Sample records for western aphasia battery

  1. Grammaticality Judgment in Aphasia: Deficits Are Not Specific to Syntactic Structures, Aphasic Syndromes, or

    E-print Network

    Grammaticality Judgment in Aphasia: Deficits Are Not Specific to Syntactic Structures, Aphasic in agrammatic aphasia. However, not all syntactic structures are judged equally accurately, and several types, regardless of whether the patients were grouped based on Western Aphasia Battery classification

  2. Progressive Non-Fluent Aphasia in Malayalam: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Annamma; Mathuranath, P. S.

    2010-01-01

    Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) is a degenerative condition characterized by deterioration in language for at least two years without deterioration in other cognitive domains. This report highlights the language profile in a 79-year-old male with progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) who was assessed using the Western Aphasia Battery and the…

  3. Aphasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Disorders conduct and support a broad range of scientific investigations to increase our understanding of aphasia, find better treatments, and discover improved methods to restore lost function to people who have ...

  4. Normative data on the boston diagnostic aphasia examination, parietal lobe battery, and the boston naming Test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan C. Borod; Harold Goodglass; Edith Kaplan

    1980-01-01

    This report describes normative data for the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, the “Parietal Lobe Battery” (Goodglass & Kaplan, 1972), and the Boston Naming Test (Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 1978). These tests were administered to 147 neurologically normal adult males, who were right-handed and native English-speaking. For each age and education group, means, standard deviations, and the range are reported. The

  5. Ideomotor Apraxia in Agrammatic and Logopenic Variants of Primary Progressive Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Adeli, Anahita; Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Duffy, Joseph R.; Strand, Edyth A.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    There are few studies examining praxis in subjects with primary progressive aphasia. The aim of this study was to examine the pattern and severity of ideomotor apraxia in subjects with logopenic and agrammatic variants of primary progressive aphasia and to determine if the presence of ideomotor apraxia correlated with specific neuroanatomical structural abnormalities. Subjects with primary progressive aphasia were prospectively recruited and classified according to published criteria. Using the apraxia subtest of the Western Aphasia Battery, pattern and severity of ideomotor apraxia was examined in all subjects diagnosed with agrammatic and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia. The study included 47 subjects, 21 diagnosed with agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia and 26 with logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia. Subjects with agrammatic aphasia were older at onset than the logopenic variant (67.2 versus 61.7 years, p=0.02), but there was no difference in illness duration prior to evaluation. Those with logopenic aphasia showed more cognitive impairment on the Mini-Mental Status Examination (agrammatic=26.7/30, logopenic=22/30, p=0.002), and a trend for more severe language impairment as measured by Western Aphasia Battery-Aphasia Quotient (agrammatic=82.3, logopenic=75.2, p=0.11). Strong correlations were found between Western Aphasia Battery-Aphasia Quotient and total apraxia, instrumental apraxia, and complex apraxia, while average correlation were seen with upper limb apraxia and modest correlation with facial apraxia. After adjusting for age, mental status performance, and Western Aphasia Battery-Aphasia Quotient score, those with agrammatic aphasia had a higher degree of total apraxia (p=0.004), facial apraxia (p=0.03), instrumental apraxia (p=0.0006), and complex apraxia (p=0.0006) than those with logopenic aphasia. The agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia was associated with greater praxis deficits but less cognitive impairment than the logopenic variant. The presence of ideomotor apraxia was associated with grey matter loss in the left lateral premotor cortex with extension into the motor cortex. These findings suggest that although some affected areas in the agrammatic and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia overlap, there exists an area that is more affected in the agrammatic variant than the logopenic variant that accounts for the greater association of agrammatic aphasia with apraxia. PMID:23358624

  6. A comparison of the BAT and BDAE-SF batteries in determining the linguistic ability in Greek-speaking patients with Broca's aphasia.

    PubMed

    Peristeri, Eleni; Tsapkini, Kyrana

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study is to test the validity and reliability of the Bilingual Aphasia Test as a measure of language impairment in a Greek-speaking Broca's aphasic population and to investigate relationships with the same aphasic group's performance on the Greek version of the short form of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination battery, mainly focusing on a series of subtests which are shared by the two batteries, yet occasionally differ in content. Correlation analyses showed that the two instruments yielded highly comparable results with respect to the measurement of reading and listening comprehension, as well as in the performance-based measurement of the automated sequence capacity of the patients. Nevertheless, the Bilingual Aphasia Test, as a more extensive battery, proved to be more sensitive and objective in characterizing the patients' language abilities in a number of individual language functions, including commands, sentence repetition, naming, verbal fluency and syntactic comprehension. PMID:21453043

  7. Excellent recovery of aphasia in a patient with complete injury of the arcuate fasciculus in the dominant hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyeok Gyu; Jang, Sung Ho

    2011-01-01

    The arcuate fasciculus (AF) is the neural tract that connects Wernicke's area and Broca's area. The main role of the AF is speech repetition; therefore, injury to the AF typically causes conduction aphasia. We report on a patient who showed excellent recovery of aphasia despite complete injury of the AF due to a cerebral infarct. A 54-year-old, right-handed male presented with aphasia and right hemiparesis. Brain MRI showed an infarct in the left centrum semiovale and corona radiata. Diffusion tensor tractography for the AF was reconstructed using DTI-studio software. The Korean-Western Aphasia Battery (K-WAB) was used for measurement of language function. On K-WAB at 1 week after onset, his aphasia type was compatible with global aphasia (aphasia quotient: 12‰, fluency: 5‰, comprehension: 24‰, repetition: 15‰, and naming: 31‰). The patient underwent rehabilitative therapy, including language therapy and medication, which is known to facilitate recovery from aphasia, for a period of 24 months. His aphasia had improved to a nearly normal state at 30 months after onset; aphasia quotient: 93‰ (fluency: 91‰, comprehension: 92‰, repetition: 85‰, and naming: 96‰). The left AF showed a complete disruption on 27-month diffusion tensor tractography. Findings from this study suggest the possibility that aphasia might show good recovery, even in cases of severe injury of the AF. PMID:22207068

  8. Distinct regional anatomic and functional correlates of neurodegenerative apraxia of speech and aphasia: an MRI and FDG-PET study

    PubMed Central

    Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Duffy, Joseph R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Xia, Rong; Mandrekar, Jay; Machulda, Mary M.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Lowe, Val J.; Jack, Clifford R.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    Progressive apraxia of speech (AOS) can result from neurodegenerative disease and can occur in isolation or in the presence of agrammatic aphasia. We aimed to determine the neuroanatomical and metabolic correlates of progressive AOS and aphasia. Thirty-six prospectively recruited subjects with progressive AOS or agrammatic aphasia, or both, underwent the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and Token Test to assess aphasia, an AOS rating scale (ASRS), 3T MRI and 18-F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET. Correlations between clinical measures and imaging were assessed. The only region that correlated to ASRS was left superior premotor volume. In contrast, WAB and Token Test correlated with hypometabolism and volume of a network of left hemisphere regions, including pars triangularis, pars opercularis, pars orbitalis, middle frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, precentral gyrus and inferior parietal lobe. Progressive agrammatic aphasia and AOS have non-overlapping regional correlations, suggesting that these are dissociable clinical features that have different neuroanatomical underpinnings. PMID:23542727

  9. Subcortical Aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen E. Nadeau; Bruce Crosson

    1997-01-01

    We critically review the literature on subcortical aphasia, suggest that a number of traditional concepts regarding mechanisms of aphasia are inconsistent with now abundant data, and propose several new hypotheses. The absence of aphasia in 17 reported cases of dominant hemisphere striatocapsular infarction and the finding of nearly every conceivable pattern of language impairment in 33 different reported cases of

  10. Short form of the Bilingual Aphasia Test in Russian: Psychometric data of persons with aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria V. Ivanova; Brooke Hallowell

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is currently a lack of standardised aphasia batteries available in the Russian language. The psychometric properties of a short form of the Russian version of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) (Paradis, 1987) were examined. The BAT (Paradis & Zeiber, 1987) is one of the few published tests in Russian.Aims: The primary aims were: (1) to describe the psychometric

  11. Effect of Donepezil on Wernicke Aphasia After Bilateral Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction: Subtraction Analysis of Brain F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomographic Images.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seo Yeon; Kim, Je-Kyung; An, Young-Sil; Kim, Yong Wook

    2015-01-01

    Aphasia is one of the most common neurologic deficits occurring after stroke. Although the speech-language therapy is a mainstream option for poststroke aphasia, pharmacotherapy is recently being tried to modulate different neurotransmitter systems. However, the efficacy of those treatments is still controversial. We present a case of a 53-year-old female patient with Wernicke aphasia, after the old infarction in the territory of left middle cerebral artery for 8 years and the recent infarction in the right middle cerebral artery for 4 months. On the initial evaluation, the Aphasia Quotient in Korean version of the Western Aphasia Battery was 25.6 of 100. Baseline brain F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic images demonstrated a decreased cerebral metabolism in the left temporoparietal area and right temporal lobe. Donepezil hydrochloride, a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, was orally administered 5 mg/d for 6 weeks after the initial evaluation and was increased to 10 mg/d for the following 6 weeks. After the donepezil treatment, the patient showed improvement in language function, scoring 51.0 of 100 on Aphasia Quotient. A subtraction analysis of the brain F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic images after donepezil medication demonstrated increased uptake in both middle temporal gyri, extended to the occipital area and the left cerebellum. Thus, we suggest that donepezil can be an effective therapeutic choice for the treatment of Wernicke aphasia. PMID:26166237

  12. Treatability of different components of aphasia - insights from a case study.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Diane L; Nadeau, Stephen E; Conway, Tim; Fuller, Renee H; Riestra, Alonso; Gonzalez Rothi, Leslie J

    2006-01-01

    In this phase I clinical rehabilitation study, we investigated the effects of phonological rehabilitation for alexia and aphasia in an individual 54 years after a left-hemisphere ischemic infarction. In the context of a single-subject design, we studied whether treatment would improve phonological processing, reading, and generalization to untreated behaviors. While results showed a lack of generalization to real-word reading aloud, improvement was present in phonological processing, language function (Western Aphasia Battery Aphasia Quotient, Boston Naming Test, Reading Comprehension Battery for Aphasia), and auditory processing (Revised Token Test). Improvement in the lexical-semantic system was attributed to informal forced-use language treatment. We concluded that phonological therapies are unlikely to be successful unless a minimum initial level of phonological sequence knowledge exists; therapies that pressure subjects to use verbal communication can achieve clinically important gains in communicative ability that generalize to untreated behaviors. This study also demonstrates the importance of a careful analysis of the patient's language ability before a therapeutic strategy is chosen. PMID:17041818

  13. ILLITERACY AND BRAIN DAMAGE-l. APHASIA TESTING IN CULTURALLY CONTRASTED POPULATIONS (CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Mehler, Jacques

    ing in ~,NJ. ILLITERACY AND BRAIN DAMAGE-l. APHASIA TESTING IN CULTURALLY CONTRASTED POPULATIONS of aphasia if one does not refer to norms which explicitly take educationallevcl into accounl.lI DEFINING a major preoccupation of clinicians involved in aphasia research: MOUTIER'S [28] battery, which included

  14. [Aphasia: debates].

    PubMed

    Roch Lecours, A

    1999-10-01

    Quarrels over aphasia are no recent phenomena and have not always been explicit. Lordat and Gall can be cited in this respect as well as Dax and Bouillaud. Reference is also made to Broca-Dax and Trousseau-Lordat. The creation of the Chair in honour of Charcot, which contributed so greatly (thanks to Charcot himself, the others Masters and their students) to the birth of neurology, then to that of the neurological sciences and eventually to that of the neurocognitive sciences. Next, the most explicit of quarrels on aphasia is dealt with, namely that in which, during three meetings of the French Society of Neurology in 1908, Joseph Jules Dejerine and Pierre Marie crossed swords. Their duel in the Bois de Boulogne in 1893 having fortunately been cancelled, it was in 1908 merely a battle of words. Fulgence Raymond was soon to retire. Dejerine and Pierre Marie each put forward their proposal to the Society for a discussion program and Dejerine's was accepted following a vote. The meeting on 11th June, in accordance with the program proposed by Dejerine, was largely restricted to clinical facts. Fulgence Raymond was not present. Dejerine always spoke first, but some of the replies from Pierre Marie received a degree of approval from the audience. It was during this meeting that Achille Souques, the future founder of the history of neurology, cleverly defended the ideas of Pierre Marie. A little later, Dejerine went on the defensive and agreed to a change in the program along the lines suggested by Pierre Marie: he then presented his ideas on the manifest clinical difference between Broca's aphasia and that of Wernicke. After Souques, Edouard Brissaud also came to the rescue of Pierre Marie by mentioning the Leborgne case published by Broca in the spring 1861. Matters were unresolved and André-Thomas, the future founder of neuropaediatrics, produced a highly intelligent deference of his Master Dejerine. Gilbert Ballet and Ernest Dupré also came down largely on his side. The meeting of 9th July (27th anniversary of the Charcot Chair) was dedicated to cerebral anatomy and the "quadrilateral". The subject of Dejerine's questionnaire was again raised. Accompanied by Georges Guillain, Fulgence Raymond was present on this occasion (but refrained from speaking). This time the star was Augusta Dejerine Klumpke, born on a Spanish sand dune now known as San Francisco, U.S.A. Mrs Dejerine contested the "lenticular zone" and gave it a quite different dimension by proving that its anterodorsal part included associative axons originating in or projecting to Broca's area, the remainder of the "Pierre Marie quadrilateral" being called into question. Brissaud was impressed by the performance of Madame Dejerine, and Pierre Marie found himself in an awkward position. His student François Moutier, present at his request, discussed his own clinical cases and then, on the subject of "Lelong's" brain' (autumn 1861), let it be known that Broca had scratched it with his finger nails while removing the meninges. André-Thomas and Georges Guillain took part in the discussion. At the last meeting, on 23rd July, Brissaud was absent. Fulgence Raymond was again present but remained silent. The only subject on the agenda was "physiological pathology", but several points that had not been resolved on the 9th July were brought up again. On this occasion, Pierre Marie opened the debate and adopted a very cautious approach. However, his patience eventually ran out and he replied sharply to the comments of Dejerine on "images of language" and those of Dupré on "mental representations". Metaphorically speaking, it might be said that the gold medal was not awarded, Augusta Dejerine Klumpke took the silver, Dupré and André-Thomas shared the bronze, and Souques and Moutier each deserved a special mention. It might also be suggested that in 1908 the Society sketched out to a large extent the programme for research on aphasia for the century to come. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATE PMID:10546298

  15. Effects of language proficiency and language of the environment on aphasia therapy in a multilingual

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mira Goral; Jason Rosas; Peggy S. Conner; Kristen K. Maul; Loraine K. Obler

    We examined the relative proficiency of four languages (Spanish, German, French, English) of a multilingual speaker with aphasia, JM. JM’s self-rated proficiency was consistent with his naming accuracy for nouns and verbs (The Object and Action Naming Battery, Druks & Masterson, 2000) and with his performance on selected subtests of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (Paradis & Libben, 1987). Within and

  16. Family Adjustment to Aphasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this time. Seek additional counseling services as necessary. Communication Skills Family members also can help the person ... aphasia develop new skills to compensate for the communication problems. Some suggestion include: Continue to talk to ...

  17. Batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. K. Morehouse; R. Glicksman; G. S. Lozier

    1958-01-01

    A review is given of the chemical compositions, structures, performance characteristics, and applications of various primary and secondary batteries. Both batteries produced presently, and those in the development stages are included. The following primary batteries have been discussed: dry, solidelectrolyte, wet, reserve, fuel, and EMF standards. The secondary battery section covers a review of lead-acid, nickel-iron, nickelcadmium, zinc-silver oxide, and

  18. [Psychometric properties and diagnostic value of 'lexical screening for aphasias'].

    PubMed

    Pena-Chavez, R; Martinez-Jimenez, L; Lopez-Espinoza, M

    2014-09-16

    INTRODUCTION. Language assessment in persons with brain injury makes it possible to know whether they require language rehabilitation or not. Given the importance of a precise evaluation, assessment instruments must be valid and reliable, so as to avoid mistaken and subjective diagnoses. AIM. To validate 'lexical screening for aphasias' in a sample of 58 Chilean individuals. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. A screening-type language test, lasting 20 minutes and based on the lexical processing model devised by Patterson and Shewell (1987), was constructed. The sample was made up of two groups containing 29 aphasic subjects and 29 control subjects from different health centres in the regions of Biobio and Maule, Chile. Their ages ranged between 24 and 79 years and had between 0 and 17 years' schooling. Tests were carried out to determine discriminating validity, concurrent validity with the aphasia disorder assessment battery, reliability, sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS. The statistical analysis showed a high discriminating validity (p < 0.001), an acceptable mean concurrent validity with aphasia disorder assessment battery (rs = 0.65), high mean reliability (alpha = 0.87), moderate mean sensitivity (69%) and high mean specificity (86%). CONCLUSION. 'Lexical screening for aphasias' is valid and reliable for assessing language in persons with aphasias; it is sensitive for detecting aphasic subjects and is specific for precluding language disorders in persons with normal language abilities. PMID:25190338

  19. Epilepsy-aphasia syndromes.

    PubMed

    Steinlein, Ortrud K

    2009-06-01

    The combination of aphasia and epileptic seizures is characteristic for Landau-Kleffner syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder. These disorders affect young children with previously normal psychomotor development, causing profound regression with loss of receptive and expressive language capabilities. The etiologies of these childhood epilepsy-aphasia syndromes are largely unknown, and the long-term prognosis is poor. The seizures usually remit in adolescence, however most patients show persistent language dysfunction. In autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy, the aphasic symptoms are transitory and mostly restricted to the ictal phase. The monogenic etiology of this rare seizure disorder offers the possibility to study the molecular basis of epilepsy-aphasia syndromes. PMID:19496686

  20. Update in Aphasia Research.

    PubMed

    Tippett, Donna C

    2015-08-01

    The sequelae of post-stroke aphasia are considerable, with implications at the societal and personal levels. An understanding of the mechanisms of recovery of cognitive and language processes after stroke and the factors associated with increased risk of post-stroke language and cognitive deficits is vital in providing optimal care of individuals with aphasia and in counseling to their families and caregivers. Advances in neuroimaging facilitate the identification of dysfunctional or damaged brain tissue responsible for these cognitive/language deficits and contribute insights regarding the functional neuroanatomy of language. Evidence-based person-centered behavioral therapy remains the mainstay for rehabilitation of aphasia, although emerging evidence shows that neuromodulation is a promising adjunct to traditional therapy. These topics are discussed in this review, illustrating with recent studies from the Stroke Cognitive Outcomes and REcovery (SCORE) lab. PMID:26077130

  1. Anomic Aphasia in Childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George W. Hynd; Janet Leathem; Margaret Semrud-Clikeman; Kelly L. Hern; Mathew Wenner

    1995-01-01

    Documented cases of anomic aphasia in childhood are rare, due to their low prevalence and relatively subtle clinical manifestations and because of probable referral bias. Such cases are important, however, because they may shed light on the nature of lesions that produce anomia in children and because they may contribute to our understanding of brain-behavior relations in children. This case

  2. Acquired epileptiform aphasia.

    PubMed

    Tuchman, R F

    1997-06-01

    The acquired epileptiform aphasias, with Landau-Kleffner's syndrome as the example, represent an important group of syndromes in our quest to understand the relationship between epilepsy, language, and behavior. The controversy that truly frames the literature on the acquired epileptiform aphasias is the role of epileptiform activity on language, behavior, and cognition. This review expands the model of Landau-Kleffner's syndrome to include two other encephalopathies with language and behavioral regression in association with an epileptiform electroencephalogram. Both of these encephalopathies, autistic epileptiform regression and disintegrative epileptiform regression, are associated with an acquired language disorder. The developmental period in which the acquired language disorder begins, the type of language disorder, and the location and type of the epileptiform activity are all important variables that may affect clinical manifestations and prognosis. PMID:9195666

  3. Primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Mesulam, Marsel

    2014-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a clinical syndrome diagnosed when three core criteria are met. First, there should be a language impairment (i.e., aphasia) that interferes with the usage or comprehension of words. Second, the neurological work-up should determine that the disease is neurodegenerative, and therefore progressive. Third, the aphasia should arise in relative isolation, without equivalent deficits of comportment or episodic memory. The language impairment can be fluent or non-fluent and may or may not interfere with word comprehension. Memory for recent events is preserved although memory scores obtained in verbally mediated tests may be abnormal. Minor changes in personality and behavior may be present but are not the leading factors that bring the patient to medical attention or that limit daily living activities. This distinctive clinical pattern is most conspicuous in the initial stages of the disease, and reflects a relatively selective atrophy of the language network, usually located in the left hemisphere. There are different clinical variants of PPA, each with a characteristic pattern of atrophy. The underlying neuropathological diseases are heterogeneous and can include Alzheimer’s disease as well as frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The clinician’s task is to recognize PPA and differentiate it from other neurodegenerative phenotypes, use biomarkers to surmise the nature of the underlying neuropathology, and institute the most fitting multimodal interventions. PMID:24707349

  4. Speech-induced cerebral metabolic activation reflects recovery from aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolf-Dieter Heiss; Hans Karbe; Gerald Weber-Luxenburger; Karl Herholz; Josef Kessler; Uwe Pietrzyk; Gunter Pawlik

    1997-01-01

    Six stroke patients with clinically significant aphasia were studied 4 weeks and again 12–18 months after their first left hemispheric ictus. The regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglc) was measured repeatedly by PET at rest and during word repetition, and severity of speech impairment was assessed by a neuropsychologic test battery. The patterns of speech-associated activation of glucose metabolism

  5. A Behavioral Conceptualization of Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Jonathan C.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Raetz, Paige B.

    2008-01-01

    Aphasia is an acquired language impairment that affects over 1 million individuals, the majority of whom are over age 65 (Groher, 1989). This disorder has typically been conceptualized within a cognitive neuroscience framework, but a behavioral interpretation of aphasia is also possible. Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior proposes a…

  6. Agnosia for accents in primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Phillip D; Downey, Laura E; Agustus, Jennifer L; Hailstone, Julia C; Tyndall, Marina H; Cifelli, Alberto; Schott, Jonathan M; Warrington, Elizabeth K; Warren, Jason D

    2013-08-01

    As an example of complex auditory signal processing, the analysis of accented speech is potentially vulnerable in the progressive aphasias. However, the brain basis of accent processing and the effects of neurodegenerative disease on this processing are not well understood. Here we undertook a detailed neuropsychological study of a patient, AA with progressive nonfluent aphasia, in whom agnosia for accents was a prominent clinical feature. We designed a battery to assess AA's ability to process accents in relation to other complex auditory signals. AA's performance was compared with a cohort of 12 healthy age and gender matched control participants and with a second patient, PA, who had semantic dementia with phonagnosia and prosopagnosia but no reported difficulties with accent processing. Relative to healthy controls, the patients showed distinct profiles of accent agnosia. AA showed markedly impaired ability to distinguish change in an individual's accent despite being able to discriminate phonemes and voices (apperceptive accent agnosia); and in addition, a severe deficit of accent identification. In contrast, PA was able to perceive changes in accents, phonemes and voices normally, but showed a relatively mild deficit of accent identification (associative accent agnosia). Both patients showed deficits of voice and environmental sound identification, however PA showed an additional deficit of face identification whereas AA was able to identify (though not name) faces normally. These profiles suggest that AA has conjoint (or interacting) deficits involving both apperceptive and semantic processing of accents, while PA has a primary semantic (associative) deficit affecting accents along with other kinds of auditory objects and extending beyond the auditory modality. Brain MRI revealed left peri-Sylvian atrophy in case AA and relatively focal asymmetric (predominantly right sided) temporal lobe atrophy in case PA. These cases provide further evidence for the fractionation of brain mechanisms for complex sound analysis, and for the stratification of progressive aphasia syndromes according to the signature of nonverbal auditory deficits they produce. PMID:23721780

  7. Insights from the Aphasia Project: Designing Technology For and With People who have Aphasia

    E-print Network

    Findlater, Leah

    Insights from the Aphasia Project: Designing Technology For and With People who have Aphasia Joanna Purves , Sarah Yang aphasia-ubc@cs.ubc.ca Department of Computer Science Department of Psychology School issues in the context of the Aphasia Project, a recently established project on the design of assistive

  8. Acquired Crossed Aphasia in Dextral Children Revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Marien; Philippe Paquier; Sebastiaan Engelborghs; Peter P. De Deyn

    2001-01-01

    In contrast to the estimated low incidence of crossed aphasia in dextral adults (among 1%), crossed aphasia in children has been considered a common finding for almost a century. However, reviewing the literature on crossed aphasia in dextrals (CAD) and its related topics from 1975 onward, we encountered only 5 children in a corpus of 180 cases (2.7%). Critical analysis

  9. The USC Aphasia Newsletter Summer 2011

    E-print Network

    Almor, Amit

    The USC Aphasia Newsletter Summer 2011 Dear All, What a brutal summer this has been! I cannot to stroke and aphasia, you may have heard that South Carolina recently passed the Stroke Prevention Act recovery from aphasia. We look forward to sharing our latest findings with you when we get together again

  10. Developing a Clinician-Friendly Aphasia Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Robert C.; Wright, Heather Harris

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The Kentucky Aphasia Test (KAT) is an objective measure of language functioning for persons with aphasia. This article describes materials, administration, and scoring of the KAT; presents the rationale for development of test items; reports information from a pilot study; and discusses the role of the KAT in aphasia assessment. Method:…

  11. CROSSLINGUISTIC RESEARCH IN APHASIA: AN OVERVIEW

    E-print Network

    CROSSLINGUISTIC RESEARCH IN APHASIA: AN OVERVIEW Elizabeth Bates University of California at San modern research on aphasia has been carried out in English, it is difficult to separate universal and in fluent patients with a diagnosis of Wernicke's aphasia. These crosslinguistic studies fall into two

  12. INTRODUCTION Comprehension in Broca's Aphasia: Representational Considerations

    E-print Network

    INTRODUCTION Comprehension in Broca's Aphasia: Representational Considerations Most Broca's aphasic-Line Analysis of Syntactic Processing in Broca's and Wernicke's Aphasia E. ZURIF, * $ D. SWINNEY, # § P. PRATHER; $Aphasia Research Center, Boston University School of Medicine; ||Boston V. A. Medical Center; #University

  13. Neologistic jargon aphasia and agraphia in primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Rossor, Martin N.; Warren, Jason D.

    2009-01-01

    The terms ‘jargon aphasia’ and ‘jargon agraphia’ describe the production of incomprehensible language containing frequent phonological, semantic or neologistic errors in speech and writing, respectively. Here we describe two patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) who produced neologistic jargon either in speech or writing. We suggest that involvement of the posterior superior temporal–inferior parietal region may lead to a disconnection between stored lexical representations and language output pathways leading to aberrant activation of phonemes in neologistic jargon. Parietal lobe involvement is relatively unusual in PPA, perhaps accounting for the comparative rarity of jargon early in the course of these diseases. PMID:19033077

  14. Verbal Comprehension Ability in Aphasia: Demographic and Lexical Knowledge Effects

    PubMed Central

    Simos, Panagiotis G.; Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Potagas, Constantin; Evdokimidis, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    Background. Assessment of sentence-level auditory comprehension can be performed with a variety of tests varying in response requirements. A brief and easy to administer measure, not requiring an overt verbal or a complex motor response, is essential in any test battery for aphasia. Objective. The present study examines the clinical utility of receptive language indices for individuals with aphasia based on the Comprehension of Instructions in Greek (CIG), a variant of the Token Test, and the Greek version of PPVT-R. Methods. Normative data from a large community sample of Greek adults aged 46–80 years was available on both measures. A word-level-independent measure of auditory comprehension was computed as the standard score difference between the two tests and used to compare patients with and without comprehension deficits as indicated by their Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination profile. Results and Conclusions. Indices of internal consistency and test-retest reliability were very good. Education and age effects on performance were significant, with the former being stronger. The potential clinical utility of differential ability indices (contrasting sentence- and word-level auditory comprehension tests) is discussed. PMID:24825951

  15. Treatment of adynamia in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Raymer, Anastasia M

    2003-09-01

    Transcortical motor aphasia (TCMA) is an acquired impairment of language expression that occurs following neurologic damage that affects left frontal cortex and spares perisylvian regions. In some individuals with TCMA, verbal expression is rendered nonfluent due to difficulty spontaneously initiating and elaborating upon verbal messages. Nonfluency arises from impaired activation of intended messages and inhibition of competing verbal expressions. This impairment of the intentional aspects of language expression can be termed 'adynamia.' Because adynamic forms of TCMA occur infrequently, few systematic treatment investigations have been reported for this condition. Behavioral treatments have been proposed to engage intact frontal regions to improve the ability to initiate spontaneous verbal expression. Some data suggest that nonsymbolic limb movements performed in the context of speaking activities, a form of what Luria termed gestural reorganization, may improve the adynamic verbal expression. (1) In addition, the influence of pharmacologic treatment with bromocriptine, a dopaminergic agonist, has been considered for its effects on verbal nonfluency in aphasia. Individuals classified as TCMA are more likely to benefit than those with other forms of nonfluent aphasia, suggesting an influence of bromocriptine on circuits necessary to activate spontaneous language. Additional studies are warranted that contrast behavioral and pharmacologic interventions to determine optimal conditions to improve verbal expression in adynamic forms of aphasia. PMID:12957880

  16. Simulating Recovery from Bilingual Aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Meara

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes how Random Boolean Networks can be used to simulate simple lexicons, and it shows how some puzzling properties of real lexicons seem to emerge spontaneously in these models. It goes on to describe some simple simulations of bilingual aphasia, and shows that a range of \\

  17. The Bilingual Brain: Bilingual Aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franco Fabbro

    2001-01-01

    Since most people in the world know more than one language, bilingual aphasia is an important line of research in clinical and theoretical neurolinguistics. From a clinical and ethical viewpoint, it is no longer acceptable that bilingual aphasics be assessed in only one of the languages they know. Bilingual aphasic patients should receive comparable language tests in all their languages.

  18. Simulating Recovery from Bilingual Aphasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meara, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Describes how Random Boolean Networks can be used to simulate simple lexicons, and shows how some puzzling properties of real lexicons seem to emerge spontaneously in these models. Describes simple simulations of bilingual aphasia, and shows that a range of recovery patterns can be observed in these simulations. (Author/VWL)

  19. The Main Concept Analysis in Cantonese Aphasic Oral Discourse: External Validation and Monitoring Chronic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The 1st aim of this study was to further establish the external validity of the main concept (MC) analysis by examining its relationship with the Cantonese Linguistic Communication Measure (CLCM; Kong, 2006; Kong & Law, 2004)--an established quantitative system for narrative production--and the Cantonese version of the Western Aphasia

  20. An Aphasia Mentoring Program: Perspectives of Speech-Language Pathology Students and of Mentors with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Barbara A.; Petersen, Jill; Puurveen, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In contrast to clinician-as-expert models, social models of clinical practice typically acknowledge people with aphasia as equal partners in intervention. Given this, there may be a place within speech-language pathology education for programs situating people with aphasia as experts. This paper describes an aphasia mentoring program that…

  1. Primary Progressive Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Youngsin; Duffy, Joseph R.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive language dysfunction. The majority of primary progressive aphasia cases can be classified into three subtypes: non-fluent/agrammatic, semantic, and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia. Each variant presents with unique clinical features, and is associated with distinctive underlying pathology and neuroimaging findings. Unlike primary progressive aphasia, apraxia of speech is a disorder that involves inaccurate production of sounds secondary to impaired planning or programming of speech movements. Primary progressive apraxia of speech is a neurodegenerative form of apraxia of speech, and it should be distinguished from primary progressive aphasia given its discrete clinicopathological presentation. Recently, there have been substantial advances in our understanding of these speech and language disorders. Here, we review clinical, neuroimaging, and histopathological features of primary progressive aphasia and apraxia of speech. The distinctions among these disorders will be crucial since accurate diagnosis will be important from a prognostic and therapeutic standpoint. PMID:24234355

  2. Quantitative application of the primary progressive aphasia consensus criteria

    PubMed Central

    Wicklund, Meredith R.; Duffy, Joseph R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Machulda, Mary M.; Whitwell, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine how well the consensus criteria could classify subjects with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) using a quantitative speech and language battery that matches the test descriptions provided by the consensus criteria. Methods: A total of 105 participants with a neurodegenerative speech and language disorder were prospectively recruited and underwent neurologic, neuropsychological, and speech and language testing and MRI in this case-control study. Twenty-one participants with apraxia of speech without aphasia served as controls. Select tests from the speech and language battery were chosen for application of consensus criteria and cutoffs were employed to determine syndromic classification. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to examine participants who could not be classified. Results: Of the 84 participants, 58 (69%) could be classified as agrammatic (27%), semantic (7%), or logopenic (35%) variants of PPA. The remaining 31% of participants could not be classified. Of the unclassifiable participants, 2 clusters were identified. The speech and language profile of the first cluster resembled mild logopenic PPA and the second cluster semantic PPA. Gray matter patterns of loss of these 2 clusters of unclassified participants also resembled mild logopenic and semantic variants. Conclusions: Quantitative application of consensus PPA criteria yields the 3 syndromic variants but leaves a large proportion unclassified. Therefore, the current consensus criteria need to be modified in order to improve sensitivity. PMID:24598709

  3. Landau–Kleffner syndrome: a rare childhood epileptic aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Noëlle Metz-Lutz; Caroline Seegmuller; Catherine Kleitz; Anne de Saint Martin; Edouard Hirsch; Christian Marescaux

    1999-01-01

    Landau–Kleffner Syndrome (LKS), a rare epileptic aphasia which occurs at a crucial period for the development of verbal skills, arouses interest and controversy among both clinicians and neuroscientists interested in the development of language. On the one hand, the relationship between epilepsy and aphasia and the poor outcome of epileptic aphasia compared to lesional childhood aphasia is a matter of

  4. Constraint-Induced Therapy of Chronic Aphasia After Stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedemann Pulvermüller; Bettina Neininger; Thomas Elbert; Bettina Mohr; Brigitte Rockstroh; Peter Koebbel; Edward Taub

    Patients with chronic aphasia were assigned randomly to a group to receive either conventional aphasia therapy or constraint-induced (CI) aphasia therapy, a new therapeutic technique requiring intense practice over a relatively short period of consecutive days. CI aphasia therapy is realized in a communicative therapeutic environment constraining patients to practice systematically speech acts with which they have difficulty. Patients in

  5. Aphasia as identity theft: Theory and practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Shadden

    2005-01-01

    Background: The impact of aphasia on identity is frequently acknowledged, but there have been few theoretical or research publications focusing on identity as an explanatory construct in understanding quality of life issues for persons with aphasia and their significant others. This article is abbreviated from a keynote address at the 2004 Clinical Aphasiology Conference.Aims: The purpose of this article is

  6. Training-induced brain plasticity in aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariacristina Musso; Cornelius Weiller; Stefan Kiebel; Stephan P. Muller; Peter Bulau; Michel Rijntjes

    1999-01-01

    Summary It has long been a matter of debate whether recovery from aphasia after left perisylvian lesions is mediated by the preserved left hemispheric language zones or by the homologous right hemisphere regions. Using PET, we investigated the short-term changes in the cortical network involved in language comprehension during recovery from aphasia. In 12 consecutive measurements of regional cerebral blood

  7. Writing Treatment for Severe Aphasia: Who Benefits?

    E-print Network

    Writing Treatment for Severe Aphasia: Who Benefits? P61agie M. Beeson Kindle Rising Jennifer Volk The University of Arizona, Tucson Writing treatment that involved repeated copying and recall of target words was implemented with 8 individuals with severe aphasia in order to discern the best candidates for the treatment

  8. A case of acquired childhood aphasia with evolution of global aphasia into transcortical sensory aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ikeda; H. Tanabe; K. Yamada; T. Yoshimine; T. Hayakawa; K. Hashikawa; T. Nishimura

    1993-01-01

    A 11–year-old right-handed boy showed global aphasia after an infarct in the distribution of the left middle cerebral artery involving the whole language area, following an operation for ‘moya-moya disease’. Thus, anatomoclinical correlation between the CT lesion site and the resulting aphasic syndrome in this case was similar to that described in adults. However, he demonstrated rapid recovery of language

  9. The bilingual brain: bilingual aphasia.

    PubMed

    Fabbro, F

    2001-11-01

    Since most people in the world know more than one language, bilingual aphasia is an important line of research in clinical and theoretical neurolinguistics. From a clinical and ethical viewpoint, it is no longer acceptable that bilingual aphasics be assessed in only one of the languages they know. Bilingual aphasic patients should receive comparable language tests in all their languages. In the present work, language recovery of 20 bilingual Friulian-Italian aphasics was investigated. Thirteen patients (65%) showed a similar impairment in both languages (parallel recovery), four patients (20%) showed a greater impairment of L2, while three patients (15%) showed a greater impairment of L1. Despite the many hypotheses advanced to account for nonparallel recovery, none of them seems to provide satisfactory explanations. The study of bilingual aphasics with parallel impairment of both languages allows us to verify the hypothesis whereby grammatical disorders in aphasia depend on the specific structure of each language. As far as rehabilitation programs for multilingual aphasics are concerned, several questions have been raised, many of which still need a satisfactory answer. PMID:11712844

  10. Acquired crossed aphasia in dextral children revisited.

    PubMed

    Marien, P; Paquier, P; Engelborghs, S; De Deyn, P P

    2001-12-01

    In contrast to the estimated low incidence of crossed aphasia in dextral adults (among 1%), crossed aphasia in children has been considered a common finding for almost a century. However, reviewing the literature on crossed aphasia in dextrals (CAD) and its related topics from 1975 onward, we encountered only 5 children in a corpus of 180 cases (2.7%). Critical analysis rendered three of the reported cases ambiguous and hence not suitable to draw potentially relevant conclusions. In this review, the neurobehavioral manifestations of the two representative childhood CAD cases are analyzed and compared with adult CAD and acquired childhood aphasia (ACA). In the light of our findings, which support the position of innate cerebral specialization for language, the long-standing controversy as to whether lateralized hemispheric specialization for language is innate or develops progressively during maturation is briefly discussed. PMID:11781052

  11. Primary progressive aphasia in a bilingual woman.

    PubMed

    Filley, Christopher M; Ramsberger, Gail; Menn, Lise; Wu, Jiang; Reid, Bessie Y; Reid, Allan L

    2006-10-01

    Multilingual aphasias are common because most people in the world know more than one language, but little is known of these syndromes except in patients who have had a stroke. We present a 76-year-old right-handed woman, fluent in English and Chinese, who developed anomia at age 70 and then progressed to aphasia. Functional neuroimaging disclosed mild left temporoparietal hypometabolism. Neurolinguistic testing was performed in both English and Chinese, representing a unique contribution to the literature. Results revealed conduction-like aphasia that was comparable in the two languages, although English was slightly better preserved. Primary progressive aphasia has disrupted 2 languages in a similar manner, suggesting their close neuroanatomic relationship in this case. PMID:17190751

  12. Fluent Aphasia in Telugu: A Case Comparison Study of Semantic Dementia and Stroke Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alladi, Suvarna; Mridula, Rukmini; Mekala, Shailaja; Rupela, Vani; Kaul, Subhash

    2010-01-01

    This study presents two cases with fluent aphasia in Telugu with semantic dementia and post-stroke fluent aphasia. Comparable scores were obtained on the conventional neuropsychological and language tests that were administered on the two cases. Both cases demonstrated fluent, grammatical and well-articulated speech with little content, impaired…

  13. Effects of language proficiency and language of the environment on aphasia therapy in a multilingual.

    PubMed

    Goral, Mira; Rosas, Jason; Conner, Peggy S; Maul, Kristen K; Obler, Loraine K

    2012-11-01

    We examined the relative proficiency of four languages (Spanish, German, French, English) of a multilingual speaker with aphasia, JM. JM's self-rated proficiency was consistent with his naming accuracy for nouns and verbs (The Object and Action Naming Battery, Druks & Masterson, 2000) and with his performance on selected subtests of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (Paradis & Libben, 1987). Within and between-language changes were measured following two periods of language treatment, one in a highly-proficient language (Spanish) and one in a less-proficient language (English). The various outcome measures differed in their sensitivity to treatment-associated changes. Cross-language treatment effects were linked to the language of the environment at the time of testing and to relative language proficiency. PMID:23185107

  14. Effects of language proficiency and language of the environment on aphasia therapy in a multilingual

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Mira; Rosas, Jason; Conner, Peggy S.; Maul, Kristen K.; Obler, Loraine K.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the relative proficiency of four languages (Spanish, German, French, English) of a multilingual speaker with aphasia, JM. JM’s self-rated proficiency was consistent with his naming accuracy for nouns and verbs (The Object and Action Naming Battery, Druks & Masterson, 2000) and with his performance on selected subtests of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (Paradis & Libben, 1987). Within and between-language changes were measured following two periods of language treatment, one in a highly-proficient language (Spanish) and one in a less-proficient language (English). The various outcome measures differed in their sensitivity to treatment-associated changes. Cross-language treatment effects were linked to the language of the environment at the time of testing and to relative language proficiency. PMID:23185107

  15. Treating anomia in post stroke and primary progressive aphasia

    E-print Network

    Volesky, Bohumil

    Treating anomia in post stroke and primary progressive aphasia Elizabeth Rochon, Ph.D Department superiority. 4 #12;Phonological Components Analysis (PCA) for naming impairments in aphasia Study 1 Leonard

  16. The history of crossed aphasia: confluence of concepts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Mariën; Philippe Paquier; Stijn Cassenaer; Peter P De Deyn

    2003-01-01

    In 1899, Byrom Bramwell introduced the concept of crossed aphasia (CA) as a deviation from the prevailing insight of an inherent association between cerebral dominance for language and hand preference. He defined as such the phenomenon of aphasia caused by brain damage ipsilateral to the dominant hand (i.e. aphasia resulting from a lesion to the left hemisphere in sinistrals and

  17. Acquired childhood aphasia: A clinicoradiological study of 11 stroke patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel Pavao Martins; José M. Ferro

    1993-01-01

    We describe 11 cases of acquired childhood aphasia due to stroke, and study the relation between their clinical features and lesion localizations demonstrated by CT or MRI scan. All children were examined in the acute stage (within the first 30 days post-onset). There was a predominance of Broca's type of aphasia (non-fluent aphasia with poor naming, good auditory comprehension and

  18. Revisiting the dissociation between singing and speaking in expressive aphasia

    E-print Network

    Revisiting the dissociation between singing and speaking in expressive aphasia Sylvie HeÂbert,1 Ame a severe expressive aphasia following a right-hemisphere stroke, but whose language comprehension from the operation of same mechanisms. Keywords: aphasia; melody intonation therapy; singing; songs

  19. Brain (1982), 105,29-51 APHASIA IN A PRELINGUALLY

    E-print Network

    Knight, Robert T.

    1982-01-01

    Brain (1982), 105,29-51 APHASIA IN A PRELINGUALLY DEAF WOMAN by CHRISTINE CHIARELLO, ROBERT KNIGHT). Only a handful of cases of sign language aphasia have been recorded (Burr, 1905; Critchley, 1938 association areas, would subserve the decoding of sign language. Previous studies of sign language aphasia

  20. Quantitating Severity and Progression in Primary Progressive Aphasia

    E-print Network

    Dickerson, Brad

    Quantitating Severity and Progression in Primary Progressive Aphasia Bradford C. Dickerson Received+Business Media, LLC 2011 Abstract Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is an insidi- ously progressive clinical developed from work with stroke aphasia and from work with disorders such as Alzheimer's disease

  1. ACES: Promoting Empathy Towards Aphasia Through Language Distortion Emulation Software

    E-print Network

    Karahalios, Karrie G.

    ACES: Promoting Empathy Towards Aphasia Through Language Distortion Emulation Software Joshua@cyrus.psych.illinois.edu 3Department of Speech and Hearing Science hengst@illinois.edu ABSTRACT Individuals with aphasia language, not to thinking processes. We introduce a novel system and model, Aphasia Characteristics

  2. Phonological Therapy in Jargon Aphasia: Effects on Naming and Neologisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bose, Arpita

    2013-01-01

    Background: Jargon aphasia is one of the most intractable forms of aphasia with limited recommendation on amelioration of associated naming difficulties and neologisms. The few naming therapy studies that exist in jargon aphasia have utilized either semantic or phonological approaches, but the results have been equivocal. Moreover, the effect of…

  3. The Trouble with Nouns and Verbs in Greek Fluent Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In the past verb retrieval problems were associated primarily with agrammatism and noun retrieval difficulties with fluent aphasia. With regards to fluent aphasia, so far in the literature, three distinct patterns of verb/noun dissociations have been described for individuals with fluent anomic aphasia in languages with different underlying forms;…

  4. Dissociations between fluency and agrammatism in primary progressive aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia K. Thompson; Soojin Cho; Chien-Ju-Hsu; Christina Wieneke; Alfred Rademaker; Bing Bing Weitner; M-Marsel Mesulam; Sandra Weintraub

    2011-01-01

    Background: Classical aphasiology, based on the study of stroke sequelae, fuses speech fluency and grammatical ability. Nonfluent (Broca's) aphasia often is accompanied by agrammatism; whereas in the fluent aphasias grammatical deficits are not typical. The assumption that a similar relationship exists in primary progressive aphasia (PPA) has led to the dichotomisation of this syndrome into fluent and nonfluent subtypes.Aims: This

  5. Dissociations between fluency and agrammatism in primary progressive aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia K. Thompson; Soojin Cho; Chien-Ju Hsu; Christina Wieneke; Alfred Rademaker; Bing Bing Weitner; M. Marsel Mesulam; Sandra Weintraub

    2012-01-01

    Background: Classical aphasiology, based on the study of stroke sequelae, fuses speech fluency and grammatical ability. Nonfluent (Broca's) aphasia often is accompanied by agrammatism; whereas in the fluent aphasias grammatical deficits are not typical. The assumption that a similar relationship exists in primary progressive aphasia (PPA) has led to the dichotomisation of this syndrome into fluent and nonfluent subtypes.Aims: This

  6. Progressive logopenic\\/phonological aphasia: erosion of the language network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan D. Rohrer; Gerard R. Ridgway; Sebastian J. Crutch; Julia Hailstone; Johanna C. Goll; Matthew J. Clarkson; Simon Mead; Jonathan Beck; Cath Mummery; Sebastien Ourselin; Elizabeth K. Warrington; Martin N. Rossor; Jason D. Warren

    2010-01-01

    The primary progressive aphasias (PPA) are paradigmatic disorders of language network breakdown associated with focal degeneration of the left cerebral hemisphere. Here we addressed brain correlates of PPA in a detailed neuroanatomical analysis of the third canonical syndrome of PPA, logopenic\\/phonological aphasia (LPA), in relation to the more widely studied clinico-anatomical syndromes of semantic dementia (SD) and progressive nonfluent aphasia

  7. The Role of the Arcuate Fasciculus in Conduction Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Byron; Ardila, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    In aphasia literature, it has been considered that a speech repetition defect represents the main constituent of conduction aphasia. Conduction aphasia has frequently been interpreted as a language impairment due to lesions of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) that disconnect receptive language areas from expressive ones. Modern neuroradiological…

  8. Aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nighat Ispahany

    2012-01-01

    For each issue of Journal of Consumer Health on the Internet, the editor selects three to five health care sites containing high quality health care information on a given subject. The topic for each issue is very much dependent on the whim of the editor and the consumer questions that have crossed her desk. Sites used within the column are

  9. Aphasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treatment of other cognitive deficits involving attention and memory can improve communication abilities. To understand recovery processes in the brain, some researchers are using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to better understand the human brain regions ...

  10. [Mixed aphasia with jargonographia in a right-handed patient].

    PubMed

    Sene Diouf, F; Moly, J-P; de Seze, M; Barat, M; Ndiaye, I P

    2003-03-01

    We report a case of crossed aphasia with jargonagraphia in a forty-eight year old right handed monolingual man without family history of handedness or prior neurological illness. He developed a right temporo-insulo-parietal hamatomae documented by CT scan and accompanied by aphasia, left hemineglect, left hemiplegia, left lateral homonymous hemianopsia. The oral language was reduced and writing language was characterised by jargon. The writing and oral comprehension were preserved. This aphasia suggested a relationship between cerebral lateralization of language function and manual preference and the similarity between childhood aphasia and crossed aphasia in right-handed patients. PMID:12703049

  11. Training Undergraduate Students in Communication Sciences and Disorders As Conversational Partners for Persons with Aphasia

    E-print Network

    Hayes, Jane E.

    for Persons with Aphasia This Educational Enhancement Grant was funded for the 2009-10 academic year with aphasia 2. Minimize discrepancy in services to University of Kentucky Aphasia Program (UKAP) clients with aphasia 4. Improve outcomes for UKAP clients 5. Provide "hands on" experience with clients with aphasia

  12. Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences 544 Adult Language Disorders: Aphasia & Right Hemisphere Disorders

    E-print Network

    Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences 544 Adult Language Disorders: Aphasia & Right Hemisphere://beeson.web.arizona.edu/ Aphasia Research Project Website: http://web.me.com/pelagie1/Aphasia_Research_Project/ Aphasia Treatment; and the nature and treatment of aphasia, alexia, and agraphia, and right hemisphere disorders. Format: Students

  13. Compounds in different aphasia categories: a study on picture naming.

    PubMed

    Semenza, Carlo; De Pellegrin, Serena; Battel, Irene; Garzon, Martina; Meneghello, Francesca; Chiarelli, Valentina

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the production of compounds in Italian-speaking patients affected by different aphasia categories (i.e., Broca's, Wernicke's, and anomic aphasia) in a confrontation naming task. Questions of theoretical interest concerning the processing of compounds within the framework of the "lemma theory" as well as the role of morphological productivity in compound processing are addressed. Results indicate that all persons with aphasia retain knowledge of the morphological status of words, even when they fail to retrieve the corresponding phonological form (the "compound effect"). A difference was found among aphasia categories in the type of errors produced (omission vs. substitution) and in the position (first or second) of these errors within the compound words. In Broca's aphasia, the first component is omitted more frequently than the second one, but only in verb-noun compounds. Anomic and Wernicke's aphasia, unlike in Broca's aphasia, seem to retain sensitivity to morphological productivity. PMID:21978375

  14. Age and type of aphasia in patients with stroke.

    PubMed Central

    Eslinger, P J; Damasio, A R

    1981-01-01

    The age and gender of a series of patients with different types of aphasia were analysed. Regardless of gender, patients with Broca and conduction aphasias were significantly younger than those with Wernicke and global aphasias. Considering the established cerebral localisation of each of those aphasia types, it appears that, with age, stroke in the territory of the middle cerebral artery will tend to either shift posteriorly (producing Wernicke aphasia) or occupy most of the middle cerebral artery territory (producing global aphasia). But in the absence of concurrent verification of the locus of lesion in each of the cases in our sample, a possible alternative hypothesis must be entertained: that there might be age-related changes in the neurophysiological mechanism subserving language, such that some types of aphasia would tend to be more prevalent with age, regardless of lesion location. PMID:7264683

  15. Some critical concerns for adapting the Bilingual Aphasia Test to Bahasa Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Postman, Whitney Anne

    2011-06-01

    One of the most widely spoken languages of the world, Bahasa Indonesia (BI), became standardized as the official language of Indonesia. Based on Malay, it served as lingua franca in various forms throughout the Indonesian archipelago for centuries. Although BI has been habitually learned as a second language, the number of native speakers of BI continues to increase. As a member of the Western Austronesian branch of the Austronesian language family, its grammar and usage bear some resemblance to related languages such as Tagalog. At the same time, certain morphosyntactic and pragmatic characteristics of BI that distinguish it from other languages have been the subject of extensive research and deliberation. For these reasons, the clinical utility of adapting the Bilingual Aphasia Test ( Paradis, M., & Libben, G. (1987) . The assessment of bilingual aphasia. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates) is as evident as it is essential. PMID:21631309

  16. Lithium batteries: Future batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harald Reiche

    1991-01-01

    The main characteristics and applications of lithium batteries are reviewed. Miniature batteries for quartz crystal watches have been developed and fabricated in Switzerland since 1970. High technology systems like lithium batteries are largely used for their low auto-discharge during storage and for their high energy density. Two kinds of lithium batteries can be distinguished concerning their place in the watch:

  17. Examining language functions: a reassessment of Bastian's contribution to aphasia assessment.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Marjorie P

    2013-08-01

    Henry Charlton Bastian (1837-1915) developed his network model of language processing, modality deficits and correlated lesion localizations in the 1860s and was a leading clinical authority for over four decades. Although his ideas are little referenced today, having been overshadowed by his more eminent Queen Square colleague John Hughlings Jackson, his work on aphasia and paralysis was highly regarded by contemporaries. This paper traces Bastian's lasting but largely unattributed contribution to the development of standardized clinical assessment of language disorders. From 1867 onwards, Bastian trained generations of medical students in neurology. In his 1875 book On Paralysis there is evidence in his case descriptions that Bastian had already implemented a detailed set of procedures for examining aphasic patients. In 1886, Bastian published a 'Schema for the Examination of Aphasic and Amnesic Persons'. Bastian insisted on the utility of this battery for diagnosis, classification and lesion localization; he argued that its consistent use would allow the development of a patient corpus and the comparison of cases from other hospitals. In 1898 his Treatise on Aphasia included a list of 34 questions that were to be used to examine all patients to provide detailed and systematic evidence of spared and impaired abilities in all receptive and expressive modalities. Bastian's contribution to the development of standardized clinical aphasia assessment is reassessed through detailed analysis of his publications and those of his contemporaries as well as new material from archives and casebooks. This evidence demonstrates that his approach to diagnosis of language and other cognitive impairments has propagated through the decades. His legacy can be seen in the approach to standardized aphasia testing developed in the latter 20th century through to today. PMID:23803303

  18. Aphasia and Speech Organization in Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randy L. Carter; Miles K. Hohenegger; Paul Satz

    1982-01-01

    A long-standing controversy concerns whether lateralized cerebral specialization for speech and language is present at the time of language origins (developmental invariance) or whether it gradually develops from initial bilaterality (developmental progression). This controversy is complicated by conflicting reports of the incidence of childhood aphasia. The discrepancies are largely due to one early study. When methods for estimating speech organization

  19. Generalizable Outcomes of Bilingual Aphasia Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Paradis

    2000-01-01

    A number of constructs developed to account for bilingual aphasia phenomena have been advantageously extended to increase our understanding of language representation, processing, breakdown and rehabilitation in unilinguals as well. In particular, focus on the right-hemisphere-based pragmatic component of verbal communicative competence, the activation threshold, the control of resources, the role of emotion in second language acquisition and that of

  20. Inhibition and auditory comprehension in Wernicke's aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debra Wiener; Lisa Tabor Connor; Loraine Obler

    2004-01-01

    Background: While research findings support the presence of inefficiencies in allocation of attention in individuals with aphasia, the cognitive mechanisms behind these inefficiencies remain unclear. One mechanism that would affect resource allocation for selective processing is an impaired inhibitory mechanism which, when normally functioning, would actively suppress distracting information. Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive

  1. Algebra in a Man with Severe Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klessinger, Nicolai; Szczerbinski, Marcin; Varley, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    We report a dissociation between higher order mathematical ability and language in the case of a man (SO) with severe aphasia. Despite severely impaired abilities in the language domain and difficulties with processing both phonological and orthographic number words, he was able to judge the equivalence of and to transform and simplify…

  2. Measuring Working Memory Deficits in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Jamie F.; Murray, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many adults with aphasia demonstrate concomitant deficits in working memory (WM), but such deficits are difficult to quantify because of a lack of validated measures as well as the complex interdependence between language and WM. We examined the feasibility, reliability, and internal consistency of an "n"-back task for evaluating WM in…

  3. Aphasia: Current Concepts in Theory and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Tippett, Donna C.; Niparko, John K.; Hillis, Argye E.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging contribute to a new insights regarding brain-behavior relationships and expand understanding of the functional neuroanatomy of language. Modern concepts of the functional neuroanatomy of language invoke rich and complex models of language comprehension and expression, such as dual stream networks. Increasingly, aphasia is seen as a disruption of cognitive processes underlying language. Rehabilitation of aphasia incorporates evidence based and person-centered approaches. Novel techniques, such as methods of delivering cortical brain stimulation to modulate cortical excitability, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation, are just beginning to be explored. In this review, we discuss the historical context of the foundations of neuroscientific approaches to language. We sample the emergent theoretical models of the neural substrates of language and cognitive processes underlying aphasia that contribute to more refined and nuanced concepts of language. Current concepts of aphasia rehabilitation are reviewed, including the promising role of cortical stimulation as an adjunct to behavioral therapy and changes in therapeutic approaches based on principles of neuroplasticity and evidence-based/person-centered practice to optimize functional outcomes. PMID:24904925

  4. Aphasia: Current Concepts in Theory and Practice.

    PubMed

    Tippett, Donna C; Niparko, John K; Hillis, Argye E

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging contribute to a new insights regarding brain-behavior relationships and expand understanding of the functional neuroanatomy of language. Modern concepts of the functional neuroanatomy of language invoke rich and complex models of language comprehension and expression, such as dual stream networks. Increasingly, aphasia is seen as a disruption of cognitive processes underlying language. Rehabilitation of aphasia incorporates evidence based and person-centered approaches. Novel techniques, such as methods of delivering cortical brain stimulation to modulate cortical excitability, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation, are just beginning to be explored. In this review, we discuss the historical context of the foundations of neuroscientific approaches to language. We sample the emergent theoretical models of the neural substrates of language and cognitive processes underlying aphasia that contribute to more refined and nuanced concepts of language. Current concepts of aphasia rehabilitation are reviewed, including the promising role of cortical stimulation as an adjunct to behavioral therapy and changes in therapeutic approaches based on principles of neuroplasticity and evidence-based/person-centered practice to optimize functional outcomes. PMID:24904925

  5. Temporal Processing Capabilities in Repetition Conduction Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidiropoulos, Kyriakos; Ackermann, Hermann; Wannke, Michael; Hertrich, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the temporal resolution capacities of the central-auditory system in a subject (NP) suffering from repetition conduction aphasia. More specifically, the patient was asked to detect brief gaps between two stretches of broadband noise (gap detection task) and to evaluate the duration of two biphasic (WN-3) continuous noise…

  6. Further Evidence of Auditory Extinction in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Rebecca Shisler; Basilakos, Alexandra; Love-Myers, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Preliminary research ( Shisler, 2005) suggests that auditory extinction in individuals with aphasia (IWA) may be connected to binding and attention. In this study, the authors expanded on previous findings on auditory extinction to determine the source of extinction deficits in IWA. Method: Seventeen IWA (M[subscript age] = 53.19 years)…

  7. Writing Treatment for Aphasia: A Texting Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeson, Pelagie M.; Higginson, Kristina; Rising, Kindle

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment studies have documented the therapeutic and functional value of lexical writing treatment for individuals with severe aphasia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such retraining could be accomplished using the typing feature of a cellular telephone, with the ultimate goal of using text messaging for…

  8. A Computational Account of Bilingual Aphasia Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiran, Swathi; Grasemann, Uli; Sandberg, Chaleece; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2013-01-01

    Current research on bilingual aphasia highlights the paucity in recommendations for optimal rehabilitation for bilingual aphasic patients (Edmonds & Kiran, 2006; Roberts & Kiran, 2007). In this paper, we have developed a computational model to simulate an English-Spanish bilingual language system in which language representations can vary by age…

  9. Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

    2003-01-01

    Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical structures and…

  10. The relationship between specific features of aphasia-friendly written material and comprehension of written material for people with aphasia: An exploratory study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison Brennan; Linda Worrall; Kryss McKenna

    2005-01-01

    Background : Written material is often inaccessible for people with aphasia. The format of written material needs to be adapted to enable people with aphasia to read with understanding. Aims : This study aimed to further explore some issues raised in Rose, Worrall, and McKenna (2003) concerning the effects of aphasia-friendly formats on the reading comprehension of people with aphasia.

  11. Non-invasive repeated therapeutic stimulation for aphasia recovery: a multilingual, multicenter aphasia trial.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Alexander; Black, Sandra E; Rochon, Elizabeth A; Lanthier, Sylvain; Hartmann, Alexander; Chen, Joyce L; Mochizuki, George; Zumbansen, Anna; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been used in case series and small randomized controlled trials to improve recovery from poststroke aphasia in combination with speech and language therapy. Results of these studies suggest possible clinical efficacy and an excellent safety profile. Therefore, a larger international multicenter proof-of-concept trial was launched, to directly compare the safety and efficacy of rTMS, tDCS, and sham stimulation as adjuvant therapy to speech and language therapy in subacute poststroke aphasia. In the 4 participating centers, subacute stroke patients with aphasia are randomized between 5 and 30 days after ischemic stroke to either receive rTMS, tDCS, or sham stimulation in combination with a daily 45 minutes speech and language therapy session for 10 days. Efficacy is evaluated at 1 and 30 days after the last of the 10 treatment sessions using 3 outcome measures, validated in all participating languages: Boston naming test, Token test, and verbal fluency test. Additionally, adverse events are recorded to prove safety. In this study, a total of 90 patients will be recruited, and data analysis will be completed in 2016. This is the first multilingual and multinational randomized and controlled trial in poststroke aphasia and if positive, will add an effective new strategy for early stage poststroke aphasia rehabilitation. PMID:25735707

  12. Walking in Anothers Shoes: Aphasia Emulation Software Joshua Hailpern, Marina Danilevsky, Karrie Karahalios

    E-print Network

    Karahalios, Karrie G.

    Walking in Anothers Shoes: Aphasia Emulation Software Joshua Hailpern, Marina Danilevsky, Karrie to daily struggles brought on by an acquired language disorder such as Aphasia. This work seeks to shed new light on aphasia by creating an instant message client which emulates the effects of aphasia. The goal

  13. Differentiating language disorder subtypes in acquired childhood aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet A. Lees

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the ways in which aphasic disorders are categorized. The language disorders of 34 children with acquired childhood aphasia from a range of aetiologies were categorized according to two systems: Goodglass and Kaplan (1972) and Rapin and Allen (1987). This categorization was based on comprehensive assessment data. Results demonstrate that the majority of the children had aphasias which

  14. Fluent Aphasia in Children: Definition and Natural History

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan K. Klein; David Masur; Karen Farber; Shlomo Shinnar; Isabelle Rapin

    1992-01-01

    We compared the course of a preschool child we followed for 4 years with published reports of 24 children with fluent aphasia. Our patient spoke fluently within 3 weeks of the injury. She was severely anomic and made many semantic paraphasic errors. Unlike other children with fluent aphasia, her prosody of speech was impaired initially, and her spontaneous language was

  15. Brief report: A case of acquired aphasia in a child

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacques Thivierge

    1986-01-01

    A 4-year-old child was referred to us from neurology with a possible diagnosis of autism. This form of acquired aphasia is unusual in that our patient did not ever present any clinical seizure in spite of bilateral temporal injury. One of the etiological possibilities that has been retained in those cases has to do with the aphasia being related to

  16. Current trends in acquired childhood aphasia: An introduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Paquier; Hugo R. van Dongen

    1993-01-01

    Although the interest in acquired childhood aphasia (ACA) arose about a century ago, it has received considerably less attention in the literature on language disorders in childhood than has developmental aphasia. Yet the study of ACA provides a unique opportunity to investigate brain\\/language relationships during the process of cerebral maturation. Hence, this paper aims to give an overview of recent

  17. Lexical and Prosodic Effects on Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeDe, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether and when individuals with aphasia and healthy controls use lexical and prosodic information during on-line sentence comprehension. Individuals with aphasia and controls (n = 12 per group) participated in a self-paced listening experiment. The stimuli were early closure sentences, such as "While…

  18. Mild Aphasia: Is This the Place for an Argument?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Fox, Sarah; Wilkinson, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with mild aphasia often report significant disruption to their communication despite seemingly minor impairment. This study explored this phenomenon through examining conversations of a person with mild aphasia engaging in argumentation--a skill she felt had significantly deteriorated after her stroke. Method: A person with…

  19. A Comparison between Written and Spoken Narratives in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrns, Ingrid; Wengelin, Asa; Broberg, Malin; Hartelius, Lena

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore how a personal narrative told by a group of eight persons with aphasia differed between written and spoken language, and to compare this with findings from 10 participants in a reference group. The stories were analysed through holistic assessments made by 60 participants without experience of aphasia

  20. Paraphasias in Multilingual Conduction Aphasia: A Single Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegde, Medha; Bhat, Sapna

    2007-01-01

    Conduction aphasia is a type of fluent aphasia, which is caused due to the damage to the supramarginal gyrus and arcuate fasciculus resulting in repetition disturbance. It has been speculated that linguistic system in bilingual aphasics can breakdown in different ways across languages. There is a lack of detailed linguistic studies in specific…

  1. Measuring and Inducing Brain Plasticity in Chronic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fridriksson, Julius

    2011-01-01

    Brain plasticity associated with anomia recovery in aphasia is poorly understood. Here, I review four recent studies from my lab that focused on brain modulation associated with long-term anomia outcome, its behavioral treatment, and the use of transcranial brain stimulation to enhance anomia treatment success in individuals with chronic aphasia

  2. Aphasia, Apraxia, and Agnosia in the Diagnosis of Dementia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel H. Kramer; Jennifer M. Duffy

    1996-01-01

    The association of aphasia, apraxia and agnosia with cortical but not subcortical dementias, is a widely held belief. The purpose of the present study was to determine the frequency of aphasia, apraxia, and agnosia in groups of cortical and subcortical dementia patients, and to assess the diagnostic utility of these symptoms. Subjects were 64 patients with subcortical dementias (Parkinson's disease

  3. Access to written information for people with aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Worrall; Tanya Rose; Tami Howe; Alison Brennan; Jennifer Egan; Dorothea Oxenham; Kryss McKenna

    2005-01-01

    Background : Accessibility is often constructed in terms of physical accessibility. There has been little research into how the environment can accommodate the communicative limitations of people with aphasia. Communication accessibility for people with aphasia is conceptualised in this paper within the World Health Organisation's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The focus of accessibility is considered in

  4. Aphasia and Topic Initiation in Conversation: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Scott E.; Candlin, Christopher N.; Ferguson, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aphasiologists often research, assess and treat linguistic impairment and its consequences for daily life separately. Studies that link the language used by people with aphasia to routine communicative activities may expand the linguistic forms treated as relevant for successful communication by people with aphasia. Previous research…

  5. Helping a professor with aphasia resume teaching through multimodal approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanne Lasker; Leonard LaPointe; Janet Kodras

    2005-01-01

    Background: Research and clinical evidence suggest that employment after stroke may be an important aspect of preserving personal and social identity; however, few people with significant aphasia manage to return to work, particularly if their jobs are communicatively and cognitively demanding.Aims: This study presents the case of a professor with aphasia, JK, who resumed teaching through a combination of voice-output

  6. working memory in aphasia 1 In Press, Aphasiology

    E-print Network

    Processing Distinct Linguistic Information Types in Working Memory in Aphasia Heather Harris Wright Arizona University San Diego, CA Contact Information: Heather Harris Wright, Ph.D. Dept. of Speech and Hearing) 965-8516 Email: Heather.Wright.1@asu.edu #12;working memory in aphasia 2 ABSTRACT Background: Recent

  7. Impairment and Functional Interventions for Aphasia: Having it All

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Aphasia, a cognitive-linguistic disorder secondary to stroke, is a frequent and often chronic consequence of stroke with detrimental effects on autonomy and health-related quality of life. Treatment of aphasia can be approached in a number of ways. Impairment-based approaches that focus on training a specific linguistic form can be implemented. Additionally, functionally oriented intervention such as supported conversation and aphasia groups are also frequently utilized when providing a treatment program for an individual with aphasia. Creating a treatment approach that includes both impairment and functional methodologies and considers how these relate to the three domains proposed by the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF)—body functions and structure, activity, and participation—can provide an individual with aphasia an optimal treatment program that is person-centered and multi-faceted. PMID:25133085

  8. Neuroscience of aphasia recovery: the concept of neural multifunctionality.

    PubMed

    Cahana-Amitay, Dalia; Albert, Martin L

    2015-07-01

    Aphasia therapy, while demonstrably successful, has been limited by its primary focus on language, with relatively less attention paid to nonlinguistic factors (cognitive, affective, praxic) that play a major role in recovery from aphasia. Neuroscientific studies of the past 15-20 years have opened a breach in the wall of traditional clinico-anatomical teachings on aphasia. It is not an exaggeration to talk of a paradigm shift. The term "neural multifunctionality" denotes a complex web of neural networks supporting both linguistic and nonlinguistic functions in constant and dynamic interaction, creating language as we know it and contributing to recovery from aphasia following brain damage. This paper reviews scientific underpinnings of neural multifunctionality and suggests ways in which this new approach to understanding the neural basis of language can lead to meaningful, practical steps for improvements in aphasia therapy. PMID:26008816

  9. Impairment and Functional Interventions for Aphasia: Having it All.

    PubMed

    Galletta, Elizabeth E; Barrett, A M

    2014-06-01

    Aphasia, a cognitive-linguistic disorder secondary to stroke, is a frequent and often chronic consequence of stroke with detrimental effects on autonomy and health-related quality of life. Treatment of aphasia can be approached in a number of ways. Impairment-based approaches that focus on training a specific linguistic form can be implemented. Additionally, functionally oriented intervention such as supported conversation and aphasia groups are also frequently utilized when providing a treatment program for an individual with aphasia. Creating a treatment approach that includes both impairment and functional methodologies and considers how these relate to the three domains proposed by the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF)-body functions and structure, activity, and participation-can provide an individual with aphasia an optimal treatment program that is person-centered and multi-faceted. PMID:25133085

  10. The use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test with a bilingual Mandarin–New Zealand English speaker with aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clare McCann; Taiying Lee; Suzanne C. Purdy; Alison K. Paulin

    This is a single case study of a 74 year old bilingual Mandarin–New Zealand English speaking man with aphasia. We compare his language ability on the Bilingual Aphasia Test with norms for New Zealand English speakers and the original BAT norms. There is a large and growing population of Chinese in New Zealand. The impact of communication disorders in this group

  11. What People Living with Aphasia Think about the Availability of Aphasia Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinckley, Jacqueline J.; Hasselkus, Amy; Ganzfried, Ellayne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Obtaining health information and resources can influence an individual's (a) access to services, (b) interactions with health care providers, and (c) ability to manage one's own health needs. The purpose of this study was to gather the perceptions of consumers living with aphasia about resource availability and information needs. Method:…

  12. Testing Assumptions in Computational Theories of Aphasia Wheeler Ruml, Alfonso Caramazza, Jennifer R. Shelton, and Doriana Chialant

    E-print Network

    Caramazza, Alfonso

    Testing Assumptions in Computational Theories of Aphasia Wheeler Ruml, Alfonso Caramazza, Jennifer: computational modeling; aphasia; lexical access; computational neuropsychology. The promise of computational model of normal processing and damage in aphasia. One could even imagine using simula- tion results

  13. Parallel Recovery in a Trilingual Speaker: The Use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test as a Diagnostic Complement to the Comprehensive Aphasia Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, David W.; Ruffle, Louise; Grogan, Alice; Ali, Nilufa; Ramsden, Sue; Schofield, Tom; Leff, Alex P.; Crinion, Jenny; Price, Cathy J.

    2011-01-01

    We illustrate the value of the Bilingual Aphasia Test in the diagnostic assessment of a trilingual speaker post-stroke living in England for whom English was a non-native language. The Comprehensive Aphasia Test is routinely used to assess patients in English, but only in combination with the Bilingual Aphasia Test is it possible and practical to…

  14. Sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt Disease Presenting as Primary Progressive Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, David Y.; Dunkelberger, Diana L.; Henry, Maya; Haman, Aissatou; Greicius, Michael D.; Wong, Katherine; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Miller, Bruce L.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Geschwind, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report the clinical, neuropsychological, linguistic, imaging, and neuropathological features of a unique case of sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease in which the patient presented with a logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia. Design Case report. Setting Large referral center for atypical memory and aging disorders, particularly Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease. Patient Patient presenting with logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia initially thought to be due to Alzheimer disease. Results Despite the long, slow 3.5-year course, the patient was shown to have pathology-proven sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease. Conclusions These findings expand the differential of primary progressive aphasia to include prion disease. PMID:23400721

  15. A Computational Account of Bilingual Aphasia Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Kiran, Swathi; Grasemann, Uli; Sandberg, Chaleece; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2013-04-01

    Current research on bilingual aphasia highlights the paucity in recommendations for optimal rehabilitation for bilingual aphasic patients (Roberts & Kiran, 2007; Edmonds & Kiran, 2006). In this paper, we have developed a computational model to simulate an English-Spanish bilingual language system in which language representations can vary by age of acquisition (AoA) and relative proficiency in the two languages to model individual participants. This model is subsequently lesioned by varying connection strengths between the semantic and phonological networks and retrained based on individual patient demographic information to evaluate whether or not the model's prediction of rehabilitation matched the actual treatment outcome. In most cases the model comes close to the target performance subsequent to language therapy in the language trained, indicating the validity of this model in simulating rehabilitation of naming impairment in bilingual aphasia. Additionally, the amount of cross-language transfer is limited both in the patient performance and in the model's predictions and is dependent on that specific patient's AoA, language exposure and language impairment. It also suggests how well alternative treatment scenarios would have fared, including some cases where the alternative would have done better. Overall, the study suggests how computational modeling could be used in the future to design customized treatment recipes that result in better recovery than is currently possible. PMID:24600315

  16. Primary progressive aphasia: diagnosis, varieties, evolution.

    PubMed

    Kertesz, Andrew; Davidson, Wilda; McCabe, Patricia; Takagi, Kenji; Munoz, David

    2003-07-01

    A referred cohort of 67 clinically defined PPA patients were compared to 99 AD patients with formal language and nonverbal cognitive tests in a case control design. Language fluency was determined at the first and last follow up visits. Quantitation of sulcal and ventricular atrophy on MRI was carried out in 46 PPA and 53 AD patients. Most PPA patients (57%) are relatively fluent when first examined. Visuospatial and memory functions are initially preserved. Aphemic, stuttering, "pure motor" presentation, or agrammatic aphasia are seen less frequently. Later most PPAs become logopenic and nonfluent, even those with semantic aphasia (dementia). In contrast, AD patients were more fluent and had relatively lower comprehension, but better overall language performance. MRI showed significant left sided atrophy in most PPA patients. Subsequent to PPA, 25 patients developed behavioral manifestations of frontotemporal dementia and 15 the corticobasal degeneration syndrome, indicating the substantial clinical overlap of these conditions. Language testing, particularly fluency scores supported by neuroimaging are helpful differentiating PPA from AD. The fluent-nonfluent dichotomy in PPA is mostly stage related. The aphemic-logopenic-agrammatic and semantic distinction is useful, but the outcomes converge. PMID:12901777

  17. Non-verbal communication in severe aphasia: Influence of aphasia, apraxia, or semantic processing?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katharina Hogrefe; Wolfram Ziegler; Nicole Weidinger; Georg Goldenberg

    Patients suffering from severe aphasia have to rely on non-verbal means of communication to convey a message. However, to date it is not clear which patients are able to do so. Clinical experience indicates that some patients use non-verbal communication strategies like gesturing very efficiently whereas others fail to transmit semantic content by non-verbal means. Concerns have been expressed that

  18. Word-retrieval treatment in aphasia: Effects of sentence context.

    PubMed

    Raymer, Anastasia; Kohen, Francine

    2006-01-01

    Word-retrieval treatment studies in aphasia have reported the greatest influences on picture naming for trained words. To increase treatment effects to untrained words and sentence contexts, we investigated a sentence-reading treatment hierarchy that moves from errorless to generative production of sentences incorporating target nouns and verbs. In an individual with nonfluent aphasia, treatment resulted in improved picture naming for nouns and verbs and generalized increases in numbers of grammatical sentences and content words following noun therapy. A second individual with fluent aphasia improved little in picture-naming and sentence-generation tasks for both nouns and verbs. This sentence-based word-retrieval training, in which semantic and syntactic processes are engaged, led to improvements in word-retrieval measures during spontaneous sentence generation, but only for the participant with nonfluent aphasia. Contrary to expectations, these changes were greater following noun therapy than they were following verb therapy. PMID:17041822

  19. Independent Study in the Aphasia Research Project Undergraduate Students

    E-print Network

    (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) that helps protect consumers and aphasia) and because our research requires assurance of the protection of human complete a designated Human Subjects Protection Training program. As #12;described

  20. Implicit and Explicit Learning in Individuals with Agrammatic Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Schuchard, Julia; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2013-01-01

    Implicit learning is a process of acquiring knowledge that occurs without conscious awareness of learning, whereas explicit learning involves the use of overt strategies. To date, research related to implicit learning following stroke has been largely restricted to the motor domain and has rarely addressed implications for language. The present study investigated implicit and explicit learning of an auditory word sequence in 10 individuals with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia and 18 healthy age-matched participants using an adaptation of the Serial Reaction Time task. Individuals with aphasia showed significant learning under implicit, but not explicit, conditions, whereas age-matched participants learned under both conditions. These results suggest significant implicit learning ability in agrammatic aphasia. Furthermore, results of an auditory sentence span task indicated working memory deficits in individuals with agrammatic aphasia, which are discussed in relation to explicit and implicit learning processes. PMID:23532578

  1. BATting multilingual primary progressive aphasia for Greek, English, and Czech

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Kambanaros; Kleanthes K. Grohmann

    We report and compare results from the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) in three languages in a multilingual individual with a fluent primary progressive aphasia (PPA): Greek, English, and Czech. Our participant, SG, is a 60-year-old male who shows focal atrophy of the left temporal and parietal lobes typical of PPA. He is highly educated and holds a full-time job in

  2. Manifestations of morphological impairments in Greek aphasia: A case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyrana Tsapkini; Gonia Jarema; Eva Kehayia

    2001-01-01

    The present study addresses the issue of morphological manifestations specific to non-fluent aphasia in Greek. The off-line performance of a Greek-speaking aphasic patient is investigated using Paradis'(1987) Bilingual Aphasia Test. His difficulties with inflectional morphology are further probed through a series of comprehension, production, repetition and reading tasks. Results obtained show a dissociation in the patient's processing of nouns and

  3. Generalizable outcomes of bilingual aphasia research.

    PubMed

    Paradis, M

    2000-01-01

    A number of constructs developed to account for bilingual aphasia phenomena have been advantageously extended to increase our understanding of language representation, processing, breakdown and rehabilitation in unilinguals as well. In particular, focus on the right-hemisphere-based pragmatic component of verbal communicative competence, the activation threshold, the control of resources, the role of emotion in second language acquisition and that of procedural vs. declarative memory, has led to the suggestion that unilinguals are in fact at one end of a continuum, with multilinguals who speak genetically unrelated languages at the other end. No function is available to the bilingual speaker that is not already available to the unilingual, unidialectal speaker. The only difference seems to be the degree of use the speaker makes of each of the relevant cerebral systems. PMID:10474005

  4. Asymmetric inhibitory treatment effects in multilingual aphasia.

    PubMed

    Goral, Mira; Naghibolhosseini, Maryam; Conner, Peggy S

    2013-01-01

    Findings from recent psycholinguistic studies of bilingual processing support the hypothesis that both languages of a bilingual are always active and that bilinguals continually engage in processes of language selection. This view aligns with the convergence hypothesis of bilingual language representation. Furthermore, it is hypothesized that when bilinguals perform a task in one language they need to inhibit their other, nontarget language(s) and that stronger inhibition is required when the task is performed in the weaker language than in the stronger one. The study of multilingual individuals who acquire aphasia resulting from a focal brain lesion offers a unique opportunity to test the convergence hypothesis and the inhibition asymmetry. We report on a trilingual person with chronic nonfluent aphasia who at the time of testing demonstrated greater impairment in her first acquired language (Persian) than in her third, later learned language (English). She received treatment in English followed by treatment in Persian. An examination of her connected language production revealed improvement in her grammatical skills in each language following intervention in that language, but decreased grammatical accuracy in English following treatment in Persian. The increased error rate was evident in structures that are used differently in the two languages (e.g., auxiliary verbs). The results support the prediction that greater inhibition is applied to the stronger language than to the weaker language, regardless of their age of acquisition. We interpret the findings as consistent with convergence theories that posit overlapping neuronal representation and simultaneous activation of multiple languages and with proficiency-dependent asymmetric inhibition in multilinguals. PMID:24499302

  5. Asymmetric inhibitory treatment effects in multilingual aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Mira; Naghibolhosseini, Maryam; Conner, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Findings from recent psycholinguistic studies of bilingual processing support the hypothesis that both languages of a bilingual are always active and that bilinguals continually engage in processes of language selection. This view aligns with the convergence hypothesis of bilingual language representation (Abutalebi & Green, 2008). Furthermore, it is hypothesized that when bilinguals perform a task in one language they need to inhibit their other, non-target language(s) (e.g., Costa, Miozzo, & Caramazza, 1999) and that stronger inhibition is required when the task is performed in the weaker language than in the stronger one (e.g., Costa & Santesteban, 2004). The study of multilingual individuals who acquire aphasia resulting from a focal brain lesion offers a unique opportunity to test the convergence hypothesis and the inhibition asymmetry. We report on a trilingual person with chronic non-fluent aphasia who at the time of testing demonstrated greater impairment in her first acquired language (Persian) than in her third, later-learned language (English). She received treatment in English followed by treatment in Persian. An examination of her connected language production revealed improvement in her grammatical skills in each language following intervention in that language, but decreased grammatical accuracy in English following treatment in Persian. The increased error rate was evident in structures that are not shared by the two languages (e.g., use of auxiliary verbs). The results support the prediction that greater inhibition is applied to the stronger language than to the weaker language, regardless of their age of acquisition. We interpret the findings as consistent with convergence theories that posit overlapping neuronal representation and simultaneous activation of multiple languages, and with proficiency-dependent asymmetric inhibition in multilinguals. PMID:24499302

  6. Battery charger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kisiel

    1980-01-01

    A battery charging system for charging a battery from an ac source, including control rectifier means for rectifying the charging current, a pulse generator for triggering the rectifier to control the transmission of current to the battery, phase control means for timing the firing of the pulse generator according to the charge on the battery, and various control means for

  7. Hameau, S. & Kpke, B. (2011). Cross-language transfer following monolingual cognate-based treatment in trilingual aphasia: a case study. Sciences of Aphasia, SOA 12, Barcelona, September 1-5.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2011-01-01

    cognate-based treatment in trilingual aphasia: a case study. Sciences of Aphasia-based treatment in trilingual aphasia: a case study Solène Hameau and Barbara Köpke Octogone-Lordat, Université patients with aphasia. According to Edmonds & Kiran (2006), transfer is more likely to occur

  8. Conversational use of writing in severe aphasia: A group treatment approach

    E-print Network

    Conversational use of writing in severe aphasia: A group treatment approach Natalie S. Clausen the ability of individuals with severe aphasia to relearn the spelling of target words so that written & Procedures: Four individuals with chronic, severe aphasia and agraphia received copy and recall treatment

  9. Decoding Speech for Understanding and Treating Aphasia Brian N. Pasley*,1 and Robert T. Knight*,,

    E-print Network

    Knight, Robert T.

    Decoding Speech for Understanding and Treating Aphasia Brian N. Pasley*,1 and Robert T. Knight, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA Abstract Aphasia is an acquired language disorder of this approach are discussed in the context of applications to understanding the neural basis of aphasia symptoms

  10. Automatic speech recognition in the diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia Kathleen Fraser1

    E-print Network

    Penn, Gerald

    Automatic speech recognition in the diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia Kathleen Fraser1 participants with semantic dementia (SD), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), and healthy con- trols. We of the clas- sifiers. Index Terms: automatic speech recognition, classification, pro- gressive aphasia 1

  11. Author's personal copy Theories of spoken word recognition deficits in Aphasia

    E-print Network

    Author's personal copy Theories of spoken word recognition deficits in Aphasia: Evidence from eye, Providence, RI 02908, USA e Boston University Harold Goodglass Aphasia Research Center at the VA Boston Available online 2 March 2011 Keywords: Spoken word recognition Aphasia Eye-tracking Computational models

  12. The Participatory Design of a Sound and Image Enhanced Daily Planner for People with Aphasia

    E-print Network

    McGrenere, Joanna

    The Participatory Design of a Sound and Image Enhanced Daily Planner for People with Aphasia Karyn of Audiology and Speech Sciences University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada aphasia-ubc@cs.ubc.ca Engineering and Applied Sciences± Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA aphasia-ubc@cs.ubc.ca Abstract

  13. Using text and acoustic features to diagnose progressive aphasia and its Kathleen C. Fraser1

    E-print Network

    Penn, Gerald

    Using text and acoustic features to diagnose progressive aphasia and its subtypes Kathleen C.Rochon@utoronto.ca Abstract This paper presents experiments in automatically diagnosing primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and two of its subtypes, semantic dementia (SD) and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), from

  14. Modality-Specific Deterioration in Naming Verbs in Nonfluent Primary Progressive Aphasia

    E-print Network

    Caramazza, Alfonso

    Modality-Specific Deterioration in Naming Verbs in Nonfluent Primary Progressive Aphasia Argye E progressive aphasia (PPA) is reported. M. M. L. showed progressive deterioration of oral naming of verbs well with frontal lesions and nonfluent aphasia, whereas selective impairment in naming nouns has generally been

  15. BRAIN AND LANGUAGE 50, 225-239 (1995) Syntactic Processing in Aphasia

    E-print Network

    1995-01-01

    BRAIN AND LANGUAGE 50, 225-239 (1995) Syntactic Processing in Aphasia DAVID SWINNEY University of syntactic processing in aphasia. Our data show that, like neurologically intact subjects, Wernicke bottleneck in Broca's aphasia and more generally suggest that syntactic comprehension limitations can

  16. Pervasive Rehabilitation of Aphasia with an eXtensible Interactive System

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    PRAXIS: Pervasive Rehabilitation of Aphasia with an eXtensible Interactive System Phase I: Design Rehabilitation of Aphasia with an eXtensible Interactive System: Phase I (PRAXIS) Supervisors: Mr. Mikael. _____________________ Kiernan Burke Date: #12;iii ABSTRACT PRAXIS: Pervasive Rehabilitation of Aphasia with an e

  17. Comparison of different feature sets for identification of variants in progressive aphasia

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    Comparison of different feature sets for identification of variants in progressive aphasia Kathleen the narrative speech of individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA). We examine several different types Introduction In some types of dementia, such as primary pro- gressive aphasia, language deficit is a core symp

  18. Hesitation and the Production of Verbal Paraphasias and Neologisms in Jargon Aphasia

    E-print Network

    Butterworth, Brian

    Hesitation and the Production of Verbal Paraphasias and Neologisms in Jargon Aphasia Universii in a phonotactically regular way. The implications for recovery patterns in jargon aphasia are discussed analyses are used to evaluate two explanations of the jargon aphasia syndrome current in the literature

  19. The Last Western Flyer the Western Auto Century

    E-print Network

    Beex, A. A. "Louis"

    life. Western Auto Christmas Layaway Sale circular, 1953 While the kids from wealthier families got to sewing machines, from batteries to refrigerators, from lawn mowers to fishing tackle to women's stockings

  20. Wernicke's Aphasia Reflects a Combination of Acoustic-Phonological and Semantic Control Deficits: A Case-Series Comparison of Wernicke's Aphasia, Semantic Dementia and Semantic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Holly; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Wernicke's aphasia (WA) is the classical neurological model of comprehension impairment and, as a result, the posterior temporal lobe is assumed to be critical to semantic cognition. This conclusion is potentially confused by (a) the existence of patient groups with semantic impairment following damage to other brain regions (semantic dementia and…

  1. Parallel recovery in a trilingual speaker: the use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test as a diagnostic complement to the Comprehensive Aphasia Test.

    PubMed

    Green, David W; Ruffle, Louise; Grogan, Alice; Ali, Nilufa; Ramsden, Sue; Schofield, Tom; Leff, Alex P; Crinion, Jenny; Price, Cathy J

    2011-06-01

    We illustrate the value of the Bilingual Aphasia Test in the diagnostic assessment of a trilingual speaker post-stroke living in England for whom English was a non-native language. The Comprehensive Aphasia Test is routinely used to assess patients in English, but only in combination with the Bilingual Aphasia Test is it possible and practical to provide a full picture of the language impairment. We describe our test selection and the assessment it allows us to make. PMID:21453044

  2. Inner speech deficits in people with aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Langland-Hassan, Peter; Faries, Frank R.; Richardson, Michael J.; Dietz, Aimee

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of inner speech in our mental lives, methods for objectively assessing inner speech capacities remain underdeveloped. The most common means of assessing inner speech is to present participants with tasks requiring them to silently judge whether two words rhyme. We developed a version of this task to assess the inner speech of a population of patients with aphasia and corresponding language production deficits. Patients’ performance on the silent rhyming task was severely impaired relative to controls. Patients’ performance on this task did not, however, correlate with their performance on a variety of other standard tests of overt language and rhyming abilities. In particular, patients who were generally unimpaired in their abilities to overtly name objects during confrontation naming tasks, and who could reliably judge when two words spoken to them rhymed, were still severely impaired (relative to controls) at completing the silent rhyme task. A variety of explanations for these results are considered, as a means to critically reflecting on the relations among inner speech, outer speech, and silent rhyme judgments more generally. PMID:25999876

  3. Battery management system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albright

    1993-01-01

    A battery management system is described, comprising: a main battery; main battery charging system means coupled to the main battery for charging the main battery during operation of the main battery charging system means; at least one auxiliary battery; primary switching means for coupling the auxiliary battery to a parallel configuration with the main battery charging system means and with

  4. Patterns of dysgraphia in primary progressive aphasia compared to post-stroke aphasia.

    PubMed

    Faria, Andreia V; Crinion, Jenny; Tsapkini, Kyrana; Newhart, Melissa; Davis, Cameron; Cooley, Shannon; Mori, Susumu; Hillis, Argye E

    2013-01-01

    We report patterns of dysgraphia in participants with primary progressive aphasia that can be explained by assuming disruption of one or more cognitive processes or representations in the complex process of spelling. These patterns are compared to those described in participants with focal lesions (stroke). Using structural imaging techniques, we found that damage to the left extrasylvian regions, including the uncinate, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and sagittal stratum (including geniculostriate pathway and inferior longitudinal fasciculus), as well as other deep white and grey matter structures, was significantly associated with impairments in access to orthographic word forms and semantics (with reliance on phonology-to-orthography to produce a plausible spelling in the spelling to dictation task). These results contribute not only to our understanding of the patterns of dysgraphia following acquired brain damage but also the neural substrates underlying spelling. PMID:22713396

  5. Patterns of Dysgraphia in Primary Progressive Aphasia Compared to Post-Stroke Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Andreia V.; Crinion, Jenny; Tsapkini, Kyrana; Newhart, Melissa; Davis, Cameron; Cooley, Shannon; Mori, Susumu; Hillis, Argye E.

    2013-01-01

    We report patterns of dysgraphia in participants with primary progressive aphasia that can be explained by assuming disruption of one or more cognitive processes or representations in the complex process of spelling. These patterns are compared to those described in participants with focal lesions (stroke). Using structural imaging techniques, we found that damage to the left extrasylvian regions, including the uncinate, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and sagittal stratum (including geniculostriate pathway and inferior longitudinal fasciculus), as well as other deep white and grey matter structures, was significantly associated with impairments in access to orthographic word forms and semantics (with reliance on phonology-to-orthography to produce a plausible spelling in the spelling to dictation task). These results contribute not only to our understanding of the patterns of dysgraphia following acquired brain damage but also the neural substrates underlying spelling. PMID:22713396

  6. Acquired aphasia in childhood: Case studies of five children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet A. Lees; Brian G. R. Neville

    1990-01-01

    This paper documents the recovery of five children with acquired aphasia from acute onset for 2 years. The children, who were aged between 6 and 15 years at onset, were regularly assessed using comprehensive language tests in order to establish detailed profiles of their recovery in relation to the presenting neurology. The neurological causes were strictly lateralized with the exception

  7. Aphasia Owing to Subcortical Brain Infarcts in Childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ariel Gout; Nathalie Seibel; Constance Rouvière; Béatrice Husson; Brigitte Hermans; Nicole Laporte; Hazim Kadhim; Cécile Grandin; Pierre Landrieu; Guillaume Sébire

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to further define the clinical features of subcortical aphasia in children with deep brain infarcts and to define the sequelae associated with childhood strokes. We retrospectively studied nine children with left subcortical brain infarcts who presented with acquired language disorder and underwent language investigations based on standardized tests. Stroke in these patients involved the

  8. Recurrent aphasia with subclinical bioelectric status epilepticus during sleep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kellermann; Kinderkrankenhaus der Stadt; H. Ewerbeck

    1978-01-01

    We present a six years follow up of a 6 1\\/2 year-old boy with recurrent aphasia, sporadic emotional regression and a convulsive disorder. The electroencephalogram reading during sleep showed continuous, generalized, hypersynchronous activity without clinical evidence of seizure (“subclinical bioelectric status epilepticus”). Clinical, laboratory and instrumental data revealed no evidence of a morphological lesion of the brain, either spaceoccupying, inflammatory,

  9. Optic Aphasia: A Process of Interaction Between Vision and Language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-France Beauvois

    1982-01-01

    A neurological syndrome, called in the literature either optic aphasia or visual anomia, is defined in principle as the inability to name visually presented objects, together with the preservation of both the ability to identify them by sight correctly and to name them when they are presented in another sensory modality. This syndrome was first described by Freund in 1889,

  10. Treatment of acquired aphasia: speech therapists and volunteers compared

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R David; P Enderby; D Bainton

    1982-01-01

    This paper reports on a multicentre trial comparing the effects of speech therapists and untrained volunteers on recovery from aphasia following stroke. One hundred and fifty-five patients entered the study and 96 completed it. Patients in both treatment groups improved, and there were no differences overall in the amount of progress made. A small subgroup of patients who started treatment

  11. Serving bilingual patients with aphasia: challenges, foundations, and procedures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Centeno

    2009-01-01

    Bilingualism and multilingualism are a common occurrence in today's world. Many bilinguals (speakers of two languages) and multilinguals or polyglots (speakers of more than two languages) in multilingual population centers receive speech therapy for acquired language problems or aphasia as a result of neurological damage. Serving these bilingual and multilingual aphasic patients involves theoretical and clinical challenges for speech therapists.

  12. Executive function and conversational strategies in bilingual aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire Penn; Tali Frankel; Jennifer Watermeyer; Nicole Russell

    2010-01-01

    Background: Deficits of executive function (EF) have been proposed as all or part of the underlying mechanisms of language impairment in at least some types of aphasia. Executive functions also play a role in the recovery process. There is evidence that bilingual persons have some executive functioning advantages compared to monolingual persons. In this paper we combine two lines of

  13. Grammatical Category-Specific Deficits in Bilingual Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Mireia; Cano, Agnes; Costa, Albert; Sebastian-Galles, Nuria; Juncadella, Montserrat; Gascon-Bayarri, Jordi

    2008-01-01

    We report the naming performance of an early and highly proficient Spanish-Catalan bilingual (JPG) suffering from Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA). JPG's performance revealed a grammatical category-specific deficit, with worse performance in naming verbs than nouns. This dissociation was present in oral and written naming and in his two…

  14. Understanding the link between bilingual aphasia and language control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Green; Jubin Abutalebi

    2008-01-01

    The study of bilingual aphasia is important because we need to be able to recommend treatments consistent with a plausible estimate of the course of recovery. Yet we lack a causal account of recovery patterns. We distinguish between the neural representation of a language network and the regions involved in the control of that network. Contrary to some claims, we

  15. Identifying Behavioral Measures of Stress in Individuals with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laures-Gore, Jacqueline S.; DuBay, Michaela F.; Duff, Melissa C.; Buchanan, Tony W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To develop valid indicators of stress in individuals with aphasia (IWA) by examining the relationship between certain language variables (error frequency [EF] and word productivity [WP]) and cortisol reactivity. Method: Fourteen IWA and 10 controls participated in a speaking task. Salivary cortisol was collected pre- and posttask. WP and…

  16. Group Treatment for Aphasia Using Cooperative Learning Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avent, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Cooperative group treatment for aphasia based on cooperative learning principles is designed to improve communication skills during small, two-member group interactions. The treatment involves teamwork incorporating positive interdependence, face-to-face promotive interaction, individual accountability, and group processing. Group size, treatment…

  17. The Neural Basis of Syntactic Deficits in Primary Progressive Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Stephen M.; Galantucci, Sebastiano; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) vary considerably in terms of which brain regions are impacted, as well as in the extent to which syntactic processing is impaired. Here we review the literature on the neural basis of syntactic deficits in PPA. Structural and functional imaging studies have most consistently associated syntactic…

  18. A Study of Syntactic Processing in Aphasia II: Neurological Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, David; Waters, Gloria; Kennedy, David; Alpert, Nathanial; Makris, Nikos; DeDe, Gayle; Michaud, Jennifer; Reddy, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of the effects of left hemisphere strokes on syntactically-based comprehension in aphasic patients. We studied 42 patients with aphasia secondary to left hemisphere strokes and 25 control subjects for the ability to assign and interpret three syntactic structures (passives, object extracted relative…

  19. Working Memory in Aphasia: Theory, Measures, and Clinical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Heather Harris; Shisler, Rebecca J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, researchers have suggested that deficits in working memory capacity contribute to language-processing difficulties observed in individuals with aphasia (e.g., I. Caspari, S. Parkinson, L. LaPointe, & R. Katz, 1998; R. A. Downey et al., 2004; N. Friedmann & A. Gvion, 2003; H. H. Wright, M. Newhoff, R. Downey, & S. Austermann, 2003). A…

  20. Analysis of VOT in Turkish Speakers with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopkalli-Yavuz, Handan; Mavis, Ilknur; Akyildiz, Didem

    2011-01-01

    Studies investigating voicing onset time (VOT) production by speakers with aphasia have shown that nonfluent aphasics show a deficit in the articulatory programming of speech sounds based on the range of VOT values produced by aphasic individuals. If the VOT value lies between the normal range of VOT for the voiced and voiceless categories, then…

  1. Improving Language without Words: First Evidence from Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marangolo, Paola; Bonifazi, Silvia; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Craighero, Laila; Coccia, Michela; Altoe, Gianmarco; Provinciali, Leandro; Cantagallo, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The pervasiveness of word-finding difficulties in aphasia has motivated several theories regarding management of the deficit and its effectiveness. Recently, the hypothesis was advanced that instead of simply accompanying speech gestures participate in language production by increasing the semantic activation of words grounded in sensory-motor…

  2. A Horticultural Therapy Program for Individuals with Acquired Aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha Taylor Sarno; Nancy Chambers

    1997-01-01

    A horticultural therapy program designed for individuals with acquired aphasia, a communication impairment characterized by difficulty in speaking and understanding speech, is described. Nineteen patients ranging in age from 49 to 90 years of age (mean 73.9) participated in the project. The program consisted of structured activities designed to provide a well-rounded introduction to plant care as a leisure time

  3. Production of Modal and Negative Particles in Greek Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koukoulioti, Vasiliki

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the production of the Greek modal and negative particles by non-fluent aphasic patients. These particles belong to the highest part of the verb periphrasis, so they are likely to be impaired in non-fluent aphasia, according to some hypotheses about agrammatic language. Moreover, there is an agreement relation…

  4. Primary progressive aphasia: PPA and the language network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sreepadma P. Sonty; M.-Marsel Mesulam; Cynthia K. Thompson; Nancy A. Johnson; Sandra Weintraub; Todd B. Parrish; Darren R. Gitelman

    2003-01-01

    Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) is a behaviorally focal dementia syndrome with deterioration of language functions but relative preservation of other cognitive domains for at least the first two years of disease. In this study, PPA patients with impaired word finding but intact comprehension of conversational speech and their matched control subjects were examined using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and functional magnetic

  5. Progranulin-Associated Primary Progressive Aphasia: A Distinct Phenotype?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warrington, Elizabeth K.; Warren, Jason D.

    2010-01-01

    The neuropsychological features of the primary progressive aphasia (PPA) syndromes continue to be defined. Here we describe a detailed neuropsychological case study of a patient with a mutation in the progranulin ("GRN") gene who presented with progressive word-finding difficulty. Key neuropsychological features in this case included gravely…

  6. Remediation of language processing in aphasia: Improving activation and maintenance of linguistic representations in (verbal) short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Kohen, Francine; Martin, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Background Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairments are invariably present in aphasia. Word processing involves a minimal form of verbal STM, i.e., the time course over which semantic and phonological representations are activated and maintained until they are comprehended, produced, or repeated. Thus it is reasonable that impairments of word processing and verbal STM may co-occur. The co-occurrence of language and STM impairments in aphasia has motivated an active area of research that has revealed much about the relationship of these two systems and the effect of their impairment on language function and verbal learning (Freedman & Martin, 2001; Martin & Saffran, 1999; Trojano & Grossi, 1995). In keeping with this view a number of researchers have developed treatment protocols to improve verbal STM in order to improve language function (e.g., Koenig-Bruhin & Studer-Eichenberger, 2007). This account of aphasia predicts that treatment of a fundamental ability, such as STM, which supports language function, should lead to improvements that generalise to content and tasks beyond those implemented in treatment. Aims We investigated the efficacy of a treatment for language impairment that targets two language support processes: verbal short-term memory (STM) and executive processing, in the context of a language task (repetition). We hypothesised that treatment of these abilities would improve repetition abilities and performance on other language tasks that require STM. Method A single-participant, multiple-baseline, multiple-probe design across behaviours was used with a participant with conduction aphasia. The treatment involved repetition of words and nonwords under three “interval” conditions, which varied the time between hearing and repeating the stimulus. Measures of treatment effects included acquisition, maintenance, and follow-up data, effect sizes, and pre- and post-treatment performance on a test battery that varies the STM and executive function demands of language tasks. Outcomes & Results Improvement of repetition was mostly specific to treated stimuli. Post-treatment measures of language ability indicated improvements in single and multiple word processing tasks, verbal working memory tasks, and verbal span. Conclusions Treatment of STM and executive processes in the context of a word repetition task resulted in improvements in other non-treated language tasks. The approach used in this study can be incorporated into other language-processing tasks typically used in treatment of language disorders (e.g., sentence processing). PMID:22791930

  7. A comparison of picture description abilities in individuals with vascular subcortical lesions and Huntington's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela M. Jensen; Helen J. Chenery; David A. Copland

    2006-01-01

    The lexical–semantic and syntactic abilities of a group of individuals with chronic nonthalamic subcortical (NS) lesions following stroke (n=6) were investigated using the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) picture description task [Kertesz, A. (1982). The Western aphasia battery. New York: Grune and Stratton] and compared with those of a group of subjects with Huntington's Disease (HD) (n=6) and a nonneurologically impaired

  8. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Intervention in Long-Term Aphasia Post-Stroke: The Experience from CHANT (Communication Hub for Aphasia in North Tyneside)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumby, Katharyn; Whitworth, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite recognition of the need for increased long-term support for people with aphasia following stroke, there remains limited evidence for effective service-level interventions. Aims: To evaluate the outcomes and experiences of people participating in the Communication Hub for Aphasia in North Tyneside (CHANT), a 2-year partnership…

  9. Bilateral brain reorganization with memantine and constraint-induced aphasia therapy in chronic post-stroke aphasia: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Barbancho, Miguel A; Berthier, Marcelo L; Navas-Sánchez, Patricia; Dávila, Guadalupe; Green-Heredia, Cristina; García-Alberca, José M; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael; López-González, Manuel V; Dawid-Milner, Marc S; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Lara, J Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Changes in ERP (P100 and N400) and root mean square (RMS) were obtained during a silent reading task in 28 patients with chronic post-stroke aphasia in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of both memantine and constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT). Participants received memantine/placebo alone (weeks 0-16), followed by drug treatment combined with CIAT (weeks 16-18), and then memantine/placebo alone (weeks 18-20). ERP/RMS values (week 16) decreased more in the memantine group than in the placebo group. During CIAT application (weeks 16-18), improvements in aphasia severity and ERP/RMS values were amplified by memantine and changes remained stable thereafter (weeks 18-20). Changes in ERP/RMS occurred in left and right hemispheres and correlated with gains in language performance. No changes in ERP/RMS were found in a healthy group in two separated evaluations. Our results show that aphasia recovery induced by both memantine alone and in combination with CIAT is indexed by bilateral cortical potentials. PMID:25932618

  10. Language assessment of a Farsi-Norwegian bilingual speaker with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Koumanidi Knoph, Monica I

    2011-06-01

    The increased occurrence of strokes combined with the high incidence of bilingualism in many regions of the world has led to an increasing number of bilingual adults with aphasia. The literature on bilingual aphasia shows the need for valid, comprehensive and reliable assessment tools for diagnostic and treatment purposes. In spite of a growing number of case studies of bilingual speakers with aphasia, there is still a need for more studies of speakers with different language combinations. This case study describes a Farsi-Norwegian bilingual speaker with aphasia. Data were collected using the Bilingual Aphasia Test in both languages. The aim of this study is to show how assessment of both languages of a bilingual speaker with aphasia may reveal differences in linguistic competence between the languages and to discuss the relevance of the assessment for clinical practice. PMID:21453037

  11. Long-term recovery from acquired childhood aphasia and changes of cerebral blood flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoyuki Kojima; Masaru Mimura; Kenkichi Auchi; Fumihiro Yoshino; Masahiro Kato

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the mechanism of functional reorganization underlying long-term functional recovery from acquired childhood aphasia. We followed a 9-year-old boy with aphasia from 3 months to 10 years and 5 months after his stroke. The patient’s language ability was assessed five times by the Standard Language Test of Aphasia (SLTA) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was

  12. Recent developments in functional and structural imaging of aphasia recovery after stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus Meinzer; Stacy Harnish; Tim Conway; Bruce Crosson

    2011-01-01

    Background: Functional and structural neuroimaging techniques can increase our knowledge about the neural processes underlying recovery from post-stroke language impairments (aphasia).Aims: In the present review we highlight recent developments in neuroimaging research of aphasia recovery.Main Contribution: We review (a) cross-sectional findings in aphasia with regard to local brain functions and functional connectivity, (b) structural and functional imaging findings using longitudinal

  13. Rosenbek, J., LaPointe, L, & Wertz, R. (1989) Aphasia: a clinical approach, Austin, Texas: Pro. Schuell, H., Jenkins, J., & JimenezPabon, E. (1964). Aphasia in adults: Diagnosis, prognosis,

    E-print Network

    McCoy, Kathleen F.

    1989-01-01

    7 Rosenbek, J., LaPointe, L, & Wertz, R. (1989) Aphasia: a clinical approach, Austin, Texas: Pro. ed. Schuell, H., Jenkins, J., & Jimenez­Pabon, E. (1964). Aphasia in adults: Diagnosis, prognosis, Lincoln. Weisenberg, T. & McBride, K. (1935). Aphasia: A clinical and psychological study. New York

  14. Web based aphasia test using service oriented architecture (SOA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voos, J. A.; Vigliecca, N. S.; Gonzalez, E. A.

    2007-11-01

    Based on an aphasia test for Spanish speakers which analyze the patient's basic resources of verbal communication, a web-enabled software was developed to automate its execution. A clinical database was designed as a complement, in order to evaluate the antecedents (risk factors, pharmacological and medical backgrounds, neurological or psychiatric symptoms, brain injury -anatomical and physiological characteristics, etc) which are necessary to carry out a multi-factor statistical analysis in different samples of patients. The automated test was developed following service oriented architecture and implemented in a web site which contains a tests suite, which would allow both integrating the aphasia test with other neuropsychological instruments and increasing the available site information for scientific research. The test design, the database and the study of its psychometric properties (validity, reliability and objectivity) were made in conjunction with neuropsychological researchers, who participate actively in the software design, based on the patients or other subjects of investigation feedback.

  15. Principles underlying the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) and its uses.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Michel

    2011-06-01

    The Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) is designed to be objective (so it can be administered by a lay native speaker of the language) and equivalent across languages (to allow for a comparison between the languages of a given patient as well as across patients from different institutions). It has been used not only with aphasia but also with any condition that results in language impairment (Alzheimer's, autism, cerebellar lesions, developmental language disorders, mild cognitive impairment, motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's, vascular dementia, etc.). It has also been used for research purposes on non-brain-damaged unilingual and bilingual populations. By means of its 32 tasks, it assesses comprehension and production of implicit linguistic competence and metalinguistic knowledge (which provide indications for apposite rehabilitation strategies). Versions of the BAT are available for free download at www.mcgill.ca/linguistics/research/bat/. PMID:21675824

  16. Frontotemporal dementia and primary progressive aphasia, a review

    PubMed Central

    Kirshner, Howard S

    2014-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementias are neurodegenerative diseases in which symptoms of frontal and/or temporal lobe disease are the first signs of the illness, and as the diseases progress, they resemble a focal left hemisphere process such as stroke or traumatic brain injury, even more than a neurodegenerative disease. Over time, some patients develop a more generalized dementia. Four clinical subtypes characterize the predominant presentations of this illness: behavioral or frontal variant FTD, progressive nonfluent aphasia, semantic dementia, and logopenic primary progressive aphasia. These clinical variants correlate with regional patterns of atrophy on brain imaging studies such as MRI and PET scanning, as well as with biochemical and molecular genetic variants of the disorder. The treatment is as yet only symptomatic, but advances in molecular genetics promise new therapies. PMID:24966676

  17. Two contrasting cases of fluent aphasia in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Paquier; Hugo R. Van Dongen

    1991-01-01

    Two children showing distinct clinical pictures of fluent aphasia are described in the acute stage and in a 2-year follow-up. Case 1 showed global aspontaneity with fluent outbursts, severe—and lasting—oral comprehension defects, severely disturbed repetition of spoken language, and severe—and lasting—word-finding difficulties without conduites d'approche and without benefit from prompting. In contrast, case 2 showed continuous and logorrhoeic fluent utterances,

  18. Grammatical category-specific deficits in bilingual aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mireia Hernàndez; Agnés Caño; Albert Costa; Núria Sebastián-Gallés; Montserrat Juncadella; Jordi Gascón-Bayarri

    2008-01-01

    We report the naming performance of an early and highly proficient Spanish–Catalan bilingual (JPG) suffering from Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA). JPG’s performance revealed a grammatical category-specific deficit, with worse performance in naming verbs than nouns. This dissociation was present in oral and written naming and in his two languages, and it seems to stem from damage to, at least, the

  19. Galantamine in Frontotemporal Dementia and Primary Progressive Aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kertesz; D. Morlog; M. Light; M. Blair; W. Davidson; S. Jesso; R. Brashear

    2008-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: The treatment of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) has been mainly symptomatic. Small randomized or open-label case control studies of neurotransmitters have been inconclusive. We tried galantamine in the 2 most common varieties of FTD. Method: Thirty-six behavioral variety FTD and primary progressive aphasia (PPA) patients were treated in an open-label period of 18 weeks and a randomized, placebo-controlled phase for

  20. Manipulating hemispheric attentional mechanisms to modulate word retrieval in aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophia J. van Hees; Erin R. Smith; David A. Copland

    2011-01-01

    Background: Emerging evidence suggests that left hemisphere damage may create an attentional bias towards stimuli initially processed in the right hemisphere.Aims: The current study aimed to investigate whether this hemispheric attentional bias influences spoken word production in a picture–word interference task.Methods & Procedures: Two participants with aphasia and seven healthy controls named centrally presented pictures that were preceded by a

  1. The Design and Field Evaluation of PhotoTalk: a Digital Image Communication Application for People with Aphasia

    E-print Network

    McGrenere, Joanna

    with Aphasia Meghan Allen, Joanna McGrenere Department of Computer Science University of British Columbia people with aphasia to capture and manage digital photographs to support face-to-face communication. Unlike any other augmentative and alternative communication device for people with aphasia, Photo

  2. Using statistical parsing to detect agrammatic aphasia Kathleen C. Fraser1, Graeme Hirst1, Jed A. Meltzer2,

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    Using statistical parsing to detect agrammatic aphasia Kathleen C. Fraser1, Graeme Hirst1, Jed A@research.baycrest.org {jennifer-mack-0,ckthom}@northwestern.edu Abstract Agrammatic aphasia is a serious language impairment which features can be used to train a classifier to accurately predict whether or not an individual has aphasia

  3. Conversation Therapy for Agrammatism: Exploring the Therapeutic Process of Engagement and Learning by a Person with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckley, Firle; Best, Wendy; Johnson, Fiona; Edwards, Susan; Maxim, Jane; Beeke, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims: A recent systematic review of conversation training for communication partners of people with aphasia has shown that it is effective, and improves participation in conversation for people with chronic aphasia. Other research suggests that people with aphasia are better able to learn communication strategies in an environment…

  4. The performance of neurologically normal bilingual speakers of Spanish and English on the short version of the Bilingual Aphasia Test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria L. Muñoz; Thomas P. Marquardt

    2008-01-01

    Background: The assessment of aphasia in bilingual speakers is complicated by the need to measure language impairment in each language, as well as defining how one language recovers in relation to another. The Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) is a criterion?referenced measure designed to provide the requisite data needed to measure the impairment of bilingual speakers with aphasia while minimising the

  5. Phenomenology and anatomy of abnormal behaviours in primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Warren, Jason D.

    2010-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a group of disorders with progressive language impairment. Abnormal behaviour may develop in PPA as the disease evolves, but the clinical features and brain basis of behavioural change in PPA have not been fully defined. 33 PPA patients (9 semantic dementia, SD, 14 progressive nonfluent aphasia, PNFA, 7 logopenic/phonological aphasia, LPA and 3 patients with a PPA syndrome in association with progranulin mutations, GRN-PPA) were assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory to record behavioural changes, as well as volumetric MR imaging. The most common abnormal behaviours in SD were irritability, disinhibition, depression and abnormal appetite, in PNFA apathy, agitation and depression, in LPA anxiety, irritability, agitation and apathy, and in GRN-PPA apathy and irritability. Voxel-based morphometry analysis revealed greater atrophy of right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in PPA patients with anxiety, apathy, irritability/lability and abnormal appetite/eating disorders, and greater atrophy of left OFC in those with disinhibition. Areas involved beyond OFC included right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (apathy), right cingulate (irritability/lability) and left anterior superior and medial temporal lobe (disinhibition). Behavioural abnormalities may be clinically significant in PPA, and these abnormalities are underpinned by atrophy of overlapping frontotemporal networks centred on OFC. PMID:20400120

  6. Lateralization of Cognitive Functions in Aphasia after Right Brain Damage

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ji-Wan; Hwang, Yu Mi; Sim, Hyunsub

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The lateralization of cognitive functions in crossed aphasia in dextrals (CAD) has been explored and compared mainly with cases of aphasia with left hemisphere damage. However, comparing the neuropsychological aspects of CAD and aphasia after right brain damage in left-handers (ARL) could potentially provide more insights into the effect of a shift in the laterality of handedness or language on other cognitive organization. Thus, this case study compared two cases of CAD and one case of ARL. Materials and Methods The following neuropsychological measures were obtained from three aphasic patients with right brain damage (two cases of CAD and one case of ARL); language, oral and limb praxis, and nonverbal cognitive functions (visuospatial neglect and visuospatial construction). Results All three patients showed impaired visuoconstructional abilities, whereas each patient showed a different level of performances for oral and limb praxis, and visuospatial neglect. Conclusion Based on the analysis of these three aphasic patients' performances, we highlighted the lateralization of language, handedness, oral and limb praxis, visuospatial neglect and visuospatial constructive ability in aphasic patients with right brain damage. PMID:22476990

  7. ON THE INSEPARABILITY OF GRAMMAR AND THE LEXICON: EVIDENCE FROM ACQUISITION, APHASIA AND

    E-print Network

    ON THE INSEPARABILITY OF GRAMMAR AND THE LEXICON: EVIDENCE FROM ACQUISITION, APHASIA AND REAL ("Cross-linguistic studies in aphasia"), NIH-NIDCD P50 DC1289-9351 ("Origins of communication disorders"), and by a grant from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Early Childhood

  8. The Validity of Barlow's 1877 Case of Acquired Childhood Aphasia: Case Notes Versus Published Reports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula Hellal; Marjorie Perlman Lorch

    2007-01-01

    In 1877, Barlow described a ten-year-old boy with right hemiplegia and aphasia, quick recovery of language function, and subsequent left hemiplegia and aphasia, who was shown to have symmetrical left and right Broca's area lesions at autopsy. The report of this case motivated many writers in the second half of the nineteenth century to develop theories on localization, laterality, equipotentiality

  9. Pathophysiology of language switching and mixing in an early bilingual child with subcortical aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Mariën; Jubin Abutalebi; Sebastiaan Engelborghs; Peter P. De Deyn

    2005-01-01

    Acquired aphasia after circumscribed vascular subcortical lesions has not been reported in bilingual children. We report clinical and neuroimaging findings in an early bilingual boy who incurred equally severe transcortical sensory aphasia in his first language (L1) and second language (L2) after a posterior left thalamic hemorrhage. Following recurrent bleeding of the lesion the aphasic symptoms substantially aggravated. Spontaneous pathological

  10. Group Effects of Instrumentality and Name Relation on Action Naming in Bilingual Anomic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Verb production in sentences was investigated in two groups of late bilingual Greek-English speakers: individuals with anomic aphasia and a control group. Verb retrieval in sentences was significantly impaired in both languages for the individuals with anomic aphasia. Additional results revealed no effect of instrumentality on action naming in…

  11. An Exploration of Factors Affecting Performance of Adults with Aphasia on a Functional Communication Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Luke Marcus

    2013-01-01

    In traditional aphasia testing and treatment, clinicians administer a standardized aphasia test that measures language impairment, followed by a linguistic approach to treatment. Many clinicians have argued the need for emphasis on functional communication, and third party payers desire functional information to determine patient progress. This…

  12. Semantic and syntactic processes in aphasia: A review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfonso Caramazza; Rita Sloan Berndt

    1978-01-01

    Reviews recent investigations of lexical and syntactic aspects of language comprehension in aphasia. It is argued that these studies support theoretical assumptions concerning the functional independence of various components of normal language processing. Studies of the structure of the lexicon in aphasia provide support for componential theories of lexical semantics in that different types of features of meaning can be

  13. Speech-Language Therapists' Process of Including Significant Others in Aphasia Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallé, Marie-Christine; Le Dorze, Guylaine; Mingant, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although aphasia rehabilitation should include significant others, it is currently unknown how this recommendation is adopted in speech-language therapy practice. Speech-language therapists' (SLTs) experience of including significant others in aphasia rehabilitation is also understudied, yet a better understanding of clinical…

  14. Changes in N400 Topography Following Intensive Speech Language Therapy for Individuals with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, K. Ryan; O'Rourke, Heather; Wozniak, Linda A.; Kostopoulos, Ellina; Marchand, Yannick; Newman, Aaron J.

    2012-01-01

    Our goal was to characterize the effects of intensive aphasia therapy on the N400, an electrophysiological index of lexical-semantic processing. Immediately before and after 4 weeks of intensive speech-language therapy, people with aphasia performed a task in which they had to determine whether spoken words were a "match" or a "mismatch" to…

  15. Communication Difficulties and the Use of Communication Strategies: From the Perspective of Individuals with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Monica Blom; Carlsson, Marianne; Sonnander, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Background: To enhance communicative ability and thereby the possibility of increased participation of persons with aphasia, the use of communication strategies has been proposed. However, little is known about how persons with aphasia experience having conversations and how they perceive their own and their conversation partner's use of…

  16. Picture naming and identification in bilingual speakers of Spanish and English with and without aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Muñoz; Thomas Marquardt

    2003-01-01

    Background: Equivalent language knowledge is assumed in interpreting assessment results from bilingual speakers with aphasia, regardless of pre?morbid language experience. Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the affect of pre?morbid language skill, estimated from the performance of 20 neurologically normal bilinguals, on picture identification and naming in four bilingual speakers of Spanish and English with aphasia. Methods

  17. Language therapy and bilingual aphasia: Clinical implications of psycholinguistic and neuroimaging research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Inés Ansaldo; Karine Marcotte; Lilian Scherer; Gaelle Raboyeau

    2008-01-01

    Given the increasing number of bilinguals around the world, bilingual aphasia has become a hot topic in the field of clinical and theoretical research in communication sciences. The aim of this article is to provide data-driven cues for intervention with bilingual aphasia. First, the impact of a number of factors considered to influence second language processing will be discussed with

  18. Group effects of instrumentality and name relation on action naming in bilingual anomic aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Kambanaros

    2009-01-01

    Verb production in sentences was investigated in two groups of late bilingual Greek–English speakers: individuals with anomic aphasia and a control group. Verb retrieval in sentences was significantly impaired in both languages for the individuals with anomic aphasia. Additional results revealed no effect of instrumentality on action naming in sentences in either language. However, there was a negative effect of

  19. Bilingualism and Memory: Early 19 th Century Ideas About the Significance of Polyglot Aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjorie Lorch

    2007-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, there was very little attention given to bilingual speakers within the growing clinical literature on aphasia. The first major publication on this topic (Pitres, 1895), appeared three decades after Broca's seminal work. Previously, Ribot (1881) had discussed the phenomenon of bilingual aphasia in the context of diseases of memory. Although interest in

  20. Effect of treatment for bilingual individuals with aphasia: A systematic review of the evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasmeen Faroqi-Shah; Tobi Frymark; Robert Mullen; Beverly Wang

    2010-01-01

    Language proficiency in bilingualism, and hence bilingual aphasia, is a multifaceted phenomenon: influenced by variables such as age of onset, literacy, usage patterns, and emotional valence. Although the majority of the world and growing US population is bilingual, relatively little is known about the best practices for language therapy in bilingual aphasia. This systematic review was undertaken to examine three

  1. Exposed and Embedded Corrections in Aphasia Therapy: Issues of Voice and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Damico, Jack S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Because communication after the onset of aphasia can be fraught with errors, therapist corrections are pervasive in therapy for aphasia. Although corrections are designed to improve the accuracy of communication, some corrections can have social and emotional consequences during interactions. That is, exposure of errors can potentially…

  2. Singing Therapy Can Be Effective for a Patient with Severe Nonfluent Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Akanuma, Kyoko; Hatayama, Yuka; Otera, Masako; Meguro, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Patients with severe aphasia are rarely treated using speech therapy. We used music therapy to continue to treat a 79-year-old patient with chronic severe aphasia. Interventions 1, 2, and 3 were to practice singing a song that the patient knew, to practice singing a song with a therapist, and to practice saying a greeting using a song with lyrics,…

  3. Development of a Short Form of the Boston Naming Test for Individuals with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Toro, Christina M.; Bislick, Lauren P.; Comer, Matthew; Velozo, Craig; Romero, Sergio; Rothi, Leslie J. Gonzalez; Kendall, Diane L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a short form of the Boston Naming Test (BNT; Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001) for individuals with aphasia and compare it with 2 existing short forms originally analyzed with responses from people with dementia and neurologically healthy adults. Method: Development of the new BNT-Aphasia Short…

  4. The Use of a Modified Semantic Features Analysis Approach in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Naomi; Frome, Amber

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have reported improved naming using the semantic feature analysis (SFA) approach in individuals with aphasia. Whether the SFA can be modified and still produce naming improvements in aphasia is unknown. The present study was designed to address this question by using a modified version of the SFA approach. Three, rather than the…

  5. Rehabilitation in Bilingual Aphasia: Evidence for within- and between-Language Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiran, Swathi; Sandberg, Chaleece; Gray, Teresa; Ascenso, Elsa; Kester, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to examine if there was a principled way to understand the nature of rehabilitation in bilingual aphasia such that patterns of acquisition and generalization are predictable and logical. Method: Seventeen Spanish-English bilingual individuals with aphasia participated in the experiment. For each participant,…

  6. Nonlinguistic Learning in Individuals with Aphasia: Effects of Training Method and Stimulus Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallila-Rohter, Sofia; Kiran, Swathi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to explore nonlinguistic learning ability in individuals with aphasia, examining the impact of stimulus typicality and feedback on success with learning. Method: Eighteen individuals with aphasia and 8 nonaphasic controls participated in this study. All participants completed 4 computerized,…

  7. A Comparison of Intention and Pantomime Gesture Treatment for Noun Retrieval in People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Neina F.; Evans, Kelli; Raymer, Anastasia M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of intention gesture treatment (IGT) and pantomime gesture treatment (PGT) on word retrieval were compared in people with aphasia. Method: Four individuals with aphasia and word retrieval impairments subsequent to left-hemisphere stroke participated in a single-participant crossover treatment design. Each participant viewed…

  8. A MEG Investigation of Single-Word Auditory Comprehension in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipse, Lauryn; Kearns, Kevin; Nicholas, Marjorie; Marantz, Alec

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore whether individuals with aphasia exhibit differences in the M350, an electrophysiological marker of lexical activation, compared with healthy controls. Method: Seven people with aphasia, 9 age-matched controls, and 10 younger controls completed an auditory lexical decision task while cortical activity was recorded with…

  9. Writing Treatment for Aphasia: A Texting Approach Pe lagie M. Beeson,a

    E-print Network

    , rehabilitation, dysgraphia, texting, aphasia, typing, text messaging T he remediation of spoken language of using text messaging for communication. Method: A 31-year-old man with persistent Broca's aphasia and potentially useful technology is cellular telephone text messaging, a communication mode that has yet

  10. A Comparison of Aphasia Therapy Outcomes before and after a Very Early Rehabilitation Programme Following Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godecke, Erin; Ciccone, Natalie A.; Granger, Andrew S.; Rai, Tapan; West, Deborah; Cream, Angela; Cartwright, Jade; Hankey, Graeme J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Very early aphasia rehabilitation studies have shown mixed results. Differences in therapy intensity and therapy type contribute significantly to the equivocal results. Aims: To compare a standardized, prescribed very early aphasia therapy regimen with a historical usual care control group at therapy completion (4-5 weeks post-stroke)…

  11. Linguistic and Neuropsychological Deficits in Crossed Conduction Aphasia: Report of Three Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartha, Lisa; Marien, Peter; Poewe, Werner; Benke, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the linguistic and neuropsychological findings in three right-handed patients with crossed conduction aphasia. Despite the location of the lesion in the right hemisphere, all patients displayed a combination of linguistic deficits typically found in conduction aphasia following analogous damage to the left hemisphere.…

  12. BRAIN ORGANIZATION: CLUES FROM APHASIA (NIDCD00201) Publications stemming from research under the grant

    E-print Network

    Bellugi, Ursula

    BRAIN ORGANIZATION: CLUES FROM APHASIA (NIDCD00201) Publications stemming from research under.H. (2006). Brain organization: Clues from deaf signers with left and right hemisphere lesions. In L. Clara., & Poeppel, D. (2001). Understanding aphasia in the context of a new functional anatomic model of language

  13. Speech-Like and Non-Speech Lip Kinematics and Coordination in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bose, Arpita; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Background: In addition to the well-known linguistic processing impairments in aphasia, oro-motor skills and articulatory implementation of speech segments are reported to be compromised to some degree in most types of aphasia. Aims: This study aimed to identify differences in the characteristics and coordination of lip movements in the production…

  14. Supervised Home Training of Dialogue Skills in Chronic Aphasia: A Randomized Parallel Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nobis-Bosch, Ruth; Springer, Luise; Radermacher, Irmgard; Huber, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to prove the efficacy of supervised self-training for individuals with aphasia. Linguistic and communicative performance in structured dialogues represented the main study parameters. Method: In a cross-over design for randomized matched pairs, 18 individuals with chronic aphasia were examined during 12 weeks of…

  15. Gesture and Speech Integration: An Exploratory Study of a Man with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocks, Naomi; Sautin, Laetitia; Kita, Sotaro; Morgan, Gary; Zlotowitz, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Background: In order to comprehend fully a speaker's intention in everyday communication, information is integrated from multiple sources, including gesture and speech. There are no published studies that have explored the impact of aphasia on iconic co-speech gesture and speech integration. Aims: To explore the impact of aphasia on co-speech…

  16. Integrated narrative analysis in multilingual aphasia: The relationship among narrative structure, grammaticality, and fluency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmit Altman; Mira Goral; Erika S. Levy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Amid robust evidence for the efficacy of language treatment in aphasia, equivocal results have been reported for the generalisation of treatment effects to items and tasks not practised during therapy. Moreover, measuring generalisation using functional language production has proven challenging, especially in the context of multilingual aphasia.Aim: In this paper we analysed four domains—discourse structure, sentence structure, instances of

  17. Language Assessment of a Farsi-Norwegian Bilingual Speaker with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koumanidi Knoph, Monica I.

    2011-01-01

    The increased occurrence of strokes combined with the high incidence of bilingualism in many regions of the world has led to an increasing number of bilingual adults with aphasia. The literature on bilingual aphasia shows the need for valid, comprehensive and reliable assessment tools for diagnostic and treatment purposes. In spite of a growing…

  18. Support for Anterior Temporal Involvement in Semantic Error Production in Aphasia: New Evidence from VLSM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Grant M.; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Kimberg, Daniel Y.; Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Brecher, Adelyn; Dell, Gary S.; Coslett, H. Branch

    2011-01-01

    Semantic errors in aphasia (e.g., naming a horse as "dog") frequently arise from faulty mapping of concepts onto lexical items. A recent study by our group used voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) methods with 64 patients with chronic aphasia to identify voxels that carry an association with semantic errors. The strongest associations were…

  19. Default-Mode Network Functional Connectivity in Aphasia: Therapy-Induced Neuroplasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotte, Karine; Perlbarg, Vincent; Marrelec, Guillaume; Benali, Habib; Ansaldo, Ana Ines

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on participants with aphasia has mainly been based on standard functional neuroimaging analysis. Recent studies have shown that functional connectivity analysis can detect compensatory activity, not revealed by standard analysis. Little is known, however, about the default-mode network in aphasia. In the current study, we studied…

  20. "You Needed to Rehab...Families as Well": Family Members' Own Goals for Aphasia Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Tami; Davidson, Bronwyn; Worrall, Linda; Hersh, Deborah; Ferguson, Alison; Sherratt, Sue; Gilbert, Jocelyn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Aphasia affects family members in addition to the individuals with the communication disorder. In order to develop appropriate services for the relatives of people with aphasia post-stroke, their rehabilitation goals need to be identified. Aim: The aim of the current investigation was to identify the rehabilitation goals that family…

  1. Attention and Other Cognitive Deficits in Aphasia: Presence and Relation to Language and Communication Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to further elucidate the relationship between cognition and aphasia, with a focus on attention. It was hypothesized that individuals with aphasia would display variable deficit patterns on tests of attention and other cognitive functions and that their attention deficits, particularly those of complex attention…

  2. Button batteries

    MedlinePLUS

    Litovitz T, Whitaker N, Clark L, White NC, Marsolek M: Emerging battery ingestion hazard: Clinical implications. Pediatrics. 2010;125(6): 1168-1177. epub 24 May 2010. Mahajan PV. Heavy metal intoxication. ...

  3. Variability in subcortical aphasia is due to variable sites of cortical hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Hillis, Argye E; Barker, Peter B; Wityk, Robert J; Aldrich, Eric M; Restrepo, Lucas; Breese, Elisabeth L; Work, Melissa

    2004-06-01

    A variety of fluent and nonfluent aphasias have been reported after left basal ganglia stroke. It has been speculated that this heterogeneity may reflect variations in cortical hypoperfusion resulting from large vessel stenosis. To test this hypothesis, a consecutive series of 24 patients with left caudate infarct identified with diffusion-weighted imaging underwent language testing and perfusion-weighted imaging < 24h from onset of symptoms. Specific regions in perisylvian cortex were rated for the percentage of the region that was hypoperfused. Aphasia type was determined on the basis of speech fluency, comprehension, and repetition performance on the language tests. Association between aphasia type/language impairment and regions of hypoperfusion were identified with Fisher's exact tests. Results demonstrated that in patients with acute left caudate infarct, the presence and type of aphasia reflected regions of hypoperfusion, and generally followed predictions based on chronic lesion studies, regarding anatomical lesions associated with classic aphasia types. PMID:15120543

  4. Batteries for future aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Sidney

    The general requirements for future aircraft batteries are summarized, and primary and secondary battery requirements for primary and secondary batteries in such aircraft are examined. The greater use of primary batteries as compared to secondary batteries in future aircraft will permit the use of self-contained avionics with low power levels. The much greater energy density and shelf life of primary batteries should allow redundancy to be standard practice. Safety problems associated with primary batteries will have to be resolved. In secondary batteries, conventional aircraft Ni-Cd secondary batteries may be largely replaced by improved types. Solid polymer electrolyte batteries and bipolar batteries should have an important future.

  5. Automated battery test system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip E Pascoe; Adnan H Anbuky

    2003-01-01

    Battery testing is required for a wide range of applications. This includes quality assurance, design verification and performance assessment purposes for battery manufacturers, validation purposes for battery users, and battery behavioural research purposes for engineers developing behavioural prediction algorithms. Regardless of the application, determining the behavioural characteristics of batteries is a non-trivial problem. The electrochemical processes of a battery are

  6. Automated MRI-based classification of primary progressive aphasia variants

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Stephen M.; Ogar, Jennifer M.; Laluz, Victor; Growdon, Matthew; Jang, Jung; Glenn, Shenly; Miller, Bruce L.; Weiner, Michael W.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2009-01-01

    Degeneration of language regions in the dominant hemisphere can result in primary progressive aphasia (PPA), a clinical syndrome characterized by progressive deficits in speech and/or language function. Recent studies have identified three variants of PPA: progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA), semantic dementia (SD) and logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA). Each variant is associated with characteristic linguistic features, distinct patterns of brain atrophy, and different likelihoods of particular underlying pathogenic processes, which makes correct differential diagnosis highly clinically relevant. Evaluation of linguistic behavior can be challenging for non-specialists, and neuroimaging findings in single subjects are often difficult to evaluate by eye. We investigated the utility of automated structural MR image analysis to discriminate PPA variants (N=86) from each other and from normal controls (N=115). T1 images were preprocessed to obtain modulated grey matter (GM) images. Feature selection was performed with principal components analysis (PCA) on GM images as well as images of lateralized atrophy. PC coefficients were classified with linear support vector machines, and a cross-validation scheme was used to obtain accuracy rates for generalization to novel cases. The overall mean accuracy in discriminating between pairs of groups was 92.2%. For one pair of groups, PNFA and SD, we also investigated the utility of including several linguistic variables as features. Models with both imaging and linguistic features performed better than models with only imaging or only linguistic features. These results suggest that automated methods could assist in the differential diagnosis of PPA variants, enabling therapies to be targeted to likely underlying etiologies. PMID:19501654

  7. Anomalous cerebral language organization: acquired crossed aphasia in a dextral child.

    PubMed

    Marien, P; Engelborghs, S; Paquier, P; De Deyn, P P

    2001-02-01

    Following a dramatic change of its reported incidence, it was only recently recognized that acquired crossed aphasia in dextral children represents a highly exceptional phenomenon. We describe in a three epoch time-frame model the aphasic and neurocognitive manifestations of an additional case and focus briefly on its anatomoclinical configurations. In our patient, a right parietal cortico-subcortical hemorrhagic lesion caused an initially severe aphasia. After remission of the global aphasic symptoms in the acute phase, an adynamic output disorder with relatively severe auditory-verbal comprehension disturbances developed. In addition to the adynamia of self-generated speech, formal language investigations performed 3 weeks postonset, revealed agrammatism, hypertonic dysarthria, and dysprosodia. A substantial improvement of the aphasic disorder was objectified 83 days postonset. Neuropsychological investigations disclosed both dominant and nondominant hemisphere dysfunctions. Reassessment of neurocognitive functions after a 10-year period evidenced discrete residual anomia, confined to visual confrontational naming and a discrete visuo-perceptual syndrome. Given the posterior localization of the lesion, the syndrome shift from global to predominantly adynamic aphasia represents a finding beyond the plausible anatomoclinical expectations holding in general for the uncrossed, classic types of childhood and adult aphasia. As the first representative of crossed aphasia in dextral children with an anomalous lesion-aphasia profile, our case provides evidence to enrich the discussion on lateralization and intrahemispherical organization of language functions in both childhood and adult aphasia. PMID:11254255

  8. The anterior temporal lobes support residual comprehension in Wernicke’s aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Holly; Zahn, Roland; Keidel, James L.; Binney, Richard J.; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Wernicke’s aphasia occurs after a stroke to classical language comprehension regions in the left temporoparietal cortex. Consequently, auditory–verbal comprehension is significantly impaired in Wernicke’s aphasia but the capacity to comprehend visually presented materials (written words and pictures) is partially spared. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural basis of written word and picture semantic processing in Wernicke’s aphasia, with the wider aim of examining how the semantic system is altered after damage to the classical comprehension regions. Twelve participants with chronic Wernicke’s aphasia and 12 control participants performed semantic animate–inanimate judgements and a visual height judgement baseline task. Whole brain and region of interest analysis in Wernicke’s aphasia and control participants found that semantic judgements were underpinned by activation in the ventral and anterior temporal lobes bilaterally. The Wernicke’s aphasia group displayed an ‘over-activation’ in comparison with control participants, indicating that anterior temporal lobe regions become increasingly influential following reduction in posterior semantic resources. Semantic processing of written words in Wernicke’s aphasia was additionally supported by recruitment of the right anterior superior temporal lobe, a region previously associated with recovery from auditory-verbal comprehension impairments. Overall, the results provide support for models in which the anterior temporal lobes are crucial for multimodal semantic processing and that these regions may be accessed without support from classic posterior comprehension regions. PMID:24519979

  9. A tutorial on aphasia test development in any language: Key substantive and psychometric considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Maria V.; Hallowell, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    Background There are a limited number of aphasia language tests in the majority of the world's commonly spoken languages. Furthermore, few aphasia tests in languages other than English have been standardized and normed, and few have supportive psychometric data pertaining to reliability and validity. The lack of standardized assessment tools across many of the world's languages poses serious challenges to clinical practice and research in aphasia. Aims The current review addresses this lack of assessment tools by providing conceptual and statistical guidance for the development of aphasia assessment tools and establishment of their psychometric properties. Main Contribution A list of aphasia tests in the 20 most widely spoken languages is included. The pitfalls of translating an existing test into a new language versus creating a new test are outlined. Factors to consider in determining test content are discussed. Further, a description of test items corresponding to different language functions is provided, with special emphasis on implementing important controls in test design. Next, a broad review of principal psychometric properties relevant to aphasia tests is presented, with specific statistical guidance for establishing psychometric properties of standardized assessment tools. Conclusions This article may be used to help guide future work on developing, standardizing and validating aphasia language tests. The considerations discussed are also applicable to the development of standardized tests of other cognitive functions. PMID:23976813

  10. Non-linguistic learning and aphasia: Evidence from a paired associate and feedback-based task

    PubMed Central

    Vallila-Rohter, Sofia; Kiran, Swathi

    2013-01-01

    Though aphasia is primarily characterized by impairments in the comprehension and/or expression of language, research has shown that patients with aphasia also show deficits in cognitive-linguistic domains such as attention, executive function, concept knowledge and memory (Helm-Estabrooks, 2002 for review). Research in aphasia suggests that cognitive impairments can impact the online construction of language, new verbal learning, and transactional success (Freedman & Martin, 2001; Hula & McNeil, 2008; Ramsberger, 2005). In our research, we extend this hypothesis to suggest that general cognitive deficits influence progress with therapy. The aim of our study is to explore learning, a cognitive process that is integral to relearning language, yet underexplored in the field of aphasia rehabilitation. We examine non-linguistic category learning in patients with aphasia (n=19) and in healthy controls (n=12), comparing feedback and non-feedback based instruction. Participants complete two computer-based learning tasks that require them to categorize novel animals based on the percentage of features shared with one of two prototypes. As hypothesized, healthy controls showed successful category learning following both methods of instruction. In contrast, only 60% of our patient population demonstrated successful non-linguistic category learning. Patient performance was not predictable by standardized measures of cognitive ability. Results suggest that general learning is affected in aphasia and is a unique, important factor to consider in the field of aphasia rehabilitation. PMID:23127795

  11. Group effects of instrumentality and name relation on action naming in bilingual anomic aphasia.

    PubMed

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2009-07-01

    Verb production in sentences was investigated in two groups of late bilingual Greek-English speakers: individuals with anomic aphasia and a control group. Verb retrieval in sentences was significantly impaired in both languages for the individuals with anomic aphasia. Additional results revealed no effect of instrumentality on action naming in sentences in either language. However, there was a negative effect of verb-noun name relation on instrumental verb production in English only. Results confirm intact verb lemma retrieval for this group of bilingual individuals with anomic aphasia, but a breakdown at the level of accessing the phonological or lexical form. PMID:19299005

  12. Battery separators

    SciTech Connect

    Clegg, G.A.; Pearson, E.J.

    1981-01-13

    A description is given of a synthetic pulp separator for a lead acid battery, the separator having two or more plies and a ribbed profile the surface adapted to face the positive having a higher content of synthetic pulp than the other surface.

  13. Thermal battery

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.T.; Winchester, C.S.; Jolson, J.D.

    1989-06-20

    A thermal battery is described comprising at least one electrochemical cell comprising an anode of alkali metal, alkaline earth metal or alloys thereof, a fusible salt electrolyte, a fluorocarbon polymer or fluorochlorocarbon polymer depolarizer, and means for heating the cell to melt the electrolyte.

  14. Versatile Battery Chargers for New Age Batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Himesh Joshi; Maryam Shojaei Baghini

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes two designs for a versatile charger capable of charging a range of batteries ranging from the conventional Li ion and Ni-Cd batteries to the more recent thin film batteries. The charger is equipped with a low power micro controller which enables the user to specify the kind of battery to be charged as well as calibrate the

  15. Aphasia owing to subcortical brain infarcts in childhood.

    PubMed

    Gout, Ariel; Seibel, Nathalie; Rouvière, Constance; Husson, Béatrice; Hermans, Brigitte; Laporte, Nicole; Kadhim, Hazim; Grin, Cécile; Landrieu, Pierre; Sébire, Guillaume

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to further define the clinical features of subcortical aphasia in children with deep brain infarcts and to define the sequelae associated with childhood strokes. We retrospectively studied nine children with left subcortical brain infarcts who presented with acquired language disorder and underwent language investigations based on standardized tests. Stroke in these patients involved the left internal capsule, lenticular or thalamic nuclei, or a combination of these. Early aphasic manifestations following the deep cerebral infarcts affected language expression. These included mutism, nonfluent speech, word finding difficulties, and phonemic and semantic paraphasia. Speech comprehension was generally more preserved. All patients subsequently improved, although variably; sequelae such as dysfluency, word finding difficulties, and written language learning impairment could be detected through standardized tests in six of them (all younger than 6 years at the time of the infarct). Two of the three remaining patients (both older than 6 years at the time of the infarct) had a full recovery. Our study confirms the concept of childhood subcortical aphasia, depicts the linguistic profile in these patients, and sustains the indication of systematic formal language assessment during the follow-up of all children with subcortical infarct involving the dominant hemisphere. PMID:16417851

  16. GRIN2A mutations cause epilepsy-aphasia spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Carvill, Gemma L; Regan, Brigid M; Yendle, Simone C; O'Roak, Brian J; Lozovaya, Natalia; Bruneau, Nadine; Burnashev, Nail; Khan, Adiba; Cook, Joseph; Geraghty, Eileen; Sadleir, Lynette G; Turner, Samantha J; Tsai, Meng-Han; Webster, Richard; Ouvrier, Robert; Damiano, John A; Berkovic, Samuel F; Shendure, Jay; Hildebrand, Michael S; Szepetowski, Pierre; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Mefford, Heather C

    2013-09-01

    Epilepsy-aphasia syndromes (EAS) are a group of rare, severe epileptic encephalopathies of unknown etiology with a characteristic electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern and developmental regression particularly affecting language. Rare pathogenic deletions that include GRIN2A have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. We sought to delineate the pathogenic role of GRIN2A in 519 probands with epileptic encephalopathies with diverse epilepsy syndromes. We identified four probands with GRIN2A variants that segregated with the disorder in their families. Notably, all four families presented with EAS, accounting for 9% of epilepsy-aphasia cases. We did not detect pathogenic variants in GRIN2A in other epileptic encephalopathies (n = 475) nor in probands with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (n = 81). We report the first monogenic cause, to our knowledge, for EAS. GRIN2A mutations are restricted to this group of cases, which has important ramifications for diagnostic testing and treatment and provides new insights into the pathogenesis of this debilitating group of conditions. PMID:23933818

  17. Dystypia: isolated typing impairment without aphasia, apraxia or visuospatial impairment.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Mika; Soma, Yoshiaki; Arihiro, Shoji; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Naritomi, Hiroaki

    2002-01-01

    We report a 60-year-old right-handed Japanese man who showed an isolated persistent typing impairment without aphasia, agraphia, apraxia or any other neuropsychological deficit. We coined the term 'dystypia' for this peculiar neuropsychological manifestation. The symptom was caused by an infarction in the left frontal lobe involving the foot of the second frontal convolution and the frontal operculum. The patient's typing impairment was not attributable to a disturbance of the linguistic process, since he had no aphasia or agraphia. The impairment was not attributable to the impairment of the motor execution process either, since he had no apraxia. Thus, his typing impairment was deduced to be based on a disturbance of the intermediate process where the linguistic phonological information is converted into the corresponding performance. We hypothesized that there is a specific process for typing which branches from the motor programming process presented in neurolinguistic models. The foot of the left second frontal convolution and the operculum may play an important role in the manifestation of 'dystypia'. PMID:11914550

  18. Cross-language treatment generalisation: A case of trilingual aphasia.

    PubMed

    Goral, Mira; Levy, Erika S; Kastl, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent investigations of language gains following treatment in bilingual individuals with chronic aphasia appear to confirm early reports that not only the treated language but also the non-treated language(s) benefit from treatment. The evidence, however, is still suggestive, and the variables that may mitigate generalisation across languages warrant further investigation. AIMS: We set out to examine cross-language generalisation of language treatment in a trilingual speaker with mild chronic aphasia. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: Language treatment was administered in English, the participant's second language (L2). The first treatment block focused on morphosyntactic skills and the second on language production rate. Measurements were collected in the treated language (English, L2) as well as the two non-treated languages: Hebrew (the participant's first language, L1) and French (the participant's third language, L3). OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: The participant showed improvement in his production of selected morphosyntactic elements, such as pronoun gender agreement, in the treated language (L2) as well as in the non-treated French (L3) following the treatment block that focused on morphosyntactic skills. Speech rate also improved in English (L2) and French (L3) following that treatment block. No changes were observed in Hebrew, the participant's L1. CONCLUSIONS: Selective cross-language generalisation of treatment benefit was found for morphosyntactic abilities from the participant's second language to his third language. PMID:20221311

  19. Theoretical analysis of word production deficits in adult aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2014-01-01

    The cognitive analysis of adult language disorders continues to draw heavily on linguistic theory, but increasingly it reflects the influence of connectionist, spreading activation models of cognition. In the area of spoken word production, ‘localist’ connectionist models represent a natural evolution from the psycholingistic theories of earlier decades. By contrast, the parallel distributed processing framework forces more radical rethinking of aphasic impairments. This paper exemplifies these multiple influences in contemporary cognitive aphasiology. Topics include (i) what aphasia reveals about semantic-phonological interaction in lexical access; (ii) controversies surrounding the interpretation of semantic errors and (iii) a computational account of the relationship between naming and word repetition in aphasia. Several of these topics have been addressed using case series methods, including computational simulation of the individual, quantitative error patterns of diverse groups of patients and analysis of brain lesions that correlate with error rates and patterns. Efforts to map the lesion correlates of nonword errors in naming and repetition highlight the involvement of sensorimotor areas in the brain and suggest the need to better integrate models of word production with models of speech and action. PMID:24324234

  20. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and electric vehicles (EVs); a market predicted to be potentially ten times greater than that of consumer electronics. In fact, only Liion batteries can meet the requirements for PHEVs as set by the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), although they still fall slightly short of EV goals. In the case of Li-ion batteries, the trade-off between power and energy shown in Figure 1 is a function both of device design and the electrode materials that are used. Thus, a high power battery (e.g., one intended for an HEV) will not necessarily contain the same electrode materials as one designed for high energy (i.e., for an EV). As is shown in Figure 1, power translates into acceleration, and energy into range, or miles traveled, for vehicular uses. Furthermore, performance, cost, and abuse-tolerance requirements for traction batteries differ considerably from those for consumer electronics batteries. Vehicular applications are particularly sensitive to cost; currently, Li-ion batteries are priced at about $1000/kWh, whereas the USABC goal is $150/kWh. The three most expensive components of a Li-ion battery, no matter what the configuration, are the cathode, the separator, and the electrolyte. Reduction of cost has been one of the primary driving forces for the investigation of new cathode materials to replace expensive LiCoO{sub 2}, particularly for vehicular applications. Another extremely important factor is safety under abuse conditions such as overcharge. This is particularly relevant for the large battery packs intended for vehicular uses, which are designed with multiple cells wired in series arrays. Premature failure of one cell in a string may cause others to go into overcharge during passage of current. These considerations have led to the development of several different types of cathode materials, as will be covered in the next section. Because there is not yet one ideal material that can meet requirements for all applications, research into cathodes for Li-ion batteries is, as of this writ

  1. Utilizing repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to improve language function in stroke patients with chronic non-fluent aphasia.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Gabriella; Norise, Catherine; Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Naeser, Margaret A; Hamilton, Roy H

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been shown to significantly improve language function in patients with non-fluent aphasia(1). In this experiment, we demonstrate the administration of low-frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS) to an optimal stimulation site in the right hemisphere in patients with chronic non-fluent aphasia. A battery of standardized language measures is administered in order to assess baseline performance. Patients are subsequently randomized to either receive real rTMS or initial sham stimulation. Patients in the real stimulation undergo a site-finding phase, comprised of a series of six rTMS sessions administered over five days; stimulation is delivered to a different site in the right frontal lobe during each of these sessions. Each site-finding session consists of 600 pulses of 1 Hz rTMS, preceded and followed by a picture-naming task. By comparing the degree of transient change in naming ability elicited by stimulation of candidate sites, we are able to locate the area of optimal response for each individual patient. We then administer rTMS to this site during the treatment phase. During treatment, patients undergo a total of ten days of stimulation over the span of two weeks; each session is comprised of 20 min of 1 Hz rTMS delivered at 90% resting motor threshold. Stimulation is paired with an fMRI-naming task on the first and last days of treatment. After the treatment phase is complete, the language battery obtained at baseline is repeated two and six months following stimulation in order to identify rTMS-induced changes in performance. The fMRI-naming task is also repeated two and six months following treatment. Patients who are randomized to the sham arm of the study undergo sham site-finding, sham treatment, fMRI-naming studies, and repeat language testing two months after completing sham treatment. Sham patients then cross over into the real stimulation arm, completing real site-finding, real treatment, fMRI, and two- and six-month post-stimulation language testing. PMID:23852365

  2. Utilizing Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Improve Language Function in Stroke Patients with Chronic Non-fluent Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Gabriella; Norise, Catherine; Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Naeser, Margaret A.; Hamilton, Roy H.

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been shown to significantly improve language function in patients with non-fluent aphasia1. In this experiment, we demonstrate the administration of low-frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS) to an optimal stimulation site in the right hemisphere in patients with chronic non-fluent aphasia. A battery of standardized language measures is administered in order to assess baseline performance. Patients are subsequently randomized to either receive real rTMS or initial sham stimulation. Patients in the real stimulation undergo a site-finding phase, comprised of a series of six rTMS sessions administered over five days; stimulation is delivered to a different site in the right frontal lobe during each of these sessions. Each site-finding session consists of 600 pulses of 1 Hz rTMS, preceded and followed by a picture-naming task. By comparing the degree of transient change in naming ability elicited by stimulation of candidate sites, we are able to locate the area of optimal response for each individual patient. We then administer rTMS to this site during the treatment phase. During treatment, patients undergo a total of ten days of stimulation over the span of two weeks; each session is comprised of 20 min of 1 Hz rTMS delivered at 90% resting motor threshold. Stimulation is paired with an fMRI-naming task on the first and last days of treatment. After the treatment phase is complete, the language battery obtained at baseline is repeated two and six months following stimulation in order to identify rTMS-induced changes in performance. The fMRI-naming task is also repeated two and six months following treatment. Patients who are randomized to the sham arm of the study undergo sham site-finding, sham treatment, fMRI-naming studies, and repeat language testing two months after completing sham treatment. Sham patients then cross over into the real stimulation arm, completing real site-finding, real treatment, fMRI, and two- and six-month post-stimulation language testing. PMID:23852365

  3. What's in a sentence? The crucial role of lexical content in sentence production in nonfluent aphasia.

    PubMed

    Speer, Paula; Wilshire, Carolyn E

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of lexical content on sentence production in nonfluent aphasia. Five participants with nonfluent aphasia, four with fluent aphasia, and eight controls were asked to describe pictured events in subject-verb-object sentences. Experiment 1 manipulated speed of lexical retrieval by varying the frequency of sentence nouns. Nonfluent participants' accuracy was consistently higher for sentences commencing with a high- than with a low-frequency subject noun, even when errors on those nouns were themselves excluded. This was not the case for the fluent participants. Experiment 2 manipulated the semantic relationship between subject and object nouns. The nonfluent participants produced sentences less accurately when they contained related than when they contained unrelated lexical items. The fluent participants exhibited the opposite trend. We propose that individuals with nonfluent aphasia are disproportionately reliant on activated conceptual-lexical representations to drive the sentence generation process, an idea we call the content drives structure (COST) hypothesis. PMID:24512548

  4. Unusual Recovery of Aphasia in a Polyglot Iranian Patient after Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mehrpour, Masoud; Motamed, Mohammad R.; Aghaei, Mahboubeh; Jalali, Nazanin; Ghoreishi, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Aphasia is a language disorder resulting from a lesion in the cerebral cortex. In this case report, we present a polyglot patient who recovered from aphasia by speaking his newly active learned language Case Report A 69 years old male referred with acute onset right hemiparesis and global aphasia. After imaging, he treated with 75 mg r-TPA (0.9 mg/kg). After the fourth day of hospitalization, he could name some objects and some short phrases but interestingly only in French language (although his mother language was Persian). Discussion In our patient, recovery was first in the last learned language and his learning memory was recovered earlier than his native languages. As in our case, we can expect to have different recovery theory that means active learning language could be the first part of recovery in aphasia. PMID:25337377

  5. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) and Aphasia: The Case of Mr. C

    PubMed Central

    Cherney, Leora R.; Babbitt, Edna M.; Hurwitz, Rosalind; Rogers, Lynn M.; Stinear, James; Wang, Xue; Harvey, Richard L.; Parrish, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To illustrate the ethical challenges that arose from investigating a novel treatment procedure, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in a research participant with aphasia. Method First, we reviewed the current evidence supporting the use of tDCS in aphasia research, highlighting methodological gaps in our knowledge of tDCS. Second, we examined the case of Mr. C, a person with chronic aphasia who participated in a research protocol investigating the impact of tDCS on aphasia treatment. Results We describe the procedures that he underwent and the resulting behavioral and neurophysiological outcomes bed. Finally, we share the steps that were taken to balance beneficence and nonmaleficence, and to ensure Mr. C’s autonomy. Conclusion: Researchers must consider not only the scientific integrity of their studies, but also potential ethical issues and consequences to the research participants. PMID:23340067

  6. Batteries for future aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sidney Gross

    1987-01-01

    The general requirements for future aircraft batteries are summarized, and primary and secondary battery requirements for primary and secondary batteries in such aircraft are examined. The greater use of primary batteries as compared to secondary batteries in future aircraft will permit the use of self-contained avionics with low power levels. The much greater energy density and shelf life of primary

  7. Battery voltage regulation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Mayumi; H. Kato; H. Matsuhashi

    1986-01-01

    A battery voltage regulating system is described for an automotive vehicle having a battery, an alternator driven by an internal combustion engine mounted on the vehicle and generating an alternating current, and a full-wave rectifier for rectifying the alternating current to charge the battery. The system consists of: an operational amplifier connected to the battery for comparing a battery voltage

  8. Language intervention in French–English bilingual aphasia: Evidence of limited therapy transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda Miller Amberber

    This study investigated the effect of treatment in the second language (L2) for a previously proficient French-English bilingual with aphasia, at 5 years post-stroke. Assessment on the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) enabled objective measurement of language skills in each language, and comparison across languages, before and after treatment in L2 (English). Previous therapy had been provided exclusively in L1 (French).

  9. Non-treated languages in aphasia therapy of polyglots benefit from improvement in the treated language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Miertsch; Jürgen M. Meisel; Frédéric Isel

    2009-01-01

    The present case study aims to investigate whether the treatment of a third language (L3 French) in a trilingual chronic Wernicke-aphasic patient leads to the parallel improvement of the first (L1 German) and second (L2 English) languages. After a linguistic assessment in each language by means of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) [Paradis, M. (1987). The assessment of bilingual aphasia.

  10. Patterns of language decline in non-fluent primary progressive aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. K. Thompson; K. J. Ballard; M. E. Tait; S. Weintraub; M. Mesulam

    1997-01-01

    Language samples collected yearly for up to 11 years post-onset of symptoms from four subjects presenting with non-fluent primary progressive aphasia (PPA) were analyzed and compared with samples collected from both non-brain-damaged subjects and those with agrammatic Broca's aphasia resulting from a single left-hemisphere stroke. Extensive analysis of lexical and morphosyntactic variables in these samples revealed two patterns of expressive

  11. Secondary batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. de Nora; A. Nidola; P. M. Spaziante

    1979-01-01

    Storage batteries having novel grids for negative and positive electrodes are described. Oxidized lead and\\/or lead oxide paste for the positive electrodes is applied to a metal base selected from the group consisting of tungsten--rhenium alloys, tantalum, and titanium--tantalum alloys. Lead and\\/or oxidized lead paste for the negative electrodes is applied to a metal base selected from the group consisting

  12. The effect of literacy on oral language processing: Implications for aphasia tests.

    PubMed

    Tsegaye, Mulugeta Tarekegne; De Bleser, Ria; Iribarren, Carolina

    2011-06-01

    Most studies investigating the impact of literacy on oral language processing have shown that literacy provides phonological awareness skills in the processing of oral language. The implications of these results on aphasia tests could be significant and pose questions on the adequacy of such tools for testing non-literate individuals. Aiming at examining the impact of literacy on oral language processing and its implication on aphasia tests, this study tested 12 non-literate and 12 literate individuals with a modified Amharic version of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (Paradis and Amberber, 1991, Bilingual Aphasia Test. Amharic version. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.). The problems of phonological awareness skills in oral language processing in non-literates are substantiated. In addition, compared with literate participants, non-literate individuals demonstrated difficulties in the word/sentence-picture matching tasks. This study has also revealed that the Amharic version of the Bilingual Aphasia Test may be viable for testing Amharic-speaking non-literate individuals with aphasia when modifications are incorporated. PMID:21631306

  13. An fMRI investigation of the effects of attempted naming on word retrieval in aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Shiree; McMahon, Katie L.; Nickels, Lyndsey A.; Angwin, Anthony; MacDonald, Anna D.; van Hees, Sophia; McKinnon, Eril; Johnson, Kori; Copland, David A.

    2015-01-01

    In healthy controls, picture naming performance can be facilitated by a single prior exposure to the same picture (“priming”). This priming phenomenon is utilized in the treatment of aphasia, which often includes repeated picture naming as part of a therapeutic task. The current study sought to determine whether single and/or multiple exposures facilitate subsequent naming in aphasia and whether such facilitatory effects act through normal priming mechanisms. A functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm was employed to explore the beneficial effects of attempted naming in two individuals with aphasia and a control group. The timing and number of prior exposures was manipulated, with investigation of both short-term effects (single prior exposure over a period of minutes) and long-term effects (multiple presentations over a period of days). Following attempted naming, both short-term and long-term facilitated items showed improvement for controls, while only the long-term condition showed benefits at a behavioral level for the participants with aphasia. At a neural level, effects of long-term facilitation were noted in the left precuneus for one participant with aphasia, a result also identified for the equivalent contrast in controls. It appears that multiple attempts are required to improve naming performance in the presence of anomia and that for some individuals with aphasia the source of facilitation may be similar to unimpaired mechanisms engaged outside the language network. PMID:26074801

  14. Electric storage batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Culpin, B.; Peters, K.

    1983-02-08

    Recombination lead acid electric storage battery of sealed or recombinant type in which the gas evolved during operation or charging is induced to recombine within the battery at the battery electrodes.

  15. Grammatical category-specific deficits in bilingual aphasia.

    PubMed

    Hernàndez, Mireia; Caño, Agnés; Costa, Albert; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Juncadella, Montserrat; Gascón-Bayarri, Jordi

    2008-10-01

    We report the naming performance of an early and highly proficient Spanish-Catalan bilingual (JPG) suffering from Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA). JPG's performance revealed a grammatical category-specific deficit, with worse performance in naming verbs than nouns. This dissociation was present in oral and written naming and in his two languages, and it seems to stem from damage to, at least, the lexical level. Despite the fact that JPG's performance was qualitatively very similar across languages, his second language seemed to be more affected than his first language. These results indicate that the cortical organization of the two languages of highly proficient bilinguals follow similar organizational principles, one of this principles being grammatical class. PMID:18294684

  16. Verb inflections in agrammatic aphasia: Encoding of tense features ?

    PubMed Central

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2008-01-01

    Across most languages, verbs produced by agrammatic aphasic individuals are frequently marked by syntactically and semantically inappropriate inflectional affixes, such as Last night, I walking home. As per language production models, verb inflection errors in English agrammatism could arise from three potential sources: encoding the verbs’ morphology based on temporal information at the conceptual level, accessing syntactic well-formedness constraints of verbal morphology, and encoding morphophonological form. We investigate these aspects of encoding verb inflections in agrammatic aphasia. Using three sentence completion experiments, it was demonstrated that production of verb inflections was impaired whenever temporal reference was involved; while morphological complexity and syntactic constraints were less likely to be the source of verb inflection errors in agrammatism. These findings are discussed in relation to current language production models. PMID:18392120

  17. The noun-verb problem in Chinese aphasia.

    PubMed

    Bates, E; Chen, S; Tzeng, O; Li, P; Opie, M

    1991-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that Broca's aphasics experience a selective difficulty with action naming inside or outside of a sentence context. Conversely, it has been suggested that Wernicke's aphasics are particularly impaired in object naming. A number of explanations have been offered to account for this double dissociation, including grammatical accounts according to which the main verb problem in agrammatic Broca's aphasics is viewed as a by-product of their syntactic and/or morphological impairment, due perhaps to the greater morphological load carried by verbs (compared with nouns). In the Chinese language, there are no verb conjugations and no declensions. Hence there is no reason to expect a relationship between morphological impairment and deficits in action naming. We examined comprehension and production of object and action names, outside of a sentence context, in a sample of Chinese-speaking Broca's and Wernicke's aphasics. There was an interaction between patient group and object/action naming, but no corresponding interaction on the comprehension task. We conclude that action-naming deficits in Broca's aphasia (and/or the corresponding sparing of action names in Wernicke's aphasia) cannot be attributed to morphological differences between nouns and verbs. We also found a sublexical variant of the noun/verb dissociation applied to the internal structure of compound words made up of a verbal and a nominal element: Broca's aphasics tended to lexicalize the verbal portion of these words more often than the nominal compound, while Wernicke's showed the opposite pattern. These sublexical effects are difficult to explain in syntactic terms nor do they fit the standard lexical view. A modified lexical account is proposed, emphasizing semantic/conceptual effects in a distributed lexicon. PMID:1718531

  18. Hidden word learning capacity through orthography in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Tuomiranta, Leena M; Càmara, Estela; Froudist Walsh, Seán; Ripollés, Pablo; Saunavaara, Jani P; Parkkola, Riitta; Martin, Nadine; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Laine, Matti

    2014-01-01

    The ability to learn to use new words is thought to depend on the integrity of the left dorsal temporo-frontal speech processing pathway. We tested this assumption in a chronic aphasic individual (AA) with an extensive left temporal lesion using a new-word learning paradigm. She exhibited severe phonological problems and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) suggested a complete disconnection of this left-sided white-matter pathway comprising the arcuate fasciculus (AF). Diffusion imaging tractography confirmed the disconnection of the direct segment and the posterior indirect segment of her left AF, essential components of the left dorsal speech processing pathway. Despite her left-hemispheric damage and moderate aphasia, AA learned to name and maintain the novel words in her active vocabulary on par with healthy controls up to 6 months after learning. This exceeds previous demonstrations of word learning ability in aphasia. Interestingly, AA's preserved word learning ability was modality-specific as it was observed exclusively for written words. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) revealed that in contrast to normals, AA showed a significantly right-lateralized activation pattern in the temporal and parietal regions when engaged in reading. Moreover, learning of visually presented novel word-picture pairs also activated the right temporal lobe in AA. Both AA and the controls showed increased activation during learning of novel versus familiar word-picture pairs in the hippocampus, an area critical for associative learning. AA's structural and functional imaging results suggest that in a literate person, a right-hemispheric network can provide an effective alternative route for learning of novel active vocabulary. Importantly, AA's previously undetected word learning ability translated directly into therapy, as she could use written input also to successfully re-learn and maintain familiar words that she had lost due to her left hemisphere lesion. PMID:24262200

  19. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1995-01-01

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

  20. Medium-fi EvaluationMedium-fi PrototypesMedium-fi DesignLow-fi EvaluationLow-fi Prototypes What is Aphasia?

    E-print Network

    Findlater, Leah

    is Aphasia? ·A cognitive disorder that impairs language abilities: some or all of speaking, listening members of the Aphasia Project: Dr. Anita Borg, CEO and Founder Institute for Women and Technogy, Aphasic to the other members of the Aphasia Project: Dr. Anita Borg, CEO and Founder Institute for Women and Technogy

  1. Conduction aphasia, sensory-motor integration, and phonological short-term memory An aggregate analysis of lesion and fMRI data

    E-print Network

    Conduction aphasia, sensory-motor integration, and phonological short-term memory ­ An aggregate, Ontario, Canada b VA Northern California Health Care System, Center for Aphasia and Related Disorders December 2010 Available online 21 January 2011 Keywords: Conduction aphasia Working memory Speech

  2. Imageability effects in normal Spanish–English bilingual adults and in aphasia: Evidence from naming to definition and semantic priming tasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Swathi Kiran; Julie Tuchtenhagen

    2005-01-01

    Background: Whereas the effect of imageability on lexical access has received attention in normal monolingual individuals and in individuals with aphasia, its effect on normal bilingual access and in bilingual aphasia has not been systematically addressed.Aim: The goal of the present experiment was to examine the effects of imageability in normal bilingual adults and in one patient with bilingual aphasia

  3. The battery market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Deshpande

    1991-01-01

    The international battery market in general, and the US market in particular, are discussed. The worldwide battery market is estimated to be $21 billion annually. The geographical distribution of this market is shown. Automotive and consumer batteries constitute more than 80% of the world battery market. The United States is the biggest single market among the countries of the world

  4. Thermal characteristics of batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. M. Donahue

    1999-01-01

    A simplified overall enthalpy balance of a battery is presented and discussed in terms of certain physical and thermophysical properties of batteries. These properties include enthalpy of the reaction(s) and internal resistance, overall heat transfer coefficient, and heat capacity of the battery. The operative components of the balances for batteries under discharge, charge, and open circuit are identified and demonstrated

  5. Improved Vocabulary Production after Naming Therapy in Aphasia: Can Gains in Picture Naming Generalise to Connected Speech?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Paul; Sage, Karen; Ralph, Matt Lambon

    2009-01-01

    Background: Naming accuracy for nouns and verbs in aphasia can vary across different elicitation contexts, for example, simple picture naming, composite picture description, narratives, and conversation. For some people with aphasia, naming may be more accurate to simple pictures as opposed to naming in spontaneous, connected speech; for others,…

  6. Environmental factors that influence the community participation of adults with aphasia: The perspective of service industry workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyla Brown; Leslie McGahan; Maram Alkhaledi; Denise Seah; Tami Howe; Linda Worrall

    2006-01-01

    Background: The loss of language and the inability to communicate effectively as a result of aphasia often affects community participation. Within the World Health Organisation International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, disability is recognised as a dynamic interaction between the individual's health condition, such as aphasia, and his or her personal and environmental factors. There has been little research

  7. Production of Graphic Symbol Sentences by Individuals with Aphasia: Efficacy of a Computer-Based Augmentative and Alternative Communication Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koul, Rajinder; Corwin, Melinda; Hayes, Summer

    2005-01-01

    The study employed a single-subject multiple baseline design to examine the ability of 9 individuals with severe Broca's aphasia or global aphasia to produce graphic symbol sentences of varying syntactical complexity using a software program that turns a computer into a speech output communication device. The sentences ranged in complexity from…

  8. Test-retest reliability of fMRI during nonverbal semantic decisions in moderate-severe nonfluent aphasia patients.

    PubMed

    Kurland, Jacquie; Naeser, Margaret A; Baker, Errol H; Doron, Karl; Martin, Paula I; Seekins, Heidi E; Bogdan, Andrew; Renshaw, Perry; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    Cortical reorganization in poststroke aphasia is not well understood. Few studies have investigated neural mechanisms underlying language recovery in severe aphasia patients, who are typically viewed as having a poor prognosis for language recovery. Although test-retest reliability is routinely demonstrated during collection of language data in single-subject aphasia research, this is rarely examined in fMRI studies investigating the underlying neural mechanisms in aphasia recovery. The purpose of this study was to acquire fMRI test-retest data examining semantic decisions both within and between two aphasia patients. Functional MRI was utilized to image individuals with chronic, moderate-severe nonfluent aphasia during nonverbal, yes/no button-box semantic judgments of iconic sentences presented in the Computer-assisted Visual Communication (C-ViC) program. We investigated the critical issue of intra-subject reliability by exploring similarities and differences in regions of activation during participants' performance of identical tasks twice on the same day. Each participant demonstrated high intra-subject reliability, with response decrements typical of task familiarity. Differences between participants included greater left hemisphere perilesional activation in the individual with better response to C-ViC training. This study provides fMRI reliability in chronic nonfluent aphasia, and adds to evidence supporting differences in individual cortical reorganization in aphasia recovery. PMID:15706052

  9. Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

  10. Use of the BAT with a Cantonese-Putonghua speaker with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Weekes, Brendan Stuart

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this article is to illustrate the use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) with a Cantonese-Putonghua speaker. We describe G, who is a relatively young Chinese bilingual speaker with aphasia. G's communication abilities in his L2, Putonghua, were impaired following brain damage. This impairment caused specific difficulties in communication with his wife, a native Putonghua speaker, and was thus a priority for investigation. Given a paucity of standardised tests of aphasia in Putonghua, our goal was to use the BAT to assess G's impairments in his L2. Results showed that G's performance on the BAT subtests measuring word and sentence comprehension and production was impaired. His pattern of performance on the BAT allowed us to generate hypotheses about his higher-level language impairments in Putonghua, which were subsequently found to be impaired. We argue that the BAT is able to capture the primary language impairments in Chinese-speaking patients with aphasia when Putonghua is the second language. We also suggest some modifications to the BAT for testing Chinese-speaking patients with bilingual aphasia. PMID:21631312

  11. Primary progressive aphasia in a bilingual speaker: a single-case study.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Sergio; Angeli, Valentina; Tavano, Alessandro

    2011-06-01

    We report on the case of an elderly bilingual woman presenting with a diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia. The participant's native language was Friulian (L1), a predominantly oral Romance language, and her second language was Italian (L2), formally learned at primary school in oral and written forms. We investigated her linguistic abilities by means of the Bilingual Aphasia Test ( Paradis, M., & Libben, G. (1987). The assessment of bilingual aphasia. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates), which is specifically devised for studying language levels and skills in bilingual/polyglot individuals with aphasia. Specifically, we focused on different tasks extracted from the Bilingual Aphasia Test, targeting phonology, morphology, syntax and lexical semantics. Results show that both languages were affected to a clinically significant degree, but with different profiles in terms of linguistic levels, suggesting the presence of greater phonological, morphological, grammatical and syntactic impairments in L2. Results are discussed in terms of possible dissociations both within the language system of each language and between languages, within the Procedural/Declarative theoretical framework of language acquisition in bilinguals. PMID:21631307

  12. Development, cross-cultural adaptation, and validation of the Persian Mississippi Aphasia Screening Test in patients with post-stroke aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Khatoonabadi, Ahmad Reza; Nakhostin-Ansari, Noureddin; Piran, Amin; Tahmasian, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Mississippi Aphasia Screening Test (MAST) is a brief screening test for assessing the expressive and receptive language abilities in patients with aphasia. The objective of the study was to develop and validate the Persian version of the MAST (MASTp) as a screening test for language disorders in patients with post-stroke aphasia. Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design to cross-culturally adapt the MASTp following the guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of measures. A total of 40 subjects (20 patients with post-stroke aphasia and 20 healthy subjects) were included. The MASTp was tested for floor or ceiling effects, internal consistency reliability, intra-rater reliability, discriminative validity, and factor structure. Results: There were no floor or ceiling effects for MASTp total score. The MASTp yielded values for internal consistency reliability that were not adequate (Cronbach’s alpha 0.64 and 0.66 for test and retest, respectively. The intra-rater reliability of the MASTp within a 7 day-interval was excellent for total score (ICC agreement = 0.96) and both expressive index (ICC = 0.95) and receptive index (ICC agreement = 0.98). here were statistically significant differences in MASTp total scores and both indexes between patients and healthy subjects suggesting the discriminative validity of the MASTp (P < 0.001). Factor analysis revealed a 3-factor solution, which jointly accounted for 72.06% of the total variance. Additional factor analysis suggested 6-item MASTp as a unidimensional measure. Conclusion: The MASTp is useful as a valid and reliable screening tool for evaluation of language abilities in Persian speaking patients with aphasia after stroke.

  13. Metal-Air Batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiguang Zhang; Peter G. Bruce; Gregory Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods,

  14. Bilingualism and memory: early 19th century ideas about the significance of polyglot aphasia.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Marjorie

    2007-07-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, there was very little attention given to bilingual speakers within the growing clinical literature on aphasia. The first major publication on this topic (Pitres, 1895), appeared three decades after Broca's seminal work. Previously, Ribot (1881) had discussed the phenomenon of bilingual aphasia in the context of diseases of memory. Although interest in the neurological basis of the language faculty was in fact present throughout the century, the theoretical implications of the knowledge of more than one language did not appear to be linked to this issue. A number of British authors writing in the first half of the 19th century have been identified who did consider the significance of these cases. Importantly, these writers speculated on the implication of bilingual aphasia specifically with regard to ideas about memory rather than language. Consideration of these writings helps to illuminate the history of ideas about the organization of language in the brain. PMID:17715800

  15. Severe Generalized Weakness, Paralysis, and Aphasia following Administration of Irinotecan and Oxaliplatin during FOLFIRINOX Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chandar, Manisha; de Wilton Marsh, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background Irinotecan is commonly used in combination with oxaliplatin as a component of FOLFIRINOX chemotherapy for several gastrointestinal malignancies. The purpose of this case report is to describe a patient who developed acute paralysis and aphasia while receiving her initial infusion of irinotecan. Case Report A 67-year-old woman with newly diagnosed metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma presented for her first cycle of FOLFIRINOX chemotherapy. During her infusion of irinotecan, she developed acute onset of generalized weakness, paralysis of all extremities, and nonfluent aphasia with complete inability to communicate. This episode was self-limited and resolved within 2 h. Prior to subsequent infusions she received intravenous repletion of potassium and had no recurrence of symptoms. Discussion In selected cases, coadministration of irinotecan and oxaliplatin may result in severe generalized weakness and aphasia, which may be triggered by underlying electrolyte disturbances. Careful monitoring and correction of potassium may help prevent this reaction. PMID:25873880

  16. Progression of logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia to apraxia and semantic memory deficits

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to the nature of neurodegenerative disorders, patients with primary progressive aphasia develop cognitive impairment other than aphasia as the disorder progresses. The progression of logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA), however, has not been well described. In particular, praxic disorders and semantic memory deficits have rarely been reported. Case presentations We report three patients in the initial stage of lvPPA who subsequently developed apraxia in the middle stage and developed clinically evident semantic memory deficits in the advanced stages. Conclusions The present case series suggests that some patients with lvPPA develop an atypical type of dementia with apraxia and semantic memory deficits, suggesting that these cases should be classified as a type of early-onset Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24176108

  17. Why Is It Difficult to Predict Language Impairment and Outcome in Patients with Aphasia after Stroke?

    PubMed Central

    Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Varkanitsa, Maria; Selai, Caroline; Potagas, Constantin; Evdokimidis, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    One of the most devastating consequences of stroke is aphasia. Communication problems after stroke can severely impair the patient's quality of life and make even simple everyday tasks challenging. Despite intense research in the field of aphasiology, the type of language impairment has not yet been localized and correlated with brain damage, making it difficult to predict the language outcome for stroke patients with aphasia. Our primary objective is to present the available evidence that highlights the difficulties of predicting language impairment after stroke. The different levels of complexity involved in predicting the lesion site from language impairment and ultimately predicting the long-term outcome in stroke patients with aphasia were explored. Future directions and potential implications for research and clinical practice are highlighted. PMID:24829592

  18. Sign language in childhood epileptic aphasia (Landau-Kleffner syndrome).

    PubMed

    Perez, E R; Davidoff, V

    2001-11-01

    Acquired epileptic aphasia (AEA, or Landau-Kleffner syndrome) is a unique condition in which children can lose oral language (OL) comprehension and expression for a prolonged period. These children can benefit from visual forms of language, mainly sign language (SL), but the quality of SL has never been analyzed. The case is reported here of a boy with AEA who lost speech comprehension and expression from 3 years 6 months to 7 years and was educated in SL from the age of 6 years. His SL was evaluated at the age of 13 years and 6 months and compared with a control child with congenital sensorineural deafness. It was found that: (1) our patient achieved the same proficiency in SL as the control child with deafness; (2) SL learning did not compete with, but perhaps even hastened, the recovery of OL. Intact ability to learn a new linguistic code such as SL suggests that higher-order language areas were preserved and received input from a separate visual route, as shown by neuropsychological and functional imaging research in deaf and hearing signers. PMID:11730147

  19. Speech Therapy in Primary Progressive Aphasia: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Farrajota, Luísa; Maruta, Carolina; Maroco, João; Martins, Isabel Pavão; Guerreiro, Manuela; de Mendonça, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Background Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative disorder with no effective pharmacological treatment. Cognition-based interventions are adequate alternatives, but their benefit has not been thoroughly explored. Our aim was to study the effect of speech and language therapy (SLT) on naming ability in PPA. Methods An open parallel prospective longitudinal study involving two centers was designed to compare patients with PPA submitted to SLT (1 h/week for 11 months) with patients receiving no therapy. Twenty patients were enrolled and undertook baseline language and neuropsychological assessments; among them, 10 received SLT and 10 constituted an age- and education-matched historical control group. The primary outcome measure was the change in group mean performance on the Snodgrass and Vanderwart naming test between baseline and follow-up assessments. Results Intervention and control groups did not significantly differ on demographic and clinical variables at baseline. A mixed repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant main effect of therapy (F(1,18) = 10.763; p = 0.005) on the performance on the Snodgrass and Vanderwart naming test. Conclusion Although limited by a non-randomized open study design with a historical control group, the present study suggests that SLT may have a benefit in PPA, and it should prompt a randomized, controlled, rater-blind clinical trial. PMID:22962556

  20. Short Term Memory, Working Memory, and Syntactic Comprehension in Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, David; Michaud, Jennifer; Hufford, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Sixty one people with aphasia were tested on ten tests of short term memory (STM) and for the ability to use syntactic structure to determine the meanings of eleven types of sentences in three tasks – object manipulation, picture matching and picture matching with self-paced listening. Multilevel models showed relationships between measures of the ability to retain and manipulate item and order information in STM and accuracy and RT, and a greater relationship between these STM measures and accuracy and RT for several more complex sentence types in individual tasks. There were no effects of measures of STM that reflect the use of phonological codes or rehearsal on comprehension. There was only one effect of STM measures on self-paced listening times. There were double dissociations between performance on STM and individual comprehension tasks, indicating that normal STM is not necessary to perform normally on these tasks. The results are most easily related to the view that STM plays a facilitatory role in supporting the use of the products of the comprehension process to accomplish operations related to tasks. PMID:23865692

  1. THE NON-FLUENT/AGRAMMATIC VARIANT OF PRIMARY PROGRESSIVE APHASIA

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Murray

    2012-01-01

    In an era of disease-modifying treatments, the non-fluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia (naPPA) may help screen for a specific cause of neurodegenerative disease. However, there are controversies surrounding the identification of naPPA. This review describes the characteristic features associated with this discrete, young-onset neurodegenerative condition. Patients with naPPA have a distinct limitation in language emphasizingtheir poor grammatical comprehension and expression, as well as a disorder of speech sound production. Imaging studies associate an impairment of this uniquely human language capacity with disruption of a large-scale neural network centered in left inferior frontal and anterior-superior temporal regions. This corresponds to thepathologic burden of disease anatomically focused in left inferior frontal and anterior-superior temporal regions. A review of the histopathology underlying naPPA relates this condition to frontotemporal lobar degeneration spectrum pathology involving the microtubule-associated protein tau in a majority of cases. While much work remains to be done, these observations point to unique clinical-pathological correlations that can advance care for an important class of diseases while supplementing our knowledge of human cognitive neuroscience. PMID:22608668

  2. Delayed auditory feedback simulates features of nonfluent primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Maruta, Carolina; Makhmood, Sonya; Downey, Laura E; Golden, Hannah L; Fletcher, Phillip D; Witoonpanich, Pirada; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Warren, Jason D

    2014-12-15

    The pathophysiology of nonfluent primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA) remains poorly understood. Here, we compared quantitatively speech parameters in patients with nfvPPA versus healthy older individuals under altered auditory feedback, which has been shown to modulate normal speech output. Patients (n=15) and healthy volunteers (n=17) were recorded while reading aloud under delayed auditory feedback [DAF] with latency 0, 50 or 200 ms and under DAF at 200 ms plus 0.5 octave upward pitch shift. DAF in healthy older individuals was associated with reduced speech rate and emergence of speech sound errors, particularly at latency 200 ms. Up to a third of the healthy older group under DAF showed speech slowing and frequency of speech sound errors within the range of the nfvPPA cohort. Our findings suggest that (in addition to any anterior, primary language output disorder) these key features of nfvPPA may reflect distorted speech input signal processing, as simulated by DAF. DAF may constitute a novel candidate pathophysiological model of posterior dorsal cortical language pathway dysfunction in nfvPPA. PMID:25305712

  3. Acute Lyme Neuroborreliosis With Transient Hemiparesis and Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Arseny A; Lienhard, Reto; Du Pasquier, Renaud; Erard, Véronique

    2015-07-01

    Nervous system involvement in Lyme disease often mimics other conditions and thus represents a diagnostic challenge, especially in an emergency department setting. We report a case of a female teenager presenting with sudden-onset aphasia and transient right-sided faciobrachial hemiplegia, along with headache and agitation. Ischemia, vasculitis, or another structural lesion was excluded by brain imaging. Toxicologic evaluation results were negative. Cerebral perfusion computed tomography and electroencephalography showed left parietotemporal brain dysfunction. Lumbar puncture result, although atypical, suggested bacterial infection and intravenous ceftriaxone was initiated. Finally, microbiological cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed Lyme neuroborreliosis, showing specific intrathecal antibody production and high level of C-X-C motif chemokine 13. The patient rapidly recovered. To our knowledge, this report for the first time illustrates that acute-onset language and motor symptoms may be directly related to Lyme neuroborreliosis. Neuroborreliosis may mimic other acute neurologic events such as stroke and should be taken into diagnostic consideration even in the absence of classic symptoms and evolution. PMID:25728308

  4. Aphasia or Neglect after Thalamic Stroke: The Various Ways They may be Related to Cortical Hypoperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Rajani; Schein, Mara G.; Davis, Cameron; Gomez, Yessenia; Newhart, Melissa; Oishi, Kenichi; Hillis, Argye E.

    2014-01-01

    Although aphasia and hemispatial neglect are classically labeled as cortical deficits, language deficits or hemispatial neglect following lesions to subcortical regions have been reported in many studies. However, whether or not aphasia and hemispatial neglect can be caused by subcortical lesions alone has been a matter of controversy. It has been previously shown that most cases of aphasia or hemispatial neglect due to acute non-thalamic subcortical infarcts can be accounted for by concurrent cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion, reversible by restoring blood flow to the cortex. In this study, we evaluated whether aphasia or neglect occur after acute thalamic infarct without cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion. Twenty patients with isolated acute thalamic infarcts (10 right and 10 left) underwent MRI scanning and detailed cognitive testing. Results revealed that 5/10 patients with left thalamic infarcts had aphasia and only 1 had cortical hypoperfusion, whereas 2/10 patients with right thalamic infarcts had hemispatial neglect and both had cortical hypoperfusion. These findings indicate that aphasia was observed in some cases of isolated left thalamic infarcts without cortical hypoerfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion (measured with time-to-peak delays), but neglect occurred after isolated right thalamic infarcts only when there was cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion. Therefore, neglect after acute right thalamic infarct should trigger evaluation for cortical hypoperfusion that might improve with restoration of blood flow. Further investigation in a larger group of patients and with other imaging modalities is warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:25477859

  5. Quick charge battery

    SciTech Connect

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  6. Aphasia for Morse code: a comment on Wyler and Ray (1986).

    PubMed

    Ardila, A

    1987-03-01

    A. R. Wyler and R. W. Ray (1986, Brain and Language, 27, 195-199), present a case of aphasia for Morse code; they relate the deficit to the inability to detect high-speed auditory temporal sequences. Based on a personal observation of transient aphasia for Morse code, we proposed that at least three different abilities participate in recognizing and producing Morse code messages: (1) a specific linguistic ability, (2) a praxic skill, and (3) an auditory discrimination skill. Our patient presents difficulties in the first and second abilities, Wyler and Ray's in the third ability. PMID:3567555

  7. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1995-03-14

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

  8. Profiling performance in L1 and L2 observed in Greek-English bilingual aphasia using the Bilingual Aphasia Test: a case study from Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Kambanaros, Maria; Grohmann, Kleanthes K

    2011-06-01

    The Greek and the English versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) were used to assess the linguistic abilities of a premorbidly highly proficient late bilingual female after a haemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident involving the left temporo-parietal lobe. The BAT was administered in the two languages on separate occasions by the first author, a bilingual English-Greek speech pathologist. The results revealed a non-parallel recovery in the two languages. This information will be used not only to guide clinical intervention for the patient but also to provide the first report on the manifestations of aphasia in Greek. Moreover, the use of the (Standard Modern) Greek version of the BAT to investigate Greek Cypriot aphasics has implications for the use of the BAT on underspecified languages or dialects. Such studies may help with the development of assessment measures and therapy strategies that focus on specific characteristics of one or multiple languages. PMID:21453038

  9. Battery Review Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Chester

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form: NASA Battery Review Board Charter; membership, board chronology; background; statement of problem; summary of problems with 50 AH standard Ni-Cd; activities for near term programs utilizing conventional Ni-Cd; present projects scheduled to use NASA standard Ni-Cd; other near-term NASA programs requiring secondary batteries; recommended direction for future programs; future cell/battery procurement strategy; and the NASA Battery Program.

  10. Battery Review Board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughn, Chester

    1993-02-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form: NASA Battery Review Board Charter; membership, board chronology; background; statement of problem; summary of problems with 50 AH standard Ni-Cd; activities for near term programs utilizing conventional Ni-Cd; present projects scheduled to use NASA standard Ni-Cd; other near-term NASA programs requiring secondary batteries; recommended direction for future programs; future cell/battery procurement strategy; and the NASA Battery Program.

  11. [Adrenocorticotropic hormone therapy in acquired childhood epileptic aphasia].

    PubMed

    Szabó, Léna; Nagy, Judit; Kálmánchey, Rozália

    2008-11-30

    Although Landau-Kleffner syndrome, a childhood-acquired epileptic aphasia, is frequently studied either the underlying pathophysiology or the optimal therapy remained unknown. In our study we aimed to investigate the efficacy of ACTH therapy in Landau-Kleffner syndrome. We have analysed retrospectively the documentation of five children treated by ACTH, who suffered from Landau-Kleffner syndrome. We studied the longitudinal changes of the four most characteristic symptoms and signs of the syndrome: epileptiform EEG, speech and behaviour disorders, seizures together with the ACTH regimes. Besides, we analysed the relation between the starting date of the therapy and its efficacy. Before giving ACTH, epileptiform EEG and speech disorders were observed in all the five children, seizures in four of them, behaviour disorders in three of them. In two patients the speech disorder had been persisting for years before. Due to the starting ACTH stoss-therapy (20 E/day for one-two weeks) all the four examined signs disappeared or showed quick softening in all the five children in maximum two weeks. We adjusted long-term low dose maintenance therapy to avoid relapses in the long-term follow-up. Epileptiform EEGs have normalised in one case and have decreased in four cases. Speech disorders have disappeared in two and have softened in three children. Behaviour disorders have cured in 3/4 cases, softened in one case. Seizures have disappeared in all cases. One child is totally asymptomatic, four of them lives with softened symptoms. Analysing our data we found that the earlier the therapy starts, the more effective it is. On the basis of our data ACTH is an effective treatment for Landau-Kleffner syndrome. After giving it for only a short period, relapses often occur, to avoid relapses adjustment of long term low dose maintenance therapy is advisable. PMID:19070317

  12. Verbal creativity in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Teresa Q; Miller, Zachary A; Adhimoolam, Babu; Zackey, Diana D; Khan, Baber K; Ketelle, Robin; Rankin, Katherine P; Miller, Bruce L

    2015-02-01

    Emergence of visual and musical creativity in the setting of neurologic disease has been reported in patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), also called semantic dementia (SD). It is hypothesized that loss of left anterior frontotemporal function facilitates activity of the right posterior hemispheric structures, leading to de novo creativity observed in visual artistic representation. We describe creativity in the verbal domain, for the first time, in three patients with svPPA. Clinical presentations are carefully described in three svPPA patients exhibiting verbal creativity, including neuropsychology, neurologic exam, and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed to quantify brain atrophy patterns in these patients against age-matched healthy controls. All three patients displayed new-onset creative writing behavior and produced extensive original work during the course of disease. Patient A developed interest in wordplay and generated a large volume of poetry. Patient B became fascinated with rhyming and punning. Patient C wrote and published a lifestyle guidebook. An overlap of their structural MR scans showed uniform sparing in the lateral portions of the language-dominant temporal lobe (superior and middle gyri) and atrophy in the medial temporal cortex (amygdala, limbic cortex). New-onset creativity in svPPA may represent a paradoxical functional facilitation. A similar drive for production is found in visually artistic and verbally creative patients. Mirroring the imaging findings in visually artistic patients, verbal preoccupation and creativity may be associated with medial atrophy in the language-dominant temporal lobe, but sparing of lateral dominant temporal and non-dominant posterior cortices. PMID:24329034

  13. The forgotten grammatical category: Adjective use in agrammatic aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer-Asscher, Aya; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2014-01-01

    Background In contrast to nouns and verbs, the use of adjectives in agrammatic aphasia has not been systematically studied. However, because of the linguistic and psycholinguistic attributes of adjectives, some of which overlap with nouns and some with verbs, analysis of adjective production is important for testing theories of word class production deficits in agrammatism. Aims The objective of the current study was to compare adjective use in agrammatic and healthy individuals, focusing on three factors: overall adjective production rate, production of predicative and attributive adjectives, and production of adjectives with complex argument structure. Method & Procedures Narratives elicited from 14 agrammatic and 14 control participants were coded for open class grammatical category production (i.e., nouns, verbs, adjectives), with each adjective also coded for its syntactic environment (attributive/predicative) and argument structure. Outcomes & Results Overall, agrammatic speakers used adjectives in proportions similar to that of cognitively healthy speakers. However, they exhibited a greater proportion of predicative adjectives and a lesser proportion of attributive adjectives, compared to controls. Additionally, agrammatic participants produced adjectives with less complex argument structure than controls. Conclusions The overall normal-like frequency of adjectives produced by agrammatic speakers suggests that agrammatism does not involve an inherent difficulty with adjectives as a word class or with predication, or that it entails a deficit in processing low imageability words. However, agrammatic individuals’ reduced production of attributive adjectives and adjectives with complements extends previous findings of an adjunction deficit and of impairment in complex argument structure processing, respectively, to the adjectival domain. The results suggest that these deficits are not tied to a specific grammatical category. PMID:24882945

  14. Battery heating system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Silvertown; W. Sinclair

    1980-01-01

    A battery heating system is comprised of a number of storage batteries and an alternator driven by a variable speed prime mover connected to supply ac heating current to the batteries. The system is arranged so that the ac current is substantially constant over the working speed range of the prime mover.

  15. Battery charging system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hignutt

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a battery charging system with which in combination with an AC voltage source, a charging circuit of storage batteries is interconnected in series at intermediate junctions between end terminals of opposite polarity. The charging circuit has voltage converters respectively connected to the batteries and switching control operatively connected to the voltage converters for controlling the charging of

  16. battery, map parcel, med

    E-print Network

    Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.

    Attic *** book teachest Servant dictionary scarf [11] Winery demijohn battery, map AuntLair X] EastAnnex battery[4] Cupboard2 [2] mask DeadEnd rucksack AlisonWriting [16] TinyBalcony [17] gold key. [2] Need new torch battery (see [4]) to enter. Then get painting. [3] To please aunt, must move

  17. Western Skink

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Western skink (Plestiodon skiltonianus) is a relatively common and widespread lizard in Southern California. It is more secretive and prefers more grassy habitat than the Western fence lizard or the side-blotched lizard, yet USGS and National Park Service biologists are finding signs of genetic ...

  18. Some Neurological and Linguistic Accompaniments of the Fluent and Nonfluent Aphasias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Jean Berko; Goodglass, Harold

    1984-01-01

    Fluent and nonfluent types of aphasia in adults and children are noted. The value of assessing psycholinguistic differences (e.g., syntactic skills and ability to produce connected discourse) is examined. Treatment implications for enhancing residual linguistic skills are addressed. (CL)

  19. Primary Childhood Aphasia and Childhood Autism. Clinical, Biological, and Conceptual Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Donald J.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Available from: Melvin Lewis, M.D., Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, Yale Child Study Center, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06510. The conception of primary childhood aphasia and childhood autism is delineated as two parallel, but related, syndromic clusters, each with pervasive impact on development and affecting…

  20. Magnetoencephalography in Children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome and Acquired Epileptic Aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David F. Sobel; Maung Aung; Hiroshi Otsubo; Michael C. Smith

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) is epileptiform aphasia acquired during childhood and occurring in children with previously normal language devel- opment. The epileptiform activity in these children is thought to result in a functional ablation of eloquent speech areas. The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of mag- netoencephalography (MEG) for localizing the source of epileptiform

  1. The Italian Determiner System in Normal Acquisition, Specific Language Impairment, and Childhood Aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piero Bottari; Paola Cipriani; Anna Maria Chilosi; Lucia Pfanner

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a comparison of the development of the Italian determiner system in three different populations: normally developing children, a child recovering from childhood aphasia from the age of 3 years, 9 months, and 11 specific language impairment (SLI) children. Data from Italian normal children provide evidence for the hypothesis (1) that no prefunctional stage exists as far as

  2. Anomalous Cerebral Language Organization: Acquired Crossed Aphasia in a Dextral Child

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Marien; Sebastiaan Engelborghs; Philippe Paquier; Peter P. De Deyn

    2001-01-01

    Following a dramatic change of its reported incidence, it was only recently recognized that acquired crossed aphasia in dextral children represents a highly exceptional phenomenon. We describe in a three epoch time-frame model the aphasic and neurocognitive manifestations of an additional case and focus briefly on its anatomoclinical configurations. In our patient, a right parietal cortico-subcortical hemorrhagic lesion caused an

  3. Typicality of Inanimate Category Exemplars in Aphasia Treatment: Further Evidence for Semantic Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiran, Swathi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The typicality treatment approach on improving naming was investigated within 2 inanimate categories ("furniture" and "clothing") using a single-subject experimental design across participants and behaviors in 5 patients with aphasia. Method: Participants received a semantic feature treatment to improve naming of either typical or…

  4. The Effects of Modified Melodic Intonation Therapy on Nonfluent Aphasia: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklyn, Dwyer; Novak, Eric; Boissy, Adrienne; Bethoux, Francois; Chemali, Kamal

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Positive results have been reported with melodic intonation therapy (MIT) in nonfluent aphasia patients with damage to their left-brain speech processes, using the patient's intact ability to sing to promote functional language. This pilot study sought to determine the immediate effects of introducing modified melodic intonation therapy…

  5. Mismatch Negativity Elicited by Tones and Speech Sounds: Changed Topographical Distribution in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Frank; Reinvang, Ivar

    2007-01-01

    This study used the event-related brain potential mismatch negativity (MMN) to investigate preconscious discrimination of harmonically rich tones (differing in duration) and consonant-vowel syllables (differing in the initial consonant) in aphasia. Eighteen Norwegian aphasic patients, examined on average 3 months after brain injury, were compared…

  6. Defects of Non-Verbal Auditory Perception in Children with Developmental Aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula Tallal; M. Piercy

    1973-01-01

    SOME otherwise normal children fail to learn to speak and are designated developmental aphasics. Several authors have suggested that auditory perceptual deficits, particularly of sequencing, may be the primary dysfunction1-4. Efron5 suggested that the left temporal lobe mediates temporal analysis and that it is the disruption of this function which is central to adult aphasia. We examined children with developmental

  7. Mechanisms of recovery from aphasia: evidence from positron emission tomography studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Warburton; Cathy J Price; Kate Swinburn; Richard J S Wise

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVESLanguage functions comprise a distributed neural system, largely lateralised to the left cerebral hemisphere. Late recovery from aphasia after a focal lesion, other than by behavioural strategies, has been attributed to one of two changes at a systems level: a laterality shift, with mirror region cortex in the contralateral cortex assuming the function(s) of the damaged region; or a partial

  8. TMS Suppression of Right Pars Triangularis, but Not Pars Opercularis, Improves Naming in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naeser, Margaret A.; Martin, Paula I.; Theoret, Hugo; Kobayashi, Masahito; Fregni, Felipe; Nicholas, Marjorie; Tormos, Jose M.; Steven, Megan S.; Baker, Errol H.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to discover if an optimum 1 cm[squared] area in the non-damaged right hemisphere (RH) was present, which could temporarily improve naming in chronic, nonfluent aphasia patients when suppressed with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Ten minutes of slow, 1 Hz rTMS was applied to suppress different RH ROIs in…

  9. Bilingual aphasia due to spontaneous acute subdural haematoma from a ruptured intracranial infectious aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Vajramani, Girish V; Akrawi, Hawar; McCarthy, Rosaleen A; Gray, William P

    2008-09-01

    We report a case of spontaneous subdural haematoma due to ruptured intracranial infectious aneurysm, presenting with bilingual aphasia and illustrating differential language recovery. A 62-year-old right-handed bilingual gentleman, with a diagnosis of infective endocarditis, developed headache and became expressively aphasic in the English language. Three days later he was receptively and expressively aphasic in both English and Arabic. Cranial MRI scans showed a left-sided acute subdural haematoma with mass effect and midline shift. Contrast CT brain scans showed an enhancing speck adjacent to the clot and cerebral angiogram confirmed a distal middle cerebral artery aneurysm. He underwent image-guided craniotomy, evacuation of the subdural haematoma and excision of the aneurysm. Histopathological examination was consistent with an infectious intracranial aneurysm. Postoperatively his aphasia did not improve immediately. He had widened pulse pressure due to severe aortic regurgitation, confirmed on echocardiography. He underwent aortic valve replacement and mitral valve repair, following which his aphasia recovered gradually. Initially the recovery of his language was limited to Arabic. About a week later he recovered his English language as well. At 3-year follow-up he is doing well and has no neurological deficits. His aphasia has recovered completely. The present case is unique because of (a) presence of pure subdural haematoma, and (b) the differential susceptibility and recovery of native (L1) and acquired language (L2) in presence of a common pathology. The neurology of language in a bilingual is analysed and possible mechanisms discussed. PMID:18599195

  10. Language control and parallel recovery of language in individuals with aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Green; Alice Grogan; Jenny Crinion; Nilufa Ali; Catherine Sutton; Cathy J. Price

    2010-01-01

    Background: The causal basis of the different patterns of language recovery following stroke in bilingual speakers is not well understood. Our approach distinguishes the representation of language from the mechanisms involved in its control. Previous studies have suggested that difficulties in language control can explain selective aphasia in one language as well as pathological switching between languages. Here we test

  11. Bilingual aphasia and language control: A follow-up fMRI and intrinsic connectivity study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jubin Abutalebi; Pasquale Anthony Della Rosa; Marco Tettamanti; David W. Green; Stefano F. Cappa

    2009-01-01

    In a world that is becoming more multilingual, bilingual aphasia is a clinical problem with a major clinical impact. However, at present we lack causal explanations of the many features of recovery patterns and there is no consensus about the language in which the patient should receive speech therapy. Further advance requires an understanding of the dynamics of recovery. In

  12. Lost in translation? Issues of content validity in interpreter-mediated aphasia assessments.

    PubMed

    Roger, Peter; Code, Chris

    2011-02-01

    In many parts of the world, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are frequently called upon to assess aphasia in bilingual speakers, or in speakers of languages of which they have little or no knowledge. One of the strategies that SLPs employ in these situations is to involve an interpreter in the assessment process. Three authentic interpreter-mediated aphasia assessments were analysed for the present study, which aimed to determine the degree to which the content validity of the individual tests was compromised in the process of their administration through an interpreter. Findings reveal that content validity was frequently weakened either at the point of administration of the test or at the point at which responses were reported back by the interpreter to the SLP. Based on these findings, it is argued that the conduct of interpreter-mediated aphasia assessments needs to be fundamentally re-thought to take account of the limitations inherent in the interpreting process. To this end, this study presents a number of practical recommendations for the involvement of interpreters in aphasia assessments, with a view to making optimal use of existing assessment materials and enhancing the quality of diagnostic information to emerge from such clinical sessions. PMID:21329412

  13. Effect of Semantic Naming Treatment on Crosslinguistic Generalization in Bilingual Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Lisa A.; Kiran, Swathi

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The effect of semantic naming treatment on crosslinguistic generalization was investigated in 3 participants with English-Spanish bilingual aphasia. Method: A single-subject experimental designed was used. Participants received semantic treatment to improve naming of English or Spanish items, while generalization was tested to untrained…

  14. Functional Imagining in the Study of Recovery Patterns in Bilingual Aphasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, David W.; Price, Cathy J.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes that the causal mechanisms of recovery patterns in bilingual aphasia can be partially revealed by combining neuropsychological and neuroimaging methods. Reviews potentials and limitations associated with functional neuroimaging experiments on normal and neurologically impaired patients and discusses different levels of description…

  15. Cognitive and Cognate-Based Treatments for Bilingual Aphasia: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohnert, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    Two consecutive treatments were conducted to investigate skill learning and generalization within and across cognitive-linguistic domains in a 62-year-old Spanish-English bilingual man with severe non-fluent aphasia. Treatment 1 was a cognitive-based treatment that emphasized non-linguistic skills, such as visual scanning, categorization, and…

  16. Model?driven intervention in bilingual aphasia: Evidence from a case of pathological language mixing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Inés Ansaldo; Ladan Ghazi Saidi; Adelaida Ruiz

    2010-01-01

    Background: Speech?language pathologists are meeting an increasing number of bilingual clients. This poses a special challenge to clinical practice, given that bilingualism adds to the complexity of aphasia patterns and clinical decisions must be made accordingly. One question that has come to the attention of clinical aphasiologists is that of the language in which therapy should be administered. This issue

  17. Cross-Language Lexical Connections in the Mental Lexicon: Evidence from a Case of Trilingual Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goral, Mira; Levy, Erika S.; Obler, Loraine K.; Cohen, Eyal

    2006-01-01

    Despite anecdotal data on lexical interference among the languages of multilingual speakers, little research evidence about the lexical connections among multilinguals' languages exists to date. In the present paper, two experiments with a multilingual speaker who had suffered aphasia are reported. The first experiment provides data about…

  18. Access to Knowledge from Pictures but not Words n a Patient with Progressive Fluent Aphasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saffran, Eleanor M.; Coslett, H. Branch; Martin, Nadine; Boronat, Consuelo B.

    2003-01-01

    Presents data from a patient with a progressive fluent aphasia, who exhibited a severe verbal impairment but a relatively preserved access to knowledge from pictures. Argues for a distributed, multi-modality system for semantic memory in which information is stored in different brain regions and in different representational formats. (Author/VWL)

  19. Listening to the Voice of Living Life with Aphasia: Anne's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Rozanne

    2008-01-01

    Background: Listening to how people talk about the consequences of acquired aphasia helps one gain insight into how people construe disability and communication disability in particular. It has been found that some of these construals can be more of a disabling barrier in re-engaging with life than the communication impairment itself. Aims: To…

  20. Primary Progressive Aphasia in a Bilingual Speaker: A Single-Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanini, Sergio; Angeli, Valentina; Tavano, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We report on the case of an elderly bilingual woman presenting with a diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia. The participant's native language was Friulian (L1), a predominantly oral Romance language, and her second language was Italian (L2), formally learned at primary school in oral and written forms. We investigated her linguistic abilities…

  1. An intelligent system based on fuzzy probabilities for medical diagnosis– a study in aphasia diagnosis*

    PubMed Central

    Moshtagh-Khorasani, Majid; Akbarzadeh-T, Mohammad-R; Jahangiri, Nader; Khoobdel, Mehdi

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aphasia diagnosis is particularly challenging due to the linguistic uncertainty and vagueness, inconsistencies in the definition of aphasic syndromes, large number of measurements with imprecision, natural diversity and subjectivity in test objects as well as in opinions of experts who diagnose the disease. METHODS: Fuzzy probability is proposed here as the basic framework for handling the uncertainties in medical diagnosis and particularly aphasia diagnosis. To efficiently construct this fuzzy probabilistic mapping, statistical analysis is performed that constructs input membership functions as well as determines an effective set of input features. RESULTS: Considering the high sensitivity of performance measures to different distribution of testing/training sets, a statistical t-test of significance is applied to compare fuzzy approach results with NN results as well as author's earlier work using fuzzy logic. The proposed fuzzy probability estimator approach clearly provides better diagnosis for both classes of data sets. Specifically, for the first and second type of fuzzy probability classifiers, i.e. spontaneous speech and comprehensive model, P-values are 2.24E-08 and 0.0059, respectively, strongly rejecting the null hypothesis. CONCLUSIONS: The technique is applied and compared on both comprehensive and spontaneous speech test data for diagnosis of four Aphasia types: Anomic, Broca, Global and Wernicke. Statistical analysis confirms that the proposed approach can significantly improve accuracy using fewer Aphasia features. PMID:21772867

  2. Gesture and Naming Therapy for People with Severe Aphasia: A Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jane; Best, Wendy; Cocks, Naomi; Cruice, Madeline; Pring, Tim; Bulcock, Gemma; Creek, Gemma; Eales, Nancy; Mummery, Alice Lockhart; Matthews, Niina; Caute, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors (a) investigated whether a group of people with severe aphasia could learn a vocabulary of pantomime gestures through therapy and (b) compared their learning of gestures with their learning of words. The authors also examined whether gesture therapy cued word production and whether naming therapy cued gestures.…

  3. The Use of Semantic- and Phonological-Based Feature Approaches to Treat Naming Deficits in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare approaches highlighting either semantic or phonological features to treat naming deficits in aphasia. Treatment focused on improving picture naming. An alternating treatments design was used with a multiple baseline design across stimuli to examine effects of both approaches in two participants with varying…

  4. Psychosocial Well-Being in Persons with Aphasia Participating in a Nursing Intervention after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bronken, Berit Arnesveen; Kirkevold, Marit; Martinsen, Randi; Wyller, Torgeir Bruun; Kvigne, Kari

    2012-01-01

    The psychosocial adjustment process after stroke is complicated and protracted. The language is the most important tool for making sense of experiences and for human interplay, making persons with aphasia especially prone to psychosocial problems. Persons with aphasia are systematically excluded from research projects due to methodological challenges. This study explored how seven persons with aphasia experienced participating in a complex nursing intervention aimed at supporting the psychosocial adjustment process and promoting psychosocial well-being. The intervention was organized as an individual, dialogue-based collaboration process based upon ideas from “Guided self-determination.” The content addressed psychosocial issues as mood, social relationships, meaningful activities, identity, and body changes. Principles from “Supported conversation for adults with aphasia” were used to facilitate the conversations. The data were obtained by participant observation during the intervention, qualitative interviews 2 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after the intervention and by standardized clinical instruments prior to the intervention and at 2 weeks and 12 months after the intervention. Assistance in narrating about themselves and their experiences with illness, psychological support and motivation to move on during the difficult adjustment process, and exchange of knowledge and information were experienced as beneficial and important by the participants in this study. PMID:22888417

  5. Lesion Characteristics Related to Treatment Improvement in Object and Action Naming for Patients with Chronic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, R. Bruce; Raymer, Anastasia; Chang, Yu-Ling; FitzGerald, David B.; Crosson, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between degree of lesion in various locations and improvement during treatment in stroke patients with chronic aphasia. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether the degree of lesion in specific brain regions was related to magnitude of improvement over the course of object and action naming…

  6. Beginning to Teach the End: The Importance of Including Discharge from Aphasia Therapy in the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, Deborah; Cruice, Madeline

    2010-01-01

    Background: Discharging clients with long-term aphasia from therapy services constitutes a challenging dilemma for practising clinicians for a multitude of reasons. Although discharge was raised and discussed as a contentious issue in the field of aphasiology ten years ago, it remains an aspect of practice which is complex and underexplored. We…

  7. Adapting the Bilingual Aphasia Test to Rarotongan (Cook Islands Maori): Linguistic and Clinical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amberber, Amanda Miller

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the adaptation of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) to the Rarotongan dialect of Cook Islands Maori, a Polynesian language spoken in the Cook Islands and expatriate communities. A brief linguistic sketch of Rarotongan is presented. As Rarotongan is characterised by a complex pronominal system, "a" versus "o" possession and…

  8. Concurrent treatment for reading and spelling in aphasia Sarah A. Orjada and Pelagie M. Beeson

    E-print Network

    Concurrent treatment for reading and spelling in aphasia Sarah A. Orjada and PeÂlagie M. Beeson The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Background: Behavioural treatments for impairments of written language have documented the effect of concurrent administration of treatments for reading and writing. Combined

  9. Mechanisms of Aphasia Recovery after Stroke and the Role of Noninvasive Brain Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Roy H.; Chrysikou, Evangelia G.; Coslett, Branch

    2011-01-01

    One of the most frequent symptoms of unilateral stroke is aphasia, the impairment or loss of language functions. Over the past few years, behavioral and neuroimaging studies have shown that rehabilitation interventions can promote neuroplastic changes in aphasic patients that may be associated with the improvement of language functions. Following…

  10. Treatment-induced neuroplasticity following intensive naming therapy in a case of chronic Wernicke's aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacquie Kurland; Katherine Baldwin; Chandra Tauer

    2010-01-01

    Background: Renewed interest in the effects of intensity on treatment has led to development of short-term, intensive treatment protocols, such as Constraint-Induced Language Therapy (CILT), in which participants with chronic aphasia begin to show statistically significant language improvements in as little as 2 weeks. Given its relatively short treatment cycle, CILT is also a good choice of treatment methodology for

  11. Genre, verb, and coherence in picture?elicited discourse of adults with aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gloria Streit Olness

    2006-01-01

    Background: Discourse coherence is derived, in part, from the relationship between and among words and sentences. In studies of aphasia, the relationship between discourse?level and sentence?level phenomena may be examined through the verb. In clinical picture elicitations of discourse, the nature of the pictures or the accompanying elicitation instructions may influence the discourse genre of the response (descriptive vs narrative),

  12. The Time-Course of Lexical Activation during Sentence Comprehension in People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrill, Michelle; Love, Tracy; Walenski, Matthew; Shapiro, Lewis P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the time-course of processing of lexical items in auditorily presented canonical (subject-verb-object) constructions in young, neurologically unimpaired control participants and participants with left-hemisphere damage and agrammatic aphasia. Method: A cross modal picture priming (CMPP) paradigm was used to test 114 control…

  13. Poster: the development of a semantic feature analysis based mobile application for individuals with aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Conor Higgins; Áine Kearns; Sue Franklin

    2012-01-01

    We present a Semantic Feature Analysis based mobile application and paired web application, which have been developed in order to facilitate speech and language therapy with a Person with Aphasia (PWA). The goal of this research is to streamline current speech and language therapy practices, by enabling rapid data entry, aggregation and remote analysis. The mobile application has been developed

  14. Naming practice for people with aphasia as a mobile web application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Skye Chandler; Jesse Harris; Alex Moncrief; Clayton Lewis

    2009-01-01

    Bangagears is a new version of Banga, a smart phone application that supports word finding practice, a form of therapy for people with aphasia [1]. While Banga was implemented as a native application, a program specific to a particular kind of phone, Bangagears uses the emerging HTML5 technology to operate, in principle, on many different kinds of phones and other

  15. Slowly progressive Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome as a precursor of a primary progressive aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingo Uttner; Johannes Brettschneider; Alexander Unrath; Axel Riecker

    Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome (FCMS) is a rare neurological condition usually associated with bilateral ischemic lesions of the anterior frontoparietal operculum. Here, we present a patient with slowly progressive FCMS owing to focal brain atrophy who developed a language disorder similar to that seen in a primary progressive aphasia.

  16. Slowly progressive Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome as a precursor of a primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Uttner, Ingo; Brettschneider, Johannes; Unrath, Alexander; Riecker, Axel

    2012-05-01

    Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome (FCMS) is a rare neurological condition usually associated with bilateral ischemic lesions of the anterior frontoparietal operculum. Here, we present a patient with slowly progressive FCMS owing to focal brain atrophy who developed a language disorder similar to that seen in a primary progressive aphasia. PMID:22321363

  17. A Study of Syntactic Processing in Aphasia I: Behavioral (Psycholinguistic) Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, David; Waters, Gloria; DeDe, Gayle; Michaud, Jennifer; Reddy, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of syntactically based comprehension in aphasic patients. We studied 42 patients with aphasia secondary to left hemisphere strokes and 25 control participants. We measured off-line, end-of-sentence, performance (accuracy and reaction time) in two tasks that require comprehension--enactment and…

  18. Systematicity and Specialization in Semantics: A Computational Account of Optic Aphasia

    E-print Network

    Plaut, David C.

    Systematicity and Specialization in Semantics: A Computational Account of Optic Aphasia Sean Mc., 1985; Lhermitte & Beauvois, 1973; Riddoch & Humphreys, 1987) ­ Impaired naming from vision ­ Preserved recognition/comprehension from vision (e.g., as demonstrated by gesturing the object's use) ­ Preserved naming

  19. A theoretical account of lexical and semantic naming deficits in bilingual aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Teresa; Kiran, Swathi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine pre-morbid language proficiency and lexical and semantic processing deficits in bilingual aphasia and develop a theoretical account of bilingual language processing. Method Nineteen Spanish-English patients with bilingual aphasia completed a language use questionnaire (LUQ) and were administered Spanish and English standardized language assessments. We analyzed the data to (a) identify patterns of lexical and semantic processing deficits in bilingual aphasia and conceptualize a theoretical framework that accounts for language deficits, (b) determine LUQ measures that predict post-stroke language deficits, and (c) evaluate the relationship between predictive LUQ measures and post-stroke language deficits in order to identify impairment patterns. Results Based on results we obtained significant correlations on several measures between language input and output. We identified pre-stroke language ability rating as the strongest predictor of post-stroke outcomes. Based on this data, two distinct groups were identified: patients who lost the same amount of language in Spanish and English and patients who lost different amounts of Spanish and English. Conclusions Our findings suggest it is possible to identify relationships between language patterns and deficits in patients with bilingual aphasia and that these trends will be instrumental in clinical assessments of this understudied population. PMID:23816660

  20. Treatment of Semantic Verb Classes in Aphasia: Acquisition and Generalization Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Graham, Lauren E.

    2011-01-01

    Verb retrieval difficulties are common in aphasia; however, few successful treatments have been documented (e.g. Conroy, P., Sage, K., & Lambon Ralph, M. A. (2006). Towards theory-driven therapies for aphasic verb impairments: A review of current theory and practice. "Aphasiology", 20, 1159-1185). This study investigated the efficacy of a novel…

  1. Perceived Liveliness and Speech Comprehensibility in Aphasia: The Effects of Direct Speech in Auditory Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groenewold, Rimke; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Nickels, Lyndsey; Huiskes, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that in semi-spontaneous speech, individuals with Broca's and anomic aphasia produce relatively many direct speech constructions. It has been claimed that in "healthy" communication direct speech constructions contribute to the liveliness, and indirectly to the comprehensibility, of speech.…

  2. Patterns of Comprehension Performance in Agrammatic Broca's Aphasia: A Test of the Trace Deletion Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caramazza, A.; Capasso, R.; Capitani, E.; Miceli, G.

    2005-01-01

    We tested the core prediction of the Trace Deletion Hypothesis (TDH) of agrammatic Broca's aphasia, which contends that such patients' comprehension performance is normal for active reversible sentences but at chance level for passive reversible sentences. We analyzed the comprehension performance of 38 Italian Broca's aphasics with verified…

  3. Non-linguistic learning in aphasia: Effects of training method and stimulus characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Vallila-Rohter, Sofia; Kiran, Swathi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current study was to explore non-linguistic learning ability in patients with aphasia, examining the impact of stimulus typicality and feedback on success with learning. Method Eighteen patients with aphasia and eight healthy controls participated in this study. All participants completed four computerized, non-linguistic category-learning tasks. We probed learning ability under two methods of instruction: feedback-based (FB) and paired-associate (PA). We also examined the impact of task complexity on learning ability, comparing two stimulus conditions: typical (Typ) and atypical (Atyp). Performance was compared between groups and across conditions. Results Results demonstrated that healthy controls were able to successfully learn categories under all conditions. For our patients with aphasia, two patterns of performance arose. One subgroup of patients was able to maintain learning across task manipulations and conditions. The other subgroup of patients demonstrated a sensitivity to task complexity, learning successfully only in the typical training conditions. Conclusions Results support the hypothesis that impairments of general learning are present in aphasia. Some patients demonstrated the ability to extract category information under complex training conditions, while others learned only under conditions that were simplified and emphasized salient category features. Overall, the typical training condition facilitated learning for all participants. Findings have implications for therapy, which are discussed. PMID:23695914

  4. Evaluation of Attention Training and Metacognitive Facilitation to Improve Reading Comprehension in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaime B.; Sohlberg, McKay Moore

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This pilot study investigated the impact of direct attention training combined with metacognitive facilitation on reading comprehension in individuals with aphasia. Method: A single-subject, multiple baseline design was employed across 4 participants to evaluate potential changes in reading comprehension resulting from an 8-week…

  5. Semantic Interference during Object Naming in Agrammatic and Logopenic Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Cho, Soojin; Price, Charis; Wieneke, Christina; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Rogalski, Emily; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the time course of object naming in 21 individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) (8 agrammatic (PPA-G); 13 logopenic (PPA-L)) and healthy age-matched speakers (n=17) using a semantic interference paradigm with related and unrelated interfering stimuli presented at stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) of -1000, -500, -100…

  6. Visuomotor Tracking Abilities of Speakers with Apraxia of Speech or Conduction Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Donald A.; Jacks, Adam; Hageman, Carlin; Clark, Heather M.; Woodworth, George

    2008-01-01

    This investigation examined the visuomotor tracking abilities of persons with apraxia of speech (AOS) or conduction aphasia (CA). In addition, tracking performance was correlated with perceptual judgments of speech accuracy. Five individuals with AOS and four with CA served as participants, as well as an equal number of healthy controls matched by…

  7. Bilingual Aphasia and Language Control: A Follow-Up fMRI and Intrinsic Connectivity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abutalebi, Jubin; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Tettamanti, Marco; Green, David W.; Cappa, Stefano F.

    2009-01-01

    In a world that is becoming more multilingual, bilingual aphasia is a clinical problem with a major clinical impact. However, at present we lack causal explanations of the many features of recovery patterns and there is no consensus about the language in which the patient should receive speech therapy. Further advance requires an understanding of…

  8. Word-Category Violations in Patients with Broca's Aphasia: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassenaar, Marlies; Hagoort, Peter

    2005-01-01

    An event-related brain potential experiment was carried out to investigate on-line syntactic processing in patients with Broca's aphasia. Subjects were visually presented with sentences that were either syntactically correct or contained violations of word-category. Three groups of subjects were tested: Broca patients (N=11), non-aphasic patients…

  9. Production and comprehension in aphasia: gains and pitfalls in using macrostructure tasks in Aesop's fables.

    PubMed

    Ulatowska, Hanna K; Reyes, Belinda; Olea Santos, Tricia; Garst, Diane; Mak, Kelly; Graham, Kelly

    2013-12-01

    Macrostructures provide the global meaning of a text. Using Aesop's fables, the main goal of this study has been to identify the advantages and limitations in using the macrostructure tasks of retell, summary, lesson, and gist as clinical tools in understanding 16 patients with mild-to-moderate aphasia. Results suggest that all of the macrostructure tasks are important in determining the production skills of patients with aphasia. Comprehension, on the other hand, is best determined through the macrostructure tasks of retell and lesson. In addition to the language processing skills of patients with aphasia, macrostructures also provide a cognitive picture of how patients manipulate information from stories (i.e., reducing information, making inferences, and generalizing didactic information). Inherent limitations, however, are seen when interpreting possible reasons why patients with aphasia are unable to perform some of these tasks. Given that the potential gains of using macrostructure tasks outweigh the limitations, this study suggests that macrostructures may have clinical value as a diagnostic tool in understanding the cognitive-linguistic processes of patients with brain injury. PMID:23721371

  10. Perspectives on Public Awareness of Stroke and Aphasia among Turkish Patients in a Neurology Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavis, Ilknur

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies on awareness have drawn attention to the fact that aphasia is a little known disorder to the public, in spite of all the publicity about this frequently occurring neurogenic language disorder. Being a very new concept, studies of awareness are rare in Turkey. This survey study assessed the extent of public awareness of neurological…

  11. A functional model of visuo-verbal disconnection and the neuroanatomical constraints of optic aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudio Luzzatti; Raffaella I. Rumiati; Graziella Ghirardi

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the case of a patient, AB, who presented a pattern of performance corresponding to that usually known as optic aphasia. In particular, her visual object naming was severely impaired, while tactile naming and naming to definition were significantly better. In addition to the classical visual anomia, the patient also showed a deficit in tasks requiring

  12. Grid alloys for automobile batteries in the new millennium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Siegmund; R. David Prengaman

    2001-01-01

    By 2000, most lead-acid, starting\\/lightening\\/ignition (SLI) batteries produced in the Western world had made the transition\\u000a from traditional lead-antimony alloy grids to lead-calcium-based alloys. The automobile requirements for high cranking performance\\u000a and maintenance-free batteries have accelerated the trend. Cost reductions as well as high numbers of grids-per-battery have\\u000a led to automated, continuous grid-manufacturing processes which require lead-calcium-based alloys. Higher under-hood

  13. Chemically rechargeable battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, James E. (Inventor); Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Batteries (50) containing oxidized, discharged metal electrodes such as an iron-air battery are charged by removing and storing electrolyte in a reservoir (98), pumping fluid reductant such as formalin (aqueous formaldehyde) from a storage tank (106) into the battery in contact with the surfaces of the electrodes. After sufficient iron hydroxide has been reduced to iron, the spent reductant is drained, the electrodes rinsed with water from rinse tank (102) and then the electrolyte in the reservoir (106) is returned to the battery. The battery can be slowly electrically charged when in overnight storage but can be quickly charged in about 10 minutes by the chemical procedure of the invention.

  14. Silicon Carbide Radioisotope Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, George C.

    2005-01-01

    The substantial radiation resistance and large bandgap of SiC semiconductor materials makes them an attractive candidate for application in a high efficiency, long life radioisotope battery. To evaluate their potential in this application, simulated batteries were constructed using SiC diodes and the alpha particle emitter Americium Am-241 or the beta particle emitter Promethium Pm-147. The Am-241 based battery showed high initial power output and an initial conversion efficiency of approximately 16%, but the power output decayed 52% in 500 hours due to radiation damage. In contrast the Pm-147 based battery showed a similar power output level and an initial conversion efficiency of approximately 0.6%, but no degradation was observed in 500 hours. However, the Pm-147 battery required approximately 1000 times the particle fluence as the Am-242 battery to achieve a similar power output. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of battery and suggestions for future improvements will be discussed.

  15. Electric-vehicle batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

    1995-02-01

    Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

  16. Remote Control Inserting the batteries

    E-print Network

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    Top View Rear View Inserting the batteries 1 3Press in on the arrow mark and slide in the direction of the arrow to remove the battery cover. 2 Insert two AA size batteries, making sure their polarities match the and marks inside the battery compartment. Insert the side tabs of the battery cover into their slots

  17. Batteries for Vehicular Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Venkat

    2008-09-01

    This paper will describe battery technology as it relates to use in vehicular applications, including hybrid-electric vehicles (HEV), electric vehicles (EV), and plug-in-hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEV). The present status of rechargeable batteries, the requirements for each application, and the scientific stumbling blocks that stop batteries from being commercialized for these applications will be discussed. Focus will be on the class of batteries referred to as lithium batteries and the various chemistries that are the most promising for these applications. While Li-ion is expected in HEVs in the very near future, use in PHEVs are expected to be more gradual and dependent on solving the life, safety, and cost challenges. Finally, batteries for EVs remain problematic because of the range and charging-time issues.

  18. Flash report: Automotive batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, J.H.

    1995-12-01

    Battery inventories soared early in the years after sales plunged 15% due to the mild winter. But in the last 90 days, admist a hot summer, industry leader Exide announced a 5% price hike to assess the current market, OTR interviewed 14 professionals from the battery industry - Contacts include four battery manufacturers, one industry specialists, seven retail chains plus two wholesalers. The nine sales groups supply about 10,000 stores an automotive shops nationwide.

  19. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Yahnke, Mark S. (Berkeley, CA); Shlomo, Golan (Haifa, IL); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

    1994-01-01

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

  20. Lithium battery space experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Chmlelewski, A.B.; Surampudi, S.; Bennett, R.; Frank, H.; Mueller, R. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The In-Space Technology Experiments Program selected the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to conduct a Phase A study of the Lithium Battery Experiment. The experiment will mark the first time a rechargeable lithium battery will be flown in space. The operation of the battery involves lithium deposition and dissolution processes. Micro gravity influences these processes significantly. The experiment will check the rate capability, discharge voltage, capacity and the phenomena affecting cycle life. The paper describes the design and methodology of this experiment.

  1. Battery Review Board

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chester Vaughn

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form: NASA Battery Review Board Charter; membership, board chronology; background; statement of problem; summary of problems with 50 AH standard Ni-Cd; activities for near term programs utilizing conventional Ni-Cd; present projects scheduled to use NASA standard Ni-Cd; other near-term NASA programs requiring secondary batteries; recommended direction for future programs; future cell\\/battery procurement strategy;

  2. Viking lander spacecraft battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The Viking Lander was the first spacecraft to fly a sterilized nickel-cadmium battery on a mission to explore the surface of a planet. The significant results of the battery development program from its inception through the design, manufacture, and test of the flight batteries which were flown on the two Lander spacecraft are documented. The flight performance during the early phase of the mission is also presented.

  3. Nonleaking battery terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45 percent KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide (PPO) plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte in a plastic case are discussed.

  4. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    E-print Network

    Weber, Adam Z.

    2013-01-01

    acid A soluble form of the lead-acid battery has also beena traditional sealed lead-acid battery configuration. Lead-battery and allow greater specific cell performance than with sealed or flooded lead-acid

  5. Active vasodilation by sympathetic outflow to limb skin in a patient with progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Shindo, Kazumasa; Kobayashi, Fumikazu; Miwa, Michiaki; Nagasaka, Takamura; Takiyama, Yoshihisa; Shiozawa, Zenji

    2014-03-26

    Despite considerable interest, a pure vasodilator response by skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) bursts in human limbs has not been observed in previous studies. In a patient with progressive nonfluent aphasia, SSNA, sympathetic skin response, and skin blood flow were simultaneously recorded at rest and during electrical stimulation. There was a very low frequency of SSNA bursts at rest, and when electrical stimulation was delivered, reflex bursts of SSNA were always observed followed by a sympathetic skin response and an increase in skin blood flow. The reflex latency of SSNA was slightly prolonged and the mean amplitude of reflex SSNA bursts was lower after electrical stimulation, compared with the responses in healthy controls. We report for the first time that the active vasodilator component of cutaneous sympathetic activity in limbs was recorded without any vasoconstrictor component in a patient with progressive aphasia. PMID:24335782

  6. Cross-language generalization following treatment in bilingual speakers with aphasia: a review.

    PubMed

    Kohnert, Kathryn

    2009-08-01

    The focus of this article is on the potential transfer or generalization of positive effects from a treated to an untreated language in bilingual or multilingual individuals with primary acquired aphasia. Twelve studies are reviewed: All were previously published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Half of these studies failed to account for spontaneous recovery. Results from the remaining case reports and single-subject studies are mixed, with four finding evidence for cross-language generalization under some conditions and two finding that improved language performance was restricted to the treated language. Collective findings are discussed within the broader literature in terms of factors to consider when planning for effective, efficient intervention with bilinguals with aphasia. PMID:19711235

  7. Pathophysiology of language switching and mixing in an early bilingual child with subcortical aphasia.

    PubMed

    Mariën, Peter; Abutalebi, Jubin; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter P

    2005-12-01

    Acquired aphasia after circumscribed vascular subcortical lesions has not been reported in bilingual children. We report clinical and neuroimaging findings in an early bilingual boy who incurred equally severe transcortical sensory aphasia in his first language (L1) and second language (L2) after a posterior left thalamic hemorrhage. Following recurrent bleeding of the lesion the aphasic symptoms substantially aggravated. Spontaneous pathological language switching and mixing were found in both languages. Remission of these phenomena was reflected on brain perfusion SPECT revealing improved perfusion in the left frontal lobe and left caudate nucleus. The parallelism between the evolution of language symptoms and the SPECT findings may demonstrate that a subcortical left frontal lobe circuity is crucially involved in language switching and mixing. PMID:16393752

  8. Examining the Value of Lexical Retrieval Treatment in Primary Progressive Aphasia: Two Positive Cases

    PubMed Central

    Rising, K.; DeMarco, A.T.; Miller, B.L.; Gorno-Tempini, M.L.; Beeson, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) suffer a gradual decline in communication ability as a result of neurodegenerative disease. Language treatment shows promise as a means of addressing these difficulties but much remains to be learned with regard to the potential value of treatment across variants and stages of the disorder. We present two cases, one with semantic variant of PPA and the other with logopenic PPA, each of whom underwent treatment that was unique in its focus on training self-cueing strategies to engage residual language skills. Despite differing language profiles and levels of aphasia severity, each individual benefited from treatment and showed maintenance of gains as well as generalization to untrained lexical items. These cases highlight the potential for treatment to capitalize on spared cognitive and neural systems in individuals with PPA, improving current language function as well as potentially preserving targeted skills in the face of disease progression. PMID:23871425

  9. Intensive therapy induces contralateral white matter changes in chronic stroke patients with Broca's aphasia.

    PubMed

    Wan, Catherine Y; Zheng, Xin; Marchina, Sarah; Norton, Andrea; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2014-09-01

    Using a pre-post design, eleven chronic stroke patients with large left hemisphere lesions and nonfluent aphasia underwent diffusion tensor imaging and language testing before and after receiving 15 weeks of an intensive intonation-based speech therapy. This treated patient group was compared to an untreated patient group (n=9) scanned twice over a similar time period. Our results showed that the treated group, but not the untreated group, had reductions in fractional anisotropy in the white matter underlying the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, pars opercularis and pars triangularis), the right posterior superior temporal gyrus, and the right posterior cingulum. Furthermore, we found that greater improvements in speech production were associated with greater reductions in FA in the right IFG (pars opercularis). Thus, our findings showed that an intensive rehabilitation program for patients with nonfluent aphasia led to structural changes in the right hemisphere, which correlated with improvements in speech production. PMID:25041868

  10. Electric vehicle battery research and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    High energy battery technology for electric vehicles is reviewed. The state-of-the-art in conventional batteries, metal-gas batteries, alkali-metal high temperature batteries, and organic electrolyte batteries is reported.

  11. Pearls & Oy-sters: Selective postictal aphasia: Cerebral language organization in bilingual patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasser Aladdin; Thomas J. Snyder; S. N. Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Background: Ictal and postictal language dysfunction is common and strongly predictive of lan- guage laterality in monolingual patients. For bilingual patients, selective dysfunction has been reported for a single language with focal cerebral lesions, electrical brain stimulation, and intraca- rotid sodium amytal. Methods: Two right-handed Ukrainian-English bilingual patients with left perisylvian structural lesions, late onset complex-partial seizures, and postictal aphasia

  12. Contrasting effects of errorless naming treatment and gestural facilitation for word retrieval in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Raymer, Anastasia M; McHose, Beth; Smith, Kimberly G; Iman, Lisa; Ambrose, Alexis; Casselton, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effects of two treatments for aphasic word retrieval impairments, errorless naming treatment (ENT) and gestural facilitation of naming (GES), within the same individuals, anticipating that the use of gesture would enhance the effect of treatment over errorless treatment alone. In addition to picture naming, we evaluated results for other outcome measures that were largely untested in earlier ENT studies. In a single participant crossover treatment design, we examined the effects of ENT and GES in eight individuals with stroke-induced aphasia and word retrieval impairments (three semantic anomia, five phonological anomia) in counterbalanced phases across participants. We evaluated effects of the two treatments for a daily picture naming/gesture production probe measure and in standardised aphasia tests and communication rating scales administered across phases of the experiment. Both treatments led to improvements in naming of trained words (small-to-large effect sizes) in individuals with semantic and phonological anomia. Small generalised naming improvements were noted for three individuals with phonological anomia. GES improved use of corresponding gestures for trained words (large effect sizes). Results were largely maintained at one month post-treatment completion. Increases in scores on standardised aphasia testing also occurred for both ENT and GES training. Both ENT and GES led to improvements in naming measures, with no clear difference between treatments. Increased use of gestures following GES provided a potential compensatory means of communication for those who did not improve verbal skills. Both treatments are considered to be effective methods to promote recovery of word retrieval and verbal production skills in individuals with aphasia. PMID:22047100

  13. The perception and production of Voice-Onset Time in aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Blumstein; W. Cooper; E. Zurif; A. Caramazza

    1977-01-01

    Abstract--This study assessed aphasic and right brain-damaged non-aphasic patients' ability to label and discriminate a synthetic speech continuum,differing in voice-onset time (VOT). We investigated these abilities in relation to type of aphasia and language comprehension facility, and explored the relation between perception and production of voice-onset time distinctions. Results of the perception tasks indicated that if a subject could not

  14. Impairment and Rehabilitation in Bilingual Aphasia: A SOM-Based Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uli Grasemann; Chaleece Sandberg; Swathi Kiran; Risto Miikkulainen

    \\u000a Bilingual aphasia is of increasing interest because a large and growing proportion of the world’s population is bilingual.\\u000a Current clinical research on this topic cannot provide specific recommendations on which language treatment should focus in\\u000a a bilingual aphasic individual and to what extent cross-language transfer occurs during or after rehabilitation. This paper\\u000a describes a SOM-based model of the bilingual lexicon,

  15. Semantic feature analysis treatment in Spanish–English and French–English bilingual aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Swathi Kiran; Patricia M. Roberts

    2010-01-01

    Background: Edmonds and Kiran (2006) reported that training lexical retrieval in one language resulted in within?language and cross?language generalisation in three bilingual (English–Spanish) patients with aphasia.Aims: The present experiment continues this line of research, repeating a similar procedure with new patients and examining a broader range of factors that may affect generalisation patterns.Methods & Procedures: Four participants (two Spanish–English and

  16. Cognitive and cognate-based treatments for bilingual aphasia: A case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn Kohnert

    2004-01-01

    Two consecutive treatments were conducted to investigate skill learning and generalization within and across cognitive–linguistic domains in a 62-year-old Spanish-English bilingual man with severe non-fluent aphasia. Treatment 1 was a cognitive-based treatment that emphasized non-linguistic skills, such as visual scanning, categorization, and simple arithmetic. Treatment 2 was a lexically based treatment that trained cognates (cross-linguistic word pairs that are similar

  17. Nonparallel recovery in bilingual aphasia: Effects of language choice, language proficiency, and treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mali Gil; Mira Goral

    2004-01-01

    We describe a 57-year-old Russian-Hebrew bilingual aphasic patient who received speech-language therapy in his second language (Hebrew) in the first three-and-a-half months post onset and then in his first language (Russian) for an additional month and a half. He was first diagnosed with Expressive-Receptive aphasia in both languages. After four weeks of treatment in the second language, his language skills

  18. Bilingual aphasia due to spontaneous acute subdural haematoma from a ruptured intracranial infectious aneurysm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Girish V. Vajramani; Hawar Akrawi; Rosaleen A. McCarthy; William P. Gray

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of spontaneous subdural haematoma due to ruptured intracranial infectious aneurysm, presenting with bilingual aphasia and illustrating differential language recovery. A 62-year-old right-handed bilingual gentleman, with a diagnosis of infective endocarditis, developed headache and became expressively aphasic in the English language. Three days later he was receptively and expressively aphasic in both English and Arabic. Cranial MRI

  19. The processing of compounds in bilingual aphasia: A multiple?case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gonia Jarema; Danuta Perlak; Carlo Semenza

    2010-01-01

    Background: While converging evidence has led to the view that people with aphasia exploit compositional procedures when producing compound words, the issue of what compound?internal characteristics are at play during these procedures is still under debate. It has been argued that constituent position and\\/or morphosyntactic prominence, i.e., being the head constituent of a compound, may influence the manner in which

  20. "Pre-semantic" cognition revisited: critical differences between semantic aphasia and semantic dementia.

    PubMed

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T; Hopper, Samantha; Ralph, Matthew A Lambon

    2010-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal "pre-semantic" tasks, e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are atypical of the domain and "regularization errors" (irregular/atypical items are produced as if they were domain-typical). The emergence of this pattern across diverse tasks in the same patients indicates that semantic memory plays a key role in all of these types of "pre-semantic" processing. However, this claim remains controversial because semantically impaired patients sometimes fail to show an influence of regularity. This study demonstrates that (a) the location of brain damage and (b) the underlying nature of the semantic deficit affect the likelihood of observing the expected relationship between poor comprehension and regularity effects. We compared the effect of multimodal semantic impairment in the context of semantic dementia and stroke aphasia on the seven "pre-semantic" tasks listed above. In all of these tasks, the semantic aphasia patients were less sensitive to typicality than the semantic dementia patients, even though the two groups obtained comparable scores on semantic tests. The semantic aphasia group also made fewer regularization errors and many more unrelated and perseverative responses. We propose that these group differences reflect the different locus for the semantic impairment in the two conditions: patients with semantic dementia have degraded semantic representations, whereas semantic aphasia patients show deregulated semantic cognition with concomitant executive deficits. These findings suggest a reinterpretation of single-case studies of comprehension-impaired aphasic patients who fail to show the expected effect of regularity on "pre-semantic" tasks. Consequently, such cases do not demonstrate the independence of these tasks from semantic memory. PMID:19766662

  1. Cognitive neuropsychological approaches to word production in aphasia: Beyond boxes and arrows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn E. Wilshire

    2008-01-01

    Background: The cognitive neuropsychological approach aims to describe aphasic disorders of word production by identifying the specific cognitive process(es) that are impaired in each individual. This approach is becoming increasingly influential in the assessment, investigation, and treatment of word production difficulties in aphasia. The classical cognitive neuropsychological approach, with its signature box?and?arrow diagrams, is now highly familiar to most aphasiologists.

  2. Naming practice for people with aphasia in a mobile web application: early user experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khalyle Hagood; Terrance Moore; Tiffany Pierre; Paula Messamer; Gail Ramsberger; Clayton Lewis

    2010-01-01

    Bangaten is a new version of Banga [2,3], a smart phone application that supports word finding practice, a form of therapy for people with aphasia. Early user experience shows that Bangaten offers useful cross-platform operation, on both Android and iPhone devices, including remote management of a client's device. Bangaten demonstrates the growing usefulness of emerging HTML5 technology for implementing assistive

  3. Cortical Language Activation in Stroke Patients Recovering From Aphasia With Functional MRI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yue Cao; Eric M. Vikingstad; K. Paige George; Alex F. Johnson; K. M. A. Welch

    Background and Purpose—Two mechanisms for recovery from aphasia, repair of damaged language networks and activation of compensatory areas, have been proposed. In this study, we investigated whether both mechanisms or one instead of the other take place in the brain of recovered aphasic patients . Methods—Using blood oxygenation level- dependent functional MRI (fMRI), we studied cortical language networks during lexical-semantic

  4. Sonya S. Nikolova, Jordan Boyd-Graber, and Perry Cook. The Design of ViVA: A Mixed-initiative Visual Vocabulary for Aphasia. Proceedings of the 27th international conference extended abstracts on Human factors in computing

    E-print Network

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    -initiative Visual Vocabulary for Aphasia. Proceedings of the 27th international conference extended abstracts-initiative Visual Vocabulary for Aphasia}, Booktitle = {Proceedings of the 27th international conference extended-Initiative Visual Vocabulary for Aphasia Abstract In this paper, we present the design of ViVA, a visual vocabulary

  5. Are vowel errors influenced by consonantal context in the speech of persons with aphasia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfer, Carole E.; Bell-Berti, Fredericka; Boyle, Mary

    2001-05-01

    The literature suggests that vowels and consonants may be affected differently in the speech of persons with conduction aphasia (CA) or nonfluent aphasia with apraxia of speech (AOS). Persons with CA have shown similar error rates across vowels and consonants, while those with AOS have shown more errors for consonants than vowels. These data have been interpreted to suggest that consonants have greater gestural complexity than vowels. However, recent research [M. Boyle et al., Proc. International Cong. Phon. Sci., 3265-3268 (2003)] does not support this interpretation: persons with AOS and CA both had a high proportion of vowel errors, and vowel errors almost always occurred in the context of consonantal errors. To examine the notion that vowels are inherently less complex than consonants and are differentially affected in different types of aphasia, vowel production in different consonantal contexts for speakers with AOS or CA was examined. The target utterances, produced in carrier phrases, were bVC and bV syllables, allowing us to examine whether vowel production is influenced by consonantal context. Listener judgments were obtained for each token, and error productions were grouped according to the intended utterance and error type. Acoustical measurements were made from spectrographic displays.

  6. The Auditory Comprehension of Wh-Questions in Aphasia: Support for the Intervener Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Shannon M.; Walenski, Matthew; Love, Tracy; Shapiro, Lewis P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examines 3 hypotheses about the processing of wh-questions in both neurologically healthy adults and adults with Broca’s aphasia. Method We used an eye tracking while listening method with 32 unimpaired participants (Experiment 1) and 8 participants with Broca’s aphasia (Experiment 2). Accuracy, response time, and online gaze data were collected. Results In Experiment 1, we established a baseline for how unimpaired processing and comprehension of 4 types of wh-question (subject- and object-extracted who- and which-questions) manifest. There was no unambiguous support found for any of the 3 hypotheses in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2 with the Broca’s participants, however, we found significantly lower accuracy, slower response times, and increased interference in our gaze data in the object-extracted which-questions relative to the other conditions. Conclusions Our results provide support for the intervener hypothesis, which states that sentence constructions that contain an intervener (a lexical noun phrase) between a displaced noun phrase and its gap site result in a significant processing disadvantage relative to other constructions. We argue that this hypothesis offers a compelling explanation for the comprehension deficits seen in some participants with Broca’s aphasia. PMID:25675427

  7. Psychometric properties of the communication Confidence Rating Scale for Aphasia (CCRSA): phase 1.

    PubMed

    Cherney, Leora R; Babbitt, Edna M; Semik, Patrick; Heinemann, Allen W

    2011-01-01

    Confidence is a construct that has not been explored previously in aphasia research. We developed the Communication Confidence Rating Scale for Aphasia (CCRSA) to assess confidence in communicating in a variety of activities and evaluated its psychometric properties using rating scale (Rasch) analysis. The CCRSA was administered to 21 individuals with aphasia before and after participation in a computer-based language therapy study. Person reliability of the 8-item CCRSA was .77. The 5-category rating scale demonstrated monotonic increases in average measures from low to high ratings. However, one item ("I follow news, sports, stories on TV/movies") misfit the construct defined by the other items (mean square infit = 1.69, item-measure correlation = .41). Deleting this item improved reliability to .79; the 7 remaining items demonstrated excellent fit to the underlying construct, although there was a modest ceiling effect in this sample. Pre- to posttreatment changes on the 7-item CCRSA measure were statistically significant using a paired samples t test. Findings support the reliability and sensitivity of the CCRSA in assessing participants' self-report of communication confidence. Further evaluation of communication confidence is required with larger and more diverse samples. PMID:21914599

  8. Feasibility and cost analysis of implementing high intensity aphasia clinics within a sub-acute setting.

    PubMed

    Wenke, Rachel; Lawrie, Melissa; Hobson, Tania; Comben, Wendy; Romano, Michelle; Ward, Elizabeth; Cardell, Elizabeth

    2014-06-01

    The current study explored the clinical feasibility and costs of embedding three different intensive service delivery models for aphasia treatment (computer, group therapy, and therapy with a speech pathology therapy assistant) within three sub-acute facilities. The study employed a two cohort comparison design, with the first cohort (n = 22) receiving the standard service of treatment currently offered. This treatment was delivered by a speech-language pathologist and involved on average 3 hours of treatment/week over 8 weeks. Participants in the second cohort (n = 31) received one of the three intensive treatment models providing up to 9 hours of therapy/week for 11 weeks. Organizational data was collected throughout treatment, with participant, caregiver, and clinician satisfaction with the intensive models also being measured. Participants completed the spoken language production sub-tests and the Disability Questionnaire of the Comprehensive Aphasia Test (CAT) pre- and post-treatment. All intensive models yielded high participant attendance, satisfaction, and significant improvements to the CAT sub-tests. The pro-rata cost of providing treatment per hour per client for the computer and group therapy models was found to be ˜ 30% cheaper compared to the standard service. The outcomes support the potential feasibility of embedding the different models into sub-acute facilities to enhance client access to intensive treatment for aphasia. PMID:24597463

  9. Changes in language-specific brain activation after therapy for aphasia using magnetoencephalography: a case study.

    PubMed

    Breier, Joshua I; Maher, Lynn M; Schmadeke, Stephanie; Hasan, Khader M; Papanicolaou, Andrew C

    2007-06-01

    A patient with chronic aphasia underwent functional imaging during a language comprehension task using magnetoencephalography (MEG) before and after constraint induced language therapy (CILT). In the pre- and immediate post-treatment (TX) scans MEG activity sources were observed within right hemisphere only, and were located in areas homotopic to left hemisphere language areas. There was a significant increase in activation in these areas between the two sessions. This change was not observed in an age-matched patient with chronic aphasia who underwent sequential language testing and MEG scanning across a similar time period without being administered therapy. In the 3-month post-TX scan bilateral activation was observed, including significant activation within the left temporal lobe. The changes in the spatial parameters of the maps of receptive language function after therapy were accompanied by improvement in language function. Results provide support, in the same individual, for a role for both hemispheres in recovery of language function after therapy for chronic aphasia. PMID:17786776

  10. Cases of aphasia in a work on medicine from the 16th century.

    PubMed

    Munoz-Sanz, Augustin; Garcia-Avila, Juan Fernando; Vallejo, Jose Ramon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to bring to the attention of the international community the role in the history of aphasiology of the eminent Renaissance figure, the Extremaduran Francisco Arceo de Fregenal. To present the subject, after a brief biography of this surgeon, we will trace the development of the concept of aphasia up to the 16th century. In some ancient cultures we find that this disorder was described as a "cerebral accident", to be presented subsequently in the Middle Ages as a divine punishment, only for the original idea to be taken up again during the Renaissance. This return to the concept of the early civilisations was not to lead to the formal classification of this condition however, until the studies of Broca and Wernicke were published in the 19th century. The contribution of Arceo lies in the description of clinical cases included in his book De Recta cvrandorum, which are presented in their original written version in Latin accompanied by a translation in English. The first of these cases tells of spontaneous recovery from the disease, and the second of the evolution of a patient with aphasia secondary to traumatic brain injury following surgery. Despite the great value of Arceo's report, the historical context and his professional attitude did not allow for a localisationist interpretation of the concept of aphasia. PMID:25811692

  11. Vent construction for batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1986-01-01

    A battery casing to be hermetically sealed is described the casing having main side walls with end walls bridging the end portions of the side walls, at least one of the end walls facing and being exposed to the battery interior, the improvement in vent means for the casing which ruptures when internal casing pressure exceeds a given value. The

  12. Battery for vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, M.

    1984-04-24

    In a battery of a vehicle such as motorcycle, the bottom is indented at both ends in the longitudinal direction; i.e., with respect to both end portions, in the longitudinal direction of the bottom, the middle portion protrudes downwardly, so that the battery is more advantageously accommodated in the triangular space formed by the motorcycle frame.

  13. Aerospace applications of batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    1993-01-01

    NASA has developed battery technology to meet the demanding requirements for aerospace applications; specifically, the space vacuum, launch loads, and high duty cycles. Because of unique requirements and operating environments associated with space applications, NASA has written its own standards and specifications for batteries.

  14. The GSFC Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on electric storage batteries are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) a low cost/standardization program, (2) test and flight experience, (3) materials and cell components, and (4) new developments in the nickel/hydrogen system. The application of selected batteries in specific space vehicles is examined.

  15. The new batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkinson, J.

    1981-10-01

    The state of advanced battery concept development is reviewed, noting advantages of battery use such as modular design, short lead time from order to installation, and widely varying load operation. Compact design, quietness, pollution free operation, and low maintenance are also favorable; utility uses are foreseen as load leveling for base load capacity, the opportunity for a spinning reserve, and VAR control. Research programs for ZnCl, ZnBr, and the beta battery are reviewed, and the use of Pb-acid batteries is noted to be reaching an end because of lead supply problems, pollution, and price fluctuations. A 50 kWh ZnCl battery has been built that has lasted through 2 cycles, and a 80kW ZnBr battery has recently tested successfully to prove the feasibility of scale-up. Functioning chemicals in the beta battery require over 300 C temperatures to work; beta aluminum, a ceramic, is used as an electrolyte and separator. Seals to contain the reactive chemicals within the battery and compartmentalize the electrolytes are a focus of continuing research.

  16. The new batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hopkinson

    1981-01-01

    The state of advanced battery concept development is reviewed, noting advantages of battery use such as modular design, short lead time from order to installation, and widely varying load operation. Compact design, quietness, pollution free operation, and low maintenance are also favorable; utility uses are foreseen as load leveling for base load capacity, the opportunity for a spinning reserve, and

  17. Lithium ion battery production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antti Väyrynen; Justin Salminen

    Recently, new materials and chemistry for lithium ion batteries have been developed. There is a great emphasis on electrification in the transport sector replacing part of motor powered engines with battery powered applications. There are plans both to increase energy efficiency and to reduce the overall need for consumption of non-renewable liquid fuels. Even more significant applications are dependent on

  18. Battery Particle Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2014-09-15

    Two simulations show the differences between a battery being drained at a slower rate, over a full hour, versus a faster rate, only six minutes (a tenth of an hour). In both cases battery particles go from being fully charged (green) to fully drained (red), but there are significant differences in the patterns of discharge based on the rate.

  19. Western Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. W. Hay; D. C. Robertson

    1981-01-01

    In 1980, a third successive all-time drilling record was set in western Canada, with 8865 wells being drilled, up 20% since 1979. Exploratory drilling increased 30%, to 3744 wells, and development drilling increased 14%, to 5121 wells. The exploratory success rate increased to 66% in 1980, based on 1017 oil discoveries and 1463 gas discoveries. The development success rate increased

  20. Rechargeable hybrid aqueous batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jing; Wang, Jing; Liu, Hao; Bakenov, Zhumabay; Gosselink, Denise; Chen, P.

    2012-10-01

    A new aqueous rechargeable battery combining an intercalation cathode with a metal (first order electrode) anode has been developed. The concept is demonstrated using LiMn2O4 and zinc metal electrodes in an aqueous electrolyte containing two electrochemically active ions (Li+ and Zn2+). The battery operates at about 2 V and preliminarily tests show excellent cycling performance, with about 90% initial capacity retention over 1000 charge-discharge cycles. Use of cation-doped LiMn2O4 cathode further improves the cyclability of the system, which reaches 95% capacity retention after 4000 cycles. The energy density for a prototype battery, estimated at 50-80 Wh kg-1, is comparable or superior to commercial 2 V rechargeable batteries. The combined performance attributes of this new rechargeable aqueous battery indicate that it constitutes a viable alternative to commercial lead-acid system and for large scale energy storage application.

  1. Clinical Evaluation of Conversational Speech Fluency in the Acute Phase of Acquired Childhood Aphasia: Does a Fluency\\/Nonfluency Dichotomy Exist?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugo R. van Dongen; Philippe F. Paquier; Wouter L. Creten; John van Borsel; Coriene E. Catsman-Berrevoets

    2001-01-01

    Traditional neurologic tenets claim that the clinical picture of acquired childhood aphasia is nonfluent irrespective of lesion location. In the past 20 years, however, several case studies have shown that fluent aphasic patterns can be observed in children with acquired childhood aphasia. But the question remains open as to whether the pattern of their speech characteristics is similar to the

  2. Constrained versus Unconstrained Intensive Language Therapy in Two Individuals with Chronic, Moderate-to-Severe Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech: Behavioral and fMRI Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurland, Jacquie; Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Silva, Nicole; Burke, Katherine; Andrianopoulos, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This Phase I study investigated behavioral and functional MRI (fMRI) outcomes of 2 intensive treatment programs to improve naming in 2 participants with chronic moderate-to-severe aphasia with comorbid apraxia of speech (AOS). Constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT; Pulvermuller et al., 2001) has demonstrated positive outcomes in some…

  3. Effects of Cognate Status and Language of Therapy during Intensive Semantic Naming Treatment in a Case of Severe Nonfluent Bilingual Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurland, Jacquie; Falcon, Marahu

    2011-01-01

    As bilingualism becomes less exceptional in the world, and with the growing incidence of stroke and aphasia, a better understanding of how bilingualism affects aphasia recovery is increasingly important. The present study examined the effect of intensive semantic naming therapy in three phases (Spanish, English and mixed) on within- and…

  4. Assessing Cortisol Reactivity to a Linguistic Task as a Marker of Stress in Individuals with Left-Hemisphere Stroke and Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laures-Gore, Jacqueline; Heim, Christine M.; Hsu, Yu-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explore a method of measuring physiologic and perceived stress in individuals with aphasia by investigating salivary cortisol reactivity and subjectively perceived stress in response to a standardized linguistic task. Method: Fifteen individuals with aphasia and 15 age-matched healthy controls participated in a…

  5. Outcomes of Treatment Targeting Syntax Production in People with Broca's-Type Aphasia: Evidence from Psycholinguistic Assessment Tasks and Everyday Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carragher, Marcella; Sage, Karen; Conroy, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Capturing evidence of the effects of therapy within everyday communication is the holy grail of aphasia treatment design and evaluation. Whilst impaired sentence production is a predominant symptom of Broca's-type aphasia, the effects of sentence production therapy on everyday conversation have not been investigated. Given the…

  6. Conduction Aphasia, Sensory-Motor Integration, and Phonological Short-Term Memory--An Aggregate Analysis of Lesion and fMRI Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Baldo, Juliana; Okada, Kayoko; Berman, Karen F.; Dronkers, Nina; D'Esposito, Mark; Hickok, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Conduction aphasia is a language disorder characterized by frequent speech errors, impaired verbatim repetition, a deficit in phonological short-term memory, and naming difficulties in the presence of otherwise fluent and grammatical speech output. While traditional models of conduction aphasia have typically implicated white matter pathways,…

  7. Battery capacity measurement and analysis using lithium coin cell battery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung Park; Andreas Savvides; Mani B. Srivastava

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we look at different battery capacity models that have been introduced in the literatures. These models describe the battery capacity utilization based on how the battery is discharged by the circuits that consume power. In an attempt to validate these models, we characterize a commercially available lithium coin cell battery through careful measurements of the current and

  8. Lithium battery thermal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, Daniel H.; Butler, Paul C.; Jungst, Rudolph G.; Roth, E. Peter

    Thermal characteristics and thermal behavior of lithium batteries are important both for the batteries meeting operating life requirements and for safety considerations. Sandia National Laboratories has a broad-based program that includes analysis, engineering and model development. We have determined thermal properties of lithium batteries using a variety of calorimetric methods for many years. We developed the capability to model temperature gradients and cooling rates of high-temperature primary lithium thermal batteries several years ago. Work is now under way to characterize the response of ambient-temperature rechargeable lithium-ion batteries to thermal abuse. Once the self-heating rates of lithium cells have been established over a range of temperatures, the thermal response can be estimated under a variety of conditions. We have extended this process to isolate the behavior of individual battery components and have begun to understand the chemical nature of the species responsible for heat evolution within the cells. This enhanced level of understanding will enable more accurate modeling of cell thermal behavior and will allow model-based design of safer, more abuse-tolerant lithium batteries for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) in the future. Progress toward this goal and key information still needed to reach it are discussed.

  9. HST Replacement Battery Initial Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krol, Stan; Waldo, Greg; Hollandsworth, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) original Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries were replaced during the Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) after 19 years and one month on orbit.The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the findings from the assessment of the initial sm4 replacement battery performance. The batteries are described, the 0 C capacity is reviewed, descriptions, charts and tables reviewing the State Of Charge (SOC) Performance, the Battery Voltage Performance, the battery impedance, the minimum voltage performance, the thermal performance, the battery current, and the battery system recharge ratio,

  10. Magnesium battery disposal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffer, Louis; Atwater, Terrill

    1994-12-01

    This study assesses the disposal characteristics of U.S. Army procured military magnesium batteries under current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste identification regulations administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Magnesium batteries were tested at 100, 50, 10 and 0 percent remaining state of charge. Present findings indicate that magnesium batteries with less than 50 percent remaining charge do not exceed the federal regulatory limit of 5.0 mg/L for chromium. All other RCRA contaminates were below regulatory limits at all levels of remaining charge. Assay methods, findings, disposal requirements and design implications are discussed.

  11. Bipolar battery construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor); Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A lightweight, bipolar battery construction for lead acid batteries in which a plurality of thin, rigid, biplates each comprise a graphite fiber thermoplastic composition in conductive relation to lead stripes plated on opposite flat surfaces of the plates, and wherein a plurality of nonconductive thermoplastic separator plates support resilient yieldable porous glass mats in which active material is carried, the biplates and separator plates with active material being contained and maintained in stacked assembly by axial compression of the stacked assembly. A method of assembling such a bipolar battery construction.

  12. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  13. Military Applications of Reserve Batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Ritchie

    1996-01-01

    Reserve batteries are batteries which do not give power until activated. They have a long storage life and high power capabilities which makes them useful for numerous military applications. Designs of reserve batteries include those based on movement of electrolyte (sea water, energizers and reserve silver-zinc or lithium-thionyl chloride) and thermal batteries, which are high-temperature batteries activated by heating using

  14. SOLAR BATTERY CHARGERS FOR NIMH BATTERIES1 Abstract -This paper proposes new solar battery

    E-print Network

    Lehman, Brad

    SOLAR BATTERY CHARGERS FOR NIMH BATTERIES1 Abstract - This paper proposes new solar battery chargers for NiMH batteries. Used with portable solar panels, existing charge control methods are shown of consumer portable solar arrays. These new arrays are lightweight, durable, and flexible and have been

  15. Development and validation of Australian aphasia rehabilitation best practice statements using the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method

    PubMed Central

    Power, Emma; Thomas, Emma; Worrall, Linda; Rose, Miranda; Togher, Leanne; Nickels, Lyndsey; Hersh, Deborah; Godecke, Erin; O'Halloran, Robyn; Lamont, Sue; O'Connor, Claire; Clarke, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To develop and validate a national set of best practice statements for use in post-stroke aphasia rehabilitation. Design Literature review and statement validation using the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method (RAM). Participants A national Community of Practice of over 250 speech pathologists, researchers, consumers and policymakers developed a framework consisting of eight areas of care in aphasia rehabilitation. This framework provided the structure for the development of a care pathway containing aphasia rehabilitation best practice statements. Nine speech pathologists with expertise in aphasia rehabilitation participated in two rounds of RAND/UCLA appropriateness ratings of the statements. Panellists consisted of researchers, service managers, clinicians and policymakers. Main outcome measures Statements that achieved a high level of agreement and an overall median score of 7–9 on a nine-point scale were rated as ‘appropriate’. Results 74 best practice statements were extracted from the literature and rated across eight areas of care (eg, receiving the right referrals, providing intervention). At the end of Round 1, 71 of the 74 statements were rated as appropriate, no statements were rated as inappropriate, and three statements were rated as uncertain. All 74 statements were then rated again in the face-to-face second round. 16 statements were added through splitting existing items or adding new statements. Seven statements were deleted leaving 83 statements. Agreement was reached for 82 of the final 83 statements. Conclusions This national set of 82 best practice statements across eight care areas for the rehabilitation of people with aphasia is the first to be validated by an expert panel. These statements form a crucial component of the Australian Aphasia Rehabilitation Pathway (AARP) (http://www.aphasiapathway.com.au) and provide the basis for more consistent implementation of evidence-based practice in stroke rehabilitation. PMID:26137883

  16. 46 CFR 183.354 - Battery installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.354 Battery installations. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation...

  17. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  18. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi (Albuquerque, NM); Cheng, Yung-Sung (Albuquerque, NM)

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  19. Battery formation charging apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.L.

    1987-08-04

    An apparatus is describe for charging electric storage batteries, the apparatus comprising: (a) a host computer for providing charging information to and receiving status information from at least one slave computer by means of a data link; and (b) at least one control module coupled to the slave computer for applying charging current to at least one electric storage battery in response to instructions received from the slave computer, and for providing feedback and status information to the slave computer.

  20. Large nickel alkaline batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Himy

    1982-01-01

    Actual service data on the best commercial cells are examined to see if large batteries in the range of 2000 Ah can be built on the basis of existing technology used in cells of medium size (100-250 Ah) without further research. The systems examined are lead-acid, nickel-zinc, nickel-cadmium, nickel-iron, and silver-zinc batteries. An analysis of the data shows that of

  1. OAO battery data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaston, S.; Wertheim, M.; Orourke, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Summary, consolidation and analysis of specifications, manufacturing process and test controls, and performance results for OAO-2 and OAO-3 lot 20 Amp-Hr sealed nickel cadmium cells and batteries are reported. Correlation of improvements in control requirements with performance is a key feature. Updates for a cell/battery computer model to improve performance prediction capability are included. Applicability of regression analysis computer techniques to relate process controls to performance is checked.

  2. Flashlights and Batteries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    IEEE

    2013-08-30

    In this activity, learners explore how a flashlight works, showing the electric circuit and switch functions of this everyday household item. Learners discover how batteries work, how they provide power to the simple circuit within a simple flashlight, and how the switch controls the flow of electrons. Learners disassemble a flashlight and draw a schematic of a flashlight's circuit design.
    Safety note: Be sure students do not try to disassemble a battery

  3. Ordnance thermal battery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis Pracchia; Ronald F. Vetter; Darwin Rosenlof

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to thermal battery activated by external heat comprising an anode, e.g., composed of a lithium-aluminum alloy, a cathode, e.g., composed of iron disulfide, and an electrolyte, e.g., a lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic, the electrolyte being inactive at ambient temperature but being activated by melting at a predetermined temperature when exposed to external heating. The battery can be

  4. Externally heated thermal battery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis Pracchia; Ronald F. Vetter; Darwin Rosenlof

    1991-01-01

    A thermal battery activated by external heat comprising an anode (e.g., composed of a lithium-aluminum alloy), a cathode (e.g., composed of iron disulfide), and an electrolyte (e.g., a lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic) with the electrolyte inactive at ambient temperature but activated by melting at a predetermined temperature when exposed to external heating is presented. The battery can be used as

  5. Aluminum permanganate battery

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, C.; Licht, S.L.

    1993-11-30

    A battery is provided comprising an aluminum anode, an aqueous solution of permanganate as the cathodic species and a second electrode capable of reducing permanganate. Such a battery system is characterized by its high energy density and low polarization losses when operating at high temperatures in a strong caustic electrolyte, i.e., high concentration of hydroxyl ions. A variety of anode and electrocatalyst materials are suitable for the efficient oxidation-reduction process and are elucidated.

  6. C Battery Corral 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    EFFECT OF POLYMER ELECTRODE MORPHOLOGY ON PERFORMANCE OI' A LITHIUM/POLYPYRROLE BATTERY A Thesis by MARJORIE ANNE NICHOLSON Submitted to the OfIice of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Chemistry EFFECT OF POLYMER ELECTRODE MORPHOLOGY ON PERFORMANCE OF A LITHIUM/POLYPYRROLE BATTERY A Thesis MARJORIE ANNE NICHOLSON Approved as to style and content by Charles R. Martin (Chair...

  7. Western Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, P.W. (Canadian Stratigraphic Service Ltd., Calgary, Alberta); Robertson, D.C.

    1981-10-01

    In 1980, a third successive all-time drilling record was set in western Canada, with 8865 wells being drilled, up 20% since 1979. Exploratory drilling increased 30%, to 3744 wells, and development drilling increased 14%, to 5121 wells. The exploratory success rate increased to 66% in 1980, based on 1017 oil discoveries and 1463 gas discoveries. The development success rate increased marginally to 89%, with 1774 oil discoveries and 2778 gas discoveries. Average well depth increased in all four western provinces, and total land sales reached the record $1 billion mark in Alberta and a record $78 million in Saskatchewan. British Columbia land sales declined slightly to $181 million. Alberta drilling activity continued in the deeper portions of the Alberta basin and foothills, with major gas discoveries at Hanlan, Big Mountain, Blackstone, and Elmworth. Significant oil discoveries were made in the West Pembina Nisku pinnacle reefs, in the Upper Devonian at Del Bonita and Eaglesham, and in the Lower Cretaceous glauconite river channels in southern Alberta between Countess and Grand Forks. British Columbia successes occurred as the Elmworth Deep Basin play spilled over into British Columbia with gas discoveries at Tupper and Steeprock. Gas finds were also made at West Sierra and Murray. The Arctic Islands continued to yield the largest discoveries. Two major successes occurred in the Beaufort Sea, in an oil and gas discovery by Esso at Issungnak and a reentry oil discovery by Dome at Tarsuit. However, 1980 will especially be remembered for the introduction of the federal government's National Energy Program during October, with new taxes on revenue, lower than expected wellhead price increases, and major emphasis on increasing Canadian ownership and self-sufficiency. Industry and provincial government reaction was highly critical, and a major downturn in exploration is expected in western Canada in 1981. 3 figures, 8 tables.

  8. Temperature maintained battery system

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, W.A.

    1980-10-21

    A chassis contains a battery charger connected to a multi-cell battery. The charger receives direct current from an external direct current power source and has means to automatically selectively charge the battery in accordance with a preselected charging program relating to temperature adjusted state of discharge of the battery. A heater device is positioned within the chassis which includes heater elements and a thermal switch which activates the heater elements to maintain the battery above a certain predetermined temperature in accordance with preselected temperature conditions occurring within the chassis. A cooling device within the chassis includes a cooler regulator, a temperature sensor, and peltier effect cooler elements. The cooler regulator activates and deactivates the peltier cooler elements in accordance with preselected temperature conditions within the chassis sensed by the temperature sensor. Various vehicle function circuitry may also be positioned within the chassis. The contents of the chassis are positioned to form a passage proximate the battery in communication with an inlet and outlet in the chassis to receive air for cooling purposes from an external source.

  9. IMITATE: An intensive computer-based treatment for aphasia based on action observation and imitation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaime; Fowler, Robert; Rodney, Daniel; Cherney, Leora; Small, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Neurophysiological evidence from primates has demonstrated the presence of mirror neurons, with visual and motor properties, that discharge both when an action is performed and during observation of the same action. A similar system for observation-execution matching may also exist in humans. We postulate that behavioral stimulation of this parietal-frontal system may play an important role in motor learning for speech and thereby aid language recovery after stroke. Aims The purpose of this article is to describe the development of IMITATE, a computer-assisted system for aphasia therapy based on action observation and imitation. We also describe briefly the randomized controlled clinical trial that is currently underway to evaluate its efficacy and mechanism of action. Methods and Procedures IMITATE therapy consists of silent observation of audio-visually presented words and phrases spoken aloud by six different speakers, followed by a period during which the participant orally repeats the stimuli. We describe the rationale for the therapeutic features, stimulus selection, and delineation of treatment levels. The clinical trial is a randomized single blind controlled trial in which participants receive two pre-treatment baseline assessments, six weeks apart, followed by either IMITATE or a control therapy. Both treatments are provided intensively (90 minutes per day). Treatment is followed by a post-treatment assessment, and a six-week follow-up assessment. Outcomes & Results Thus far, five participants have completed IMITATE. We expect the results of the randomized controlled trial to be available by late 2010. Conclusions IMITATE is a novel computer-assisted treatment for aphasia that is supported by theoretical rationales and previous human and primate data from neurobiology. The treatment is feasible, and preliminary behavioral data are emerging. However, the results will not be known until the clinical trial data are available to evaluate fully the efficacy of IMITATE and to inform theoretically about the mechanism of action and the role of a human mirror system in aphasia treatment. PMID:20543997

  10. Effects of verb meaning on lexical integration in agrammatic aphasia: Evidence from eyetracking

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Jennifer E.; Ji, Woohyuk; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2013-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the time course of access to the lexical representations of verbs in agrammatic aphasia and its effects on the prediction and integration of the verb’s arguments. The present study used visual-world eyetracking to test whether verb meaning can be used by agrammatic aphasic individuals to predict and facilitate the integration of a subsequent noun argument. Nine adults with agrammatic aphasia and ten age-matched controls participated in the study. In Experiment 1, participants viewed arrays of four objects (e.g., jar, plate, stick, pencil) while listening to sentences containing either a restrictive verb that was semantically compatible only with the target object or an unrestrictive verb compatible with all four objects (e.g., Susan will open/break the jar). For both participant groups, the restrictive condition elicited more fixations to the target object immediately after the verb. Experiment 2 differed from Experiment 1 in that the auditory sentences presented were incomplete (e.g., Susan will open/break the…). For controls, restrictive verbs elicited more target fixations immediately after the verb; however, the effects of verb type were noted downstream from the verb for the aphasic listeners. The results suggest that individuals with agrammatic aphasia have preserved ability to use verb information to facilitate integration of overt arguments, but prediction of upcoming arguments is impaired. Impaired lexical-semantic prediction processes may be caused by damage to the left inferior frontal gyrus, which has been argued to support higher-level lexical processes. PMID:24092952

  11. Extended turn construction and test question sequences in the conversations of three speakers with agrammatic aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Beckley, Firle; Best, Wendy; Johnson, Fiona; Edwards, Susan; Maxim, Jane

    2013-01-01

    The application of Conversation Analysis (CA) to the investigation of agrammatic aphasia reveals that utterances produced by speakers with agrammatism engaged in everyday conversation differ significantly from utterances produced in response to decontextualised assessment and therapy tasks. Early studies have demonstrated that speakers with agrammatism construct turns from sequences of nouns, adjectives, discourse markers and conjunctions, packaged by a distinct pattern of prosody. This article presents examples of turn construction methods deployed by three people with agrammatism as they take an extended turn, in order to recount a past event, initiate a discussion or have a disagreement. This is followed by examples of sequences occurring in the talk of two of these speakers that result in different, and more limited, turn construction opportunities, namely “test” questions asked in order to initiate a new topic of talk, despite the conversation partner knowing the answer. The contrast between extended turns and test question sequences illustrates the effect of interactional context on aphasic turn construction practices, and the potential of less than optimal sequences to mask turn construction skills. It is suggested that the interactional motivation for test question sequences in these data are to invite people with aphasia to contribute to conversation, rather than to practise saying words in an attempt to improve language skills. The idea that test question sequences may have their origins in early attempts to deal with acute aphasia, and the potential for conversation partnerships to become “stuck” in such interactional patterns after they may have outlived their usefulness, are discussed with a view to clinical implications. PMID:23848370

  12. Language control and parallel recovery of language in individuals with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Green, David W; Grogan, Alice; Crinion, Jenny; Ali, Nilufa; Sutton, Catherine; Price, Cathy J

    2010-02-01

    Background: The causal basis of the different patterns of language recovery following stroke in bilingual speakers is not well understood. Our approach distinguishes the representation of language from the mechanisms involved in its control. Previous studies have suggested that difficulties in language control can explain selective aphasia in one language as well as pathological switching between languages. Here we test the hypothesis that difficulties in managing and resolving competition will also be observed in those who are equally impaired in both their languages even in the absence of pathological switching.Aims: To examine difficulties in language control in bilingual individuals with parallel recovery in aphasia and to compare their performance on different types of conflict task.Methods & Procedures: Two right-handed, non-native English-speaking participants who showed parallel recovery of two languages after stroke and a group of non-native English-speaking, bilingual controls described a scene in English and in their first language and completed three explicit conflict tasks. Two of these were verbal conflict tasks: a lexical decision task in English, in which individuals distinguished English words from non-words, and a Stroop task, in English and in their first language. The third conflict task was a non-verbal flanker task.Outcomes & Results: Both participants with aphasia were impaired in the picture description task in English and in their first language but showed different patterns of impairment on the conflict tasks. For the participant with left subcortical damage, conflict was abnormally high during the verbal tasks (lexical decision and Stroop) but not during the non-verbal flanker task. In contrast, for the participant with extensive left parietal damage, conflict was less abnormal during the Stroop task than the flanker or lexical decision task.Conclusions: Our data reveal two distinct control impairments associated with parallel recovery. We stress the need to explore the precise nature of control problems and how control is implemented in order to develop fuller causal accounts of language recovery patterns in bilingual aphasia. PMID:20186261

  13. Emergence delirium with transient associative agnosia and expressive aphasia reversed by flumazenil in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Drobish, Julie K; Kelz, Max B; DiPuppo, Patricia M; Cook-Sather, Scott D

    2015-06-01

    Multiple factors may contribute to the development of emergence delirium in a child. We present the case of a healthy 12-year-old girl who received preoperative midazolam with the desired anxiolytic effect, underwent a brief general anesthetic, and then exhibited postoperative delirium, consisting of a transient associative agnosia and expressive aphasia. Administration of flumazenil led to immediate and lasting resolution of her symptoms. We hypothesize that ?-aminobutyric acid type A receptor-mediated effects, most likely related to an atypical offset of midazolam, are an important subset of emergence delirium that is amenable to pharmacologic therapy with flumazenil. PMID:26035220

  14. Quantitative classification of primary progressive aphasia at early and mild impairment stages

    PubMed Central

    Wieneke, Christina; Thompson, Cynthia; Rogalski, Emily; Weintraub, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of early and mild disease in primary progressive aphasia are poorly understood. This report is based on 25 patients with aphasia quotients >85%, 13 of whom were within 2 years of symptom onset. Word-finding and spelling deficits were the most frequent initial signs. Diagnostic imaging was frequently negative and initial consultations seldom reached a correct diagnosis. Functionality was preserved, so that the patients fit current criteria for single-domain mild cognitive impairment. One goal was to determine whether recently published classification guidelines could be implemented at these early and mild disease stages. The quantitative testing of the recommended core and ancillary criteria led to the classification of ?80% of the sample into agrammatic, logopenic and semantic variants. Biological validity of the resultant classification at these mild impairment stages was demonstrated by clinically concordant cortical atrophy patterns. A two-dimensional template based on orthogonal mapping of word comprehension and grammaticality provided comparable accuracy and led to a flexible road map that can guide the classification process quantitatively or qualitatively. Longitudinal evaluations of initially unclassifiable patients showed that the semantic variant can be preceded by a prodromal stage of focal left anterior temporal atrophy during which prominent anomia exists without word comprehension or object recognition impairments. Patterns of quantitative tests justified the distinction of grammar from speech abnormalities and the desirability of using the ‘agrammatic’ designation exclusively for loss of grammaticality, regardless of fluency or speech status. Two patients with simultaneous impairments of grammatical sentence production and word comprehension displayed focal atrophy of the inferior frontal gyrus and the anterior temporal lobe. These patients represent a fourth variant of ‘mixed’ primary progressive aphasia. Quantitative criteria were least effective in the distinction of the agrammatic from the logopenic variant and left considerable latitude to clinical judgement. The widely followed recommendation to wait for 2 years of relatively isolated and progressive language impairment before making a definitive diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia has promoted diagnostic specificity, but has also diverted attention away from early and mild disease. This study shows that this recommendation is unnecessarily restrictive and that quantitative guidelines can be implemented for the valid root diagnosis and subtyping of mildly impaired patients within 2 years of symptom onset. An emphasis on early diagnosis will promote a better characterization of the disease stages where therapeutic interventions are the most likely to succeed. PMID:22525158

  15. Metronidazole toxicity presenting with acute onset of aphasia and right sided weakness.

    PubMed

    Demel, Stacie L; Jovin, Tudor G; Jadhav, Ashutosh P

    2015-07-01

    We report a 37-year-old man with a history of cirrhosis and methicillin-sensitive staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia who presented from a nursing home with 1week of progressive confusion followed by acute onset of aphasia, forced left eye deviation and right sided weakness. While clinical presentation was concerning for a left middle cerebral artery stroke, MRI was consistent with leukoencephalopathy. The man had been on metronidazole for 2months for treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. This case exemplifies a stroke mimic to be considered when a patient presents with an acute focal neurological deficit. PMID:25796956

  16. Thermoelectric temperature stabilized battery system

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, C.R.

    1982-02-02

    A temperature stabilized battery system including a battery having at least one rechargeable electrochemical cell, a peltier type heat pump providing a hot thermal transfer face, a cold thermal transfer face and semiconductor means for transferring thermal energy between the two faces, one thermal transfer face being in thermal transfer relation to the battery and the other face being in thermal transfer relation to a heat sink. Thermal insulation surrounds at least a portion of the battery for reducing the flow of heat into and out of the battery except via the heat pump. The battery is wrapped or encased in a thermally conductive blanket which is surrounded by the insulation means.

  17. Lithium use in batteries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  18. Battery Vent Mechanism And Method

    DOEpatents

    Ching, Larry K. W. (Littleton, CO)

    2000-02-15

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  19. Battery vent mechanism and method

    SciTech Connect

    Ching, L.K.W.

    2000-02-15

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  20. Analysis of Abstract and Concrete Word Processing in Persons with Aphasia and Age-Matched Neurologically Healthy Adults Using fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Kiran, Swathi

    2013-01-01

    The concreteness effect occurs in both normal and language-disordered populations. Research suggests that abstract and concrete concepts elicit differing neural activation patterns in healthy young adults, but this is undocumented in persons with aphasia. Three persons with aphasia and three age-matched controls were scanned using fMRI while processing abstract and concrete words. Consistent with current theories of abstract and concrete word processing, abstract words elicited activation in verbal areas whereas concrete words additionally activated multi-modal association areas. Persons with aphasia show greater differences in neural activation than age-matched controls between abstract and concrete words, possibly due to an exaggerated concreteness effect. PMID:23548150

  1. Advanced battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In order to promote national security by ensuring that the United States has an adequate supply of safe, assured, affordable, and environmentally acceptable energy, the Storage Batteries Division at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, is responsible for engineering development of advanced rechargeable batteries for energy applications. This effort is conducted within the Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing (ETD) Lead center, whose activities are coordinated by staff within the Storage Batteries Division. The ETD Project, directed by SNL, is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Systems Research, Energy Storage and Distribution Division (DOE/OESD). SNL is also responsible for technical management of the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EV-ABS) Development Project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS). The ETD Project is operated in conjunction with the Technology Base Research (TBR) Project, which is under the direction of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Together these two projects seek to establish the scientific feasibility of advanced electrochemical energy storage systems, and conduct the initial engineering development on systems suitable for mobile and stationary commercial applications.

  2. Advanced battery development

    SciTech Connect

    Diegle, R.B.; McWilliams, J.Y. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    In order to promote national security by ensuring that the United States has an adequate supply of safe, assured, affordable, and environmentally acceptable energy, the Storage Batteries Division at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, is responsible for engineering development of advanced rechargeable batteries for energy applications. This effort is conducted within the Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing (ETD) Lead center, whose activities are coordinated by staff within the Storage Batteries Division. The ETD Project, directed by SNL, is supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Systems Research, Energy Storage and Distribution Division (DOE/OESD). SNL is also responsible for technical management of the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EV-ABS) Development Project, which is supported by the US Department Of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS). The ETD Project is operated in conjunction with the Technology Base Research (TBR) Project, which is under the direction of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Together these two projects seek to: establish the scientific feasibility of advanced electrochemical energy storage systems, and conduct the initial engineering development on systems suitable for mobile and stationary commercial applications. 6 figs.

  3. ANALYSIS OF BATTERY CABLE FAULTS USING A DYNAMIC BATTERY MODEL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nosh K. Medora; Alexander Kusko

    Fault current calculations for the selection of circuit breakers or fuses for battery cables is normally conducted for the voltage of fully charged batteries and cables at operating temperatures (Ref. 1). However, batteries at a low state of charge not only have a lower terminal voltage, but also have an internal resistance up to three times the nominal value (Ref.

  4. Handbook of batteries and fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Linden

    1984-01-01

    Detailed information is given on the properties, performance characteristics, and applications of all major battery and fuel cell power sources currently being manufactured. The basic concepts, comparative features, and selection criteria that apply to all battery systems are first discussed. Comprehensive coverage is then given to primary batteries, secondary batteries, advanced secondary batteries, reserve and special batteries, and fuel cells.

  5. Brain glucose utilisation in acquired childhood aphasia associated with a sylvian arachnoid cyst: recovery after shunting as demonstrated by PET

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A G De Volder; C Michel; C Thauvoy; G Willems; G Ferrière

    1994-01-01

    Regional brain glucose utilisation was investigated with PET and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in a case of epileptic aphasia (Landau-Kleffner syndrome) associated with a left sylvian arachnoid cyst. CT and MRI had failed to disclose any mass effect of the cyst on surrounding brain structures. Sequential metabolic measurements showed a comparable pronounced hypometabolism in cortical regions around the cyst, involving speech areas,

  6. Elucidating the Nature of Deregulated Semantic Cognition in Semantic Aphasia: Evidence for the Roles of Prefrontal and Temporoparietal Cortices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krist A. Noonan; Elizabeth Jefferies; Faye Corbett; Matthew A. Lambon Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Semantic cognition—semantically driven verbal and nonverbal behavior—is composed of at least two interactive principal components: conceptual representations and executive control processes that regulate and shape activation within the semantic system. Previous studies indicate that semantic dementia follows from a progressive yet specific degradation of conceptual knowledge. In contrast, multimodal semantic impairment in aphasic patients (semantic aphasia [SA]) reflects damage to

  7. Knowledge Is BLISS: An Investigation into the Transparency of BLISS Symbol Strings Directed by a Person with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Tony; Bruce, Carolyn; Black, Maria; Clayton, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Background: Since his stroke 15 years ago, Tony O'Donnell has worked with BLISS, a symbolic, graphical language. BLISS has been used with a variety of clinical populations, including people with severe aphasia. O'Donnell found his adapted version of BLISS was meaningful to him when spoken and written English was not. The present study is part of a…

  8. Stimulating Conversation: Enhancement of Elicited Propositional Speech in a Patient with Chronic Non-Fluent Aphasia following Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Roy H.; Sanders, Linda; Benson, Jennifer; Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Norise, Catherine; Naeser, Margaret; Martin, Paula; Coslett, H. Branch

    2010-01-01

    Although evidence suggests that patients with left hemisphere strokes and non-fluent aphasia who receive 1Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the intact right inferior frontal gyrus experience persistent benefits in naming, it remains unclear whether the effects of rTMS in these patients generalize to other language…

  9. Clause Structure and Verb Movement in a Greek-English Speaking Bilingual Patient with Broca's Aphasia: Evidence from Adverb Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexiadou, Artemis; Stavrakaki, Stavroula

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of a Greek-English bilingual patient with Broca's aphasia and mild agrammatism on the placement of CP, MoodP, AspectP, and NegP-related adverbs, labeled specifier-type adverbs, and VP-related adverbs, labeled complement-type adverbs, by means of a constituent ordering task and a grammaticality judgment…

  10. Measuring Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in Aphasia: Reliability, Validity, and Sensitivity to Change of the Scenario Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Meulen, Ineke; van de Sandt-Koenderman, W. Mieke E.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Ribbers, Gerard M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study explores the psychometric qualities of the Scenario Test, a new test to assess daily-life communication in severe aphasia. The test is innovative in that it: (1) examines the effectiveness of verbal and non-verbal communication; and (2) assesses patients' communication in an interactive setting, with a supportive…

  11. Closing the evidence, research, and practice loop: Examples of knowledge transfer and exchange from the field of aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aura Kagan; Nina Simmons-Mackie; Jane Brenneman Gibson; James Conklin; Roberta J. Elman

    2010-01-01

    Background: Knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) is an emerging area of expertise with potential to foster productive relationships between researchers and users of research in the field of aphasia. Effective KTE can increase the use of research evidence in policy and practice decisions and enable researchers to identify research questions that are relevant to potential users of research. In Canada

  12. Impaired L1 and Executive Control after Left Basal Ganglia Damage in a Bilingual Basque-Spanish Person with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrover-Roig, Daniel; Galparsoro-Izagirre, Nekane; Marcotte, Karine; Ferre, Perrine; Wilson, Maximiliano A.; Ansaldo, Ana Ines

    2011-01-01

    Bilinguals must focus their attention to control competing languages. In bilingual aphasia, damage to the fronto-subcortical loop may lead to pathological language switching and mixing and the attrition of the more automatic language (usually L1). We present the case of JZ, a bilingual Basque-Spanish 53-year-old man who, after haematoma in the…

  13. Apraxia of Speech and Phonological Errors in the Diagnosis of Nonfluent/Agrammatic and Logopenic Variants of Primary Progressive Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croot, Karen; Ballard, Kirrie; Leyton, Cristian E.; Hodges, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The International Consensus Criteria for the diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia (PPA; Gorno-Tempini et al., 2011) propose apraxia of speech (AOS) as 1 of 2 core features of nonfluent/agrammatic PPA and propose phonological errors or absence of motor speech disorder as features of logopenic PPA. We investigated the sensitivity and…

  14. The Impact of Semantic Impairment on Verbal Short-Term Memory in Stroke Aphasia and Semantic Dementia: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Paul; Jones, Roy; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the first direct comparison of immediate serial recall in semantic dementia (SD) and transcortical sensory aphasia (TSA). Previous studies of the effect of semantic impairment on verbal short-term memory (STM) have led to important theoretical advances. However, different conclusions have been drawn from these two groups. This…

  15. The testing of car batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Steffens, F. [Francois Steffens Consulting Services, Oree (Switzerland)

    1996-02-01

    The testing of car batteries is more often a question of why than how. Although such batteries are all fairly simple and similar, the use is very diversified. One could try to approach the problem by making some classification: (1) New batteries: OEM, wet charged; replacement, dry and wet charged (2) Batteries in use: Ordinary passenger cars with good operating conditions; service vehicles (trucks, buses) requiring high reliability; poor operating conditions, inclusive non-automotive. Different constructions allow to satisfy the requirements: compact, high-performance batteries are suitable for light service. For difficult operating conditions reinforced heavy-duty batteries should be installed; the slightly higher production cost is compensated for by a longer life. This paper discusses battery testing with regard to failures, battery life, and electrical measurements.

  16. Realistic electric vehicle battery evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, W.A.; Salameh, Z.M. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering] [Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1997-12-01

    The STM-5-140 Nickel Cadmium electric vehicle battery was tested under actual operating conditions using the UMASS Lowell battery evaluation laboratory. The battery evaluation system uses battery current data taken from an EV using its on board data acquisition system. The car is driven on a typical commute while battery current as well as other data are taken at one second intervals. In the battery evaluation lab, individual batteries are subjected to the same operating conditions as those in the car. This procedure uses fewer batteries and allows the same commute to be repeated exactly. Three test procedures using 0, 20, and 40 degree centigrade controlled environment temperatures were implemented. Measured data consisted of voltage, current, and temperature. Test cycle, capacity and round trip efficiency data are presented.

  17. Bromocriptine and speech therapy in non-fluent chronic aphasia after stroke.

    PubMed

    Bragoni, M; Altieri, M; Di Piero, V; Padovani, A; Mostardini, C; Lenzi, G L

    2000-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the efficacy of bromocriptine (BR) combined with speech therapy (ST) to improve a late recovery in non-fluent aphasic stroke patients. We performed a double-blind study with high dosage of BR, prescribed according to a dose-escalating protocol, comprehensive of clinical data, relatives' impression, and language evaluations. The study was divided into the following phases: t-0, inclusion; t-30, language re-test to evaluate the stability of aphasia; t-90, placebo (PL) and ST; t-150, BR and ST; t-210, BR; t-270, wash-out. With respect to the baseline assessment, a significant improvement was observed in the following tests: dictation (F, 4.8; p < .004), reading-comprehension (F, 8.1; p < .0003), repetition (F, 3.8; p < .01) and verbal latency (F, 4.9; p < .01). High dosage of BR promoted a late recovery in stable chronic non-fluent aphasia and this improvement was enhanced by combination with ST. PMID:10938198

  18. The validity of Barlow's 1877 case of acquired childhood aphasia: case notes versus published reports.

    PubMed

    Hellal, Paula; Lorch, Marjorie Perlman

    2007-01-01

    In 1877, Barlow described a ten-year-old boy with right hemiplegia and aphasia, quick recovery of language function, and subsequent left hemiplegia and aphasia, who was shown to have symmetrical left and right Broca's area lesions at autopsy. The report of this case motivated many writers in the second half of the nineteenth century to develop theories on localization, laterality, equipotentiality and development of specialization, recovery of function, and the role of the right hemisphere (see Finger et al., 2003, for review). This paper presents an analysis of the original archived case notes that have recently come to light. Examination reveals discrepancies in significant details of the history of the case and raises questions about the degree of impairment and recovery throughout his illness as reported in the published article. Consideration of these differences between the presentation of the case in the British Medical Journal publication and the documentation in the original patient records raises issues about the validity of this case as evidence for the many arguments it was to support that have persisted to the present. PMID:17966055

  19. The italian determiner system in normal acquisition, specific language impairment, and childhood aphasia.

    PubMed

    Bottari, P; Cipriani, P; Chilosi, A M; Pfanner, L

    2001-06-01

    The paper presents a comparison of the development of the Italian determiner system in three different populations: normally developing children, a child recovering from childhood aphasia from the age of 3 years, 9 months, and 11 specific language impairment (SLI) children. Data from Italian normal children provide evidence for the hypothesis (1) that no prefunctional stage exists as far as the determiner system is concerned and (2) that the syntactic properties of determiners play an essential triggering role early on. The analysis of the determiner system in the aphasic child has a double interest. On the one hand, it may help to shed light on some of the intriguing questions concerning this type of disorder; on the other, it may be relevant for the discussion of the notion of agrammatism. Results of the morphosyntactic analysis reveal that, apart from timing differences, recovery from childhood aphasia shares important features with normal development. Differently from mean length of utterance (MLU)-matched normal controls and the aphasic child, SLI children omit determiners significantly more often than almost any other functional category or free morpheme. We will argue that the reasons for the SLI children's atypical behavior have to be sought in the nonaccessibility to or in the misappreciation of one fundamental syntactic property of determiners: their role as elements that assign argumenthood to nominal expressions (Szabolcsi, 1987; Longobardi, 1994). PMID:11386697

  20. Crosslinguistic semantic and translation priming in normal bilingual individuals and bilingual aphasia.

    PubMed

    Kiran, Swathi; Lebel, Keith R

    2007-04-01

    The present study examined lexical representation in early Spanish-English bilinguals using an unmasked semantic and translation priming paradigm. In Experiment 1, participants were divided into two groups based on performance (more-balanced bilinguals, MB and less-balanced bilinguals, LB) on the experimental task. In Experiment 2, four patients with bilingual aphasia (BA) performed the same experiment. Results from both experiments revealed that all groups were more accurate for English targets (S-E direction) than Spanish targets (S-E direction). In Experiment 1, semantic priming was observed from English to Spanish in both the LB and MB groups although the effect was greater for the LB group. Further, only the LB group showed priming from Spanish to English. For both normal groups, there was no difference between translation and semantic priming effects. In Experiment 2, patients with bilingual aphasia demonstrated different patterns of activation with no clear trends. Two participants demonstrated greater priming from Spanish to English whereas two participants demonstrated the opposite effect. PMID:17453869

  1. Cognate Effects and Executive Control in a Patient With Differential Bilingual Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Verreyt, Nele; De Letter, Miet; Hemelsoet, Dimitri; Santens, Patrick; Duyck, Wouter

    2013-04-01

    We describe a case study of a French-Dutch bilingual patient with differential aphasia, showing clearly larger impairments in Dutch than in French. We investigated whether this differential impairment in both languages was due to selective damage to language-specific brain areas resulting in the "loss" of the language representation itself, or rather if it reflects an executive control deficit. We assessed cross-linguistic interactions (involving lexical activation in the most affected language) with cognates in a lexical decision (LD) task, and executive control using a flanker task. We used a generalized LD task (any word requires a "yes" response) and a selective LD task in the patient's two languages (only words in a given target language require a "yes" response). The cognate data unveil a differential pattern in the three tasks, with a clear cognate facilitation effect in the generalized LD tasks and almost no cognate effect in the selective LD tasks. This implies that a more impaired language can still affect the processing of words in the best-preserved language, but only with low cross-language competition demands (generalized LD). Additionally, the flanker task showed a larger congruency effect for the patient compared with controls, indicating cognitive control difficulties. Together, these results support accounts of differential bilingual aphasia in terms of language-control difficulties. PMID:23557193

  2. Semantic complexity in treatment of naming deficits in aphasia: Evidence from well-defined categories

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Swathi; Johnson, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Our previous work on manipulating typicality of category exemplars during treatment of naming deficits has shown that training atypical examples generalizes to untrained typical examples but not vice versa. In contrast to natural categories that consist of fuzzy boundaries, well-defined categories (e.g., shapes) have rigid category boundaries. Whether these categories illustrate typicality effects similar to natural categories is under debate. The present study addressed this question in the context of treatment for naming deficits in aphasia. Methods Using a single subject experiment design, three participants with aphasia received a semantic feature treatment to improve naming of either typical or atypical items of shapes, while generalization was tested to untrained items of the category. Results For two of the three participants, training naming of atypical examples of shapes resulted in improved naming of untrained typical examples. Training typical examples in one participant did not improve naming of atypical examples. All three participants, however, showed weak acquisition trends. Conclusions Results of the present study show equivocal support for manipulating typicality as a treatment variable within well defined categories. Instead, these results indicate that acquisition and generalization effects within well defined categories such as shapes are overshadowed by their inherent abstractness. PMID:18845698

  3. Automated classification of primary progressive aphasia subtypes from narrative speech transcripts.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Kathleen C; Meltzer, Jed A; Graham, Naida L; Leonard, Carol; Hirst, Graeme; Black, Sandra E; Rochon, Elizabeth

    2014-06-01

    In the early stages of neurodegenerative disorders, individuals may exhibit a decline in language abilities that is difficult to quantify with standardized tests. Careful analysis of connected speech can provide valuable information about a patient's language capacities. To date, this type of analysis has been limited by its time-consuming nature. In this study, we present a method for evaluating and classifying connected speech in primary progressive aphasia using computational techniques. Syntactic and semantic features were automatically extracted from transcriptions of narrative speech for three groups: semantic dementia (SD), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), and healthy controls. Features that varied significantly between the groups were used to train machine learning classifiers, which were then tested on held-out data. We achieved accuracies well above baseline on the three binary classification tasks. An analysis of the influential features showed that in contrast with controls, both patient groups tended to use words which were higher in frequency (especially nouns for SD, and verbs for PNFA). The SD patients also tended to use words (especially nouns) that were higher in familiarity, and they produced fewer nouns, but more demonstratives and adverbs, than controls. The speech of the PNFA group tended to be slower and incorporate shorter words than controls. The patient groups were distinguished from each other by the SD patients' relatively increased use of words which are high in frequency and/or familiarity. PMID:23332818

  4. tDCS over the left inferior frontal cortex improves speech production in aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Marangolo, Paola; Fiori, Valentina; Calpagnano, Maria A.; Campana, Serena; Razzano, Carmelina; Caltagirone, Carlo; Marini, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the combined effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and an intensive Conversational therapy treatment on discourse skills in 12 persons with chronic aphasia. Six short video clips depicting everyday life contexts were prepared. Three videoclips were used to elicit spontaneous conversation during treatment. The remaining three were presented only before and after the therapy. Participants were prompted to talk about the contents of each videoclip while stimulated with tDCS (20 min 1 mA) over the left hemisphere in three conditions: anodic tDCS over the Broca's area, anodic tDCS over the Wernicke's area, and a sham condition. Each experimental condition was performed for 10 consecutive daily sessions with 14 days of intersession interval. After stimulation over Broca's area, the participants produced more Content Units, verbs and sentences than in the remaining two conditions. Importantly, this improvement was still detectable 1 month after the end of treatment and its effects were generalized also to the three videoclips that had been administered at the beginning and at the end of the therapy sessions. In conclusion, anodic tDCS applied over the left Broca's area together with an intensive “Conversational Therapy” treatment improves informative speech in persons with chronic aphasia. We believe that positive tDCS effects may be further extended to other language domains, such as the recovery of speech production. PMID:24046740

  5. Protocol evaluation for effective music therapy for persons with nonfluent aphasia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mijin; Tomaino, Concetta M

    2008-01-01

    Although the notion of the language specificity of neural correlates has been widely accepted in the past (e.g., lefthemispheric dominance including Broca's and Wernike's area, N400 ERP component of semantic processing, and the P600 ERP component of syntactic processing, etc.), recent studies have shown that music and language share some important neurological aspects in their processing, both involving bilateral hemispheric activities. In line with this are the frequent behavioral clinical observations that persons with aphasia show improved articulation and prosody of speech in musically assisted phrases. Connecting recent neurological findings with clinical observations would not only inform clinical practice but would enhance understanding of the neurological mechanisms involved in the processing of speech/language and music. This article presents a music therapy treatment protocol study of 7 nonfluent patients with aphasia. The data and findings are discussed with regard to some of the recent focuses and issues addressed in the experimental studies using cognitive-behavioral, electrophysiological, and brain-imaging techniques. PMID:19158063

  6. Safe battery solvents

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Delmastro, Joseph R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stewart, Frederick F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2007-10-23

    An ion transporting solvent maintains very low vapor pressure, contains flame retarding elements, and is nontoxic. The solvent in combination with common battery electrolyte salts can be used to replace the current carbonate electrolyte solution, creating a safer battery. It can also be used in combination with polymer gels or solid polymer electrolytes to produce polymer batteries with enhanced conductivity characteristics. The solvents may comprise a class of cyclic and acyclic low molecular weight phosphazenes compounds, comprising repeating phosphorus and nitrogen units forming a core backbone and ion-carrying pendent groups bound to the phosphorus. In preferred embodiments, the cyclic phosphazene comprises at least 3 phosphorus and nitrogen units, and the pendent groups are polyethers, polythioethers, polyether/polythioethers or any combination thereof, and/or other groups preferably comprising other atoms from Group 6B of the periodic table of elements.

  7. Externally heated thermal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pracchia, Louis; Vetter, Ronald F.; Rosenlof, Darwin

    1991-04-01

    A thermal battery activated by external heat comprising an anode (e.g., composed of a lithium-aluminum alloy), a cathode (e.g., composed of iron disulfide), and an electrolyte (e.g., a lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic) with the electrolyte inactive at ambient temperature but activated by melting at a predetermined temperature when exposed to external heating is presented. The battery can be used as a sensor or to ignite pyrotechnic and power electronic devices in a system for reducing the hazard of ordnance exposed to detrimental heating. A particular application is the use of the battery to activate a squib to function in conjunction with one or more other components to vent an ordnance case in order to prevent its explosion in a fire.

  8. Ordnance thermal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pracchia, Louis; Vetter, Ronald F.; Rosenlof, Darwin

    1993-04-01

    This invention pertains to thermal battery activated by external heat comprising an anode, e.g., composed of a lithium-aluminum alloy, a cathode, e.g., composed of iron disulfide, and an electrolyte, e.g., a lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic, the electrolyte being inactive at ambient temperature but being activated by melting at a predetermined temperature when exposed to external heating. The battery can be used as a sensor or to ignite pyrotechnic and power electronic devices, in system for reducing the hazard of ordnance exposed to detrimental heating. A particular application is the use of the battery to activate a squib to function in conjunction with one or more other components, to vent an ordnance case, preventing its explosion in a fire.

  9. High current testing of batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. I. Shkuratov; M. Kristiansen; J. C. Dickens; E. Horrocks

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. The demand for portable pulsed power devices for scientific, industrial, educational and other uses is constantly increasing, the need for high-energy batteries as alternative means to power these devices is also increasing. There are a number of different kinds of batteries available. In this work we tested different types of commercial batteries in a

  10. Battery switch for downhole tools

    DOEpatents

    Boling, Brian E. (Sugar Land, TX)

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  11. Battery Options for Standby Power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Halliwell

    1979-01-01

    Future trends within the industry are considered, and recent developments in batteries are reviewed, including improved lead acid designs, sodium sulphur and advanced primary batteries. By the very nature of the reliability and long service life requirements, technological change and the introduction of new battery types is a slow process. Apart from certain emergency power systems that require particularly high

  12. The standard 20 AH battery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. T. Zollner

    1977-01-01

    The modular power system, which is the first intended use for the NASA standard battery, is basically a four foot by four foot by eighteen inch box which can handle a complement of three 20 ampere hour batteries or later on the intended use is for three 50 ampere hour batteries to be the full complement. The system is designed

  13. Thermally activated (“thermal”) battery technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald A. Guidotti; Patrick Masset

    2006-01-01

    Thermally activated (“thermal”) batteries are primary batteries that use molten salts as electrolytes and employ an internal pyrotechnic (heat) source to bring the battery stack to operating temperatures. They are primarily used for military applications, such as missiles and ordnance, and in nuclear weapons. This paper discusses the development history and presents a general overview of this technology.

  14. A Desalination Battery Mauro Pasta,

    E-print Network

    Cui, Yi

    A Desalination Battery Mauro Pasta, Colin D. Wessells, Yi Cui,,§ and Fabio La Mantia demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity

  15. Food Battery Competition Sponsored by

    E-print Network

    Tennessee, University of

    Food Battery Competition Sponsored by: The University of Tennessee, Materials Advantage (MA not have enough natural resources to support our growing populations and energy needs forever. Batteries have evolved a great deal and when you compare the bulky, heavy, toxic car lead batteries to the novel

  16. Variability in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in patients with stroke-induced and primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Bonakdarpour, B.; Beeson, P.M.; DeMarco, A.T.; Rapcsak, S.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Although fMRI is increasingly used to assess language-related brain activation in patients with aphasia, few studies have examined the hemodynamic response function (HRF) in perilesional, and contralesional areas of the brain. In addition, the relationship between HRF abnormalities and other variables such as lesion size and severity of aphasia has not been explored. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in HRF signal during language-related neural activation in patients with stroke-induced aphasia (SA). We also examined the status of the HRF in patients with aphasia due to nonvascular etiology, namely, primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Five right handed SA patients, three PPA patients, and five healthy individuals participated in the study. Structural damage was quantified with T1-weighted MR images. Functional MR imaging was performed with long trial event-related design and an overt naming task to measure BOLD signal time to peak (TTP) and percent signal change (?S). In SA patients, the average HRF TTP was significantly delayed in the left hemisphere regions involved in naming compared to healthy participants and PPA patients. However, ?S was not different in SA patients compared to the other two groups. Delay in HRF TTP in the left hemisphere naming network of SA patients was correlated with lesion size and showed a negative correlation with global language function. There were no significant differences in the HRF TTP and ?S in the right hemisphere homologues of the naming network or in the left and the right occipital control regions across the three groups. In PPA patients, HRF had a normal pattern. Our results indicate that abnormal task-related HRF is primarily found in the left hemisphere language network of SA patients and raise the possibility that abnormal physiology superimposed on structural damage may contribute to the clinical deficit. Follow-up investigations in a larger sample of age-matched healthy individuals, SA, and PPA patients will be needed to further confirm and extend our findings.

  17. Individualized treatment with transcranial direct current stimulation in patients with chronic non-fluent aphasia due to stroke

    PubMed Central

    Shah-Basak, Priyanka P.; Norise, Catherine; Garcia, Gabriella; Torres, Jose; Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Hamilton, Roy H.

    2015-01-01

    While evidence suggests that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may facilitate language recovery in chronic post-stroke aphasia, individual variability in patient response to different patterns of stimulation remains largely unexplored. We sought to characterize this variability among chronic aphasic individuals, and to explore whether repeated stimulation with an individualized optimal montage could lead to persistent reduction of aphasia severity. In a two-phase study, we first stimulated patients with four active montages (left hemispheric anode or cathode; right hemispheric anode or cathode) and one sham montage (Phase 1). We examined changes in picture naming ability to address (1) variability in response to different montages among our patients, and (2) whether individual patients responded optimally to at least one montage. During Phase 2, subjects who responded in Phase 1 were randomized to receive either real-tDCS or to receive sham stimulation (10 days); patients who were randomized to receive sham stimulation first were then crossed over to receive real-tDCS (10 days). In both phases, 2 mA tDCS was administered for 20 min per real-tDCS sessions and patients performed a picture naming task during stimulation. Patients' language ability was re-tested after 2-weeks and 2-months following real and sham tDCS in Phase 2. In Phase 1, despite considerable individual variability, the greatest average improvement was observed after left-cathodal stimulation. Seven out of 12 subjects responded optimally to at least one montage as demonstrated by transient improvement in picture-naming. In Phase 2, aphasia severity improved at 2-weeks and 2-months following real-tDCS but not sham. Despite individual variability with respect to optimal tDCS approach, certain montages result in consistent transient improvement in persons with chronic post-stroke aphasia. This preliminary study supports the notion that individualized tDCS treatment may enhance aphasia recovery in a persistent manner. PMID:25954178

  18. Current balancing for battery strings

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, James H. (New Baltimore, MI)

    1985-01-01

    A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means for balancing the electrical current flow through a pluraliircuitbattery strings which are connected electrically in parallel. The magnetic circuit means is associated with the battery strings such that the conductors carrying the electrical current flow through each of the battery strings pass through the magnetic circuit means in directions which cause the electromagnetic fields of at least one predetermined pair of the conductors to oppose each other. In an alternative embodiment, a low voltage converter is associated with each of the battery strings for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings.

  19. Battery testing for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hund, Tom

    1997-02-01

    Battery testing for photovoltaic (PV) applications is funded at Sandia under the Department of Energy's (DOE) Photovoltaic Balance of Systems (BOS) Program. The goal of the PV BOS program is to improve PV system component design, operation, reliability, and to reduce overall life-cycle costs. The Sandia battery testing program consists of: 1) PV battery and charge controller market survey, 2) battery performance and life-cycle testing, 3) PV charge controller development, and 4) system field testing. Test results from this work have identified market size and trends, PV battery test procedures, application guidelines, and needed hardware improvements.

  20. Bipolar lead acid battery development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eskra, Michael; Vidas, Robin; Miles, Ronald; Halpert, Gerald; Attia, Alan; Perrone, David

    1991-01-01

    A modular bipolar battery configuration is under development at Johnson Control, Inc. (JCI) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The battery design, incorporating proven lead acid electrochemistry, yields a rechargeable, high-power source that is light weight and compact. This configuration offers advantages in power capability, weight, and volume over conventional monopolar batteries and other battery chemistries. The lead acid bipolar battery operates in a sealed, maintenance-free mode allowing for maximum application flexibility. It is ideal for high-voltage and high-power applications.

  1. Battery electrode growth accommodation

    DOEpatents

    Bowen, Gerald K. (Cedarburg, WI); Andrew, Michael G. (Wauwatosa, WI); Eskra, Michael D. (Fredonia, WI)

    1992-01-01

    An electrode for a lead acid flow through battery, the grids including a plastic frame, a plate suspended from the top of the frame to hang freely in the plastic frame and a paste applied to the plate, the paste being free to allow for expansion in the planar direction of the grid.

  2. Improved picture naming in chronic aphasia after TMS to part of right Broca’s area: An open-protocol study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret A. Naeser; Paula I. Martin; Marjorie Nicholas; Errol H. Baker; Heidi Seekins; Masahito Kobayashi; Hugo Theoret; Felipe Fregni; Jose Maria-Tormos; Jacquie Kurland; Karl W. Doron; Alvaro Pascual-Leone

    2005-01-01

    Functional imaging studies with nonfluent aphasia patients have observed “over-activation” in right (R) language homologues. This may represent a maladaptive strategy; suppression may result in language improvement. We applied slow, 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to an anterior portion of R Broca’s homologue daily, for 10 days in four aphasia patients who were 5–11 years poststroke. Significant improvement

  3. Aphasia due to lesions confined to the right hemisphere in right handed patients: a review of the literature including the Italian cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Faglia; M. R. Rottoli; L. A. Vignolo

    1990-01-01

    We review most of the work published, to our knowledge, between 1880 and 1988 on aphasia due to right cerebral lesions in right-handed patients (“crossed aphasia”). We summarize the 87 cases found in chronological order within defined groups, dealing in greater detail with the less well-known cases in English-language publications and with the cases from other sources that we consider

  4. Proceedings of the symposium on battery design and optimization, 1979

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1979-01-01

    This conference proceedings contains 42 papers. 41 papers are indexed separately. Topics covered include: aqueous batteries; organic electrolyte batteries; high temperature batteries; and redox flow batteries.

  5. Western Meridiani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 22 January 2004

    Long before the MER landers were named or launched, the two orbiters at Mars were asked to examine landing sites. Both the Odyssey and Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft have been collecting landing site data for the past two years. The MGS and ODY data were used as part of the decision making process in the final selection of the two landing sites. The types of data collected by the two orbiters included not only images of the surface but also thermal data about the surface composition, atmospheric data about the climate at each location, and the tracking of major dust storms in the region prior to landing. The presence of, and data collected by, the MGS and ODY orbiters have proven invaluable in MER mission planning.

    This image, collected on 16 January 2003, covers an area in Western Meridiani.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 1.9, Longitude 354.7 East (5.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Western Gusev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 7 January 2004

    Long before the MER landers were named or launched, the two orbiters at Mars were asked to examine landing sites. Both the Odyssey and Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft have been collecting landing site data for the past two years. The MGS and ODY data were used as part of the decision making process in the final selection of the two landing sites. The types of data collected by the two orbiters included not only images of the surface but also thermal data about the surface composition, atmospheric data about the climate at each location, and the tracking of major dust storms in the region prior to landing. The presence of, and data collected by, the MGS and ODY orbiters have proven invaluable in MER mission planning.

    This image shows some of the far-western areas of Gusev Crater, and was captured on 27 June 2003, while Spirit was en-route to Mars.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -14, Longitude 174.8 East (185.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Effects of Noun-Verb Conceptual/ Phonological Relatedness on Verb Production Changes in Broca’s Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Mira; Verkuilen, Jay; Kempler, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals with Broca’s aphasia show better performance on nouns than on verbs, but distinction between nouns and verbs is not always clear; some verbs are conceptually and/ or phonologically related to nouns, while others are not. Inconsistent results on effects of noun-verb relatedness on verb production have been reported in the literature. Aims We investigated (1) whether verb instrumentality (a conceptual relationship to nouns) or homonymy (a phonological relationship to nouns) would affect verb production in individuals with Broca’s aphasia and (2) whether conceptual/ phonological noun-verb relationship would affect responsiveness to aphasia therapy that focused on verb production. Methods & Procedures Three English speaking individuals with Broca’s aphasia produced 96 verbs in sentences in response to picture stimuli. The target verbs included those that use an instrument and those that do not (e.g., to hammer vs. to yawn) and verbs that are phonologically identical to a related noun (e.g., to comb – a comb), morpho-phonologically-related to a noun (e.g., to grind – a grinder), and verbs for which there is no phonologically similar noun (e.g., to lean). The participants’ verb retrieval ability was assessed before and after a 4-week period of aphasia therapy. Outcomes & Results The participants produced more accurate instrumental than non-instrumental verbs both pre- and post-treatment. They also produced more verbs correctly that are homonyms of nouns than verbs that are phonologically related or unrelated to nouns before treatment. However, the effect of homonymy was not observed following treatment. Conclusion Individuals with Broca’s aphasia were more accurate in their production of verbs that were conceptually and phonologically related to nouns than on verb that were not. The performance on verb production improved significantly after therapy. We interpret the results to indicate that whereas prior to treatment the participants relied on phonologically related nouns to retrieve the target verbs, this reliance on knowledge of nouns decreased following therapy that was designed to improve verb production. PMID:23914001

  8. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease payments for space to the IDA. A commercial venture is being formed to utilize the LiFeBATT product for consumer use in enabling photovoltaic powered boat lifts. Field tests of the system have proven to be very effective and commercially promising. This venture is expected to result in significant sales within the next six months.

  9. New electric-vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Oman, H.

    1994-12-31

    Electric vehicles that can`t reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900`s electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car`s worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today`s electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors` Impact, for example, uses starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon`s new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda travelled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck travelled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour. 12 refs.

  10. Cognitive and cognate-based treatments for bilingual aphasia: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kohnert, Kathryn

    2004-12-01

    Two consecutive treatments were conducted to investigate skill learning and generalization within and across cognitive-linguistic domains in a 62-year-old Spanish-English bilingual man with severe non-fluent aphasia. Treatment 1 was a cognitive-based treatment that emphasized non-linguistic skills, such as visual scanning, categorization, and simple arithmetic. Treatment 2 was a lexically based treatment that trained cognates (cross-linguistic word pairs that are similar in meaning and form, such as rosa/rose) and non-cognates (cross-linguistic word pairs with shared meaning but different forms, such as mesa/table). Treatment 1 resulted in modest gains in both Spanish and English. Treatment 2 resulted in improved naming for non-cognates as well as cognates within each language. However, the generalization of gains from Spanish to English was apparent only for cognate stimuli. PMID:15533555

  11. Paradoxical recovery in a bilingual patient with aphasia after right capsuloputaminal infarction.

    PubMed

    García-Caballero, A; García-Lado, I; González-Hermida, J; Area, R; Recimil, M J; Juncos Rabadán, O; Lamas, S; Ozaita, G; Jorge, F J

    2007-01-01

    We report the case of a bilingual dextral patient, who presented with an uncommon pattern of aphasic deficit following a right capsulo-putaminal infarction. In this patient, the linguistic deficit concerned the use of her mother tongue (Galician, L1) much more than the lesser practised second language (Spanish, L2). Our patient presented spontaneous fluent speech in L2 but not in L1, automatic translation into L2, and impaired repetition in L1, whereas comprehension was spared in both L1 and L2. Reading and writing were less valuable due to educational interference (reduced schooling). Spontaneous speech 16 months after the stroke showed the stability of the impairment. This is the first reporting of a crossed subcortical aphasia in a bilingual patient. PMID:17172568

  12. Action and object word writing in a case of bilingual aphasia.

    PubMed

    Kambanaros, Maria; Messinis, Lambros; Anyfantis, Emmanouil

    2012-01-01

    We report the spoken and written naming of a bilingual speaker with aphasia in two languages that differ in morphological complexity, orthographic transparency and script Greek and English. AA presented with difficulties in spoken picture naming together with preserved written picture naming for action words in Greek. In English, AA showed similar performance across both tasks for action and object words, i.e. difficulties retrieving action and object names for both spoken and written naming. Our findings support the hypothesis that cognitive processes used for spoken and written naming are independent components of the language system and can be selectively impaired after brain injury. In the case of bilingual speakers, such processes impact on both languages. We conclude grammatical category is an organizing principle in bilingual dysgraphia. PMID:22713386

  13. Bilingual aphasia and language control: a follow-up fMRI and intrinsic connectivity study.

    PubMed

    Abutalebi, Jubin; Rosa, Pasquale Anthony Della; Tettamanti, Marco; Green, David W; Cappa, Stefano F

    2009-01-01

    In a world that is becoming more multilingual, bilingual aphasia is a clinical problem with a major clinical impact. However, at present we lack causal explanations of the many features of recovery patterns and there is no consensus about the language in which the patient should receive speech therapy. Further advance requires an understanding of the dynamics of recovery. In a novel longitudinal, single-case study, we combine fMRI and dynamic causal modeling to examine the effects of specific language treatment for picture naming on the representation and control of language areas during the course of recovery. Improved performance in the treated language was associated with increased activation in language areas. Consistent with theoretical expectations, causal modeling indicated increased connectedness of the control and language networks for the treated language. This functional approach holds great promise for investigating recovery patterns and the effects of specific language treatment in bilingual aphasic patients. PMID:19427522

  14. Combining TMS-EEG with transcranial direct current stimulation language treatment in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Cipollari, Susanna; Veniero, Domenica; Razzano, Carmela; Caltagirone, Carlo; Koch, Giacomo; Marangolo, Paola

    2015-07-01

    Despite the fact that different studies have been performed using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in aphasia, so far, to what extent the stimulation of a cerebral region may affect the activity of anatomically connected regions remains unclear. The authors used a combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) to explore brain areas' excitability modulation before and after active and sham tDCS. Six chronic aphasics underwent 3 weeks of language training coupled with tDCS over the right inferior frontal gyrus. To measure the changes induced by tDCS, TMS-EEG closed to the area stimulated with tDCS were calculated. A significant improvement after tDCS stimulation was found which was accompained by a modification of the EEG over the stimulated region. PMID:26109229

  15. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in primary progressive aphasia: phenomenology, pathophysiology, and approach to assessment and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Modirrousta, Mandana; Price, Bruce H; Dickerson, Bradford C

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by insidious and progressive loss of language. Current diagnostic criteria require symptoms to be largely restricted to language dysfunction for at least the first 2 years of the syndrome. However, as the disorder progresses – and sometimes even in the early stages – patients with PPA may exhibit neuropsychiatric symptoms. In this article, we review the phenomenology and frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms in PPA. Among the few studies of this topic that have been performed, there is consistent agreement that neuropsychiatric symptoms are not uncommon among PPA patients. In some cases, particularly the semantic variant of PPA, symptoms are similar to those found in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia. We further review the approach to assessment of behavioral symptoms in PPA and their possible management strategies, and speculate regarding their potential neurobiological substrates. PMID:23997827

  16. Abnormal laughter-like vocalisations replacing speech in primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Warren, Jason D.; Rossor, Martin N.

    2009-01-01

    We describe ten patients with a clinical diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) (pathologically confirmed in three cases) who developed abnormal laughter-like vocalisations in the context of progressive speech output impairment leading to mutism. Failure of speech output was accompanied by increasing frequency of the abnormal vocalisations until ultimately they constituted the patient's only extended utterance. The laughter-like vocalisations did not show contextual sensitivity but occurred as an automatic vocal output that replaced speech. Acoustic analysis of the vocalisations in two patients revealed abnormal motor features including variable note duration and inter-note interval, loss of temporal symmetry of laugh notes and loss of the normal decrescendo. Abnormal laughter-like vocalisations may be a hallmark of a subgroup in the PPA spectrum with impaired control and production of nonverbal vocal behaviour due to disruption of fronto-temporal networks mediating vocalisation. PMID:19435636

  17. Lexicality Effects in Word and Nonword Recall of Semantic Dementia and Progressive Nonfluent Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Jamie; Troche, Joshua; Chatel, Alison; Park, Hyejin; Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Antonucci, Sharon M.; Martin, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Background Verbal working memory is an essential component of many language functions, including sentence comprehension and word learning. As such, working memory has emerged as a domain of intense research interest both in aphasiology and in the broader field of cognitive neuroscience. The integrity of verbal working memory encoding relies on a fluid interaction between semantic and phonological processes. That is, we encode verbal detail using many cues related to both the sound and meaning of words. Lesion models can provide an effective means of parsing the contributions of phonological or semantic impairment to recall performance. Methods and Procedures We employed the lesion model approach here by contrasting the nature of lexicality errors incurred during recall of word and nonword sequences by 3individuals with progressive nonfluent aphasia (a phonological dominant impairment) compared to that of 2 individuals with semantic dementia (a semantic dominant impairment). We focused on psycholinguistic attributes of correctly recalled stimuli relative to those that elicited a lexicality error (i.e., nonword ? word OR word ? nonword). Outcomes and results Patients with semantic dementia showed greater sensitivity to phonological attributes (e.g., phoneme length, wordlikeness) of the target items relative to semantic attributes (e.g., familiarity). Patients with PNFA showed the opposite pattern, marked by sensitivity to word frequency, age of acquisition, familiarity, and imageability. Conclusions We interpret these results in favor of a processing strategy such that in the context of a focal phonological impairment patients revert to an over-reliance on preserved semantic processing abilities. In contrast, a focal semantic impairment forces both reliance upon and hypersensitivity to phonological attributes of target words. We relate this interpretation to previous hypotheses about the nature of verbal short-term memory in progressive aphasia. PMID:23486736

  18. Is the logopenic-variant of primary progressive aphasia a unitary disorder?

    PubMed

    Leyton, Cristian E; Hodges, John R; McLean, Catriona A; Kril, Jillian J; Piguet, Olivier; Ballard, Kirrie J

    2015-06-01

    Logopenic progressive aphasia is one of the clinical presentations of primary progressive aphasia and formally defined by the co-occurrence of impaired naming and sentence repetition. Impaired naming is attributed to failure of lexical retrieval, which is a multi-staged process subserved by anatomically segregated brain regions. By dissecting the neurocognitive processes involved in impaired naming, we aimed to disentangle the clinical and neuroanatomical heterogeneity of this syndrome. Twenty-one individuals (66.7% females, age range 53-83 years) who fulfilled diagnostic criteria for logopenic variant and had at least two clinical and language assessments, 1 year apart, were recruited and matched for age, sex distribution and level of education with a healthy control sample (n = 18). All participants underwent a structural brain scan at the first visit and surface-wise statistical analysis using Freesurfer. Seventeen participants with logopenic variant underwent amyloid imaging, with 14 demonstrating high amyloid retention. Based on their performance on single-word comprehension, repetition and confrontation naming, three subgroups of logopenic cases with distinctive linguistic profiles and distribution of atrophy were identified. The first subgroup (n = 10) demonstrated pure anomia and left-sided atrophy in the posterior inferior parietal lobule and lateral temporal cortex. The second subgroup (n = 6), presented additional mild deficits in single-word comprehension, and also exhibited bilateral thinning of the fusiform gyri. The third subgroup (n = 5) showed additional impaired single-word repetition, and cortical thinning focused on the left superior temporal gyrus. The subgroups differed in the proportion of cases with high amyloid retention and in the rate of decline of naming performance over time, suggesting that neurodegeneration spreads differentially throughout regions subserving word processing. In line with previous reports, these results confirm the extensive damage to the language network and, in part, explain the clinical heterogeneity observed across logopenic cases. PMID:25955499

  19. Nonverbal oral apraxia in primary progressive aphasia and apraxia of speech

    PubMed Central

    Botha, Hugo; Duffy, Joseph R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Machulda, Mary M.; Whitwell, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to explore the prevalence of nonverbal oral apraxia (NVOA), its association with other forms of apraxia, and associated imaging findings in patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and progressive apraxia of speech (PAOS). Methods: Patients with a degenerative speech or language disorder were prospectively recruited and diagnosed with a subtype of PPA or with PAOS. All patients had comprehensive speech and language examinations. Voxel-based morphometry was performed to determine whether atrophy of a specific region correlated with the presence of NVOA. Results: Eighty-nine patients were identified, of which 34 had PAOS, 9 had agrammatic PPA, 41 had logopenic aphasia, and 5 had semantic dementia. NVOA was very common among patients with PAOS but was found in patients with PPA as well. Several patients exhibited only one of NVOA or apraxia of speech. Among patients with apraxia of speech, the severity of the apraxia of speech was predictive of NVOA, whereas ideomotor apraxia severity was predictive of the presence of NVOA in those without apraxia of speech. Bilateral atrophy of the prefrontal cortex anterior to the premotor area and supplementary motor area was associated with NVOA. Conclusions: Apraxia of speech, NVOA, and ideomotor apraxia are at least partially separable disorders. The association of NVOA and apraxia of speech likely results from the proximity of the area reported here and the premotor area, which has been implicated in apraxia of speech. The association of ideomotor apraxia and NVOA among patients without apraxia of speech could represent disruption of modules shared by nonverbal oral movements and limb movements. PMID:24727315

  20. Training verb argument structure production in agrammatic aphasia: Behavioral and neural recovery patterns

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Riley, Ellyn A.; den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Meltzer-Asscher, Aya; Lukic, Sladjana

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Neuroimaging and lesion studies indicate a left hemisphere network for verb and verb argument structure processing, involving both frontal and temporoparietal brain regions. Although their verb comprehension is generally unimpaired, it is well known that individuals with agrammatic aphasia often present with verb production deficits, characterized by an argument structure complexity hierarchy, indicating faulty access to argument structure representations for production and integration into syntactic contexts. Recovery of verb processing in agrammatism, however, has received little attention and no studies have examined the neural mechanisms associated with improved verb and argument structure processing. In the present study we trained agrammatic individuals on verbs with complex argument structure in sentence contexts and examined generalization to verbs with less complex argument structure. The neural substrates of improved verb production were examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods Eight individuals with chronic agrammatic aphasia participated in the study (four experimental and four control participants). Production of three-argument verbs in active sentences was trained using a sentence generation task emphasizing the verb’s argument structure and the thematic roles of sentential noun phrases. Before and after training, production of trained and untrained verbs was tested in naming and sentence production and fMRI scans were obtained, using an action naming task. Results Significant pre- to post-training improvement in trained and untrained (one- and two-argument) verbs was found for treated, but not control, participants, with between-group differences found for verb naming, production of verbs in sentences, and production of argument structure. fMRI activation derived from post-treatment compared to pre-treatment scans revealed upregulation in cortical regions implicated for verb and argument structure processing in healthy controls. Conclusions Training verb deficits emphasizing argument structure and thematic role mapping is effective for improving verb and sentence production and results in recruitment of neural networks engaged for verb and argument structure processing in healthy individuals. PMID:23514929