a lead acid flow through battery, the grids including a plastic frame, a plate suspended from the top of the frame to hang freely in the plastic frame and a paste applied to the plate, the paste being free to allow for expansion in the planar direction of the grid.

Bowen, Gerald K. (Cedarburg, WI); Andrew, Michael G. (Wauwatosa, WI); Eskra, Michael D. (Fredonia, WI)

1992-01-01

453

Magneto battery trickle charger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The laminating stator core for an engine ignition system includes in addition to that ignition system an arrangement for charging the storage battery of an internal combustion engine powered device during engine operation with a charging coil surrounding one leg of the ignition stator core, a capacitor in parallel with the coil, and a rectifier coupled to the charging coil

1983-01-01

454

Secondary alkaline batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall reactions (charge/discharge characteristics); electrode structures and materials; and cell construction are studied for nickel oxide-cadmium, nickel oxide-iron, nickel oxide-hydrogen, nickel oxide-zinc, silver oxide-zinc, and silver oxide-cadmium, silver oxide-iron, and manganese dioxide-zinc batteries.

McBreen, J.

1984-03-01

455

Rechargeable Lithium Batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of materials electrochemistry represents a fusion of solid-state chemistry and electrochemistry. The commercial success of the world's first rechargeable lithium battery, introduced recently by Sony, is a triumph of materials electrochemistry. By developing radically new anodes, cathodes and electrolytes, a cell has been produced which can store three times the energy per unit weight and volume compared with conventional

Peter G. Bruce

1996-01-01

456

Lightweight bipolar storage battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus [10] is disclosed for a lightweight bipolar battery of the end-plate cell stack design. Current flow through a bipolar cell stack [12] is collected by a pair of copper end-plates [16a,16b] and transferred edgewise out of the battery by a pair of lightweight, low resistance copper terminals [28a,28b]. The copper terminals parallel the surface of a corresponding copper end-plate [16a,16b] to maximize battery throughput. The bipolar cell stack [12], copper end-plates [16a,16b] and copper terminals [28a,28b] are rigidly sandwiched between a pair of nonconductive rigid end-plates [20] having a lightweight fiber honeycomb core which eliminates distortion of individual plates within the bipolar cell stack due to internal pressures. Insulating foam [30] is injected into the fiber honeycomb core to reduce heat transfer into and out of the bipolar cell stack and to maintain uniform cell performance. A sealed battery enclosure [ 22] exposes a pair of terminal ends [26a,26b] for connection with an external circuit.

Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

1992-01-01

457

Modular Battery Charge Controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new approach to masterless, distributed, digital-charge control for batteries requiring charge control has been developed and implemented. This approach is required in battery chemistries that need cell-level charge control for safety and is characterized by the use of one controller per cell, resulting in redundant sensors for critical components, such as voltage, temperature, and current. The charge controllers in a given battery interact in a masterless fashion for the purpose of cell balancing, charge control, and state-of-charge estimation. This makes the battery system invariably fault-tolerant. The solution to the single-fault failure, due to the use of a single charge controller (CC), was solved by implementing one CC per cell and linking them via an isolated communication bus [e.g., controller area network (CAN)] in a masterless fashion so that the failure of one or more CCs will not impact the remaining functional CCs. Each micro-controller-based CC digitizes the cell voltage (V(sub cell)), two cell temperatures, and the voltage across the switch (V); the latter variable is used in conjunction with V(sub cell) to estimate the bypass current for a given bypass resistor. Furthermore, CC1 digitizes the battery current (I1) and battery voltage (V(sub batt) and CC5 digitizes a second battery current (I2). As a result, redundant readings are taken for temperature, battery current, and battery voltage through the summation of the individual cell voltages given that each CC knows the voltage of the other cells. For the purpose of cell balancing, each CC periodically and independently transmits its cell voltage and stores the received cell voltage of the other cells in an array. The position in the array depends on the identifier (ID) of the transmitting CC. After eight cell voltage receptions, the array is checked to see if one or more cells did not transmit. If one or more transmissions are missing, the missing cell(s) is (are) eliminated from cell-balancing calculations. The cell-balancing algorithm is based on the error between the cell s voltage and the other cells and is categorized into four zones of operation. The algorithm is executed every second and, if cell balancing is activated, the error variable is set to a negative low value. The largest error between the cell and the other cells is found and the zone of operation determined. If the error is zero or negative, then the cell is at the lowest voltage and no balancing action is needed. If the error is less than a predetermined negative value, a Cell Bad Flag is set. If the error is positive, then cell balancing is needed, but a hysteretic zone is added to prevent the bypass circuit from triggering repeatedly near zero error. This approach keeps the cells within a predetermined voltage range.

Button, Robert; Gonzalez, Marcelo

2009-01-01

458

78 FR 16031 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...  

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2013-03-13

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2012-04-05

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2011-09-01

469

Battery aware tasks allocating algorithm for multi-battery operated system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extending the lifetime of battery is a very important goal in battery-operated systems. The prior works of lifetime management mainly focused on single battery, multi-battery scheduling as another way of prolonging the battery lifetime is considered here. Battery Aware Tasks Allocating Algorithm (BATA) for multi-battery operated system is proposed in this paper. It extends the battery lifetime through making fully

Peng Ouyang; Shouyi Yin; Leibo Liu; Shaojun Wei

2010-01-01

470

A microprocessor-based battery management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The system was developed for the management of industrial truck batteries and battery charging equipment, but the concepts and architectures used can be expanded for use with stationary battery systems. With the battery charger as an integral part of the BMS (battery management system), modifications in the charging scenario such as automatic equalizing can be introduced. Discharge tests can be

M. W. Healy; E. C. Rhyne

1990-01-01

471

Single cell battery management systems (BMS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional management of batteries is based on the assumption that all cells in a battery are identical. This however, is not a correct assumption. A battery will never be stronger than the weakest cell. If one cell fails, the whole battery fails. To address the problem of monitoring batteries used in critical situations Skand-Instrument AS was commissioned by the Royal

E. Gotaas; A. Nettum

2000-01-01

472

High power rechargeable batteries Paul V. Braun  

E-print Network

High power rechargeable batteries Paul V. Braun , Jiung Cho, James H. Pikul, William P. King storage Secondary batteries High energy density High power density Lithium ion battery 3D battery of rechargeable (second- ary) batteries, as this is critical for most applications. As the penetration

Braun, Paul

473

US advanced battery consortium in-vehicle battery testing procedure  

SciTech Connect

This article describes test procedures to be used as part of a program to monitor the performance of batteries used in electric vehicle applications. The data will be collected as part of an electric vehicle testing program, which will include battery packs from a number of different suppliers. Most data will be collected by on-board systems or from driver logs. The paper describes the test procedure to be implemented for batteries being used in this testing.

NONE

1997-03-01

474

The nuclear battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution and present status of an Atomic Energy of Canada Limited program to develop a small, solid-state, passively cooled reactor power supply known as the Nuclear Battery is reviewed. Key technical features of the Nuclear Battery reactor core include a heat-pipe primary heat transport system, graphite neutron moderator, low-enriched uranium TRISO coated-particle fuel and the use of burnable poisons for long-term reactivity control. An external secondary heat transport system extracts useful heat energy, which may be converted into electricity in an organic Rankine cycle engine or used to produce high-pressure steam. The present reference design is capable of producing about 2400 kW(t) (about 600 kW(e) net) for 15 full-power years. Technical and safety features are described along with recent progress in component hardware development programs and market assessment work.

Kozier, K. S.; Rosinger, H. E.

475

Composite battery separator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A composite battery separator comprises a support element (10) having an open pore structure such as a ribbed lattice and at least one liquid permeable sheet (20,22) to distribute the compressive force evenly onto the surfaces of the layers (24, 26) of negative active material and positive active material. In a non-flooded battery cell the compressible, porous material (18), such as a glass mat which absorbs the electrolyte, is compressed into a major portion of the pores or openings (16) in the support element. The unfilled pores in the material (18) form a gas diffusion path as the channels (41) formed between adjacent ribs in the lattice element (30,36). Facing two lattice elements (30, 31) with acute angled cross-ribs (34, 38) facing each other prevents the elements from interlocking and distorting a porous, separator (42) disposed between the lattice elements.

Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor); Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)

1987-01-01

476

Preliminary Design of a Smart Battery Controller for SLI Batteries Xiquan Wang and Pritpal Singh  

E-print Network

of these batteries can be improved by using the concept of a smart battery system (SBS). In a SBS, battery data from of time. If more than one SLI battery are in a series string, e.g. in a 36 V system, it may also shift in battery management and control. A sensor attached to the battery continuously conveys

Singh, Pritpal

477

Polyvinyl alcohol battery separator containing inert filler. [alkaline batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol battery separator is disclosed. A particulate filler, inert to alkaline electrolyte of an alkaline battery, is incorporated in the separator in an amount of 1-20% by weight, based on the weight of the polyvinyl alcohol, and is dispersed throughout the product. Incorporation of the filler enhances performance and increases cycle life of alkaline batteries when compared with batteries containing a similar separator not containing filler. Suitable fillers include titanates, silicates, zirconates, aluminates, wood floor, lignin, and titania. Particle size is not greater than about 50 microns.

Sheibley, D. W.; Hsu, L. C.; Manzo, M. A. (inventors)

1981-01-01

478

Advanced Small Rechargeable Batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium-based units offer highest performance. Paper reviews status of advanced, small rechargeable batteries. Covers aqueous systems including lead/lead dioxide, cadmium/nickel oxide, hydrogen/nickel oxide, and zinc/nickel oxide, as well as nonaqueous systems. All based on lithium anodes, nonaqueous systems include solid-cathode cells (lithium/molybdenum disulfide, lithium/titanium disulfide, and lithium/vanadium oxide); liquid-cathode cells (lithium/sulfur dioxide cells); and new category, lithium/polymer cells.

Halpert, Gerald

1989-01-01

479

Schottky Barrier Betavoltaic Battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new nuclear betavotaic battety is described. It uses a Schottky barrier in place of the more standard p-n junction diode, along with 147Pm metal film rather than Pm2O3 oxide as in the commercially available Betacel. Design details of the battery including measurement of absorption, conversion efficiency, thickness etc. as functions of & resistivity and other cell parameters are described.

F. K. Manasse; J. J. Pinajian; A. N. Tse

1976-01-01

480

Positive battery plate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The power characteristics of a lead acid battery are improved by incorporating a dispersion of 1 to 10% by weight of a thermodynamically stable conductivity additive, such as conductive tin oxide coated glass fibers (34) of filamentary glass wool (42) in the positive active layer (32) carried on the grid (30) of the positive plate (16). Positive plate potential must be kept high enough to prevent reduction of the tin oxide to tin by utilizing an oversized, precharged positive paste.

Rowlette, John R. (Inventor)

1985-01-01

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