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1

Progressive Non-Fluent Aphasia in Malayalam: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) is a degenerative condition characterized by deterioration in language for at least two years without deterioration in other cognitive domains. This report highlights the language profile in a 79-year-old male with progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) who was assessed using the Western Aphasia Battery and the…

George, Annamma; Mathuranath, P. S.

2010-01-01

2

Aphasia  

MedlinePLUS

... Disorders conduct and support a broad range of scientific investigations to increase our understanding of aphasia, find better treatments, and discover improved methods to restore lost function to people who have ...

3

Normative data on the boston diagnostic aphasia examination, parietal lobe battery, and the boston naming Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes normative data for the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, the “Parietal Lobe Battery” (Goodglass & Kaplan, 1972), and the Boston Naming Test (Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 1978). These tests were administered to 147 neurologically normal adult males, who were right-handed and native English-speaking. For each age and education group, means, standard deviations, and the range are reported. The

Joan C. Borod; Harold Goodglass; Edith Kaplan

1980-01-01

4

Verb and noun deficits in stroke-induced and primary progressive aphasia: The Northwestern Naming Battery1  

PubMed Central

Background Word class naming deficits are commonly seen in aphasia resulting from stroke (StrAph) and primary progressive aphasia (PPA), with differential production of nouns (objects) and verbs (actions) found based on StrAph type or PPA variant for some individuals. Studies to date, however, have not compared word class naming (or comprehension) ability in the two aphasic disorders. In addition, there are no available measures for testing word class deficits, which control for important psycholinguistic variables across language domains. This study examined noun and verb production and comprehension in individuals with StrAph and PPA using a new test, the Northwestern Naming Battery (NNB; Thompson & Weintraub, experimental version), developed explicitly for this purpose. In addition, we tested verb type effects, based on verb argument structure characteristics, which also is addressed by the NNB. Method Fifty-two participants with StrAph (33 agrammatic, Broca’s (StrAg); 19 anomic (StrAn)) and 28 PPA (10 agrammatic (PPA-G); 14 logopenic (PPA-L); 4 semantic (PPA-S)) were included in the study. Nouns and verbs were tested in the Confrontation Naming and Auditory Comprehension subtests of the NNB, with scores used to compute noun to verb ratios as well as performance by verb type. Performance patterns within and across StrAph and PPA groups were then examined. The external validity of the NNB also was tested by comparing (a) NNB Noun Naming scores to the Boston Naming Test (BNT; Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 1983) and Western Aphasia Battery (WAB-R, Kertesz, 2007) Noun Naming subtest scores, (b) NNB Verb Naming scores to the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE; Goodglass, Kaplan & Barresi, 2001) Action Naming score (for StrAph participants only), and (c) NNB Comprehension subtest scores to WAB-R Auditory Comprehension subtest scores. Outcomes and Results Both agrammatic (StrAg and PPA-G) groups showed significantly greater difficulty producing verbs compared to nouns, but no comprehension impairment for either word class. Whereas, three of the four PPA-S participants showed poorer noun compared to verb production, as well as comprehension. However, neither the StrAn or PPA-L participants showed significant differences between the two word classes in production or comprehension. In addition, similar to the agrammatic participants, the StrAn participants showed a significant transitivity effect, producing intransitive (one-argument) verbs with greater accuracy than transitive (two- and three-argument) verbs. However, no transitivity effects were found for the PPA-L or PPA-S participants. There were significant correlations between NNB scores and all external validation measures. Conclusions These data indicate that the NNB is sensitive to word class deficits in stroke and neurodegenerative aphasia. This is important both clinically for treatment planning and theoretically to inform both psycholinguistic and neural models of language processing. PMID:23188949

Thompson, Cynthia K.; Lukic, Sladjana; King, Monique C.; Mesulam, M. Marsel; Weintraub, Sandra

2012-01-01

5

A Comparison of the BAT and BDAE-SF Batteries in Determining the Linguistic Ability in Greek-Speaking Patients with Broca's Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to test the validity and reliability of the Bilingual Aphasia Test as a measure of language impairment in a Greek-speaking Broca's aphasic population and to investigate relationships with the same aphasic group's performance on the Greek version of the short form of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination battery, mainly…

Peristeri, Eleni; Tsapkini, Kyrana

2011-01-01

6

Characteristics of Cognitive Impairment in Patients With Post-stroke Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyze cognitive functions of post-stroke aphasia patients compared to patients having right hemispheric stroke and left hemispheric lesions without aphasia, and to look for a relationship between cognitive deficits and aphasia severity. Methods Thirty-six patients with right hemispheric stroke (group 1), 32 with left hemispheric lesion without aphasia (group 2), and 26 left hemispheric stroke patients with aphasia (group 3) completed a set of tests in the computerized neurocognitive function batteries for attention, executive function and intelligence and Korean version of Western Aphasia Battery. Data analyses explored cognitive characteristics among the three groups and the correlation between cognitive deficits and aphasia severity. Results Right hemispheric and left hemispheric stroke patients without aphasia showed similar findings except for digit span forward test. Cognitive tests for working memory and sustained attention were significantly impaired in the aphasic patients, but intelligence was shown to be similar in the three groups. Significant correlation between cognitive deficit and aphasia severity was only shown in some attention tests. Conclusion Cognitive deficits may be accompanied with post-stroke aphasia and there are possible associations between language and cognitive measures. Therefore, detection and treatment towards coexisting cognitive impairment may be necessary for efficient aphasia treatment. PMID:25566474

Lee, Boram

2014-01-01

7

Computerized Script Training for Aphasia: Preliminary Results  

PubMed Central

Purpose This article describes computer software that was developed specifically for training conversational scripts and illustrates its use with three individuals with aphasia. Methods Three participants with chronic aphasia (Broca’s, Wernicke’s and anomic) were assessed before and after nine weeks of a computer script training program. For each participant, three individualized scripts were developed, recorded on the software, and practiced sequentially at home. Weekly meetings with the speech-language pathologist occurred to monitor practice and assess progress. Baseline and post-treatment scripts were audio-taped, transcribed, and compared to the target scripts for content, grammatical productivity and rate of production of script-related words. Interviews with the person with aphasia and their significant other were conducted at the conclusion of treatment. Results All measures (content, grammatical productivity and rate of production of script-related words) improved for each participant on every script. Two participants gained more than five points on the Aphasia Quotient of the Western Aphasia Battery. Five positive themes were consistently identified from the exit interviews - increased verbal communication, improvements in other modalities and situations, communication changes noticed by others, increased confidence, and satisfaction with the software. Conclusion Computer-based script training potentially may be an effective intervention for persons with chronic aphasia. PMID:18230811

Cherney, Leora R.; Halper, Anita S.; Holland, Audrey L.; Cole, Ron

2009-01-01

8

Distinct regional anatomic and functional correlates of neurodegenerative apraxia of speech and aphasia: an MRI and FDG-PET study  

PubMed Central

Progressive apraxia of speech (AOS) can result from neurodegenerative disease and can occur in isolation or in the presence of agrammatic aphasia. We aimed to determine the neuroanatomical and metabolic correlates of progressive AOS and aphasia. Thirty-six prospectively recruited subjects with progressive AOS or agrammatic aphasia, or both, underwent the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and Token Test to assess aphasia, an AOS rating scale (ASRS), 3T MRI and 18-F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET. Correlations between clinical measures and imaging were assessed. The only region that correlated to ASRS was left superior premotor volume. In contrast, WAB and Token Test correlated with hypometabolism and volume of a network of left hemisphere regions, including pars triangularis, pars opercularis, pars orbitalis, middle frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, precentral gyrus and inferior parietal lobe. Progressive agrammatic aphasia and AOS have non-overlapping regional correlations, suggesting that these are dissociable clinical features that have different neuroanatomical underpinnings. PMID:23542727

Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Duffy, Joseph R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Xia, Rong; Mandrekar, Jay; Machulda, Mary M.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Lowe, Val J.; Jack, Clifford R.; Josephs, Keith A.

2013-01-01

9

Functional Communication and Executive Function in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the relationship between functional communication and executive function ability in aphasia. Twenty-five participants with aphasia underwent examination with an extensive test battery including measures of functional communication, executive function ability, and language impairment.…

Fridriksson, Julius; Nettles, Caroline; Davis, Mary; Morrow, Leigh; Montgomery, Allen

2006-01-01

10

Damage to the anterior arcuate fasciculus predicts non-fluent speech production in aphasia  

PubMed Central

Non-fluent aphasia implies a relatively straightforward neurological condition characterized by limited speech output. However, it is an umbrella term for different underlying impairments affecting speech production. Several studies have sought the critical lesion location that gives rise to non-fluent aphasia. The results have been mixed but typically implicate anterior cortical regions such as Broca’s area, the left anterior insula, and deep white matter regions. To provide a clearer picture of cortical damage in non-fluent aphasia, the current study examined brain damage that negatively influences speech fluency in patients with aphasia. It controlled for some basic speech and language comprehension factors in order to better isolate the contribution of different mechanisms to fluency, or its lack. Cortical damage was related to overall speech fluency, as estimated by clinical judgements using the Western Aphasia Battery speech fluency scale, diadochokinetic rate, rudimentary auditory language comprehension, and executive functioning (scores on a matrix reasoning test) in 64 patients with chronic left hemisphere stroke. A region of interest analysis that included brain regions typically implicated in speech and language processing revealed that non-fluency in aphasia is primarily predicted by damage to the anterior segment of the left arcuate fasciculus. An improved prediction model also included the left uncinate fasciculus, a white matter tract connecting the middle and anterior temporal lobe with frontal lobe regions, including the pars triangularis. Models that controlled for diadochokinetic rate, picture-word recognition, or executive functioning also revealed a strong relationship between anterior segment involvement and speech fluency. Whole brain analyses corroborated the findings from the region of interest analyses. An additional exploratory analysis revealed that involvement of the uncinate fasciculus adjudicated between Broca’s and global aphasia, the two most common kinds of non-fluent aphasia. In summary, the current results suggest that the anterior segment of the left arcuate fasciculus, a white matter tract that lies deep to posterior portions of Broca’s area and the sensory-motor cortex, is a robust predictor of impaired speech fluency in aphasic patients, even when motor speech, lexical processing, and executive functioning are included as co-factors. Simply put, damage to those regions results in non-fluent aphasic speech; when they are undamaged, fluent aphasias result. PMID:24131592

Guo, Dazhou; Fillmore, Paul; Holland, Audrey; Rorden, Chris

2013-01-01

11

Damage to the anterior arcuate fasciculus predicts non-fluent speech production in aphasia.  

PubMed

Non-fluent aphasia implies a relatively straightforward neurological condition characterized by limited speech output. However, it is an umbrella term for different underlying impairments affecting speech production. Several studies have sought the critical lesion location that gives rise to non-fluent aphasia. The results have been mixed but typically implicate anterior cortical regions such as Broca's area, the left anterior insula, and deep white matter regions. To provide a clearer picture of cortical damage in non-fluent aphasia, the current study examined brain damage that negatively influences speech fluency in patients with aphasia. It controlled for some basic speech and language comprehension factors in order to better isolate the contribution of different mechanisms to fluency, or its lack. Cortical damage was related to overall speech fluency, as estimated by clinical judgements using the Western Aphasia Battery speech fluency scale, diadochokinetic rate, rudimentary auditory language comprehension, and executive functioning (scores on a matrix reasoning test) in 64 patients with chronic left hemisphere stroke. A region of interest analysis that included brain regions typically implicated in speech and language processing revealed that non-fluency in aphasia is primarily predicted by damage to the anterior segment of the left arcuate fasciculus. An improved prediction model also included the left uncinate fasciculus, a white matter tract connecting the middle and anterior temporal lobe with frontal lobe regions, including the pars triangularis. Models that controlled for diadochokinetic rate, picture-word recognition, or executive functioning also revealed a strong relationship between anterior segment involvement and speech fluency. Whole brain analyses corroborated the findings from the region of interest analyses. An additional exploratory analysis revealed that involvement of the uncinate fasciculus adjudicated between Broca's and global aphasia, the two most common kinds of non-fluent aphasia. In summary, the current results suggest that the anterior segment of the left arcuate fasciculus, a white matter tract that lies deep to posterior portions of Broca's area and the sensory-motor cortex, is a robust predictor of impaired speech fluency in aphasic patients, even when motor speech, lexical processing, and executive functioning are included as co-factors. Simply put, damage to those regions results in non-fluent aphasic speech; when they are undamaged, fluent aphasias result. PMID:24131592

Fridriksson, Julius; Guo, Dazhou; Fillmore, Paul; Holland, Audrey; Rorden, Chris

2013-11-01

12

Types of Aphasia  

MedlinePLUS

... Auditory Overload Aphasia vs Apraxia Reading, Writing and Math Reading Rehab (PDF opens in new window) Putting ... on Paper (PDF opens in new window) Acalculia - Math Challenges After Stroke Maximizing Communication Recovery & Independence Talking ...

13

Do people with aphasia receive written stroke and aphasia information?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite the well?documented benefits of providing people with written health information, there is a growing body of evidence indicating that people who have aphasia are poorly informed about both their stroke and aphasia. Although extensive research has been conducted into stroke education, limited research has specifically investigated the provision of written health information to people with aphasia.Aims: This study

Tanya A. Rose; Linda E. Worrall; Kryss T. McKenna; Louise M. Hickson; Tammy C. Hoffmann

2009-01-01

14

Aphasia Classification Using Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A web-based software model (http:\\/\\/fuzzy.iau.dtu.dk\\/aphasia.nsf) was developed as an example for classification of aphasia using neural networks. Two multilayer perceptrons were used to classify the type of aphasia (Broca, Wernicke, anomic, global) according to the results in some subtests of the Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT). First a coarse classification was achieved by using an assessment of spontaneous speech of the

Hubertus Axer; Jan Jantzen; Georg Berks; RWTH Aachen

2000-01-01

15

The influence of event-related knowledge on verb-argument processing in aphasia.  

PubMed

Event-related conceptual knowledge outside the language system rapidly affects verb-argument processing in unimpaired adults (McRae and Matsuki, 2009). Some have argued that verb-argument processing is in fact reducible to the activation of such event-related knowledge. However, data favoring this conclusion have come primarily from college-aged healthy adults, for whom both linguistic and conceptual semantic processing is fast and automatic. This study examined the influence of event-related knowledge on verb-argument processing among adults with aphasia (n = 8) and older unimpaired controls (n = 60), in two self-paced reading studies. Participants read sentences containing a plausible verb-argument combination (Mary used a knife to chop the large carrots before dinner), a combination that violated event-related world knowledge (Mary used some bleach to clean the large carrots before dinner), or a combination that violated the verb's selectional restrictions (Mary used a pump to inflate the large carrots before dinner). The participants with aphasia naturally split into two groups: Group 1 (n = 4) had conceptual-semantic impairments (evidenced by poor performance on tasks like Pyramids & Palm Trees) but reasonably intact language processing (higher Western Aphasia Battery Aphasia Quotients), while Group 2 (n = 4) had intact conceptual semantics but poorer language processing. Older unimpaired controls and aphasic Group 1 showed rapid on-line disruption for sentences with selectional-restriction violations (SRVs) and event-related knowledge violations, and also showed SRV-specific penalties in sentence-final acceptability judgments (Experiment 1) and comprehension questions (Experiment 2). In contrast, Group 2 showed very few reliable differences across conditions in either on-line or off-line measures. This difference between aphasic groups suggests that verb-related information and event-related knowledge may be dissociated in aphasia. Furthermore, it suggests that intact language processing is more critical for successful verb-argument integration than intact access to event-related world knowledge. This pattern is unexpected if verb-argument processing is reducible to activation of event-related conceptual knowledge. PMID:25484306

Dickey, Michael Walsh; Warren, Tessa

2015-01-01

16

Batteries  

MedlinePLUS

... alkaline and carbon zinc (9-volt, D, C, AA, AAA), mercuric-oxide (button, some cylindrical and rectangular), ... zinc-air (button), and lithium (9-volt, C, AA, coin, button, rechargeable). Alkaline and Zinc-Carbon Batteries ...

17

Apraxia in progressive nonfluent aphasia.  

PubMed

The clinical and neuroanatomical correlates of specific apraxias in neurodegenerative disease are not well understood. Here we addressed this issue in progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), a canonical subtype of frontotemporal lobar degeneration that has been consistently associated with apraxia of speech (AOS) and in some cases orofacial apraxia, limb apraxia and/or parkinsonism. Sixteen patients with PNFA according to current consensus criteria were studied. Three patients had a corticobasal syndrome (CBS) and two a progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) syndrome. Speech, orofacial and limb praxis functions were assessed using the Apraxia Battery for Adults-2 and a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis was conducted on brain MRI scans from the patient cohort in order to identify neuroanatomical correlates. All patients had AOS based on reduced diadochokinetic rate, 69% of cases had an abnormal orofacial apraxia score and 44% of cases (including the three CBS cases and one case with PSP) had an abnormal limb apraxia score. Severity of orofacial apraxia (but not AOS or limb apraxia) correlated with estimated clinical disease duration. The VBM analysis identified distinct neuroanatomical bases for each form of apraxia: the severity of AOS correlated with left posterior inferior frontal lobe atrophy; orofacial apraxia with left middle frontal, premotor and supplementary motor cortical atrophy; and limb apraxia with left inferior parietal lobe atrophy. Our findings show that apraxia of various kinds can be a clinical issue in PNFA and demonstrate that specific apraxias are clinically and anatomically dissociable within this population of patients. PMID:19908082

Rohrer, Jonathan Daniel; Rossor, Martin N; Warren, Jason D

2010-04-01

18

Primary progressive aphasia.  

PubMed

Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a progressive loss of specific language functions with relative sparing of other cognitive domains at least for the first few years of the illness. Based on the constellation of symptoms, PPA has been recently classified into a nonfluent, semantic, or logopenic variant. Nonfluent variant PPA is characterized by dysfluent and effortful speech, often combined with agrammatism. Also, some patients have initially predominant apraxia of speech. The neuroimaging findings in nfvPPA are in most cases progressive atrophy within the left inferior, opercular, and insular regions. Pathology is a tauopathy (FTLD-T), most often Pick's disease or CBD. Semantic variant PPA, on the other hand is characterized by fluent, but circumlocutory speech, then severe anomia and word-finding difficulties, all being associated with a progressive loss of lexical-semantic knowledge. As the disease progresses, the semantic impairment typically becomes multimodal. The clinical picture of svPPA is often associated with atrophy of the anterior regions of the temporal lobes, usually more prominent on the left side. The majority of these patients have TDP-43 pathology. The third, most recently described form of PPA is the logopenic variant characterized by decreased spontaneous speech output with frequent word-finding pauses, phonologic parahpasias, and repetition deficits. It resembles aphasia in Alzheimer's disease. Imaging abnormalities in lvPPA have been predominantly found in the left temporo-parietal junction area, and the pathological changes have been often those of AD. PMID:24716649

Kertesz, Andrew; Harciarek, Micha?

2014-06-01

19

Tips for Socializing with Aphasia  

MedlinePLUS

... Auditory Overload Aphasia vs Apraxia Reading, Writing and Math Reading Rehab (PDF opens in new window) Putting ... on Paper (PDF opens in new window) Acalculia - Math Challenges After Stroke Maximizing Communication Recovery & Independence Talking ...

20

Communicating with someone with aphasia  

MedlinePLUS

... well as their caregivers, to have a book with pictures or words about common topics or people so that communication is easier. Always try to keep people with aphasia involved in conversations. Check with them to ...

21

Validity and reliability of a new test for Turkish-speaking aphasic patients: Ege Aphasia Test.  

PubMed

Due to the fact that the phonetic, morphological and syntactic structures of the Turkish language differ significantly from other European languages, the translated forms of the currently available aphasia assessment batteries are not adequate for Turkish-speaking aphasic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Ege Aphasia Test that we have developed. The test, which includes the 8 subtests of praxia, spontaneous language, auditory and verbal comprehension, repetition, naming, reading, writing and calculating, was applied into 100 aphasic patients, 40 dysarthric patients and 40 healthy subjects. All test-retest intra-class correlation coefficients were found to be excellent (ICC = 0.99). The Cronbach's coefficients ranged from 0.71 to 0.91. All the subtests showed significantly greater scores in aphasic patients (p < 0.05). Significant correlations were found between the subtests and corrected total score (p < 0.05). Finally, the Ege Aphasia Test has an acceptable validity and reliability. It seems to be a promising battery for evaluation of aphasia in the Turkish language, which is spoken mainly in Turkey and in the surrounding regions. We believe that this study will pioneer the development of aphasia rehabilitation in these countries and contribute to future studies. PMID:23422469

Calis, Funda Atamaz; On, Arzu Yagiz; Durmaz, Berrin

2013-01-01

22

Language as a stressor in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Persons with aphasia often report feeling anxious when using language while communicating. While many patients, caregivers, clinicians, and researchers would agree that language might be a stressor for persons with aphasia, systematic empirical studies of stress and\\/or anxiety in aphasia remain scarce.Aim: The aim of this paper is to review the existing literature discussing language as a stressor in

Dalia Cahana-Amitay; Martin L. Albert; Sung-Bom Pyun; Andrew Westwood; Theodore Jenkins; Sarah Wolford; Mallory Finley

2011-01-01

23

The Bilingual Brain: Bilingual Aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since most people in the world know more than one language, bilingual aphasia is an important line of research in clinical and theoretical neurolinguistics. From a clinical and ethical viewpoint, it is no longer acceptable that bilingual aphasics be assessed in only one of the languages they know. Bilingual aphasic patients should receive comparable language tests in all their languages.

Franco Fabbro

2001-01-01

24

Rotterdam Aphasia Therapy Study (RATS) – 3: “The efficacy of intensive cognitive-linguistic therapy in the acute stage of aphasia”; design of a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Aphasia is a severely disabling condition occurring in 20 to 25% of stroke patients. Most patients with aphasia due to stroke receive speech and language therapy. Methodologically sound randomised controlled trials investigating the effect of specific interventions for patients with aphasia following stroke are scarce. The currently available evidence suggests that intensive speech and language therapy is beneficial for restoration of communication, but the optimal timing of treatment is as yet unclear. In the Rotterdam Aphasia Therapy Study-3 we aim to test the hypothesis that patients with aphasia due to stroke benefit more from early intensive cognitive-linguistic therapy than from deferred regular language therapy. Methods/design In a single blinded, multicentre, randomised controlled trial, 150 patients with first ever aphasia due to stroke will be randomised within two weeks after stroke to either early intensive cognitive-linguistic therapy (Group A) or deferred regular therapy (Group B). Group A will start as soon as possible, at the latest two weeks after stroke, with a four week period of one hour a day treatment with cognitive-linguistic therapy. In Group B professional speech and language therapy is deferred for four weeks. After this period, patients will follow the conventional procedure of speech and language therapy. Participants will be tested with an extensive linguistic test battery at four weeks, three months and six months after inclusion. Primary outcome measure is the difference in score between the two treatment groups on the Amsterdam-Nijmegen Everyday Language Test, a measure of everyday verbal communication, four weeks after randomisation. Trial registration This trial is registered in the Dutch Trial Register (http://www.trialregister.nl), NTR3271. PMID:23343197

2013-01-01

25

An Aphasia Mentoring Program: Perspectives of Speech-Language Pathology Students and of Mentors with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In contrast to clinician-as-expert models, social models of clinical practice typically acknowledge people with aphasia as equal partners in intervention. Given this, there may be a place within speech-language pathology education for programs situating people with aphasia as experts. This paper describes an aphasia mentoring program that…

Purves, Barbara A.; Petersen, Jill; Puurveen, Gloria

2013-01-01

26

Primary Progressive Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech  

PubMed Central

Primary progressive aphasia is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive language dysfunction. The majority of primary progressive aphasia cases can be classified into three subtypes: non-fluent/agrammatic, semantic, and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia. Each variant presents with unique clinical features, and is associated with distinctive underlying pathology and neuroimaging findings. Unlike primary progressive aphasia, apraxia of speech is a disorder that involves inaccurate production of sounds secondary to impaired planning or programming of speech movements. Primary progressive apraxia of speech is a neurodegenerative form of apraxia of speech, and it should be distinguished from primary progressive aphasia given its discrete clinicopathological presentation. Recently, there have been substantial advances in our understanding of these speech and language disorders. Here, we review clinical, neuroimaging, and histopathological features of primary progressive aphasia and apraxia of speech. The distinctions among these disorders will be crucial since accurate diagnosis will be important from a prognostic and therapeutic standpoint. PMID:24234355

Jung, Youngsin; Duffy, Joseph R.; Josephs, Keith A.

2014-01-01

27

Semantic Dementia and Persisting Wernicke's Aphasia: Linguistic and Anatomical Profiles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have directly compared the clinical and anatomical characteristics of patients with progressive aphasia to those of patients with aphasia caused by stroke. In the current study we examined fluent forms of aphasia in these two groups, specifically semantic dementia (SD) and persisting Wernicke's aphasia (WA) due to stroke. We compared…

Ogar, J. M.; Baldo, J. V.; Wilson, S. M.; Brambati, S. M.; Miller, B. L.; Dronkers, N. F.; Gorno-Tempini, M. L.

2011-01-01

28

Pharmacotherapy of Aphasia: Myth or Reality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pharmacotherapy of aphasia had been discussed for the last twenty years with first bromocriptine and amphetamine and then serotoninergic, GABAergic and cholinergic agents. Here, we reviewed the MEDLINE available reports of drug therapy for aphasia. So far, proofs of efficiency were found indubitable for none of the studied molecules. However, some…

de Boissezon, Xavier; Peran, Patrice; de Boysson, Chloe; Demonet, Jean-Francois

2007-01-01

29

Writing Treatment for Severe Aphasia: Who Benefits?  

E-print Network

Writing Treatment for Severe Aphasia: Who Benefits? P61agie M. Beeson Kindle Rising Jennifer Volk The University of Arizona, Tucson Writing treatment that involved repeated copying and recall of target words was implemented with 8 individuals with severe aphasia in order to discern the best candidates for the treatment

30

Aphasia as identity theft: Theory and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The impact of aphasia on identity is frequently acknowledged, but there have been few theoretical or research publications focusing on identity as an explanatory construct in understanding quality of life issues for persons with aphasia and their significant others. This article is abbreviated from a keynote address at the 2004 Clinical Aphasiology Conference.Aims: The purpose of this article is

Barbara Shadden

2005-01-01

31

AphasiaBank: Methods for Studying Discourse  

PubMed Central

Background AphasiaBank is a computerized database of interviews between persons with aphasia (PWAs) and clinicians. By February 2011, the database had grown to include 145 PWAs and 126 controls from 12 sites across the United States. The data and related analysis programs are available free over the web. Aims The overall goal of AphasiaBank is the construction of a system for accumulating and sharing data on language usage by PWAs. To achieve this goal, we have developed a standard elicitation protocol and systematic automatic and manual methods for transcription, coding, and analysis. Methods & Procedures We present sample analyses of transcripts from the retelling of the Cinderella story. These analyses illustrate the application of our methods for the study of phonological, lexical, semantic, morphological, syntactic, temporal, prosodic, gestural, and discourse features. Main Contribution AphasiaBank will allow researchers access to a large, shared database that can facilitate hypothesis testing and increase methodological replicability, precision, and transparency. Conclusions AphasiaBank will provide researchers with an important new tool in the study of aphasia. PMID:22923879

MacWhinney, Brian; Fromm, Davida; Forbes, Margaret; Holland, Audrey

2011-01-01

32

AphasiaBank: Methods for Studying Discourse.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: AphasiaBank is a computerized database of interviews between persons with aphasia (PWAs) and clinicians. By February 2011, the database had grown to include 145 PWAs and 126 controls from 12 sites across the United States. The data and related analysis programs are available free over the web. AIMS: The overall goal of AphasiaBank is the construction of a system for accumulating and sharing data on language usage by PWAs. To achieve this goal, we have developed a standard elicitation protocol and systematic automatic and manual methods for transcription, coding, and analysis. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: We present sample analyses of transcripts from the retelling of the Cinderella story. These analyses illustrate the application of our methods for the study of phonological, lexical, semantic, morphological, syntactic, temporal, prosodic, gestural, and discourse features. MAIN CONTRIBUTION: AphasiaBank will allow researchers access to a large, shared database that can facilitate hypothesis testing and increase methodological replicability, precision, and transparency. CONCLUSIONS: AphasiaBank will provide researchers with an important new tool in the study of aphasia. PMID:22923879

Macwhinney, Brian; Fromm, Davida; Forbes, Margaret; Holland, Audrey

2011-01-01

33

Fluent Aphasia in Telugu: A Case Comparison Study of Semantic Dementia and Stroke Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents two cases with fluent aphasia in Telugu with semantic dementia and post-stroke fluent aphasia. Comparable scores were obtained on the conventional neuropsychological and language tests that were administered on the two cases. Both cases demonstrated fluent, grammatical and well-articulated speech with little content, impaired…

Alladi, Suvarna; Mridula, Rukmini; Mekala, Shailaja; Rupela, Vani; Kaul, Subhash

2010-01-01

34

Effects of language proficiency and language of the environment on aphasia therapy in a multilingual  

PubMed Central

We examined the relative proficiency of four languages (Spanish, German, French, English) of a multilingual speaker with aphasia, JM. JM’s self-rated proficiency was consistent with his naming accuracy for nouns and verbs (The Object and Action Naming Battery, Druks & Masterson, 2000) and with his performance on selected subtests of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (Paradis & Libben, 1987). Within and between-language changes were measured following two periods of language treatment, one in a highly-proficient language (Spanish) and one in a less-proficient language (English). The various outcome measures differed in their sensitivity to treatment-associated changes. Cross-language treatment effects were linked to the language of the environment at the time of testing and to relative language proficiency. PMID:23185107

Goral, Mira; Rosas, Jason; Conner, Peggy S.; Maul, Kristen K.; Obler, Loraine K.

2011-01-01

35

A MEG investigation of lexical access in aphasia  

E-print Network

Aphasia is an acquired impairment of language ability that occurs secondary to brain damage, and auditory comprehension deficits are a defining component of aphasia. At the single-word level, these deficits are thought to ...

Zipse, Lauryn Rose

2008-01-01

36

The Trouble with Nouns and Verbs in Greek Fluent Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past verb retrieval problems were associated primarily with agrammatism and noun retrieval difficulties with fluent aphasia. With regards to fluent aphasia, so far in the literature, three distinct patterns of verb/noun dissociations have been described for individuals with fluent anomic aphasia in languages with different underlying forms;…

Kambanaros, Maria

2008-01-01

37

The Role of the Arcuate Fasciculus in Conduction Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In aphasia literature, it has been considered that a speech repetition defect represents the main constituent of conduction aphasia. Conduction aphasia has frequently been interpreted as a language impairment due to lesions of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) that disconnect receptive language areas from expressive ones. Modern neuroradiological…

Bernal, Byron; Ardila, Alfredo

2009-01-01

38

Phonological Therapy in Jargon Aphasia: Effects on Naming and Neologisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Jargon aphasia is one of the most intractable forms of aphasia with limited recommendation on amelioration of associated naming difficulties and neologisms. The few naming therapy studies that exist in jargon aphasia have utilized either semantic or phonological approaches, but the results have been equivocal. Moreover, the effect of…

Bose, Arpita

2013-01-01

39

Ambient Experience in Restitutive Treatment of Aphasia  

PubMed Central

One of the greatest challenges to language rehabilitation is reconciling the fact that the same therapeutic intervention, provided to different individuals with similar types of stroke-induced aphasia, may result in divergent outcomes. In this paper, the authors reviewed existing literature to identify relevant ambient factors – those outside the control of the clinician – that may potentially influence functional language recovery in aphasia and response to treatment. The goal was to develop a clinical history-taking tool to assist clinicians in gathering information germane to each individual's unique circumstances and environment, elements that may have previously been underestimated, to provide a complete inventory of potentially potent prognostic factors. First, two of the authors, speech–language pathologists experienced in aphasia rehabilitation, identified and categorized factors that seemed likely to influence aphasia outcomes. Then, a wide range of literature was reviewed in an effort to identify factors empirically found to be potent influences on aphasia recovery. Where studies relating these factors to aphasia were not found, relevant research from allied fields that examined recovery from brain injury is reported. Moreover, some factors thought to be potentially potent have yet to be examined. Finally, the ambient factors supported by evidence were categorized as facilitators or barriers to functional improvement, and the Ambient Influences on Outcome Checklist (AOC) was developed, including only those factors shown to be potent in the recovery process. It is hoped that this checklist can be used to more broadly assess potential prognostic influences in aphasia restitution, as well as spawn further research. PMID:21103021

McClung, Jill S.; Rothi, Leslie J. Gonzalez; Nadeau, Stephen E.

2010-01-01

40

Aphasia  

MedlinePLUS

... the brain. Many times, the cause of the brain injury is a stroke. A stroke occurs when blood ... carries oxygen and important nutrients. Other causes of brain injury are severe blows to the head, brain tumors, ...

41

Treatment of poststroke aphasia: current practice and new directions.  

PubMed

Aphasia is an acquired neurologic disorder that impairs an individual's ability to use and/or understand language. It commonly occurs after stroke or other injury to the brain's language network. The authors present the current methods of diagnosis and treatment of aphasia. They include a review of the evidence for the benefits of speech-language therapy, the most widespread approach to aphasia treatment, and a discussion of newer interventions such as medication and brain stimulation. These methods hold much promise for improving patient outcomes in aphasia; however, additional research regarding the best approaches to aphasia treatment will greatly improve our clinical approach. PMID:25520022

Fama, Mackenzie E; Turkeltaub, Peter E

2014-11-01

42

Identification of an atypical variant of logopenic progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between aphasia severity and neurocognitive function, disease duration and temporoparietal atrophy in 21 individuals with the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA). We found significant correlations between aphasia severity and neurocognitive severity as well as temporoparietal atrophy; but not disease duration. Cluster analysis identified three variants of lvPPA: (1) subjects with mild aphasia and short disease duration (mild typical lvPPA); (2) subjects with mild aphasia and long disease duration (mild atypical lvPPA); and, (3) subjects with severe aphasia and relatively long disease duration (severe typical lvPPA). All three variants showed temporoparietal atrophy, with the mild atypical group showing the least atrophy despite the longest disease duration. The mild atypical group also showed mild neuropsychological impairment. The subjects with mild aphasia and neuropsychological impairment despite long disease duration may represent a slowly progressive variant of lvPPA. PMID:23566690

Machulda, Mary M.; Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Duffy, Joseph R.; Strand, Edythe; Dean, Pamela M.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Jack, Clifford R.; Josephs, Keith A.

2013-01-01

43

Algebra in a man with severe aphasia.  

PubMed

We report a dissociation between higher order mathematical ability and language in the case of a man (SO) with severe aphasia. Despite severely impaired abilities in the language domain and difficulties with processing both phonological and orthographic number words, he was able to judge the equivalence of and to transform and simplify mathematical expressions in algebraic notation. SO was sensitive to structure-dependent properties of algebraic expressions and displayed considerable capacity to retrieve algebraic facts, rules and principles, and to apply them to novel problems. He demonstrated similar capacity in solving expressions containing either solely numeric or abstract algebraic symbols (e.g., 8-(3-5)+3 versus b-(a-c)+a). The results show the retention of elementary algebra despite severe aphasia and provide evidence for the preservation of symbolic capacity in one modality and hence against the notion of aphasia as asymbolia. PMID:17306848

Klessinger, Nicolai; Szczerbinski, Marcin; Varley, Rosemary

2007-04-01

44

Aphasia therapy on a neuroscience basis  

PubMed Central

Background Brain research has documented that the cortical mechanisms for language and action are tightly interwoven and, concurrently, new approaches to language therapy in neurological patients are being developed that implement language training in the context of relevant linguistic and non-linguistic actions, therefore taking advantage of the mutual connections of language and action systems in the brain. A further well-known neuroscience principle is that learning at the neuronal level is driven by correlation; consequently, new approaches to language therapy emphasise massed practice in a short time, thus maximising therapy quantity and frequency and, therefore, correlation at the behavioural and neuronal levels. Learned non-use of unsuccessful actions plays a major role in the chronification of neurological deficits, and behavioural approaches to therapy have therefore employed shaping and other learning techniques to counteract such non-use. Aims Advances in theoretical and experimental neuroscience have important implications for clinical practice. We exemplify this in the domain of aphasia rehabilitation. Main Contribution Whereas classical wisdom had been that aphasia cannot be significantly improved at a chronic stage, we here review evidence that one type of intensive language-action therapy (ILAT)—constraint-induced aphasia therapy—led to significant improvement of language performance in patients with chronic aphasia. We discuss perspectives for further improving speech-language therapy, including drug treatment that may be particularly fruitful when applied in conjunction with behavioural treatment. In a final section we highlight intensive and rapid therapy studies in chronic aphasia as a unique tool for exploring the cortical reorganisation of language. Conclusions We conclude that intensive language action therapy is an efficient tool for improving language functions even at chronic stages of aphasia. Therapy studies using this technique can open new perspectives for research into the plasticity of human language circuits. PMID:18923644

Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Berthier, Marcelo L.

2008-01-01

45

Vocabulary acquisition in aphasia: Modality can matter.  

PubMed

The present case study investigated modality-specific aspects of novel word acquisition in aphasia. It was prompted by recent aphasia case studies indicating great interindividual variability in the ability to learn and maintain novel words in aphasia. Moreover, two previous case studies revealed a striking effect of input modality by showing effective word learning and re-learning via visual input only (Kohen, Sola, Tuomiranta, Laine, & Martin, 2012; Tuomiranta et al., 2014). The present participant TS with chronic nonfluent aphasia and post-semantic anomia was administered novel word-referent learning tasks. In the first experiment, the learning phase included simultaneous phonological and orthographic input, while the follow-up was probed separately for spoken and written responses. In the second experiment, we studied the effect of four different input and output modality combinations on her ability to learn to name the novel items. In the first experiment, TS's spoken naming performance during the learning phase was just within the range of healthy controls. Maintenance declined and remained outside that range during the whole 6-month follow-up. However, TS maintained the learned words better in written than in spoken naming throughout the follow-up, and in written naming, her maintenance stayed within the control's range up to 8 weeks post-training. The second experiment indicated that the best learning outcome was achieved with orthographic input. Orthographic input combined with orthographic output resulted in fast and accurate learning of the novel words. Interestingly, TS's test profile was opposite to her learning profile, as she repeated better than she read aloud in the linguistic background assessment. The results from the present case highlight the importance of multiple learning channels for word acquisition in individuals with aphasia. Probing the functionality of different input and output channels for learning may also prove valuable in tailoring effective treatment for persons with aphasia. PMID:25419049

Tuomiranta, Leena; Grönroos, Ann-Mari; Martin, Nadine; Laine, Matti

2014-11-01

46

Comprehension of Passives in Broca's Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drai and Grodzinsky have statistically analyzed a large corpus of data on the comprehension of passives by patients with Broca's aphasia. The data come, according to Drai and Grodzinsky, from binary choice tasks. Among the languages that are analyzed are Dutch and German. Drai and Grodzinsky argue that Dutch and German speaking Broca patients…

Bastiaanse, Roelien; van Zonneveld, Ron

2006-01-01

47

Semantic Weight and Verb Retrieval in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals with agrammatic aphasia may have difficulty with verb production in comparison to nouns. Additionally, they may have greater difficulty producing verbs that have fewer semantic components (i.e., are semantically "light") compared to verbs that have greater semantic weight. A connectionist verb-production model proposed by Gordon and…

Barde, Laura H. F.; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Boronat, Consuelo B.

2006-01-01

48

A Computational Account of Bilingual Aphasia Rehabilitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current research on bilingual aphasia highlights the paucity in recommendations for optimal rehabilitation for bilingual aphasic patients (Edmonds & Kiran, 2006; Roberts & Kiran, 2007). In this paper, we have developed a computational model to simulate an English-Spanish bilingual language system in which language representations can vary by age…

Kiran, Swathi; Grasemann, Uli; Sandberg, Chaleece; Miikkulainen, Risto

2013-01-01

49

Writing Treatment for Aphasia: A Texting Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Treatment studies have documented the therapeutic and functional value of lexical writing treatment for individuals with severe aphasia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such retraining could be accomplished using the typing feature of a cellular telephone, with the ultimate goal of using text messaging for…

Beeson, Pelagie M.; Higginson, Kristina; Rising, Kindle

2013-01-01

50

Writing Treatment for Severe Aphasia: Who Benefits?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Writing treatment that involved repeated copying and recall of target words was implemented with 8 individuals with severe aphasia in order to discern the best candidates for the treatment. Four of the 8 participants had strong positive responses to the copy and recall treatment (CART), relearning spellings for 15 targeted words during 10 to 12…

Beeson, Pelagie M.; Rising, Kindle; Volk, Jennifer

2003-01-01

51

Treatment of Aphasia: A Process Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recommended treatment approach for aphasia involves increasing the efficiency of language processing by manipulating the patient's processing of stimuli. Discussed are assessment, identification of the point of processing breakdown, identification of facilitory stimulus parameters, and treatment through stimulus manipulation. Two case studies…

Hagen, Chris

1988-01-01

52

Further Evidence of Auditory Extinction in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Preliminary research ( Shisler, 2005) suggests that auditory extinction in individuals with aphasia (IWA) may be connected to binding and attention. In this study, the authors expanded on previous findings on auditory extinction to determine the source of extinction deficits in IWA. Method: Seventeen IWA (M[subscript age] = 53.19 years)…

Marshall, Rebecca Shisler; Basilakos, Alexandra; Love-Myers, Kim

2013-01-01

53

Aphasia: Current Concepts in Theory and Practice  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in neuroimaging contribute to a new insights regarding brain-behavior relationships and expand understanding of the functional neuroanatomy of language. Modern concepts of the functional neuroanatomy of language invoke rich and complex models of language comprehension and expression, such as dual stream networks. Increasingly, aphasia is seen as a disruption of cognitive processes underlying language. Rehabilitation of aphasia incorporates evidence based and person-centered approaches. Novel techniques, such as methods of delivering cortical brain stimulation to modulate cortical excitability, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation, are just beginning to be explored. In this review, we discuss the historical context of the foundations of neuroscientific approaches to language. We sample the emergent theoretical models of the neural substrates of language and cognitive processes underlying aphasia that contribute to more refined and nuanced concepts of language. Current concepts of aphasia rehabilitation are reviewed, including the promising role of cortical stimulation as an adjunct to behavioral therapy and changes in therapeutic approaches based on principles of neuroplasticity and evidence-based/person-centered practice to optimize functional outcomes. PMID:24904925

Tippett, Donna C.; Niparko, John K.; Hillis, Argye E.

2014-01-01

54

Algebra in a Man with Severe Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report a dissociation between higher order mathematical ability and language in the case of a man (SO) with severe aphasia. Despite severely impaired abilities in the language domain and difficulties with processing both phonological and orthographic number words, he was able to judge the equivalence of and to transform and simplify…

Klessinger, Nicolai; Szczerbinski, Marcin; Varley, Rosemary

2007-01-01

55

Temporal Processing Capabilities in Repetition Conduction Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the temporal resolution capacities of the central-auditory system in a subject (NP) suffering from repetition conduction aphasia. More specifically, the patient was asked to detect brief gaps between two stretches of broadband noise (gap detection task) and to evaluate the duration of two biphasic (WN-3) continuous noise…

Sidiropoulos, Kyriakos; Ackermann, Hermann; Wannke, Michael; Hertrich, Ingo

2010-01-01

56

Measuring Working Memory Deficits in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Many adults with aphasia demonstrate concomitant deficits in working memory (WM), but such deficits are difficult to quantify because of a lack of validated measures as well as the complex interdependence between language and WM. We examined the feasibility, reliability, and internal consistency of an "n"-back task for evaluating WM in…

Mayer, Jamie F.; Murray, Laura L.

2012-01-01

57

Accent Identification by Adults with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The UK is a diverse society where individuals regularly interact with speakers with different accents. Whilst there is a growing body of research on the impact of speaker accent on comprehension in people with aphasia, there is none which explores their ability to identify accents. This study investigated the ability of this group to identify the…

Newton, Caroline; Burns, Rebecca; Bruce, Carolyn

2013-01-01

58

Lithium batteries: Future batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main characteristics and applications of lithium batteries are reviewed. Miniature batteries for quartz crystal watches have been developed and fabricated in Switzerland since 1970. High technology systems like lithium batteries are largely used for their low auto-discharge during storage and for their high energy density. Two kinds of lithium batteries can be distinguished concerning their place in the watch: integrated batteries; and batteries placed between motion parts and the bottom of the watchcase. Lithium batteries are also used in pocket calculators, electronic modules for integrated circuits, telephone, control systems, electronic games, bank cards, and heart stimulators.

Reiche, Harald

59

Recurring utterances (speech automatisms) without aphasia: A single case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Regarding the generation of recurring utterances (RUs), there are two lines of research in the literature. The first is that RUs occur in severe aphasia; that is, global aphasia or severe Broca's aphasia. The second is that RUs are a modality-specific and post-phonological speech disorder.Aims: The aims of this paper are (1) to describe and follow up on the

Toru Takizawa; Kimiko Asano; Fumiko Kinoshita; Aoi Ashizuka; Toshiya Murai; Toshihiko Hamanaka

2010-01-01

60

Non-invasive Repeated Therapeutic Stimulation for Aphasia Recovery: A Multilingual, Multicenter Aphasia Trial.  

PubMed

Noninvasive brain stimulation such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been used in case series and small randomized controlled trials to improve recovery from poststroke aphasia in combination with speech and language therapy. Results of these studies suggest possible clinical efficacy and an excellent safety profile. Therefore, a larger international multicenter proof-of-concept trial was launched, to directly compare the safety and efficacy of rTMS, tDCS, and sham stimulation as adjuvant therapy to speech and language therapy in subacute poststroke aphasia. In the 4 participating centers, subacute stroke patients with aphasia are randomized between 5 and 30 days after ischemic stroke to either receive rTMS, tDCS, or sham stimulation in combination with a daily 45 minutes speech and language therapy session for 10 days. Efficacy is evaluated at 1 and 30 days after the last of the 10 treatment sessions using 3 outcome measures, validated in all participating languages: Boston naming test, Token test, and verbal fluency test. Additionally, adverse events are recorded to prove safety. In this study, a total of 90 patients will be recruited, and data analysis will be completed in 2016. This is the first multilingual and multinational randomized and controlled trial in poststroke aphasia and if positive, will add an effective new strategy for early stage poststroke aphasia rehabilitation. PMID:25735707

Thiel, Alexander; Black, Sandra E; Rochon, Elizabeth A; Lanthier, Sylvain; Hartmann, Alexander; Chen, Joyce L; Mochizuki, George; Zumbansen, Anna; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter

2015-04-01

61

Aphasia Therapy in the Age of Globalization: Cross-Linguistic Therapy Effects in Bilingual Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Globalization imposes challenges to the field of behavioural neurology, among which is an increase in the prevalence of bilingual aphasia. Thus, aphasiologists have increasingly focused on bilingual aphasia therapy and, more recently, on the identification of the most efficient procedures for triggering language recovery in bilinguals with aphasia. Therapy in both languages is often not available, and, thus, researchers have focused on the transfer of therapy effects from the treated language to the untreated one. Aim. This paper discusses the literature on bilingual aphasia therapy, with a focus on cross-linguistic therapy effects from the language in which therapy is provided to the untreated language. Methods. Fifteen articles including two systematic reviews, providing details on pre- and posttherapy in the adult bilingual population with poststroke aphasia and anomia are discussed with regard to variables that can influence the presence or absence of cross-linguistic transfer of therapy effects. Results and Discussion. The potential for CLT of therapy effects from the treated to the untreated language depends on the word type, the degree of structural overlap between languages, the type of therapy approach, the pre- and postmorbid language proficiency profiles, and the status of the cognitive control circuit. PMID:24825963

Ansaldo, Ana Inés; Saidi, Ladan Ghazi

2014-01-01

62

Musical syntactic processing in agrammatic Broca's aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Growing evidence for overlap in the syntactic processing of language and music in non?brain?damaged individuals leads to the question of whether aphasic individuals with grammatical comprehension problems in language also have problems processing structural relations in music.Aims: The current study sought to test musical syntactic processing in individuals with Broca's aphasia and grammatical comprehension deficits, using both explicit and

Aniruddh D. Patel; John R. Iversen; Marlies Wassenaar; Peter Hagoort

2008-01-01

63

Snapshots of success: An insider perspective on living successfully with aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:?While the negative impact of aphasia has been the focus of much research, few studies have investigated more positive examples of people living with aphasia. Exploring the concept of living successfully with aphasia from an insider perspective can enhance current research by providing positively framed data that balance this negative skew. Collectively, the perspectives of people with aphasia on themes

Kyla Brown; Linda Worrall; Bronwyn Davidson; Tami Howe

2010-01-01

64

Measuring and Inducing Brain Plasticity in Chronic Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brain plasticity associated with anomia recovery in aphasia is poorly understood. Here, I review four recent studies from my lab that focused on brain modulation associated with long-term anomia outcome, its behavioral treatment, and the use of transcranial brain stimulation to enhance anomia treatment success in individuals with chronic aphasia

Fridriksson, Julius

2011-01-01

65

Principles Underlying the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) and Its Uses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) is designed to be objective (so it can be administered by a lay native speaker of the language) and equivalent across languages (to allow for a comparison between the languages of a given patient as well as across patients from different institutions). It has been used not only with aphasia but also with any…

Paradis, Michel

2011-01-01

66

Aphasia, Apraxia, and Agnosia in the Diagnosis of Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association of aphasia, apraxia and agnosia with cortical but not subcortical dementias, is a widely held belief. The purpose of the present study was to determine the frequency of aphasia, apraxia, and agnosia in groups of cortical and subcortical dementia patients, and to assess the diagnostic utility of these symptoms. Subjects were 64 patients with subcortical dementias (Parkinson's disease

Joel H. Kramer; Jennifer M. Duffy

1996-01-01

67

Lexical and Prosodic Effects on Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether and when individuals with aphasia and healthy controls use lexical and prosodic information during on-line sentence comprehension. Individuals with aphasia and controls (n = 12 per group) participated in a self-paced listening experiment. The stimuli were early closure sentences, such as "While…

DeDe, Gayle

2012-01-01

68

Aphasia and Topic Initiation in Conversation: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Aphasiologists often research, assess and treat linguistic impairment and its consequences for daily life separately. Studies that link the language used by people with aphasia to routine communicative activities may expand the linguistic forms treated as relevant for successful communication by people with aphasia. Previous research…

Barnes, Scott E.; Candlin, Christopher N.; Ferguson, Alison

2013-01-01

69

ACES: Promoting Empathy Towards Aphasia Through Language Distortion Emulation Software  

E-print Network

.0 General, K4.2 [Social Issues]: Assistive technologies for persons with disabilities General Terms living with aphasia [17]. Aphasia is an acquired language disorder that impairs expressive and receptive that are difficult to name, having difficulty organizing coherent strings of words, and making multiple attempts

Karahalios, Karrie G.

70

What People Living with Aphasia Think about the Availability of Aphasia Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Obtaining health information and resources can influence an individual's (a) access to services, (b) interactions with health care providers, and (c) ability to manage one's own health needs. The purpose of this study was to gather the perceptions of consumers living with aphasia about resource availability and information needs. Method:…

Hinckley, Jacqueline J.; Hasselkus, Amy; Ganzfried, Ellayne

2013-01-01

71

[The logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia].  

PubMed

The logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia [also referred to as logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA)] is the most recently identified variant of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). This disorder, characterized by a unique speech and language profile, occurs due to damage to specific anatomical areas. An international panel of experts has established a set of diagnostic criteria for PPA and its clinical variants. The clinical diagnostic criteria for the logopenic variant include core features such as impaired single-word retrieval in spontaneous speech and impaired repetition of sentences and phrases. Additional features, of which at least 3 are essential for diagnosing the logopenic variant, include phonological errors in speech, spared single-word comprehension and object knowledge, spared motor speech, and lack of frank agrammatism. For a next imaging-supported diagnosis, the aforementioned clinical features must be accompanied by imaging findings revealing atrophy, hypoperfusion, or hypometabolism in the left temporo-parietal junction area. Finally, a pathology-confirmed case of the logopenic variant requires a clinical diagnosis of the syndrome accompanied by histopathological data or the presence of a known pathogenic mutation. Studies have clarified the clinical phenotype of this disorder, suggesting a prominent impairment of the phonological working memory. Several studies have provided evidences of a possible link between the logopenic phenotype and the specific pathological and genetic correlates. The diagnostic guidelines will enable a more accurate identification of the individuals with the logopenic variant, thus facilitating the documentation of the course of illness and, ultimately, the underlying pathological substrate in this patient group via the pathology-confirmed series. PMID:21987563

Yoshino, Mariko

2011-10-01

72

Parallel Recovery in a Trilingual Speaker: The Use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test as a Diagnostic Complement to the Comprehensive Aphasia Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We illustrate the value of the Bilingual Aphasia Test in the diagnostic assessment of a trilingual speaker post-stroke living in England for whom English was a non-native language. The Comprehensive Aphasia Test is routinely used to assess patients in English, but only in combination with the Bilingual Aphasia Test is it possible and practical to…

Green, David W.; Ruffle, Louise; Grogan, Alice; Ali, Nilufa; Ramsden, Sue; Schofield, Tom; Leff, Alex P.; Crinion, Jenny; Price, Cathy J.

2011-01-01

73

Sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt Disease Presenting as Primary Progressive Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Objective To report the clinical, neuropsychological, linguistic, imaging, and neuropathological features of a unique case of sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease in which the patient presented with a logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia. Design Case report. Setting Large referral center for atypical memory and aging disorders, particularly Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease. Patient Patient presenting with logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia initially thought to be due to Alzheimer disease. Results Despite the long, slow 3.5-year course, the patient was shown to have pathology-proven sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease. Conclusions These findings expand the differential of primary progressive aphasia to include prion disease. PMID:23400721

Johnson, David Y.; Dunkelberger, Diana L.; Henry, Maya; Haman, Aissatou; Greicius, Michael D.; Wong, Katherine; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Miller, Bruce L.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Geschwind, Michael D.

2015-01-01

74

Writing Treatment for Aphasia: A Texting Approach  

PubMed Central

Purpose Treatment studies have documented the therapeutic and functional value of lexical writing treatment for individuals with severe aphasia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such retraining could be accomplished using the typing feature of a cellular telephone, with the ultimate goal of using text messaging for communication. Method A 31-year-old man with persistent Broca’s aphasia, severe apraxia of speech, global dysgraphia, and right hemiparesis participated in this study. Using a multiple baseline design, relearning and maintenance of single-word spellings (and oral naming) of targeted items were examined in response to traditional Copy and Recall Treatment (CART) for handwriting and a new paradigm using 1-handed typing on a cell phone keyboard (i.e., a texting version of CART referred to as T-CART). Results Marked improvements were documented in spelling and spoken naming trained in either modality, with stronger maintenance for handwriting than cell phone typing. Training resulted in functional use of texting that continued for 2 years after treatment. Conclusions These results suggest that orthographic retraining using a cell phone keyboard has the potential to improve spelling knowledge and provide a means to improve functional communication skills. Combined training with both handwriting and cell phone typing should be considered in order to maximize the durability of treatment effects. PMID:23811474

Beeson, Pélagie M.; Higginson, Kristina; Rising, Kindle

2014-01-01

75

Cognitive Deficits and Reduced Insight in Primary Progressive Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a form of dementia caused by frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Unlike aphasia due to stroke, in which the association between particular aphasia profiles and insight has been well characterized, this relationship has not been investigated in PPA. Reduced insight is seen in other neurological conditions, but tends to involve right hemisphere damage, whereas PPA is predominantly a left hemisphere disorder. The aim of the current study was to examine whether fluent aphasia with less meaningful speech output, associated with diminished insight in stroke, is also characteristic of PPA patients with reduced insight. Fourteen PPA patients were studied. Results indicated that reduced information content in speech and poor performance on a nonlanguage test, the Pyramids and Palm Trees test, predicted reduced insight. This study has implications for the anatomical network involved in insight and clinical implications in terms of selecting interventions appropriate for individual patients with PPA. PMID:18836134

Banks, Sarah Jane; Weintraub, Sandra

2009-01-01

76

Quantitating Severity and Progression in Primary Progressive Aphasia  

E-print Network

and frontotemporal dementia have provided a valuable foundation for monitoring progression, PPA presents unique at the 2010 International Conference on Frontotemporal Dementia, expand from there to summarize our current progressive aphasia . Frontotemporal dementia . Clinical trials . Biomarkers Introduction Primary progressive

Dickerson, Brad

77

Conceptualising quality of life for older people with aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is an increasing need in speech and language therapy for clinicians to provide intervention in the context of the broader life?quality issues for people with aphasia. However, there is no descriptive research that is explicitly focused on quality of life (QoL) from the perspectives of older people with aphasia.Aims: The current study explores how older people with chronic

Madeline Cruice; Ruth Hill; Linda Worrall; Louise Hickson

2010-01-01

78

[Specificities of the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia].  

PubMed

The logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia is a syndrome with neuropsychological and linguistic specificities, including phonological loop impairment for which diagnosis is currently mainly based on the exclusion of the two other variants, semantic and nonfluent/agrammatic primary progressive aphasia. The syndrome may be underdiagnosed due (1) to mild language difficulties during the early stages of the disease or (2) to being mistaken for mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease when the evaluation of episodic memory is based on verbal material and (3) finally, it is not uncommon that the disorders are attributed to psychiatric co-morbidities such as, for example, anxiety. Moreover, compared to other variants of primary progressive aphasia, brain abnormalities are different. The left temporoparietal junction is initially affected. Neuropathology and biomarkers (cerebrospinal fluid, molecular amyloid nuclear imaging) frequently reveal Alzheimer's disease. Consequently this variant of primary progressive aphasia does not fall under the traditional concept of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. These distinctive features highlight the utility of correct diagnosis, classification, and use of biomarkers to show the neuropathological processes underlying logopenic primary progressive aphasia. The logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia is a specific form of Alzheimer's disease frequently presenting a rapid decline; specific linguistic therapies are needed. Further investigation of this syndrome is needed to refine screening, improve diagnostic criteria and better understand the epidemiology and the biological mechanisms involved. PMID:25444173

Magnin, E; Teichmann, M; Martinaud, O; Moreaud, O; Ryff, I; Belliard, S; Pariente, J; Moulin, T; Vandel, P; Démonet, J-F

2015-01-01

79

Some early cases of aphasia and the capacity to sing.  

PubMed

This chapter examines early cases of aphasia that include observations of the capacity to sing. Although the majority of these cases were published in the late nineteenth century, earlier reports exist and provide insights into the early thinking about the capacity to sing in aphasia, a topic that continues to the present day. The observation that some patients with aphasia and limited speech output were able to sing the texts of songs inspired scholars to examine the relationship between music and language. Early ideas about the capacity to sing were provided by well-known neurologists, such as John Hughlings Jackson and Adolf Kussmaul. The work of Herbert Spencer about the origins and function of music heavily influenced Jackson and others in their thinking about aphasia. This work also led to an increased interest in understanding music abilities in persons with aphasia and, later, in the brain mechanisms of music. The chapter provides a background as to why there was an interest in the capacity to sing in persons with aphasia and what influenced early thinking on this topic. PMID:25684286

Johnson, Julene K; Graziano, Amy B

2015-01-01

80

The Nature of Lexical-Semantic Access in Bilingual Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Background. Despite a growing clinical need, there are no clear guidelines on assessment of lexical access in the two languages in individuals with bilingual aphasia. Objective. In this study, we examined the influence of language proficiency on three tasks requiring lexical access in English and Spanish bilingual normal controls and in bilingual individuals with aphasia. Methods. 12 neurologically healthy Spanish-English bilinguals and 10 Spanish-English bilinguals with aphasia participated in the study. All participants completed three lexical retrieval tasks: two picture-naming tasks (BNT, BPNT) and a category generation (CG) task. Results. This study found that across all tasks, the greatest predictors for performance were the effect of group and language ability rating (LAR). Bilingual controls had a greater score or produced more correct responses than participants with bilingual aphasia across all tasks. The results of our study also indicate that normal controls and bilinguals with aphasia make similar types of errors in both English and Spanish and develop similar clustering strategies despite significant performance differences between the groups. Conclusions. Differences between bilingual patients and controls demonstrate a fundamental lexical retrieval deficit in bilingual individuals with aphasia, but one that is further influenced by language proficiency in the two languages. PMID:24825956

Kiran, Swathi; Balachandran, Isabel; Lucas, Jason

2014-01-01

81

Research with rTMS in the treatment of aphasia  

PubMed Central

This review of our research with rTMS to treat aphasia contains four parts: Part 1 reviews functional brain imaging studies related to recovery of language in aphasia with emphasis on nonfluent aphasia. Part 2 presents the rationale for using rTMS to treat nonfluent aphasia patients (based on results from functional imaging studies). Part 2 also reviews our current rTMS treatment protocol used with nonfluent aphasia patients, and our functional imaging results from overt naming fMRI scans, obtained pre- and post- a series of rTMS treatments. Part 3 presents results from a pilot study where rTMS treatments were followed immediately by constraint-induced language therapy (CILT). Part 4 reviews our diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study that examined white matter connections between the horizontal, midportion of the arcuate fasciculus (hAF) to different parts within Broca’s area (pars triangularis, PTr; pars opercularis, POp), and the ventral premotor cortex (vPMC) in the RH and in the LH. Part 4 also addresses some of the possible mechanisms involved with improved naming and speech, following rTMS with nonfluent aphasia patients. PMID:20714075

Naeser, Margaret A.; Martin, Paula I; Treglia, Ethan; Ho, Michael; Kaplan, Elina; Bashir, Shahid; Hamilton, Roy; Coslett, H. Branch; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

2013-01-01

82

Long-Term Stability of Improved Language Functions in Chronic Aphasia After Constraint-Induced Aphasia Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—In response to the established notion that improvement of language functions in chronic aphasia only can be achieved through long-term treatment, we examined the efficacy of a short-term, intensive language training, constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT). This program is founded on the learning principles of prevention of compensatory communication (constraint), massed practice, and shaping (induced). Methods—Twenty-seven patients with chronic

Marcus Meinzer; Daniela Djundja; Gabriela Barthel; Thomas Elbert; Brigitte Rockstroh

2010-01-01

83

Lothian assessment for screening cognition in aphasia (LASCA): A new non verbal assessment of cognition.   

E-print Network

used in clinical settings are based on verbal language, which is affected in aphasia. Lothian Assessment for screening in cognition in Aphasia (LASCA) is a newly developed measure developed by the Speech, Language and Occupational Therapists...

Faiz, Ayesha

2012-08-31

84

“Better but no cigar”: Persons with aphasia speak about their speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study examined responses of persons with aphasia (PWAs) to a general question about their speech.Aims: The goal was to describe their evaluative responses as positive, negative, or neutral\\/mixed and determine if responses differed, based on time post-onset, aphasia severity, and aphasia type.Methods & Procedures: A total of 71 participants from the AphasiaBank project were included. As part of

Davida Fromm; Audrey Holland; Elizabeth Armstrong; Margaret Forbes; Brian MacWhinney; Amy Risko; Nicole Mattison

2011-01-01

85

Asymmetric inhibitory treatment effects in multilingual aphasia  

PubMed Central

Findings from recent psycholinguistic studies of bilingual processing support the hypothesis that both languages of a bilingual are always active and that bilinguals continually engage in processes of language selection. This view aligns with the convergence hypothesis of bilingual language representation (Abutalebi & Green, 2008). Furthermore, it is hypothesized that when bilinguals perform a task in one language they need to inhibit their other, non-target language(s) (e.g., Costa, Miozzo, & Caramazza, 1999) and that stronger inhibition is required when the task is performed in the weaker language than in the stronger one (e.g., Costa & Santesteban, 2004). The study of multilingual individuals who acquire aphasia resulting from a focal brain lesion offers a unique opportunity to test the convergence hypothesis and the inhibition asymmetry. We report on a trilingual person with chronic non-fluent aphasia who at the time of testing demonstrated greater impairment in her first acquired language (Persian) than in her third, later-learned language (English). She received treatment in English followed by treatment in Persian. An examination of her connected language production revealed improvement in her grammatical skills in each language following intervention in that language, but decreased grammatical accuracy in English following treatment in Persian. The increased error rate was evident in structures that are not shared by the two languages (e.g., use of auxiliary verbs). The results support the prediction that greater inhibition is applied to the stronger language than to the weaker language, regardless of their age of acquisition. We interpret the findings as consistent with convergence theories that posit overlapping neuronal representation and simultaneous activation of multiple languages, and with proficiency-dependent asymmetric inhibition in multilinguals. PMID:24499302

Goral, Mira; Naghibolhosseini, Maryam; Conner, Peggy

2014-01-01

86

A multi-level approach to the analysis of narrative language in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several studies have shown that traditional standardised aphasia tests may not be sensitive enough to adequately assess linguistic deficits and recovery patterns in persons with aphasia. As a result, both functional and structural methods for the analysis of connected language samples from people with aphasia have been devised (see Armstrong, 2000; Prins & Bastiaanse, 2004).Aims: The present article focuses

Andrea Marini; Sara Andreetta; Silvana del Tin; Sergio Carlomagno

2011-01-01

87

Computer-Based Script Training for Aphasia: Emerging Themes from Post-Treatment Interviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents results of post-treatment interviews following computer-based script training for persons with chronic aphasia. Each of the 23 participants received 9 weeks of AphasiaScripts training. Post-treatment interviews were conducted with the person with aphasia and/or a significant other person. The 23 interviews yielded 584 coded…

Cherney, Leora R.; Halper, Anita S.; Kaye, Rosalind C.

2011-01-01

88

Quality of life measurement and outcome in aphasia  

PubMed Central

Background Quality of life (QL) can be defined as the individual’s perception of their own well-being. Aphasia is the most important potential consequence of stroke and has a profound effect on a patient’s life, causing emotional distress, depression, and social isolation, due to loss of language functions. Aims To draw up a QL questionnaire for aphasics (QLQA) focusing particularly on difficulties in interpersonal relationships and on the loss of independence as a result of language disorders. We reported the results of a psychometric evaluation of this measure. Moreover, we experimentally focused on the differences in QLQA between patients affected only by neurological motor impairment and hemiparetic patients with aphasia (PWA) in order to verify the specific role of aphasia on QL. We also explored if the QLQA is sensitive to the severity of aphasia and to the time elapsing from the stroke. Methods A total of 146 consecutive PWA and 37 control subjects were enrolled to evaluate the reliability (internal consistency and test–retest reliability) and validity of the QLQA, using standard psychometric methods. Patients were divided into acute (within 3 months since stroke) and chronic (beyond 3 months) groups, and into mild and severe according to the severity of aphasia. The experimental group of only acute PWA was compared to control subjects, with right hemispherical lesion and without aphasia in QLQA total and partial scores. Results The QLQA had good internal consistency and test–retest reliability. Acute and chronic PWA and mild and severe ones differed in QLQA total, communication, and autonomy subscales. No differences were found in psychological condition. Between aphasic and control patients, significant differences were found in all QLQA subscales. Conclusion The QLQA is a valid measure of QL in PWA, contributing to a better distinction between severe and mild aphasia, and it is sensitive also to the variations in QL depending on the time interval from stroke. PMID:24368886

Spaccavento, Simona; Craca, Angela; Del Prete, Marina; Falcone, Rosanna; Colucci, Antonia; Di Palma, Angela; Loverre, Anna

2014-01-01

89

Wernicke's Aphasia Reflects a Combination of Acoustic-Phonological and Semantic Control Deficits: A Case-Series Comparison of Wernicke's Aphasia, Semantic Dementia and Semantic Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wernicke's aphasia (WA) is the classical neurological model of comprehension impairment and, as a result, the posterior temporal lobe is assumed to be critical to semantic cognition. This conclusion is potentially confused by (a) the existence of patient groups with semantic impairment following damage to other brain regions (semantic dementia and…

Robson, Holly; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

2012-01-01

90

Parallel recovery in a trilingual speaker: the use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test as a diagnostic complement to the Comprehensive Aphasia Test  

PubMed Central

We illustrate the value of the Bilingual Aphasia Test in the diagnostic assessment of a trilingual speaker post-stroke living in England for whom English was a non-native language. The Comprehensive Aphasia Test is routinely used to assess patients in English but only in combination with the Bilingual Aphasia Test is it possible and practical to provide a fuller picture of the language impairment. We describe our test selection and the assessment it allows us to make. PMID:21453044

GREEN, DAVID W.; RUFFLE, LOUISE; GROGAN, ALICE; ALI, NILUFA; RAMSDEN, SUE; SCHOFIELD, TOM; LEFF, ALEX P.; CRINION, JENNY; PRICE, CATHY J.

2011-01-01

91

Primary progressive aphasia: linguistic patterns and clinical variants.  

PubMed

We investigated whether primary progressive aphasias (PPA) reflect non-random degradation of linguistic dimensions that might be supported by different neural subsystems and to what extent this degradation contributes to the emergence of clinical entities: semantic (S), logopenic (L) and nonfluent (NF) aphasia; apraxia of speech was also considered if associated with language disorders (AOS/aph). Forty-two aphasic patients are reported. Two main definable patterns of linguistic deficits tended to emerge that corresponded with identifiable patterns of brain atrophy, and probably diseases: the S variant, which principally expresses the impact of a "deep" cognitive (semantic) disorder on language, and AOS/aph in which "peripheral" executive components play a significant role. By contrast, NF aphasia emerged as a heterogeneous variant due to disorganization of various dimensions within the linguistic domain, that assumes different patterns depending on the differential distribution of atrophy in the perisylvian regions. PMID:24974082

Silveri, Maria Caterina; Pravatŕ, Emanuele; Brita, Anna Clelia; Improta, Erika; Ciccarelli, Nicoletta; Rossi, Paola; Colosimo, Cesare

2014-08-01

92

Rapid improvement in verbal fluency and aphasia following perispinal etanercept in Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Background Recent clinical studies point to rapid and sustained clinical, cognitive, and behavioral improvement in both Alzheimer's disease and primary progressive aphasia following weekly perispinal administration of etanercept, a TNF-alpha inhibitor that acts by blocking the binding of this cytokine to its receptors. This outcome is concordant with recent basic science studies suggesting that TNF-alpha functions in vivo as a gliotransmitter that regulates synaptic function in the brain. We hypothesized that perispinal etanercept had the potential to improve verbal function in Alzheimer's disease, so we included several standarized measures of verbal ability to evaluate language skills in a clinical trial of perispinal etanercept for Alzheimer's disease. Methods This was a prospective, single-center, open-label, pilot study, in which 12 patients with mild-to-severe Alzheimer's disease were administered etanercept, 25–50 mg, weekly by perispinal administration for six months. Two additional case studies are presented. Results Two-tailed, paired t-tests were conducted comparing baseline performance to 6-month performance on all neuropsychological measures. Test batteries included the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition, Adult Version; Logical Memory I and II(WMS-LM-II) from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Abbreviated; the Comprehensive Trail Making Test (TMT); Boston Naming Test; and letter(FAS) and category verbal fluency. All measures revealed a significant effect except for the Boston Naming Test and the TMT-4, with WMS-LM-II being marginally significant at p = .05. The FAS test for letter fluency was most highly significant with a p < 0.0007. In addition, rapid improvement in verbal fluency and aphasia in two patients with dementia, beginning minutes after perispinal etanercept administration, is documented. Conclusion In combination with the previously reported results of perispinal etanercept in Alzheimer's disease and primary progressive aphasia, these results further argue that larger scale studies of this therapeutic intervention, including Phase 3 trials, are warranted in dementias. In addition, these results may provide insight into the basic pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's disease and related forms of dementia, and suggest the existence of novel, rapidly reversible, TNF-mediated pathophysiologic mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease which are worthy of further investigation. PMID:18644112

Tobinick, Edward L; Gross, Hyman

2008-01-01

93

Capturing multidimensionality in stroke aphasia: mapping principal behavioural components to neural structures.  

PubMed

Stroke aphasia is a multidimensional disorder in which patient profiles reflect variation along multiple behavioural continua. We present a novel approach to separating the principal aspects of chronic aphasic performance and isolating their neural bases. Principal components analysis was used to extract core factors underlying performance of 31 participants with chronic stroke aphasia on a large, detailed battery of behavioural assessments. The rotated principle components analysis revealed three key factors, which we labelled as phonology, semantic and executive/cognition on the basis of the common elements in the tests that loaded most strongly on each component. The phonology factor explained the most variance, followed by the semantic factor and then the executive-cognition factor. The use of principle components analysis rendered participants' scores on these three factors orthogonal and therefore ideal for use as simultaneous continuous predictors in a voxel-based correlational methodology analysis of high resolution structural scans. Phonological processing ability was uniquely related to left posterior perisylvian regions including Heschl's gyrus, posterior middle and superior temporal gyri and superior temporal sulcus, as well as the white matter underlying the posterior superior temporal gyrus. The semantic factor was uniquely related to left anterior middle temporal gyrus and the underlying temporal stem. The executive-cognition factor was not correlated selectively with the structural integrity of any particular region, as might be expected in light of the widely-distributed and multi-functional nature of the regions that support executive functions. The identified phonological and semantic areas align well with those highlighted by other methodologies such as functional neuroimaging and neurostimulation. The use of principle components analysis allowed us to characterize the neural bases of participants' behavioural performance more robustly and selectively than the use of raw assessment scores or diagnostic classifications because principle components analysis extracts statistically unique, orthogonal behavioural components of interest. As such, in addition to improving our understanding of lesion-symptom mapping in stroke aphasia, the same approach could be used to clarify brain-behaviour relationships in other neurological disorders. PMID:25348632

Butler, Rebecca A; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Woollams, Anna M

2014-12-01

94

Capturing multidimensionality in stroke aphasia: mapping principal behavioural components to neural structures  

PubMed Central

Stroke aphasia is a multidimensional disorder in which patient profiles reflect variation along multiple behavioural continua. We present a novel approach to separating the principal aspects of chronic aphasic performance and isolating their neural bases. Principal components analysis was used to extract core factors underlying performance of 31 participants with chronic stroke aphasia on a large, detailed battery of behavioural assessments. The rotated principle components analysis revealed three key factors, which we labelled as phonology, semantic and executive/cognition on the basis of the common elements in the tests that loaded most strongly on each component. The phonology factor explained the most variance, followed by the semantic factor and then the executive-cognition factor. The use of principle components analysis rendered participants’ scores on these three factors orthogonal and therefore ideal for use as simultaneous continuous predictors in a voxel-based correlational methodology analysis of high resolution structural scans. Phonological processing ability was uniquely related to left posterior perisylvian regions including Heschl’s gyrus, posterior middle and superior temporal gyri and superior temporal sulcus, as well as the white matter underlying the posterior superior temporal gyrus. The semantic factor was uniquely related to left anterior middle temporal gyrus and the underlying temporal stem. The executive-cognition factor was not correlated selectively with the structural integrity of any particular region, as might be expected in light of the widely-distributed and multi-functional nature of the regions that support executive functions. The identified phonological and semantic areas align well with those highlighted by other methodologies such as functional neuroimaging and neurostimulation. The use of principle components analysis allowed us to characterize the neural bases of participants’ behavioural performance more robustly and selectively than the use of raw assessment scores or diagnostic classifications because principle components analysis extracts statistically unique, orthogonal behavioural components of interest. As such, in addition to improving our understanding of lesion–symptom mapping in stroke aphasia, the same approach could be used to clarify brain–behaviour relationships in other neurological disorders. PMID:25348632

Butler, Rebecca A.

2014-01-01

95

Can tDCS enhance treatment of aphasia after stroke?  

PubMed Central

Background Recent advances in the application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in healthy populations have led to the exploration of the technique as an adjuvant method to traditional speech therapies in patients with post-stroke aphasia. Aims The purpose of the review is: (i) to review the features of tDCS that make it an attractive tool for research and potential future use in clinical contexts; (ii) to describe recent studies exploring the facilitation of language performance using tDCS in post-stroke aphasia; (iii) to explore methodological considerations of tDCS that may be key to understanding tDCS in treatment of aphasia post stroke; and (iv) to highlight several caveats and outstanding questions that need to be addressed in future work. Main Contribution This review aims to highlight our current understanding of the methodological and theoretical issues surrounding the use of tDCS as an adjuvant tool in the treatment of language difficulties after stroke. Conclusions Preliminary evidence shows that tDCS may be a useful tool to complement treatment of aphasia, particularly for speech production in chronic stroke patients. To build on this exciting work, further systematic research is needed to understand the mechanisms of tDCS-induced effects, its application to current models of aphasia recovery, and the complex interactions between different stimulation parameters and language rehabilitation techniques. The potential of tDCS is to optimise language rehabilitation techniques and promote long-term recovery of language. A stimulating future for aphasia rehabilitation! PMID:23060684

Holland, Rachel; Crinion, Jenny

2011-01-01

96

The Neural Basis of Syntactic Deficits in Primary Progressive Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) vary considerably in terms of which brain regions are impacted, as well as in the extent to which syntactic processing is impaired. Here we review the literature on the neural basis of syntactic deficits in PPA. Structural and functional imaging studies have most consistently associated syntactic…

Wilson, Stephen M.; Galantucci, Sebastiano; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

2012-01-01

97

Elicitation of Specific Syntactic Structures in Primary Progressive Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) are impaired in syntactic production. Because most previous studies of expressive syntax in PPA have relied on quantitative analysis of connected speech samples, which is a relatively unconstrained task, it is not well understood which specific syntactic structures are most challenging for these…

DeLeon, Jessica; Gesierich, Benno; Besbris, Max; Ogar, Jennifer; Henry, Maya L.; Miller, Bruce L.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Wilson, Stephen M.

2012-01-01

98

Production of Modal and Negative Particles in Greek Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims at investigating the production of the Greek modal and negative particles by non-fluent aphasic patients. These particles belong to the highest part of the verb periphrasis, so they are likely to be impaired in non-fluent aphasia, according to some hypotheses about agrammatic language. Moreover, there is an agreement relation…

Koukoulioti, Vasiliki

2010-01-01

99

Training Volunteers as Conversation Partners for People with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: One of the most disabling consequences of aphasia is the way it excludes the person from conversation. A number of studies have attempted to tackle this problem by training the conversational partners of aphasic people. This study offers an evaluation of this approach. Aims: Six volunteers were trained in conversing with people with…

Rayner, Helen; Marshall, Jane

2003-01-01

100

Topic generation in aphasia language therapy sessions: Issues of identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Aphasia language therapy sessions have a general “order of phases” and usually open with a period of casual conversation. It has been noted that the overall structure of participation in therapy, characterised by therapist control, is anticipated in this opening phase. The detailed mechanisms through which control is achieved and sustained have not been fully examined. The processes through

Simon Horton

2007-01-01

101

Improving language without words: First evidence from aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pervasiveness of word-finding difficulties in aphasia has motivated several theories regarding management of the deficit and its effectiveness. Recently, the hypothesis was advanced that instead of simply accompanying speech gestures participate in language production by increasing the semantic activation of words grounded in sensory-motor features, hence facilitating retrieval of the word form. Based on this assumption, several studies have

Paola Marangolo; Silvia Bonifazi; Francesco Tomaiuolo; Laila Craighero; Michela Coccia; Gianmarco Altoč; Leandro Provinciali; Anna Cantagallo

2010-01-01

102

Improving Language without Words: First Evidence from Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pervasiveness of word-finding difficulties in aphasia has motivated several theories regarding management of the deficit and its effectiveness. Recently, the hypothesis was advanced that instead of simply accompanying speech gestures participate in language production by increasing the semantic activation of words grounded in sensory-motor…

Marangolo, Paola; Bonifazi, Silvia; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Craighero, Laila; Coccia, Michela; Altoe, Gianmarco; Provinciali, Leandro; Cantagallo, Anna

2010-01-01

103

Speech Errors in Progressive Non-Fluent Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature and frequency of speech production errors in neurodegenerative disease have not previously been precisely quantified. In the present study, 16 patients with a progressive form of non-fluent aphasia (PNFA) were asked to tell a story from a wordless children's picture book. Errors in production were classified as either phonemic,…

Ash, Sharon; McMillan, Corey; Gunawardena, Delani; Avants, Brian; Morgan, Brianna; Khan, Alea; Moore, Peachie; Gee, James; Grossman, Murray

2010-01-01

104

Progranulin-Associated Primary Progressive Aphasia: A Distinct Phenotype?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The neuropsychological features of the primary progressive aphasia (PPA) syndromes continue to be defined. Here we describe a detailed neuropsychological case study of a patient with a mutation in the progranulin ("GRN") gene who presented with progressive word-finding difficulty. Key neuropsychological features in this case included gravely…

Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warrington, Elizabeth K.; Warren, Jason D.

2010-01-01

105

Pre-Lexical Disorders in Repetition Conduction Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the level of clinical speech/language evaluation, the repetition type of conduction aphasia is characterized by repetition difficulties concomitant with reduced short-term memory capacities, in the presence of fluent spontaneous speech as well as unimpaired naming and reading abilities. It is still unsettled which dysfunctions of the…

Sidiropoulos, Kyriakos; de Bleser, Ria; Ackermann, Hermann; Preilowski, Bruno

2008-01-01

106

Identifying Behavioral Measures of Stress in Individuals with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To develop valid indicators of stress in individuals with aphasia (IWA) by examining the relationship between certain language variables (error frequency [EF] and word productivity [WP]) and cortisol reactivity. Method: Fourteen IWA and 10 controls participated in a speaking task. Salivary cortisol was collected pre- and posttask. WP and…

Laures-Gore, Jacqueline S.; DuBay, Michaela F.; Duff, Melissa C.; Buchanan, Tony W.

2010-01-01

107

Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Three Individuals with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is evidence to suggest that people with aphasia (PWA) may have deficits in attention stemming from the inefficient allocation of resources. The inaccurate perception of task demand, or sense of effort, may underlie the misallocation of the available attention resources. Given the lack of treatment options for improving attention…

Orenstein, Ellen; Basilakos, Alexandra; Marshall, Rebecca Shisler

2012-01-01

108

Group Treatment for Aphasia Using Cooperative Learning Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cooperative group treatment for aphasia based on cooperative learning principles is designed to improve communication skills during small, two-member group interactions. The treatment involves teamwork incorporating positive interdependence, face-to-face promotive interaction, individual accountability, and group processing. Group size, treatment…

Avent, Jan

2004-01-01

109

Analysis of VOT in Turkish Speakers with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies investigating voicing onset time (VOT) production by speakers with aphasia have shown that nonfluent aphasics show a deficit in the articulatory programming of speech sounds based on the range of VOT values produced by aphasic individuals. If the VOT value lies between the normal range of VOT for the voiced and voiceless categories, then…

Kopkalli-Yavuz, Handan; Mavis, Ilknur; Akyildiz, Didem

2011-01-01

110

A Study of Syntactic Processing in Aphasia II: Neurological Aspects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of a study of the effects of left hemisphere strokes on syntactically-based comprehension in aphasic patients. We studied 42 patients with aphasia secondary to left hemisphere strokes and 25 control subjects for the ability to assign and interpret three syntactic structures (passives, object extracted relative…

Caplan, David; Waters, Gloria; Kennedy, David; Alpert, Nathanial; Makris, Nikos; DeDe, Gayle; Michaud, Jennifer; Reddy, Amanda

2007-01-01

111

Dry cell battery poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries: Manganese dioxide

112

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Intervention in Long-Term Aphasia Post-Stroke: The Experience from CHANT (Communication Hub for Aphasia in North Tyneside)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Despite recognition of the need for increased long-term support for people with aphasia following stroke, there remains limited evidence for effective service-level interventions. Aims: To evaluate the outcomes and experiences of people participating in the Communication Hub for Aphasia in North Tyneside (CHANT), a 2-year partnership…

Mumby, Katharyn; Whitworth, Anne

2012-01-01

113

A Comparison of Picture Description Abilities in Individuals with Vascular Subcortical Lesions and Huntington's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The lexical-semantic and syntactic abilities of a group of individuals with chronic nonthalamic subcortical (NS) lesions following stroke (n=6) were investigated using the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) picture description task [Kertesz, A. (1982). "The Western aphasia battery." New York: Grune and Stratton] and compared with those of a group of…

Jensen, Angela M.; Chenery, Helen J.; Copland, David A.

2006-01-01

114

Learning and maintaining new vocabulary in persons with aphasia: Two controlled case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Novel word learning of persons with aphasia is little studied, even though a better understanding of learning processes would inform development of effective treatment strategies. Recent evidence suggests some remaining verbal learning capacity in persons with aphasia. Long-term maintenance of newly learned active vocabulary has not been reported previously in persons with aphasia.Aims: To explore learning and long-term maintenance

Leena Tuomiranta; Petra Grönholm-Nyman; Francine Kohen; Pirkko Rautakoski; Matti Laine; Nadine Martin

2011-01-01

115

Frontotemporal dementia and primary progressive aphasia, a review.  

PubMed

Frontotemporal dementias are neurodegenerative diseases in which symptoms of frontal and/or temporal lobe disease are the first signs of the illness, and as the diseases progress, they resemble a focal left hemisphere process such as stroke or traumatic brain injury, even more than a neurodegenerative disease. Over time, some patients develop a more generalized dementia. Four clinical subtypes characterize the predominant presentations of this illness: behavioral or frontal variant FTD, progressive nonfluent aphasia, semantic dementia, and logopenic primary progressive aphasia. These clinical variants correlate with regional patterns of atrophy on brain imaging studies such as MRI and PET scanning, as well as with biochemical and molecular genetic variants of the disorder. The treatment is as yet only symptomatic, but advances in molecular genetics promise new therapies. PMID:24966676

Kirshner, Howard S

2014-01-01

116

Conversation Therapy for Agrammatism: Exploring the Therapeutic Process of Engagement and Learning by a Person with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background & Aims: A recent systematic review of conversation training for communication partners of people with aphasia has shown that it is effective, and improves participation in conversation for people with chronic aphasia. Other research suggests that people with aphasia are better able to learn communication strategies in an environment…

Beckley, Firle; Best, Wendy; Johnson, Fiona; Edwards, Susan; Maxim, Jane; Beeke, Suzanne

2013-01-01

117

Paintable Battery  

PubMed Central

If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations. PMID:22745900

Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

2012-01-01

118

Manipulating hemispheric attentional mechanisms to modulate word retrieval in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Emerging evidence suggests that left hemisphere damage may create an attentional bias towards stimuli initially processed in the right hemisphere.Aims: The current study aimed to investigate whether this hemispheric attentional bias influences spoken word production in a picture–word interference task.Methods & Procedures: Two participants with aphasia and seven healthy controls named centrally presented pictures that were preceded by a

Sophia J. van Hees; Erin R. Smith; David A. Copland

2011-01-01

119

Can tDCS enhance treatment of aphasia after stroke?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent advances in the application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in healthy populations have led to the exploration of the technique as an adjuvant method to traditional speech therapies in patients with post-stroke aphasia.Aims: The purpose of the review is: (i) to review the features of tDCS that make it an attractive tool for research and potential future use in

Rachel Holland; Jenny Crinion

2011-01-01

120

Can tDCS enhance treatment of aphasia after stroke?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent advances in the application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in healthy populations have led to the exploration of the technique as an adjuvant method to traditional speech therapies in patients with post-stroke aphasia.Aims: The purpose of the review is: (i) to review the features of tDCS that make it an attractive tool for research and potential future

Rachel Holland; Jenny Crinion

2012-01-01

121

Dystypia: Isolated Typing Impairment without Aphasia, Apraxia or Visuospatial Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a 60-year-old right-handed Japanese man who showed an isolated persistent typing impairment without aphasia, agraphia, apraxia or any other neuropsychological deficit. We coined the term ‘dystypia’ for this peculiar neuropsychological manifestation. The symptom was caused by an infarction in the left frontal lobe involving the foot of the second frontal convolution and the frontal operculum. The patient’s typing

Mika Otsuki; Yoshiaki Soma; Shoji Arihiro; Yoshimasa Watanabe; Hiroshi Moriwaki; Hiroaki Naritomi

2002-01-01

122

Lateralization of Cognitive Functions in Aphasia after Right Brain Damage  

PubMed Central

Purpose The lateralization of cognitive functions in crossed aphasia in dextrals (CAD) has been explored and compared mainly with cases of aphasia with left hemisphere damage. However, comparing the neuropsychological aspects of CAD and aphasia after right brain damage in left-handers (ARL) could potentially provide more insights into the effect of a shift in the laterality of handedness or language on other cognitive organization. Thus, this case study compared two cases of CAD and one case of ARL. Materials and Methods The following neuropsychological measures were obtained from three aphasic patients with right brain damage (two cases of CAD and one case of ARL); language, oral and limb praxis, and nonverbal cognitive functions (visuospatial neglect and visuospatial construction). Results All three patients showed impaired visuoconstructional abilities, whereas each patient showed a different level of performances for oral and limb praxis, and visuospatial neglect. Conclusion Based on the analysis of these three aphasic patients' performances, we highlighted the lateralization of language, handedness, oral and limb praxis, visuospatial neglect and visuospatial constructive ability in aphasic patients with right brain damage. PMID:22476990

Ha, Ji-Wan; Hwang, Yu Mi; Sim, Hyunsub

2012-01-01

123

From singing to speaking: facilitating recovery from nonfluent aphasia.  

PubMed

It has been reported for more than 100 years that patients with severe nonfluent aphasia are better at singing lyrics than they are at speaking the same words. This observation led to the development of melodic intonation therapy (MIT). However, the efficacy of this therapy has yet to be substantiated in a randomized controlled trial. Furthermore, its underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. The two unique components of MIT are the intonation of words and simple phrases using a melodic contour that follows the prosody of speech and the rhythmic tapping of the left hand that accompanies the production of each syllable and serves as a catalyst for fluency. Research has shown that both components are capable of engaging fronto-temporal regions in the right hemisphere, thereby making MIT particularly well suited for patients with large left hemisphere lesions who also suffer from nonfluent aphasia. Recovery from aphasia can happen in two ways: either through the recruitment of perilesional brain regions in the affected hemisphere, with variable recruitment of right-hemispheric regions if the lesion is small, or through the recruitment of homologous language and speech-motor regions in the unaffected hemisphere if the lesion of the affected hemisphere is extensive. Treatment-associated neural changes in patients undergoing MIT indicate that the unique engagement of right-hemispheric structures (e.g., the superior temporal lobe, primary sensorimotor, premotor and inferior frontal gyrus regions) and changes in the connections across these brain regions may be responsible for its therapeutic effect. PMID:21088709

Schlaug, Gottfried; Norton, Andrea; Marchina, Sarah; Zipse, Lauryn; Wan, Catherine Y

2010-09-01

124

Lexical and prosodic effects on syntactic ambiguity resolution in aphasia.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether and when individuals with aphasia and healthy controls use lexical and prosodic information during on-line sentence comprehension. Individuals with aphasia and controls (n = 12 per group) participated in a self-paced listening experiment. The stimuli were early closure sentences, such as "While the parents watched(,) the child sang a song." Both lexical and prosodic cues were manipulated. The cues were biased toward the subject- or object- of the ambiguous noun phrase (the child). Thus, there were two congruous conditions (in which both lexical cues and prosodic cues were consistent) and two incongruous conditions (in which lexical and prosodic cues conflicted). The results showed that the people with aphasia had longer listening times for the ambiguous noun phrase (the child) when the cues were conflicting, rather than consistent. The controls showed effects earlier in the sentence, at the subordinate verb (watched or danced). Both groups showed evidence of reanalysis at the main verb (sang). These effects demonstrate that the aphasic group was sensitive to the lexical and prosodic cues, but used them on a delayed time course relative to the control group. PMID:22143353

DeDe, Gayle

2012-10-01

125

Lexical and Prosodic Effects on Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution in Aphasia  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine whether and when individuals with aphasia and healthy controls use lexical and prosodic information during on-line sentence comprehension. Individuals with aphasia and controls (n = 12 per group) participated in a self-paced listening experiment. The stimuli were early closure sentences, such as “While the parents watched(,) the child sang a song.” Both lexical and prosodic cues were manipulated. The cues were biased toward the subject- or object- of the ambiguous noun phrase (the child). Thus, there were two congruous conditions (in which both lexical cues and prosodic cues were consistent) and two incongruous conditions (in which lexical and prosodic cues conflicted). The results showed that the people with aphasia had longer listening times for the ambiguous noun phrase (the child) when the cues were conflicting, rather than consistent. The controls showed effects earlier in the sentence, at the subordinate verb (watched or danced). Both groups showed evidence of reanalysis at the main verb (sang). These effects demonstrate that the aphasic group was sensitive to the lexical and prosodic cues, but used them on a delayed time course relative to the control group. PMID:22143353

DeDe, Gayle

2012-01-01

126

Using mobile technology with individuals with aphasia: native iPad features and everyday apps.  

PubMed

The use of mobile technology, including smartphones and tablet devices, is a growing trend among adults nationwide, and its potential use in aphasia rehabilitation has generated widespread interest. Despite this trend, adults living with disability are less likely than other adults to go online. Complicating things further, most adults living with aphasia come from a generation where computers and technology were not an integral part of their lives. Additionally, training adults with aphasia requires a different approach than training those in the same age bracket without a disability. This article describes the mobile technology program at the Adler Aphasia Center in Maywood, New Jersey. The goal of this program is to improve access to mobile technology for people with aphasia. The use of mobile devices is the focus of the article. Mobile technology concepts and skills needed to establish a strong foundation for successful iPad (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA) use are suggested. We discuss how apps may be used to support aphasia therapy with a focus on apps that are native to the iPad and on other apps that were not specifically developed for aphasia rehabilitation. Challenges in implementing a mobile technology program for people with aphasia and individual member success stories are included. PMID:24449461

Szabo, Gretchen; Dittelman, Janice

2014-02-01

127

Group Effects of Instrumentality and Name Relation on Action Naming in Bilingual Anomic Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Verb production in sentences was investigated in two groups of late bilingual Greek-English speakers: individuals with anomic aphasia and a control group. Verb retrieval in sentences was significantly impaired in both languages for the individuals with anomic aphasia. Additional results revealed no effect of instrumentality on action naming in…

Kambanaros, Maria

2009-01-01

128

A MEG Investigation of Single-Word Auditory Comprehension in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To explore whether individuals with aphasia exhibit differences in the M350, an electrophysiological marker of lexical activation, compared with healthy controls. Method: Seven people with aphasia, 9 age-matched controls, and 10 younger controls completed an auditory lexical decision task while cortical activity was recorded with…

Zipse, Lauryn; Kearns, Kevin; Nicholas, Marjorie; Marantz, Alec

2011-01-01

129

Changes in N400 Topography Following Intensive Speech Language Therapy for Individuals with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our goal was to characterize the effects of intensive aphasia therapy on the N400, an electrophysiological index of lexical-semantic processing. Immediately before and after 4 weeks of intensive speech-language therapy, people with aphasia performed a task in which they had to determine whether spoken words were a "match" or a "mismatch" to…

Wilson, K. Ryan; O'Rourke, Heather; Wozniak, Linda A.; Kostopoulos, Ellina; Marchand, Yannick; Newman, Aaron J.

2012-01-01

130

A 3-Year Evolution of Linguistic Disorders in Aphasia after Stroke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aphasia recovery after stroke has been the subject of several studies, but in none the deficits on the various linguistic levels were examined, even though in the diagnosis and treatment of aphasia the emphasis lays more and more on these linguistic level disorders. In this observational prospective follow-up study, we explored whether it is…

El Hachioui, Hanane; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke W. M. E.; Dippel, Diederik W. J.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Visch-Brink, Evy G.

2011-01-01

131

Revealing and Quantifying the Impaired Phonological Analysis Underpinning Impaired Comprehension in Wernicke's Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wernicke's aphasia is a condition which results in severely disrupted language comprehension following a lesion to the left temporo-parietal region. A phonological analysis deficit has traditionally been held to be at the root of the comprehension impairment in Wernicke's aphasia, a view consistent with current functional neuroimaging which finds…

Robson, Holly; Keidel, James L.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Sage, Karen

2012-01-01

132

Language Assessment of a Farsi-Norwegian Bilingual Speaker with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increased occurrence of strokes combined with the high incidence of bilingualism in many regions of the world has led to an increasing number of bilingual adults with aphasia. The literature on bilingual aphasia shows the need for valid, comprehensive and reliable assessment tools for diagnostic and treatment purposes. In spite of a growing…

Koumanidi Knoph, Monica I.

2011-01-01

133

Error Variability and the Differentiation between Apraxia of Speech and Aphasia with Phonemic Paraphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical utility of error variability for differentiating between apraxia of speech (AOS) and aphasia with phonemic paraphasia. Method: Participants were 32 individuals with aphasia after left cerebral injury. Diagnostic groups were formed on the basis of operationalized measures of recognized…

Haley, Katarina L.; Jacks, Adam; Cunningham, Kevin T.

2013-01-01

134

Releasing the Constraints on Aphasia Therapy: The Positive Impact of Gesture and Multimodality Treatments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: There is a 40-year history of interest in the use of arm and hand gestures in treatments that target the reduction of aphasic linguistic impairment and compensatory methods of communication (Rose, 2006). Arguments for constraining aphasia treatment to the verbal modality have arisen from proponents of constraint-induced aphasia therapy…

Rose, Miranda L.

2013-01-01

135

Singing Therapy Can Be Effective for a Patient with Severe Nonfluent Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patients with severe aphasia are rarely treated using speech therapy. We used music therapy to continue to treat a 79-year-old patient with chronic severe aphasia. Interventions 1, 2, and 3 were to practice singing a song that the patient knew, to practice singing a song with a therapist, and to practice saying a greeting using a song with lyrics,…

Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Akanuma, Kyoko; Hatayama, Yuka; Otera, Masako; Meguro, Kenichi

2012-01-01

136

Communicatively accessible public transport for people with aphasia: A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There has been little research as to how society accommodates the communicative needs of people with aphasia. The accessibility of public transport becomes important post stroke and good communication skills are vital for successful travel.Aims: This pilot study aims to identify the communicative barriers and facilitators that exist when people with aphasia use public transport.Methods & Procedures: The qualitative

Catherine Ashton; Noor Aziziah Aziz; Caroline Barwood; Renée French; Elizabeth Savina; Linda Worrall

2008-01-01

137

Masked Priming Effects in Aphasia: Evidence of Altered Automatic Spreading Activation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Previous research has suggested that impairments of automatic spreading activation may underlie some aphasic language deficits. The current study further investigated the status of automatic spreading activation in individuals with aphasia as compared with typical adults. Method: Participants were 21 individuals with aphasia (12 fluent, 9…

Silkes, JoAnn P.; Rogers, Margaret A.

2012-01-01

138

Using Semantic Feature Analysis to Improve Contextual Discourse in Adults with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Semantic feature analysis (SFA) was used to determine whether training contextually related words would improve the discourse of individuals with nonfluent aphasia in preselected contexts. Method: A modified multiple-probes-across-behaviors design was used to train target words using SFA in 3 adults with nonfluent aphasia. Pretreatment,…

Rider, Jill Davis; Wright, Heather Harris; Marshall, Robert C.; Page, Judith L.

2008-01-01

139

Use of the BAT with a Cantonese-Putonghua Speaker with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this article is to illustrate the use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) with a Cantonese-Putonghua speaker. We describe G, who is a relatively young Chinese bilingual speaker with aphasia. G's communication abilities in his L2, Putonghua, were impaired following brain damage. This impairment caused specific difficulties in…

Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Weekes, Brendan Stuart

2011-01-01

140

Rehabilitation in Bilingual Aphasia: Evidence for within- and between-Language Generalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The goal of this study was to examine if there was a principled way to understand the nature of rehabilitation in bilingual aphasia such that patterns of acquisition and generalization are predictable and logical. Method: Seventeen Spanish-English bilingual individuals with aphasia participated in the experiment. For each participant,…

Kiran, Swathi; Sandberg, Chaleece; Gray, Teresa; Ascenso, Elsa; Kester, Ellen

2013-01-01

141

Default-Mode Network Functional Connectivity in Aphasia: Therapy-Induced Neuroplasticity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research on participants with aphasia has mainly been based on standard functional neuroimaging analysis. Recent studies have shown that functional connectivity analysis can detect compensatory activity, not revealed by standard analysis. Little is known, however, about the default-mode network in aphasia. In the current study, we studied…

Marcotte, Karine; Perlbarg, Vincent; Marrelec, Guillaume; Benali, Habib; Ansaldo, Ana Ines

2013-01-01

142

A Comparison of Aphasia Therapy Outcomes before and after a Very Early Rehabilitation Programme Following Stroke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Very early aphasia rehabilitation studies have shown mixed results. Differences in therapy intensity and therapy type contribute significantly to the equivocal results. Aims: To compare a standardized, prescribed very early aphasia therapy regimen with a historical usual care control group at therapy completion (4-5 weeks post-stroke)…

Godecke, Erin; Ciccone, Natalie A.; Granger, Andrew S.; Rai, Tapan; West, Deborah; Cream, Angela; Cartwright, Jade; Hankey, Graeme J.

2014-01-01

143

Development of a Short Form of the Boston Naming Test for Individuals with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a short form of the Boston Naming Test (BNT; Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001) for individuals with aphasia and compare it with 2 existing short forms originally analyzed with responses from people with dementia and neurologically healthy adults. Method: Development of the new BNT-Aphasia Short…

del Toro, Christina M.; Bislick, Lauren P.; Comer, Matthew; Velozo, Craig; Romero, Sergio; Rothi, Leslie J. Gonzalez; Kendall, Diane L.

2011-01-01

144

Animal-assisted therapy for persons with aphasia: A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the effects and effectiveness of animal-assisted therapy (AAT) for persons with aphasia. Three men with aphasia from left-hemisphere strokes participated in this study. The men received one semester of traditional ther- apy followed by one semester of AAT. While both therapies were effective, in that each participant met his goals, no significant differences existed between test results

Beth L. Macauley

2006-01-01

145

"You Needed to Rehab...Families as Well": Family Members' Own Goals for Aphasia Rehabilitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Aphasia affects family members in addition to the individuals with the communication disorder. In order to develop appropriate services for the relatives of people with aphasia post-stroke, their rehabilitation goals need to be identified. Aim: The aim of the current investigation was to identify the rehabilitation goals that family…

Howe, Tami; Davidson, Bronwyn; Worrall, Linda; Hersh, Deborah; Ferguson, Alison; Sherratt, Sue; Gilbert, Jocelyn

2012-01-01

146

Supervised Home Training of Dialogue Skills in Chronic Aphasia: A Randomized Parallel Group Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of this study was to prove the efficacy of supervised self-training for individuals with aphasia. Linguistic and communicative performance in structured dialogues represented the main study parameters. Method: In a cross-over design for randomized matched pairs, 18 individuals with chronic aphasia were examined during 12 weeks of…

Nobis-Bosch, Ruth; Springer, Luise; Radermacher, Irmgard; Huber, Walter

2011-01-01

147

Speech-Language Therapists' Process of Including Significant Others in Aphasia Rehabilitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although aphasia rehabilitation should include significant others, it is currently unknown how this recommendation is adopted in speech-language therapy practice. Speech-language therapists' (SLTs) experience of including significant others in aphasia rehabilitation is also understudied, yet a better understanding of clinical…

Hallé, Marie-Christine; Le Dorze, Guylaine; Mingant, Anne

2014-01-01

148

Exposed and Embedded Corrections in Aphasia Therapy: Issues of Voice and Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Because communication after the onset of aphasia can be fraught with errors, therapist corrections are pervasive in therapy for aphasia. Although corrections are designed to improve the accuracy of communication, some corrections can have social and emotional consequences during interactions. That is, exposure of errors can potentially…

Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Damico, Jack S.

2008-01-01

149

Gesture and Speech Integration: An Exploratory Study of a Man with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In order to comprehend fully a speaker's intention in everyday communication, information is integrated from multiple sources, including gesture and speech. There are no published studies that have explored the impact of aphasia on iconic co-speech gesture and speech integration. Aims: To explore the impact of aphasia on co-speech…

Cocks, Naomi; Sautin, Laetitia; Kita, Sotaro; Morgan, Gary; Zlotowitz, Sally

2009-01-01

150

Button batteries  

MedlinePLUS

... Marsolek M: Emerging battery ingestion hazard: Clinical implications. Pediatrics. 2010;125(6): 1168-1177. epub 24 May ... Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap ...

151

Bipolar battery  

DOEpatents

A bipolar battery having a plurality of cells. The bipolar battery includes: a negative electrode; a positive electrode and a separator element disposed between the negative electrode and the positive electrode, the separator element electrically insulating the electrodes from one another; an electrolyte disposed within at least one of the negative electrode, the positive electrode and the separator element; and an electrode containment structure including a cup-like electrode holder.

Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

1992-01-01

152

Zebra batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using molten sodium chloroaluminate as secondary electrolyte, a series of solid transition metal chlorides can be used as positive electrodes in cells with sodium as the negative and beta-alumina as the solid electrlyte. Nickel chloride is preferred and Zebra batteries based on this cell reaction have been developed to the pilot-line production stage. The batteries have a number of features which make them attractive for electric-vehicle applications. Thus, the cells can be assebled in the discharged state eliminating the need to handle liquid sodium. By locating the positive electrode inside the beta-alumina tube, square cell cases can be used giving maximum packing efficiency in batteries. The absence of corrosion in the cell leads to a long life and high reliability. For electric-vehicle applications safety is very imporant, and crash testing has shown that even serious damage to the battery in a crash situation would not present a significant additional hazard to the driver or passengers. The remaining technical challenges are to increase the specific power of the battery towards the end of discharge and to demonstrate that the processes, which have been developed for cell and battery production, are capable of meeting the cost targets.

Sudworth, J. L.

153

Auto Battery Safety Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... 2010 Prevent Blindness America ® All rights reserved. The Battery’s Purpose: A motor vehicle battery does the following ... the air conditioner or radio are turned on. Battery Safety Precautions To prevent an accident that could ...

154

9-Volt Battery Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169 9-volt Battery 9-volt 9-volt batteries power our smoke ... away with other metal items. Storing 9-volt batteries KKK Keep batteries in original packaging until you ...

155

Progranulin-associated primary progressive aphasia: A distinct phenotype?  

PubMed Central

The neuropsychological features of the primary progressive aphasia (PPA) syndromes continue to be defined. Here we describe a detailed neuropsychological case study of a patient with a mutation in the progranulin (GRN) gene who presented with progressive word-finding difficulty. Key neuropsychological features in this case included gravely impoverished propositional speech with anomia and prolonged word-finding pauses, impaired speech repetition most marked for sentences, and severely impaired verbal (with preserved spatial) short-term memory. There was a dissociated profile of performance on semantic processing tasks: visual semantic processing was intact, while within the verbal domain, verb comprehension was impaired and processing of nouns was intact on tasks requiring direct semantic processing but impaired on tasks requiring associative or inferential processing. Brain MRI showed asymmetric left cerebral atrophy particularly affecting the temporo-parietal junction, supero-lateral temporal and inferior frontal lobes. This case most closely resembles the PPA syndrome known as the logopenic/phonological aphasia variant (LPA) however there were also deficits of grammar and speech repetition suggesting an overlap with the progressive non-fluent aphasia (agrammatic) variant (PNFA). Certain prominent features of this case (in particular, the profile of semantic impairment) have not been emphasised in previous descriptions of LPA or PNFA, suggesting that GRN may cause an overlapping PPA syndrome but with a distinctive cognitive profile. This neuropsychological evidence suggests that GRN-PPA may result from damage involving the temporo-parietal junction and its functional connections in both the dorsal and ventral language networks, with implications for our understanding of language network pathophysiology. PMID:19766663

Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warrington, Elizabeth K.; Warren, Jason D.

2010-01-01

156

Lesion localization of global aphasia without hemiparesis by overlapping of the brain magnetic resonance images  

PubMed Central

Global aphasia without hemiparesis is a striking stroke syndrome involving language impairment without the typically manifested contralateral hemiparesis, which is usually seen in patients with global aphasia following large left perisylvian lesions. The objective of this study is to elucidate the specific areas for lesion localization of global aphasia without hemiparesis by retrospectively studying the brain magnetic resonance images of six patients with global aphasia without hemiparesis to define global aphasia without hemiparesis-related stroke lesions before overlapping the images to visualize the most overlapped area. Talairach coordinates for the most overlapped areas were converted to corresponding anatomical regions. Lesions where the images of more than three patients overlapped were considered significant. The overlapped global aphasia without hemiparesis related stroke lesions of six patients revealed that the significantly involved anatomical lesions were as follows: frontal lobe, sub-gyral, sub-lobar, extra-nuclear, corpus callosum, and inferior frontal gyrus, while caudate, claustrum, middle frontal gyrus, limbic lobe, temporal lobe, superior temporal gyrus, uncus, anterior cingulate, parahippocampal, amygdala, and subcallosal gyrus were seen less significantly involved. This study is the first to demonstrate the heterogeneous anatomical involvement in global aphasia without hemiparesis by overlapping of the brain magnetic resonance images. PMID:25657725

Kim, Woo Jin; Paik, Nam-Jong

2014-01-01

157

Lesion localization of global aphasia without hemiparesis by overlapping of the brain magnetic resonance images.  

PubMed

Global aphasia without hemiparesis is a striking stroke syndrome involving language impairment without the typically manifested contralateral hemiparesis, which is usually seen in patients with global aphasia following large left perisylvian lesions. The objective of this study is to elucidate the specific areas for lesion localization of global aphasia without hemiparesis by retrospectively studying the brain magnetic resonance images of six patients with global aphasia without hemiparesis to define global aphasia without hemiparesis-related stroke lesions before overlapping the images to visualize the most overlapped area. Talairach coordinates for the most overlapped areas were converted to corresponding anatomical regions. Lesions where the images of more than three patients overlapped were considered significant. The overlapped global aphasia without hemiparesis related stroke lesions of six patients revealed that the significantly involved anatomical lesions were as follows: frontal lobe, sub-gyral, sub-lobar, extra-nuclear, corpus callosum, and inferior frontal gyrus, while caudate, claustrum, middle frontal gyrus, limbic lobe, temporal lobe, superior temporal gyrus, uncus, anterior cingulate, parahippocampal, amygdala, and subcallosal gyrus were seen less significantly involved. This study is the first to demonstrate the heterogeneous anatomical involvement in global aphasia without hemiparesis by overlapping of the brain magnetic resonance images. PMID:25657725

Kim, Woo Jin; Paik, Nam-Jong

2014-12-01

158

Dissociations Between Fluency And Agrammatism In Primary Progressive Aphasia.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Classical aphasiology, based on the study of stroke sequelae, fuses speech fluency and grammatical ability. Nonfluent (Broca's) aphasia often is accompanied by agrammatism; whereas in the fluent aphasias grammatical deficits are not typical. The assumption that a similar relationship exists in primary progressive aphasia (PPA) has led to the dichotomization of this syndrome into fluent and nonfluent subtypes. AIMS: This study compared elements of fluency and grammatical production in the narrative speech of individuals with PPA to determine if they can be dissociated from one another. METHOD: Speech samples from 37 individuals with PPA, clinically assigned to agrammatic (N=11), logopenic (N=20) and semantic (N=6) subtypes, and 13 cognitively healthy control participants telling the "Cinderella Story" were analyzed for fluency (i.e., words per minute (WPM) and mean length of utterance in words (MLU-W)) and grammaticality (i.e., the proportion of grammatically correct sentences, open-to-closed-class word ratio, noun-to-verb ratio, and correct production of verb inflection, noun morphology, and verb argument structure.) Between group differences were analyzed for each variable. Correlational analyses examined the relation between WPM and each grammatical variable, and an off-line measure of sentence production. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: Agrammatic and logopenic groups both had lower scores on the fluency measures and produced significantly fewer grammatical sentences than did semantic and control groups. However, only the agrammatic group evinced significantly impaired production of verb inflection and verb argument structure. In addition, some semantic participants showed abnormal open-to-closed and noun-to-verb ratios in narrative speech. When the sample was divided on the basis of fluency, all the agrammatic participants fell in the nonfluent category. The logopenic participants varied in fluency but those with low fluency showed variable performance on measures of grammaticality. Correlational analyses and scatter plots comparing fluency and each grammatical variable revealed dissociations within PPA participants, with some nonfluent participants showing normal grammatical skill. CONCLUSIONS: Grammatical production is a complex construct comprised of correct usage of several language components, each of which can be selectively affected by disease. This study demonstrates that individuals with PPA show dissociations between fluency and grammatical production in narrative speech. Grammatical ability, and its relationship to fluency, varies from individual to individual, and from one variant of PPA to another, and can even be found in individuals with semantic PPA in whom a fluent aphasia is usually thought to accompany preserved ability to produce grammatical utterances. PMID:22199417

Thompson, Cynthia K; Cho, Soojin; Hsu, Chien-Ju; Wieneke, Christina; Rademaker, Alfred; Weitner, Bing Bing; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Weintraub, Sandra

2012-01-01

159

Lithium batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical principles and technology of commercial Li batteries operating at ambient temperatures are reviewed in chapters contributed by international specialists. An overview of Li battery systems is presented, and organic and inorganic electrolytes are characterized in terms of properties, structure, conductivity, Li stability, and film formation. Individual chapters are devoted to Li/CuO cells; cells with Pb, Bi, Pb/Bi, or Bi/Cu oxides; Li/FeS2, Li/CuS, Li/MnO2, Li/CF, Li/Ag2CrO4, Li/AgBi(CrO4)2, Li/V2O5, Li/SO2, and Li/oxyhalide cells, secondary Li cells, and solid-electrolyte Li cells. Graphs and tables of performance parameters and drawings and photographs of typical batteries are included. No individual items are abstracted in this volume

Gabano, J.-P.

160

Group effects of instrumentality and name relation on action naming in bilingual anomic aphasia.  

PubMed

Verb production in sentences was investigated in two groups of late bilingual Greek-English speakers: individuals with anomic aphasia and a control group. Verb retrieval in sentences was significantly impaired in both languages for the individuals with anomic aphasia. Additional results revealed no effect of instrumentality on action naming in sentences in either language. However, there was a negative effect of verb-noun name relation on instrumental verb production in English only. Results confirm intact verb lemma retrieval for this group of bilingual individuals with anomic aphasia, but a breakdown at the level of accessing the phonological or lexical form. PMID:19299005

Kambanaros, Maria

2009-07-01

161

Mismatch negativity elicited by tones and speech sounds: changed topographical distribution in aphasia.  

PubMed

This study used the event-related brain potential mismatch negativity (MMN) to investigate preconscious discrimination of harmonically rich tones (differing in duration) and consonant-vowel syllables (differing in the initial consonant) in aphasia. Eighteen Norwegian aphasic patients, examined on average 3 months after brain injury, were compared to 11 healthy controls. The main finding was a difference in topographic distribution of the MMN: the aphasia group showed a less lateralized and centralized topographic pattern especially to CV syllables, which is consistent with a reduced temporal lobe processing contribution and an increased right hemisphere activation. No correlations between MMN amplitude and aphasia test results were found. PMID:17069882

Becker, Frank; Reinvang, Ivar

2007-01-01

162

Dystypia: isolated typing impairment without aphasia, apraxia or visuospatial impairment.  

PubMed

We report a 60-year-old right-handed Japanese man who showed an isolated persistent typing impairment without aphasia, agraphia, apraxia or any other neuropsychological deficit. We coined the term 'dystypia' for this peculiar neuropsychological manifestation. The symptom was caused by an infarction in the left frontal lobe involving the foot of the second frontal convolution and the frontal operculum. The patient's typing impairment was not attributable to a disturbance of the linguistic process, since he had no aphasia or agraphia. The impairment was not attributable to the impairment of the motor execution process either, since he had no apraxia. Thus, his typing impairment was deduced to be based on a disturbance of the intermediate process where the linguistic phonological information is converted into the corresponding performance. We hypothesized that there is a specific process for typing which branches from the motor programming process presented in neurolinguistic models. The foot of the left second frontal convolution and the operculum may play an important role in the manifestation of 'dystypia'. PMID:11914550

Otsuki, Mika; Soma, Yoshiaki; Arihiro, Shoji; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Naritomi, Hiroaki

2002-01-01

163

Intensive language training enhances brain plasticity in chronic aphasia  

PubMed Central

Background Focal clusters of slow wave activity in the delta frequency range (1–4 Hz), as measured by magnetencephalography (MEG), are usually located in the vicinity of structural damage in the brain. Such oscillations are usually considered pathological and indicative of areas incapable of normal functioning owing to deafferentation from relevant input sources. In the present study we investigated the change in Delta Dipole Density in 28 patients with chronic aphasia (>12 months post onset) following cerebrovascular stroke of the left hemisphere before and after intensive speech and language therapy (3 hours/day over 2 weeks). Results Neuropsychologically assessed language functions improved significantly after training. Perilesional delta activity decreased after therapy in 16 of the 28 patients, while an increase was evident in 12 patients. The magnitude of change of delta activity in these areas correlated with the amount of change in language functions as measured by standardized language tests. Conclusions These results emphasize the significance of perilesional areas in the rehabilitation of aphasia even years after the stroke, and might reflect reorganisation of the language network that provides the basis for improved language functions after intensive training. PMID:15331014

Meinzer, Marcus; Elbert, Thomas; Wienbruch, Christian; Djundja, Daniela; Barthel, Gabriela; Rockstroh, Brigitte

2004-01-01

164

Theoretical analysis of word production deficits in adult aphasia  

PubMed Central

The cognitive analysis of adult language disorders continues to draw heavily on linguistic theory, but increasingly it reflects the influence of connectionist, spreading activation models of cognition. In the area of spoken word production, ‘localist’ connectionist models represent a natural evolution from the psycholingistic theories of earlier decades. By contrast, the parallel distributed processing framework forces more radical rethinking of aphasic impairments. This paper exemplifies these multiple influences in contemporary cognitive aphasiology. Topics include (i) what aphasia reveals about semantic-phonological interaction in lexical access; (ii) controversies surrounding the interpretation of semantic errors and (iii) a computational account of the relationship between naming and word repetition in aphasia. Several of these topics have been addressed using case series methods, including computational simulation of the individual, quantitative error patterns of diverse groups of patients and analysis of brain lesions that correlate with error rates and patterns. Efforts to map the lesion correlates of nonword errors in naming and repetition highlight the involvement of sensorimotor areas in the brain and suggest the need to better integrate models of word production with models of speech and action. PMID:24324234

Schwartz, Myrna F.

2014-01-01

165

Learning ability in post-stroke aphasia : success, strategy use and implications for therapy  

E-print Network

Aphasia is an impairment in the expression or comprehension of language that results from stroke, traumatic brain injury or progressive neurological disease. Approximately one million people in the United States suffer ...

Rohter, Sofia Vallila

2014-01-01

166

What's in a sentence? The crucial role of lexical content in sentence production in nonfluent aphasia.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of lexical content on sentence production in nonfluent aphasia. Five participants with nonfluent aphasia, four with fluent aphasia, and eight controls were asked to describe pictured events in subject-verb-object sentences. Experiment 1 manipulated speed of lexical retrieval by varying the frequency of sentence nouns. Nonfluent participants' accuracy was consistently higher for sentences commencing with a high- than with a low-frequency subject noun, even when errors on those nouns were themselves excluded. This was not the case for the fluent participants. Experiment 2 manipulated the semantic relationship between subject and object nouns. The nonfluent participants produced sentences less accurately when they contained related than when they contained unrelated lexical items. The fluent participants exhibited the opposite trend. We propose that individuals with nonfluent aphasia are disproportionately reliant on activated conceptual-lexical representations to drive the sentence generation process, an idea we call the content drives structure (COST) hypothesis. PMID:24512548

Speer, Paula; Wilshire, Carolyn E

2013-01-01

167

Lothian assessment for screening cognition in aphasia (LASCA): A new non verbal assessment of cognition.   

E-print Network

and Language Therapists, Clinical Neuropsychologists and Occupational Therapists in Lothian, Scotland devised a set of cognitive test materials named the Lothian Assessment for Screening of Cognition in Aphasia (LASCA) in an attempt to assess cognition...

Warren, Aisling

2011-11-23

168

Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes  

SciTech Connect

The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and electric vehicles (EVs); a market predicted to be potentially ten times greater than that of consumer electronics. In fact, only Liion batteries can meet the requirements for PHEVs as set by the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), although they still fall slightly short of EV goals. In the case of Li-ion batteries, the trade-off between power and energy shown in Figure 1 is a function both of device design and the electrode materials that are used. Thus, a high power battery (e.g., one intended for an HEV) will not necessarily contain the same electrode materials as one designed for high energy (i.e., for an EV). As is shown in Figure 1, power translates into acceleration, and energy into range, or miles traveled, for vehicular uses. Furthermore, performance, cost, and abuse-tolerance requirements for traction batteries differ considerably from those for consumer electronics batteries. Vehicular applications are particularly sensitive to cost; currently, Li-ion batteries are priced at about $1000/kWh, whereas the USABC goal is $150/kWh. The three most expensive components of a Li-ion battery, no matter what the configuration, are the cathode, the separator, and the electrolyte. Reduction of cost has been one of the primary driving forces for the investigation of new cathode materials to replace expensive LiCoO{sub 2}, particularly for vehicular applications. Another extremely important factor is safety under abuse conditions such as overcharge. This is particularly relevant for the large battery packs intended for vehicular uses, which are designed with multiple cells wired in series arrays. Premature failure of one cell in a string may cause others to go into overcharge during passage of current. These considerations have led to the development of several different types of cathode materials, as will be covered in the next section. Because there is not yet one ideal material that can meet requirements for all applications, research into cathodes for Li-ion batteries is, as of this writ

Doeff, Marca M

2010-07-12

169

A qualitative study of legal and social justice needs for people with aphasia.  

PubMed

This paper presents an exploratory investigation of situations in which people with aphasia may be vulnerable to legal and access to justice issues. The study used a qualitative descriptive approach to analyse 167 de-identified transcriptions of previously collected interviews, with 50 participants with mild-to-severe aphasia following stroke, 48 family members, and their treating speech-language pathologists. Situations experienced by people with aphasia and their family members were coded using key-word searches based on the previously published framework developed by Ellison and colleagues to describe situations of vulnerability to legal and access to justice needs for older people. Health and financial and consumer situations were most frequently identified in the data. Additionally, there were a number of situations found specifically relating to people with aphasia involving their signatures and credit card use. Instances of discrimination and abuse were also identified, and, although infrequent, these issues point to the profound impact of aphasia on the ability to complain and, hence, to ensure rights to care are upheld. The findings of this study are consistent with previous research in suggesting that legal and access to justice needs are an important issue for people with aphasia and their families. PMID:24228890

Morris, Karen; Ferguson, Alison; Worrall, Linda

2014-12-01

170

Facilitation of naming in aphasia with auditory repetition: an investigation of neurocognitive mechanisms.  

PubMed

Prior phonological processing can enhance subsequent picture naming performance in individuals with aphasia, yet the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying this effect and its longevity are unknown. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the short-term (within minutes) and long-term (within days) facilitation effects from a phonological task in both participants with aphasia and age-matched controls. Results for control participants suggested that long-term facilitation of subsequent picture naming may be driven by a strengthening of semantic-phonological connections, while semantic and object recognition mechanisms underlie more short-term effects. All participants with aphasia significantly improved in naming accuracy following both short- and long-term facilitation. A descriptive comparison of the neuroimaging results identified different patterns of activation for each individual with aphasia. The exclusive engagement of a left hemisphere phonological network underlying facilitation was not revealed. The findings suggest that improved naming in aphasia with phonological tasks may be supported by changes in right hemisphere activity in some individuals and reveal the potential contribution of the cerebellum to improved naming following phonological facilitation. Conclusions must be interpreted with caution, however, due to the comparison of corrected group control results to that of individual participants with aphasia, which were not corrected for multiple comparisons. PMID:23684849

Heath, Shiree; McMahon, Katie L; Nickels, Lyndsey; Angwin, Anthony; MacDonald, Anna D; van Hees, Sophia; McKinnon, Eril; Johnson, Kori; Copland, David A

2013-07-01

171

Metal-Air Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

2011-08-01

172

M?ori experiences of aphasia therapy: "But I'm from Hauiti and we've got shags".  

PubMed

This study explored M?ori experiences of aphasia therapy, with a view to ascertaining what makes a service culturally safe as well as "accessible to and culturally appropriate for" M?ori with aphasia and their wh?nau (extended family). M?ori are the indigenous peoples of New Zealand. This study incorporated interpretive description (a qualitative methodology) within kaupapa M?ori research (a M?ori approach to research). In-depth semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 11 M?ori with aphasia and 23 of their nominated wh?nau members. They reported a wide variety of experiences of aphasia therapy, in six themes: We're happy to do the work, but we can't do it alone; Relationship; Our worldview; The speech-language therapy setting; Aphasia resources; and Is this as good as it gets? While some M?ori with aphasia reportedly received an accessible and culturally appropriate service, others did not. It is concluded that, for M?ori with aphasia, a strong therapeutic relationship is central. The success of this relationship is shaped by the SLP's appreciation of the worldview of the person with aphasia and wh?nau, the setting of the therapy, and the resources used. Successful therapy will involve collaboration between clinician and wh?nau, and therapy resources that affirm the identity of the person with aphasia. PMID:24359258

McLellan, Karen M; McCann, Clare M; Worrall, Linda E; Harwood, Matire L N

2014-10-01

173

Secondary batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storage batteries having novel grids for negative and positive electrodes are described. Oxidized lead and\\/or lead oxide paste for the positive electrodes is applied to a metal base selected from the group consisting of tungsten--rhenium alloys, tantalum, and titanium--tantalum alloys. Lead and\\/or oxidized lead paste for the negative electrodes is applied to a metal base selected from the group consisting

V. de Nora; A. Nidola; P. M. Spaziante

1979-01-01

174

Elicitation of specific syntactic structures in primary progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

Many patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) are impaired in syntactic production. Because most previous studies of expressive syntax in PPA have relied on quantitative analysis of connected speech samples, which is a relatively unconstrained task, it is not well understood which specific syntactic structures are most challenging for these patients. We used an elicited syntactic production task to identify which syntactic structures pose difficulties for 31 patients with three variants of PPA: non-fluent/agrammatic, semantic and logopenic. Neurodegenerative and healthy age-matched participants were included as controls. As expected, non-fluent/agrammatic patients made the most syntactic errors. The structures that resulted in the most errors were constructions involving third person singular present agreement, and constructions involving embedded clauses. Deficits on this elicited production task were associated with atrophy of the left posterior inferior frontal gyrus. PMID:23046707

DeLeon, Jessica; Gesierich, Benno; Besbris, Max; Ogar, Jennifer; Henry, Maya L.; Miller, Bruce L.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Wilson, Stephen M.

2012-01-01

175

Tardive Seizure with Postictal Aphasia: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective treatment for certain psychiatric disorders with relatively few serious side effects or complications. Tardive seizures are one of these rare, but potentially fatal complications. Recognizing and treating tardive seizures is essential to prevent prolonged postictal confusion, progression to status epilepticus and associated soft tissue injury, anoxia, aspiration and death. Currently there is an unknown prevalence of their occurrence and an overall lack of clinical description of their phenomenology. We describe a case in which a patient develops a tardive seizure followed by a receptive and expressive aphasia, thought to be a variant of Todd’s postictal paralysis. This case is further unique in that there was a lateralization of a motor seizure presumably to the hemisphere contralateral to the RUL electrode placement. PMID:22573186

Felkel, W. Carson; Wagner, Gerhardt; Kimball, James; Rosenquist, Peter; McCall, W. Vaughn; Arias, Lorraine

2012-01-01

176

Inflectional morphology in primary progressive aphasia: an elicited production study.  

PubMed

Inflectional morphology lies at the intersection of phonology, syntax and the lexicon, three language domains that are differentially impacted in the three main variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). To characterize spared and impaired aspects of inflectional morphology in PPA, we elicited inflectional morphemes in 48 individuals with PPA and 13 healthy age-matched controls. We varied the factors of regularity, frequency, word class, and lexicality, and used voxel-based morphometry to identify brain regions where atrophy was predictive of deficits on particular conditions. All three PPA variants showed deficits in inflectional morphology, with the specific nature of the deficits dependent on the anatomical and linguistic features of each variant. Deficits in inflecting low-frequency irregular words were associated with semantic PPA, with lexical/semantic deficits, and with left temporal atrophy. Deficits in inflecting pseudowords were associated with non-fluent/agrammatic and logopenic variants, with phonological deficits, and with left frontal and parietal atrophy. PMID:25129631

Wilson, Stephen M; Brandt, Temre H; Henry, Maya L; Babiak, Miranda; Ogar, Jennifer M; Salli, Chelsey; Wilson, Lisa; Peralta, Karen; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

2014-09-01

177

Beyond the temporal pole: limbic memory circuit in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia.  

PubMed

Despite accruing evidence for relative preservation of episodic memory in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (previously semantic dementia), the neural basis for this remains unclear, particularly in light of their well-established hippocampal involvement. We recently investigated the Papez network of memory structures across pathological subtypes of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and demonstrated severe degeneration of all relay nodes, with the anterior thalamus in particular emerging as crucial for intact episodic memory. The present study investigated the status of key components of Papez circuit (hippocampus, mammillary bodies, anterior thalamus, cingulate cortex) and anterior temporal cortex using volumetric and quantitative cell counting methods in pathologically-confirmed cases with semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (n = 8; 61-83 years; three males), behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia with TDP pathology (n = 9; 53-82 years; six males) and healthy controls (n = 8, 50-86 years; four males). Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia cases with TDP pathology were selected because of the association between the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia and TDP pathology. Our findings revealed that the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia and behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia show similar degrees of anterior thalamic atrophy. The mammillary bodies and hippocampal body and tail were preserved in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia but were significantly atrophic in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. Importantly, atrophy in the anterior thalamus and mild progressive atrophy in the body of the hippocampus emerged as the main memory circuit regions correlated with increasing dementia severity in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia. Quantitation of neuronal populations in the cingulate cortices confirmed the selective loss of anterior cingulate von Economo neurons in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. We also show that by end-stage these neurons selectively degenerate in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia with preservation of neurons in the posterior cingulate cortex. Overall, our findings demonstrate for the first time, severe atrophy, although not necessarily neuronal loss, across all relay nodes of Papez circuit with the exception of the mammillary bodies and hippocampal body and tail in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia. Despite the longer disease course in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia compared with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, we suggest here that the neural preservation of crucial memory relays (hippocampal?mammillary bodies and posterior cingulate?hippocampus) likely reflects the conservation of specific episodic memory components observed in most patients with semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia. PMID:24844729

Tan, Rachel H; Wong, Stephanie; Kril, Jillian J; Piguet, Olivier; Hornberger, Michael; Hodges, John R; Halliday, Glenda M

2014-07-01

178

Battery depletion monitor  

SciTech Connect

A cmos inverter is used to compare pacemaker battery voltage to a referenced voltage. When the reference voltage exceeds the measured battery voltage, the inverter changes state to indicate battery depletion.

Lee, Y.S.

1982-01-26

179

Household Safety: Button Batteries  

MedlinePLUS

... Expect Ebola: What to Know Household Safety: Button Batteries KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Home Sweet Home > ... child swallows one. These guidelines can help. Safe Battery Storage & Use Store all unused batteries out of ...

180

Battery cell feedthrough apparatus  

DOEpatents

A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

1995-01-01

181

Western Foot Patrol Western University  

E-print Network

Western Foot Patrol Western University Room 57, University Community Centre London, Ontario N6A 3K7 August 2013 Get involved! Volunteer with Western Foot Patrol Welcome to Western! Thank you for your interest in volunteering for Western Foot Patrol (WFP)! WFP is a free service that promotes

Lennard, William N.

182

Profiling Performance in L1 and L2 Observed in Greek-English Bilingual Aphasia Using the Bilingual Aphasia Test: A Case Study from Cyprus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Greek and the English versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) were used to assess the linguistic abilities of a premorbidly highly proficient late bilingual female after a haemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident involving the left temporo-parietal lobe. The BAT was administered in the two languages on separate occasions by the first author,…

Kambanaros, Maria; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.

2011-01-01

183

An fMRI Study Showing the Effect of Acupuncture in Chronic Stage Stroke Patients With Aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acupuncture is used as a treatment in stroke patients with aphasia, yet the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. This study aims to examine the relationship between changes in language function and brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging in chronic stroke patients with aphasia who underwent an 8-week acupuncture protocol. Seven chronic stroke patients were identified from a stroke database

Anson C. M. Chau; Raymond Tak Fai Cheung; Xianyong Jiang; Paul K. M. Au-Yeung; Leonard S. W. Li

2010-01-01

184

Influences of Electromagnetic Articulography Sensors on Speech Produced by Healthy Adults and Individuals with Aphasia and Apraxia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined whether the intraoral transducers used in electromagnetic articulography (EMA) interfere with speech and whether there is an added risk of interference when EMA systems are used to study individuals with aphasia and apraxia. Method: Ten adult talkers (5 individuals with aphasia/apraxia, 5 controls) produced 12 American…

Katz, William F.; Bharadwaj, Sneha V.; Stettler, Monica P.

2006-01-01

185

Evaluation of communication, life participation and psychological well?being in chronic aphasia: The influence of group intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The impact of change in communication, life participation, and psychological well?being in aphasia is recognised but still not fully explored. Further, considerable scope exists to address these factors within the context of intervention. Innovative practices and group intervention are advocated for people with chronic aphasia but detail and evidence remains limited.We are grateful to Leeds Health Authority, the Leeds

Alison Ross; Isabel Winslow; Paul Marchant; Shelagh Brumfitt

2006-01-01

186

Improved Vocabulary Production after Naming Therapy in Aphasia: Can Gains in Picture Naming Generalise to Connected Speech?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Naming accuracy for nouns and verbs in aphasia can vary across different elicitation contexts, for example, simple picture naming, composite picture description, narratives, and conversation. For some people with aphasia, naming may be more accurate to simple pictures as opposed to naming in spontaneous, connected speech; for others,…

Conroy, Paul; Sage, Karen; Ralph, Matt Lambon

2009-01-01

187

An intention manipulation to change lateralization of word production in nonfluent aphasia: current status.  

PubMed

A review of recent aphasia literature indicates that both the left and right hemispheres participate, under various circumstances, in recovery of language and in treatment response. In chronic aphasias with large lesions and poor recovery of function, the right hemisphere is more likely to demonstrate prominent activity than in cases with small lesions and good recoveries. Extraneous activity during language tasks for aphasia patients may occur in both the left and right hemispheres. Right hemisphere activity during language in aphasia patients is likely to occur in structures homologous to damaged left hemisphere structures. When the left hemisphere is so damaged as to preclude a good recovery, recruitment of right-hemisphere mechanisms in the service of rehabilitation may be desirable. Hence a treatment with an intention manipulation (complex left-hand movement) was developed for nonfluent aphasia to assist in relateralization of language production. A review of existing evidence indicates that the intention manipulation adds value to naming treatments and helps shift lateralization of language production to right frontal structures. However, wholesale transfer of language function to the right hemisphere does not occur, and residual language knowledge in the left hemisphere also seems vital for relearning of word production. Further research is needed to understand fully the contribution of the intention manipulation to treatment response. PMID:18720316

Crosson, Bruce

2008-08-01

188

Effect of Number of Graphic Symbols, Levels, and Listening Conditions on Symbol Identification and Latency in Persons with Aphasia.  

PubMed

This study investigated the ability of persons with aphasia to complete a series of experimental tasks involving single symbol and subject-verb-object sentence identification on a speech-generating device (SGD) in the presence/absence of competing stimuli. In all, 10 persons with Broca's aphasia and 10 persons in the control group were compared on accuracy and response latency of symbol identification across three listening conditions. Persons with aphasia identified fewer symbols accurately and had longer response latencies than persons in the control group. Number of symbols on the screen and location level had a significant effect on accuracy and latency for both groups. Persons with aphasia perceived tasks to be more difficult than persons in the control group. Results indicate that effective use of SGDs by persons with aphasia may depend on several message organization factors including location and number of symbols per screen. PMID:24575783

Petroi, Diana; Koul, Rajinder K; Corwin, Melinda

2014-02-27

189

Lithium Ion Batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

1997-01-01

190

Therapy-induced brain reorganization patterns in aphasia.  

PubMed

Both hemispheres are engaged in recovery from word production deficits in aphasia. Lexical therapy has been shown to induce brain reorganization even in patients with chronic aphasia. However, the interplay of factors influencing reorganization patterns still remains unresolved. We were especially interested in the relation between lesion site, therapy-induced recovery, and beneficial reorganization patterns. Thus, we applied intensive lexical therapy, which was evaluated with functional magnetic resonance imaging, to 14 chronic patients with aphasic word retrieval deficits. In a group study, we aimed to illuminate brain reorganization of the naming network in comparison with healthy controls. Moreover, we intended to analyse the data with joint independent component analysis to relate lesion sites to therapy-induced brain reorganization, and to correlate resulting components with therapy gain. As a result, we found peri-lesional and contralateral activations basically overlapping with premorbid naming networks observed in healthy subjects. Reduced activation patterns for patients compared to controls before training comprised damaged left hemisphere language areas, right precentral and superior temporal gyrus, as well as left caudate and anterior cingulate cortex. There were decreasing activations of bilateral visuo-cognitive, articulatory, attention, and language areas due to therapy, with stronger decreases for patients in right middle temporal gyrus/superior temporal sulcus, bilateral precuneus as well as left anterior cingulate cortex and caudate. The joint independent component analysis revealed three components indexing lesion subtypes that were associated with patient-specific recovery patterns. Activation decreases (i) of an extended frontal lesion disconnecting language pathways occurred in left inferior frontal gyrus; (ii) of a small frontal lesion were found in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus; and (iii) of a large temporo-parietal lesion occurred in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and contralateral superior temporal gyrus. All components revealed increases in prefrontal areas. One component was negatively correlated with therapy gain. Therapy was associated exclusively with activation decreases, which could mainly be attributed to higher processing efficiency within the naming network. In our joint independent component analysis, all three lesion patterns disclosed involved deactivation of left inferior frontal gyrus. Moreover, we found evidence for increased demands on control processes. As expected, we saw partly differential reorganization profiles depending on lesion patterns. There was no compensatory deactivation for the large left inferior frontal lesion, with its less advantageous outcome probably being related to its disconnection from crucial language processing pathways. PMID:25688082

Abel, Stefanie; Weiller, Cornelius; Huber, Walter; Willmes, Klaus; Specht, Karsten

2015-04-01

191

Solar battery energizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A battery energizer for button batteries, such as zinc-silver oxide or zinc-mercuric oxide batteries, that are normally considered unchargeable, provides for energizing of the batteries in a safe and simple manner. A solar cell having a maximum current output (e.g., 20 milliamps) is operatively connected to terminals for releasably receiving a button battery. A light emitting diode, or like indicator,

Thompson

1985-01-01

192

Severe Generalized Weakness, Paralysis, and Aphasia following Administration of Irinotecan and Oxaliplatin during FOLFIRINOX Chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background Irinotecan is commonly used in combination with oxaliplatin as a component of FOLFIRINOX chemotherapy for several gastrointestinal malignancies. The purpose of this case report is to describe a patient who developed acute paralysis and aphasia while receiving her initial infusion of irinotecan. Case Report A 67-year-old woman with newly diagnosed metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma presented for her first cycle of FOLFIRINOX chemotherapy. During her infusion of irinotecan, she developed acute onset of generalized weakness, paralysis of all extremities, and nonfluent aphasia with complete inability to communicate. This episode was self-limited and resolved within 2 h. Prior to subsequent infusions she received intravenous repletion of potassium and had no recurrence of symptoms. Discussion In selected cases, coadministration of irinotecan and oxaliplatin may result in severe generalized weakness and aphasia, which may be triggered by underlying electrolyte disturbances. Careful monitoring and correction of potassium may help prevent this reaction. PMID:25873880

Chandar, Manisha; de Wilton Marsh, Robert

2015-01-01

193

Aphasia or Neglect after Thalamic Stroke: The Various Ways They may be Related to Cortical Hypoperfusion  

PubMed Central

Although aphasia and hemispatial neglect are classically labeled as cortical deficits, language deficits or hemispatial neglect following lesions to subcortical regions have been reported in many studies. However, whether or not aphasia and hemispatial neglect can be caused by subcortical lesions alone has been a matter of controversy. It has been previously shown that most cases of aphasia or hemispatial neglect due to acute non-thalamic subcortical infarcts can be accounted for by concurrent cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion, reversible by restoring blood flow to the cortex. In this study, we evaluated whether aphasia or neglect occur after acute thalamic infarct without cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion. Twenty patients with isolated acute thalamic infarcts (10 right and 10 left) underwent MRI scanning and detailed cognitive testing. Results revealed that 5/10 patients with left thalamic infarcts had aphasia and only 1 had cortical hypoperfusion, whereas 2/10 patients with right thalamic infarcts had hemispatial neglect and both had cortical hypoperfusion. These findings indicate that aphasia was observed in some cases of isolated left thalamic infarcts without cortical hypoerfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion (measured with time-to-peak delays), but neglect occurred after isolated right thalamic infarcts only when there was cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion. Therefore, neglect after acute right thalamic infarct should trigger evaluation for cortical hypoperfusion that might improve with restoration of blood flow. Further investigation in a larger group of patients and with other imaging modalities is warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:25477859

Sebastian, Rajani; Schein, Mara G.; Davis, Cameron; Gomez, Yessenia; Newhart, Melissa; Oishi, Kenichi; Hillis, Argye E.

2014-01-01

194

Speech Therapy in Primary Progressive Aphasia: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative disorder with no effective pharmacological treatment. Cognition-based interventions are adequate alternatives, but their benefit has not been thoroughly explored. Our aim was to study the effect of speech and language therapy (SLT) on naming ability in PPA. Methods An open parallel prospective longitudinal study involving two centers was designed to compare patients with PPA submitted to SLT (1 h/week for 11 months) with patients receiving no therapy. Twenty patients were enrolled and undertook baseline language and neuropsychological assessments; among them, 10 received SLT and 10 constituted an age- and education-matched historical control group. The primary outcome measure was the change in group mean performance on the Snodgrass and Vanderwart naming test between baseline and follow-up assessments. Results Intervention and control groups did not significantly differ on demographic and clinical variables at baseline. A mixed repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant main effect of therapy (F(1,18) = 10.763; p = 0.005) on the performance on the Snodgrass and Vanderwart naming test. Conclusion Although limited by a non-randomized open study design with a historical control group, the present study suggests that SLT may have a benefit in PPA, and it should prompt a randomized, controlled, rater-blind clinical trial. PMID:22962556

Farrajota, Luísa; Maruta, Carolina; Maroco, Joăo; Martins, Isabel Pavăo; Guerreiro, Manuela; de Mendonça, Alexandre

2012-01-01

195

Disrupted brain connectome in semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia.  

PubMed

Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and graph analysis, the topological organization of the functional brain network connectivity was explored in patients with left-sided onset semantic variant (SV) of primary progressive aphasia relative to healthy controls. Functional brain networks in SV patients were characterized by a significantly lower mean network degree, clustering coefficient, and global efficiency, longer characteristic path length and higher assortativity compared with controls. SV patients showed also a strongly left-lateralized loss of hubs, and reduced nodal degree in the inferior and ventral temporal regions and occipital cortices. In SV, the decreased nodal degree extended into the medial and ventral frontal cortex bilaterally, left amygdala and/or hippocampus, and left caudate nucleus. These findings provide evidence that the focal structural degeneration of the inferior temporal, and perysilvian language regions in SV patients ultimately results in a distributed pattern of functional connectivity abnormalities. The local network analysis shows that SV is associated with a functional degradation in the "pan-modal" inferior and/or ventral temporal regions, and the "modality-specific" visual cortical origin of the ventral processing pathway. PMID:24970567

Agosta, Federica; Galantucci, Sebastiano; Valsasina, Paola; Canu, Elisa; Meani, Alessandro; Marcone, Alessandra; Magnani, Giuseppe; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo

2014-11-01

196

Subdivision of frontal cortex mechanisms for language production in aphasia  

PubMed Central

Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) has long been linked to language production, but the precise mechanisms are still being elucidated. Using neuropsychological case studies, we explored possible sub-specialization within this region for different linguistic and executive functions. Frontal patients with different lesion profiles completed two sequencing tasks, which were hypothesized to engage partially overlapping components. The multi-word priming task tested the sequencing of co-activated representations and the overriding of primed word orders. The sequence reproduction task tested the sequencing of co-activated representations, but did not employ a priming manipulation. We compared patients’ performance on the two tasks to that of healthy, age-matched controls. Results are partially consistent with an anterior-posterior gradient of cognitive control within lateral prefrontal cortex (Koechlin & Summerfield, 2007). However, we also found a stimulus-specific pattern, which suggests that sub-specialization might be contingent on type of representation as well as type of control signal. Isolating such components functionally and anatomically might lead to a better understanding of language production deficits in aphasia. PMID:23022077

Thothathiri, Malathi; Gagliardi, Maureen; Schwartz, Myrna F.

2012-01-01

197

Delayed auditory feedback simulates features of nonfluent primary progressive aphasia.  

PubMed

The pathophysiology of nonfluent primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA) remains poorly understood. Here, we compared quantitatively speech parameters in patients with nfvPPA versus healthy older individuals under altered auditory feedback, which has been shown to modulate normal speech output. Patients (n=15) and healthy volunteers (n=17) were recorded while reading aloud under delayed auditory feedback [DAF] with latency 0, 50 or 200 ms and under DAF at 200 ms plus 0.5 octave upward pitch shift. DAF in healthy older individuals was associated with reduced speech rate and emergence of speech sound errors, particularly at latency 200 ms. Up to a third of the healthy older group under DAF showed speech slowing and frequency of speech sound errors within the range of the nfvPPA cohort. Our findings suggest that (in addition to any anterior, primary language output disorder) these key features of nfvPPA may reflect distorted speech input signal processing, as simulated by DAF. DAF may constitute a novel candidate pathophysiological model of posterior dorsal cortical language pathway dysfunction in nfvPPA. PMID:25305712

Maruta, Carolina; Makhmood, Sonya; Downey, Laura E; Golden, Hannah L; Fletcher, Phillip D; Witoonpanich, Pirada; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Warren, Jason D

2014-12-15

198

A Behavioral Manipulation Engages Right Frontal Cortex During Aphasia Therapy.  

PubMed

Background. An aphasia treatment was designed to shift laterality from the left to right lateral frontal lobe during word production by initiating word-finding trials with complex left-hand movements. Previous findings indicated successful relateralization. Objective. The current study was designed to ascertain whether the shift was attributable to the left-hand movement. Methods. Using stratified random sampling, 14 subjects were equally divided between Intention (IT) and Control (CT) treatments. CT was identical to IT, except with no left-hand movements. Both treatments trained picture naming (phases 1 and 2) and category-member generation (phase 3), each phase lasting 10 sessions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of category member generation occurred at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up. Results. IT shifted lateral frontal activity rightward compared with pretreatment both at posttreatment (t = -2.602, df = 6, P < .05) and 3-month follow-up (t = -2.332, df = 5, P < .05), but CT did not. IT and CT yielded similar changes for all picture-naming and category probes. However, IT patients showed gains for untrained category (t = 3.33, df = 6, P < .01) and picture-naming probes (t = 3.77, df = 5, P < .01), but CT patients did not. Conclusions. The rightward shift in lateral frontal activity for IT was because of the left-hand movements. IT evoked greater generalization than CT. PMID:24407914

Benjamin, Michelle L; Towler, Stephen; Garcia, Amanda; Park, Hyejin; Sudhyadhom, Atchar; Harnish, Stacy; McGregor, Keith M; Zlatar, Zvinka; Reilly, Jamie J; Rosenbek, John C; Gonzalez Rothi, Leslie J; Crosson, Bruce

2014-01-01

199

Delayed auditory feedback simulates features of nonfluent primary progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

The pathophysiology of nonfluent primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA) remains poorly understood. Here, we compared quantitatively speech parameters in patients with nfvPPA versus healthy older individuals under altered auditory feedback, which has been shown to modulate normal speech output. Patients (n = 15) and healthy volunteers (n = 17) were recorded while reading aloud under delayed auditory feedback [DAF] with latency 0, 50 or 200 ms and under DAF at 200 ms plus 0.5 octave upward pitch shift. DAF in healthy older individuals was associated with reduced speech rate and emergence of speech sound errors, particularly at latency 200 ms. Up to a third of the healthy older group under DAF showed speech slowing and frequency of speech sound errors within the range of the nfvPPA cohort. Our findings suggest that (in addition to any anterior, primary language output disorder) these key features of nfvPPA may reflect distorted speech input signal processing, as simulated by DAF. DAF may constitute a novel candidate pathophysiological model of posterior dorsal cortical language pathway dysfunction in nfvPPA. PMID:25305712

Maruta, Carolina; Makhmood, Sonya; Downey, Laura E.; Golden, Hannah L.; Fletcher, Phillip D.; Witoonpanich, Pirada; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Warren, Jason D.

2014-01-01

200

Measuring Lexical Diversity in Narrative Discourse of People With Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Purpose A microlinguistic content analysis for assessing lexical semantics in people with aphasia (PWA) is lexical diversity (LD). Sophisticated techniques have been developed to measure LD. However, validity evidence for these methodologies when applied to the discourse of PWA is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four measures of LD to determine how effective they were at measuring LD in PWA. Method Four measures of LD were applied to short discourse samples produced by 101 PWA: (a) the Measure of Textual Lexical Diversity (MTLD; McCarthy, 2005), (b) the Moving-Average Type-Token Ratio (MATTR; Covington, 2007), (c) D (McKee, Malvern, & Richards, 2000), and (d) the Hypergeometric Distribution (HD-D; McCarthy & Jarvis, 2007). LD was estimated using each method, and the scores were subjected to a series of analyses (e.g., curve-fitting, analysis of variance, confirmatory factor analysis). Results Results from the confirmatory factor analysis suggested that MTLD and MATTR reflect LD and little of anything else. Further, two indices (HD-D and D) were found to be equivalent, suggesting that either one can be used when samples are >50 tokens. Conclusion MTLD and MATTR yielded the strongest evidence for producing unbiased LD scores, suggesting that they may be the best measures for capturing LD in PWA. PMID:23695912

Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather H.; West, Thomas M.

2013-01-01

201

Handedness and language learning disability differentially distribute in progressive aphasia variants  

PubMed Central

Primary progressive aphasia is a neurodegenerative clinical syndrome that presents in adulthood with an isolated, progressive language disorder. Three main clinical/anatomical variants have been described, each associated with distinctive pathology. A high frequency of neurodevelopmental learning disability in primary progressive aphasia has been reported. Because the disorder is heterogeneous with different patterns of cognitive, anatomical and biological involvement, we sought to identify whether learning disability had a predilection for one or more of the primary progressive aphasia subtypes. We screened the University of California San Francisco Memory and Aging Center's primary progressive aphasia cohort (n = 198) for history of language-related learning disability as well as hand preference, which has associations with learning disability. The study included logopenic (n = 48), non-fluent (n = 54) and semantic (n = 96) variant primary progressive aphasias. We investigated whether the presence of learning disability or non-right-handedness was associated with differential effects on demographic, neuropsychological and neuroimaging features of primary progressive aphasia. We showed that a high frequency of learning disability was present only in the logopenic group (?2 = 15.17, P < 0.001) and (?2 = 11.51, P < 0.001) compared with semantic and non-fluent populations. In this group, learning disability was associated with earlier onset of disease, more isolated language symptoms, and more focal pattern of left posterior temporoparietal atrophy. Non-right-handedness was instead over-represented in the semantic group, at nearly twice the prevalence of the general population (?2 = 6.34, P = 0.01). Within semantic variant primary progressive aphasia the right-handed and non-right-handed cohorts appeared homogeneous on imaging, cognitive profile, and structural analysis of brain symmetry. Lastly, the non-fluent group showed no increase in learning disability or non-right-handedness. Logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia and developmental dyslexia both manifest with phonological disturbances and posterior temporal involvement. Learning disability might confer vulnerability of this network to early-onset, focal Alzheimer’s pathology. Left-handedness has been described as a proxy for atypical brain hemispheric lateralization. As non-right-handedness was increased only in the semantic group, anomalous lateralization mechanisms might instead be related to frontotemporal lobar degeneration with abnormal TARDBP. Taken together, this study suggests that neurodevelopmental signatures impart differential trajectories towards neurodegenerative disease. PMID:24056533

Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Rankin, Katherine P.; Henry, Maya L.; Babiak, Miranda C.; Frazier, Darvis T.; Lobach, Iryna V.; Bettcher, Brianne M.; Wu, Teresa Q.; Rabinovici, Gil D.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Miller, Bruce L.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

2013-01-01

202

Asymmetry and heterogeneity of Alzheimer’s and frontotemporal pathology in primary progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

Fifty-eight autopsies of patients with primary progressive aphasia are reported. Twenty-three of these were previously described (Mesulam et al., 2008) but had their neuropathological diagnoses updated to fit current criteria. Thirty-five of the cases are new. Their clinical classification was guided as closely as possible by the 2011 consensus guidelines (Gorno-Tempini et al., 2011). Tissue diagnoses included Alzheimer’s disease in 45% and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) in the others, with an approximately equal split between TAR DNA binding protein 43 proteinopathies and tauopathies. The most common and distinctive feature for all pathologies associated with primary progressive aphasia was the asymmetric prominence of atrophy, neuronal loss, and disease-specific proteinopathy in the language-dominant (mostly left) hemisphere. The Alzheimer’s disease pathology in primary progressive aphasia displayed multiple atypical features. Males tended to predominate, the neurofibrillary pathology was more intense in the language-dominant hemisphere, the Braak pattern of hippocampo-entorhinal prominence was tilted in favour of the neocortex, and the APOE e4 allele was not a risk factor. Mean onset age was under 65 in the FTLD as well as Alzheimer’s disease groups. The FTLD-TAR DNA binding protein 43 group had the youngest onset and fastest progression whereas the Alzheimer’s disease and FTLD-tau groups did not differ from each other in either onset age or progression rate. Each cellular pathology type had a preferred but not invariant clinical presentation. The most common aphasic manifestation was of the logopenic type for Alzheimer pathology and of the agrammatic type for FTLD-tau. The progressive supranuclear palsy subtype of FTLD-tau consistently caused prominent speech abnormality together with agrammatism whereas FTLD-TAR DNA binding protein 43 of type C consistently led to semantic primary progressive aphasia. The presence of agrammatism made Alzheimer’s disease pathology very unlikely whereas the presence of a logopenic aphasia or word comprehension impairment made FTLD-tau unlikely. The association of logopenic primary progressive aphasia with Alzheimer’s disease pathology was much more modest than has been implied by results of in vivo amyloid imaging studies. Individual features of the aphasia, such as agrammatism and comprehension impairment, were as informative of underlying pathology as more laborious subtype diagnoses. At the single patient level, no clinical pattern was pathognomonic of a specific neuropathology type, highlighting the critical role of biomarkers for diagnosing the underlying disease. During clinical subtyping, some patients were unclassifiable by the 2011 guidelines whereas others simultaneously fit two subtypes. Revisions of criteria for logopenic primary progressive aphasia are proposed to address these challenges. PMID:24574501

Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily J.; Wieneke, Christina; Geula, Changiz; Bigio, Eileen H.

2014-01-01

203

Aphasia for Morse code: a comment on Wyler and Ray (1986).  

PubMed

A. R. Wyler and R. W. Ray (1986, Brain and Language, 27, 195-199), present a case of aphasia for Morse code; they relate the deficit to the inability to detect high-speed auditory temporal sequences. Based on a personal observation of transient aphasia for Morse code, we proposed that at least three different abilities participate in recognizing and producing Morse code messages: (1) a specific linguistic ability, (2) a praxic skill, and (3) an auditory discrimination skill. Our patient presents difficulties in the first and second abilities, Wyler and Ray's in the third ability. PMID:3567555

Ardila, A

1987-03-01

204

Profiling performance in L1 and L2 observed in Greek-English bilingual aphasia using the Bilingual Aphasia Test: a case study from Cyprus.  

PubMed

The Greek and the English versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) were used to assess the linguistic abilities of a premorbidly highly proficient late bilingual female after a haemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident involving the left temporo-parietal lobe. The BAT was administered in the two languages on separate occasions by the first author, a bilingual English-Greek speech pathologist. The results revealed a non-parallel recovery in the two languages. This information will be used not only to guide clinical intervention for the patient but also to provide the first report on the manifestations of aphasia in Greek. Moreover, the use of the (Standard Modern) Greek version of the BAT to investigate Greek Cypriot aphasics has implications for the use of the BAT on underspecified languages or dialects. Such studies may help with the development of assessment measures and therapy strategies that focus on specific characteristics of one or multiple languages. PMID:21453038

Kambanaros, Maria; Grohmann, Kleanthes K

2011-06-01

205

Solar battery energizer  

SciTech Connect

A battery energizer for button batteries, such as zinc-silver oxide or zinc-mercuric oxide batteries, that are normally considered unchargeable, provides for energizing of the batteries in a safe and simple manner. A solar cell having a maximum current output (e.g., 20 milliamps) is operatively connected to terminals for releasably receiving a button battery. A light emitting diode, or like indicator, provides an indication of when the battery is fully energized, and additionally assists in preventing overenergization of the battery. The solar cell, terminals, LED, and the like can be mounted on a nonconductive material mounting plate which is mounted by a suction cup and hook to a window, adjacent a light bulb, or the like. A battery charger for conventional dry cell rechargeable batteries (such as nickel-cadmium batteries) utilizes the solar cells, and LED, and a zener diode connected in parallel with terminals. An adaptor may be provided with the terminal for adapting them for use with any conventional size dry cell battery, and a simple dummy battery may be utilized so that less than the full complement of batteries may be charged utilizing the charger.

Thompson, M. E.

1985-09-03

206

Improving language without words: first evidence from aphasia.  

PubMed

The pervasiveness of word-finding difficulties in aphasia has motivated several theories regarding management of the deficit and its effectiveness. Recently, the hypothesis was advanced that instead of simply accompanying speech gestures participate in language production by increasing the semantic activation of words grounded in sensory-motor features, hence facilitating retrieval of the word form. Based on this assumption, several studies have developed rehabilitation therapies in which the use of gestures reinforces word recovery. Until now, however, no studies have investigated the beneficial effects of gesture observation in word retrieval. Here, we report whether a different modality of accessing action-motor representation interacts with language by promoting long lasting recovery of verb retrieval deficits in aphasic patients. Six aphasic participants with a selective deficit in verb retrieval participated in an intensive rehabilitation training that included three daily sessions over two consecutive weeks. Each session corresponded to a different rehabilitation procedure: (1) "action observation", (2) "action observation and execution", and (3) "action observation and meaningless movement". In the four participants with lexical phonologically based disturbances, significant improvement of verb retrieval was found only with "action observation" and "action observation and execution". No significant differences were present between the two procedures. Moreover, the follow-up testing revealed long-term verb recovery that was still present two months after the two treatments ended. In support of a multimodal representation of action, these findings univocally demonstrate that gestures interact with the speech production system, inducing long-lasting modification at the lexical level in patients with cerebral damage. PMID:20887740

Marangolo, Paola; Bonifazi, Silvia; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Craighero, Laila; Coccia, Michela; Altoč, Gianmarco; Provinciali, Leandro; Cantagallo, Anna

2010-11-01

207

Decoding Speech for Understanding and Treating Aphasia Brian N. Pasley*,1 and Robert T. Knight*,,  

E-print Network

and production of spoken language. Partial recovery of language function after injury is common but typically in reading capacity. Broca's aphasia is typically due to damage in the left inferior frontal gyrus and nearby of language production. Damage in left posterior temporal lobe including the superior temporal plane

Knight, Robert T.

208

Regional White Matter Damage Predicts Speech Fluency in Chronic Post-Stroke Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Recently, two different white matter regions that support speech fluency have been identified: the aslant tract and the anterior segment of the arcuate fasciculus (ASAF). The role of the ASAF was demonstrated in patients with post-stroke aphasia, while the role of the aslant tract shown in primary progressive aphasia. Regional white matter integrity appears to be crucial for speech production; however, the degree that each region exerts an independent influence on speech fluency is unclear. Furthermore, it is not yet defined if damage to both white matter regions influences speech in the context of the same neural mechanism (stroke-induced aphasia). This study assessed the relationship between speech fluency and quantitative integrity of the aslant region and the ASAF. It also explored the relationship between speech fluency and other white matter regions underlying classic cortical language areas such as the uncinate fasciculus and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). Damage to these regions, except the ILF, was associated with speech fluency, suggesting synergistic association of these regions with speech fluency in post-stroke aphasia. These observations support the theory that speech fluency requires the complex, orchestrated activity between a network of pre-motor, secondary, and tertiary associative cortices, supported in turn by regional white matter integrity. PMID:25368572

Basilakos, Alexandra; Fillmore, Paul T.; Rorden, Chris; Guo, Dazhou; Bonilha, Leonardo; Fridriksson, Julius

2014-01-01

209

Jean-Martin Charcot's Role in the 19th Century Study of Music Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-93) was a well-known French neurologist. Although he is widely recognized for his discovery of several neurological disorders and his research into aphasia, Charcot's ideas about how the brain processes music are less well known. Charcot discussed the music abilities of several patients in the context of his "Friday…

Johnson, Julene K.; Lorch, Marjorie; Nicolas, Serge; Graziano, Amy

2013-01-01

210

Mechanisms of Aphasia Recovery after Stroke and the Role of Noninvasive Brain Stimulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most frequent symptoms of unilateral stroke is aphasia, the impairment or loss of language functions. Over the past few years, behavioral and neuroimaging studies have shown that rehabilitation interventions can promote neuroplastic changes in aphasic patients that may be associated with the improvement of language functions. Following…

Hamilton, Roy H.; Chrysikou, Evangelia G.; Coslett, Branch

2011-01-01

211

A Multimodal Communication Program for Aphasia during Inpatient Rehabilitation: A Case Study  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Communication is essential for successful rehabilitation, yet few aphasia treatments have been investigated during the acute stroke phase. Alternative modality use including gesturing, writing, or drawing has been shown to increase communicative effectiveness in people with chronic aphasia. Instruction in alternative modality use during acute stroke may increase patient communication and participation, therefore resulting in fewer adverse situations and improved rehabilitation outcomes. OBJECTIVE The study purpose was to explore a multimodal communication program for aphasia (MCPA) implemented during acute stroke rehabilitation. MCPA aims to improve communication modality production, and to facilitate switching among modalities to resolve communication breakdowns. METHODS Two adults with severe aphasia completed MCPA beginning at 2 and 3 weeks post onset a single left-hemisphere stroke. Probes completed during each session allowed for evaluation of modality production and modality switching accuracy. RESULTS Participants completed MCPA (10 and 14 treatment sessions respectively) and their performance on probes suggested increased accuracy in the production of various alternate communication modalities. However, increased switching to an alternate modality was noted for only one participant. CONCLUSIONS Further investigation of multimodal treatment during inpatient rehabilitation is warranted. In particular, comparisons between multimodal and standard treatments would help determine appropriate interventions for this setting. PMID:25227547

Wallace, Sarah E.; Purdy, Mary; Skidmore, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

212

A theoretical account of lexical and semantic naming deficits in bilingual aphasia  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine pre-morbid language proficiency and lexical and semantic processing deficits in bilingual aphasia and develop a theoretical account of bilingual language processing. Method Nineteen Spanish-English patients with bilingual aphasia completed a language use questionnaire (LUQ) and were administered Spanish and English standardized language assessments. We analyzed the data to (a) identify patterns of lexical and semantic processing deficits in bilingual aphasia and conceptualize a theoretical framework that accounts for language deficits, (b) determine LUQ measures that predict post-stroke language deficits, and (c) evaluate the relationship between predictive LUQ measures and post-stroke language deficits in order to identify impairment patterns. Results Based on results we obtained significant correlations on several measures between language input and output. We identified pre-stroke language ability rating as the strongest predictor of post-stroke outcomes. Based on this data, two distinct groups were identified: patients who lost the same amount of language in Spanish and English and patients who lost different amounts of Spanish and English. Conclusions Our findings suggest it is possible to identify relationships between language patterns and deficits in patients with bilingual aphasia and that these trends will be instrumental in clinical assessments of this understudied population. PMID:23816660

Gray, Teresa; Kiran, Swathi

2013-01-01

213

Walking in Anothers Shoes: Aphasia Emulation Software Joshua Hailpern, Marina Danilevsky, Karrie Karahalios  

E-print Network

of understanding can "erode the social bonds that give life meaning" [2]. We hypothesize that a system could.2 [Social Issues]: Assistive technologies for persons with disabilities General Terms Human Factors Author have difficulties and hurdles akin to those experienced by an individual with aphasia. In theory

Karahalios, Karrie G.

214

Exploring multimodal semantic control impairments in semantic aphasia: Evidence from naturalistic object use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic processing can break down in qualitatively distinct ways in different neuropsychological populations. Previous studies have shown that patients with multimodal semantic impairments following stroke – referred to as semantic aphasia (SA) – show deficits on a range of conceptual tasks due to a failure of semantic control processes in the context of prefrontal and\\/or temporoparietal infarction. Although a deficit

Faye Corbett; Elizabeth Jefferies; Matthew A. Lambon Ralph

2009-01-01

215

Conversational use of writing in severe aphasia: A group treatment approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several studies have documented the ability of individuals with severe aphasia to relearn the spelling of target words so that written communication can augment limited spoken language abilities. To date, there has been little documentation of clinical methods to facilitate the conversational use of written communication in such individuals. Aims: The present study was designed to examine treatment outcomes

Natalie Clausen; Pelagie Besson

2003-01-01

216

The Time-Course of Lexical Activation during Sentence Comprehension in People with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To investigate the time-course of processing of lexical items in auditorily presented canonical (subject-verb-object) constructions in young, neurologically unimpaired control participants and participants with left-hemisphere damage and agrammatic aphasia. Method: A cross modal picture priming (CMPP) paradigm was used to test 114 control…

Ferrill, Michelle; Love, Tracy; Walenski, Matthew; Shapiro, Lewis P.

2012-01-01

217

The Potential of Virtual Reality to Assess Functional Communication in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who work with adults with cognitive-linguistic impairments, including aphasia, have long needed an assessment tool that predicts ability to function in the real world. In this article, it is argued that virtual reality (VR)-supported approaches can address this need. Using models of disability such as the…

Garcia, Linda J.; Rebolledo, Mercedes; Metthe, Lynn; Lefebvre, Renee

2007-01-01

218

Lesion Characteristics Related to Treatment Improvement in Object and Action Naming for Patients with Chronic Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have examined the relationship between degree of lesion in various locations and improvement during treatment in stroke patients with chronic aphasia. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether the degree of lesion in specific brain regions was related to magnitude of improvement over the course of object and action naming…

Parkinson, R. Bruce; Raymer, Anastasia; Chang, Yu-Ling; FitzGerald, David B.; Crosson, Bruce

2009-01-01

219

Rapid improvement in verbal fluency and aphasia following perispinal etanercept in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recent clinical studies point to rapid and sustained clinical, cognitive, and behavioral improvement in both Alzheimer's disease and primary progressive aphasia following weekly perispinal administration of etanercept, a TNF-alpha inhibitor that acts by blocking the binding of this cytokine to its receptors. This outcome is concordant with recent basic science studies suggesting that TNF-alpha functions in vivo as a

Edward L Tobinick; Hyman Gross

2008-01-01

220

People with aphasia: capacity to consent, research participation and intervention inequalities.  

PubMed

Of 14 randomized controlled trials included in the recent Cochrane review of the evidence relating to information provision after stroke, only one included people with aphasia with the remainder either excluding this patient sub-group (10/14 trials) or failing to report any exclusion criteria. A third of people that experience a stroke will also experience aphasia, affecting their speaking, understanding, reading, and writing. The pervasive supposition that people with aphasia lack the capacity to make decisions for themselves is flawed and has the potential to lead to inequalities in care. We highlight the degree to which people with aphasia have been excluded from full participation in some areas of stroke research and the potential clinical consequences of their systematic exclusion. We emphasize the clinical and ethical need for the provision of more accessible research information and consent processes, illustrate the feasibility of adopting such an approach, and consider the broader benefits to stroke research of inclusive and accessible research approaches. PMID:23130972

Brady, Marian C; Fredrick, Alex; Williams, Brian

2013-04-01

221

Opportunities to say ‘yes’: Rare speech automatisms in a case of progressive nonfluent aphasia and apraxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the investigation of speech automatisms in a man with progressive nonfluent aphasia and apraxias. Occurrence of the automatisms yes and right, were analysed across a range of speech tasks varying in length, propositionality, lexical and articulatory complexity, whether tasks engaged internal generation or external triggering and articulatory distortions, and while completing pantomimes\\/gestures. No differences were found in occurrence

Chris Code; Jeremy J. Tree; Karen Dawe

2009-01-01

222

Aphasia and Cognitive Sciences: Problems of Appraisal Tests in Indian Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the urgency of therapeutic appraisal tests for various types of aphasia in India, where the clinical population comes from multilingual, multiethnic, and multicultural backgrounds; has a low literacy level; and hails from various geographical regions. The need for good diagnostic tests is imperative for a detailed evaluation of language…

Gupta, Santosh

2000-01-01

223

Bilingual Aphasia and Language Control: A Follow-Up fMRI and Intrinsic Connectivity Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a world that is becoming more multilingual, bilingual aphasia is a clinical problem with a major clinical impact. However, at present we lack causal explanations of the many features of recovery patterns and there is no consensus about the language in which the patient should receive speech therapy. Further advance requires an understanding of…

Abutalebi, Jubin; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Tettamanti, Marco; Green, David W.; Cappa, Stefano F.

2009-01-01

224

Coverbal Gestures in the Recovery from Severe Fluent Aphasia: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This post hoc study investigated coverbal gesture patterns in two persons with chronic Wernicke's aphasia. They had both received therapy focusing on multimodal communication therapy, and their pre- and post-therapy verbal and gestural skills in face-to-face conversational interaction with their speech therapist were analysed by administering a…

Carlomagno, Sergio; Zulian, Nicola; Razzano, Carmelina; De Mercurio, Ilaria; Marini, Andrea

2013-01-01

225

Non-linguistic learning in aphasia: Effects of training method and stimulus characteristics  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of the current study was to explore non-linguistic learning ability in patients with aphasia, examining the impact of stimulus typicality and feedback on success with learning. Method Eighteen patients with aphasia and eight healthy controls participated in this study. All participants completed four computerized, non-linguistic category-learning tasks. We probed learning ability under two methods of instruction: feedback-based (FB) and paired-associate (PA). We also examined the impact of task complexity on learning ability, comparing two stimulus conditions: typical (Typ) and atypical (Atyp). Performance was compared between groups and across conditions. Results Results demonstrated that healthy controls were able to successfully learn categories under all conditions. For our patients with aphasia, two patterns of performance arose. One subgroup of patients was able to maintain learning across task manipulations and conditions. The other subgroup of patients demonstrated a sensitivity to task complexity, learning successfully only in the typical training conditions. Conclusions Results support the hypothesis that impairments of general learning are present in aphasia. Some patients demonstrated the ability to extract category information under complex training conditions, while others learned only under conditions that were simplified and emphasized salient category features. Overall, the typical training condition facilitated learning for all participants. Findings have implications for therapy, which are discussed. PMID:23695914

Vallila-Rohter, Sofia; Kiran, Swathi

2013-01-01

226

Semantic Interference during Object Naming in Agrammatic and Logopenic Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the time course of object naming in 21 individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) (8 agrammatic (PPA-G); 13 logopenic (PPA-L)) and healthy age-matched speakers (n=17) using a semantic interference paradigm with related and unrelated interfering stimuli presented at stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) of -1000, -500, -100…

Thompson, Cynthia K.; Cho, Soojin; Price, Charis; Wieneke, Christina; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Rogalski, Emily; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel

2012-01-01

227

Role of Importance and Distinctiveness of Semantic Features in People with Aphasia: A Replication Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies suggest that people with aphasia have incomplete lexical-semantic representations with decreased low-importance distinctive (LID) feature knowledge. In addition, decreased LID feature knowledge correlates with ability to discriminate among semantically related words. The current study seeks to replicate and extend previous…

Mason-Baughman, Mary Beth; Wallace, Sarah E.

2014-01-01

228

Communicative access and decision making for people with aphasia: Implementing sustainable healthcare systems change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Communicative access to information and decision making in health care appears limited for people with aphasia in spite of research demonstrating that communicative participation can be enhanced with skilled communication partners and appropriate resources. In order to address this concern, a project was designed to target the “systems” level of health care via a multi?faceted, team?based intervention called the

Aura Kagan; Charlene O'Neill Christie; Maria Huijbregts; Sara McEwen; Jacqueline Willems

2007-01-01

229

Should Pantomime and Gesticulation Be Assessed Separately for Their Comprehensibility in Aphasia? A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Gesticulation (gestures accompanying speech) and pantomime (gestures in the absence of speech) can each be comprehensible. Little is known about the differences between these two gesture modes in people with aphasia. Aims: To discover whether there are differences in the communicative use of gesticulation and pantomime in QH, a person…

van Nispen, Karin; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke; Mol, Lisette; Krahmer, Emiel

2014-01-01

230

Health-Related Quality of Life in People with Severe Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) measures are increasingly used to help us understand the impact of disease or disability on a person's life and to measure the effectiveness of interventions. A small number of studies have looked at perceived HRQL in people with mild or moderate aphasia. They report that reduced HRQL is associated…

Hilari, Katerina; Byng, Sally

2009-01-01

231

Category and Letter Fluency in Semantic Dementia, Primary Progressive Aphasia, and Alzheimer's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of various degenerative dementias on access to semantic knowledge and the status of semantic representations. Patients with semantic dementia, primary progressive aphasia, and Alzheimer's disease were compared with elderly controls on tasks of category and letter fluency, with number of words generated, mean lexical…

Marczinski, Cecile A.; Kertesz, Andrew

2006-01-01

232

The Time Course of Neurolinguistic and Neuropsychological Symptoms in Three Cases of Logopenic Primary Progressive Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a rare clinical dementia syndrome affecting predominantly language abilities. Word-finding difficulties and comprehension deficits despite relatively preserved cognitive functions are characteristic symptoms during the first two years, and distinguish PPA from other dementia types like Alzheimer's disease.…

Etcheverry, Louise; Seidel, Barbara; Grande, Marion; Schulte, Stephanie; Pieperhoff, Peter; Sudmeyer, Martin; Minnerop, Martina; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Huber, Walter; Grodzinsky, Yosef; Amunts, Katrin; Heim, Stefan

2012-01-01

233

Anatomic, Clinical, and Neuropsychological Correlates of Spelling Errors in Primary Progressive Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates spelling errors in the three subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA): agrammatic (PPA-G), logopenic (PPA-L), and semantic (PPA-S). Forty-one PPA patients and 36 age-matched healthy controls were administered a test of spelling. The total number of errors and types of errors in spelling to dictation of regular words,…

Shim, HyungSub; Hurley, Robert S.; Rogalski, Emily; Mesulam, M.-Marsel

2012-01-01

234

Perspectives on Public Awareness of Stroke and Aphasia among Turkish Patients in a Neurology Unit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies on awareness have drawn attention to the fact that aphasia is a little known disorder to the public, in spite of all the publicity about this frequently occurring neurogenic language disorder. Being a very new concept, studies of awareness are rare in Turkey. This survey study assessed the extent of public awareness of neurological…

Mavis, Ilknur

2007-01-01

235

The Effect of a Therapy Dog on the Communication Skills of an Adult with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little evidence-based research has been published within the field of communication disorders on the role of dogs as catalysts for human communication. This single participant study, a point of entry into this realm of research, explores the effects of a therapy dog on the communication skills of a patient with aphasia receiving intensive speech…

LaFrance, Caroline; Garcia, Linda J.; Labreche, Julianne

2007-01-01

236

Model Choice and Sample Size in Item Response Theory Analysis of Aphasia Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the most appropriate item response theory (IRT) measurement model for aphasia tests requiring 2-choice responses and to determine whether small samples are adequate for estimating such models. Method: Pyramids and Palm Trees (Howard & Patterson, 1992) test data that had been collected from…

Hula, William D.; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Martin, Nadine

2012-01-01

237

Treating visual speech perception to improve speech production in non- fluent aphasia  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Several recent studies have revealed modulation of the left frontal lobe speech areas not only during speech production, but also for speech perception. Crucially, the frontal lobe areas highlighted in these studies are the same ones that are involved in non-fluent aphasia. Based on these findings, this study examined the utility of targeting visual speech perception to improve speech production in non-fluent aphasia. Methods Ten patients with chronic non-fluent aphasia underwent computerized language treatment utilizing picture-word matching. To examine the effect of visual peech perception upon picture naming, two treatment phases were compared – one which included matching pictures to heard words and another where pictures were matched to heard words accompanied by a video of the speaker’s mouth presented on the computer screen. Results The results revealed significantly improved picture naming of both trained and untrained items following treatment when it included a visual speech component (i.e. seeing the speaker’s mouth). In contrast, the treatment phase where pictures were only matched to heard words did not result in statistically significant improvement of picture naming. Conclusions The findings suggest that focusing on visual speech perception can significantly improve speech production in non-fluent aphasia and may provide an alternative approach to treat a disorder where speech production seldom improves much in the chronic phase of stroke. PMID:19164782

Fridriksson, Julius; Baker, Julie M.; Whiteside, Janet; Eoute, David; Moser, Dana; Vesselinov, Roumen; Rorden, Chris

2008-01-01

238

Overcoming Unintelligibility in Aphasia: The Impact of Non-Verbal Interactive Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a follow-up to previous research, this report focuses on the wide range of gestures employed by an individual with aphasia to overcome instances of unintelligibility and re-establish intelligibility. The gestures observed are woven seamlessly into the fabric of the interactions and range from deictic to metaphorical or symbolic in nature.…

Damico, Jack S.; Wilson, Brent T.; Simmons-Mackie, Nina N.; Tetnowski, John A.

2008-01-01

239

The Aphasia Database on the Web: Description of a Model for Problems of Classification in Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In aphasiology many inconsistencies exist in the definition and interpretation of aphasic syndromes. These syndromes are the co-occurrence of a set of symptoms. Thus, ambiguities in these clinical, aphasic categories are suited to be generalized to many problems of classification in medicine. In this paper the aphasia database is launched as a model for data mining in medicine. Nominal and

Hubertus Axer; Jan Jantzen; Georg Berks; Dagmar Südfeld; RWTH Aachen

2000-01-01

240

Beginning to Teach the End: The Importance of Including Discharge from Aphasia Therapy in the Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Discharging clients with long-term aphasia from therapy services constitutes a challenging dilemma for practising clinicians for a multitude of reasons. Although discharge was raised and discussed as a contentious issue in the field of aphasiology ten years ago, it remains an aspect of practice which is complex and underexplored. We…

Hersh, Deborah; Cruice, Madeline

2010-01-01

241

Reconciling the Perspective of Practitioner and Service User: Findings from The Aphasia in Scotland Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: It is widely accepted that service users should be actively involved in new service developments, but there remain issues about how best to consult with them and how to reconcile their views with those of service providers. Aims: This paper uses data from The Aphasia in Scotland study, set up by NHS Quality Improvement Scotland to…

Law, James; Huby, Guro; Irving, Anne-Marie; Pringle, Ann-Marie; Conochie, Douglas; Haworth, Catherine; Burston, Amanda

2010-01-01

242

The Merest L"ogomachy": The 1868 Norwich Discussion of Aphasia by Hughlings Jackson and Broca  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reconsiders the events that took place at the 1868 meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BA) in Norwich. Paul Broca and John Hughlings Jackson were invited to speak on the new and controversial subject of aphasia. Over the ensuing decades, there have been repeated references made to a debate between Broca…

Lorch, Marjorie Perlman

2008-01-01

243

Production and comprehension in aphasia: gains and pitfalls in using macrostructure tasks in Aesop's fables.  

PubMed

Macrostructures provide the global meaning of a text. Using Aesop's fables, the main goal of this study has been to identify the advantages and limitations in using the macrostructure tasks of retell, summary, lesson, and gist as clinical tools in understanding 16 patients with mild-to-moderate aphasia. Results suggest that all of the macrostructure tasks are important in determining the production skills of patients with aphasia. Comprehension, on the other hand, is best determined through the macrostructure tasks of retell and lesson. In addition to the language processing skills of patients with aphasia, macrostructures also provide a cognitive picture of how patients manipulate information from stories (i.e., reducing information, making inferences, and generalizing didactic information). Inherent limitations, however, are seen when interpreting possible reasons why patients with aphasia are unable to perform some of these tasks. Given that the potential gains of using macrostructure tasks outweigh the limitations, this study suggests that macrostructures may have clinical value as a diagnostic tool in understanding the cognitive-linguistic processes of patients with brain injury. PMID:23721371

Ulatowska, Hanna K; Reyes, Belinda; Olea Santos, Tricia; Garst, Diane; Mak, Kelly; Graham, Kelly

2013-12-01

244

Treatment Fidelity: Its Importance and Reported Frequency in Aphasia Treatment Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Treatment fidelity is a measure of the reliability of the administration of an intervention in a treatment study. It is an important aspect of the validity of a research study, and it has implications for the ultimate implementation of evidence-supported interventions in typical clinical settings. Method: Aphasia treatment studies…

Hinckley, Jacqueline J.; Douglas, Natalie F.

2013-01-01

245

Visuomotor Tracking Abilities of Speakers with Apraxia of Speech or Conduction Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation examined the visuomotor tracking abilities of persons with apraxia of speech (AOS) or conduction aphasia (CA). In addition, tracking performance was correlated with perceptual judgments of speech accuracy. Five individuals with AOS and four with CA served as participants, as well as an equal number of healthy controls matched by…

Robin, Donald A.; Jacks, Adam; Hageman, Carlin; Clark, Heather M.; Woodworth, George

2008-01-01

246

Typicality of Inanimate Category Exemplars in Aphasia Treatment: Further Evidence for Semantic Complexity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The typicality treatment approach on improving naming was investigated within 2 inanimate categories ("furniture" and "clothing") using a single-subject experimental design across participants and behaviors in 5 patients with aphasia. Method: Participants received a semantic feature treatment to improve naming of either typical or…

Kiran, Swathi

2008-01-01

247

Induction of neuroplasticity and recovery in post-stroke aphasia by non-invasive brain stimulation  

PubMed Central

Stroke victims tend to prioritize speaking, writing, and walking as the three most important rehabilitation goals. Of note is that two of these goals involve communication. This underscores the significance of developing successful approaches to aphasia treatment for the several hundred thousand new aphasia patients each year and over 1 million stroke survivors with chronic aphasia in the U.S. alone. After several years of growth as a research tool, non-invasive brain stimulation (NBS) is gradually entering the arena of clinical aphasiology. In this review, we first examine the current state of knowledge of post-stroke language recovery including the contributions from the dominant and non-dominant hemispheres. Next, we briefly discuss the methods and the physiologic basis of the use of inhibitory and excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as research tools in patients who experience post-stroke aphasia. Finally, we provide a critical review of the most influential evidence behind the potential use of these two brain stimulation methods as clinical rehabilitative tools. PMID:24399952

Shah, Priyanka P.; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Allendorfer, Jane; Hamilton, Roy H.

2013-01-01

248

Legal Decision-Making by People with Aphasia: Critical Incidents for Speech Pathologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The assessment and management of a person with aphasia for whom decision-making capacity is queried represents a highly complex clinical issue. In addition, there are few published guidelines and even fewer published accounts of empirical research to assist. Aims: The research presented in this paper aimed to identify the main issues…

Ferguson, Alison; Duffield, Gemma; Worrall, Linda

2010-01-01

249

Treatment of Semantic Verb Classes in Aphasia: Acquisition and Generalization Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Verb retrieval difficulties are common in aphasia; however, few successful treatments have been documented (e.g. Conroy, P., Sage, K., & Lambon Ralph, M. A. (2006). Towards theory-driven therapies for aphasic verb impairments: A review of current theory and practice. "Aphasiology", 20, 1159-1185). This study investigated the efficacy of a novel…

Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Graham, Lauren E.

2011-01-01

250

Treating Verbs in Aphasia: Exploring the Impact of Therapy at the Single Word and Sentence Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In recent years there has been significant interest in the differential processing of nouns and verbs in people with aphasia, but more limited consideration about whether the differences have implications for therapy. It remains unclear whether verbs can be treated in a similar way to nouns or should be treated using approaches that…

Webster, Janet; Whitworth, Anne

2012-01-01

251

Learning to Fail in Aphasia: An Investigation of Error Learning in Naming  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine if the naming impairment in aphasia is influenced by error learning and if error learning is related to type of retrieval strategy. Method Nine participants with aphasia and ten neurologically-intact controls named familiar proper noun concepts. When experiencing tip-of-the-tongue naming failure (TOT) in an initial TOT-elicitation phase, participants were instructed to adopt phonological or semantic self-cued retrieval strategies. In the error learning manipulation, items evoking TOT states during TOT-elicitation were randomly assigned to a short or long time condition where participants were encouraged to continue to try to retrieve the name for either 20 seconds (short interval) or 60 seconds (long). The incidence of TOT on the same items was measured on a post test after 48-hours. Error learning was defined as a higher rate of recurrent TOTs (TOT at both TOT-elicitation and post test) for items assigned to the long (versus short) time condition. Results In the phonological condition, participants with aphasia showed error learning whereas controls showed a pattern opposite to error learning. There was no evidence for error learning in the semantic condition for either group. Conclusion Error learning is operative in aphasia, but dependent on the type of strategy employed during naming failure. PMID:23816662

Middleton, Erica L.; Schwartz, Myrna F.

2013-01-01

252

Effect of Semantic Naming Treatment on Crosslinguistic Generalization in Bilingual Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The effect of semantic naming treatment on crosslinguistic generalization was investigated in 3 participants with English-Spanish bilingual aphasia. Method: A single-subject experimental designed was used. Participants received semantic treatment to improve naming of English or Spanish items, while generalization was tested to untrained…

Edmonds, Lisa A.; Kiran, Swathi

2006-01-01

253

Adapting the Bilingual Aphasia Test to Rarotongan (Cook Islands Maori): Linguistic and Clinical Considerations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the adaptation of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) to the Rarotongan dialect of Cook Islands Maori, a Polynesian language spoken in the Cook Islands and expatriate communities. A brief linguistic sketch of Rarotongan is presented. As Rarotongan is characterised by a complex pronominal system, "a" versus "o" possession and…

Amberber, Amanda Miller

2011-01-01

254

Evaluation of Attention Training and Metacognitive Facilitation to Improve Reading Comprehension in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This pilot study investigated the impact of direct attention training combined with metacognitive facilitation on reading comprehension in individuals with aphasia. Method: A single-subject, multiple baseline design was employed across 4 participants to evaluate potential changes in reading comprehension resulting from an 8-week…

Lee, Jaime B.; Sohlberg, McKay Moore

2013-01-01

255

Using text and acoustic features to diagnose progressive aphasia and its Kathleen C. Fraser1  

E-print Network

, Toronto, Canada 2 Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, Toronto, Canada 3 Department of Speech) and two of its subtypes, semantic dementia (SD) and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), from primarily affects the language areas of the brain. It has two main subtypes: semantic dementia (SD), which

Penn, Gerald

256

Comparison of different feature sets for identification of variants in progressive aphasia  

E-print Network

of Toronto, & Toronto Rehabilitation Institute 3Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Centre, Toronto 4LC Introduction In some types of dementia, such as primary pro- gressive aphasia, language deficit is a core symp research on the automatic analysis of speech samples from individuals with dementia, focusing in particular

Toronto, University of

257

Effect of Verb Network Strengthening Treatment in Moderate-to-Severe Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This Phase II treatment study examined the effect of Verb Network Strengthening Treatment (VNeST) on individuals with moderate-to-severe aphasia. Research questions addressed (a) pre- to posttreatment changes and pretreatment to treatment phase changes on probe sentences containing trained verbs (e.g., "The carpenter is 'measuring' the…

Edmonds, Lisa A.; Babb, Michelle

2011-01-01

258

Where language meets meaningful action: a combined behavior and lesion analysis of aphasia and apraxia.  

PubMed

It is debated how language and praxis are co-represented in the left hemisphere (LH). As voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping in LH stroke patients with aphasia and/or apraxia may contribute to this debate, we here investigated the relationship between language and praxis deficits at the behavioral and lesion levels in 50 sub-acute stroke patients. We hypothesized that language and (meaningful) action are linked via semantic processing in Broca's region. Behaviorally, half of the patients suffered from co-morbid aphasia and apraxia. While 24 % (n = 12) of all patients exhibited aphasia without apraxia, apraxia without aphasia was rare (n = 2, 4 %). Left inferior frontal, insular, inferior parietal, and superior temporal lesions were specifically associated with deficits in naming, reading, writing, or auditory comprehension. In contrast, lesions affecting the left inferior frontal gyrus, premotor cortex, and the central region as well as the inferior parietal lobe were associated with apraxic deficits (i.e., pantomime, imitation of meaningful and meaningless gestures). Thus, contrary to the predictions of the embodied cognition theory, lesions to sensorimotor and premotor areas were associated with the severity of praxis but not language deficits. Lesions of Brodmann area (BA) 44 led to combined apraxic and aphasic deficits. Data suggest that BA 44 acts as an interface between language and (meaningful) action thereby supporting parcellation schemes (based on connectivity and receptor mapping) which revealed a BA 44 sub-area involved in semantic processing. PMID:25352157

Weiss, Peter H; Ubben, Simon D; Kaesberg, Stephanie; Kalbe, Elke; Kessler, Josef; Liebig, Thomas; Fink, Gereon R

2014-10-29

259

Biomarkers of "Linguistic Anxiety" in aphasia: A proof-of-concept case study.  

PubMed

This is a proof-of-concept case study designed to evaluate the presence of "Linguistic Anxiety" in a person with mild aphasia. The participant (aged 68) was tested on linguistic and non-linguistic cognitive tasks administered under conditions that differed in levels of anxiety. A validated anxiety-induction technique rarely used in previous aphasia studies was employed: the participant was instructed to prepare for a public speaking presentation. Measures of linguistic and non-linguistic cognitive performance, and anxiety (self-report and psychophysiologic) were obtained. The participant exhibited increased psychophysiologic stress reactivity (heart rate, skin conductance and self-report ratings) in the high-anxiety condition. In the state of increased anxiety, performance on language tasks, in particular discourse production, declined relative to performance in low-anxiety settings. Even in mild aphasia, language-based anxiety can interfere with language performance. This finding provides a basis for carrying out a study with a larger sample that can open a new path to assessment and treatment of persons with aphasia. PMID:25815438

Cahana-Amitay, Dalia; Oveis, Abigail C; Sayers, Jesse T; Pineles, Suzanne L; Spiro, Avron; Albert, Martin L

2015-05-01

260

A Proposed Regional Hierarchy in Recovery of Post-Stroke Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Activation studies in patients with aphasia due to stroke or tumours in the dominant hemisphere have revealed effects of disinhibition in ipsilateral perilesional and in contralateral homotopic cortical regions, referred to as collateral and transcallosal disinhibition. These findings were supported by studies with selective disturbance of…

Heiss, W.-D.; Thiel, A.

2006-01-01

261

Automatic speech recognition in the diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia Kathleen Fraser1  

E-print Network

participants with semantic dementia (SD), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), and healthy con- trols. We (PNFA), in which speech is hesitant and ef- fortful, and semantic dementia (SD), in which speech is flu for patients and their families, as well as for evaluation of efficacy in drug trials (as potentially disease

Penn, Gerald

262

Improvements in Chronic Broca's Aphasia at Impairment and Functional Communication Levels following SGD Practice and Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we analyze WAB (impairment level) and CETI (functional level) assessment data for sixty nine persons in chronic Broca's aphasia who used a Speech Generating Device at home, under SLP guidance, for practice, therapy, and communication. After using matched t-tests to establish statistical significance of differences of means following SGD use, we investigate relationships between WAB AQ data

Richard D. Steele

263

Aphasia with left occipitotemporal hypometabolism: A novel presentation of posterior cortical atrophy?  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease is a common neurodegenerative disease often characterized by initial episodic memory loss. Atypical focal cortical presentations have been described, including the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA) which presents with language impairment, and posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) which presents with prominent visuospatial deficits. Both lvPPA and PCA are characterized by specific patterns of hypometabolism: left temporoparietal in lvPPA and bilateral parietoccipital in PCA. However, not every patient fits neatly into these categories. We retrospectively identified two patients with progressive aphasia and visuospatial deficits from a speech and language based disorders study. The patients were further characterized by MRI, fluorodeoxyglucose F18 and Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography. Two women, ages 62 and 69, presented with a history of a few years of progressive aphasia characterized by fluent output with normal grammar and syntax, anomia without loss of word meaning, and relatively spared repetition. They demonstrated striking deficits in visuospatial function for which they were lacking insight. Prominent hypometabolism was noted in the left occipitotemporal region and diffuse retention of PiB was noted. Posterior cortical atrophy may present focally with left occipitotemporal metabolism characterized clinically with a progressive fluent aphasia and prominent ventral visuospatial deficits with loss of insight. PMID:23850398

Wicklund, Meredith R.; Duffy, Joseph R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Machulda, Mary M.; Josephs, Keith A.

2014-01-01

264

TMS Suppression of Right Pars Triangularis, but Not Pars Opercularis, Improves Naming in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to discover if an optimum 1 cm[squared] area in the non-damaged right hemisphere (RH) was present, which could temporarily improve naming in chronic, nonfluent aphasia patients when suppressed with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Ten minutes of slow, 1 Hz rTMS was applied to suppress different RH ROIs in…

Naeser, Margaret A.; Martin, Paula I.; Theoret, Hugo; Kobayashi, Masahito; Fregni, Felipe; Nicholas, Marjorie; Tormos, Jose M.; Steven, Megan S.; Baker, Errol H.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

2011-01-01

265

Mechanisms of recovery from aphasia: evidence from serial xenon 133 cerebral blood flow studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 21 patients who suffered aphasia resulting from left hemisphere ischemic infarction, the xenon 133 inhalation cerebral blood flow technique was used to measure cerebral blood flow within 3 months and 5 to 12 months after stroke. In addition to baseline measurements, cerebral blood flow measurements were also carried out while the patients were performing purposeful listening. In patients with

David S. Knopman; Alan B. Rubens; Ola A. Selnes; Arthur C. Klassen; Maurice W. Meyer

1984-01-01

266

Naming practice for people with aphasia as a mobile web application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bangagears is a new version of Banga, a smart phone application that supports word finding practice, a form of therapy for people with aphasia [1]. While Banga was implemented as a native application, a program specific to a particular kind of phone, Bangagears uses the emerging HTML5 technology to operate, in principle, on many different kinds of phones and other

Skye Chandler; Jesse Harris; Alex Moncrief; Clayton Lewis

2009-01-01

267

Poster: the development of a semantic feature analysis based mobile application for individuals with aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a Semantic Feature Analysis based mobile application and paired web application, which have been developed in order to facilitate speech and language therapy with a Person with Aphasia (PWA). The goal of this research is to streamline current speech and language therapy practices, by enabling rapid data entry, aggregation and remote analysis. The mobile application has been developed

Conor Higgins; Áine Kearns; Sue Franklin

2012-01-01

268

Series/Parallel Batteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is important for students to understand how resistors, capacitors, and batteries combine in series and parallel. The combination of batteries has a lot of practical applications in science competitions. This lab also reinforces how to use a voltmeter t

Michael Horton

2009-05-30

269

Study of bipolar batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The status of development of bipolar batteries with an aqueous electrolyte was determined. Included in the study were lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-zinc, nickel-iron, and nickel-hydrogen batteries. The technical and patent literature is reviewed and a bibliography covering the past 15 years is presented. Literature data are supplemented by a survey of organizations. The principal interest was in bipolar lead-acid batteries and more recently in bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries for space applications.

Clifford, J. E.

1984-06-01

270

Sodium sulfur battery seal  

DOEpatents

This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

Topouzian, Armenag (Birmingham, MI)

1980-01-01

271

Battery ingestion in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionIngestion of batteries by children became more frequent in recent years, due to the increasing accessibility of electronic toys and devices to children. Due to their electrochemical composition, impacted batteries in the esophagus may cause an extensive damage. Following the removal of a battery, the post-esophagoscopy management is still controversial.

Tal Marom; Abraham Goldfarb; Eyal Russo; Yehudah Roth

2010-01-01

272

Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

Roman, Harry T.

2014-01-01

273

Solid state batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The all solid state battery has been an idealized technological goal because of the assumption that the problem of batteries containing liquid phases are, at least in part, due to the fluid properties which can lead to high rates of self discharge, leakage of electrolyte through battery seals, and poor performance at both extremes of temperatures due to phase transitions. The major problem in developing useful solid state batteries has been to identify solid state ionically conducting materials with adequate conductivity to serve as the battery electrolyte. Recent work on new glasses and new polymer electrolytes have stimulated this field of investigation.

Munshi, M. Z.; Owens, Boone B.

1987-01-01

274

Chemically rechargeable battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Batteries (50) containing oxidized, discharged metal electrodes such as an iron-air battery are charged by removing and storing electrolyte in a reservoir (98), pumping fluid reductant such as formalin (aqueous formaldehyde) from a storage tank (106) into the battery in contact with the surfaces of the electrodes. After sufficient iron hydroxide has been reduced to iron, the spent reductant is drained, the electrodes rinsed with water from rinse tank (102) and then the electrolyte in the reservoir (106) is returned to the battery. The battery can be slowly electrically charged when in overnight storage but can be quickly charged in about 10 minutes by the chemical procedure of the invention.

Graf, James E. (Inventor); Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

1984-01-01

275

Automatic battery charger  

SciTech Connect

An automatic battery charging circuit for use with battery powered vehicles such as golf carts includes an automatically timed charging switch which is connected in parallel with the conventional manually timed charging switch of the battery charger. The automatically timed charging switch includes an electrical clock connected across the power line of the charger. When the charger is plugged into the power line, the clock closes the terminals of the automatically timed charging switch for a brief period of time on a periodic basis. This prevents the batteries of the vehicle from becoming substantially discharged during extended periods of non-use, thereby increasing the life of the batteries.

Schub, L.

1984-06-26

276

The Design and Field Evaluation of PhotoTalk: a Digital Image Communication Application for People with Aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

PhotoTalk is an application for a mobile device that allows people with aphasia to capture and manage digital photographs to support face-to-face communication. Unlike any other augmentative and alternative communication device for people with aphasia, PhotoTalk focuses solely on image capture and organization and is designed to be used independently. Our project used a streamlined process with 3 phases: (1)

Barbara Purves; Joanna McGrenere

2007-01-01

277

Collecting battery data with Open Battery Gareth L. Jones1  

E-print Network

Temperature( C) 01 Jul 02 Jul 03 Jul 04 Jul 05 Jul 06 Jul 07 Jul 08 Jul powered by battery PLUGGED_AC PLUGGEDCollecting battery data with Open Battery Gareth L. Jones1 and Peter G. Harrison2 1,2 Imperial present Open Battery, a tool for collecting data on mobile phone battery usage, describe the data we have

Imperial College, London

278

The 1975 GSFC Battery Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proceedings of the 1975 Goddard Space Flight Center Battery Workshop are presented. The major topics of discussion were nickel cadmium batteries and, to a lesser extent, nickel hydrogen batteries. Battery design, manufacturing techniques, testing programs, and electrochemical characteristics were considered. The utilization of these batteries for spacecraft power supplies was given particular attention.

1975-01-01

279

Remote Control Inserting the batteries  

E-print Network

Top View Rear View Inserting the batteries 1 3Press in on the arrow mark and slide in the direction of the arrow to remove the battery cover. 2 Insert two AA size batteries, making sure their polarities match the and marks inside the battery compartment. Insert the side tabs of the battery cover into their slots

Kostic, Milivoje M.

280

Western Skink  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Western skink (Plestiodon skiltonianus) is a relatively common and widespread lizard in Southern California. It is more secretive and prefers more grassy habitat than the Western fence lizard or the side-blotched lizard, yet USGS and National Park Service biologists are finding signs of genetic ...

281

Building a Cleaner Battery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video excerpt from NOVA's Making Stuff: Cleaner with host and New York Times technology columnist David Pogue, learn how materials scientists are designing new kinds of batteries that could power the next generation of electric vehicles. Watch one of the world’s fastest electric motorcycles, powered by the equivalent of 150 car batteries, accelerate to 60 mph in less than one second. In a related activity, students build their own environmentally cleaner batteries using common materials while learning about batteries, circuits, issues surrounding battery disposal, and the efforts of materials scientists to build cleaner batteries. An informational text is included on What is Materials Science? that has a reading level of 12.7 on a Flesch-Kincaid scale.

2012-08-08

282

Battery utilizing ceramic membranes  

DOEpatents

A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

Yahnke, Mark S. (Berkeley, CA); Shlomo, Golan (Haifa, IL); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

1994-01-01

283

Lithium battery management system  

DOEpatents

Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

Dougherty, Thomas J. (Waukesha, WI)

2012-05-08

284

Viking lander spacecraft battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Viking Lander was the first spacecraft to fly a sterilized nickel-cadmium battery on a mission to explore the surface of a planet. The significant results of the battery development program from its inception through the design, manufacture, and test of the flight batteries which were flown on the two Lander spacecraft are documented. The flight performance during the early phase of the mission is also presented.

Newell, D. R.

1976-01-01

285

Satellite battery testing status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of the large numbers of satellite cells currently being tested and anticipated at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NAVWPNSUPPCEN) Crane, Indiana, satellite cell testing is being integrated into the Battery Test Automation Project (BTAP). The BTAP, designed to meet the growing needs for battery testing at the NAVWPNSUPPCEN Crane, will consist of several Automated Test Stations (ATSs) which monitor batteries under test. Each ATS will interface with an Automation Network Controller (ANC) which will collect test data for reduction.

Haag, R.; Hall, S.

1986-01-01

286

Singing therapy can be effective for a patient with severe nonfluent aphasia.  

PubMed

Patients with severe aphasia are rarely treated using speech therapy. We used music therapy to continue to treat a 79-year-old patient with chronic severe aphasia. Interventions 1, 2, and 3 were to practice singing a song that the patient knew, to practice singing a song with a therapist, and to practice saying a greeting using a song with lyrics, respectively. In addition, practice of uttering names of body parts was initiated using touch and rhythm. After intervention 1, the patient could sing spontaneously and repeat lyrics. After intervention 2, she could sing with the therapist, and sing spontaneously and repeat lyrics. After intervention 3, she could memorize words with meaning, say the words in context, and use them. The patient could utter the names of two body parts after therapy with touch and rhythm. These suggest that rehabilitation therapy can still be used in patients with severe cognitive impairment. PMID:22274592

Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Akanuma, Kyoko; Hatayama, Yuka; Otera, Masako; Meguro, Kenichi

2012-03-01

287

Examining the Value of Lexical Retrieval Treatment in Primary Progressive Aphasia: Two Positive Cases  

PubMed Central

Individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) suffer a gradual decline in communication ability as a result of neurodegenerative disease. Language treatment shows promise as a means of addressing these difficulties but much remains to be learned with regard to the potential value of treatment across variants and stages of the disorder. We present two cases, one with semantic variant of PPA and the other with logopenic PPA, each of whom underwent treatment that was unique in its focus on training self-cueing strategies to engage residual language skills. Despite differing language profiles and levels of aphasia severity, each individual benefited from treatment and showed maintenance of gains as well as generalization to untrained lexical items. These cases highlight the potential for treatment to capitalize on spared cognitive and neural systems in individuals with PPA, improving current language function as well as potentially preserving targeted skills in the face of disease progression. PMID:23871425

Rising, K.; DeMarco, A.T.; Miller, B.L.; Gorno-Tempini, M.L.; Beeson, P.M.

2013-01-01

288

Neural activity associated with semantic versus phonological anomia treatments in aphasia.  

PubMed

Naming impairments in aphasia are typically targeted using semantic and/or phonologically based tasks. However, it is not known whether these treatments have different neural mechanisms. Eight participants with aphasia received twelve treatment sessions using an alternating treatment design, with fMRI scans pre- and post-treatment. Half the sessions employed Phonological Components Analysis (PCA), and half the sessions employed Semantic Feature Analysis (SFA). Pre-treatment activity in the left caudate correlated with greater immediate treatment success for items treated with SFA, whereas recruitment of the left supramarginal gyrus and right precuneus post-treatment correlated with greater immediate treatment success for items treated with PCA. The results support previous studies that have found greater treatment outcome to be associated with activity in predominantly left hemisphere regions, and suggest that different mechanisms may be engaged dependent on the type of treatment employed. PMID:24556337

van Hees, Sophia; McMahon, Katie; Angwin, Anthony; de Zubicaray, Greig; Copland, David A

2014-02-01

289

[Functional neuroimaging and the treatment of aphasia: speech therapy and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation].  

PubMed

Functional imaging has provided new evidence of the neurobiological impact of the treatment of aphasia, including speech therapy, through the alteration of the activated language neural network. In such a way, speech therapy has proved its impact. The role of each hemisphere is still very unclear. Some of the authors link the left-lateralisation of activations to the therapeutic improvement of language and the right-activated network to a maladaptative strategy, whereas others consider the latter as a useful compensatory network for speech disorders. Repetitive trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), first used to determine cortical activity, is now used to directly interfere with cerebral activity. In the years to come, rTMS should be developed as an adjuvant therapy for aphasia. PMID:18675046

de Boissezon, X; Raboyeau, G; Simonetta-Moreau, M; Puel, M; Démonet, J F; Cardebat, D

2008-05-01

290

Advances in ZEBRA batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ZEBRA batteries use plain salt and nickel as the raw material for their electrodes in combination with a ceramic electrolyte and a molten salt. This combination provides a battery system related specific energy of 120 Wh/kg and a specific power of 180 W/kg. With these data the battery is well designed for all types of electric vehicles and hybrid electric buses. The ZEBRA battery technology is industrialised in Switzerland where a new plant has a capacity of 2000 packs a year with expansion prepared for 30,000 packs a year.

Dustmann, Cord-H.

291

Use of AAC to enhance linguistic communication skills in an adult with chronic severe aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Individuals with non?fluent aphasia (NA) exhibit sparse verbal output and impaired word?finding skills. For some, traditional speech?language therapy aids in regaining verbal communication. For other aphasic individuals these techniques are unsuccessful. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) provides a means of communicating through devices\\/techniques when spoken skills are not adequate. Individuals with chronic NA can use AAC to communicate; however,

Monica Hough; Rachel Kay Johnson

2009-01-01

292

“Pre-semantic” cognition revisited: Critical differences between semantic aphasia and semantic dementia  

PubMed Central

Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal “pre-semantic” tasks: e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are atypical of the domain and “regularisation errors” (irregular/atypical items are produced as if they were domain-typical). The emergence of this pattern across diverse tasks in the same patients indicates that semantic memory plays a key role in all of these types of “pre-semantic” processing. However, this claim remains controversial because semantically-impaired patients sometimes fail to show an influence of regularity. This study demonstrates that (a) the location of brain damage and (b) the underlying nature of the semantic deficit affect the likelihood of observing the expected relationship between poor comprehension and regularity effects. We compared the effect of multimodal semantic impairment in the context of semantic dementia and stroke aphasia on the seven “pre-semantic” tasks listed above. In all of these tasks, the semantic aphasia patients were less sensitive to typicality than the semantic dementia patients, even though the two groups obtained comparable scores on semantic tests. The semantic aphasia group also made fewer regularisation errors and many more unrelated and perseverative responses. We propose that these group differences reflect the different locus for the semantic impairment in the two conditions: patients with semantic dementia have degraded semantic representations, whereas semantic aphasia patients show deregulated semantic cognition with concomitant executive deficits. These findings suggest a reinterpretation of single case studies of comprehension-impaired aphasic patients who fail to show the expected effect of regularity on “pre-semantic” tasks. Consequently, such cases do not demonstrate the independence of these tasks from semantic memory. PMID:19766662

Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

2009-01-01

293

Improved naming after TMS treatments in a chronic, global aphasia patient – case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report improved ability to name pictures at 2 and 8 months after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatments to the pars triangularis portion of right Broca’s homologue in a 57 year-old woman with severe nonfluent\\/global aphasia (6.5 years post left basal ganglia bleed, subcortical lesion). TMS was applied at 1 Hz, 20 minutes a day, 10 days, over a

Margaret A. Naeser; Paula I Martin; Marjorie Nicholas; Errol H. Baker; Heidi Seekins; Nancy Helm-Estabrooks; Carol Cayer-Meade; Masahito Kobayashi; Hugo Theoret; Felipe Fregni; Jose Maria Tormos; Jacquie Kurland; Karl W. Doron; Alvaro Pascual-Leone

2005-01-01

294

Impairment and Rehabilitation in Bilingual Aphasia: A SOM-Based Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bilingual aphasia is of increasing interest because a large and growing proportion of the world’s population is bilingual.\\u000a Current clinical research on this topic cannot provide specific recommendations on which language treatment should focus in\\u000a a bilingual aphasic individual and to what extent cross-language transfer occurs during or after rehabilitation. This paper\\u000a describes a SOM-based model of the bilingual lexicon,

Uli Grasemann; Chaleece Sandberg; Swathi Kiran; Risto Miikkulainen

295

Unaccusative verb production in agrammatic aphasia: the argument structure complexity hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined patterns of verb production in narrative samples of eight individuals with agrammatic aphasia and seven education- and age-matched normal subjects. Comprehension and constrained production of two types of intransitive verbs—unaccusatives whose argument structure triggers a complex syntactic derivation and unergatives that are considered syntactically simple—was also tested. Results showed that in narrative tasks a hierarchy of verb

Cynthia K. Thompson

2003-01-01

296

Acute aphasia and micrographia associated to a left corona radiata lesion in multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute aphasia or micrographia are rarely associated to damage in basal ganglia and adjacent related pathways. We report a 47-year-old right-handed woman with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, who developed an acute language disturbance and small writing during relapse. Verbal output was reduced with mild dysarthria and prominent word paraphasias, both in spontaneous speech and word repetition. Handwriting was slow and micrographic.

Clara de Andrés; Lucía Muńoz; Belén Castańo; Santiago Giménez-Roldán

2005-01-01

297

Making sense of progressive non-fluent aphasia: an analysis of conversational speech  

PubMed Central

The speech of patients with progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA) has often been described clinically, but these descriptions lack support from quantitative data. The clinical classification of the progressive aphasic syndromes is also debated. This study selected 15 patients with progressive aphasia on broad criteria, excluding only those with clear semantic dementia. It aimed to provide a detailed quantitative description of their conversational speech, along with cognitive testing and visual rating of structural brain imaging, and to examine which, if any features were consistently present throughout the group; as well as looking for sub-syndromic associations between these features. A consistent increase in grammatical and speech sound errors and a simplification of spoken syntax relative to age-matched controls were observed, though telegraphic speech was rare; slow speech was common but not universal. Almost all patients showed impairments in picture naming, syntactic comprehension and executive function. The degree to which speech was affected was independent of the severity of the other cognitive deficits. A partial dissociation was also observed between slow speech with simplified grammar on the one hand, and grammatical and speech sound errors on the other. Overlap between these sets of impairments was however, the rule rather than the exception, producing continuous variation within a single consistent syndrome. The distribution of atrophy was remarkably variable, with frontal, temporal and medial temporal areas affected, either symmetrically or asymmetrically. The study suggests that PNFA is a coherent, well-defined syndrome and that varieties such as logopaenic progressive aphasia and progressive apraxia of speech may be seen as points in a space of continuous variation within progressive non-fluent aphasia. PMID:19696033

Woollams, Anna M.; Hodges, John R.; Patterson, Karalyn

2009-01-01

298

Naming practice for people with aphasia in a mobile web application: early user experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bangaten is a new version of Banga [2,3], a smart phone application that supports word finding practice, a form of therapy for people with aphasia. Early user experience shows that Bangaten offers useful cross-platform operation, on both Android and iPhone devices, including remote management of a client's device. Bangaten demonstrates the growing usefulness of emerging HTML5 technology for implementing assistive

Khalyle Hagood; Terrance Moore; Tiffany Pierre; Paula Messamer; Gail Ramsberger; Clayton Lewis

2010-01-01

299

78 FR 55773 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size...Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size DATES: The meeting will be...

2013-09-11

300

76 FR 22161 - Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes...Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. DATES: The meeting will be...

2011-04-20

301

77 FR 20688 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size...Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be...

2012-04-05

302

78 FR 6845 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size...Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be...

2013-01-31

303

78 FR 38093 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size...Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be...

2013-06-25

304

77 FR 39321 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes...Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. DATES: The meeting will be...

2012-07-02

305

76 FR 38741 - Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes...Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. DATES: The meeting will be...

2011-07-01

306

76 FR 54527 - Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes...Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. DATES: The meeting will be...

2011-09-01

307

76 FR 6180 - First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes...Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. DATES: The meeting will be...

2011-02-03

308

78 FR 16031 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size...Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be...

2013-03-13

309

77 FR 8325 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size...Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be...

2012-02-14

310

Jean-Martin Charcot's role in the 19th century study of music aphasia.  

PubMed

Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-93) was a well-known French neurologist. Although he is widely recognized for his discovery of several neurological disorders and his research into aphasia, Charcot's ideas about how the brain processes music are less well known. Charcot discussed the music abilities of several patients in the context of his 'Friday Lessons' on aphasia, which took place at the Salpętričre Hospital in Paris in 1883-84. In his most comprehensive discussion about music, Charcot described a professional trombone player who developed difficulty copying music notation and playing his instrument, thereby identifying a new isolated syndrome of music agraphia without aphasia. Because the description of this case was published only in Italian by one of his students, Domenico Miliotti, there has been considerable confusion and under-acknowledgement of Charcot's ideas about music and the brain. In this paper, we describe Charcot's ideas regarding music and place them within the historical context of the growing interest in the neurological underpinnings of music abilities that took place in the 1880s. PMID:23576129

Johnson, Julene K; Lorch, Marjorie; Nicolas, Serge; Graziano, Amy

2013-05-01

311

Electrophysiological responses to argument structure violations in healthy adults and individuals with agrammatic aphasia  

PubMed Central

Sentence comprehension requires processing of argument structure information associated with verbs, i.e. the number and type of arguments that they select. Many individuals with agrammatic aphasia show impaired production of verbs with greater argument structure density. The extent to which these participants also show argument structure deficits during comprehension, however, is unclear. Some studies find normal access to verb arguments, whereas others report impaired ability. The present study investigated verb argument structure processing in agrammatic aphasia by examining event-related potentials associated with argument structure violations in healthy young and older adults as well as aphasic individuals. A semantic violation condition was included to investigate possible differences in sensitivity to semantic and argument structure information during sentence processing. Results for the healthy control participants showed a negativity followed by a positive shift (N400-P600) in the argument structure violation condition, as found in previous ERP studies (Friederici & Frisch, 2000; Frisch, Hahne, & Friederici, 2004). In contrast, individuals with agrammatic aphasia showed a P600, but no N400, response to argument structure mismatches. Additionally, compared to the control groups, the agrammatic participants showed an attenuated, but relatively preserved, N400 response to semantic violations. These data show that agrammatic individuals do not demonstrate normal real-time sensitivity to verb argument structure requirements during sentence processing. PMID:23022079

Kielar, Aneta; Meltzer-Asscher, Aya; Thompson, Cynthia

2012-01-01

312

Iconic gesture in normal language and word searching conditions: a case of conduction aphasia.  

PubMed

Although there is a substantive body of research about the language used by individuals with aphasia, relatively little is known about their spontaneous iconic gesture. A single case study of LT, an individual with conduction aphasia indicated qualitative differences between the spontaneous iconic gestures produced alongside fluent speech and in tip of the tongue states. The current study examined the iconic gestures produced by another individual with conduction aphasia, WT, and a group of 11 control participants. Comparisons were made between iconic gestures produced alongside normal language and those produced alongside word-searching behaviour. Participants recounted the Tweety and Sylvester cartoon Canary Row. All gesture produced was analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. WT produced more iconic gestures than controls accompanying word searching behaviour, whereas he produced a similar frequency of iconic gestures to control participants alongside normal language. The iconic gestures produced in the two language contexts also differed qualitatively. Frequency of iconic gesture production was not affected by limb apraxia. This study suggests that there are differences between iconic gestures that are produced alongside normal language and those produced alongside word-searching behaviour. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:23534389

Pritchard, Madeleine; Cocks, Naomi; Dipper, Lucy

2013-10-01

313

Electric vehicle battery research and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High energy battery technology for electric vehicles is reviewed. The state-of-the-art in conventional batteries, metal-gas batteries, alkali-metal high temperature batteries, and organic electrolyte batteries is reported.

Schwartz, H. J.

1973-01-01

314

Conduction Aphasia, Sensory-Motor Integration, and Phonological Short-Term Memory--An Aggregate Analysis of Lesion and fMRI Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conduction aphasia is a language disorder characterized by frequent speech errors, impaired verbatim repetition, a deficit in phonological short-term memory, and naming difficulties in the presence of otherwise fluent and grammatical speech output. While traditional models of conduction aphasia have typically implicated white matter pathways,…

Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Baldo, Juliana; Okada, Kayoko; Berman, Karen F.; Dronkers, Nina; D'Esposito, Mark; Hickok, Gregory

2011-01-01

315

Evidence-Based Systematic Review: Effects of Intensity of Treatment and Constraint-Induced Language Therapy for Individuals with Stroke-Induced Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This systematic review summarizes evidence for intensity of treatment and constraint-induced language therapy (CILT) on measures of language impairment and communication activity/participation in individuals with stroke-induced aphasia. Method: A systematic search of the aphasia literature using 15 electronic databases (e.g., PubMed,…

Cherney, Leora R.; Patterson, Janet P.; Raymer, Anastasia; Frymark, Tobi; Schooling, Tracy

2008-01-01

316

Constrained versus Unconstrained Intensive Language Therapy in Two Individuals with Chronic, Moderate-to-Severe Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech: Behavioral and fMRI Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This Phase I study investigated behavioral and functional MRI (fMRI) outcomes of 2 intensive treatment programs to improve naming in 2 participants with chronic moderate-to-severe aphasia with comorbid apraxia of speech (AOS). Constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT; Pulvermuller et al., 2001) has demonstrated positive outcomes in some…

Kurland, Jacquie; Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Silva, Nicole; Burke, Katherine; Andrianopoulos, Mary

2012-01-01

317

Assessing Cortisol Reactivity to a Linguistic Task as a Marker of Stress in Individuals with Left-Hemisphere Stroke and Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors explore a method of measuring physiologic and perceived stress in individuals with aphasia by investigating salivary cortisol reactivity and subjectively perceived stress in response to a standardized linguistic task. Method: Fifteen individuals with aphasia and 15 age-matched healthy controls participated in a…

Laures-Gore, Jacqueline; Heim, Christine M.; Hsu, Yu-Sheng

2007-01-01

318

Verb production in agrammatic aphasia: The influence of semantic class and argument structure properties on generalisation  

PubMed Central

Background Some individuals with agrammatic aphasia have difficulty producing verbs when naming and generating sentences (Miceli, Silveri, Villa, & Caramazza, 1984; Saffran, Schwartz, & Marin, 1980; Zingeser & Berndt, 1990). And when verbs are produced there is an over-reliance on verbs requiring simple argument structure arrangements (Thompson, Lange, Schneider, & Shapiro, 1997; Thompson, Shapiro, Schneider, & Tait, 1994). Verbs, as argument-taking elements, show especially complex semantic and argument structure properties. This study investigated the role these properties have on verb production in individuals with agrammatic aphasia. Aim This treatment study examined the extent to which semantic class and argument structure properties of verbs influenced the ability of seven individuals with agrammatic Broca’s aphasia to retrieve verbs and then use them in correct sentence production. Verbs from two semantic classes and two argument structure categories were trained using either a semantic or an argument structure verb retrieval treatment. Specifically, acquisition and generalisation to trained and untrained verbs within and across semantic and argument structure categories was examined. In addition, the influence of verb production on each participant’s sentence production was also examined. Methods & Procedures Utilising a single-subject crossover design in combination with a multiple baseline design across subjects and behaviours, seven individuals with agrammatic aphasia were trained to retrieve verbs with specific argument structures from two semantic classes under two treatment conditions—semantic verb retrieval treatment and verb argument structure retrieval treatment. Treatment was provided on two-place and three-place motion or change of state verbs, counterbalanced across subjects and behaviours. A total of 102 verbs, depicted in black and white drawings, were utilised in the study, divided equally into motion and change of state verbs (semantic classes) and one-place, two-place, and three-place verbs (argument structure arrangements). Verbs were controlled for syllable length, picturability, phonological complexity, and frequency. These same stimulus items were used to elicit the sentence production probe. Outcomes & Results Both treatments revealed significant effects in facilitating acquisition of verb retrieval in all participants. Minimal within and across verb category generalisation occurred. However, it was found that as retrieval of verbs improved, grammatical sentence production improved. This occurred without direct treatment on sentence production. Conclusions The results of this study lend support for treatment focused on verb production with individuals with agrammatic aphasia and support the use of linguistic-based treatment strategies. PMID:21311720

Schneider, Sandra L.; Thompson, Cynthia K.

2011-01-01

319

Battery and LED  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An LED should never be connected directly to a battery or it will be damaged. A current-limiting resistor must be attached to either leg to prevent this damage. The value of the resistor will depend on the battery that you use and the LED that you use. Be

Michael Horton

2009-05-30

320

The GSFC Battery Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proceedings of a conference on electric storage batteries are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) a low cost/standardization program, (2) test and flight experience, (3) materials and cell components, and (4) new developments in the nickel/hydrogen system. The application of selected batteries in specific space vehicles is examined.

1974-01-01

321

Battery and Lightbulb  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The number of batteries used in this lab is determined by the type of lightbulbs that are used. A 3 V lightbulb will require two batteries. Students should perform this activity after being instructed how to use the multimeter. Instructions will vary base

Michael Horton

2009-05-30

322

Aerospace applications of batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has developed battery technology to meet the demanding requirements for aerospace applications; specifically, the space vacuum, launch loads, and high duty cycles. Because of unique requirements and operating environments associated with space applications, NASA has written its own standards and specifications for batteries.

Habib, Shahid

1993-01-01

323

Nanomaterials for Fuel cells, Batteries, and Supercapacitors Flow Batteries  

E-print Network

storage in vanadium redox flow batteries." Journal of Power Sources 195(13):4375-4379. 2. Shao Y, MH nanotube electrodes for redox flow batteries." Electrochemistry Communications 11(10):2064-2067. doi:10Nanomaterials for Fuel cells, Batteries, and Supercapacitors Flow Batteries 1. Shao Y, X Wang, MH

Dutta, Indranath

324

Battery capacity measurement and analysis using lithium coin cell battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we look at different battery capacity models that have been introduced in the literatures. These models describe the battery capacity utilization based on how the battery is discharged by the circuits that consume power. In an attempt to validate these models, we characterize a commercially available lithium coin cell battery through careful measurements of the current and

Sung Park; Andreas Savvides; Mani B. Srivastava

2001-01-01

325

Worldwide trends in battery separator technology and usage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews trends in battery separator usage for starting-lighting-and-ignition (SLI), motive power, and sealed valve-regulated lead/acid batteries. For SLI batteries, the dominant trend in the USA and Western Europe has been a dramatic increase in polyethylene envelope separator usage, with other countries now following this trend. This is at the expense of traditional leaf-type separators such as cellulose or sintered polyvinyl chloride (PVC). For motive power applications, several different types of separator materials are currently favoured, including polyethylene, microporous rubber, microporous PVC and resin-impregnated polyester fibres. Worldwide trends in the motive power battery and separator market are shown. For sealed valve-regulated lead/acid batteries, the favoured construction uses a recombinant battery separator mat, normally of 100% borosilicate glass (binder free). Alternative mats containing a proportion of polymeric fibres are now being investigated. Market trends and factors affecting growth in the use of recombinant battery separator mats (RBSM) are reviewed. Results of mercury-intrusion porosimetry data for different separator materials are shown and reviewed. This technique provides an interesting way of differentiating between different separator materials based on their pore size distribution.

Weighall, M. J.

326

Closed loop recycling of lead/acid batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional lead/acid battery is a recycleable product, irrespective whether it is of an automotive, traction or standby design. The product benefits from the traditional lead metallurgy that has been developed for both primary (mines) and secondary (recycling) smelting. Secondary smelting accounts for 60% of total lead production in Europe, and this market lead the most effectively metal. In secondary smelters, scrapped batteries are crushed and smelted. The polypropylene from the boxes is recycled to produce secondary plastic for battery, automotive, or other miscellaneous uses. The lead metal is refined to be re-used in the battery industry. The acid is retreated. Recycling requires a collection network. The lead/acid battery benefits from the traditional collection network that has been established for scrap-iron and non-ferrous metal scrap. In Western Europe, the recycling rate for scrapped batteries is estimated to be 80 to 90%. All participants in the battery recycling loop agree that the process must be a clean cycle for it to be credible. The collection organization is improving the quality of storage and transportation, especially with regard to the acid that can only be neutralized in correctly-controlled facilities, generally located at the smelters. The smelters themselves tend, through local regulations, to run at the optimum level of protection of the environment.

Bied-Charreton, B.

327

HST Replacement Battery Initial Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) original Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries were replaced during the Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) after 19 years and one month on orbit.The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the findings from the assessment of the initial sm4 replacement battery performance. The batteries are described, the 0 C capacity is reviewed, descriptions, charts and tables reviewing the State Of Charge (SOC) Performance, the Battery Voltage Performance, the battery impedance, the minimum voltage performance, the thermal performance, the battery current, and the battery system recharge ratio,

Krol, Stan; Waldo, Greg; Hollandsworth, Roger

2009-01-01

328

Neural mechanisms underlying the facilitation of naming in aphasia using a semantic task: an fMRI study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous attempts to investigate the effects of semantic tasks on picture naming in both healthy controls and people with aphasia have typically been confounded by inclusion of the phonological word form of the target item. As a result, it is difficult to isolate any facilitatory effects of a semantically-focused task to either lexical-semantic or phonological processing. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study examined the neurological mechanisms underlying short-term (within minutes) and long-term (within days) facilitation of naming from a semantic task that did not include the phonological word form, in both participants with aphasia and age-matched controls. Results Behavioral results showed that a semantic task that did not include the phonological word form can successfully facilitate subsequent picture naming in both healthy controls and individuals with aphasia. The whole brain neuroimaging results for control participants identified a repetition enhancement effect in the short-term, with modulation of activity found in regions that have not traditionally been associated with semantic processing, such as the right lingual gyrus (extending to the precuneus) and the left inferior occipital gyrus (extending to the fusiform gyrus). In contrast, the participants with aphasia showed significant differences in activation over both the short- and the long-term for facilitated items, predominantly within either left hemisphere regions linked to semantic processing or their right hemisphere homologues. Conclusions For control participants in this study, the short-lived facilitation effects of a prior semantic task that did not include the phonological word form were primarily driven by object priming and episodic memory mechanisms. However, facilitation effects appeared to engage a predominantly semantic network in participants with aphasia over both the short- and the long-term. The findings of the present study also suggest that right hemisphere involvement may be supportive rather than maladaptive, and that a large distributed perisylvian network in both cerebral hemispheres supports the facilitation of naming in individuals with aphasia. PMID:22882806

2012-01-01

329

State estimator design for solar battery charger  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes state estimation technique for solar battery charger based on lithium battery. The lithium battery is used for storing solar generated power. The solar battery charger requires solar cell voltage and current, battery voltage and current for controlling solar cell and battery status. Due to the unstable hazardous behavior of the lithium battery, it is required to have

Il-Song Kim; Pyeong-Sik Ji; Un-Dong Han; Chin-Gook Lhee; Hong-Gyu Kim

2009-01-01

330

Bipolar battery construction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lightweight, bipolar battery construction for lead acid batteries in which a plurality of thin, rigid, biplates each comprise a graphite fiber thermoplastic composition in conductive relation to lead stripes plated on opposite flat surfaces of the plates, and wherein a plurality of nonconductive thermoplastic separator plates support resilient yieldable porous glass mats in which active material is carried, the biplates and separator plates with active material being contained and maintained in stacked assembly by axial compression of the stacked assembly. A method of assembling such a bipolar battery construction.

Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor); Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor)

1981-01-01

331

Synthetic battery cycling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of interactive computer graphics is suggested as an aid in battery system development. Mathematical representations of simplistic but fully representative functions of many electrochemical concepts of current practical interest will permit battery level charge and discharge phenomena to be analyzed in a qualitative manner prior to the assembly and testing of actual hardware. This technique is a useful addition to the variety of tools available to the battery system designer as he bridges the gap between interesting single cell life test data and reliable energy storage subsystems.

Thaller, L. H.

1981-01-01

332

Synthetic battery cycling techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Synthetic battery cycling makes use of the fast growing capability of computer graphics to illustrate some of the basic characteristics of operation of individual electrodes within an operating electrochemical cell. It can also simulate the operation of an entire string of cells that are used as the energy storage subsystem of a power system. The group of techniques that as a class have been referred to as Synthetic Battery Cycling is developed in part to try to bridge the gap of understanding that exists between single cell characteristics and battery system behavior.

Leibecki, H. F.; Thaller, L. H.

1982-01-01

333

Battery utilizing ceramic membranes  

DOEpatents

A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range. 2 figs.

Yahnke, M.S.; Shlomo, G.; Anderson, M.A.

1994-08-30

334

Electricity: Fruit Batteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a battery from fruit. This activity helps learners explore electricity, electrochemistry, and series circuits as well as the process of scientific inquiry. Learners will use a voltmeter to measure voltage and a multimeter to measure how much work their fruit battery can do. They will record the measurements on a data table and compare voltage amongst different types of fruits. Learners will also link together multiple fruit batteries to create a series circuit. This lesson guide includes background information, key vocabulary terms, blackline masters, and extension ideas.

Maria Habib

2008-01-01

335

BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries  

SciTech Connect

BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

None

2010-07-01

336

at Western University From the production of biofuels, fuel cells and alternative forms of energy,  

E-print Network

at Western University From the production of biofuels, fuel cells and alternative forms of energy tailored nanotube- based materials for applications in such areas as fuel cells, batteries and sensing

Denham, Graham

337

Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

2008-01-01

338

Crossed Transcortical Motor Aphasia, Left Spatial Neglect, and Limb and Magnetic Apraxia Due to Right Anterior Cerebral Artery Infarction  

PubMed Central

Crossed aphasia refers to language disturbance due to right-hemisphere lesions in right-handed individuals, while magnetic apraxia is described as 'forced grasping and groping' caused by lesions in the contralateral frontal lobe. This is a case report of a 70-year-old right handed woman who suffered from crossed transcortical motor aphasia and left hand magnetic apraxia due to right anterior cerebral artery infarction. The definite mechanism of this disorder is not yet understood, but neurophysiological observations suggest that affected supplementary motor areas may be responsible for this phenomenon. PMID:22506227

Kim, Hyoung Seop; Shin, Jung Bin

2011-01-01

339

SOLAR BATTERY CHARGERS FOR NIMH BATTERIES1 Abstract -This paper proposes new solar battery  

E-print Network

SOLAR BATTERY CHARGERS FOR NIMH BATTERIES1 Abstract - This paper proposes new solar battery chargers for NiMH batteries. Used with portable solar panels, existing charge control methods are shown of consumer portable solar arrays. These new arrays are lightweight, durable, and flexible and have been

Lehman, Brad

340

Sodium sulfur battery seal  

DOEpatents

This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

Mikkor, Mati (Ann Arbor, MI)

1981-01-01

341

Parallel flow diffusion battery  

DOEpatents

A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

1984-01-01

342

Parallel flow diffusion battery  

DOEpatents

A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

Yeh, Hsu-Chi (Albuquerque, NM); Cheng, Yung-Sung (Albuquerque, NM)

1984-08-07

343

Commercialization of advanced batteries  

SciTech Connect

Mader and Associates has been working as a contractor for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (District) for the past several years. During this period it has performed various assessments of advanced battery technology as well as established the Advanced Battery Task Force. The following paper is Mader`s view of the status of battery technologies that are competing for the electric vehicle (EV) market being established by the California Air Resources Board`s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Mandate. The ZEV market is being competed for by various advanced battery technologies. And, given the likelihood of modifications to the Mandate, the most promising technologies should capture the following market share during the initial 10 years: Lead-Acid--8.4%, Nickel Metal Hydride--50.8%, Sodium Sulfur--7.8%, Lithium Ion 33.0%.

Mader, J. [Mader and Associates, Los Altos, CA (United States)

1996-11-01

344

Building a Cleaner Battery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video excerpt from NOVA’s Making Stuff: Cleaner and accompanying activity guide for grades K–8 introduce students to the design and use of batteries and the rapidly developing science of clean energy and clean materials.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2011-12-15

345

Batteries and Power Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that â??provides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â?ť Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Batteries and Power Systems, is the eleventh chapter in Volume I â??Direct Current. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Battery construction, Battery ratings, Special-purpose batteries, and Electron activity in chemical reactions. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

346

Advances in alkaline batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alkaline rechargeable battery systems have been under development for more than 100 years yet. Different electrochemical couples of positive and negative materials have been subject of research and development, but only the nickel-cadmium system (NiCd) and, since about 10 years, the nickel-metal hydride system (NiMH) have achieved the stage of large volume production. Particularly, sealed NiCd and NiMH cells have been established in a variety of applications. Recent advances with the NiMH system have brought about portable batteries with energy storing capabilities coming close to those of alkaline primary cells. Although representing a technically interesting solution even for electric vehicles, relatively high cost will limit the use of rechargeable alkaline batteries to small high power batteries for hybrid electric vehicles. Basic technological developments for materials suitable for high energy and high power design are described.

Köhler, Uwe; Antonius, Christina; Bäuerlein, Peter

347

A cortical pathway to olfactory naming: evidence from primary progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

It is notoriously difficult to name odours. Without the benefit of non-olfactory information, even common household smells elude our ability to name them. The neuroscientific basis for this olfactory language ‘deficit’ is poorly understood, and even basic models to explain how odour inputs gain access to transmodal representations required for naming have not been put forward. This study used patients with primary progressive aphasia, a clinical dementia syndrome characterized by primary deficits in language, to investigate the interactions between olfactory inputs and lexical access by assessing behavioural performance of olfactory knowledge and its relationship to brain atrophy. We specifically hypothesized that the temporal pole would play a key role in linking odour object representations to transmodal networks, given its anatomical proximity to olfactory and visual object processing areas. Behaviourally, patients with primary progressive aphasia with non-semantic subtypes were severely impaired on an odour naming task, in comparison with an age-matched control group. However, with the availability of picture cues or word cues, odour matching performance approached control levels, demonstrating an inability to retrieve but not to recognize the name and nature of the odorant. The magnitude of cortical thinning in the temporal pole was found to correlate with reductions in odour familiarity and odour matching to visual cues, whereas the inferior frontal gyrus correlated with both odour naming and matching. Volumetric changes in the mediodorsal thalamus correlated with the proportion of categorical mismatch errors, indicating a possible role of this region in error-signal monitoring to optimize recognition of associations linked to the odour. A complementary analysis of patients with the semantic subtype of primary progressive aphasia, which is associated with marked temporopolar atrophy, revealed much more pronounced impairments of odour naming and matching. In identifying the critical role of the temporal pole and inferior frontal gyrus in transmodal linking and verbalization of olfactory objects, our findings provide a new neurobiological foundation for understanding why even common odours are hard to name. PMID:23471695

Rogalski, Emily; Harrison, Theresa; Mesulam, M.-Marsel; Gottfried, Jay A.

2013-01-01

348

A novel frontal pathway underlies verbal fluency in primary progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

The frontal aslant tract is a direct pathway connecting Broca’s region with the anterior cingulate and pre-supplementary motor area. This tract is left lateralized in right-handed subjects, suggesting a possible role in language. However, there are no previous studies that have reported an involvement of this tract in language disorders. In this study we used diffusion tractography to define the anatomy of the frontal aslant tract in relation to verbal fluency and grammar impairment in primary progressive aphasia. Thirty-five patients with primary progressive aphasia and 29 control subjects were recruited. Tractography was used to obtain indirect indices of microstructural organization of the frontal aslant tract. In addition, tractography analysis of the uncinate fasciculus, a tract associated with semantic processing deficits, was performed. Damage to the frontal aslant tract correlated with performance in verbal fluency as assessed by the Cinderella story test. Conversely, damage to the uncinate fasciculus correlated with deficits in semantic processing as assessed by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Neither tract correlated with grammatical or repetition deficits. Significant group differences were found in the frontal aslant tract of patients with the non-fluent/agrammatic variant and in the uncinate fasciculus of patients with the semantic variant. These findings indicate that degeneration of the frontal aslant tract underlies verbal fluency deficits in primary progressive aphasia and further confirm the role of the uncinate fasciculus in semantic processing. The lack of correlation between damage to the frontal aslant tract and grammar deficits suggests that verbal fluency and grammar processing rely on distinct anatomical networks. PMID:23820597

Mesulam, Marsel M.; Jakobsen, Estrid; Malik, Farah; Martersteck, Adam; Wieneke, Christina; Thompson, Cynthia K.; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Dell’Acqua, Flavio; Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily

2013-01-01

349

Neurology of anomia in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by the combination of word comprehension deficits, fluent aphasia and a particularly severe anomia. In this study, two novel tasks were used to explore the factors contributing to the anomia. The single most common factor was a blurring of distinctions among members of a semantic category, leading to errors of overgeneralization in word–object matching tasks as well as in word definitions and object descriptions. This factor was more pronounced for natural kinds than artifacts. In patients with the more severe anomias, conceptual maps were more extensively disrupted so that inter-category distinctions were as impaired as intra-category distinctions. Many objects that could not be named aloud could be matched to the correct word in patients with mild but not severe anomia, reflecting a gradual intensification of the semantic factor as the naming disorder becomes more severe. Accurate object descriptions were more frequent than accurate word definitions and all patients experienced prominent word comprehension deficits that interfered with everyday activities but no consequential impairment of object usage or face recognition. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed three characteristics: greater atrophy of the left hemisphere; atrophy of anterior components of the perisylvian language network in the superior and middle temporal gyri; and atrophy of anterior components of the face and object recognition network in the inferior and medial temporal lobes. The left sided asymmetry and perisylvian extension of the atrophy explains the more profound impairment of word than object usage and provides the anatomical basis for distinguishing the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia from the partially overlapping group of patients that fulfil the widely accepted diagnostic criteria for semantic dementia. PMID:19506067

Rogalski, Emily; Wieneke, Christina; Cobia, Derin; Rademaker, Alfred; Thompson, Cynthia; Weintraub, Sandra

2009-01-01

350

Progress in the last decade in our understanding of primary progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a focal neurodegeneration of the brain affecting the language network. Patients can have isolated language impairment for years without impairment in other areas. PPA is classified as primary progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), semantic dementia (SD), and logopenic aphasia, which have distinct patterns of atrophy on neuroimaging. PNFA and SD are included under frontotemporal lobar degenerations. PNFA patients have effortful speech with agrammatism, which is frequently associated with apraxia of speech and demonstrate atrophy in the left Broca’s area and surrounding region on neuroimaging. Patients with SD have dysnomia with loss of word and object (or face) meaning with asymmetric anterior temporal lobe atrophy. Logopenic aphasics have word finding difficulties with frequent pauses in conversation, intact grammar, and word comprehension but impaired repetition for sentences. The atrophy is predominantly in the left posterior temporal and inferior parietal regions. Recent studies have described several progranulin mutations on chromosome 17 in PNFA. The three clinical syndromes have a less robust relationship to the underlying pathology, which is heterogeneous and includes tauopathy, ubiquitinopathy, Pick’s disease, corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, and Alzheimer’s disease. Recent studies, however, seem to indicate that a better characterization of the clinical phenotype (apraxic, agrammatic, semantic, logopenic, jargon) increases the predictive value of the underlying pathology. Substantial advances have been made in our understanding of PPAs but developing new biomarkers is essential in making accurate causative diagnoses in individual patients. This is critically important in the development and evaluation of disease-modifying drugs. PMID:21369415

Ratnavalli, Ellajosyula

2010-01-01

351

A novel frontal pathway underlies verbal fluency in primary progressive aphasia.  

PubMed

The frontal aslant tract is a direct pathway connecting Broca's region with the anterior cingulate and pre-supplementary motor area. This tract is left lateralized in right-handed subjects, suggesting a possible role in language. However, there are no previous studies that have reported an involvement of this tract in language disorders. In this study we used diffusion tractography to define the anatomy of the frontal aslant tract in relation to verbal fluency and grammar impairment in primary progressive aphasia. Thirty-five patients with primary progressive aphasia and 29 control subjects were recruited. Tractography was used to obtain indirect indices of microstructural organization of the frontal aslant tract. In addition, tractography analysis of the uncinate fasciculus, a tract associated with semantic processing deficits, was performed. Damage to the frontal aslant tract correlated with performance in verbal fluency as assessed by the Cinderella story test. Conversely, damage to the uncinate fasciculus correlated with deficits in semantic processing as assessed by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Neither tract correlated with grammatical or repetition deficits. Significant group differences were found in the frontal aslant tract of patients with the non-fluent/agrammatic variant and in the uncinate fasciculus of patients with the semantic variant. These findings indicate that degeneration of the frontal aslant tract underlies verbal fluency deficits in primary progressive aphasia and further confirm the role of the uncinate fasciculus in semantic processing. The lack of correlation between damage to the frontal aslant tract and grammar deficits suggests that verbal fluency and grammar processing rely on distinct anatomical networks. PMID:23820597

Catani, Marco; Mesulam, Marsel M; Jakobsen, Estrid; Malik, Farah; Martersteck, Adam; Wieneke, Christina; Thompson, Cynthia K; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily

2013-08-01

352

Extended turn construction and test question sequences in the conversations of three speakers with agrammatic aphasia  

PubMed Central

The application of Conversation Analysis (CA) to the investigation of agrammatic aphasia reveals that utterances produced by speakers with agrammatism engaged in everyday conversation differ significantly from utterances produced in response to decontextualised assessment and therapy tasks. Early studies have demonstrated that speakers with agrammatism construct turns from sequences of nouns, adjectives, discourse markers and conjunctions, packaged by a distinct pattern of prosody. This article presents examples of turn construction methods deployed by three people with agrammatism as they take an extended turn, in order to recount a past event, initiate a discussion or have a disagreement. This is followed by examples of sequences occurring in the talk of two of these speakers that result in different, and more limited, turn construction opportunities, namely “test” questions asked in order to initiate a new topic of talk, despite the conversation partner knowing the answer. The contrast between extended turns and test question sequences illustrates the effect of interactional context on aphasic turn construction practices, and the potential of less than optimal sequences to mask turn construction skills. It is suggested that the interactional motivation for test question sequences in these data are to invite people with aphasia to contribute to conversation, rather than to practise saying words in an attempt to improve language skills. The idea that test question sequences may have their origins in early attempts to deal with acute aphasia, and the potential for conversation partnerships to become “stuck” in such interactional patterns after they may have outlived their usefulness, are discussed with a view to clinical implications. PMID:23848370

Beckley, Firle; Best, Wendy; Johnson, Fiona; Edwards, Susan; Maxim, Jane

2013-01-01

353

Effects of verb meaning on lexical integration in agrammatic aphasia: Evidence from eyetracking  

PubMed Central

Relatively little is known about the time course of access to the lexical representations of verbs in agrammatic aphasia and its effects on the prediction and integration of the verb’s arguments. The present study used visual-world eyetracking to test whether verb meaning can be used by agrammatic aphasic individuals to predict and facilitate the integration of a subsequent noun argument. Nine adults with agrammatic aphasia and ten age-matched controls participated in the study. In Experiment 1, participants viewed arrays of four objects (e.g., jar, plate, stick, pencil) while listening to sentences containing either a restrictive verb that was semantically compatible only with the target object or an unrestrictive verb compatible with all four objects (e.g., Susan will open/break the jar). For both participant groups, the restrictive condition elicited more fixations to the target object immediately after the verb. Experiment 2 differed from Experiment 1 in that the auditory sentences presented were incomplete (e.g., Susan will open/break the…). For controls, restrictive verbs elicited more target fixations immediately after the verb; however, the effects of verb type were noted downstream from the verb for the aphasic listeners. The results suggest that individuals with agrammatic aphasia have preserved ability to use verb information to facilitate integration of overt arguments, but prediction of upcoming arguments is impaired. Impaired lexical-semantic prediction processes may be caused by damage to the left inferior frontal gyrus, which has been argued to support higher-level lexical processes. PMID:24092952

Mack, Jennifer E.; Ji, Woohyuk; Thompson, Cynthia K.

2013-01-01

354

OAO battery data analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Summary, consolidation and analysis of specifications, manufacturing process and test controls, and performance results for OAO-2 and OAO-3 lot 20 Amp-Hr sealed nickel cadmium cells and batteries are reported. Correlation of improvements in control requirements with performance is a key feature. Updates for a cell/battery computer model to improve performance prediction capability are included. Applicability of regression analysis computer techniques to relate process controls to performance is checked.

Gaston, S.; Wertheim, M.; Orourke, J. A.

1973-01-01

355

Battery packaging - Technology review  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

Maiser, Eric [The German Engineering Federation (VDMA), Battery Production Industry Group, Lyoner Str. 18, 60528 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2014-06-16

356

Battery packaging - Technology review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows "lessons learned" in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

Maiser, Eric

2014-06-01

357

Lead-acid battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A light weight lead-acid battery (30) having a positive terminal (36) and a negative terminal (34) and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates (10, 20) with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers (26, 28) positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars (42, 43) are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates (10) with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars (38, 39) on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates (20) with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive (42, 43) and negative (38, 39) bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals (36, 34) but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates (10, 20) is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

1983-01-01

358

Functional MRI of Language in Aphasia: A Review of the Literature and the Methodological Challenges  

PubMed Central

Animal analogue studies show that damaged adult brains reorganize to accommodate compromised functions. In the human arena, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and other functional neuroimaging techniques have been used to study reorganization of language substrates in aphasia. The resulting controversy regarding whether it is the right or the left hemisphere that supports language recovery and treatment progress must be reframed. A more appropriate question is when left-hemisphere mechanisms and when right-hemisphere mechanisms support recovery of language functions. Small lesions generally lead to good recoveries supported by left-hemisphere mechanisms. However, when too much language eloquent cortex is damaged, right-hemisphere structures may provide the better substrate for recovery of language. Some studies suggest that recovery is particularly supported by homologues of damaged left-hemisphere structures. Evidence also suggests that under some circumstances, activity in both the left and right hemispheres can interfere with recovery of function. Further research will be needed to address these issues. However, daunting methodological problems must be managed to maximize the yield of future fMRI research in aphasia, especially in the area of language production. In this review, we cover six challenges for imaging language functions in aphasia with fMRI, with an emphasis on language production: (1) selection of a baseline task, (2) structure of language production trials, (3) mitigation of motion-related artifacts, (4) the use of stimulus onset vs. response onset in fMRI analyses, (5) use of trials with correct responses and errors in analyses, and (6) reliability and stability of fMRI images across sessions. However, this list of methodological challenges is not exhaustive. Once methodology is advanced, knowledge from conceptually driven fMRI studies can be used to develop theoretically driven, mechanism-based treatments that will result in more effective therapy and to identify the best patient candidates for specific treatments. While the promise of fMRI in the study of aphasia is great, there is much work to be done before this technique will be a useful clinical tool. PMID:17525865

Crosson, Bruce; McGregor, Keith; Gopinath, Kaundinya S.; Conway, Tim W.; Benjamin, Michelle; Chang, Yu-Ling; Moore, Anna Bacon; Raymer, Anastasia M.; Briggs, Richard W.; Sherod, Megan G.; Wierenga, Christina E.; White, Keith D.

2009-01-01

359

A Case of Semantic Variant Primary Progressive Aphasia with Severe Insular Atrophy  

PubMed Central

Insular degeneration has been linked to symptoms of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Presented in this case is a patient exhibiting semantic variant primary progressive aphasia, behavioral disturbance. Upon autopsy, he was found to have severe insular atrophy. In addition, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were ineffective in reducing symptoms of obsessive-compulsive behaviours or emotional blunting. This case suggests that Seeley et al.'s hypothesis that VEN and fork cell-rich brain regions, particularly in the insula, are targeted in additional subtypes of FTD beyond the behavioral variant. PMID:22150361

Chow, T. W.; Links, K. A.; Masterman, D. L.; Mendez, M.F.; Vinters, H. V.

2012-01-01

360

Quantitative classification of primary progressive aphasia at early and mild impairment stages  

PubMed Central

The characteristics of early and mild disease in primary progressive aphasia are poorly understood. This report is based on 25 patients with aphasia quotients >85%, 13 of whom were within 2 years of symptom onset. Word-finding and spelling deficits were the most frequent initial signs. Diagnostic imaging was frequently negative and initial consultations seldom reached a correct diagnosis. Functionality was preserved, so that the patients fit current criteria for single-domain mild cognitive impairment. One goal was to determine whether recently published classification guidelines could be implemented at these early and mild disease stages. The quantitative testing of the recommended core and ancillary criteria led to the classification of ?80% of the sample into agrammatic, logopenic and semantic variants. Biological validity of the resultant classification at these mild impairment stages was demonstrated by clinically concordant cortical atrophy patterns. A two-dimensional template based on orthogonal mapping of word comprehension and grammaticality provided comparable accuracy and led to a flexible road map that can guide the classification process quantitatively or qualitatively. Longitudinal evaluations of initially unclassifiable patients showed that the semantic variant can be preceded by a prodromal stage of focal left anterior temporal atrophy during which prominent anomia exists without word comprehension or object recognition impairments. Patterns of quantitative tests justified the distinction of grammar from speech abnormalities and the desirability of using the ‘agrammatic’ designation exclusively for loss of grammaticality, regardless of fluency or speech status. Two patients with simultaneous impairments of grammatical sentence production and word comprehension displayed focal atrophy of the inferior frontal gyrus and the anterior temporal lobe. These patients represent a fourth variant of ‘mixed’ primary progressive aphasia. Quantitative criteria were least effective in the distinction of the agrammatic from the logopenic variant and left considerable latitude to clinical judgement. The widely followed recommendation to wait for 2 years of relatively isolated and progressive language impairment before making a definitive diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia has promoted diagnostic specificity, but has also diverted attention away from early and mild disease. This study shows that this recommendation is unnecessarily restrictive and that quantitative guidelines can be implemented for the valid root diagnosis and subtyping of mildly impaired patients within 2 years of symptom onset. An emphasis on early diagnosis will promote a better characterization of the disease stages where therapeutic interventions are the most likely to succeed. PMID:22525158

Wieneke, Christina; Thompson, Cynthia; Rogalski, Emily; Weintraub, Sandra

2012-01-01

361

The confidence of speech-language pathology students regarding communicating with people with aphasia  

PubMed Central

Background Aphasia is an acquired language disorder that can present a significant barrier to patient involvement in healthcare decisions. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are viewed as experts in the field of communication. However, many SLP students do not receive practical training in techniques to communicate with people with aphasia (PWA) until they encounter PWA during clinical education placements. Methods This study investigated the confidence and knowledge of SLP students in communicating with PWA prior to clinical placements using a customised questionnaire. Confidence in communicating with people with aphasia was assessed using a 100-point visual analogue scale. Linear, and logistic, regressions were used to examine the association between confidence and age, as well as confidence and course type (graduate-entry masters or undergraduate), respectively. Knowledge of strategies to assist communication with PWA was examined by asking respondents to list specific strategies that could assist communication with PWA. Results SLP students were not confident with the prospect of communicating with PWA; reporting a median 29-points (inter-quartile range 17–47) on the visual analogue confidence scale. Only, four (8.2%) of respondents rated their confidence greater than 55 (out of 100). Regression analyses indicated no relationship existed between confidence and students‘ age (p?=?0.31, r-squared?=?0.02), or confidence and course type (p?=?0.22, pseudo r-squared?=?0.03). Students displayed limited knowledge about communication strategies. Thematic analysis of strategies revealed four overarching themes; Physical, Verbal Communication, Visual Information and Environmental Changes. While most students identified potential use of resources (such as images and written information), fewer students identified strategies to alter their verbal communication (such as reduced speech rate). Conclusions SLP students who had received aphasia related theoretical coursework, but not commenced clinical placements with PWA, were not confident in their ability to communicate with PWA. Students may benefit from an educational intervention or curriculum modification to incorporate practical training in effective strategies to communicate with PWA, before they encounter PWA in clinical settings. Ensuring students have confidence and knowledge of potential communication strategies to assist communication with PWA may allow them to focus their learning experiences in more specific clinical domains, such as clinical reasoning, rather than building foundation interpersonal communication skills. PMID:23806028

2013-01-01

362

An Area Essential for Linking Word Meanings to Word Forms: Evidence from Primary Progressive Aphasia  

PubMed Central

We investigated the relationship between deficits in naming and areas of focal atrophy in primary progressive aphasia (a neurodegenerative disease that specifically affects language processing). We tested patients, across multiple input modalities, on traditional naming tasks (picture naming) and more complex tasks (sentence completion with a name, naming in response to a question) and obtained high resolution MRI. Across most tasks, error rates were correlated with atrophy in the left middle and posterior inferior temporal gyrus. Overall, this result converges with prior literature suggesting that this region plays a major role in modality independent lexical processing. PMID:24183469

Race, D.S.; Tsapkini, K.; Crinion, J.; Newhart, M.; Davis, C.; Gomez, Y.; Hillis, A.E.; Faria, A.V.

2013-01-01

363

WESTERN BIRDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common Barn-Owls (Tyro alba), Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus), Long-eared Owls (Asio otus), Western Screech-Owls (Otus kennicottii), and Burrowing Owls (Athene cunnicularia) all occur as year-round or seasonal residents of southern California deserts. This species richness provided me an opportunity to compare the diets of these owls both within and between desert regions. Within-region comparisons allowed analyses in situations where

CAMERON W. BARROWS

1989-01-01

364

Lithium use in batteries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

Goonan, Thomas G.

2012-01-01

365

A User Programmable Battery Charging System  

E-print Network

Rechargeable batteries are found in almost every battery powered application. Be it portable, stationary or motive applications, these batteries go hand in hand with battery charging systems. With energy harvesting being targeted in this day and age...

Amanor-Boadu, Judy M

2013-05-07

366

Advances in lithium-ion batteries  

E-print Network

current reviews of the lithium ion battery literature byof view of the lithium ion battery scientist and engineer,lithium ion batteries. The chapter on aging summarizes the effects of the chemistry on the battery

Kerr, John B.

2003-01-01

367

Apraxia of Speech and Phonological Errors in the Diagnosis of Nonfluent/Agrammatic and Logopenic Variants of Primary Progressive Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The International Consensus Criteria for the diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia (PPA; Gorno-Tempini et al., 2011) propose apraxia of speech (AOS) as 1 of 2 core features of nonfluent/agrammatic PPA and propose phonological errors or absence of motor speech disorder as features of logopenic PPA. We investigated the sensitivity and…

Croot, Karen; Ballard, Kirrie; Leyton, Cristian E.; Hodges, John R.

2012-01-01

368

Clause Structure and Verb Movement in a Greek-English Speaking Bilingual Patient with Broca's Aphasia: Evidence from Adverb Placement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we investigate the performance of a Greek-English bilingual patient with Broca's aphasia and mild agrammatism on the placement of CP, MoodP, AspectP, and NegP-related adverbs, labeled specifier-type adverbs, and VP-related adverbs, labeled complement-type adverbs, by means of a constituent ordering task and a grammaticality judgment…

Alexiadou, Artemis; Stavrakaki, Stavroula

2006-01-01

369

The Role of Semantic Complexity in Treatment of Naming Deficits: Training Semantic Categories in Fluent Aphasia by Controlling Exemplar Typicality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of typicality of category exemplars on naming was investigated using a single subject experimental design across participants and behaviors in 4 patients with fluent aphasia. Participants received a semantic feature treatment to improve naming of either typical or atypical items within semantic categories, while generalization was tested to untrained items of the category. The order of typicality and

Swathi Kiran; Cynthia K. Thompson

2003-01-01

370

Impaired L1 and Executive Control after Left Basal Ganglia Damage in a Bilingual Basque-Spanish Person with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bilinguals must focus their attention to control competing languages. In bilingual aphasia, damage to the fronto-subcortical loop may lead to pathological language switching and mixing and the attrition of the more automatic language (usually L1). We present the case of JZ, a bilingual Basque-Spanish 53-year-old man who, after haematoma in the…

Adrover-Roig, Daniel; Galparsoro-Izagirre, Nekane; Marcotte, Karine; Ferre, Perrine; Wilson, Maximiliano A.; Ansaldo, Ana Ines

2011-01-01

371

Using statistical parsing to detect agrammatic aphasia Kathleen C. Fraser1, Graeme Hirst1, Jed A. Meltzer2,  

E-print Network

@research.baycrest.org {jennifer-mack-0,ckthom}@northwestern.edu Abstract Agrammatic aphasia is a serious language impairment which can occur after a stroke or traumatic brain injury. We present an automatic method for analyzing apha- sic speech using surface level parse fea- tures and context-free grammar produc- tion rules. Examining

Toronto, University of

372

Conversation partner training with spouses of persons with aphasia: A pilot study using a protocol to trace relevant characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Conversation partner training can be effective in improving communication in aphasia. However, there is a need for further research about effects of specific training programmes as well as about the relevant characteristics of the conversation partners who are to be candidates for training.Aims: This pilot study explores the applicability of an adaptation of a conversation partner training programme. In

Charlotta Saldert; Ellen Backman; Lena Hartelius

2012-01-01

373

Modulation of N400 in Chronic Non-Fluent Aphasia Using Low Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Low frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has previously been applied to language homologues in non-fluent populations of persons with aphasia yielding significant improvements in behavioral language function up to 43 months post stimulation. The present study aimed to investigate the electrophysiological correlates…

Barwood, Caroline H. S.; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai; Lloyd, David; Riek, Stephan; O'Sullivan, John D.; Coulthard, Alan; Wong, Andrew

2011-01-01

374

Stimulating Conversation: Enhancement of Elicited Propositional Speech in a Patient with Chronic Non-Fluent Aphasia following Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although evidence suggests that patients with left hemisphere strokes and non-fluent aphasia who receive 1Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the intact right inferior frontal gyrus experience persistent benefits in naming, it remains unclear whether the effects of rTMS in these patients generalize to other language…

Hamilton, Roy H.; Sanders, Linda; Benson, Jennifer; Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Norise, Catherine; Naeser, Margaret; Martin, Paula; Coslett, H. Branch

2010-01-01

375

Measuring Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in Aphasia: Reliability, Validity, and Sensitivity to Change of the Scenario Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study explores the psychometric qualities of the Scenario Test, a new test to assess daily-life communication in severe aphasia. The test is innovative in that it: (1) examines the effectiveness of verbal and non-verbal communication; and (2) assesses patients' communication in an interactive setting, with a supportive…

van der Meulen, Ineke; van de Sandt-Koenderman, W. Mieke E.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Ribbers, Gerard M.

2010-01-01

376

Solar battery charger for NiMH batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a solar battery charging procedure for NiHM batteries is presented. The article shows how it is possible to detect a true full state of charge avoiding false charge termination due to changing illumination conditions.

D. Casini; G. Marola

2008-01-01

377

Battery venting system and method  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve. 8 figs.

Casale, T.J.; Ching, L.K.W.; Baer, J.T.; Swan, D.H.

1999-01-05

378

Battery venting system and method  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

Casale, Thomas J. (Aurora, CO); Ching, Larry K. W. (Littleton, CO); Baer, Jose T. (Gaviota, CA); Swan, David H. (Monrovia, CA)

1999-01-05

379

Battery Vent Mechanism And Method  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

Ching, Larry K. W. (Littleton, CO)

2000-02-15

380

Typicality of Inanimate Category Exemplars in Aphasia Treatment: Further Evidence for Semantic Complexity  

PubMed Central

Purpose The typicality treatment approach on improving naming was investigated within two inanimate categories (furniture and clothing) using a single subject experimental design across participants and behaviors in five patients with aphasia. Method Participants received a semantic feature treatment to improve naming of either typical or atypical items within semantic categories, while generalization was tested to untrained items of the category. The order of typicality and category trained was counterbalanced across participants. Results Results indicated that two out of four patients trained on naming of atypical examples demonstrated generalization to naming untrained typical examples. One patient showed trends towards generalization but did not achieve criterion. Further, four out of four patients trained on typical examples demonstrated no generalized naming to untrained atypical examples within the category. Also, analysis of errors indicated an evolution of errors as a result of treatment, from those with no apparent relationship to the target to primarily semantic and phonemic paraphasias. Conclusions These results extend our previous findings (Kiran & Thompson, 2003) to patients with nonfluent aphasia and to inanimate categories such as furniture and clothing. Additionally, the results provide support for the claim that training atypical examples is a more efficient method to facilitating generalization to untrained items within a category than training typical examples (Kiran, 2007). PMID:18695023

Kiran, Swathi

2009-01-01

381

Dissociation between singing and speaking in expressive aphasia: the role of song familiarity.  

PubMed

There are several reports on the ability aphasic patients have to sing familiar songs, despite having severe speech impairments. Based on these observations it was also suggested that singing might improve speech production. However, recent experimental studies with aphasic patients found no evidence to illustrate that singing improves word production under controlled experimental conditions. This study investigated the role of singing during repetition of word phrases in a patient severely affected with non-fluent aphasia (GS) who had an almost complete lesion of the left hemisphere. GS showed a pronounced increase in the number of correctly reproduced words during singing as compared to speaking excerpts of familiar lyrics. This dissociation between singing and speaking was not seen for novel song lyrics, regardless of whether these were coupled with an unfamiliar, a familiar, or a spontaneously generated melody during the singing conditions. These findings propose that singing might help word phrase production in at least some cases of severe expressive aphasia. However, the association of melody and text in long-term memory seems to be responsible for this effect. PMID:18294661

Straube, Thomas; Schulz, Alexander; Geipel, Katja; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Miltner, Wolfgang H R

2008-04-01

382

TDP-43 pathology in primary progressive aphasia and frontotemporal dementia with pathologic Alzheimer disease  

PubMed Central

The clinical syndrome of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) can be associated with a variety of neuropathologic diagnoses at autopsy. Thirty percent of cases have Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology, most often in the usual distribution, which defies principles of brain–behavior organization, in that aphasia is not symptomatic of limbic disease. The present study investigated whether concomitant TDP-43 pathology could resolve the lack of clinicoanatomic concordance. In this paper, 16 cases of clinical PPA and 10 cases of primarily non-aphasic frontotemporal dementia (FTD), all with AD pathology, were investigated to determine whether their atypical clinical phenotypes reflected the presence of additional TDP-43 pathology. A comparison group consisted of 27 cases of pathologic AD with the typical amnestic clinical phenotype of probable AD. Concomitant TDP-43 pathology was discovered in only three of the FTD and PPA but in more than half of the typical amnestic clinical phenotypes. Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) was closely associated with TDP-43 pathology when all groups were combined for analysis. Therefore, the clinical phenotypes of PPA and FTD in cases with pathologic AD are only rarely associated with TDP-43 proteinopathy. Furthermore, medial temporal TDP-43 pathology is more tightly linked to HS than to clinical phenotype. These findings challenge the current notions about clinicopathologic correlation, especially about the role of multiple pathologies. PMID:20361198

Mishra, Manjari; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J.; White, Charles L.; Johnson, Nancy; Rademaker, Alfred; Weitner, Bing Bing; Deng, Han-Xiang; Dubner, Steven D.; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, Marsel

2010-01-01

383

Theories of Spoken Word Recognition Deficits in Aphasia: Evidence from Eye-Tracking and Computational Modeling  

PubMed Central

We used eye tracking to investigate lexical processing in aphasic participants by examining the fixation time course for rhyme (e.g., carrot – parrot) and cohort (e.g., beaker – beetle) competitors. Broca’s aphasic participants exhibited larger rhyme competition effects than age-matched controls. A reanalysis of previously reported data (Yee, Blumstein, & Sedivy, 2008) confirmed that Wernicke’s aphasic participants exhibited larger cohort competition effects. Individual-level analyses revealed a negative correlation between rhyme and cohort competition effect size across both groups of aphasic participants. Computational model simulations were performed to examine which of several accounts of lexical processing deficits in aphasia might account for the observed effects. Simulation results revealed that slower deactivation of lexical competitors could account for increased cohort competition in Wernicke’s aphasic participants; auditory perceptual impairment could account for increased rhyme competition in Broca's aphasic participants; and a perturbation of a parameter controlling selection among competing alternatives could account for both patterns, as well as the correlation between the effects. In light of these simulation results, we discuss theoretical accounts that have the potential to explain the dynamics of spoken word recognition in aphasia and the possible roles of anterior and posterior brain regions in lexical processing and cognitive control. PMID:21371743

Mirman, Daniel; Yee, Eiling; Blumstein, Sheila E.; Magnuson, James S.

2011-01-01

384

[Aphasia, prosopagnosia and mania: a case diagnosed with right temporal variant semantic dementia].  

PubMed

Neurologic disorders can produce "secondary" mania, and clinicians must distinguish secondary mania from bipolar disorders (BD). Patients with new and late onset mania require an evaluation that includes a thorough history, a neurologic examination, neuroimaging, and other selected tests. Neurologic causes of mania include strokes in the right basotemporal or inferofrontal region, strokes or tumors in the perihypothalamic region, Huntington's disease and other movement disorders, multiple sclerosis and other white matter diseases, head trauma, infections such as neurosyphilis and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The term Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD) is suggested for neurodegenerative diseases characterized by focal degeneration such as Primer Progressive Aphasia (PPA), Frontal Lobe Dementia, PPA- Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), and Corticobasal Degeneration. In this article, we report a frontotemporal dementia (FTD) case that referred with manic symptoms. The female patient was 46 years old, married, graduated from primary school, and had been admitted with complaints of hyperactivity, excessive talking, and decreased sleep for one week. She presented first with complaints that began three years ago that included the inability to remember names, recognize faces, use household appliances, and follow rules. She had also been repeating the same words and behaviors. Prosopagnosia, aphasia, and a positive family history of ALS were discussed with related index in our case. PMID:23446543

Turan, Çetin; Kesebir, Sermin; Meteris, Handan; Ülker, Mustafa

2013-01-01

385

Circulating current battery heater  

DOEpatents

A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

Ashtiani, Cyrus N. (West Bloomfield, MI); Stuart, Thomas A. (Toledo, OH)

2001-01-01

386

Automotive Battery Inspection & Cleaning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever entered your car, turned the key and the engine would not start? You may have heard a click coming from under the hood each time you turn the key. Your headlights and interior lights are as dim as a nightlight and your horn gives a weak low muffle that sounds like someone is growling at you as you attempt to see what might work. This usually happens when you are in a hurry, its raining, and no one is around to help. The automotive battery is a key component and the primary source of electricity of the automotive electrical system. It helps provide the electricity to run the convenient amenities that we have grown to appreciate including radios, CD and DVD players, GPS systems that help guide us to our locations, and all the neat-o gages that tell us the current condition of the vehicle. Regular battery inspection and maintenance is easy and critical to avoid situations such as described above. OBJECTIVES: In this instructional module, you will: Understand the definition of the automotive battery. Gain a detailed understanding of battery basics. Learn how to inspect and service an automotive battery. MATERIALS: To complete this assignment, each student will need access to a computer with internet capabilities. PROCEDURES: This instructional module is divided into four steps. It is ...

Mr. Hjorten

2006-02-03

387

Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems  

DOEpatents

Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

Tuffner, Francis K. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. (Richland, WA); Hammerstrom, Donald J. (West Richland, WA); Pratt, Richard M. (Richland, WA)

2012-05-22

388

Linguistic and Pragmatic Language Skills in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the linguistic and pragmatic language skills of adults with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Seventeen adults (aged 18-67 years) with a diagnosis of ASD were assessed using the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB), the Right Hemisphere Language Battery (RHLB) and the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-Second Edition…

Lewis, Fiona M.; Woodyatt, Gail C.; Murdoch, Bruce E.

2008-01-01

389

Speech entrainment enables patients with Broca’s aphasia to produce fluent speech  

PubMed Central

A distinguishing feature of Broca’s aphasia is non-fluent halting speech typically involving one to three words per utterance. Yet, despite such profound impairments, some patients can mimic audio-visual speech stimuli enabling them to produce fluent speech in real time. We call this effect ‘speech entrainment’ and reveal its neural mechanism as well as explore its usefulness as a treatment for speech production in Broca’s aphasia. In Experiment 1, 13 patients with Broca’s aphasia were tested in three conditions: (i) speech entrainment with audio-visual feedback where they attempted to mimic a speaker whose mouth was seen on an iPod screen; (ii) speech entrainment with audio-only feedback where patients mimicked heard speech; and (iii) spontaneous speech where patients spoke freely about assigned topics. The patients produced a greater variety of words using audio-visual feedback compared with audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. No difference was found between audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. In Experiment 2, 10 of the 13 patients included in Experiment 1 and 20 control subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine the neural mechanism that supports speech entrainment. Group results with patients and controls revealed greater bilateral cortical activation for speech produced during speech entrainment compared with spontaneous speech at the junction of the anterior insula and Brodmann area 47, in Brodmann area 37, and unilaterally in the left middle temporal gyrus and the dorsal portion of Broca’s area. Probabilistic white matter tracts constructed for these regions in the normal subjects revealed a structural network connected via the corpus callosum and ventral fibres through the extreme capsule. Unilateral areas were connected via the arcuate fasciculus. In Experiment 3, all patients included in Experiment 1 participated in a 6-week treatment phase using speech entrainment to improve speech production. Behavioural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected before and after the treatment phase. Patients were able to produce a greater variety of words with and without speech entrainment at 1 and 6 weeks after training. Treatment-related decrease in cortical activation associated with speech entrainment was found in areas of the left posterior-inferior parietal lobe. We conclude that speech entrainment allows patients with Broca’s aphasia to double their speech output compared with spontaneous speech. Neuroimaging results suggest that speech entrainment allows patients to produce fluent speech by providing an external gating mechanism that yokes a ventral language network that encodes conceptual aspects of speech. Preliminary results suggest that training with speech entrainment improves speech production in Broca’s aphasia providing a potential therapeutic method for a disorder that has been shown to be particularly resistant to treatment. PMID:23250889

Hubbard, H. Isabel; Hudspeth, Sarah Grace; Holland, Audrey L.; Bonilha, Leonardo; Fromm, Davida; Rorden, Chris

2012-01-01

390

Handbook of batteries and fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed information is given on the properties, performance characteristics, and applications of all major battery and fuel cell power sources currently being manufactured. The basic concepts, comparative features, and selection criteria that apply to all battery systems are first discussed. Comprehensive coverage is then given to primary batteries, secondary batteries, advanced secondary batteries, reserve and special batteries, and fuel cells.

David Linden

1984-01-01

391

Recent advances in lithium battery technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portable electronics such as cellular telephones and laptop computers have produced a surge in battery development and the introduction of rechargeable lithium battery systems. The most dramatic improvement in rechargeable battery technology was the introduction of the lithium-ion battery in 1990. Today, the sale of lithium-ion systems dominates the rechargeable battery market. The cell voltage for any battery system is

Melvin H. Miles

2001-01-01

392

Mechanical design of flow batteries  

E-print Network

The purpose of this research is to investigate the design of low-cost, high-efficiency flow batteries. Researchers are searching for next-generation battery materials, and this thesis presents a systems analysis encompassing ...

Hopkins, Brandon J. (Brandon James)

2013-01-01

393

Latin American Battery Forecast Report  

SciTech Connect

A forecast of battery production in Latin America is described. The economic influence and political difficulties which have influenced the market are discussed. Data is presented for original equipment shipments and replacement batteries.

Malacon, S. [Acumuladores Mexicanos, Monterrey (Mexico)

1995-12-31

394

Microfluidic redox battery.  

PubMed

A miniaturized microfluidic battery is proposed, which is the first membraneless redox battery demonstrated to date. This unique concept capitalizes on dual-pass flow-through porous electrodes combined with stratified, co-laminar flow to generate electrical power on-chip. The fluidic design is symmetric to allow for both charging and discharging operations in forward, reverse, and recirculation modes. The proof-of-concept device fabricated using low-cost materials integrated in a microfluidic chip is shown to produce competitive power levels when operated on a vanadium redox electrolyte. A complete charge/discharge cycle is performed to demonstrate its operation as a rechargeable battery, which is an important step towards providing sustainable power to lab-on-a-chip and microelectronic applications. PMID:23712370

Lee, Jin Wook; Goulet, Marc-Antoni; Kjeang, Erik

2013-07-01

395

Safe battery solvents  

DOEpatents

An ion transporting solvent maintains very low vapor pressure, contains flame retarding elements, and is nontoxic. The solvent in combination with common battery electrolyte salts can be used to replace the current carbonate electrolyte solution, creating a safer battery. It can also be used in combination with polymer gels or solid polymer electrolytes to produce polymer batteries with enhanced conductivity characteristics. The solvents may comprise a class of cyclic and acyclic low molecular weight phosphazenes compounds, comprising repeating phosphorus and nitrogen units forming a core backbone and ion-carrying pendent groups bound to the phosphorus. In preferred embodiments, the cyclic phosphazene comprises at least 3 phosphorus and nitrogen units, and the pendent groups are polyethers, polythioethers, polyether/polythioethers or any combination thereof, and/or other groups preferably comprising other atoms from Group 6B of the periodic table of elements.

Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Delmastro, Joseph R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stewart, Frederick F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2007-10-23

396

Preventing large-battery explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This information circular presents a brief history of the lead-acid battery and describes ways to prevent serious injury from battery explosions when servicing and charging lead-acid batteries, particularly in the surface mining industry. The Mining Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, battery maufacturers, and the mining industry have all contributed information as well as recommendations for injury-free handling for this report.

Cummins, D.; Pangeri, S. F.

1980-08-01

397

Seal for sodium sulfur battery  

DOEpatents

This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

Topouzian, Armenag (Birmingham, MI); Minck, Robert W. (Lathrup Village, MI); Williams, William J. (Northville, MI)

1980-01-01

398

Battery switch for downhole tools  

SciTech Connect

An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

Boling, Brian E. (Sugar Land, TX)

2010-02-23

399

Batteries, from Cradle to Grave  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As battery producers and vendors, legislators, and the consumer population become aware of the consequences of inappropriate disposal of batteries to landfill sites instead of responsible chemical neutralization and reuse, the topic of battery recycling has begun to appear on the environmental agenda. In the United Kingdom, estimates of annual…

Smith, Michael J.; Gray, Fiona M.

2010-01-01

400

Voltage regulation and battery condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charging of automotive lead--acid batteries and the related aspects of voltage regulators are reviewed. Operation and proper setting of voltage regulators for different conditions are discussed. Factors affecting battery counter voltage (cemf) are examined: these include purity of battery materials, state of charge, strength of electrolyte, gassing, maintenance, and temperature--the latter is considered at some length. (RWR)

Wesley

1977-01-01

401

Mesoporous Block Copolymer Battery Separators  

E-print Network

expensive component of a lithium-ion battery per unit mass,to other battery chemistries. More recently, lithium-ionlithium ion technology are presently of considerable interest in spite of the fact that they are an inactive component of the battery.

Wong, David Tunmin

2012-01-01

402

Recycle of battery components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recycle disposal scenario for the batteries nickel/zinc, nickel/iron, zinc/chlorine, zinc/bromine, sodium/sulfur and lithium-aluminum/metal sulfide was considered. Flowsheets are presented which include disassembly, materials handling, melting or solubization, liquid/solid separations, purifications and waste handling. Material and energy balances are provided for all major streams and capital and operating costs for typical plant sizes are presented. Recycle is a a viable option in all cases. Recommendations are made for the best process options and for additional studies on the sodium/sulfur and lithium-aluminum/metal sulfide batteries.

Pemsler, J. P.; Spitz, R. A.

403

Improved picture naming in chronic aphasia after TMS to part of right Broca’s area: An open-protocol study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional imaging studies with nonfluent aphasia patients have observed “over-activation” in right (R) language homologues. This may represent a maladaptive strategy; suppression may result in language improvement. We applied slow, 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to an anterior portion of R Broca’s homologue daily, for 10 days in four aphasia patients who were 5–11 years poststroke. Significant improvement

Margaret A. Naeser; Paula I. Martin; Marjorie Nicholas; Errol H. Baker; Heidi Seekins; Masahito Kobayashi; Hugo Theoret; Felipe Fregni; Jose Maria-Tormos; Jacquie Kurland; Karl W. Doron; Alvaro Pascual-Leone

2005-01-01

404

Soluble Lead Flow Battery: Soluble Lead Flow Battery Technology  

SciTech Connect

GRIDS Project: General Atomics is developing a flow battery technology based on chemistry similar to that used in the traditional lead-acid battery found in nearly every car on the road today. Flow batteries store energy in chemicals that are held in tanks outside the battery. When the energy is needed, the chemicals are pumped through the battery. Using the same basic chemistry as a traditional battery but storing its energy outside of the cell allows for the use of very low cost materials. The goal is to develop a system that is far more durable than today’s lead-acid batteries, can be scaled to deliver megawatts of power, and which lowers the cost of energy storage below $100 per kilowatt hour.

None

2010-09-01

405

76 FR 70531 - Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size...Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size for the fifth meeting. DATES:...

2011-11-14

406

77 FR 56253 - Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size...Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be...

2012-09-12

407

77 FR 66084 - Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size...Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be...

2012-11-01

408

Bipolar lead acid battery development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modular bipolar battery configuration is under development at Johnson Control, Inc. (JCI) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The battery design, incorporating proven lead acid electrochemistry, yields a rechargeable, high-power source that is light weight and compact. This configuration offers advantages in power capability, weight, and volume over conventional monopolar batteries and other battery chemistries. The lead acid bipolar battery operates in a sealed, maintenance-free mode allowing for maximum application flexibility. It is ideal for high-voltage and high-power applications.

Eskra, Michael; Vidas, Robin; Miles, Ronald; Halpert, Gerald; Attia, Alan; Perrone, David

1991-01-01

409

Battery testing for photovoltaic applications  

SciTech Connect

Battery testing for photovoltaic (PV) applications is funded at Sandia under the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Photovoltaic Balance of Systems (BOS) Program. The goal of the PV BOS program is to improve PV system component design, operation, reliability, and to reduce overall life-cycle costs. The Sandia battery testing program consists of: (1) PV battery and charge controller market survey, (2) battery performance and life-cycle testing, (3) PV charge controller development, and (4) system field testing. Test results from this work have identified market size and trends, PV battery test procedures, application guidelines, and needed hardware improvements.

Hund, T.

1996-11-01

410

Current balancing for battery strings  

DOEpatents

A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means for balancing the electrical current flow through a pluraliircuitbattery strings which are connected electrically in parallel. The magnetic circuit means is associated with the battery strings such that the conductors carrying the electrical current flow through each of the battery strings pass through the magnetic circuit means in directions which cause the electromagnetic fields of at least one predetermined pair of the conductors to oppose each other. In an alternative embodiment, a low voltage converter is associated with each of the battery strings for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings.

Galloway, James H. (New Baltimore, MI)

1985-01-01

411

United States Advanced Battery Consortium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) is a collaboration between DaimlerChrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation and is part of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR). USABC conducts research and development of advanced energy systems with applications for electric vehicles. The website reviews the goals for the battery systems under investigation, provides information on submitting proposals for research funding, and posts manuals on USABC Abuse Test Procedures, Electric Vehicle Battery Test Procedures, the FreedomCAR Power Assist Battery, and 42 Volt Battery Test procedures. Related Links offer additional information on projects such as the Electrochemical Energy Storage Tech Team and the 42 Volt Working Group.

412

Conversation focused aphasia therapy: investigating the adoption of strategies by people with agrammatism  

PubMed Central

Background: A recent review of interaction (or conversation)-focused therapy highlighted the potential of programmes targeting the person with aphasia (PWA) directly. However, it noted the key limitations of current work in this field to be a reliance on single case analyses and qualitative evidence of change, a situation that is not unusual when a complex behavioural intervention is in the early stages of development and evaluation. Aims: This article aims to evaluate an intervention that targeted a PWA and their conversation partner (CP), a dyad, as equals in a novel conversation therapy for agrammatic aphasia, using both quantitative and qualitative evidence of change. The intervention aimed to increase the insight of a dyad into facilitator and barrier conversation behaviours, to increase the understanding of the effect of agrammatism on communication, and to support each speaker to choose three strategies to work on in therapy to increase mutual understanding and enhance conversation. Methods & Procedures: Quantitative and qualitative methods are used to analyse multiple pre-therapy and follow up assessments of conversation for two dyads. Outcomes & Results: Results show that one person with severe and chronic agrammatic aphasia was able to select and practise strategies that led to qualitative and quantitative changes in his post-therapy conversations. The other PWA showed a numerical increase in one of his three strategies post therapy, but no significant quantitative change. Although both CPs significantly reduced barrier behaviours in their post-therapy conversations, neither showed a significant increase in the strategies they chose to work on. For one CP, there was qualitative evidence of the use of different turn types. Conclusions: Individually tailored input from a speech and language therapist can assist some people with chronic agrammatism to develop conversational strategies that enhance communication. Outcomes are influenced by the severity and extent of language deficits affecting, for example, single word writing. In terms of behaviour change for CPs, it appears that it may be easier to reduce barrier behaviours rather than to increase the use of facilitatory strategies. The results have implications for collaborative goal setting with clients undergoing conversation therapy. PMID:25632169

Beeke, Suzanne; Beckley, Firle; Johnson, Fiona; Heilemann, Claudia; Edwards, Susan; Maxim, Jane; Best, Wendy

2015-01-01

413

Computer-Mediated Assessment of Intelligibility in Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Previous work indicates that single word intelligibility tests developed for dysarthria are sensitive to segmental production errors in aphasic individuals with and without apraxia of speech. However, potential listener learning effects and difficulties adapting elicitation procedures to coexisting language impairments limit their applicability to left hemisphere stroke survivors. AIMS: The main purpose of this study was to examine basic psychometric properties for a new monosyllabic intelligibility test developed for individuals with aphasia and/or AOS. A related purpose was to examine clinical feasibility and potential to standardize a computer-mediated administration approach. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: A 600-item monosyllabic single word intelligibility test was constructed by assembling sets of phonetically similar words. Custom software was used to select 50 target words from this test in a pseudo-random fashion and to elicit and record production of these words by 23 speakers with aphasia and 20 neurologically healthy participants. To evaluate test-retest reliability, two identical sets of 50-word lists were elicited by requesting repetition after a live speaker model. To examine the effect of a different word set and auditory model, an additional set of 50 different words was elicited with a pre-recorded model. The recorded words were presented to normal-hearing listeners for identification via orthographic and multiple-choice response formats. To examine construct validity, production accuracy for each speaker was estimated via phonetic transcription and rating of overall articulation. OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: Recording and listening tasks were completed in less than six minutes for all speakers and listeners. Aphasic speakers were significantly less intelligible than neurologically healthy speakers and displayed a wide range of intelligibility scores. Test-retest and inter-listener reliability estimates were strong. No significant difference was found in scores based on recordings from a live model versus a pre-recorded model, but some individual speakers favored the live model. Intelligibility test scores correlated highly with segmental accuracy derived from broad phonetic transcription of the same speech sample and a motor speech evaluation. Scores correlated moderately with rated articulation difficulty. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a computerized, single-word intelligibility test that yields clinically feasible, reliable, and valid measures of segmental speech production in adults with aphasia. This tool can be used in clinical research to facilitate appropriate participant selection and to establish matching across comparison groups. For a majority of speakers, elicitation procedures can be standardized by using a pre-recorded auditory model for repetition. This assessment tool has potential utility for both clinical assessment and outcomes research. PMID:22215933

Haley, Katarina L; Roth, Heidi; Grindstaff, Enetta; Jacks, Adam

2011-01-01

414

Battery electrode growth accommodation  

DOEpatents

An electrode for a lead acid flow through battery, the grids including a plastic frame, a plate suspended from the top of the frame to hang freely in the plastic frame and a paste applied to the plate, the paste being free to allow for expansion in the planar direction of the grid.

Bowen, Gerald K. (Cedarburg, WI); Andrew, Michael G. (Wauwatosa, WI); Eskra, Michael D. (Fredonia, WI)

1992-01-01

415

Lightweight bipolar storage battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus [10] is disclosed for a lightweight bipolar battery of the end-plate cell stack design. Current flow through a bipolar cell stack [12] is collected by a pair of copper end-plates [16a,16b] and transferred edgewise out of the battery by a pair of lightweight, low resistance copper terminals [28a,28b]. The copper terminals parallel the surface of a corresponding copper end-plate [16a,16b] to maximize battery throughput. The bipolar cell stack [12], copper end-plates [16a,16b] and copper terminals [28a,28b] are rigidly sandwiched between a pair of nonconductive rigid end-plates [20] having a lightweight fiber honeycomb core which eliminates distortion of individual plates within the bipolar cell stack due to internal pressures. Insulating foam [30] is injected into the fiber honeycomb core to reduce heat transfer into and out of the bipolar cell stack and to maintain uniform cell performance. A sealed battery enclosure [ 22] exposes a pair of terminal ends [26a,26b] for connection with an external circuit.

Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

1992-01-01

416

Energy Efficient Battery Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

A challenging aspect of mobile communications consists in exploring ways in which the available run time of the terminals can be maximized. In this paper we investigate battery management techniques that can dramatically improve the energy efficiency of radio communi- cation devices. We consider an array of electrochemical cells connected in parallel. Through simple scheduling algorithms the discharge from each

Carla-fabiana Chiasserini; Ramesh R. Rao

2000-01-01

417

Intelligent automotive battery systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single power-supply battery is incompatible with modern vehicles. A one-cmbination 12 cell/12 V battery, developed by Power Beat International Limited (PBIL), is described. The battery is designed to be a 'drop in' replacement for existing batteries. The cell structures, however, are designed according to load function, i.e., high-current shallow-discharge cycles and low-current deep-discharge cycles. The preferred energy discharge management logic and integration into the power distribution network of the vehicle to provide safe user-friendly usage is described. The system is designed to operate transparent to the vehicle user. The integrity of the volatile high-current cells is maintained by temperature-sensitive voltage control and discharge management. The deep-cycle cells can be fully utilized without affecting startability under extreme conditions. Electric energy management synchronization with engine starting will provide at least 6% overall reduction in hydrocarbon emissions using an intelligent on-board power-supply technology developed by PBIL.

Witehira, P.

418

WEEE and portable batteries in residual household waste: Quantification and characterisation of misplaced waste  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: • We analyse 26.1 Mg of residual waste from 3129 Danish households. • We quantify and characterise misplaced WEEE and portable batteries. • We compare misplaced WEEE and batteries to collection through dedicated schemes. • Characterisation showed that primarily small WEEE and light sources are misplaced. • Significant amounts of misplaced batteries were discarded as built-in WEEE. - Abstract: A total of 26.1 Mg of residual waste from 3129 households in 12 Danish municipalities was analysed and revealed that 89.6 kg of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), 11 kg of batteries, 2.2 kg of toners and 16 kg of cables had been wrongfully discarded. This corresponds to a Danish household discarding 29 g of WEEE (7 items per year), 4 g of batteries (9 batteries per year), 1 g of toners and 7 g of unidentifiable cables on average per week, constituting 0.34% (w/w), 0.04% (w/w), 0.01% (w/w) and 0.09% (w/w), respectively, of residual waste. The study also found that misplaced WEEE and batteries in the residual waste constituted 16% and 39%, respectively, of what is being collected properly through the dedicated special waste collection schemes. This shows that a large amount of batteries are being discarded with the residual waste, whereas WEEE seems to be collected relatively successfully through the dedicated special waste collection schemes. Characterisation of the misplaced batteries showed that 20% (w/w) of the discarded batteries were discarded as part of WEEE (built-in). Primarily alkaline batteries, carbon zinc batteries and alkaline button cell batteries were found to be discarded with the residual household waste. Characterisation of WEEE showed that primarily small WEEE (WEEE directive categories 2, 5a, 6, 7 and 9) and light sources (WEEE directive category 5b) were misplaced. Electric tooth brushes, watches, clocks, headphones, flashlights, bicycle lights, and cables were items most frequently found. It is recommended that these findings are taken into account when designing new or improving existing special waste collection schemes. Improving the collection of WEEE is also recommended as one way to also improve the collection of batteries due to the large fraction of batteries found as built-in. The findings in this study were comparable to other western European studies, suggesting that the recommendations made in this study could apply to other western European countries as well.

Bigum, Marianne, E-mail: mkkb@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Miljřvej 113, 2500 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Petersen, Claus, E-mail: claus_petersen@econet.dk [Econet A/S, Strandboulevarden 122, 5, 2100 Křbenhavn Ř (Denmark); Christensen, Thomas H., E-mail: thho@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Miljřvej 113, 2500 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Scheutz, Charlotte, E-mail: chas@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Miljřvej 113, 2500 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

2013-11-15

419

Effects of Noun-Verb Conceptual/ Phonological Relatedness on Verb Production Changes in Broca’s Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals with Broca’s aphasia show better performance on nouns than on verbs, but distinction between nouns and verbs is not always clear; some verbs are conceptually and/ or phonologically related to nouns, while others are not. Inconsistent results on effects of noun-verb relatedness on verb production have been reported in the literature. Aims We investigated (1) whether verb instrumentality (a conceptual relationship to nouns) or homonymy (a phonological relationship to nouns) would affect verb production in individuals with Broca’s aphasia and (2) whether conceptual/ phonological noun-verb relationship would affect responsiveness to aphasia therapy that focused on verb production. Methods & Procedures Three English speaking individuals with Broca’s aphasia produced 96 verbs in sentences in response to picture stimuli. The target verbs included those that use an instrument and those that do not (e.g., to hammer vs. to yawn) and verbs that are phonologically identical to a related noun (e.g., to comb – a comb), morpho-phonologically-related to a noun (e.g., to grind – a grinder), and verbs for which there is no phonologically similar noun (e.g., to lean). The participants’ verb retrieval ability was assessed before and after a 4-week period of aphasia therapy. Outcomes & Results The participants produced more accurate instrumental than non-instrumental verbs both pre- and post-treatment. They also produced more verbs correctly that are homonyms of nouns than verbs that are phonologically related or unrelated to nouns before treatment. However, the effect of homonymy was not observed following treatment. Conclusion Individuals with Broca’s aphasia were more accurate in their production of verbs that were conceptually and phonologically related to nouns than on verb that were not. The performance on verb production improved significantly after therapy. We interpret the results to indicate that whereas prior to treatment the participants relied on phonologically related nouns to retrieve the target verbs, this reliance on knowledge of nouns decreased following therapy that was designed to improve verb production. PMID:23914001

Goral, Mira; Verkuilen, Jay; Kempler, Daniel

2013-01-01

420

Bandwidth based electrical-analogue battery modeling for battery modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique for building a high fidelity electrical-analogue battery model by identifying the model parameters at the module level, as opposed to the cell level, is proposed in this paper. The battery model, which is represented by electrical circuit components, can be easily integrated into popular simulation environments for system level design and predictive analysis. A novel bandwidth based time-domain procedure is introduced for identifying the model parameters by selective assignment of the limited bandwidth of the battery model approximation according to the natural bandwidth of the system that uses the battery. The aim of this paper is to provide an accurate off-line electrical-analogue battery model for simulation of larger systems containing large-format batteries, as opposed to a detailed electrochemical model suitable for simulation of internal battery processes. The proposed procedure has been experimentally verified on a 6.8 Ah Ultralife UBBL10 Li-ion battery module which is a “microcosm” for a modern large-format battery pack. A maximum 0.25% error was observed during a performance test with arbitrary but bandwidth-limited charging and discharging intervals characteristic of a typical battery application.

Li, Jianwei; Mazzola, Michael S.; Gafford, James; Jia, Bin; Xin, Ming

2012-11-01

421

Recovery from aphasia and neglect after subcortical stroke: neuropsychological and cerebral perfusion study.  

PubMed Central

Cortical regional cerebral perfusion was assessed by N, N, N1-trimethyl-N1-(2)-hydroxy-3-methyl-5-(I-123) iodobenzyl-1, 3-propanediamine 2 HCl I-123 (HIPDM) and single photon emission computerised tomography (SPECT) in six aphasic and two neglect patients with unilateral subcortical vascular lesions. Assessments were carried out both in the acute phase and after a period ranging from 1 to 6 months after stroke onset. In all patients an almost complete spontaneous recovery occurred and was associated with a significant improvement of cortical perfusion. A relationship between severity of aphasia and degree of cortical hypoperfusion was found, in both the acute and the follow up assessments, in the aphasic subgroup. Images PMID:2465386

Vallar, G; Perani, D; Cappa, S F; Messa, C; Lenzi, G L; Fazio, F

1988-01-01

422

Neuropsychiatric symptoms in primary progressive aphasia: phenomenology, pathophysiology, and approach to assessment and treatment  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by insidious and progressive loss of language. Current diagnostic criteria require symptoms to be largely restricted to language dysfunction for at least the first 2 years of the syndrome. However, as the disorder progresses – and sometimes even in the early stages – patients with PPA may exhibit neuropsychiatric symptoms. In this article, we review the phenomenology and frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms in PPA. Among the few studies of this topic that have been performed, there is consistent agreement that neuropsychiatric symptoms are not uncommon among PPA patients. In some cases, particularly the semantic variant of PPA, symptoms are similar to those found in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia. We further review the approach to assessment of behavioral symptoms in PPA and their possible management strategies, and speculate regarding their potential neurobiological substrates. PMID:23997827

Modirrousta, Mandana; Price, Bruce H; Dickerson, Bradford C

2013-01-01

423

Neuroimaging in aphasia treatment research: Standards for establishing the effects of treatment  

PubMed Central

The goal of this paper is to discuss experimental design options available for establishing the effects of treatment in studies that aim to examine the neural mechanisms associated with treatment-induced language recovery in aphasia, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We present both group and single-subject experimental or case-series design options for doing this and address advantages and disadvantages of each. We also discuss general components of and requirements for treatment research studies, including operational definitions of variables, criteria for defining behavioral change and treatment efficacy, and reliability of measurement. Important considerations that are unique to neuroimaging-based treatment research are addressed, pertaining to the relation between the selected treatment approach and anticipated changes in language processes/functions and how such changes are hypothesized to map onto the brain. PMID:23063559

Kiran, Swathi; Ansaldo, Ana; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Cherney, Leora R.; Howard, David; Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Meinzer, Marcus; Thompson, Cynthia K

2012-01-01

424

Modular Battery Charge Controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new approach to masterless, distributed, digital-charge control for batteries requiring charge control has been developed and implemented. This approach is required in battery chemistries that need cell-level charge control for safety and is characterized by the use of one controller per cell, resulting in redundant sensors for critical components, such as voltage, temperature, and current. The charge controllers in a given battery interact in a masterless fashion for the purpose of cell balancing, charge control, and state-of-charge estimation. This makes the battery system invariably fault-tolerant. The solution to the single-fault failure, due to the use of a single charge controller (CC), was solved by implementing one CC per cell and linking them via an isolated communication bus [e.g., controller area network (CAN)] in a masterless fashion so that the failure of one or more CCs will not impact the remaining functional CCs. Each micro-controller-based CC digitizes the cell voltage (V(sub cell)), two cell temperatures, and the voltage across the switch (V); the latter variable is used in conjunction with V(sub cell) to estimate the bypass current for a given bypass resistor. Furthermore, CC1 digitizes the battery current (I1) and battery voltage (V(sub batt) and CC5 digitizes a second battery current (I2). As a result, redundant readings are taken for temperature, battery current, and battery voltage through the summation of the individual cell voltages given that each CC knows the voltage of the other cells. For the purpose of cell balancing, each CC periodically and independently transmits its cell voltage and stores the received cell voltage of the other cells in an array. The position in the array depends on the identifier (ID) of the transmitting CC. After eight cell voltage receptions, the array is checked to see if one or more cells did not transmit. If one or more transmissions are missing, the missing cell(s) is (are) eliminated from cell-balancing calculations. The cell-balancing algorithm is based on the error between the cell s voltage and the other cells and is categorized into four zones of operation. The algorithm is executed every second and, if cell balancing is activated, the error variable is set to a negative low value. The largest error between the cell and the other cells is found and the zone of operation determined. If the error is zero or negative, then the cell is at the lowest voltage and no balancing action is needed. If the error is less than a predetermined negative value, a Cell Bad Flag is set. If the error is positive, then cell balancing is needed, but a hysteretic zone is added to prevent the bypass circuit from triggering repeatedly near zero error. This approach keeps the cells within a predetermined voltage range.

Button, Robert; Gonzalez, Marcelo

2009-01-01

425

Lexical diversity for adults with and without aphasia across discourse elicitation tasks  

PubMed Central

Background Differences in lexical diversity (LD) across different discourse elicitation tasks have been found in neurologically intact adults (NIA) (Fergadiotis, Wright, & Capilouto, 2010) but have not been investigated systematically in people with aphasia (PWA). Measuring lexical diversity in PWA may serve as a useful clinical tool for evaluating the impact of word retrieval difficulties at the discourse level. Aims The study aims were (a) to explore the differences between the oral language samples of PWA and NIA in terms of LD as measured by dedicated computer software (voc-D), (b) to determine whether PWA are sensitive to discourse elicitation task in terms of LD, and (c) to identify whether differences between PWA and NIA vary in magnitude as a function of discourse task. Method & Procedures Oral language samples from 25 PWA and 27 NIA were analysed. Participants completed three commonly used discourse elicitation tasks (single pictures, sequential pictures, story telling) and voc-D was used to obtain estimates of their LD. Outcomes & Results A mixed 2 × 3 ANOVA revealed a significant group task interaction that was followed by an investigation of simple main effects and tetrad×comparisons. Different patterns of LD were uncovered for each group. For the NIA group results were consistent with previous findings in the literature according to which LD varies as a function of elicitation technique. However, for PWA sequential pictures and story telling elicited comparable estimates of LD. Conclusions Results indicated that LD is one of the microlinguistic indices that are influenced by elicitation task and the presence of aphasia. These findings have important implications for modelling lexical diversity and selecting and interpreting results from different discourse elicitation tasks. PMID:23125474

Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather Harris

2012-01-01

426

Syntactic and morphosyntactic processing in stroke–induced and primary progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

The paper reports findings derived from three experiments examining syntactic and morphosyntactic processing in individuals with agrammatic and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-G and PPA-L, respectively) and stroke-induced agrammatic and anomic aphasia (StrAg and StrAn, respectively). We examined comprehension and production of canonical and noncanonical sentence structures and production of tensed and nontensed verb forms using constrained tasks in experiments 1 and 2 using the Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS [57]) and the Northwestern Assessment of Verb Inflection (NAVI, Thompson and Lee, experimental version), respectively. Experiment 3 examined free narrative samples, focusing on syntactic and morphosyntactic measures, i.e. production of grammatical sentences, noun to verb ratio, open-class to closed-class word production ratio, and the production of correctly inflected verbs. Results indicate that the two agrammatic groups (i.e., PPA-G and StrAg) pattern alike on syntactic and morphosyntactic measures, showing more impaired noncanonical compared to canonical sentence comprehension and production and greater difficulties producing tensed compared to nontensed verb forms. Their spontaneous speech also contained significantly fewer grammatical sentences and correctly inflected verbs, and they produced a greater proportion of nouns compared to verbs, than healthy speakers. In contrast, PPA-L and StrAn individuals did not display these deficits, and performed significantly better than the agrammatic groups on these measures. The findings suggest that agrammatism, whether induced by degenerative disease or stroke, is associated with characteristic deficits in syntactic and morphosyntactic processing. We therefore recommend that linguistically sophisticated tests and narrative analysis procedures be used to systematically evaluate the linguistic ability of individuals with PPA, contributing to our understanding of the language impairments of different PPA variants. PMID:22713394

Thompson, Cynthia K.; Meltzer-Asscher, Aya; Cho, Soojin; Lee, Jiyeon; Wieneke, Christina; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M.-Marsel

2013-01-01

427

[Landau-Kleffner syndrome (acquired aphasia with epilepsy). Etiopathology and response to treatment with anticonvulsants].  

PubMed

The Landau-Kleffner syndrome consists in the association of an aphasia acquired during childhood or adolescence after a period of normal development, accompanied by epileptic fits and, sometimes, psychological disturbances. The appearance of the symptoms may not be simultaneous. The nature of this syndrome has been widely discussed and even the possibility of being a non-unitary syndrome has been considered. It may be possibly due to diverse etiologies, genetic or acquired (infectious). The relation between the aphasic, the psychologic and the convulsive symptoms has also raised controversies. A case of a female is described in which the psychological symptomatology was so severe, she had to be admitted in a psychiatric unit. The symptoms consisted in agitation during the night and severe persistent insomnia so as difficulties for relationship during day. No abnormalities were detected in a TAC nor in a RM but electroencephalographic and neuropsychological abnormalities were detected. The epileptic fits disappeared with a carbamacepine treatment but the rest of symptoms remained even more accentuated. After her admission, a treatment with valproate achieved to control her fits and the aphasic symptoms and neuropsychological deficits were compensated in the course of several months. After a year of treatment the patient's life was normalized, she resumed her studies, the EEG abnormalities disappeared so as the psychological disturbances and the behavior problems with the exception of phobic symptoms, similar to the ones of other family members. The patient has a history of epilepsy on its mother's side. The evolution and treatment response suggests that at least in some cases of the Landau-Kleffner syndrome, the etiology of the aphasia and other neuropsychological deficits and of the behavior disorders are related with some subclinical epileptic discharges and with a "functional inhibition" of some areas of the nervous system. PMID:9477609

López-Ibor, M I; López-Ibor, J J; Hernández Herreros, M

1997-01-01

428

Reading disorders in primary progressive aphasia: a behavioral and neuroimaging study.  

PubMed

Previous neuropsychological studies on acquired dyslexia revealed a double dissociation in reading impairments. Patients with phonological dyslexia have selective difficulty in reading pseudo-words, while those with surface dyslexia misread exception words. This double dissociation in reading abilities has often been reported in brain-damaged patients, but it has not been consistently shown in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated reading impairments and their anatomical correlates in various neurodegenerative diseases. First, we performed a behavioral analysis to characterize the reading of different word types in primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Then, we conducted a voxel-based morphometry neuroimaging study to map the brain areas in which gray matter volume correlated with the accurate reading of exception and pseudo-words. The results showed a differential pattern of exception and pseudo-word reading abilities in different clinical variants of PPA. Patients with semantic dementia, a disorder characterized by selective loss of semantic memory, revealed a pattern of surface dyslexia, while patients with logopenic/phonological progressive aphasia, defined by phonological loop deficits, showed phonological dyslexia. Neuroimaging results showed that exception word reading accuracy correlated with gray matter volume in the left anterior temporal structures, including the temporal pole, the anterior superior and middle temporal and fusiform gyri, while pseudo-word reading accuracy correlated with left temporoparietal regions, including the posterior superior and middle temporal and fusiform gyri, and the inferior parietal lobule. These results suggest that exception and pseudo-word reading not only rely upon different language mechanisms selectively damaged in PPA, but also that these processes are sustained by separate brain structures. PMID:19428421

Brambati, S M; Ogar, J; Neuhaus, J; Miller, B L; Gorno-Tempini, M L

2009-07-01

429

Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)  

SciTech Connect

LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease payments for space to the IDA. A commercial venture is being formed to utilize the LiFeBATT product for consumer use in enabling photovoltaic powered boat lifts. Field tests of the system have proven to be very effective and commercially promising. This venture is expected to result in significant sales within the next six months.

Stratton, Jeremy

2012-09-30

430

Efficacy of semantic-phonological treatment combined with tDCS for verb retrieval in a patient with aphasia.  

PubMed

Recent studies reported enhanced performance on language tasks induced by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with aphasia. One chronic patient with non-fluent aphasia received 20 sessions of a verb anomia training combined with off-line bihemispheric tDCS applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) - anodal tDCS over left DLPFC plus cathodal tDCS over right DLPFC. A significant improvement in verb naming was observed at all testing times (4, 12, 24, and 48 weeks from post-entry/baseline testing) for treated and untreated verbs. Our findings show beneficial effects of verb anomia training in combination with tDCS in chronic aphasic patient, suggesting a long-lasting effect of this treatment. PMID:24417248

Manenti, Rosa; Petesi, Michela; Brambilla, Michela; Rosini, Sandra; Miozzo, Antonio; Padovani, Alessandro; Miniussi, Carlo; Cotelli, Maria

2015-02-01

431

Ipsilesional and contralesional regions participate in the improvement of poststroke aphasia: a transcranial direct current stimulation study.  

PubMed

In the past few years, noninvasive cerebral stimulations have been used to modulate language task performance in healthy and aphasic patients. In this study, a dual transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on anterior and posterior language areas was applied for 2 weeks to a patient with a possible crossed aphasia following a right hemisphere stroke. Inhibitory cathodal stimulation of the right Brodmann areas (BA) 44/45 and simultaneous anodal stimulation of the left BA 44/45 improved the patient's performance in picture naming. Conversely, the same bilateral montage on BA 39/40 did not produce any significant improvement; finally, electrode polarity inversion over BA 39/40 yielded a further improvement compared with the first anterior stimulation. Our findings suggest that ipsilesional and contralesional areas could be useful in poststroke functional reorganization and provide new evidences for the therapeutic value of tDCS in aphasia. PMID:24957199

Costa, Vanessa; Giglia, Giuseppe; Brighina, Filippo; Indovino, Serena; Fierro, Brigida

2015-08-01

432

Charger using one or more solar batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A charger, which is useful to power a variety of compact type electronic appliances such as an electronic wristwatch, includes one or more solar batteries as a primary battery, and a sealed type silver oxide battery as a secondary battery. Both the amount of charging current amplitude and of charging voltage are limited to protect the sealed silver oxide battery

H. Fukuda; H. Mori; T. Sasaki

1982-01-01

433

High power rechargeable batteries Paul V. Braun  

E-print Network

High power rechargeable batteries Paul V. Braun , Jiung Cho, James H. Pikul, William P. King storage Secondary batteries High energy density High power density Lithium ion battery 3D battery of rechargeable (second- ary) batteries, as this is critical for most applications. As the penetration

Braun, Paul

434

Battery analyzer for electric golf carts  

SciTech Connect

A battery tester for testing individual batteries on an electrically driven vehicle such that as the vehicle is in motion , the condition of each battery in a series connected power source maybe analyzed. The device briefly comprises indicator device such as the meter and connection devices to isolate individual battery to determine the voltage of each battery as the vehicle is being driven.

Sharber, J.M.

1982-02-09

435

Composite battery separator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A composite battery separator comprises a support element (10) having an open pore structure such as a ribbed lattice and at least one liquid permeable sheet (20,22) to distribute the compressive force evenly onto the surfaces of the layers (24, 26) of negative active material and positive active material. In a non-flooded battery cell the compressible, porous material (18), such as a glass mat which absorbs the electrolyte, is compressed into a major portion of the pores or openings (16) in the support element. The unfilled pores in the material (18) form a gas diffusion path as the channels (41) formed between adjacent ribs in the lattice element (30,36). Facing two lattice elements (30, 31) with acute angled cross-ribs (34, 38) facing each other prevents the elements from interlocking and distorting a porous, separator (42) disposed between the lattice elements.

Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor); Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)

1987-01-01

436

14. Station Control Batteries and Battery Chargers, view to the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Station Control Batteries and Battery Chargers, view to the northeast. The original battery charger is the center cabinet on the left side of photograph, with the new charger on the far left of photograph and a circuit breaker unit for the chargers is visible in the center of the photograph. The batteries are visible on three racks through the open doorway. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

437

Polyvinyl alcohol battery separator containing inert filler. [alkaline batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol battery separator is disclosed. A particulate filler, inert to alkaline electrolyte of an alkaline battery, is incorporated in the separator in an amount of 1-20% by weight, based on the weight of the polyvinyl alcohol, and is dispersed throughout the product. Incorporation of the filler enhances performance and increases cycle life of alkaline batteries when compared with batteries containing a similar separator not containing filler. Suitable fillers include titanates, silicates, zirconates, aluminates, wood floor, lignin, and titania. Particle size is not greater than about 50 microns.

Sheibley, D. W.; Hsu, L. C.; Manzo, M. A. (inventors)

1981-01-01

438

Remediation of language processing in aphasia: Improving activation and maintenance of linguistic representations in (verbal) short-term memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairments are invariably present in aphasia. Word processing involves a minimal form of verbal STM, i.e., the time course over which semantic and phonological representations are activated and maintained until they are comprehended, produced, or repeated. Thus it is reasonable that impairments of word processing and verbal STM may co-occur. The co-occurrence of language and

Michelene Kalinyak-Fliszar; Francine Kohen; Nadine Martin

2011-01-01

439

Clusters of Cognitive and Behavioral Disorders Clearly Distinguish Primary Progressive Aphasia from Frontal Lobe Dementia, and Alzheimer’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Frontal lobe dementia (FLD) and primary nonfluent progressive aphasia (PnPA) are two forms of frontotemporal lobe degeneration. The relationship between these conditions remains unclear. Our study aimed to better define the behavioral and cognitive clusters characterizing PnPA patients. Methods: We cognitively and behaviorally evaluated three groups of newly diagnosed patients affected by Alzheimer’s disease (AD, n = 20), FLD

C. Marra; D. Quaranta; M. Zinno; S. Misciagna; A. Bizzarro; C. Masullo; A. Daniele; G. Gainotti

2007-01-01

440

Advanced Small Rechargeable Batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium-based units offer highest performance. Paper reviews status of advanced, small rechargeable batteries. Covers aqueous systems including lead/lead dioxide, cadmium/nickel oxide, hydrogen/nickel oxide, and zinc/nickel oxide, as well as nonaqueous systems. All based on lithium anodes, nonaqueous systems include solid-cathode cells (lithium/molybdenum disulfide, lithium/titanium disulfide, and lithium/vanadium oxide); liquid-cathode cells (lithium/sulfur dioxide cells); and new category, lithium/polymer cells.

Halpert, Gerald

1989-01-01

441

Positive battery plate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The power characteristics of a lead acid battery are improved by incorporating a dispersion of 1 to 10% by weight of a thermodynamically stable conductivity additive, such as conductive tin oxide coated glass fibers (34) of filamentary glass wool (42) in the positive active layer (32) carried on the grid (30) of the positive plate (16). Positive plate potential must be kept high enough to prevent reduction of the tin oxide to tin by utilizing an oversized, precharged positive paste.

Rowlette, John R. (Inventor)

1985-01-01

442

tDCS in post-stroke aphasia: the role of stimulation parameters, behavioral treatment and patient characteristics.  

PubMed

Neurostimulation techniques have been recently adopted in aphasia rehabilitation. In several studies transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was used to enhance treatment effects. The methodology adopted in different studies is characterized by a large variability, as concerns stimulation parameters (e.g., montage type, current intensity, session duration, number and frequency of treatment sessions), participant inclusion criteria (subacute vs chronic, selected vs general aphasia types) and characteristics of associated behavioral treatments (online vs offline treatment, focused on different underlying deficits). Group analyses report on positive results for most of the adopted paradigms. We review the available literature focusing on tDCS in the rehabilitation of stroke-related aphasia, with reference to the current views on tDCS's action mechanisms and on the factors that may influence the effects of stimulation. Even though our understanding of the mechanisms activated by neurostimulation techniques is still limited, available evidence already allows to propose methodological recommendations for studies intending to use tDCS as a treatment adjuvant. Where several options for a specific stimulation parameter seem suitable, we provide information to reach a knowledgeable decision. PMID:25460496

de Aguiar, Vânia; Paolazzi, Caterina Laura; Miceli, Gabriele

2015-02-01

443

A Systematic Review on methods of evaluate sentence production deficits in agrammatic aphasia patients: Validity and Reliability issues  

PubMed Central

Background: The grammar assessment in aphasia has been done by few standard tests, but today these tests cannot precise evaluate the sentence production in agrammatic patients. In this study, we review structures and contents of tests or tasks designed to find more frequent methods for sentence production ability in aphasia patients. Materials and Methods: We searched the Cochrane library, Medline by PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar from 1980 to October 1, 2013 and evaluated all of exist tests or tasks included in the articles and systematic reviews. The sentence production has been studied in three methods. It contains the use of sentence production in spontaneous speech, tasks designed and both methods. The quality of studies was assessed using Critical Appraisal Skills Program. Results: The 160 articles were reviewed and 38 articles were studied according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. They were classified into three categories based on assessment methods of sentence production. In 39.5% studies, researchers have used tasks designed, 7.9% articles have applied spontaneous speech and 52.6% articles have used both methods for evaluation production. Inter-rater reliability was between 90% and 100% and intra-rater reliability was between 96% and 98% in studied. Conclusion: Agrammatic aphasia has syntax disorders, especially in sentence production. Most researchers and clinicians used both methods for evaluation production. PMID:25535505

Mehri, Azar; Jalaie, Shohreh

2014-01-01

444

iPractice: Piloting the effectiveness of a tablet-based home practice program in aphasia treatment  

PubMed Central

Purpose The current study investigated the effectiveness of an iPad-based home practice program, implemented after two weeks of intensive language therapy, for maintaining and augmenting treatment gains in people with chronic post-stroke aphasia. Method Five of eight original participants completed the six-month home practice program in which they autonomously practiced retrieving words for objects and actions. Half of these words had been trained and half were untrained during therapy. Practice included tasks such as naming to confrontation, repeating from a video model, and picture/word matching presented on an iPad. Results All participants maintained advances made on words trained during the intensive treatment and additionally were able to learn new words by practicing daily over a six-month period. Conclusions The iPad and other tablet devices have great potential for personalized home practice to maintain and augment traditional aphasia rehabilitation. It appears that motivation to use the technology and adequate training are more important factors than age, aphasia type or severity, or prior experience with computers. PMID:24449465

Kurland, Jacquie; Wilkins, Abigail R; Stokes, Polly

2014-01-01

445

Vaporization Would Cool Primary Battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Temperature of discharging high-power-density primary battery maintained below specified level by evaporation of suitable liquid from jacket surrounding battery, according to proposal. Pressure-relief valve regulates pressure and boiling temperature of liquid. Less material needed in cooling by vaporization than in cooling by melting. Technique used to cool batteries in situations in which engineering constraints on volume, mass, and location prevent attachment of cooling fins, heat pipes, or like.

Bhandari, Pradeep; Miyake, Robert N.

1991-01-01

446

Battery performance models in ADVISOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes battery modeling capabilities in ADVISOR—the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s advanced vehicle simulator written in the Matlab\\/Simulink environment. ADVISOR’s Matlab-oriented battery models consist of the following: (1) an internal resistance model, (2) a resistance–capacitance (RC) model, (3) a PNGV capacitance model, (4) a neural network (nnet) lead acid model, and (5) a fundamental lead acid battery model. For

V. H. Johnson

2002-01-01

447

Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System-2, or 'NICBES-2', which was used by the NASA HST six-battery testbed, was subsequently converted into the Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System, or 'NICHES'. Accounts are presently given of this conversion process and future uses being contemplated for NICHES. NICHES will calculate orbital summary data at the end of each orbit, and store these files for trend analyses and rules-generation.

Johnson, Yvette B.; Mccall, Kurt E.

1992-01-01

448

A method for battery activation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique to activate nickel cadmium batteries is described. The method shortened the time required for activation, eliminated the temperature rise in the batteries, and produced a voltage on the discharge that was better than when the C/20 was run for 48 hours during tests. Various methods of activation are described and evaluated. Results of alternate conditioning charge schemes are presented along with voltage/temperature characteristics for multiple level nickel cadmium battery chargers.

Halpert, G.; Tasevoli, M.

1982-01-01

449

Apollo experience report: Battery subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experience with the Apollo command service module and lunar module batteries is discussed. Significant hardware development concepts and hardware test results are summarized, and the operational performance of batteries on the Apollo 7 to 13 missions is discussed in terms of performance data, mission constraints, and basic hardware design and capability. Also, the flight performance of the Apollo battery charger is discussed. Inflight data are presented.

Trout, J. B.

1972-01-01

450

Implantable Cardiac Rhythm Device Batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batteries used for implantable cardiac rhythm devices are described herein. Fully implanted cardiac rhythm devices, pacemakers,\\u000a and defibrillators treat patients with various cardiomyopathies. Each of these devices contains a battery that supplies all\\u000a of the energy for device functions. As devices were developed with increased longevity, more features and reduced size, batteries\\u000a were designed with considerably greater energy and power.

Michael J. Root

2008-01-01

451

Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries  

PubMed Central

Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

2012-01-01

452

Multimode battery [marine system applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel aluminum-based seawater battery for marine applications is described. The battery is operable at multiple power levels. The low power is derived from an aluminum-inert cathode bipolar battery by flow of seawater through the cells. The high power is derived by online mixing of hydrogen peroxide with the seawater electrolyte. The low\\/high power switching is reversible, and the power

B. M. L. Rao; S. A. Shah; J. Zakrzewski; R. P. Hamlen; W. Halliop

1990-01-01

453

Summary of LDEF battery analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests and analyses of NiCd, LiSO2, and LiCf batteries flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) includes results from NASA, Aerospace, and commercial labs. The LiSO2 cells illustrate six-year degradation of internal components acceptable for space applications, with up to 85 percent battery capacity remaining on discharge of some returned cells. LiCf batteries completed their mission, but lost any remaining capacity due to internal degradation. Returned NiCd batteries tested an GSFC showed slight case distortion due to pressure build up, but were functioning as designed.

Johnson, Chris; Thaller, Larry; Bittner, Harlin; Deligiannis, Frank; Tiller, Smith; Sullivan, David; Bene, James

1992-01-01

454

Trends in cardiac pacemaker batteries.  

PubMed

Batteries used in Implantable cardiac pacemakers-present unique challenges to their developers and manufacturers in terms of high levels of safety and reliability. In addition, the batteries must have longevity to avoid frequent replacements. Technological advances in leads/electrodes have reduced energy requirements by two orders of magnitude. Micro-electronics advances sharply reduce internal current drain concurrently decreasing size and increasing functionality, reliability, and longevity. It is reported that about 600,000 pacemakers are implanted each year worldwide and the total number of people with various types of implanted pacemaker has already crossed 3 million. A cardiac pacemaker uses half of its battery power for cardiac stimulation and the other half for housekeeping tasks such as monitoring and data logging. The first implanted cardiac pacemaker used nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery, later on zinc-mercury battery was developed and used which lasted for over 2 years. Lithium iodine battery invented and used by Wilson Greatbatch and his team in 1972 made the real impact to implantable cardiac pacemakers. This battery lasts for about 10 years and even today is the power source for many manufacturers of cardiac pacemakers. This paper briefly reviews various developments of battery technologies since the inception of cardiac pacemaker and presents the alternative to lithium iodine battery for the near future. PMID:16943934

Mallela, Venkateswara Sarma; Ilankumaran, V; Rao, N Srinivasa

2004-01-01

455

ZEBRA battery meets USABC goals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1990, the California Air Resources Board has established a mandate to introduce electric vehicles in order to improve air quality in Los Angeles and other capitals. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium has been formed by the big car companies, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Department of Energy in order to establish the requirements on EV-batteries and to support battery development. The ZEBRA battery system is a candidate to power future electric vehicles. Not only because its energy density is three-fold that of lead acid batteries (50% more than NiMH) but also because of all the other EV requirements such as power density, no maintenance, summer and winter operation, safety, failure tolerance and low cost potential are fulfilled. The electrode material is plain salt and nickel in combination with a ceramic electrolyte. The cell voltage is 2.58 V and the capacity of a standard cell is 32 Ah. Some hundred cells are connected in series and parallel to form a battery with about 300 V OCV. The battery system including battery controller, main circuit-breaker and cooling system is engineered for vehicle integration and ready to be mounted in a vehicle [J. Gaub, A. van Zyl, Mercedes-Benz Electric Vehicles with ZEBRA Batteries, EVS-14, Orlando, FL, Dec. 1997]. The background of these features are described.

Dustmann, Cord-H.

456

Electrodes for sealed secondary batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Self-supporting membrane electrode structures, in which active ingredients and graphite are incorporated in a polymeric matrix, improve performance of electrodes in miniature, sealed, alkaline storage batteries.

Boies, D. B.; Child, F. T.

1972-01-01

457

46 CFR 169.668 - Batteries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the electrolyte. (g) Each battery charger intended for connection to a...visible must be included in the battery charger circuit. (h) A voltage dropping...resistor, provided for charging a battery, must be mounted in a...

2010-10-01

458

Batteries, mobile phones & small electrical devices  

E-print Network

batteries that can be recycled. Nickel Cadmium batteries can be found in medical equipment, mobile phones, cordless drills, laptops and emergency lighting. Nickel Metal Hydride batteries are in laptops, PDAs

459

Titanate Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries  

E-print Network

behavior. Keywords: sodium ion battery, anodes, titanates,possibility is the sodium ion battery [4, 5]. Like the moresodium insertion hosts illustrate the utility of investigating this chemistry for battery

Doeff, Marca

2014-01-01

460

49 CFR 393.30 - Battery installation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery installation. 393.30 Section 393.30...Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.30 Battery installation. Every storage battery on every vehicle, unless located in...

2010-10-01

461

46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183...Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements...

2010-10-01

462

46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129...Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements...

2013-10-01

463

46 CFR 129.356 - Battery installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Battery installations. 129.356 Section 129...Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.356 Battery installations. (a) Large. Each large battery-installation must be located in a...

2014-10-01

464

46 CFR 129.356 - Battery installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Battery installations. 129.356 Section 129...Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.356 Battery installations. (a) Large. Each large battery-installation must be located in a...

2012-10-01

465

46 CFR 129.356 - Battery installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery installations. 129.356 Section 129...Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.356 Battery installations. (a) Large. Each large battery-installation must be located in a...

2010-10-01

466

46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129...Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements...

2011-10-01

467

46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183...Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements...

2012-10-01

468

46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183...Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements...

2011-10-01

469

46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129...Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements...

2012-10-01

470

49 CFR 393.30 - Battery installation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Battery installation. 393.30 Section 393.30...Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.30 Battery installation. Every storage battery on every vehicle, unless located in...

2012-10-01

471

46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183...Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements...

2014-10-01

472

46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129...Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements...

2014-10-01

473

49 CFR 393.30 - Battery installation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Battery installation. 393.30 Section 393.30...Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.30 Battery installation. Every storage battery on every vehicle, unless located in...

2014-10-01

474

49 CFR 393.30 - Battery installation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Battery installation. 393.30 Section 393.30...Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.30 Battery installation. Every storage battery on every vehicle, unless located in...

2013-10-01

475

46 CFR 129.356 - Battery installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Battery installations. 129.356 Section 129...Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.356 Battery installations. (a) Large. Each large battery-installation must be located in a...

2013-10-01

476

46 CFR 129.356 - Battery installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Battery installations. 129.356 Section 129...Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.356 Battery installations. (a) Large. Each large battery-installation must be located in a...

2011-10-01

477

46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183...Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements...

2013-10-01

478

49 CFR 393.30 - Battery installation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Battery installation. 393.30 Section 393.30...Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.30 Battery installation. Every storage battery on every vehicle, unless located in...

2011-10-01

479

77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final...outbound international mailing of lithium batteries and devices containing lithium batteries. This prohibition also extends to the...

2012-05-14

480

46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129...Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements...

2010-10-01

481

An ampere-hour meter for batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Up-down counter records charge as well as discharge in tests of rechargeable batteries. System uses reversible counter preset to represent 100% charge. As battery discharges, total count decreases; as battery is recharged, counter moves back to 100% indication.

Eklund, B. D.

1973-01-01

482

Advanced battery modeling using neural networks  

E-print Network

Batteries have gained importance as power sources for electric vehicles. The main problem with the battery technology available today is that the design of the battery system has not been optimized for different applications. No comprehensive...

Arikara, Muralidharan Pushpakam

1993-01-01

483

Community-applied research of a traditional Chinese medicine rehabilitation scheme on Broca’s aphasia after stroke: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Aphasia is a common and severely disabling complication in stroke patients. It usually brings about lower rates of functional recovery, longer rehabilitation length of stay (LOS), and significantly poorer LOS efficiency (LOS-Eff), resulting in higher rehabilitation costs compared to patients without aphasia. It also decreases the quality of life and increases the mortality of stroke patients. The evidence currently available suggests that the effect of acupuncture combined with language training for apoplectic aphasia is statistically better than speech and language therapy (SLT) alone, but there remains a lack of high-quality randomized controlled trials. Acupuncture combined with language training is relatively low-cost and especially suitable for community-based rehabilitation for aphasia patients after stroke, taking its medical and health facilities which are always deficient in manpower and material resources into account. The aim of the present study is to develop an effective standard therapeutic program for apoplectic aphasia in communities. Methods/Design In a randomized controlled clinical trial with blinded assessment, 290 eligible patients with aphasia due to stroke will be randomly allocated into a control group or an experimental group. The course of this trial will comprise a 4-week intervention and a 12-week follow-up period. Five assessment points, including baseline, 2 and 4 weeks after treatment, 6 and 12 weeks after follow-up, are set to dynamically observe the changes of curative effects. Primary outcome measures are the differences in the score on both the China rehabilitation research center aphasia examination (CRRCAE) and Boston diagnostic aphasia examination - Chinese version (BDAE-C) after intervention and follow-up. The Modified Barthel Index (MBI), 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and results of blood oxygen level dependent-functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) examination are considered as the secondary outcome measures. Other outcomes will include rate of adverse events and economic effects. Discussion If the outcome is positive, this project will offer a low-cost appropriate technology for community health centers (CHCs) in the rehabilitation of aphasia patients after stroke, and could be implemented on a large scale, both in China and worldwide. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-13003703. Registration date: 18 October 2013. PMID:25044172

2014-01-01

484

Battery Cell Balancing System and Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A battery cell balancing system is operable to utilize a relatively small number of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells to selectively charge the battery cells. Windings of the transformers are simultaneously driven with a plurality of waveforms whereupon selected battery cells or groups of cells are selected and charged. A transformer drive circuit is operable to selectively vary the waveforms to thereby vary a weighted voltage associated with each of the battery cells.

Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

2014-01-01

485

Battery element and battery incorporating doped tin oxide coated substrate  

SciTech Connect

A battery element useful as at least a portion of the positive plates in a lead acid battery is described comprising an acid resistant substrate coated with electrically conductive doped tin oxide and a positive active electrode material provided that at least a portion of the coated substrate contacts the electrode material.

Pinsky, N.; Alkaitis, S.A.

1987-12-15

486

Battery plate separator and battery containing the same  

SciTech Connect

An improved battery plate separator, comprising an open ended pouch of plastics filter media material for closely receiving a battery plate therein, said plastics filter media material being a needled polypropylene fabric formed of a plurality of polypropylene fibers randomly placed into and on opposite sides of a central grid.

Jaeger, B.

1980-07-29

487

Solar Battery Chargers for NiMH Batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes new solar battery chargers for NiMH batteries. Used with portable solar panels, existing charge control methods are shown to fail in changing environmental conditions. This article discusses the reasons for the failure and introduces new voltage and temperature based charge control techniques. To increase charge speed, a maximum power point tracker is also implemented within the micro-controller

Florent Boico; Brad Lehman; Khalil Shujaee

2005-01-01

488

Lead storage battery  

SciTech Connect

The coating of the microporous separators of lead storage batteries with a highly porous glass wool mat on the side facing the negative electrode plates promotes the electrolyte exchange at these plates and also counteracts the tendency toward crumbling and toward the formation of spongy lead (mossing). The glass wool mat may be applied in the form of a plate or a slab to conventionally made separators or it may take the form of a pocket into which the negative electrode plate is inserted.

Schulte, H.; Kirchhoff, W.

1984-05-15

489

Computerized Investigations of Battery Characteristics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses a computer interface to measure terminal voltage versus current characteristic of a variety of batteries, their series and parallel combinations, and the variation with discharge. The concept of an internal resistance demonstrates that current flows through the battery determine the efficiency and serve to introduce Thevenin's theorem.…

Hinrichsen, P. F.

2001-01-01

490

Lithium batteries for pulse power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New designs of lithium batteries having bipolar construction and thin cell components possess the very low impedance that is necessary to deliver high-intensity current pulses. The research and development and understanding of the fundamental properties of these pulse batteries have reached an advanced level. Ranges of 50 to 300 kW/kg specific power and 80 to 130 Wh/kg specific energy have been demonstrated with experimental high-temperature lithium alloy/transition-metal disulfide rechargeable bipolar batteries in repeated 1- to 100-ms long pulses. Other versions are designed for repetitive power bursts that may last up to 20 or 30 s and yet may attain high specific power (1 to 10 kW/kg). Primary high-temperature Li-alloy/FeS2 pulse batteries (thermal batte