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Sample records for western aphasia battery

  1. Progressive Non-Fluent Aphasia in Malayalam: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Annamma; Mathuranath, P. S.

    2010-01-01

    Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) is a degenerative condition characterized by deterioration in language for at least two years without deterioration in other cognitive domains. This report highlights the language profile in a 79-year-old male with progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) who was assessed using the Western Aphasia Battery and the…

  2. Who Benefits from an Intensive Comprehensive Aphasia Program?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babbitt, Edna M.; Worrall, Linda; Cherney, Leora R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article summarizes current outcomes from intensive comprehensive aphasia programs (ICAPs) and examines data from one ICAP to identify those who respond and do not respond to treatment. Methods: Participants were divided into 2 groups, responders and nonresponders, based on ±5-point change score on the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised…

  3. Temporoparietal cortex in aphasia. Evidence from positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Metter, E.J.; Hanson, W.R.; Jackson, C.A.; Kempler, D.; van Lancker, D.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Phelps, M.E. )

    1990-11-01

    Forty-four aphasic patients were examined with (F18)-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in a resting state to determine whether consistent glucose metabolic abnormalities were present. Ninety-seven percent of subjects showed metabolic abnormalities in the angular gyrus, 89% in the supramarginal gyrus, and 87% in the lateral and transverse superior temporal gyrus. Pearson product moment correlations were calculated between regional metabolic measures and performance on the Western Aphasia Battery. No significant correlations were found between the Western Aphasia Battery scores and right hemisphere metabolic measures. Most left hemisphere regions correlated with more than one score from the Western Aphasia Battery. Temporal but not frontal regions had significant correlations to the comprehension score. The left temporoparietal region was consistently affected in these subjects, suggesting that common features in the aphasias were caused by left temporoparietal dysfunction, while behavioral differences resulted from (1) the extent of temporoparietal changes, and (2) dysfunction elsewhere in the brain, particularly the left frontal and subcortical areas.

  4. Verb and noun deficits in stroke-induced and primary progressive aphasia: The Northwestern Naming Battery1

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Lukic, Sladjana; King, Monique C.; Mesulam, M. Marsel; Weintraub, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Background Word class naming deficits are commonly seen in aphasia resulting from stroke (StrAph) and primary progressive aphasia (PPA), with differential production of nouns (objects) and verbs (actions) found based on StrAph type or PPA variant for some individuals. Studies to date, however, have not compared word class naming (or comprehension) ability in the two aphasic disorders. In addition, there are no available measures for testing word class deficits, which control for important psycholinguistic variables across language domains. This study examined noun and verb production and comprehension in individuals with StrAph and PPA using a new test, the Northwestern Naming Battery (NNB; Thompson & Weintraub, experimental version), developed explicitly for this purpose. In addition, we tested verb type effects, based on verb argument structure characteristics, which also is addressed by the NNB. Method Fifty-two participants with StrAph (33 agrammatic, Brocas (StrAg); 19 anomic (StrAn)) and 28 PPA (10 agrammatic (PPA-G); 14 logopenic (PPA-L); 4 semantic (PPA-S)) were included in the study. Nouns and verbs were tested in the Confrontation Naming and Auditory Comprehension subtests of the NNB, with scores used to compute noun to verb ratios as well as performance by verb type. Performance patterns within and across StrAph and PPA groups were then examined. The external validity of the NNB also was tested by comparing (a) NNB Noun Naming scores to the Boston Naming Test (BNT; Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 1983) and Western Aphasia Battery (WAB-R, Kertesz, 2007) Noun Naming subtest scores, (b) NNB Verb Naming scores to the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE; Goodglass, Kaplan & Barresi, 2001) Action Naming score (for StrAph participants only), and (c) NNB Comprehension subtest scores to WAB-R Auditory Comprehension subtest scores. Outcomes and Results Both agrammatic (StrAg and PPA-G) groups showed significantly greater difficulty producing verbs compared to nouns, but no comprehension impairment for either word class. Whereas, three of the four PPA-S participants showed poorer noun compared to verb production, as well as comprehension. However, neither the StrAn or PPA-L participants showed significant differences between the two word classes in production or comprehension. In addition, similar to the agrammatic participants, the StrAn participants showed a significant transitivity effect, producing intransitive (one-argument) verbs with greater accuracy than transitive (two- and three-argument) verbs. However, no transitivity effects were found for the PPA-L or PPA-S participants. There were significant correlations between NNB scores and all external validation measures. Conclusions These data indicate that the NNB is sensitive to word class deficits in stroke and neurodegenerative aphasia. This is important both clinically for treatment planning and theoretically to inform both psycholinguistic and neural models of language processing. PMID:23188949

  5. Ideomotor Apraxia in Agrammatic and Logopenic Variants of Primary Progressive Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Adeli, Anahita; Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Duffy, Joseph R.; Strand, Edyth A.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    There are few studies examining praxis in subjects with primary progressive aphasia. The aim of this study was to examine the pattern and severity of ideomotor apraxia in subjects with logopenic and agrammatic variants of primary progressive aphasia and to determine if the presence of ideomotor apraxia correlated with specific neuroanatomical structural abnormalities. Subjects with primary progressive aphasia were prospectively recruited and classified according to published criteria. Using the apraxia subtest of the Western Aphasia Battery, pattern and severity of ideomotor apraxia was examined in all subjects diagnosed with agrammatic and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia. The study included 47 subjects, 21 diagnosed with agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia and 26 with logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia. Subjects with agrammatic aphasia were older at onset than the logopenic variant (67.2 versus 61.7 years, p=0.02), but there was no difference in illness duration prior to evaluation. Those with logopenic aphasia showed more cognitive impairment on the Mini-Mental Status Examination (agrammatic=26.7/30, logopenic=22/30, p=0.002), and a trend for more severe language impairment as measured by Western Aphasia Battery-Aphasia Quotient (agrammatic=82.3, logopenic=75.2, p=0.11). Strong correlations were found between Western Aphasia Battery-Aphasia Quotient and total apraxia, instrumental apraxia, and complex apraxia, while average correlation were seen with upper limb apraxia and modest correlation with facial apraxia. After adjusting for age, mental status performance, and Western Aphasia Battery-Aphasia Quotient score, those with agrammatic aphasia had a higher degree of total apraxia (p=0.004), facial apraxia (p=0.03), instrumental apraxia (p=0.0006), and complex apraxia (p=0.0006) than those with logopenic aphasia. The agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia was associated with greater praxis deficits but less cognitive impairment than the logopenic variant. The presence of ideomotor apraxia was associated with grey matter loss in the left lateral premotor cortex with extension into the motor cortex. These findings suggest that although some affected areas in the agrammatic and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia overlap, there exists an area that is more affected in the agrammatic variant than the logopenic variant that accounts for the greater association of agrammatic aphasia with apraxia. PMID:23358624

  6. A Comparison of the BAT and BDAE-SF Batteries in Determining the Linguistic Ability in Greek-Speaking Patients with Broca's Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peristeri, Eleni; Tsapkini, Kyrana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the validity and reliability of the Bilingual Aphasia Test as a measure of language impairment in a Greek-speaking Broca's aphasic population and to investigate relationships with the same aphasic group's performance on the Greek version of the short form of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination battery, mainly

  7. A Comparison of the BAT and BDAE-SF Batteries in Determining the Linguistic Ability in Greek-Speaking Patients with Broca's Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peristeri, Eleni; Tsapkini, Kyrana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the validity and reliability of the Bilingual Aphasia Test as a measure of language impairment in a Greek-speaking Broca's aphasic population and to investigate relationships with the same aphasic group's performance on the Greek version of the short form of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination battery, mainly…

  8. Characteristics of Cognitive Impairment in Patients With Post-stroke Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Boram

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze cognitive functions of post-stroke aphasia patients compared to patients having right hemispheric stroke and left hemispheric lesions without aphasia, and to look for a relationship between cognitive deficits and aphasia severity. Methods Thirty-six patients with right hemispheric stroke (group 1), 32 with left hemispheric lesion without aphasia (group 2), and 26 left hemispheric stroke patients with aphasia (group 3) completed a set of tests in the computerized neurocognitive function batteries for attention, executive function and intelligence and Korean version of Western Aphasia Battery. Data analyses explored cognitive characteristics among the three groups and the correlation between cognitive deficits and aphasia severity. Results Right hemispheric and left hemispheric stroke patients without aphasia showed similar findings except for digit span forward test. Cognitive tests for working memory and sustained attention were significantly impaired in the aphasic patients, but intelligence was shown to be similar in the three groups. Significant correlation between cognitive deficit and aphasia severity was only shown in some attention tests. Conclusion Cognitive deficits may be accompanied with post-stroke aphasia and there are possible associations between language and cognitive measures. Therefore, detection and treatment towards coexisting cognitive impairment may be necessary for efficient aphasia treatment. PMID:25566474

  9. Computerized Script Training for Aphasia: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Cherney, Leora R.; Halper, Anita S.; Holland, Audrey L.; Cole, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This article describes computer software that was developed specifically for training conversational scripts and illustrates its use with three individuals with aphasia. Methods Three participants with chronic aphasia (Broca’s, Wernicke’s and anomic) were assessed before and after nine weeks of a computer script training program. For each participant, three individualized scripts were developed, recorded on the software, and practiced sequentially at home. Weekly meetings with the speech-language pathologist occurred to monitor practice and assess progress. Baseline and post-treatment scripts were audio-taped, transcribed, and compared to the target scripts for content, grammatical productivity and rate of production of script-related words. Interviews with the person with aphasia and their significant other were conducted at the conclusion of treatment. Results All measures (content, grammatical productivity and rate of production of script-related words) improved for each participant on every script. Two participants gained more than five points on the Aphasia Quotient of the Western Aphasia Battery. Five positive themes were consistently identified from the exit interviews - increased verbal communication, improvements in other modalities and situations, communication changes noticed by others, increased confidence, and satisfaction with the software. Conclusion Computer-based script training potentially may be an effective intervention for persons with chronic aphasia. PMID:18230811

  10. Distinct regional anatomic and functional correlates of neurodegenerative apraxia of speech and aphasia: an MRI and FDG-PET study.

    PubMed

    Whitwell, Jennifer L; Duffy, Joseph R; Strand, Edythe A; Xia, Rong; Mandrekar, Jay; Machulda, Mary M; Senjem, Matthew L; Lowe, Val J; Jack, Clifford R; Josephs, Keith A

    2013-06-01

    Progressive apraxia of speech (AOS) can result from neurodegenerative disease and can occur in isolation or in the presence of agrammatic aphasia. We aimed to determine the neuroanatomical and metabolic correlates of progressive AOS and aphasia. Thirty-six prospectively recruited subjects with progressive AOS or agrammatic aphasia, or both, underwent the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and Token Test to assess aphasia, an AOS rating scale (ASRS), 3T MRI and 18-F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET. Correlations between clinical measures and imaging were assessed. The only region that correlated to ASRS was left superior premotor volume. In contrast, WAB and Token Test correlated with hypometabolism and volume of a network of left hemisphere regions, including pars triangularis, pars opercularis, pars orbitalis, middle frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, precentral gyrus and inferior parietal lobe. Progressive agrammatic aphasia and AOS have non-overlapping regional correlations, suggesting that these are dissociable clinical features that have different neuroanatomical underpinnings. PMID:23542727

  11. Distinct regional anatomic and functional correlates of neurodegenerative apraxia of speech and aphasia: an MRI and FDG-PET study

    PubMed Central

    Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Duffy, Joseph R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Xia, Rong; Mandrekar, Jay; Machulda, Mary M.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Lowe, Val J.; Jack, Clifford R.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    Progressive apraxia of speech (AOS) can result from neurodegenerative disease and can occur in isolation or in the presence of agrammatic aphasia. We aimed to determine the neuroanatomical and metabolic correlates of progressive AOS and aphasia. Thirty-six prospectively recruited subjects with progressive AOS or agrammatic aphasia, or both, underwent the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and Token Test to assess aphasia, an AOS rating scale (ASRS), 3T MRI and 18-F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET. Correlations between clinical measures and imaging were assessed. The only region that correlated to ASRS was left superior premotor volume. In contrast, WAB and Token Test correlated with hypometabolism and volume of a network of left hemisphere regions, including pars triangularis, pars opercularis, pars orbitalis, middle frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, precentral gyrus and inferior parietal lobe. Progressive agrammatic aphasia and AOS have non-overlapping regional correlations, suggesting that these are dissociable clinical features that have different neuroanatomical underpinnings. PMID:23542727

  12. Predicting aphasia type from brain damage measured with structural MRI.

    PubMed

    Yourganov, Grigori; Smith, Kimberly G; Fridriksson, Julius; Rorden, Chris

    2015-12-01

    Chronic aphasia is a common consequence of a left-hemisphere stroke. Since the early insights by Broca and Wernicke, studying the relationship between the loci of cortical damage and patterns of language impairment has been one of the concerns of aphasiology. We utilized multivariate classification in a cross-validation framework to predict the type of chronic aphasia from the spatial pattern of brain damage. Our sample consisted of 98 patients with five types of aphasia (Broca's, Wernicke's, global, conduction, and anomic), classified based on scores on the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB). Binary lesion maps were obtained from structural MRI scans (obtained at least 6 months poststroke, and within 2 days of behavioural assessment); after spatial normalization, the lesions were parcellated into a disjoint set of brain areas. The proportion of damage to the brain areas was used to classify patients' aphasia type. To create this parcellation, we relied on five brain atlases; our classifier (support vector machine - SVM) could differentiate between different kinds of aphasia using any of the five parcellations. In our sample, the best classification accuracy was obtained when using a novel parcellation that combined two previously published brain atlases, with the first atlas providing the segmentation of grey matter, and the second atlas used to segment the white matter. For each aphasia type, we computed the relative importance of different brain areas for distinguishing it from other aphasia types; our findings were consistent with previously published reports of lesion locations implicated in different types of aphasia. Overall, our results revealed that automated multivariate classification could distinguish between aphasia types based on damage to atlas-defined brain areas. PMID:26465238

  13. Cortical neuroanatomic correlates of symptom severity in primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Sapolsky, D.; Bakkour, A.; Negreira, A.; Nalipinski, P.; Weintraub, S.; Mesulam, M.-M.; Caplan, D.; Dickerson, B.C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the validity and reliability of a new measure of clinical impairment in primary progressive aphasia (PPA), the Progressive Aphasia Severity Scale (PASS), and to investigate relationships with MRI-based cortical thickness biomarkers for localizing and quantifying the severity of anatomic abnormalities. Methods: Patients with PPA were rated using the PASS and underwent performance-based language testing and MRI scans that were processed for cortical thickness measures. Results: The level of impairment in PASS fluency, syntax/grammar, and word comprehension showed strong specific correlations with performance-based measures of these domains of language, and demonstrated high interrater reliability. Left inferior frontal thinning correlated with impairment in fluency and grammar/syntax, while left temporopolar thinning correlated with impairment in word comprehension. Discriminant function analysis demonstrated that a combination of left inferior frontal, left temporopolar, and left superior temporal sulcal thickness separated the 3 PPA subtypes from each other with 100% accuracy (87% accuracy in a leave-one-out analysis). Conclusions: The PASS, a novel measure of the severity of clinical impairment within domains of language typically affected in PPA, demonstrates reliable and valid clinical-behavioral properties. Furthermore, the presence of impairment in individual PASS domains demonstrates specific relationships with focal abnormalities in particular brain regions and the severity of impairment is strongly related to the severity of anatomic abnormality within the relevant brain region. These anatomic imaging biomarkers perform well in classifying PPA subtypes. These data provide robust support for the value of this novel clinical measure and the new imaging measure as markers for potential use in clinical research and trials in PPA. GLOSSARY AD = Alzheimer disease; BDAE = Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination; CDR = Clinical Dementia Rating; CSB = Cambridge Semantic Battery; ICC = intraclass correlation coefficient; NACC UDS = National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set; OC = older control participants; PASS = Progressive Aphasia Severity Scale; PPA = primary progressive aphasia; PPA-G = agrammatic primary progressive aphasia; PPA-L = logopenic primary progressive aphasia; PPA-S = semantic primary progressive aphasia; ROI = region of interest; WAB = Western Aphasia Battery. PMID:20660866

  14. Epidural cortical stimulation and aphasia therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cherney, Leora R.; Harvey, Richard L.; Babbitt, Edna M.; Hurwitz, Rosalind; Kaye, Rosalind C.; Lee, Jaime B.; Small, Steven. L.

    2013-01-01

    Background There are several methods of delivering cortical brain stimulation to modulate cortical excitability and interest in their application as an adjuvant strategy in aphasia rehabilitation after stroke is growing. Epidural cortical stimulation, although more invasive than other methods, permits high frequency stimulation of high spatial specificity to targeted neuronal populations. Aims First, we review evidence supporting the use of epidural cortical stimulation for upper limb recovery after focal cortical injury in both animal models and human stroke survivors. These data provide the empirical and theoretical platform underlying the use of epidural cortical stimulation in aphasia. Second, we summarize evidence for the application of epidural cortical stimulation in aphasia. We describe the procedures and primary outcomes of a safety and feasibility study (Cherney, Erickson & Small, 2010), and provide previously unpublished data regarding secondary behavioral outcomes from that study. Main Contribution In a controlled study comparing epidural cortical stimulation plus language treatment (CS/LT) to language treatment alone (LT), eight stroke survivors with nonfluent aphasia received intensive language therapy for 6 weeks. Four of these participants also underwent surgical implantation of an epidural stimulation device which was activated only during therapy sessions. Behavioral data were collected before treatment, immediately after treatment, and at 6 and 12 weeks following the end of treatment. The effect size for the primary outcome measure, the Western Aphasia Battery Aphasia Quotient, was benchmarked as moderate from baseline to immediately post-treatment, and large from baseline to the 12-week follow-up. Similarly, effect sizes obtained at the 12-week follow-up for the Boston Naming Test, the Communicative Effectiveness Index, and for correct information units on a picture description task were greater than those obtained immediately post treatment. When effect sizes were compared for individual subject pairs on discourse measures of content and rate, effects were typically larger for the investigational subjects receiving CS/LT than for the control subjects receiving LT alone. These analyses support previous findings regarding therapeutic efficacy of CS/LT compared to LT i.e. epidural stimulation of ipsilesional premotor cortex may augment behavioral speech-language therapy, with the largest effects after completion of therapy. Conclusions Continued investigation of epidural cortical stimulation in combination with language training in post-stroke aphasia should proceed cautiously. Carefully planned studies that customize procedures to individual profiles are warranted. Information from research on non-invasive methods of CS/LT may also inform future studies of epidural cortical stimulation. PMID:23667287

  15. [Transcortical sensory aphasia due to extensive infarction of left cerebral hemisphere].

    PubMed

    Warabi, Yoko; Bandoh, Mitsuaki; Kurisaki, Hiroshi; Nishio, Shinichi; Hayashi, Hideaki

    2006-05-01

    We report a case of transcortical sensory aphasia occurred after extensive infarction of left cerebral hemisphere. A 68-year-old, right-handed man with atrial fibrillation suddenly developed cerebral embolism of left middle cerebral artery. He was treated conservatively, and the right hemiplegia, aphasia, apraxia in a slight degree and right hemispatial neglect in a slight degree consequently existed. MRI showed a large cortical and subcortical infarct lesion including the left Broca's area, central region, perisylvian area with Wernicke's area and temporal lobe. In contrast, neuropsychological evaluation using the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) demonstrated transcortical sensory aphasia, e.g., fluency 8, auditory comprehension 1. repetition 10 and object naming 2.4. In addition to preserved repetition, both linguistic prosody and affective prosody were well preserved. Most cases with transcortical sensory aphasia are known to occur with the lesion including temporo-parieto-occipital junction of dominant hemisphere. Our patient and a few other reported cases of transcortical sensory aphasia had a lesion in perisylvian area including Wernicke's area. Therefore, it is possible that their minor hemisphere worked selectively for repetition. Furthermore, we suggest that this patient presented dissociative aphasia that all the process of repetition and the function of linguistic and emotional prosody were represented in the right hemisphere and the other functions including comprehension of word meanings were existed in the left hemisphere. We believe that our case of transcortical sensory aphasia with dissociative aphasia gives a suggestion about the mechanism and localization of repetition and prosody in the whole system of language. PMID:16886797

  16. National Aphasia Association

    MedlinePlus

    Toggle navigation Affiliate Login What is Aphasia? Aphasia Definitions Aphasia FAQs The Aphasia Quiz Find Support Search our Affiliates I have Aphasia I am a Caregiver I am a Professional Aphasia ID Card Helpful Materials Caregivers Bill of Rights Aphasia Bill of Rights Stories & News Stories and ...

  17. A Dextral Primary Progressive Aphasia Patient with Right Dominant Hypometabolism and Tau Accumulation and Left Dominant Amyloid Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Young Kyoung; Park, Seongbeom; Kim, Hee Jin; Cho, Hanna; Lyoo, Chul Hyoung; Seo, Sang Won; Na, Duk L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a degenerative disease that presents as progressive decline of language ability with preservation of other cognitive functions in the early stages. Three subtypes of PPA are known: progressive nonfluent aphasia, semantic dementia, and logopenic aphasia (LPA). Patients and Methods We report the case of a 77-year-old patient with PPA whose clinical findings did not correspond to the three subtypes but mainly fit LPA. Unlike other LPA patients, however, this patient showed a right hemisphere predominant glucose hypometabolism and tau accumulation and a left hemisphere predominant amyloid deposition. The right-handed patient presented with comprehension difficulty followed by problems naming familiar objects. This isolated language problem had deteriorated rapidly for 2 years, followed by memory difficulties and impairment of daily activities. Using a Korean version of the Western Aphasia Battery, aphasia was consistent with a severe form of Wernicke's aphasia. According to the brain magnetic resonance imaging and 18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography results, right hemisphere atrophy and hypometabolism, more predominant on the right hemisphere than the left, were apparent despite the fact that Edinburgh Handedness Questionnaire scores indicated strong right-handedness. On Pittsburgh compound B-PET, amyloid accumulation was asymmetrical with the left hemisphere being more predominant than the right, whereas 18F-T807-PET showed a right dominant tau accumulation. Conclusions This is the first report of atypical PPA, in which the patient exhibited crossed aphasia and asymmetrical amyloid accumulation. PMID:27194988

  18. The Language Quotient (LQ): A New Measure for the Western Aphasia Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shewan, Cynthia M.

    1986-01-01

    Performance on a dichotic word task was examined with 15 articulatory-impaired children and 15 non-articulatory-impaired children (all between 5 and 9 years old). Results of presenting words under three conditions (free recall, directed right, and directed left) found no significant differences between groups on ear preference. (Author/DB)

  19. Communicating with someone with aphasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of aphasia. Expressive aphasia may be non-fluent, in which case a person has trouble: Finding ... Speaking overall Another kind of expressive aphasia is fluent aphasia. People who have fluent aphasia may be ...

  20. Nao-Xue-Shu Oral Liquid Improves Aphasia of Mixed Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yuping; Wang, Mingzhe; Zhang, Liang; Qiu, Zhenwei; Jiang, Wenfei; Xu, Men; Pan, Weidong; Chen, Xiangjun

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The objective is to observe whether the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Nao-Xue-Shu oral liquid improves aphasia of mixed stroke. Methods. A total of 102 patients with aphasia of mixed stroke were divided into two groups by a single blind random method. The patients treated by standard Western medicine plus Nao-Xue-Shu oral liquid (n = 58) were assigned to the treatment group while the remaining patients treated only by standard Western medicine (n = 58) constituted the control group. Changes in the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB), Modified Rankin Scale (mRS), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), and hemorheology parameters were assessed to evaluate the effects of the treatments. Results. Excluding the patients who dropped out, 54 patients in the treatment group and 51 patients in the control group were used to evaluate the effects. Significant and persistent improvements in the WAB score, specifically comprehension, repetition, naming, and calculating, were found in the treatment group when the effects were evaluated at the end of week 2 and week 4, respectively, compared with baseline. The naming and writing scores were also improved at the end of week 4 in this group. The comprehension and reading scores were improved at the end of week 4 in the control group compared with the baseline, but the improvements were smaller than those in the treatment group. The percentages of patients at the 0-1 range of mRS were increased at the end of week 2 and week 4 in both groups, but the improvements in the treatment group were much larger than those in the control group. Greater improvements in the NIHSS scores and the hemorheology parameters in the treatment group were also observed compared with the control group at the end of week 2 and week 4. Conclusion. Nao-Xue-Shu oral liquid formulation improved aphasia in mixed stroke patients and thus might be a potentially effective drug for treating stroke aphasia. PMID:26557863

  1. Childhood aphasias.

    PubMed

    Martins, I P

    1997-01-01

    The study of acquired childhood aphasia has shown that the aphasic syndromes found in adults are reproducible in children with identical lesion sites and that some brain areas are essential for aphasia recovery. Besides, language deficits and learning difficulties are very common in the long-term follow-up of those children. This suggests that the adult pattern of cerebral organization for speech is established early in life and alternative organizations have a lasting price. Yet in contradiction with this, children with focal lesions sustained pre- or perinatally do not show developmentally the aphasic syndromes observed in older children and adults. One possible explanation is that the areas responsible for learning a function are different from those subserving that function as a more mature stage of development. Concerning specific language impairment in children, there is a growing evidence that such syndromes are genetically determined, but there is still a missing link between this predisposition and the structural/functional defects underlying them. The finding that these children are often impaired in other areas of mental development indicates that there may be a more basic cognitive defect underlying their language disorders. PMID:9059756

  2. Comparing the production of complex sentences in Persian patients with post-stroke aphasia and non-damaged people with normal speaking

    PubMed Central

    Mehri, Azar; Ghorbani, Askar; Darzi, Ali; Jalaie, Shohreh; Ashayeri, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cerebrovascular disease leading to stroke is the most common cause of aphasia. Speakers with agrammatic non-fluent aphasia have difficulties in production of movement-derived sentences such as passive sentences, topicalized constituents, and Wh-questions. To assess the production of complex sentences, some passive, topicalized and focused sentences were designed for patients with non-fluent Persian aphasic. Afterwards, patients’ performance in sentence production was tested and compared with healthy non-damaged subjects. Methods: In this cross sectional study, a task was designed to assess the different types of sentences (active, passive, topicalized and focused) adapted to Persian structures. Seven Persian patients with post-stroke non-fluent agrammatic aphasia (5 men and 2 women) and seven healthy non-damaged subjects participated in this study. The computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that all the patients had a single left hemisphere lesion involved middle cerebral artery (MCA), Broca`s area and in its white matter. In addition, based on Bedside version of Persian Western Aphasia Battery (P-WAB-1), all of them were diagnosed with moderate Broca aphasia. Then, the production task of Persian complex sentences was administered. Results: There was a significant difference between four types of sentences in patients with aphasia [Degree of freedom (df) = 3, P < 0.001]. All the patients showed worse performance than the healthy participants in all the four types of sentence production (P < 0.050). Conclusion: In general, it is concluded that topicalized and focused sentences as non-canonical complex sentences in Persian are very difficult to produce for patients with agrammatic non-fluent aphasia. It seems that sentences with A-movement are simpler for the patients than sentences involving A`-movement; since they include shorter movements in compare to topicalized and focused sentences.

  3. Stimulating Conversation: Enhancement of Elicited Propositional Speech in a Patient with Chronic Nonfluent Aphasia Following Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Roy H.; Sanders, Linda; Benson, Jennifer; Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Norise, Catherine; Naeser, Margaret; Martin, Paula; Coslett, H. Branch

    2010-01-01

    Although evidence suggests that patients with left hemisphere strokes and nonfluent aphasia who receive 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the intact right inferior frontal gyrus experience persistent benefits in naming, it remains unclear whether the effects of rTMS in these patients generalize to other language abilities. We report a subject with chronic nonfluent aphasia who showed stable deficits of elicited propositional speech over the course of five years, and received 1200 pulses of 1 Hz rTMS daily for 10 days at a site identified as being optimally responsive to rTMS in this patient. Consistent with prior studies there was improvement in object naming, with a statistically significant improvement in action naming. Improvement was also demonstrated in picture description at 2, 6, and 10 months after rTMS with respect to the number of narrative words and nouns, sentence length, and use of closed class words. Compared to his baseline performance, the patient showed significant improvement on the Western Aphasia Battery subscale for spontaneous speech. These findings suggest that manipulation of the intact contralesional cortex in patients with nonfluent aphasia may result in language benefits that generalize beyond naming to include other aspects of language production. PMID:20159655

  4. Mirror neuron system based therapy for aphasia rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenli; Ye, Qian; Ji, Xiangtong; Zhang, Sicong; Yang, Xi; Zhou, Qiumin; Cong, Fang; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Bing; Xia, Yang; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Shan, Chunlei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of hand action observation training, i.e., mirror neuron system (MNS) based training, on language function of aphasic patients after stroke. In addition, to reveal the tentative mechanism underlying this effect. Methods: Six aphasic patients after stroke, meeting the criteria, undergo 3 weeks' training protocol (30 min per day, 6 days per week). Among them, four patients accepted an ABA training design, i.e., they implemented Protocol A (hand action observation combined with repetition) in the first and third weeks and carried out Protocol B (static object observation combined with repetition) in the second week. Conversely, for the other two patients, BAB training design was adopted, i.e., patients took Protocol B in the first and third weeks and accepted Protocol A in the second week. Picture naming test, western aphasia battery (WAB) and Token Test were applied to evaluate the changes of language function before and after each week's training. Furthermore, two subjects (one aphasic patient and one healthy volunteer) attended a functional MRI (fMRI) experiment, by which we tried to reveal the mechanism underlying possible language function changes after training. Results: Compared with static object observation and repetition training (Protocol B), hand action observation and repetition training (Protocol A) effectively improved most aspects of the language function in all six patients, as demonstrated in the picture naming test, subtests of oral language and aphasia quotient (AQ) of WAB. In addition, the fMRI experiment showed that Protocol A induced more activations in the MNS of one patient and one healthy control when compared to Protocol B. Conclusion: The mirror neuron based therapy may facilitate the language recovery for aphasic patients and this, to some extent, provides a novel direction of rehabilitation for aphasia patients. PMID:26579046

  5. [Dominant Thalamus and Aphasia].

    PubMed

    Nakano, Akiko; Shimomura, Tatsuo

    2015-12-01

    Many studies have shown that lesions of the dominant thalamus precipitate language disorders in a similar manner to transcortical aphasias, in a phenomenon known as "thalamic aphasia." In some cases, however, aphasia may not occur or may appear transiently following thalamic lesions. Furthermore, dominant thalamic lesions can produce changes in character, as observed in patients with amnesic disorder. Previous work has explored the utility of thalamic aphasia as a discriminative feature for classification of aphasia. Although the thalamus may be involved in the function of the brainstem reticular activating system and play a role in attentional network and in memory of Papez circuit or Yakovlev circuit, the mechanism by which thalamic lesion leads to the emergence of aphasic disorders is unclear. In this review, we we survey historical and recent literature on thalamic aphasia in an attempt to understand the neural processes affected by thalamic lesions. PMID:26618763

  6. [Pharmacotherapy for aphasia].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yutaka

    2007-11-01

    Classification of aphasia is divided according to clinical symptoms, anatomical analysis or neural network. Research of the past 20 years in basic neuroscience and aphasia rehabilitation has created opportunities for fundamentally different approaches to aphasia therapy, based on applied neurobiology. The idea of treating aphasia with neurotranmitter stimulating agents has historical roots dating to ancient times. Since Albert reported that bromocriptine may improve language deficits in patients with nonfluent aphasia, pharmacotherapy for aphasia is noted. However its effect is contoversial. We hypothesize improvement in naming ability by 1) selectively increasing dopamine to enhance activation and initiation of verbal output, and 2) selectively increasing cholinergic activity to enhance verbal memory. We also hypothesize that the balance of dopaminergic system and cholinergic system controls language function. In most of our recent studies on the pharmacotherapy of aphasia, we made the following observations: 1) we found improvement in either verbal fluency or naming or both; 2) improvement tended be most prominent in patients with mild to moderate severity of aphasia, rather than in patients with severe aphasia; 3) improvement tended to be correlated with reduction in perseveration; 4) improvement was found with dopaminergic, cholinergic, and serotonergic agents. PMID:18210818

  7. Living with aphasia: three Indigenous Australian stories.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Hersh, Deborah; Hayward, Colleen; Fraser, Joan; Brown, Melita

    2012-06-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disorders and stroke in Australian Aboriginal communities is more than twice as high as non-Indigenous Australians. Approximately 30% of people who survive stroke are left with some level of aphasia, and yet Indigenous Australians appear to be infrequent users of speech-language pathology services, and there is virtually no research literature about the experiences of aphasia for this group of people. This paper presents the stories of living with aphasia for three Indigenous Australian men living in Perth, Western Australia. Their narratives were collected by an Indigenous researcher through in-depth, supported interviews, and were explored using both within-case and cross-case analyses for common and recurring themes. It is argued that there is value for speech-language pathologists, and other health professionals, to be aware of the broad experiences of living with aphasia for Indigenous Australians because their stories are rarely heard and because, as with people with aphasia generally, they are at risk of social isolation and tend to lack visibility in the community. This study explores the key issues which emerge for these three men and highlights the need for further research in this area. PMID:22472033

  8. Dissociated disorders of speaking and writing in aphasia.

    PubMed Central

    Basso, A; Taborelli, A; Vignolo, L A

    1978-01-01

    Of 500 left brain-damaged patients with educational level above elementary school investigated with a standard quantitative battery for dissociation between oral and written expression, speech was found to be selectively impaired in seven (three with "pure anarthria," two with anarthria in the context of Broca's aphasia, and two with fluent aphasia with remarkable sparing of writing), and writing in another seven (two with "pure" agraphia, two with "agraphia with mild alexia," and three with "agraphia with mild fluent aphasia.") The nature of three conditions (pure anarthria, fluent aphasia with sparing of writing, and pure agraphia) is discussed, with evidence of a selective association between pure agraphia and lesions of the upper left parietal lobule. PMID:671067

  9. Family Adjustment to Aphasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... time. Seek additional counseling services as necessary. Communication Skills Family members also can help the person with aphasia develop new skills to compensate for the communication problems. Some suggestion ...

  10. Combining Teletherapy and On-line Language Exercises in the Treatment of Chronic Aphasia: An Outcome Study

    PubMed Central

    STEELE, RICHARD D.; BAIRD, ALLISON; MCCALL, DENISE; HAYNES, LISA

    2015-01-01

    We report a 12-week outcome study in which nine persons with long-term chronic aphasia received individual and group speech-language teletherapy services, and also used on-line language exercises to practice from home between therapy sessions. Participants were assessed at study initiation and completion using the Western Aphasia Battery, a portion of the Communicative Effectiveness Index, ASHA National Outcome Measurement System, and RIC Communication Confidence Rating Scale for Aphasia; additionally participants were polled regarding satisfaction at discharge. Pretreatment and post-treatment means were calculated and compared, and matched t-tests were used to determine significance of improvements following treatment, with patterns of independent on-line activity analyzed. Analysis of scores shows that means improved on most measures following treatment, generally significantly: the WAB AQ improved +3.5 (p = .057); the CETI Overall (of items administered) — +17.8 (p = .01), and CCRSA Overall — + 10.4 (p = .0004). Independent work increased with time, and user satisfaction following participation was high. PMID:25945225

  11. The influence of event-related knowledge on verb-argument processing in aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Michael Walsh; Warren, Tessa

    2014-01-01

    Event-related conceptual knowledge outside the language system rapidly affects verb-argument processing in unimpaired adults (McRae & Matsuki, 2009). Some have argued that verb-argument processing is in fact reducible to the activation of such event-related knowledge. However, data favoring this conclusion have come primarily from college-aged healthy adults, for whom both linguistic and conceptual semantic processing is fast and automatic. This study examined the influence of event-related knowledge on verb-argument processing among adults with aphasia (n=8) and older unimpaired controls (n=60), in two self-paced reading studies. Participants read sentences containing a plausible verb-argument combination (Mary used a knife to chop the large carrots before dinner), a combination that violated event-related world knowledge (Mary used some bleach to clean the large carrots before dinner), or a combination that violated the verb’s selectional restrictions (Mary used a pump to inflate the large carrots before dinner). The participants with aphasia naturally split into two groups: Group 1 (n=4) had conceptual-semantic impairments (evidenced by poor performance on tasks like Pyramids & Palm Trees) but reasonably intact language processing (higher Western Aphasia Battery Aphasia Quotients), while Group 2 (n=4) had intact conceptual semantics but poorer language processing. Older unimpaired controls and aphasic Group 1 showed rapid on-line disruption for sentences with selectional-restriction violations (SRVs) and event-related knowledge violations, and also showed SRV-specific penalties in sentence-final acceptability judgments (Experiment 1) and comprehension questions (Experiment 2). In contrast, Group 2 showed very few reliable differences across conditions in either on-line or off-line measures. This difference between aphasic groups suggests that verb-related information and event-related knowledge may be dissociated in aphasia. Furthermore, it suggests that intact language processing is more critical for successful verb-argument integration than intact access to event-related world knowledge. This pattern is unexpected if verb-argument processing is reducible to activation of event-related conceptual knowledge. PMID:25484306

  12. The influence of event-related knowledge on verb-argument processing in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Dickey, Michael Walsh; Warren, Tessa

    2015-01-01

    Event-related conceptual knowledge outside the language system rapidly affects verb-argument processing in unimpaired adults (McRae and Matsuki, 2009). Some have argued that verb-argument processing is in fact reducible to the activation of such event-related knowledge. However, data favoring this conclusion have come primarily from college-aged healthy adults, for whom both linguistic and conceptual semantic processing is fast and automatic. This study examined the influence of event-related knowledge on verb-argument processing among adults with aphasia (n = 8) and older unimpaired controls (n = 60), in two self-paced reading studies. Participants read sentences containing a plausible verb-argument combination (Mary used a knife to chop the large carrots before dinner), a combination that violated event-related world knowledge (Mary used some bleach to clean the large carrots before dinner), or a combination that violated the verb's selectional restrictions (Mary used a pump to inflate the large carrots before dinner). The participants with aphasia naturally split into two groups: Group 1 (n = 4) had conceptual-semantic impairments (evidenced by poor performance on tasks like Pyramids & Palm Trees) but reasonably intact language processing (higher Western Aphasia Battery Aphasia Quotients), while Group 2 (n = 4) had intact conceptual semantics but poorer language processing. Older unimpaired controls and aphasic Group 1 showed rapid on-line disruption for sentences with selectional-restriction violations (SRVs) and event-related knowledge violations, and also showed SRV-specific penalties in sentence-final acceptability judgments (Experiment 1) and comprehension questions (Experiment 2). In contrast, Group 2 showed very few reliable differences across conditions in either on-line or off-line measures. This difference between aphasic groups suggests that verb-related information and event-related knowledge may be dissociated in aphasia. Furthermore, it suggests that intact language processing is more critical for successful verb-argument integration than intact access to event-related world knowledge. This pattern is unexpected if verb-argument processing is reducible to activation of event-related conceptual knowledge. PMID:25484306

  13. Starting an aphasia center?

    PubMed

    Elman, Roberta J

    2011-08-01

    Starting an aphasia center can be an enormous challenge. This article provides initial issues to review and consider when deciding whether starting a new organization is right for you. Determining the need for the program in your community, the best size and possible affiliation for the organization, and available resources, as well as developing a business plan, marketing the program, and building awareness in the community, are some of the factors that are discussed. Specific examples related to starting the Aphasia Center of California are provided. PMID:21968562

  14. Aphasia vs. Apraxia

    MedlinePlus

    ... name (i.e., size or shape) Learning compensating communication methods Using writing or gestures Training conversation partners so they may adjust the way they communicate with persons with aphasia Apraxia of speech (verbal apraxia) is difficulty initiating and executing voluntary movement ...

  15. Closed head trauma and aphasia1

    PubMed Central

    Heilman, Kenneth M.; Safran, Arthur; Geschwind, Norman

    1971-01-01

    A prospective study has been done on the relationship between closed head trauma and aphasia. The most frequent type of aphasia seen after closed head injury is an anomic aphasia. This aphasia is often associated with other defects of higher cortical function. The second most common type of aphasia is a Wernicke's aphasia. Other types of aphasia were not seen in this study. The areas of the head which when injured produce aphasia are the right orbitofrontal region and the left temporoparietal region. The prognosis for recovery appeared highly variable. PMID:5571313

  16. A Behavioral Conceptualization of Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Jonathan C; LeBlanc, Linda A; Raetz, Paige B

    2008-01-01

    Aphasia is an acquired language impairment that affects over 1 million individuals, the majority of whom are over age 65 (Groher, 1989). This disorder has typically been conceptualized within a cognitive neuroscience framework, but a behavioral interpretation of aphasia is also possible. Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior proposes a framework of verbal operants that can be integrated with the work of Sidman (1971) and Haughton (1980) to describe the language difficulties individuals with aphasia experience. Using this synthesis of models, we propose a new taxonomy of aphasia based on the observed deficit relations. Assessment and treatment implications are also discussed. PMID:22477410

  17. Primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Mesulam, Marsel

    2014-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a clinical syndrome diagnosed when three core criteria are met. First, there should be a language impairment (i.e., aphasia) that interferes with the usage or comprehension of words. Second, the neurological work-up should determine that the disease is neurodegenerative, and therefore progressive. Third, the aphasia should arise in relative isolation, without equivalent deficits of comportment or episodic memory. The language impairment can be fluent or non-fluent and may or may not interfere with word comprehension. Memory for recent events is preserved although memory scores obtained in verbally mediated tests may be abnormal. Minor changes in personality and behavior may be present but are not the leading factors that bring the patient to medical attention or that limit daily living activities. This distinctive clinical pattern is most conspicuous in the initial stages of the disease, and reflects a relatively selective atrophy of the language network, usually located in the left hemisphere. There are different clinical variants of PPA, each with a characteristic pattern of atrophy. The underlying neuropathological diseases are heterogeneous and can include Alzheimer’s disease as well as frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The clinician’s task is to recognize PPA and differentiate it from other neurodegenerative phenotypes, use biomarkers to surmise the nature of the underlying neuropathology, and institute the most fitting multimodal interventions. PMID:24707349

  18. First Aid for Aphasia: Home Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Joseph S.

    This pamphlet is designed for use by nonprofessionals as a guide to providing speech therapy for persons with aphasia. It includes an introduction that reviews the causes of aphasia, its immediate effects at onset, and the reactions typical to persons who develop aphasia. Uncomplicated aphasia is described first with eleven specific therapy…

  19. A Behavioral Conceptualization of Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Jonathan C.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Raetz, Paige B.

    2008-01-01

    Aphasia is an acquired language impairment that affects over 1 million individuals, the majority of whom are over age 65 (Groher, 1989). This disorder has typically been conceptualized within a cognitive neuroscience framework, but a behavioral interpretation of aphasia is also possible. Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior proposes a

  20. A Behavioral Conceptualization of Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Jonathan C.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Raetz, Paige B.

    2008-01-01

    Aphasia is an acquired language impairment that affects over 1 million individuals, the majority of whom are over age 65 (Groher, 1989). This disorder has typically been conceptualized within a cognitive neuroscience framework, but a behavioral interpretation of aphasia is also possible. Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior proposes a…

  1. [Case report--Crossed aphasia].

    PubMed

    Magnúsdóttir, Sigrídur; Sighvatsdóttir, Ester

    2009-02-01

    A case study of crossed aphasia is presented. A 60-year-old right-handed individual suffered stroke in the right hemisphere leaving him with Broca's aphasia and severe verbal apraxia. A CT scan 3 days after hospitalization showed a new frontotemporal infarct in the right hemisphere, insula and frontal portion of the superior and middle temporal gyrus. MRI 2 weeks later showed more diverse changes involving the parietal lobe. In addition to the Broca's aphasia and verbal apraxia AA had prosodic difficulties involving intonation, stress and conversational vocal variations. Interesting phonological problems were also present, such as total loss of so-called preaspiration, a characteristic of the Icelandic phonological system. In 70% of crossed aphasia cases the symptoms are similar to those of aphasia in the left hemisphere but AA clearly does not fall into that group. PMID:19197110

  2. [Primary progressive aphasia: primary nonfluent aphasia or logopedic aphasia? A case report].

    PubMed

    Gaweł, Małgorzata; Domitrz, Izabela

    2009-01-01

    We present a case of a 58-year-old female suffering from progressive language difficulties with characteristic symptoms of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) who was finally diagnosed as having progressive nonfluent aphasia variant (PNFA). The differential diagnosis was made between a variant of PNFA and logopenic variant of PPA occurring often in the course of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19742397

  3. An Aphasia Mentoring Program: Perspectives of Speech-Language Pathology Students and of Mentors with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Barbara A.; Petersen, Jill; Puurveen, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In contrast to clinician-as-expert models, social models of clinical practice typically acknowledge people with aphasia as equal partners in intervention. Given this, there may be a place within speech-language pathology education for programs situating people with aphasia as experts. This paper describes an aphasia mentoring program that…

  4. Aphasia Centers and the Life Participation Approach to Aphasia: A Paradigm Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elman, Roberta J.

    2016-01-01

    The Aphasia Center is a service delivery model that provides an interactive community for persons with aphasia. This model has been increasing in popularity over the last 20 years. Aphasia Centers are consistent with a social model of health care and disability. They offer the potential for linguistic, communicative, and psychosocial benefits. The…

  5. Primary Progressive Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Youngsin; Duffy, Joseph R.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive language dysfunction. The majority of primary progressive aphasia cases can be classified into three subtypes: non-fluent/agrammatic, semantic, and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia. Each variant presents with unique clinical features, and is associated with distinctive underlying pathology and neuroimaging findings. Unlike primary progressive aphasia, apraxia of speech is a disorder that involves inaccurate production of sounds secondary to impaired planning or programming of speech movements. Primary progressive apraxia of speech is a neurodegenerative form of apraxia of speech, and it should be distinguished from primary progressive aphasia given its discrete clinicopathological presentation. Recently, there have been substantial advances in our understanding of these speech and language disorders. Here, we review clinical, neuroimaging, and histopathological features of primary progressive aphasia and apraxia of speech. The distinctions among these disorders will be crucial since accurate diagnosis will be important from a prognostic and therapeutic standpoint. PMID:24234355

  6. Aphasia centers in North America: a survey.

    PubMed

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Holland, Audrey L

    2011-08-01

    There is a growing trend toward dedicated programs designed to improve the lives of people with aphasia and their families. We are referring to these programs collectively as "aphasia centers." These programs purportedly differ from more traditional medically based aphasia rehabilitation. However, there is no directory of aphasia centers and no definition of what constitutes such a program. Therefore, an online survey was designed to identify and describe aphasia centers in the United States and Canada. A 37-question survey was posted online via SurveyMonkey. An introductory letter was distributed by electronic mail to a listserv and mailing lists of programs associated with aphasia. Potential respondents who considered themselves an aphasia center were asked to complete the survey. A total of 33 survey responses were analyzed, and descriptive data were compiled resulting in a description of the following aspects of aphasia centers: demographic information, mission, admission and discharge policies, assessment practices, program logistics, staffing patterns, marketing, funding, and services offered. In addition, a qualitative analysis of written text responses revealed the following key themes that appear to characterize the responding programs: services that differ from traditional aphasia rehabilitation; a sense of community; a holistic focus on quality of life, psychosocial well-being, participation, and social support; the centrality of group interaction; and variety/intensity of services. PMID:21968557

  7. Therapy efficacy in chronic aphasia.

    PubMed

    Basso, Anna; Macis, Margherita

    2011-01-01

    There is good evidence that aphasia therapy is effective if sufficiently prolonged or intensive and that chronic aphasic individuals can also benefit from therapy, but data on chronic aphasia are scanty. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate whether chronic aphasia benefits from a very intensive therapeutic regimen. We revised the files (January 2000 to December 2008) of the chronic subjects whom we suggested have periodic sessions in our Unit (generally once a week) and 2-3 hours daily of homework with the help of a family member, supervised and controlled by the speech-therapist. Treatment would go on as long as amelioration is evident. Results for 23 chronic aphasic subjects are reported. All subjects had undergone previous therapy and 10 had been dismissed because no further recovery was expected. Recovery was significant in oral and written nouns and actions naming, oral and written sentence production and Token Test scores. Only 4 subjects did not improve. Severity of the disorder did not predict success or failure. We conclude that recovery was due to the intense work done. Further, we believe such a regimen could be successful in a number of patients for whom a less intensive regimen would not be effective. PMID:22063820

  8. Semantic Dementia and Persisting Wernicke's Aphasia: Linguistic and Anatomical Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogar, J. M.; Baldo, J. V.; Wilson, S. M.; Brambati, S. M.; Miller, B. L.; Dronkers, N. F.; Gorno-Tempini, M. L.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have directly compared the clinical and anatomical characteristics of patients with progressive aphasia to those of patients with aphasia caused by stroke. In the current study we examined fluent forms of aphasia in these two groups, specifically semantic dementia (SD) and persisting Wernicke's aphasia (WA) due to stroke. We compared…

  9. Semantic Dementia and Persisting Wernicke's Aphasia: Linguistic and Anatomical Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogar, J. M.; Baldo, J. V.; Wilson, S. M.; Brambati, S. M.; Miller, B. L.; Dronkers, N. F.; Gorno-Tempini, M. L.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have directly compared the clinical and anatomical characteristics of patients with progressive aphasia to those of patients with aphasia caused by stroke. In the current study we examined fluent forms of aphasia in these two groups, specifically semantic dementia (SD) and persisting Wernicke's aphasia (WA) due to stroke. We compared

  10. Outcome Assessment in Aphasia: A Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Threats, Travis T.; Kagan, Aura

    2005-01-01

    There has been a marked increase in attention to the measurement of ''outcomes'' after speech-language intervention for adult aphasia. Consumers, speech-language pathologists (SLPs), and funding sources desire evidence of therapy outcomes that improve communication and enhance the quality of life for people with aphasia. While many assessment

  11. Outcome Assessment in Aphasia: A Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Threats, Travis T.; Kagan, Aura

    2005-01-01

    There has been a marked increase in attention to the measurement of ''outcomes'' after speech-language intervention for adult aphasia. Consumers, speech-language pathologists (SLPs), and funding sources desire evidence of therapy outcomes that improve communication and enhance the quality of life for people with aphasia. While many assessment…

  12. Pharmacotherapy of Aphasia: Myth or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Boissezon, Xavier; Peran, Patrice; de Boysson, Chloe; Demonet, Jean-Francois

    2007-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy of aphasia had been discussed for the last twenty years with first bromocriptine and amphetamine and then serotoninergic, GABAergic and cholinergic agents. Here, we reviewed the MEDLINE available reports of drug therapy for aphasia. So far, proofs of efficiency were found indubitable for none of the studied molecules. However, some…

  13. Pharmacotherapy of Aphasia: Myth or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Boissezon, Xavier; Peran, Patrice; de Boysson, Chloe; Demonet, Jean-Francois

    2007-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy of aphasia had been discussed for the last twenty years with first bromocriptine and amphetamine and then serotoninergic, GABAergic and cholinergic agents. Here, we reviewed the MEDLINE available reports of drug therapy for aphasia. So far, proofs of efficiency were found indubitable for none of the studied molecules. However, some

  14. [Current status of aphasia therapy].

    PubMed

    Lang, C; von Stockert, T R

    1986-04-01

    Aphasia therapy in adults has been established to a larger extent relatively lately in the history of aphasiology, i.e. after its social medical importance had been realized and one of the cardinal problems of neurology solved more satisfactorily--lesion localization by imaging techniques. In order to evaluate the efficiency of aphasia therapy--which is still not quite uncontradicted--it was necessary to acquire sufficient knowledge of the spontaneous recovery process. It takes place--e.g. after stroke--mainly during the first 3 months, coming, as a rule, to a halt during the first year. Longer recovery periods, however, have been described. Next to etiology neurological status, overall health condition, type and severity of aphasia, and time delay between onset of the disease and start of therapy have been ascertained, whereas age and handedness seem to be of minor relevance. If syndrome change occurs the boundary between Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia is not surpassed; this taken apart almost any change from a more severe to a milder form of aphasia is possible. To isolate the therapeutic effect from spontaneous recovery in larger groups is difficult. There are, however, more recent investigations which suggest, that a correctly indicated therapy, which is sufficiently intensive and lasts long enough, will be effective. One of the corner-stones of any therapeutic effort ist adequate stimulation, oriented toward the patients needs and his aphasic syndrome, and taking into account the systemic nature of language and its most important linguistic structural components. Furthermore, a phase-specific and interdisciplinary approach and integration of closely related persons play an important role. We divide the numerous therapeutic techniques into 3 groups: direct or stimulation approach, indirect or circumventory approach, compensatory or alternative strategies approach. Representatives of all 3 groups are presented briefly, e.g. auditory stimulation, divergent semantic intervention, promoting aphasics communicative effectiveness, language enrichment therapy, programmed instruction; then the deblocking method, melodic intonation therapy, imagery, a sample of linguistically oriented methods for the reeducation of syntax, semantics, and phonemics along with special methods for the treatment of alexia and agraphia; finally compensatory techniques like visual communication, visual action therapy, and bliss symbolics. Some particular problems encountered in working with aphasics are addressed. A point is made about the feasibility and profit of lay therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2423425

  15. Primary progressive aphasia and apraxia of speech.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youngsin; Duffy, Joseph R; Josephs, Keith A

    2013-09-01

    Primary progressive aphasia is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive language dysfunction. The majority of primary progressive aphasia cases can be classified into three subtypes: nonfluent/agrammatic, semantic, and logopenic variants. Each variant presents with unique clinical features, and is associated with distinctive underlying pathology and neuroimaging findings. Unlike primary progressive aphasia, apraxia of speech is a disorder that involves inaccurate production of sounds secondary to impaired planning or programming of speech movements. Primary progressive apraxia of speech is a neurodegenerative form of apraxia of speech, and it should be distinguished from primary progressive aphasia given its discrete clinicopathological presentation. Recently, there have been substantial advances in our understanding of these speech and language disorders. The clinical, neuroimaging, and histopathological features of primary progressive aphasia and apraxia of speech are reviewed in this article. The distinctions among these disorders for accurate diagnosis are increasingly important from a prognostic and therapeutic standpoint. PMID:24234355

  16. Language as a Stressor in Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Cahana-Amitay, Dalia; Albert, Martin L.; Pyun, Sung-Bom; Westwood, Andrew; Jenkins, Theodore; Wolford, Sarah; Finley, Mallory

    2012-01-01

    Background Persons with aphasia often report feeling anxious when using language while communicating. While many patients, caregivers, clinicians and researchers would agree that language may be a stressor for persons with aphasia, systematic empirical studies of stress and/or anxiety in aphasia remain scarce. Aim The aim of this paper is to review the existing literature discussing language as a stressor in aphasia, identify key issues, highlight important gaps, and propose a program for future study. In doing so, we hope to underscore the importance of understanding aspects of the emotional aftermath of aphasia, which plays a critical role in the process of recovery and rehabilitation. Main Contribution Post stroke emotional dysregulation in persons with chronic aphasia clearly has adverse effects for language performance and prospects of recovery. However, the specific role anxiety might play in aphasia has yet to be determined. As a starting point, we propose to view language in aphasia as a stressor, linked to an emotional state we term “linguistic anxiety.” Specifically, a person with linguistic anxiety is one in whom the deliberate, effortful production of language involves anticipation of an error, with the imminence of linguistic failure serving as the threat. Since anticipation is psychologically linked to anxiety and also plays an important role in the allostatic system, we suggest that examining physiologic stress responses in persons with aphasia when they are asked to perform a linguistic task would be a productive tool for assessing the potential relation of stress to “linguistic anxiety.” Conclusion Exploring the putative relationship between anxiety and language in aphasia, through the study of physiologic stress responses, could establish a platform for investigating language changes in the brain in other clinical populations, such as in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease or persons with post traumatic stress disorder, or even with healthy aging persons, in whom “linguistic anxiety” might be at work when they have trouble finding words. PMID:22701271

  17. Varieties of semantic ‘access’ deficit in Wernicke’s aphasia and semantic aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Holly; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Comprehension deficits are common in stroke aphasia, including in cases with (i) semantic aphasia, characterized by poor executive control of semantic processing across verbal and non-verbal modalities; and (ii) Wernicke’s aphasia, associated with poor auditory–verbal comprehension and repetition, plus fluent speech with jargon. However, the varieties of these comprehension problems, and their underlying causes, are not well understood. Both patient groups exhibit some type of semantic ‘access’ deficit, as opposed to the ‘storage’ deficits observed in semantic dementia. Nevertheless, existing descriptions suggest that these patients might have different varieties of ‘access’ impairment—related to difficulty resolving competition (in semantic aphasia) versus initial activation of concepts from sensory inputs (in Wernicke’s aphasia). We used a case series design to compare patients with Wernicke’s aphasia and those with semantic aphasia on Warrington’s paradigmatic assessment of semantic ‘access’ deficits. In these verbal and non-verbal matching tasks, a small set of semantically-related items are repeatedly presented over several cycles so that the target on one trial becomes a distractor on another (building up interference and eliciting semantic ‘blocking’ effects). Patients with Wernicke’s aphasia and semantic aphasia were distinguished according to lesion location in the temporal cortex, but in each group, some individuals had additional prefrontal damage. Both of these aspects of lesion variability—one that mapped onto classical ‘syndromes’ and one that did not—predicted aspects of the semantic ‘access’ deficit. Both semantic aphasia and Wernicke’s aphasia cases showed multimodal semantic impairment, although as expected, the Wernicke’s aphasia group showed greater deficits on auditory-verbal than picture judgements. Distribution of damage in the temporal lobe was crucial for predicting the initially ‘beneficial’ effects of stimulus repetition: cases with Wernicke’s aphasia showed initial improvement with repetition of words and pictures, while in semantic aphasia, semantic access was initially good but declined in the face of competition from previous targets. Prefrontal damage predicted the ‘harmful’ effects of repetition: the ability to reselect both word and picture targets in the face of mounting competition was linked to left prefrontal damage in both groups. Therefore, patients with semantic aphasia and Wernicke’s aphasia have partially distinct impairment of semantic ‘access’ but, across these syndromes, prefrontal lesions produce declining comprehension with repetition in both verbal and non-verbal tasks. PMID:26454668

  18. Varieties of semantic 'access' deficit in Wernicke's aphasia and semantic aphasia.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Hannah E; Robson, Holly; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    Comprehension deficits are common in stroke aphasia, including in cases with (i) semantic aphasia, characterized by poor executive control of semantic processing across verbal and non-verbal modalities; and (ii) Wernicke's aphasia, associated with poor auditory-verbal comprehension and repetition, plus fluent speech with jargon. However, the varieties of these comprehension problems, and their underlying causes, are not well understood. Both patient groups exhibit some type of semantic 'access' deficit, as opposed to the 'storage' deficits observed in semantic dementia. Nevertheless, existing descriptions suggest that these patients might have different varieties of 'access' impairment-related to difficulty resolving competition (in semantic aphasia) versus initial activation of concepts from sensory inputs (in Wernicke's aphasia). We used a case series design to compare patients with Wernicke's aphasia and those with semantic aphasia on Warrington's paradigmatic assessment of semantic 'access' deficits. In these verbal and non-verbal matching tasks, a small set of semantically-related items are repeatedly presented over several cycles so that the target on one trial becomes a distractor on another (building up interference and eliciting semantic 'blocking' effects). Patients with Wernicke's aphasia and semantic aphasia were distinguished according to lesion location in the temporal cortex, but in each group, some individuals had additional prefrontal damage. Both of these aspects of lesion variability-one that mapped onto classical 'syndromes' and one that did not-predicted aspects of the semantic 'access' deficit. Both semantic aphasia and Wernicke's aphasia cases showed multimodal semantic impairment, although as expected, the Wernicke's aphasia group showed greater deficits on auditory-verbal than picture judgements. Distribution of damage in the temporal lobe was crucial for predicting the initially 'beneficial' effects of stimulus repetition: cases with Wernicke's aphasia showed initial improvement with repetition of words and pictures, while in semantic aphasia, semantic access was initially good but declined in the face of competition from previous targets. Prefrontal damage predicted the 'harmful' effects of repetition: the ability to reselect both word and picture targets in the face of mounting competition was linked to left prefrontal damage in both groups. Therefore, patients with semantic aphasia and Wernicke's aphasia have partially distinct impairment of semantic 'access' but, across these syndromes, prefrontal lesions produce declining comprehension with repetition in both verbal and non-verbal tasks. PMID:26454668

  19. Assessment and treatment of aphasia in czech.

    PubMed

    Lehečková, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Intervention approaches to aphasia differ in different countries. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the situation in the Czech Republic. The following topics are summarized: (1) Czech logopedics in aphasiology; (2) the assessment of aphasia; (3) the treatment of aphasia; (4) Czech aphasiologic material; (5) the qualification of clinical logopedists, and (6) regulations of aphasiologic care. Czech is a very intricate language, both phonetically and grammatically. The prevalence of consonants appearing in long sequences (a whole sentence can be constructed purely of consonants) makes it difficult to pronounce. The strong inflecting character with hundreds of grammatical forms for each inflected word makes it difficult to use correct morphology and syntax. These facts make Czech a real challenge both for aphasics and logopedists. An overview of aphasia tests and treatment methods used in the Czech Republic, as well as conditions of logopedic care are given. The paper will allow comparison with the situation in other countries. PMID:23108445

  20. AphasiaBank: Methods for Studying Discourse

    PubMed Central

    MacWhinney, Brian; Fromm, Davida; Forbes, Margaret; Holland, Audrey

    2011-01-01

    Background AphasiaBank is a computerized database of interviews between persons with aphasia (PWAs) and clinicians. By February 2011, the database had grown to include 145 PWAs and 126 controls from 12 sites across the United States. The data and related analysis programs are available free over the web. Aims The overall goal of AphasiaBank is the construction of a system for accumulating and sharing data on language usage by PWAs. To achieve this goal, we have developed a standard elicitation protocol and systematic automatic and manual methods for transcription, coding, and analysis. Methods & Procedures We present sample analyses of transcripts from the retelling of the Cinderella story. These analyses illustrate the application of our methods for the study of phonological, lexical, semantic, morphological, syntactic, temporal, prosodic, gestural, and discourse features. Main Contribution AphasiaBank will allow researchers access to a large, shared database that can facilitate hypothesis testing and increase methodological replicability, precision, and transparency. Conclusions AphasiaBank will provide researchers with an important new tool in the study of aphasia. PMID:22923879

  1. Neuroscience insights improve neurorehabilitation of poststroke aphasia.

    PubMed

    Berthier, Marcelo L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2011-02-01

    The treatment of aphasias-acquired language disorders-caused by stroke and other neurological conditions has benefitted from insights from neuroscience and neuropsychology. Hebbian mechanisms suggest that massed practice and exploitation of residual neurological capacities can aid neurorehabilitation of patients with poststroke aphasia, and progress in basic neuroscience research indicates that the language system of the human brain is functionally interwoven with perceptual and motor systems. Intensive speech and language therapies, including constraint-induced aphasia therapy, that activate both the linguistic and concordant motor circuits utilize the knowledge gained from these advances in neuroscience research and can lead to surprisingly rapid improvements in language performance, even in patients with chronic aphasia. Drug-based therapies alone and in conjunction with behavioral language therapies also increase language performance in patients with aphasia. Furthermore, noninvasive transcranial magnetic stimulation and electrical stimulation techniques that target neuronal activity within perilesional areas might help patients with aphasia to regain lost language functions. Intensive language-action therapies that lead to rapid improvements in language skills might provide a new opportunity for investigating fast plastic neuronal changes in the areas of the brain associated with language processing. Here, we review progress in basic neuroscience research and its translational impact on the neurorehabilitation of language disorders after stroke. PMID:21297651

  2. Fluent Aphasia in Telugu: A Case Comparison Study of Semantic Dementia and Stroke Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alladi, Suvarna; Mridula, Rukmini; Mekala, Shailaja; Rupela, Vani; Kaul, Subhash

    2010-01-01

    This study presents two cases with fluent aphasia in Telugu with semantic dementia and post-stroke fluent aphasia. Comparable scores were obtained on the conventional neuropsychological and language tests that were administered on the two cases. Both cases demonstrated fluent, grammatical and well-articulated speech with little content, impaired…

  3. Fluent Aphasia in Telugu: A Case Comparison Study of Semantic Dementia and Stroke Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alladi, Suvarna; Mridula, Rukmini; Mekala, Shailaja; Rupela, Vani; Kaul, Subhash

    2010-01-01

    This study presents two cases with fluent aphasia in Telugu with semantic dementia and post-stroke fluent aphasia. Comparable scores were obtained on the conventional neuropsychological and language tests that were administered on the two cases. Both cases demonstrated fluent, grammatical and well-articulated speech with little content, impaired

  4. The Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination-Spanish version: the influence of demographic variables.

    PubMed

    Pineda, D A; Rosselli, M; Ardila, A; Mejia, S E; Romero, M G; Perez, C

    2000-11-01

    The Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination Battery (BDAE) is one of the most widely used aphasia tests worldwide. Information about general population performance, however, is limited. This paper analyzes the effects of gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES), academic achievement, and occupation on the BDAE Spanish version. The BDAE was administered to a randomized sample of 156 occupationally active 19-60-year-old participants (75 male and 81 female) from two SES groups. Gender and age had a significant effect on some reading and writing subtests. Body-part naming and mechanics of writing scores were significantly decreased in the low SES group. Education had a significant impact over most of the BDAE subtests. A stepwise regression model showed that academic achievement was best able to predict the variance in BDAE scores with a low (< 15%) to modest (> 17%) but significant capability (F MANOVA p < .01). A factor analysis disclosed 7 factors that explained 67% of the total variance. PMID:11105470

  5. Effects of language proficiency and language of the environment on aphasia therapy in a multilingual

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Mira; Rosas, Jason; Conner, Peggy S.; Maul, Kristen K.; Obler, Loraine K.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the relative proficiency of four languages (Spanish, German, French, English) of a multilingual speaker with aphasia, JM. JM’s self-rated proficiency was consistent with his naming accuracy for nouns and verbs (The Object and Action Naming Battery, Druks & Masterson, 2000) and with his performance on selected subtests of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (Paradis & Libben, 1987). Within and between-language changes were measured following two periods of language treatment, one in a highly-proficient language (Spanish) and one in a less-proficient language (English). The various outcome measures differed in their sensitivity to treatment-associated changes. Cross-language treatment effects were linked to the language of the environment at the time of testing and to relative language proficiency. PMID:23185107

  6. Treatment of Primary Progressive Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Tippett, Donna C.; Hillis, Argye E.; Tsapkini, Kyrana

    2015-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative disease that primarily affects language functions and often begins in the fifth or sixth decade of life. The devastating effects on work and home life call for the investigation of treatment alternatives. In this paper, we present a review of the literature on treatment approaches for this neurodegenerative disease. We also present new data from two intervention studies we have conducted, a behavioral one and a neuromodulatory one using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with written production intervention. We show that speech-language intervention improves language outcomes in individuals with PPA; and especially in the short term, tDCS augments generalization and maintenance of positive language outcomes. We also outline current issues and challenges in intervention approaches in PPA. PMID:26062526

  7. Verb and sentence production and comprehension in aphasia: Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS)

    PubMed Central

    Cho-Reyes, Soojin; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Verbs and sentences are often impaired in individuals with aphasia, and differential impairment patterns are associated with different types of aphasia. With currently available test batteries, however, it is challenging to provide a comprehensive profile of aphasic language impairments because they do not examine syntactically important properties of verbs and sentences. Aims This study presents data derived from the Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS; Thompson, 2011), a new test battery designed to examine syntactic deficits in aphasia. The NAVS includes tests for verb naming and comprehension, and production of verb argument structure in simple active sentences, with each examining the effects of the number and optionality of arguments. The NAVS also tests production and comprehension of canonical and non-canonical sentences. Methods & Procedures A total of 59 aphasic participants (35 agrammatic and 24 anomic) were tested using a set of action pictures. Participants produced verbs or sentences for the production subtests and identified pictures corresponding to auditorily provided verbs or sentences for the comprehension subtests. Outcomes & Results The agrammatic group, compared to the anomic group, performed significantly more poorly on all subtests except verb comprehension, and for both groups comprehension was less impaired than production. On verb naming and argument structure production tests both groups exhibited difficulty with three-argument verbs, affected by the number and optionality of arguments. However, production of sentences using three-argument verbs was more impaired in the agrammatic, compared to the anomic, group. On sentence production and comprehension tests, the agrammatic group showed impairments in all types of non-canonical sentences, whereas the anomic group exhibited difficulty primarily with the most difficult, object relative, structures. Conclusions Results show that verb and sentence deficits seen in individuals with agrammatic aphasia are largely influenced by syntactic complexity; however, individuals with anomic aphasia appear to exhibit these impairments only for the most complex forms of verbs and sentences. The present data indicate that the NAVS is useful for characterising verb and sentence deficits in people with aphasia. PMID:26379358

  8. Phonological Therapy in Jargon Aphasia: Effects on Naming and Neologisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bose, Arpita

    2013-01-01

    Background: Jargon aphasia is one of the most intractable forms of aphasia with limited recommendation on amelioration of associated naming difficulties and neologisms. The few naming therapy studies that exist in jargon aphasia have utilized either semantic or phonological approaches, but the results have been equivocal. Moreover, the effect of…

  9. The Trouble with Nouns and Verbs in Greek Fluent Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In the past verb retrieval problems were associated primarily with agrammatism and noun retrieval difficulties with fluent aphasia. With regards to fluent aphasia, so far in the literature, three distinct patterns of verb/noun dissociations have been described for individuals with fluent anomic aphasia in languages with different underlying forms;…

  10. The Trouble with Nouns and Verbs in Greek Fluent Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In the past verb retrieval problems were associated primarily with agrammatism and noun retrieval difficulties with fluent aphasia. With regards to fluent aphasia, so far in the literature, three distinct patterns of verb/noun dissociations have been described for individuals with fluent anomic aphasia in languages with different underlying forms;

  11. The Role of the Arcuate Fasciculus in Conduction Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Byron; Ardila, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    In aphasia literature, it has been considered that a speech repetition defect represents the main constituent of conduction aphasia. Conduction aphasia has frequently been interpreted as a language impairment due to lesions of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) that disconnect receptive language areas from expressive ones. Modern neuroradiological…

  12. Ambient Experience in Restitutive Treatment of Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    McClung, Jill S.; Rothi, Leslie J. Gonzalez; Nadeau, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges to language rehabilitation is reconciling the fact that the same therapeutic intervention, provided to different individuals with similar types of stroke-induced aphasia, may result in divergent outcomes. In this paper, the authors reviewed existing literature to identify relevant ambient factors – those outside the control of the clinician – that may potentially influence functional language recovery in aphasia and response to treatment. The goal was to develop a clinical history-taking tool to assist clinicians in gathering information germane to each individual's unique circumstances and environment, elements that may have previously been underestimated, to provide a complete inventory of potentially potent prognostic factors. First, two of the authors, speech–language pathologists experienced in aphasia rehabilitation, identified and categorized factors that seemed likely to influence aphasia outcomes. Then, a wide range of literature was reviewed in an effort to identify factors empirically found to be potent influences on aphasia recovery. Where studies relating these factors to aphasia were not found, relevant research from allied fields that examined recovery from brain injury is reported. Moreover, some factors thought to be potentially potent have yet to be examined. Finally, the ambient factors supported by evidence were categorized as facilitators or barriers to functional improvement, and the Ambient Influences on Outcome Checklist (AOC) was developed, including only those factors shown to be potent in the recovery process. It is hoped that this checklist can be used to more broadly assess potential prognostic influences in aphasia restitution, as well as spawn further research. PMID:21103021

  13. Aphasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatment of other cognitive deficits involving attention and memory can improve communication abilities. To understand recovery processes in the brain, some researchers are using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to better understand the human brain regions ...

  14. Aphasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain. People lose almost all language function, both comprehension and expression. They cannot speak or understand speech, ... general, people tend to recover skills in language comprehension more completely than those skills involving expression. What ...

  15. Aphasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatment of other cognitive deficits involving attention and memory can improve communication abilities. To understand recovery processes in the brain, some researchers are using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to better understand the human ...

  16. Aphasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur with speech disorders such as dysarthria or apraxia of speech , which also result from brain damage. ... version Order free publications Find organizations Related Topics Apraxia of Speech Autism Spectrum Disorder: Communication Problems in ...

  17. Passive imaging technology in aphasia therapy.

    PubMed

    Burke, Kiernan; Franklin, Sue; Gowan, Olive

    2011-10-01

    We describe a brief pilot study undertaken to investigate the potential benefit(s) of using a SenseCam in aphasia therapy. Five post-stroke persons with aphasia and their caregivers agreed to participate. Each person with aphasia wore the SenseCam for 1 day during the daytime. Slide shows and printed images were created from the images obtained and presented at a (videotaped) weekly group conversation session. Therapists' observations, reflections, and opinions were subsequently elicited in a group interview and online survey. Wearable, sensor-triggered automatic imaging devices offer potential advantages over both conventional cameras and generic pictures when used in aphasia therapy. We identified three advantages of a SenseCam over conventional imaging methods: Images can be acquired without the presence of the researcher, no action is required by the wearer for image acquisition and the continuous point of view is that of the wearer. Acquired images are of personal relevance to the wearer and may have greater efficacy for the person with aphasia in aiding conversation, and for the speech language therapist in setting functional language goals. PMID:21391108

  18. Compounds in different aphasia categories: a study on picture naming.

    PubMed

    Semenza, Carlo; De Pellegrin, Serena; Battel, Irene; Garzon, Martina; Meneghello, Francesca; Chiarelli, Valentina

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the production of compounds in Italian-speaking patients affected by different aphasia categories (i.e., Broca's, Wernicke's, and anomic aphasia) in a confrontation naming task. Questions of theoretical interest concerning the processing of compounds within the framework of the "lemma theory" as well as the role of morphological productivity in compound processing are addressed. Results indicate that all persons with aphasia retain knowledge of the morphological status of words, even when they fail to retrieve the corresponding phonological form (the "compound effect"). A difference was found among aphasia categories in the type of errors produced (omission vs. substitution) and in the position (first or second) of these errors within the compound words. In Broca's aphasia, the first component is omitted more frequently than the second one, but only in verb-noun compounds. Anomic and Wernicke's aphasia, unlike in Broca's aphasia, seem to retain sensitivity to morphological productivity. PMID:21978375

  19. Vocabulary acquisition in aphasia: Modality can matter

    PubMed Central

    Tuomiranta, Leena; Grönroos, Ann-Mari; Martin, Nadine; Laine, Matti

    2014-01-01

    The present case study investigated modality-specific aspects of novel word acquisition in aphasia. It was prompted by recent aphasia case studies indicating great interindividual variability in the ability to learn and maintain novel words in aphasia. Moreover, two previous case studies revealed a striking effect of input modality by showing effective word learning and re-learning via visual input only (Kohen, Sola, Tuomiranta, Laine, & Martin, 2012; Tuomiranta et al., 2014). The present participant TS with chronic nonfluent aphasia and post-semantic anomia was administered novel word–referent learning tasks. In the first experiment, the learning phase included simultaneous phonological and orthographic input, while the follow-up was probed separately for spoken and written responses. In the second experiment, we studied the effect of four different input and output modality combinations on her ability to learn to name the novel items. In the first experiment, TS’s spoken naming performance during the learning phase was just within the range of healthy controls. Maintenance declined and remained outside that range during the whole 6-month follow-up. However, TS maintained the learned words better in written than in spoken naming throughout the follow-up, and in written naming, her maintenance stayed within the control’s range up to 8 weeks post-training. The second experiment indicated that the best learning outcome was achieved with orthographic input. Orthographic input combined with orthographic output resulted in fast and accurate learning of the novel words. Interestingly, TS’s test profile was opposite to her learning profile, as she repeated better than she read aloud in the linguistic background assessment. The results from the present case highlight the importance of multiple learning channels for word acquisition in individuals with aphasia. Probing the functionality of different input and output channels for learning may also prove valuable in tailoring effective treatment for persons with aphasia. PMID:25419049

  20. Aphasia therapy on a neuroscience basis

    PubMed Central

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Berthier, Marcelo L.

    2008-01-01

    Background Brain research has documented that the cortical mechanisms for language and action are tightly interwoven and, concurrently, new approaches to language therapy in neurological patients are being developed that implement language training in the context of relevant linguistic and non-linguistic actions, therefore taking advantage of the mutual connections of language and action systems in the brain. A further well-known neuroscience principle is that learning at the neuronal level is driven by correlation; consequently, new approaches to language therapy emphasise massed practice in a short time, thus maximising therapy quantity and frequency and, therefore, correlation at the behavioural and neuronal levels. Learned non-use of unsuccessful actions plays a major role in the chronification of neurological deficits, and behavioural approaches to therapy have therefore employed shaping and other learning techniques to counteract such non-use. Aims Advances in theoretical and experimental neuroscience have important implications for clinical practice. We exemplify this in the domain of aphasia rehabilitation. Main Contribution Whereas classical wisdom had been that aphasia cannot be significantly improved at a chronic stage, we here review evidence that one type of intensive language-action therapy (ILAT)—constraint-induced aphasia therapy—led to significant improvement of language performance in patients with chronic aphasia. We discuss perspectives for further improving speech-language therapy, including drug treatment that may be particularly fruitful when applied in conjunction with behavioural treatment. In a final section we highlight intensive and rapid therapy studies in chronic aphasia as a unique tool for exploring the cortical reorganisation of language. Conclusions We conclude that intensive language action therapy is an efficient tool for improving language functions even at chronic stages of aphasia. Therapy studies using this technique can open new perspectives for research into the plasticity of human language circuits. PMID:18923644

  1. Some critical concerns for adapting the Bilingual Aphasia Test to Bahasa Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Postman, Whitney Anne

    2011-06-01

    One of the most widely spoken languages of the world, Bahasa Indonesia (BI), became standardized as the official language of Indonesia. Based on Malay, it served as lingua franca in various forms throughout the Indonesian archipelago for centuries. Although BI has been habitually learned as a second language, the number of native speakers of BI continues to increase. As a member of the Western Austronesian branch of the Austronesian language family, its grammar and usage bear some resemblance to related languages such as Tagalog. At the same time, certain morphosyntactic and pragmatic characteristics of BI that distinguish it from other languages have been the subject of extensive research and deliberation. For these reasons, the clinical utility of adapting the Bilingual Aphasia Test ( Paradis, M., & Libben, G. (1987) . The assessment of bilingual aphasia. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates) is as evident as it is essential. PMID:21631309

  2. Further Evidence of Auditory Extinction in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Rebecca Shisler; Basilakos, Alexandra; Love-Myers, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Preliminary research ( Shisler, 2005) suggests that auditory extinction in individuals with aphasia (IWA) may be connected to binding and attention. In this study, the authors expanded on previous findings on auditory extinction to determine the source of extinction deficits in IWA. Method: Seventeen IWA (M[subscript age] = 53.19 years)

  3. Counseling and Aphasia Treatment: Missed Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Damico, Jack S.

    2011-01-01

    During clinical interactions between speech-language pathologists and adults with aphasia, a variety of emotional issues arise. The literature suggests that while counseling is within the scope of practice, SLPs tend to avoid emotional issues in therapy (A. Holland, 2007a). The precise mechanisms employed for circumventing emotional issues in

  4. Treatment of Aphasia: A Process Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Chris

    1988-01-01

    The recommended treatment approach for aphasia involves increasing the efficiency of language processing by manipulating the patient's processing of stimuli. Discussed are assessment, identification of the point of processing breakdown, identification of facilitory stimulus parameters, and treatment through stimulus manipulation. Two case studies…

  5. Adaptation to Aphasia: Grammar, Prosody and Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhys, Catrin S.; Ulbrich, Christiane; Ordin, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates recurrent use of the phrase "very good" by a speaker with non-fluent agrammatic aphasia. Informal observation of the speaker's interaction reveals that she appears to be an effective conversational partner despite very severe word retrieval difficulties that result in extensive reliance on variants of the phrase "very

  6. Counseling and Aphasia Treatment: Missed Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Damico, Jack S.

    2011-01-01

    During clinical interactions between speech-language pathologists and adults with aphasia, a variety of emotional issues arise. The literature suggests that while counseling is within the scope of practice, SLPs tend to avoid emotional issues in therapy (A. Holland, 2007a). The precise mechanisms employed for circumventing emotional issues in…

  7. Writing Treatment for Aphasia: A Texting Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeson, Pelagie M.; Higginson, Kristina; Rising, Kindle

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment studies have documented the therapeutic and functional value of lexical writing treatment for individuals with severe aphasia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such retraining could be accomplished using the typing feature of a cellular telephone, with the ultimate goal of using text messaging for…

  8. A Computational Account of Bilingual Aphasia Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiran, Swathi; Grasemann, Uli; Sandberg, Chaleece; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2013-01-01

    Current research on bilingual aphasia highlights the paucity in recommendations for optimal rehabilitation for bilingual aphasic patients (Edmonds & Kiran, 2006; Roberts & Kiran, 2007). In this paper, we have developed a computational model to simulate an English-Spanish bilingual language system in which language representations can vary by age…

  9. Drawing: Its Contribution to Naming in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farias, Dana; Davis, Christine; Harrington, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Drawing in aphasia therapy has been used predominately as a substitution for speech or to augment communication when other modalities are non-functional. The value of drawing as a route for facilitating verbal expression has not been a focus of prior research. We compared the usefulness of drawing and writing as compensatory strategies for…

  10. Preservation of singing in Broca's aphasia.

    PubMed Central

    Yamadori, A; Osumi, Y; Masuhara, S; Okubo, M

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-four right-handed, right hemiparetic patients with Broca's aphasia were examined for their singing capacity. Twenty-one (87.5%) produced good melogy. Twelve of these (57%) produced good text words while singing. It is speculated that the right hemisphere is dominant over the left for singing capacity. The relationship between melodic and text singing was also discussed. PMID:886348

  11. A Computational Account of Bilingual Aphasia Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiran, Swathi; Grasemann, Uli; Sandberg, Chaleece; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2013-01-01

    Current research on bilingual aphasia highlights the paucity in recommendations for optimal rehabilitation for bilingual aphasic patients (Edmonds & Kiran, 2006; Roberts & Kiran, 2007). In this paper, we have developed a computational model to simulate an English-Spanish bilingual language system in which language representations can vary by age

  12. Measuring Working Memory Deficits in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Jamie F.; Murray, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many adults with aphasia demonstrate concomitant deficits in working memory (WM), but such deficits are difficult to quantify because of a lack of validated measures as well as the complex interdependence between language and WM. We examined the feasibility, reliability, and internal consistency of an "n"-back task for evaluating WM in…

  13. Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

    2003-01-01

    Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical structures and

  14. Measuring Working Memory Deficits in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Jamie F.; Murray, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many adults with aphasia demonstrate concomitant deficits in working memory (WM), but such deficits are difficult to quantify because of a lack of validated measures as well as the complex interdependence between language and WM. We examined the feasibility, reliability, and internal consistency of an "n"-back task for evaluating WM in

  15. Further Evidence of Auditory Extinction in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Rebecca Shisler; Basilakos, Alexandra; Love-Myers, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Preliminary research ( Shisler, 2005) suggests that auditory extinction in individuals with aphasia (IWA) may be connected to binding and attention. In this study, the authors expanded on previous findings on auditory extinction to determine the source of extinction deficits in IWA. Method: Seventeen IWA (M[subscript age] = 53.19 years)…

  16. Broca's Aphasia, Verbs and the Mental Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastiaanse, Roelien; van Zonneveld, Ron

    2004-01-01

    Verb production is notoriously difficult for individuals with Broca's aphasia, both at the word and at the sentence level. An intriguing question is at which level in the speech production these problems arise. The aim of the present study is to identify the functional locus of the impairment that results in verb production deficits in Broca's

  17. Temporal Processing Capabilities in Repetition Conduction Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidiropoulos, Kyriakos; Ackermann, Hermann; Wannke, Michael; Hertrich, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the temporal resolution capacities of the central-auditory system in a subject (NP) suffering from repetition conduction aphasia. More specifically, the patient was asked to detect brief gaps between two stretches of broadband noise (gap detection task) and to evaluate the duration of two biphasic (WN-3) continuous noise…

  18. Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

    2003-01-01

    Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical structures and…

  19. Temporal Processing Capabilities in Repetition Conduction Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidiropoulos, Kyriakos; Ackermann, Hermann; Wannke, Michael; Hertrich, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the temporal resolution capacities of the central-auditory system in a subject (NP) suffering from repetition conduction aphasia. More specifically, the patient was asked to detect brief gaps between two stretches of broadband noise (gap detection task) and to evaluate the duration of two biphasic (WN-3) continuous noise

  20. Writing Treatment for Aphasia: A Texting Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeson, Pelagie M.; Higginson, Kristina; Rising, Kindle

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment studies have documented the therapeutic and functional value of lexical writing treatment for individuals with severe aphasia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such retraining could be accomplished using the typing feature of a cellular telephone, with the ultimate goal of using text messaging for

  1. Accent Identification by Adults with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Caroline; Burns, Rebecca; Bruce, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    The UK is a diverse society where individuals regularly interact with speakers with different accents. Whilst there is a growing body of research on the impact of speaker accent on comprehension in people with aphasia, there is none which explores their ability to identify accents. This study investigated the ability of this group to identify the…

  2. Semantic Weight and Verb Retrieval in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barde, Laura H. F.; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Boronat, Consuelo B.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic aphasia may have difficulty with verb production in comparison to nouns. Additionally, they may have greater difficulty producing verbs that have fewer semantic components (i.e., are semantically "light") compared to verbs that have greater semantic weight. A connectionist verb-production model proposed by Gordon and…

  3. Cerebral glucose metabolism in Wernicke's, Broca's, and conduction aphasia

    SciTech Connect

    Metter, E.J.; Kempler, D.; Jackson, C.; Hanson, W.R.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Phelps, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    Cerebral glucose metabolism was evaluated in patients with either Wernicke's (N = 7), Broca's (N = 11), or conduction (N = 10) aphasia using /sup 18/F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose with positron emission tomography. The three aphasic syndromes differed in the degree of left-to-right frontal metabolic asymmetry, with Broca's aphasia showing severe asymmetry and Wernicke's aphasia mild-to-moderate metabolic asymmetry, while patients with conduction aphasia were metabolically symmetric. On the other hand, the three syndromes showed the same degree of metabolic decline in the left temporal region. The parietal region appeared to separate conduction aphasia from both Broca's and Wernicke's aphasias. Common aphasic features in the three syndromes appear to be due to common changes in the temporal region, while unique features were associated with frontal and parietal metabolic differences.

  4. Lithium batteries: Future batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiche, Harald

    The main characteristics and applications of lithium batteries are reviewed. Miniature batteries for quartz crystal watches have been developed and fabricated in Switzerland since 1970. High technology systems like lithium batteries are largely used for their low auto-discharge during storage and for their high energy density. Two kinds of lithium batteries can be distinguished concerning their place in the watch: integrated batteries; and batteries placed between motion parts and the bottom of the watchcase. Lithium batteries are also used in pocket calculators, electronic modules for integrated circuits, telephone, control systems, electronic games, bank cards, and heart stimulators.

  5. Non-invasive repeated therapeutic stimulation for aphasia recovery: a multilingual, multicenter aphasia trial.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Alexander; Black, Sandra E; Rochon, Elizabeth A; Lanthier, Sylvain; Hartmann, Alexander; Chen, Joyce L; Mochizuki, George; Zumbansen, Anna; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been used in case series and small randomized controlled trials to improve recovery from poststroke aphasia in combination with speech and language therapy. Results of these studies suggest possible clinical efficacy and an excellent safety profile. Therefore, a larger international multicenter proof-of-concept trial was launched, to directly compare the safety and efficacy of rTMS, tDCS, and sham stimulation as adjuvant therapy to speech and language therapy in subacute poststroke aphasia. In the 4 participating centers, subacute stroke patients with aphasia are randomized between 5 and 30 days after ischemic stroke to either receive rTMS, tDCS, or sham stimulation in combination with a daily 45 minutes speech and language therapy session for 10 days. Efficacy is evaluated at 1 and 30 days after the last of the 10 treatment sessions using 3 outcome measures, validated in all participating languages: Boston naming test, Token test, and verbal fluency test. Additionally, adverse events are recorded to prove safety. In this study, a total of 90 patients will be recruited, and data analysis will be completed in 2016. This is the first multilingual and multinational randomized and controlled trial in poststroke aphasia and if positive, will add an effective new strategy for early stage poststroke aphasia rehabilitation. PMID:25735707

  6. Aphasia Therapy in the Age of Globalization: Cross-Linguistic Therapy Effects in Bilingual Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Ansaldo, Ana Inés; Saidi, Ladan Ghazi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Globalization imposes challenges to the field of behavioural neurology, among which is an increase in the prevalence of bilingual aphasia. Thus, aphasiologists have increasingly focused on bilingual aphasia therapy and, more recently, on the identification of the most efficient procedures for triggering language recovery in bilinguals with aphasia. Therapy in both languages is often not available, and, thus, researchers have focused on the transfer of therapy effects from the treated language to the untreated one. Aim. This paper discusses the literature on bilingual aphasia therapy, with a focus on cross-linguistic therapy effects from the language in which therapy is provided to the untreated language. Methods. Fifteen articles including two systematic reviews, providing details on pre- and posttherapy in the adult bilingual population with poststroke aphasia and anomia are discussed with regard to variables that can influence the presence or absence of cross-linguistic transfer of therapy effects. Results and Discussion. The potential for CLT of therapy effects from the treated to the untreated language depends on the word type, the degree of structural overlap between languages, the type of therapy approach, the pre- and postmorbid language proficiency profiles, and the status of the cognitive control circuit. PMID:24825963

  7. Verbal repetition in primary progressive aphasia and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Leyton, Cristian E; Savage, Sharon; Irish, Muireann; Schubert, Samantha; Piguet, Olivier; Ballard, Kirrie J; Hodges, John R

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to explore the nature of verbal repetition deficits and infer the cognitive systems involved in primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). A total of 63 patients (13 semantic variant (sv-PPA), 17 nonfluent/agrammatic variant (nfv-PPA), 10 logopenic variant (lv-PPA), 23 AD) and 13 matched healthy controls completed a battery of tests that included naming, word comprehension, digit span, repetition of multisyllabic single words, monosyllabic word span presented under similar and dissimilar phonological conditions, and sentence repetition. All patient groups displayed some level of impairment, however, specific patterns emerged in each variant. Participants with sv-PPA were the least impaired, showing marginal difficulties exclusively for sentence repetition, whereas those with lv-PPA had the worst overall performance. Cases with nfv-PPA showed compromised repetition of multisyllabic and phonologically similar words. The deficit in cases with AD was confined to span tasks. These distinctive patterns of language impairments can assist in the differential diagnosis of PPA variants and point toward the vulnerability of specific cognitive systems in each syndrome. PMID:24662100

  8. Aphasia Practice in the Year 2026.

    PubMed

    Hinckley, Jacqueline J

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to envision how the clinical practice of aphasia management might be done 10 years in the future. The vision of how an individual clinician's daily tasks are changed is built on current trends, including the aging of the population, the life participation approach to aphasia, development and use of evidence-based practices, person-centered care, and technology. To be prepared for the future of these trends, we will need to develop clinical capacity, not only in the number of speech-language pathologists but also most importantly in their competence for using evidence-based practices and training others to support effective communication, including other health care providers. Research needs that will support the future are also described. PMID:27232092

  9. Assessment of mood states in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Stern, R A

    1999-01-01

    Depression is common in patients with stroke and other neurological conditions. Accurate assessment and diagnosis is critical in understanding the causes of mood disturbance in these patients and in establishing effective treatments. Examination of mood states, however, is difficult in patients with aphasia, impaired emotional expression, and other communication and cognitive difficulties. Most standardized measures of mood are inappropriate for this population due to the instruments' linguistic, attention, and other cognitive demands. The Visual Analog Mood Scales (VAMS) are psychometrically sound measures, developed specifically for neurologically impaired patients in general and aphasic patients in particular. These very brief scales assess eight mood states: sad, happy, tense, afraid, tired, energetic, confused, and angry. The utility of these scales in clinical practice is presented, as are specific recommendations and guidelines for the assessment of mood in patients with aphasia and other communication deficits. PMID:10100375

  10. AphasiaBank as BigData.

    PubMed

    MacWhinney, Brian; Fromm, Davida

    2016-02-01

    AphasiaBank has used a standardized protocol to collect narrative, procedural, personal, and descriptive discourse from 290 persons with aphasia, as well as 190 control participants. These data have been transcribed in the Codes for the Human Analysis of Transcripts (CHAT) format for analysis by the Computerized Language Analysis (CLAN) programs. Here, we review results from 45 studies based on these data that investigate aphasic productions in terms of these eight areas: discourse, grammar, lexicon, gesture, fluency, syndrome classification, social factors, and treatment effects. For each area, we also indicate how use of the CLAN programs has facilitated the analysis. We conclude with an examination of ways in which the size of the database could be increased through on-site recordings and data from teletherapy. PMID:26882361

  11. Motivational factors in aphasia therapy: research suggestions.

    PubMed

    Shill, M A

    1979-11-01

    Following Wepman (1953), the process of recovery from aphasia is seen as involving stimulation, motivation, and facilitation. The most adequate studies of aphasia therapy outcome focus on facilitation to the virtual exclusion of stimulation and motivation, although clinical experience suggests their importance. Motivation includes both the subjective and experiential aspects of the patient's response to aphasic disablement (anxiety, feelings of inadequacy) and the quality of the speech-therapist/patient alliance during the treatment. Retrospective studies utilizing sufficiently improved aphasics and ratings of the patient-therapist alliance are suggested as preliminary means of defining "motivation" in this context more accurately. Research approaches are also outlined which would assess the importance of and interaction between the three factors implicated in recovery for therapeutic outcome. PMID:391834

  12. Decoding speech for understanding and treating aphasia.

    PubMed

    Pasley, Brian N; Knight, Robert T

    2013-01-01

    Aphasia is an acquired language disorder with a diverse set of symptoms that can affect virtually any linguistic modality across both the comprehension and production of spoken language. Partial recovery of language function after injury is common but typically incomplete. Rehabilitation strategies focus on behavioral training to induce plasticity in underlying neural circuits to maximize linguistic recovery. Understanding the different neural circuits underlying diverse language functions is a key to developing more effective treatment strategies. This chapter discusses a systems identification analytic approach to the study of linguistic neural representation. The focus of this framework is a quantitative, model-based characterization of speech and language neural representations that can be used to decode, or predict, speech representations from measured brain activity. Recent results of this approach are discussed in the context of applications to understanding the neural basis of aphasia symptoms and the potential to optimize plasticity during the rehabilitation process. PMID:24309265

  13. Decoding Speech for Understanding and Treating Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Pasley, Brian N.; Knight, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Aphasia is an acquired language disorder with a diverse set of symptoms that can affect virtually any linguistic modality across both the comprehension and production of spoken language. Partial recovery of language function after injury is common but typically incomplete. Rehabilitation strategies focus on behavioral training to induce plasticity in underlying neural circuits to maximize linguistic recovery. Understanding the different neural circuits underlying diverse language functions is a key to developing more effective treatment strategies. This chapter discusses a systems identification analytic approach to the study of linguistic neural representation. The focus of this framework is a quantitative, model-based characterization of speech and language neural representations that can be used to decode, or predict, speech representations from measured brain activity. Recent results of this approach are discussed in the context of applications to understanding the neural basis of aphasia symptoms and the potential to optimize plasticity during the rehabilitation process. PMID:24309265

  14. Baudelaire's aphasia: from poetry to cursing.

    PubMed

    Dieguez, Sebastian; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2007-01-01

    At 45 years of age, Charles Baudelaire suffered a left hemispheric stroke that left him with a right hemiplegia and severe aphasia. In this chapter, we investigate the nature of his symptoms, drawing mostly on his own and his contemporaries' correspondence. Before specifically examining his aphasia, we put the poet's life, work, and health in context, notably his tormented mind, his probable syphilitic infection and the intellectual milieu of 19th century France. The time when Baudelaire was struck with aphasia coincides with early discoveries and debates that centered on the nature and implications of this neurological disorder. Many of the questions raised at that time still await definitive answers. Here, we compare Baudelaire's language disorder with recent research that has shed new light on the poet's disease. Most interestingly, we explore the nature of his dramatic use of the expletive Cré nom!, which was the only word he was able to express. Finally, we discuss the links between disease and creativity and dismiss the frequent notion that Baudelaire, in the end, paid the price of his genius. PMID:17495509

  15. Binding in agrammatic aphasia: Processing to comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Janet Choy, Jungwon; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Theories of comprehension deficits in Broca’s aphasia have largely been based on the pattern of deficit found with movement constructions. However, some studies have found comprehension deficits with binding constructions, which do not involve movement. Aims This study investigates online processing and offline comprehension of binding constructions, such as reflexive (e.g., himself) and pronoun (e.g., him) constructions in unimpaired and aphasic individuals in an attempt to evaluate theories of agrammatic comprehension. Methods & Procedures Participants were eight individuals with agrammatic Broca’s aphasia and eight age-matched unimpaired individuals. We used eyetracking to examine online processing of binding constructions while participants listened to stories. Offline comprehension was also tested. Outcomes & Results The eye movement data showed that individuals with Broca’s aphasia were able to automatically process the correct antecedent of reflexives and pronouns. In addition, their syntactic processing of binding was not delayed compared to normal controls. Nevertheless, offline comprehension of both pronouns and reflexives was significantly impaired compared to the control participants. This comprehension failure was reflected in the aphasic participants’ eye movements at sentence end, where fixations to the competitor increased. Conclusions These data suggest that comprehension difficulties with binding constructions seen in agrammatic aphasic patients are not due to a deficit in automatic syntactic processing or delayed processing. Rather, they point to a possible deficit in lexical integration. PMID:20535243

  16. Management of Discourse in Group Therapy for Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Elman, Roberta J.; Holland, Audrey L.; Damico, Jack S.

    2007-01-01

    A qualitative study of group therapy for aphasia was undertaken in order to discover interaction patterns and discourse management strategies that help define "social" or "conversation" group therapy for aphasia. Specifically, an analysis of the discourse of clients and therapists was conducted to identify patterns across therapists and settings.

  17. Principles Underlying the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) and Its Uses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradis, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) is designed to be objective (so it can be administered by a lay native speaker of the language) and equivalent across languages (to allow for a comparison between the languages of a given patient as well as across patients from different institutions). It has been used not only with aphasia but also with any…

  18. Principles Underlying the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) and Its Uses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradis, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) is designed to be objective (so it can be administered by a lay native speaker of the language) and equivalent across languages (to allow for a comparison between the languages of a given patient as well as across patients from different institutions). It has been used not only with aphasia but also with any

  19. Management of Discourse in Group Therapy for Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Elman, Roberta J.; Holland, Audrey L.; Damico, Jack S.

    2007-01-01

    A qualitative study of group therapy for aphasia was undertaken in order to discover interaction patterns and discourse management strategies that help define "social" or "conversation" group therapy for aphasia. Specifically, an analysis of the discourse of clients and therapists was conducted to identify patterns across therapists and settings.…

  20. Paraphasias in Multilingual Conduction Aphasia: A Single Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegde, Medha; Bhat, Sapna

    2007-01-01

    Conduction aphasia is a type of fluent aphasia, which is caused due to the damage to the supramarginal gyrus and arcuate fasciculus resulting in repetition disturbance. It has been speculated that linguistic system in bilingual aphasics can breakdown in different ways across languages. There is a lack of detailed linguistic studies in specific…

  1. Aphasia and the Process of Revision in Writing a Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrns, Ingrid; Ahlsen, Elisabeth; Wengelin, Asa

    2008-01-01

    Most of the previous research on aphasia and writing ability concentrates on the production of words in isolation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the process of producing written texts by clients with aphasia. By using keystroke logging, it was possible to analyse the participants' ongoing work during text writing. Results showed…

  2. Brain Perfusion in Corticobasal Syndrome with Progressive Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Yoshitake; Kimura, Noriyuki; Goto, Megumi; Aso, Yasuhiro; Matsubara, Etsuro

    2016-01-01

    Background Brain perfusion may differ between patients with corticobasal syndrome (CBS) with and without aphasia. Methods Twenty-six (9 males and 17 females; mean age 76 ± 5.3 years) patients with CBS were enrolled in the study. Brain MRI and single-photon emission computed tomography were performed in all subjects. Language was evaluated using the Standard Language Test of Aphasia. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to the presence or absence of progressive aphasia. Differences in the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) between the two groups were detected based on voxel-by-voxel group analysis using Statistical Parametric Mapping 8. Results All patients exhibited asymmetric motor symptoms and signs, including limb apraxia, bradykinesia, and akinetic rigidity. Of 26 patients, 9 had a clinically obvious language disturbance, characterized as nonfluent aphasia. Almost all CBS patients with aphasia exhibited cortical atrophy predominantly in the left frontal and temporal lobes with widening of the Sylvian fissure on MRI. The rCBF in the left middle frontal gyrus differed significantly between CBS patients with and without aphasia. Conclusion CBS patients with aphasia exhibit motor symptoms predominantly on the right side and cortical atrophy mainly in the left perisylvian cortices. In particular, left frontal dysfunction might be related to nonfluent aphasia in CBS. PMID:27195001

  3. Inference Revision Processing in Adults with and without Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Heather Harris; Newhoff, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    Processing abilities in aphasia, and the nature of processing breakdowns, were the focuses of this investigation. Individuals with either fluent or nonfluent aphasia, plus a control group, participated in a cross-modal lexical priming task designed to elicit priming effects when activation of inference interpretations occurred. Comprehension of…

  4. Measuring and Inducing Brain Plasticity in Chronic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fridriksson, Julius

    2011-01-01

    Brain plasticity associated with anomia recovery in aphasia is poorly understood. Here, I review four recent studies from my lab that focused on brain modulation associated with long-term anomia outcome, its behavioral treatment, and the use of transcranial brain stimulation to enhance anomia treatment success in individuals with chronic aphasia

  5. Mild Aphasia: Is This the Place for an Argument?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Fox, Sarah; Wilkinson, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with mild aphasia often report significant disruption to their communication despite seemingly minor impairment. This study explored this phenomenon through examining conversations of a person with mild aphasia engaging in argumentation--a skill she felt had significantly deteriorated after her stroke. Method: A person with…

  6. Acquired dyslexia in Serbian speakers with Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Mile; Vuković, Irena; Miller, Nick

    2016-01-01

    This study examined patterns of acquired dyslexia in Serbian aphasic speakers, comparing profiles of groups with Broca's versus Wernicke's aphasia. The study also looked at the relationship of reading and auditory comprehension and between reading comprehension and reading aloud in these groups. Participants were 20 people with Broca's and 20 with Wernicke's aphasia. They were asked to read aloud and to understand written material from the Serbian adaptation of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination. A Serbian Word Reading Aloud Test was also used. The people with Broca's aphasia achieved better results in reading aloud and in reading comprehension than those with Wernicke's aphasia. Those with Wernicke's aphasia showed significantly more semantic errors than those with Broca's aphasia who had significantly more morphological and phonological errors. From the data we inferred that lesion sites accorded with previous work on networks associated with Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia and with a posterior-anterior axis for reading processes centred on (left) parietal-temporal-frontal lobes. PMID:27135368

  7. Aphasia and Topic Initiation in Conversation: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Scott E.; Candlin, Christopher N.; Ferguson, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aphasiologists often research, assess and treat linguistic impairment and its consequences for daily life separately. Studies that link the language used by people with aphasia to routine communicative activities may expand the linguistic forms treated as relevant for successful communication by people with aphasia. Previous research…

  8. Neuroscience of aphasia recovery: the concept of neural multifunctionality.

    PubMed

    Cahana-Amitay, Dalia; Albert, Martin L

    2015-07-01

    Aphasia therapy, while demonstrably successful, has been limited by its primary focus on language, with relatively less attention paid to nonlinguistic factors (cognitive, affective, praxic) that play a major role in recovery from aphasia. Neuroscientific studies of the past 15-20 years have opened a breach in the wall of traditional clinico-anatomical teachings on aphasia. It is not an exaggeration to talk of a paradigm shift. The term "neural multifunctionality" denotes a complex web of neural networks supporting both linguistic and nonlinguistic functions in constant and dynamic interaction, creating language as we know it and contributing to recovery from aphasia following brain damage. This paper reviews scientific underpinnings of neural multifunctionality and suggests ways in which this new approach to understanding the neural basis of language can lead to meaningful, practical steps for improvements in aphasia therapy. PMID:26008816

  9. What People Living with Aphasia Think about the Availability of Aphasia Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinckley, Jacqueline J.; Hasselkus, Amy; Ganzfried, Ellayne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Obtaining health information and resources can influence an individual's (a) access to services, (b) interactions with health care providers, and (c) ability to manage one's own health needs. The purpose of this study was to gather the perceptions of consumers living with aphasia about resource availability and information needs. Method:

  10. What People Living with Aphasia Think about the Availability of Aphasia Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinckley, Jacqueline J.; Hasselkus, Amy; Ganzfried, Ellayne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Obtaining health information and resources can influence an individual's (a) access to services, (b) interactions with health care providers, and (c) ability to manage one's own health needs. The purpose of this study was to gather the perceptions of consumers living with aphasia about resource availability and information needs. Method:…

  11. A new life with aphasia: everyday activities and social support.

    PubMed

    Sjöqvist Nätterlund, Birgitta

    2010-01-01

    People who develop aphasia must adjust their lifestyles and learn to cope with the activity limitations that may follow from their disability. The purpose of this study was to describe aphasic individuals' experiences of everyday activities and social support in daily life. Interviews were conducted with 20 people with aphasia, and analysed with qualitative content analysis. The results show that everyday activities changed considerably with the onset of aphasia, and the participants were hindered from participating in activities by communication problems or physical disabilities. Aphasia led to the loss of friends and colleagues, and the interviewees often felt lonely. They generally received a lot of social support from close relatives, but support from the healthcare system was lacking. They need different kinds of social support to help them manage their aphasia and everyday activities and to improve their participation in society. Further studies are needed to improve our knowledge of everyday activity and social support for people with aphasia, and what it means to live with aphasia. PMID:20370533

  12. Verb Argument Structure in Narrative Speech: Mining AphasiaBank.

    PubMed

    Malyutina, Svetlana; Richardson, Jessica D; den Ouden, Dirk B

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has found that verb argument structure characteristics (such as the number of participant roles in the situation described by the verb) can facilitate or hinder aphasic language production and comprehension in constrained laboratory tasks. This research needs to be complemented by studies of narrative or unrestricted speech, which can capture the spontaneous selection of verbs and grammatical structures by people with aphasia and may be particularly sensitive to the relative cost of access to different verb types in more natural conditions. Focusing on the number of subcategorization options, we investigated verb argument structure effects in a large sample of narratives from AphasiaBank, by speakers with aphasia, as well as control speakers without brain damage. Verb argument structure complexity did not negatively affect verb selection in any type of aphasia. However, people with aphasia, particularly with Broca's aphasia, used verbs in less complex and diverse ways, with fewer arguments and less diverse subcategorization options. In line with previous research, this suggests that deficits in verb use in aphasia are likely due to difficulties with the online application of or partial damage to verb argument structure knowledge. PMID:26882363

  13. Treatment of semantic verb classes in aphasia: acquisition and generalization effects.

    PubMed

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Graham, Lauren E

    2011-05-01

    Verb retrieval difficulties are common in aphasia; however, few successful treatments have been documented (e.g. Conroy, P., Sage, K., & Lambon Ralph, M. A. (2006) . Towards theory-driven therapies for aphasic verb impairments: A review of current theory and practice. Aphasiology, 20, 1159-1185). This study investigated the efficacy of a novel verb retrieval treatment in two individuals with aphasia who experience verb retrieval difficulty. It involved training verb classes with large (e.g. cut verbs) and limited (e.g. contact verbs) sets of semantic features. Based on action representation theories, semantically based training of cut verbs was predicted to generalize to retrieval of untrained cut and contact verbs. One participant improved on trained verbs whereas the other participant did not. Neither participant demonstrated within nor across-class generalization to untrained verbs. However, both participants significantly improved in verb naming as measured by An Object and Action Naming Battery, and their predominant error pattern changed from noun to verb substitutions. Therefore, both participants improved in overall verb retrieval strategies despite limited success with verbs trained in this treatment. Implications for the design of future treatments are discussed. PMID:21434812

  14. Parallel Recovery in a Trilingual Speaker: The Use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test as a Diagnostic Complement to the Comprehensive Aphasia Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, David W.; Ruffle, Louise; Grogan, Alice; Ali, Nilufa; Ramsden, Sue; Schofield, Tom; Leff, Alex P.; Crinion, Jenny; Price, Cathy J.

    2011-01-01

    We illustrate the value of the Bilingual Aphasia Test in the diagnostic assessment of a trilingual speaker post-stroke living in England for whom English was a non-native language. The Comprehensive Aphasia Test is routinely used to assess patients in English, but only in combination with the Bilingual Aphasia Test is it possible and practical to…

  15. Writing Treatment for Aphasia: A Texting Approach

    PubMed Central

    Beeson, Pélagie M.; Higginson, Kristina; Rising, Kindle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Treatment studies have documented the therapeutic and functional value of lexical writing treatment for individuals with severe aphasia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such retraining could be accomplished using the typing feature of a cellular telephone, with the ultimate goal of using text messaging for communication. Method A 31-year-old man with persistent Broca’s aphasia, severe apraxia of speech, global dysgraphia, and right hemiparesis participated in this study. Using a multiple baseline design, relearning and maintenance of single-word spellings (and oral naming) of targeted items were examined in response to traditional Copy and Recall Treatment (CART) for handwriting and a new paradigm using 1-handed typing on a cell phone keyboard (i.e., a texting version of CART referred to as T-CART). Results Marked improvements were documented in spelling and spoken naming trained in either modality, with stronger maintenance for handwriting than cell phone typing. Training resulted in functional use of texting that continued for 2 years after treatment. Conclusions These results suggest that orthographic retraining using a cell phone keyboard has the potential to improve spelling knowledge and provide a means to improve functional communication skills. Combined training with both handwriting and cell phone typing should be considered in order to maximize the durability of treatment effects. PMID:23811474

  16. A Computational Account of Bilingual Aphasia Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Swathi; Grasemann, Uli; Sandberg, Chaleece; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2012-01-01

    Current research on bilingual aphasia highlights the paucity in recommendations for optimal rehabilitation for bilingual aphasic patients (Roberts & Kiran, 2007; Edmonds & Kiran, 2006). In this paper, we have developed a computational model to simulate an English-Spanish bilingual language system in which language representations can vary by age of acquisition (AoA) and relative proficiency in the two languages to model individual participants. This model is subsequently lesioned by varying connection strengths between the semantic and phonological networks and retrained based on individual patient demographic information to evaluate whether or not the model’s prediction of rehabilitation matched the actual treatment outcome. In most cases the model comes close to the target performance subsequent to language therapy in the language trained, indicating the validity of this model in simulating rehabilitation of naming impairment in bilingual aphasia. Additionally, the amount of cross-language transfer is limited both in the patient performance and in the model’s predictions and is dependent on that specific patient’s AoA, language exposure and language impairment. It also suggests how well alternative treatment scenarios would have fared, including some cases where the alternative would have done better. Overall, the study suggests how computational modeling could be used in the future to design customized treatment recipes that result in better recovery than is currently possible. PMID:24600315

  17. The Frenchay Aphasia Screening Test: a short, simple test for aphasia appropriate for non-specialists.

    PubMed

    Enderby, P M; Wood, V A; Wade, D T; Hewer, R L

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes preliminary studies on a screening test for aphasia which takes 3-10 minutes to complete and which is suitable for use by general practitioners, junior medical staff and other non-specialists. Data are presented to show that it is a reliable, valid assessment. Using cut-off values derived from normal people, the test is sensitive, but its specificity is limited by such associated factors as hemianopia. Using cut-off values derived from patients known to have aphasia, its specificity is improved. An abnormal result needs to be interpreted in the light of all available clinical information. The test should help identify patients with linguistic disturbance. PMID:2440825

  18. Implicit and Explicit Learning in Individuals with Agrammatic Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Schuchard, Julia; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2013-01-01

    Implicit learning is a process of acquiring knowledge that occurs without conscious awareness of learning, whereas explicit learning involves the use of overt strategies. To date, research related to implicit learning following stroke has been largely restricted to the motor domain and has rarely addressed implications for language. The present study investigated implicit and explicit learning of an auditory word sequence in 10 individuals with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia and 18 healthy age-matched participants using an adaptation of the Serial Reaction Time task. Individuals with aphasia showed significant learning under implicit, but not explicit, conditions, whereas age-matched participants learned under both conditions. These results suggest significant implicit learning ability in agrammatic aphasia. Furthermore, results of an auditory sentence span task indicated working memory deficits in individuals with agrammatic aphasia, which are discussed in relation to explicit and implicit learning processes. PMID:23532578

  19. Spelling intervention in post-stroke aphasia and primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Tsapkini, Kyrana; Hillis, Argye E

    2013-01-01

    Spelling - a core language skill - is commonly affected in neurological diseases such as stroke and Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA). We present two case studies of the same spelling therapy (learning of phoneme-to-grapheme correspondences with help from key words) in two participants: one who had a stroke and one with PPA (logopenic variant). Our study highlights similarities and differences in the time course of each indivdual's therapy. The study evaluates the effectiveness and generalization of treatment in each case, i.e. whether the treatment affected the trained items and/or untrained items, and whether or not the treatment gains were maintained after the end of therapy. Both participants were able to learn associations between phonemes and graphemes as well as between phonemes and words. Reliable generalization to untrained words was shown only for the participant with post-stroke aphasia, but we were not able to test generalization to untrained words in the individual with PPA. The same spelling therapy followed a different time course in each case. The participant with post-stroke aphasia showed a lasting effect of improved spelling, but we were unable to assess maintenance of improvement in the participant with PPA. We discuss these differences in light of the underlying nature of each disease. PMID:22713403

  20. A case of crossed aphasia with apraxia of speech.

    PubMed

    Patidar, Yogesh; Gupta, Meena; Khwaja, Geeta A; Chowdhury, Debashish; Batra, Amit; Dasgupta, Abhijit

    2013-07-01

    Apraxia of speech (AOS) is a rare, but well-defined motor speech disorder. It is characterized by irregular articulatory errors, attempts of self-correction and persistent prosodic abnormalities. Similar to aphasia, AOS is also localized to the dominant cerebral hemisphere. We report a case of Crossed Aphasia with AOS in a 48-year-old right-handed man due to an ischemic infarct in right cerebral hemisphere. PMID:24101837

  1. The Nature of Lexical-Semantic Access in Bilingual Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Swathi; Balachandran, Isabel; Lucas, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Background. Despite a growing clinical need, there are no clear guidelines on assessment of lexical access in the two languages in individuals with bilingual aphasia. Objective. In this study, we examined the influence of language proficiency on three tasks requiring lexical access in English and Spanish bilingual normal controls and in bilingual individuals with aphasia. Methods. 12 neurologically healthy Spanish-English bilinguals and 10 Spanish-English bilinguals with aphasia participated in the study. All participants completed three lexical retrieval tasks: two picture-naming tasks (BNT, BPNT) and a category generation (CG) task. Results. This study found that across all tasks, the greatest predictors for performance were the effect of group and language ability rating (LAR). Bilingual controls had a greater score or produced more correct responses than participants with bilingual aphasia across all tasks. The results of our study also indicate that normal controls and bilinguals with aphasia make similar types of errors in both English and Spanish and develop similar clustering strategies despite significant performance differences between the groups. Conclusions. Differences between bilingual patients and controls demonstrate a fundamental lexical retrieval deficit in bilingual individuals with aphasia, but one that is further influenced by language proficiency in the two languages. PMID:24825956

  2. Some early cases of aphasia and the capacity to sing.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Julene K; Graziano, Amy B

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines early cases of aphasia that include observations of the capacity to sing. Although the majority of these cases were published in the late nineteenth century, earlier reports exist and provide insights into the early thinking about the capacity to sing in aphasia, a topic that continues to the present day. The observation that some patients with aphasia and limited speech output were able to sing the texts of songs inspired scholars to examine the relationship between music and language. Early ideas about the capacity to sing were provided by well-known neurologists, such as John Hughlings Jackson and Adolf Kussmaul. The work of Herbert Spencer about the origins and function of music heavily influenced Jackson and others in their thinking about aphasia. This work also led to an increased interest in understanding music abilities in persons with aphasia and, later, in the brain mechanisms of music. The chapter provides a background as to why there was an interest in the capacity to sing in persons with aphasia and what influenced early thinking on this topic. PMID:25684286

  3. Use of the Progressive Aphasia Severity Scale (PASS) in monitoring speech and language status in PPA

    PubMed Central

    Sapolsky, Daisy; Domoto-Reilly, Kimiko; Dickerson, Bradford C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a devastating neurodegenerative syndrome involving the gradual development of aphasia, slowly impairing the patient’s ability to communicate. Pharmaceutical treatments do not currently exist and intervention often focuses on speech-language behavioral therapies, although further investigation is warranted to determine how best to harness functional benefits. Efforts to develop pharmaceutical and behavioral treatments have been hindered by a lack of standardized methods to monitor disease progression and treatment efficacy. Aims Here we describe our current approach to monitoring progression of PPA, including the development and applications of a novel clinical instrument for this purpose, the Progressive Aphasia Severity Scale (PASS). We also outline some of the issues related to initial evaluation and longitudinal monitoring of PPA. Methods & Procedures In our clinical and research practice we perform initial and follow-up assessments of PPA patients using a multi-faceted approach. In addition to standardized assessment measures, we use the PASS to rate presence and severity of symptoms across distinct domains of speech, language, and functional and pragmatic aspects of communication. Ratings are made using the clinician’s best judgment, integrating information from patient test performance in the office as well as a companion’s description of routine daily functioning. Outcomes & Results Monitoring symptom characteristics and severity with the PASS can assist in developing behavioral therapies, planning treatment goals, and counseling patients and families on clinical status and prognosis. The PASS also has potential to advance the implementation of PPA clinical trials. Conclusions PPA patients display heterogeneous language profiles that change over time given the progressive nature of the disease. The monitoring of symptom progression is therefore crucial to ensure that proposed treatments are appropriate at any given stage, including speech-language therapy and potentially pharmaceutical treatments once these become available. Because of the discrepancy that can exist between a patient’s daily functioning and standardized test performance, we believe a comprehensive assessment and monitoring battery must include performance-based instruments, interviews with the patient and partner, questionnaires about functioning in daily life, and measures of clinician judgment. We hope that our clinician judgment-based rating scale described here will be a valuable addition to the PPA assessment and monitoring battery. PMID:25419031

  4. Asymmetric inhibitory treatment effects in multilingual aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Mira; Naghibolhosseini, Maryam; Conner, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Findings from recent psycholinguistic studies of bilingual processing support the hypothesis that both languages of a bilingual are always active and that bilinguals continually engage in processes of language selection. This view aligns with the convergence hypothesis of bilingual language representation (Abutalebi & Green, 2008). Furthermore, it is hypothesized that when bilinguals perform a task in one language they need to inhibit their other, non-target language(s) (e.g., Costa, Miozzo, & Caramazza, 1999) and that stronger inhibition is required when the task is performed in the weaker language than in the stronger one (e.g., Costa & Santesteban, 2004). The study of multilingual individuals who acquire aphasia resulting from a focal brain lesion offers a unique opportunity to test the convergence hypothesis and the inhibition asymmetry. We report on a trilingual person with chronic non-fluent aphasia who at the time of testing demonstrated greater impairment in her first acquired language (Persian) than in her third, later-learned language (English). She received treatment in English followed by treatment in Persian. An examination of her connected language production revealed improvement in her grammatical skills in each language following intervention in that language, but decreased grammatical accuracy in English following treatment in Persian. The increased error rate was evident in structures that are not shared by the two languages (e.g., use of auxiliary verbs). The results support the prediction that greater inhibition is applied to the stronger language than to the weaker language, regardless of their age of acquisition. We interpret the findings as consistent with convergence theories that posit overlapping neuronal representation and simultaneous activation of multiple languages, and with proficiency-dependent asymmetric inhibition in multilinguals. PMID:24499302

  5. Telerehabilitation of Anomia in Primary Progressive Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Aaron M.; Getz, Heidi R.; Brennan, David M.; Hu, Tang M.; Friedman, Rhonda B.

    2015-01-01

    Background The efficacy of telerehabilitation-based treatment for anomia has been demonstrated in post-stroke aphasia, but the efficacy of this method of anomia treatment delivery has not been established within the context of degenerative illness. Aims The current study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of a telerehabilitation-based approach to anomia treatment within the three subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Methods & Procedures Each of the three telerehabilitation participants represented a distinct subtype of PPA. Following a baseline evaluation of language and cognition, a phonological treatment and an orthographic treatment were administered to all participants over the course of six months. One month after the end of treatment, a post-treatment evaluation began. All treatment sessions and the majority of the evaluation sessions were administered via telerehabilitation. Treatment effects were examined within each subject, and treatment effects were also compared between each telerehabilitation participant and a group of in-person participants who had the same subtype of PPA. Outcomes & Results All three telerehabilitation participants exhibited positive treatment effects. CGR (nonfluent/agrammatic variant PPA) and WCH (logopenic variant PPA) showed maintenance of naming for prophylaxis items in both treatment conditions, while ACR (semantic variant PPA) demonstrated increased naming of remediation items in the phonological treatment condition. Compared to in-person participants with the same subtype of PPA, each of the telerehabilitation participants typically showed effects that were either within the expected range or larger than expected. Conclusions Telerehabilitation-based anomia treatment is feasible and effective in all three subtypes of PPA. PMID:27087732

  6. An Examination of Strategy Implementation during Abstract Nonlinguistic Category Learning in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallila-Rohter, Sofia; Kiran, Swathi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Our purpose was to study strategy use during nonlinguistic category learning in aphasia. Method: Twelve control participants without aphasia and 53 participants with aphasia (PWA) completed a computerized feedback-based category learning task consisting of training and testing phases. Accuracy rates of categorization in testing phases…

  7. Neural Correlates of Phonological and Semantic-Based Anomia Treatment in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fridriksson, Julius; Moser, Dana; Bonilha, Leonardo; Morrow-Odom, K. Leigh; Shaw, Heather; Fridriksson, Astrid; Baylis, Gordon C.; Rorden, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Most naming treatments in aphasia either assume a phonological or semantic emphasis or a combination thereof. However, it is unclear whether semantic or phonological treatments recruit the same or different cortical areas in chronic aphasia. Employing three persons with aphasia, two of whom were non-fluent, the present study compared changes in

  8. The Aphasia Communication Outcome Measure (ACOM): Dimensionality, Item Bank Calibration, and Initial Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hula, William D.; Doyle, Patrick J.; Stone, Clement A.; Hula, Shannon N. Austermann; Kellough, Stacey; Wambaugh, Julie L.; Ross, Katherine B.; Schumacher, James G.; St. Jacque, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the structure and measurement properties of the Aphasia Communication Outcome Measure (ACOM), a patient-reported outcome measure of communicative functioning for persons with aphasia. Method: Three hundred twenty-nine participants with aphasia responded to 177 items asking about communicative…

  9. Computer-Based Script Training for Aphasia: Emerging Themes from Post-Treatment Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherney, Leora R.; Halper, Anita S.; Kaye, Rosalind C.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents results of post-treatment interviews following computer-based script training for persons with chronic aphasia. Each of the 23 participants received 9 weeks of AphasiaScripts training. Post-treatment interviews were conducted with the person with aphasia and/or a significant other person. The 23 interviews yielded 584 coded…

  10. The Aphasia Communication Outcome Measure (ACOM): Dimensionality, Item Bank Calibration, and Initial Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hula, William D.; Doyle, Patrick J.; Stone, Clement A.; Hula, Shannon N. Austermann; Kellough, Stacey; Wambaugh, Julie L.; Ross, Katherine B.; Schumacher, James G.; St. Jacque, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the structure and measurement properties of the Aphasia Communication Outcome Measure (ACOM), a patient-reported outcome measure of communicative functioning for persons with aphasia. Method: Three hundred twenty-nine participants with aphasia responded to 177 items asking about communicative

  11. Conceptualizing and Measuring Working Memory and its Relationship to Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Heather Harris; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

    2011-01-01

    Background General agreement exists in the literature that individuals with aphasia can exhibit a working memory deficit that contributes to their language processing impairments. Though conceptualized within different working memory frameworks, researchers have suggested that individuals with aphasia have limited working memory capacity, impaired attention-control processes as well as impaired inhibitory mechanisms. However, across studies investigating working memory ability in individuals with aphasia, different measures have been used to quantify their working memory ability and identify the relationship between working memory and language performance. Aims The primary objectives of this article are to (1) review current working memory theoretical frameworks, (2) review tasks used to measure working memory, and (3) discuss findings from studies that have investigated working memory as they relate to language processing in aphasia. Main Contribution Though findings have been consistent across studies investigating working memory ability in individuals with aphasia, discussion of how working memory is conceptualized and defined is often missing, as is discussion of results within a theoretical framework. This is critical, as working memory is conceptualized differently across the different theoretical frameworks. They differ in explaining what limits capacity and the source of individual differences as well as how information is encoded, maintained, and retrieved. When test methods are considered within a theoretical framework, specific hypotheses can be tested and stronger conclusions that are less susceptible to different interpretations can be made. Conclusions Working memory ability has been investigated in numerous studies with individuals with aphasia. To better understand the underlying cognitive constructs that contribute to the language deficits exhibited by individuals with aphasia, future investigations should operationally define the cognitive constructs of interest and discuss findings within theoretical frameworks. PMID:22639480

  12. Quality of life measurement and outcome in aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Spaccavento, Simona; Craca, Angela; Del Prete, Marina; Falcone, Rosanna; Colucci, Antonia; Di Palma, Angela; Loverre, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background Quality of life (QL) can be defined as the individual’s perception of their own well-being. Aphasia is the most important potential consequence of stroke and has a profound effect on a patient’s life, causing emotional distress, depression, and social isolation, due to loss of language functions. Aims To draw up a QL questionnaire for aphasics (QLQA) focusing particularly on difficulties in interpersonal relationships and on the loss of independence as a result of language disorders. We reported the results of a psychometric evaluation of this measure. Moreover, we experimentally focused on the differences in QLQA between patients affected only by neurological motor impairment and hemiparetic patients with aphasia (PWA) in order to verify the specific role of aphasia on QL. We also explored if the QLQA is sensitive to the severity of aphasia and to the time elapsing from the stroke. Methods A total of 146 consecutive PWA and 37 control subjects were enrolled to evaluate the reliability (internal consistency and test–retest reliability) and validity of the QLQA, using standard psychometric methods. Patients were divided into acute (within 3 months since stroke) and chronic (beyond 3 months) groups, and into mild and severe according to the severity of aphasia. The experimental group of only acute PWA was compared to control subjects, with right hemispherical lesion and without aphasia in QLQA total and partial scores. Results The QLQA had good internal consistency and test–retest reliability. Acute and chronic PWA and mild and severe ones differed in QLQA total, communication, and autonomy subscales. No differences were found in psychological condition. Between aphasic and control patients, significant differences were found in all QLQA subscales. Conclusion The QLQA is a valid measure of QL in PWA, contributing to a better distinction between severe and mild aphasia, and it is sensitive also to the variations in QL depending on the time interval from stroke. PMID:24368886

  13. Wernicke's Aphasia Reflects a Combination of Acoustic-Phonological and Semantic Control Deficits: A Case-Series Comparison of Wernicke's Aphasia, Semantic Dementia and Semantic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Holly; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Wernicke's aphasia (WA) is the classical neurological model of comprehension impairment and, as a result, the posterior temporal lobe is assumed to be critical to semantic cognition. This conclusion is potentially confused by (a) the existence of patient groups with semantic impairment following damage to other brain regions (semantic dementia and

  14. Wernicke's Aphasia Reflects a Combination of Acoustic-Phonological and Semantic Control Deficits: A Case-Series Comparison of Wernicke's Aphasia, Semantic Dementia and Semantic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Holly; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Wernicke's aphasia (WA) is the classical neurological model of comprehension impairment and, as a result, the posterior temporal lobe is assumed to be critical to semantic cognition. This conclusion is potentially confused by (a) the existence of patient groups with semantic impairment following damage to other brain regions (semantic dementia and…

  15. Parallel recovery in a trilingual speaker: the use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test as a diagnostic complement to the Comprehensive Aphasia Test

    PubMed Central

    GREEN, DAVID W.; RUFFLE, LOUISE; GROGAN, ALICE; ALI, NILUFA; RAMSDEN, SUE; SCHOFIELD, TOM; LEFF, ALEX P.; CRINION, JENNY; PRICE, CATHY J.

    2011-01-01

    We illustrate the value of the Bilingual Aphasia Test in the diagnostic assessment of a trilingual speaker post-stroke living in England for whom English was a non-native language. The Comprehensive Aphasia Test is routinely used to assess patients in English but only in combination with the Bilingual Aphasia Test is it possible and practical to provide a fuller picture of the language impairment. We describe our test selection and the assessment it allows us to make. PMID:21453044

  16. Primary progressive aphasia: linguistic patterns and clinical variants.

    PubMed

    Silveri, Maria Caterina; Pravatà, Emanuele; Brita, Anna Clelia; Improta, Erika; Ciccarelli, Nicoletta; Rossi, Paola; Colosimo, Cesare

    2014-08-01

    We investigated whether primary progressive aphasias (PPA) reflect non-random degradation of linguistic dimensions that might be supported by different neural subsystems and to what extent this degradation contributes to the emergence of clinical entities: semantic (S), logopenic (L) and nonfluent (NF) aphasia; apraxia of speech was also considered if associated with language disorders (AOS/aph). Forty-two aphasic patients are reported. Two main definable patterns of linguistic deficits tended to emerge that corresponded with identifiable patterns of brain atrophy, and probably diseases: the S variant, which principally expresses the impact of a "deep" cognitive (semantic) disorder on language, and AOS/aph in which "peripheral" executive components play a significant role. By contrast, NF aphasia emerged as a heterogeneous variant due to disorganization of various dimensions within the linguistic domain, that assumes different patterns depending on the differential distribution of atrophy in the perisylvian regions. PMID:24974082

  17. Capturing multidimensionality in stroke aphasia: mapping principal behavioural components to neural structures

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    Stroke aphasia is a multidimensional disorder in which patient profiles reflect variation along multiple behavioural continua. We present a novel approach to separating the principal aspects of chronic aphasic performance and isolating their neural bases. Principal components analysis was used to extract core factors underlying performance of 31 participants with chronic stroke aphasia on a large, detailed battery of behavioural assessments. The rotated principle components analysis revealed three key factors, which we labelled as phonology, semantic and executive/cognition on the basis of the common elements in the tests that loaded most strongly on each component. The phonology factor explained the most variance, followed by the semantic factor and then the executive-cognition factor. The use of principle components analysis rendered participants’ scores on these three factors orthogonal and therefore ideal for use as simultaneous continuous predictors in a voxel-based correlational methodology analysis of high resolution structural scans. Phonological processing ability was uniquely related to left posterior perisylvian regions including Heschl’s gyrus, posterior middle and superior temporal gyri and superior temporal sulcus, as well as the white matter underlying the posterior superior temporal gyrus. The semantic factor was uniquely related to left anterior middle temporal gyrus and the underlying temporal stem. The executive-cognition factor was not correlated selectively with the structural integrity of any particular region, as might be expected in light of the widely-distributed and multi-functional nature of the regions that support executive functions. The identified phonological and semantic areas align well with those highlighted by other methodologies such as functional neuroimaging and neurostimulation. The use of principle components analysis allowed us to characterize the neural bases of participants’ behavioural performance more robustly and selectively than the use of raw assessment scores or diagnostic classifications because principle components analysis extracts statistically unique, orthogonal behavioural components of interest. As such, in addition to improving our understanding of lesion–symptom mapping in stroke aphasia, the same approach could be used to clarify brain–behaviour relationships in other neurological disorders. PMID:25348632

  18. Rapid improvement in verbal fluency and aphasia following perispinal etanercept in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Tobinick, Edward L; Gross, Hyman

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent clinical studies point to rapid and sustained clinical, cognitive, and behavioral improvement in both Alzheimer's disease and primary progressive aphasia following weekly perispinal administration of etanercept, a TNF-alpha inhibitor that acts by blocking the binding of this cytokine to its receptors. This outcome is concordant with recent basic science studies suggesting that TNF-alpha functions in vivo as a gliotransmitter that regulates synaptic function in the brain. We hypothesized that perispinal etanercept had the potential to improve verbal function in Alzheimer's disease, so we included several standarized measures of verbal ability to evaluate language skills in a clinical trial of perispinal etanercept for Alzheimer's disease. Methods This was a prospective, single-center, open-label, pilot study, in which 12 patients with mild-to-severe Alzheimer's disease were administered etanercept, 25–50 mg, weekly by perispinal administration for six months. Two additional case studies are presented. Results Two-tailed, paired t-tests were conducted comparing baseline performance to 6-month performance on all neuropsychological measures. Test batteries included the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition, Adult Version; Logical Memory I and II(WMS-LM-II) from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Abbreviated; the Comprehensive Trail Making Test (TMT); Boston Naming Test; and letter(FAS) and category verbal fluency. All measures revealed a significant effect except for the Boston Naming Test and the TMT-4, with WMS-LM-II being marginally significant at p = .05. The FAS test for letter fluency was most highly significant with a p < 0.0007. In addition, rapid improvement in verbal fluency and aphasia in two patients with dementia, beginning minutes after perispinal etanercept administration, is documented. Conclusion In combination with the previously reported results of perispinal etanercept in Alzheimer's disease and primary progressive aphasia, these results further argue that larger scale studies of this therapeutic intervention, including Phase 3 trials, are warranted in dementias. In addition, these results may provide insight into the basic pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's disease and related forms of dementia, and suggest the existence of novel, rapidly reversible, TNF-mediated pathophysiologic mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease which are worthy of further investigation. PMID:18644112

  19. Community Integration and Quality of Life in Aphasia after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyejin; Lee, Yuna; Choi, Hyunsoo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine community integration and contributing factors in people with aphasia (PWA) following stroke and to investigate the relationship between community integration and quality of life (QOL). Materials and Methods Thirty PWA and 42 age-and education-matched control subjects were involved. Main variables were as follows: socioeconomic status, mobility, and activity of daily living (ADL) (Modified Barthel Index), language function [Frenchay Aphasia Screening Test (FAST)], depression [Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)], Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) and Stroke and Aphasia Quality of Life Scale-39 (SAQOL-39). Differences between aphasia and control groups and factors affecting community integration and QOL were analyzed. Results Home and social integration and productive activity were significantly decreased in the aphasia group compared to the control group; 8.5 and 18.3 points in total CIQ score, respectively. Amount of time spent outside the home and frequency of social contact were also significantly reduced in the aphasia group. Total mean score on the SAQOL-39 was 2.75±0.80 points and was significantly correlated with economic status, gait performance, ADL, depressive mood, and social domain score on the CIQ. Depression score measured by GDS was the single most important factor for the prediction of QOL, but the FAST score was significantly correlated only with the communication domain of the SAQOL-39. Conclusion Community activities of PWA were very limited, and depression was highly associated with decreased community integration and QOL. Enhancing social participation and reducing emotional distress should be emphasized for rehabilitation of PWA. PMID:26446656

  20. A review on primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Léger, Gabriel C; Johnson, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative disease of insidious onset presenting with progressive isolated loss of language function, without significant impairment in other cognitive domains. Current diagnostic criteria require the language dysfunction to remain isolated for at least two years, and to remain the salient feature as the disease progresses, usually to involve other domains such as behavior, executive functions, and judgment. Although PPA in its early stages can usually be differentiated from probable Alzheimer’s disease (PRAD) and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal lobar degeneration by the absence of significant changes in memory and behavior, and the preservation of activities daily living, progression of the disease often leads to deficits more consistent with the latter. Underlying etiologies remain heterogeneous: the neuropathological characteristics associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, cortocobasal degeneration, and motor neuron disease are usually found. There is a strong genetic susceptibility with affliction of first-degree relatives with similar disease in up to 40 to 50% in some series. Pathogenic mutations in genes coding for the proteins tau and progranulin have been isolated. These are leading to a better understanding of the neuropathological mechanisms and hopefully targeted disease-modifying therapy. Current therapy is limited to improving mood symptoms and targeting behavior changes as they develop. Referral to specialized centers where speech therapy, counseling, and education for both patient and caregiver are available may be helpful. PMID:19300609

  1. Inner speech deficits in people with aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Langland-Hassan, Peter; Faries, Frank R.; Richardson, Michael J.; Dietz, Aimee

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of inner speech in our mental lives, methods for objectively assessing inner speech capacities remain underdeveloped. The most common means of assessing inner speech is to present participants with tasks requiring them to silently judge whether two words rhyme. We developed a version of this task to assess the inner speech of a population of patients with aphasia and corresponding language production deficits. Patients’ performance on the silent rhyming task was severely impaired relative to controls. Patients’ performance on this task did not, however, correlate with their performance on a variety of other standard tests of overt language and rhyming abilities. In particular, patients who were generally unimpaired in their abilities to overtly name objects during confrontation naming tasks, and who could reliably judge when two words spoken to them rhymed, were still severely impaired (relative to controls) at completing the silent rhyme task. A variety of explanations for these results are considered, as a means to critically reflecting on the relations among inner speech, outer speech, and silent rhyme judgments more generally. PMID:25999876

  2. Inner speech deficits in people with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Langland-Hassan, Peter; Faries, Frank R; Richardson, Michael J; Dietz, Aimee

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of inner speech in our mental lives, methods for objectively assessing inner speech capacities remain underdeveloped. The most common means of assessing inner speech is to present participants with tasks requiring them to silently judge whether two words rhyme. We developed a version of this task to assess the inner speech of a population of patients with aphasia and corresponding language production deficits. Patients' performance on the silent rhyming task was severely impaired relative to controls. Patients' performance on this task did not, however, correlate with their performance on a variety of other standard tests of overt language and rhyming abilities. In particular, patients who were generally unimpaired in their abilities to overtly name objects during confrontation naming tasks, and who could reliably judge when two words spoken to them rhymed, were still severely impaired (relative to controls) at completing the silent rhyme task. A variety of explanations for these results are considered, as a means to critically reflecting on the relations among inner speech, outer speech, and silent rhyme judgments more generally. PMID:25999876

  3. Can tDCS enhance item-specific effects and generalization after linguistically motivated aphasia therapy for verbs?

    PubMed Central

    de Aguiar, Vânia; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Capasso, Rita; Gandolfi, Marialuisa; Smania, Nicola; Rossi, Giorgio; Miceli, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aphasia therapy focusing on abstract properties of language promotes both item-specific effects and generalization to untreated materials. Neuromodulation with transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to enhance item-specific improvement, but its potential to enhance generalization has not been systematically investigated. Here, we test the efficacy of ACTION (a linguistically motivated protocol) and tDCS in producing item-specific and generalized improvement in aphasia. Method: Nine individuals with post-stroke aphasia participated in this study. Participants were pre-tested with a diagnostic language battery and a cognitive screening. Experimental tasks were administered over multiple baselines. Production of infinitives, of finite verbs and of full sentences were assessed before and after each treatment phase. Nonword repetition was used as a control measure. Each subject was treated in two phases. Ten daily 1-h treatment sessions were provided per phase, in a double-blind, cross-over design. Linguistically-motivated language therapy focusing on verb inflection and sentence construction was provided in both phases. Each session began with 20 min of real or sham tDCS. Stimulation site was determined individually, based on MRI scans. Results: Group data showed improved production of treated and untreated verbs, attesting the efficacy of behavioral treatment, and its potential to yield generalization. Each individual showed significant item-specific improvement. Generalization occurred in the first phase of treatment for all subjects, and in the second phase for two subjects. Stimulation effects at the group level were significant for treated and untreated verbs altogether, but a ceiling effect for Sham cannot be excluded, as scores between real tDCS and Sham differed only before treatment. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate the efficacy of ACTION and suggest that tDCS may enhance both item-specific effects and generalization. PMID:26903832

  4. Phonological processing in primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Henry, M.L.; Wilson, S.M.; Babiak, M.C.; Mandelli, M.L; Beeson, P.M.; Miller, Z.A.; Gorno-Tempini, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) show selective breakdown in regions within the proposed dorsal (articulatory-phonological) and ventral (lexical-semantic) pathways involved in language processing. Phonological short-term memory impairment, which has been attributed to selective damage to dorsal pathway structures, is considered to be a distinctive feature of the logopenic variant of PPA. By contrast, phonological abilities are considered to be relatively spared in the semantic variant and are largely unexplored in the nonfluent/agrammatic variant. Comprehensive assessment of phonological ability in the three variants of PPA has not been undertaken. We investigated phonological processing skills in a group of participants with PPA as well as healthy controls, with the goal of identifying whether patterns of performance support the dorsal versus ventral functional-anatomical framework and to discern whether phonological ability differs amongst PPA subtypes. We also explored the neural bases of phonological performance using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Phonological performance was impaired in patients with damage to dorsal pathway structures (nonfluent/agrammatic and logopenic variants), with logopenic participants demonstrating particular difficulty on tasks involving nonwords. Binary logistic regression revealed that select phonological tasks predicted diagnostic group membership in the less fluent variants of PPA with a high degree of accuracy, particularly in conjunction with a motor speech measure. Brain-behavior correlations indicated a significant association between the integrity of gray matter in frontal and temporoparietal regions of the left hemisphere and phonological skill. Findings confirm the critical role of dorsal stream structures in phonological processing and demonstrate unique patterns of impaired phonological processing in logopenic and nonfluent/agrammatic variants of PPA. PMID:26544920

  5. Phonological Processing in Primary Progressive Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Henry, Maya L; Wilson, Stephen M; Babiak, Miranda C; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Beeson, Pelagie M; Miller, Zachary A; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) show selective breakdown in regions within the proposed dorsal (articulatory-phonological) and ventral (lexical-semantic) pathways involved in language processing. Phonological STM impairment, which has been attributed to selective damage to dorsal pathway structures, is considered to be a distinctive feature of the logopenic variant of PPA. By contrast, phonological abilities are considered to be relatively spared in the semantic variant and are largely unexplored in the nonfluent/agrammatic variant. Comprehensive assessment of phonological ability in the three variants of PPA has not been undertaken. We investigated phonological processing skills in a group of participants with PPA as well as healthy controls, with the goal of identifying whether patterns of performance support the dorsal versus ventral functional-anatomical framework and to discern whether phonological ability differs among PPA subtypes. We also explored the neural bases of phonological performance using voxel-based morphometry. Phonological performance was impaired in patients with damage to dorsal pathway structures (nonfluent/agrammatic and logopenic variants), with logopenic participants demonstrating particular difficulty on tasks involving nonwords. Binary logistic regression revealed that select phonological tasks predicted diagnostic group membership in the less fluent variants of PPA with a high degree of accuracy, particularly in conjunction with a motor speech measure. Brain-behavior correlations indicated a significant association between the integrity of gray matter in frontal and temporoparietal regions of the left hemisphere and phonological skill. Findings confirm the critical role of dorsal stream structures in phonological processing and demonstrate unique patterns of impaired phonological processing in logopenic and nonfluent/agrammatic variants of PPA. PMID:26544920

  6. Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Three Individuals with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orenstein, Ellen; Basilakos, Alexandra; Marshall, Rebecca Shisler

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is evidence to suggest that people with aphasia (PWA) may have deficits in attention stemming from the inefficient allocation of resources. The inaccurate perception of task demand, or sense of effort, may underlie the misallocation of the available attention resources. Given the lack of treatment options for improving attention

  7. Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Three Individuals with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orenstein, Ellen; Basilakos, Alexandra; Marshall, Rebecca Shisler

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is evidence to suggest that people with aphasia (PWA) may have deficits in attention stemming from the inefficient allocation of resources. The inaccurate perception of task demand, or sense of effort, may underlie the misallocation of the available attention resources. Given the lack of treatment options for improving attention…

  8. Effects of Utterance Length on Lip Kinematics in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bose, Arpita; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    Most existing models of language production and speech motor control do not explicitly address how language requirements affect speech motor functions, as these domains are usually treated as separate and independent from one another. This investigation compared lip movements during bilabial closure between five individuals with mild aphasia and…

  9. Grammatical Category-Specific Deficits in Bilingual Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Mireia; Cano, Agnes; Costa, Albert; Sebastian-Galles, Nuria; Juncadella, Montserrat; Gascon-Bayarri, Jordi

    2008-01-01

    We report the naming performance of an early and highly proficient Spanish-Catalan bilingual (JPG) suffering from Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA). JPG's performance revealed a grammatical category-specific deficit, with worse performance in naming verbs than nouns. This dissociation was present in oral and written naming and in his two…

  10. Framing Ideas in Aphasia: The Need for Thinking Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jane

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that some of the patterns seen in aphasia may reflect difficulties in the cognitive preparations for language. In particular, some individuals might be unable to carry out processes of "Thinking for Speaking" (Slobin 1996), which frame thoughts for language production. Evidence to support this proposal is presented, together with…

  11. Aphasia treatment: intensity, dose parameters, and script training.

    PubMed

    Cherney, Leora R

    2012-10-01

    Studies of aphasia treatment have shown that intensive speech-language therapy is associated with significant improvements. However, there is no standard definition of intensity and the simplistic notion that "more is better" is not necessarily supported by the research. First, current evidence regarding intensity and aphasia treatment was briefly summarized. Second, studies that directly compare conditions of higher- and lower-intensity treatment for aphasia were reviewed with regard to the inclusion of parameters that contribute to a definition of intensity. In addition to five parameters proposed by Warren, Fey, and Yoder (2007) and highlighted by Baker (2012) , total number of sessions was also often documented. The review illustrated the complexity of quantifying the dose of comprehensive treatments that target multiple modalities and utilize a variety of different strategies. Third, data from a study reporting a relationship between intensive computer-based script training and outcomes in aphasia were examined. Results serve to illustrate Baker's contention that intensity alone is insufficient without also considering the active ingredients of the teaching episode. Information about dose, therapeutic inputs, and client acts can lead to better optimization of an intervention. PMID:22731660

  12. Measuring and Inducing Brain Plasticity in Chronic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fridriksson, Julius

    2011-01-01

    Brain plasticity associated with anomia recovery in aphasia is poorly understood. Here, I review four recent studies from my lab that focused on brain modulation associated with long-term anomia outcome, its behavioral treatment, and the use of transcranial brain stimulation to enhance anomia treatment success in individuals with chronic aphasia…

  13. Phoneme-Based Rehabilitation of Anomia in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Diane L.; Rosenbek, John C.; Heilman, Kenneth M.; Conway, Tim; Klenberg, Karen; Gonzalez Rothi, Leslie J.; Nadeau, Stephen E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of phonologic treatment for anomia in aphasia. We proposed that if treatment were directed at the level of the phonologic processor, opportunities for naming via a phonological route, as opposed to a strictly whole word route, would be enhanced, thereby improving naming. The participants, ten people with anomia

  14. Progranulin-Associated Primary Progressive Aphasia: A Distinct Phenotype?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warrington, Elizabeth K.; Warren, Jason D.

    2010-01-01

    The neuropsychological features of the primary progressive aphasia (PPA) syndromes continue to be defined. Here we describe a detailed neuropsychological case study of a patient with a mutation in the progranulin ("GRN") gene who presented with progressive word-finding difficulty. Key neuropsychological features in this case included gravely…

  15. A Study of Syntactic Processing in Aphasia II: Neurological Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, David; Waters, Gloria; Kennedy, David; Alpert, Nathanial; Makris, Nikos; DeDe, Gayle; Michaud, Jennifer; Reddy, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of the effects of left hemisphere strokes on syntactically-based comprehension in aphasic patients. We studied 42 patients with aphasia secondary to left hemisphere strokes and 25 control subjects for the ability to assign and interpret three syntactic structures (passives, object extracted relative…

  16. Pre-Lexical Disorders in Repetition Conduction Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidiropoulos, Kyriakos; de Bleser, Ria; Ackermann, Hermann; Preilowski, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    At the level of clinical speech/language evaluation, the repetition type of conduction aphasia is characterized by repetition difficulties concomitant with reduced short-term memory capacities, in the presence of fluent spontaneous speech as well as unimpaired naming and reading abilities. It is still unsettled which dysfunctions of the…

  17. Oral Reading in Bilingual Aphasia: Evidence from Mongolian and Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weekes, Brendan Stuart; Su, I. Fan; Yin, Wengang; Zhang, Xihong

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive neuropsychological studies of bilingual patients with aphasia have contributed to our understanding of how the brain processes different languages. The question we asked is whether differences in script have any impact on language processing in bilingual aphasic patients who speak languages with different writing systems: Chinese and…

  18. Verbal Neuropsychological Functions in Aphasia: An Integrative Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigliecca, Nora Silvana; Báez, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical framework which considers the verbal functions of the brain under a multivariate and comprehensive cognitive model was statistically analyzed. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed to verify whether some recognized aphasia constructs can be hierarchically integrated as latent factors from a homogenously verbal test. The Brief…

  19. Analysis of VOT in Turkish Speakers with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopkalli-Yavuz, Handan; Mavis, Ilknur; Akyildiz, Didem

    2011-01-01

    Studies investigating voicing onset time (VOT) production by speakers with aphasia have shown that nonfluent aphasics show a deficit in the articulatory programming of speech sounds based on the range of VOT values produced by aphasic individuals. If the VOT value lies between the normal range of VOT for the voiced and voiceless categories, then…

  20. Donnees linguistiques, communication et aphasie (Linguistic Assumptions, Communication and Aphasia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legrand-Gelber, Regine

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses communication as a subject of psycholinguistic study, with reference to amnesiacal aphasia. The aphasic's problem is presented as a rupture of the communicative act, on the linguistic as well as on the extra-linguistic level. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  1. Training Volunteers as Conversation Partners for People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Helen; Marshall, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Background: One of the most disabling consequences of aphasia is the way it excludes the person from conversation. A number of studies have attempted to tackle this problem by training the conversational partners of aphasic people. This study offers an evaluation of this approach. Aims: Six volunteers were trained in conversing with people with…

  2. A Computational Evaluation of Sentence Processing Deficits in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patil, Umesh; Hanne, Sandra; Burchert, Frank; De Bleser, Ria; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia experience difficulty when processing reversible non-canonical sentences. Different accounts have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. The Trace Deletion account (Grodzinsky, 1995, 2000, 2006) attributes this deficit to an impairment in syntactic representations, whereas others (e.g., Caplan,…

  3. Production of Modal and Negative Particles in Greek Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koukoulioti, Vasiliki

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the production of the Greek modal and negative particles by non-fluent aphasic patients. These particles belong to the highest part of the verb periphrasis, so they are likely to be impaired in non-fluent aphasia, according to some hypotheses about agrammatic language. Moreover, there is an agreement relation…

  4. Elicitation of Specific Syntactic Structures in Primary Progressive Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeon, Jessica; Gesierich, Benno; Besbris, Max; Ogar, Jennifer; Henry, Maya L.; Miller, Bruce L.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Wilson, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Many patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) are impaired in syntactic production. Because most previous studies of expressive syntax in PPA have relied on quantitative analysis of connected speech samples, which is a relatively unconstrained task, it is not well understood which specific syntactic structures are most challenging for these…

  5. Speech Errors in Progressive Non-Fluent Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Sharon; McMillan, Corey; Gunawardena, Delani; Avants, Brian; Morgan, Brianna; Khan, Alea; Moore, Peachie; Gee, James; Grossman, Murray

    2010-01-01

    The nature and frequency of speech production errors in neurodegenerative disease have not previously been precisely quantified. In the present study, 16 patients with a progressive form of non-fluent aphasia (PNFA) were asked to tell a story from a wordless children's picture book. Errors in production were classified as either phonemic,…

  6. The Neural Basis of Syntactic Deficits in Primary Progressive Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Stephen M.; Galantucci, Sebastiano; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) vary considerably in terms of which brain regions are impacted, as well as in the extent to which syntactic processing is impaired. Here we review the literature on the neural basis of syntactic deficits in PPA. Structural and functional imaging studies have most consistently associated syntactic…

  7. Identifying Behavioral Measures of Stress in Individuals with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laures-Gore, Jacqueline S.; DuBay, Michaela F.; Duff, Melissa C.; Buchanan, Tony W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To develop valid indicators of stress in individuals with aphasia (IWA) by examining the relationship between certain language variables (error frequency [EF] and word productivity [WP]) and cortisol reactivity. Method: Fourteen IWA and 10 controls participated in a speaking task. Salivary cortisol was collected pre- and posttask. WP and…

  8. Pre-Lexical Disorders in Repetition Conduction Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidiropoulos, Kyriakos; de Bleser, Ria; Ackermann, Hermann; Preilowski, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    At the level of clinical speech/language evaluation, the repetition type of conduction aphasia is characterized by repetition difficulties concomitant with reduced short-term memory capacities, in the presence of fluent spontaneous speech as well as unimpaired naming and reading abilities. It is still unsettled which dysfunctions of the

  9. Gesturing by Speakers with Aphasia: How Does It Compare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mol, Lisette; Krahmer, Emiel; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To study the independence of gesture and verbal language production. The authors assessed whether gesture can be semantically compensatory in cases of verbal language impairment and whether speakers with aphasia and control participants use similar depiction techniques in gesture. Method: The informativeness of gesture was assessed in 3…

  10. Gesturing by Speakers with Aphasia: How Does It Compare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mol, Lisette; Krahmer, Emiel; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To study the independence of gesture and verbal language production. The authors assessed whether gesture can be semantically compensatory in cases of verbal language impairment and whether speakers with aphasia and control participants use similar depiction techniques in gesture. Method: The informativeness of gesture was assessed in 3

  11. Improving Language without Words: First Evidence from Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marangolo, Paola; Bonifazi, Silvia; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Craighero, Laila; Coccia, Michela; Altoe, Gianmarco; Provinciali, Leandro; Cantagallo, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The pervasiveness of word-finding difficulties in aphasia has motivated several theories regarding management of the deficit and its effectiveness. Recently, the hypothesis was advanced that instead of simply accompanying speech gestures participate in language production by increasing the semantic activation of words grounded in sensory-motor…

  12. Working Memory in Aphasia: Theory, Measures, and Clinical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Heather Harris; Shisler, Rebecca J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, researchers have suggested that deficits in working memory capacity contribute to language-processing difficulties observed in individuals with aphasia (e.g., I. Caspari, S. Parkinson, L. LaPointe, & R. Katz, 1998; R. A. Downey et al., 2004; N. Friedmann & A. Gvion, 2003; H. H. Wright, M. Newhoff, R. Downey, & S. Austermann, 2003). A…

  13. A Comparison between Written and Spoken Narratives in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrns, Ingrid; Wengelin, Asa; Broberg, Malin; Hartelius, Lena

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore how a personal narrative told by a group of eight persons with aphasia differed between written and spoken language, and to compare this with findings from 10 participants in a reference group. The stories were analysed through holistic assessments made by 60 participants without experience of aphasia…

  14. Button batteries

    MedlinePlus

    ... EKG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing) for more serious cases. Endoscopy (camera) to remove the battery if it was swallowed and is still in the esophagus or stomach. Medicines to treat symptoms. If the battery has passed ...

  15. Remediation of language processing in aphasia: Improving activation and maintenance of linguistic representations in (verbal) short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Kohen, Francine; Martin, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Background Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairments are invariably present in aphasia. Word processing involves a minimal form of verbal STM, i.e., the time course over which semantic and phonological representations are activated and maintained until they are comprehended, produced, or repeated. Thus it is reasonable that impairments of word processing and verbal STM may co-occur. The co-occurrence of language and STM impairments in aphasia has motivated an active area of research that has revealed much about the relationship of these two systems and the effect of their impairment on language function and verbal learning (Freedman & Martin, 2001; Martin & Saffran, 1999; Trojano & Grossi, 1995). In keeping with this view a number of researchers have developed treatment protocols to improve verbal STM in order to improve language function (e.g., Koenig-Bruhin & Studer-Eichenberger, 2007). This account of aphasia predicts that treatment of a fundamental ability, such as STM, which supports language function, should lead to improvements that generalise to content and tasks beyond those implemented in treatment. Aims We investigated the efficacy of a treatment for language impairment that targets two language support processes: verbal short-term memory (STM) and executive processing, in the context of a language task (repetition). We hypothesised that treatment of these abilities would improve repetition abilities and performance on other language tasks that require STM. Method A single-participant, multiple-baseline, multiple-probe design across behaviours was used with a participant with conduction aphasia. The treatment involved repetition of words and nonwords under three “interval” conditions, which varied the time between hearing and repeating the stimulus. Measures of treatment effects included acquisition, maintenance, and follow-up data, effect sizes, and pre- and post-treatment performance on a test battery that varies the STM and executive function demands of language tasks. Outcomes & Results Improvement of repetition was mostly specific to treated stimuli. Post-treatment measures of language ability indicated improvements in single and multiple word processing tasks, verbal working memory tasks, and verbal span. Conclusions Treatment of STM and executive processes in the context of a word repetition task resulted in improvements in other non-treated language tasks. The approach used in this study can be incorporated into other language-processing tasks typically used in treatment of language disorders (e.g., sentence processing). PMID:22791930

  16. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Intervention in Long-Term Aphasia Post-Stroke: The Experience from CHANT (Communication Hub for Aphasia in North Tyneside)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumby, Katharyn; Whitworth, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite recognition of the need for increased long-term support for people with aphasia following stroke, there remains limited evidence for effective service-level interventions. Aims: To evaluate the outcomes and experiences of people participating in the Communication Hub for Aphasia in North Tyneside (CHANT), a 2-year partnership…

  17. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Intervention in Long-Term Aphasia Post-Stroke: The Experience from CHANT (Communication Hub for Aphasia in North Tyneside)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumby, Katharyn; Whitworth, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite recognition of the need for increased long-term support for people with aphasia following stroke, there remains limited evidence for effective service-level interventions. Aims: To evaluate the outcomes and experiences of people participating in the Communication Hub for Aphasia in North Tyneside (CHANT), a 2-year partnership

  18. Bilateral brain reorganization with memantine and constraint-induced aphasia therapy in chronic post-stroke aphasia: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Barbancho, Miguel A; Berthier, Marcelo L; Navas-Sánchez, Patricia; Dávila, Guadalupe; Green-Heredia, Cristina; García-Alberca, José M; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael; López-González, Manuel V; Dawid-Milner, Marc S; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Lara, J Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Changes in ERP (P100 and N400) and root mean square (RMS) were obtained during a silent reading task in 28 patients with chronic post-stroke aphasia in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of both memantine and constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT). Participants received memantine/placebo alone (weeks 0-16), followed by drug treatment combined with CIAT (weeks 16-18), and then memantine/placebo alone (weeks 18-20). ERP/RMS values (week 16) decreased more in the memantine group than in the placebo group. During CIAT application (weeks 16-18), improvements in aphasia severity and ERP/RMS values were amplified by memantine and changes remained stable thereafter (weeks 18-20). Changes in ERP/RMS occurred in left and right hemispheres and correlated with gains in language performance. No changes in ERP/RMS were found in a healthy group in two separated evaluations. Our results show that aphasia recovery induced by both memantine alone and in combination with CIAT is indexed by bilateral cortical potentials. PMID:25932618

  19. Activateable battery

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorklund, J.M.V.

    1984-10-16

    The invention relates to an activateable battery comprising a container of electrolyte which when activated is pressed down over a tap adapted to the container. During the moving of the container down over the tap electrolyte is pressed out of the container and via cell openings into cells. The container tightens the cell openings in its lower end position. The battery is enclosed under vacuum. According to the invention an activateable battery is obtained which not need any rotation and which may contain several separate battery cells. Such a battery is useable within the ammunition field and especially in grenade thrower ammunition and ammunition which is controlled in its final phase.

  20. Constraint-Induced Aphasia Therapy for Treatment of Chronic Post-Stroke Aphasia: A Randomized, Blinded, Controlled Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Ball, Angel L.; Vannest, Jennifer; Dietz, Aimee R.; Allendorfer, Jane B.; Martin, Amber N.; Hart, Kimberly; Lindsell, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have documented the possibility of treatment-induced improvements in language functions 12 months or longer after stroke. The purpose of the current study was to provide a preliminary estimate of efficacy of constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT) when compared to no-intervention in patients with chronic (>1 year) post-stroke aphasia in order to provide the data needed to design an appropriately powered trial. Material/Methods This was a randomized, controlled, single-blinded, pilot trial. We identified 32 patients with chronic post-stroke aphasia. Of these, 27 were offered participation, and 24 were randomized (CONSORT diagram): 14 to CIAT and to 10 to no-intervention. CIAT groups received up to 4 hours/day of intervention for 10 consecutive business days (40 hours of therapy). Outcomes were assessed within 1 week of intervention and at 1 and 12 weeks after intervention and included several linguistic measures and a measure of overall subjective communication abilities (mini-Communicative Abilities Log (mini-CAL)). To maintain blinding, clinicians treating patients (CIAT group) did not communicate with other team members and the testing team members were blinded to treatment group assignment. Results Overall, the results of this pilot trial support the results of previous observational studies that CIAT may lead to improvements in linguistic abilities. At 12 weeks, the treatment group reported better subjective communication abilities (mini-CAL) than the no-intervention group (p=0.019). Other measures trended towards better performance in the CIAT group. Conclusions In this randomized, controlled, and blinded pilot study, intensive language therapy (CIAT) led to an improvement in subjective language abilities. The effects demonstrated allow the design of a definitive trial of CIAT in patients with a variety of post-stroke aphasia types. In addition, our experiences have identified important considerations for designing subsequent trial(s) of CIAT or other interventions for post-stroke aphasia. PMID:26399192

  1. A Comparison of Picture Description Abilities in Individuals with Vascular Subcortical Lesions and Huntington's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Angela M.; Chenery, Helen J.; Copland, David A.

    2006-01-01

    The lexical-semantic and syntactic abilities of a group of individuals with chronic nonthalamic subcortical (NS) lesions following stroke (n=6) were investigated using the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) picture description task [Kertesz, A. (1982). "The Western aphasia battery." New York: Grune and Stratton] and compared with those of a group of…

  2. A Comparison of Picture Description Abilities in Individuals with Vascular Subcortical Lesions and Huntington's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Angela M.; Chenery, Helen J.; Copland, David A.

    2006-01-01

    The lexical-semantic and syntactic abilities of a group of individuals with chronic nonthalamic subcortical (NS) lesions following stroke (n=6) were investigated using the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) picture description task [Kertesz, A. (1982). "The Western aphasia battery." New York: Grune and Stratton] and compared with those of a group of

  3. Principles underlying the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) and its uses.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Michel

    2011-06-01

    The Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) is designed to be objective (so it can be administered by a lay native speaker of the language) and equivalent across languages (to allow for a comparison between the languages of a given patient as well as across patients from different institutions). It has been used not only with aphasia but also with any condition that results in language impairment (Alzheimer's, autism, cerebellar lesions, developmental language disorders, mild cognitive impairment, motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's, vascular dementia, etc.). It has also been used for research purposes on non-brain-damaged unilingual and bilingual populations. By means of its 32 tasks, it assesses comprehension and production of implicit linguistic competence and metalinguistic knowledge (which provide indications for apposite rehabilitation strategies). Versions of the BAT are available for free download at www.mcgill.ca/linguistics/research/bat/. PMID:21675824

  4. Frontotemporal dementia and primary progressive aphasia, a review

    PubMed Central

    Kirshner, Howard S

    2014-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementias are neurodegenerative diseases in which symptoms of frontal and/or temporal lobe disease are the first signs of the illness, and as the diseases progress, they resemble a focal left hemisphere process such as stroke or traumatic brain injury, even more than a neurodegenerative disease. Over time, some patients develop a more generalized dementia. Four clinical subtypes characterize the predominant presentations of this illness: behavioral or frontal variant FTD, progressive nonfluent aphasia, semantic dementia, and logopenic primary progressive aphasia. These clinical variants correlate with regional patterns of atrophy on brain imaging studies such as MRI and PET scanning, as well as with biochemical and molecular genetic variants of the disorder. The treatment is as yet only symptomatic, but advances in molecular genetics promise new therapies. PMID:24966676

  5. Verbal Neuropsychological Functions in Aphasia: An Integrative Model.

    PubMed

    Vigliecca, Nora Silvana; Báez, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    A theoretical framework which considers the verbal functions of the brain under a multivariate and comprehensive cognitive model was statistically analyzed. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed to verify whether some recognized aphasia constructs can be hierarchically integrated as latent factors from a homogenously verbal test. The Brief Aphasia Evaluation was used. A sample of 65 patients with left cerebral lesions, and two supplementary samples comprising 35 patients with right cerebral lesions and 30 healthy participants were studied. A model encompassing an all inclusive verbal organizer and two successive organizers was validated. The two last organizers were: three factors of comprehension, expression and a "complementary" verbal factor which included praxia, attention, and memory; followed by the individual (and correlated) factors of auditory comprehension, repetition, naming, speech, reading, writing, and the "complementary" factor. By following this approach all the patients fall inside the classification system; consequently, theoretical improvement is guaranteed. PMID:25168953

  6. Web based aphasia test using service oriented architecture (SOA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voos, J. A.; Vigliecca, N. S.; Gonzalez, E. A.

    2007-11-01

    Based on an aphasia test for Spanish speakers which analyze the patient's basic resources of verbal communication, a web-enabled software was developed to automate its execution. A clinical database was designed as a complement, in order to evaluate the antecedents (risk factors, pharmacological and medical backgrounds, neurological or psychiatric symptoms, brain injury -anatomical and physiological characteristics, etc) which are necessary to carry out a multi-factor statistical analysis in different samples of patients. The automated test was developed following service oriented architecture and implemented in a web site which contains a tests suite, which would allow both integrating the aphasia test with other neuropsychological instruments and increasing the available site information for scientific research. The test design, the database and the study of its psychometric properties (validity, reliability and objectivity) were made in conjunction with neuropsychological researchers, who participate actively in the software design, based on the patients or other subjects of investigation feedback.

  7. Optic aphasia, optic apraxia, and loss of dreaming.

    PubMed

    Peña-Casanova, J; Roig-Rovira, T; Bermudez, A; Tolosa-Sarro, E

    1985-09-01

    A 47-year-old man with a left temporo-occipital infarct in the area of the posterior cerebral artery is presented. The neuropsychological examination did not reveal aphasia or gross mental deficits. The patient presented with alexia without agraphia, color agnosia, but few visual perceptual deficits. The main impairment was in confrontation naming; he was incapable of naming objects and pictures, not from lack of recognition (excluding visual agnosia) but from lack of access to the appropriate word (optic aphasia). The patient also exhibited a deficit in the evocation of gesture from the visual presentation of an object (optic apraxia) and a difficulty in "conjuring up" visual images of objects (impaired visual imagery) and loss of dreams. The fundamental deficit of this patient is tentatively explained in terms of visuoverbal and visuogestural disconnection and a deficit of mental imagery. PMID:2413956

  8. Conversation Therapy for Agrammatism: Exploring the Therapeutic Process of Engagement and Learning by a Person with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckley, Firle; Best, Wendy; Johnson, Fiona; Edwards, Susan; Maxim, Jane; Beeke, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims: A recent systematic review of conversation training for communication partners of people with aphasia has shown that it is effective, and improves participation in conversation for people with chronic aphasia. Other research suggests that people with aphasia are better able to learn communication strategies in an environment…

  9. power battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunyun, Zhang; Guoqing, Zhang; Weixiong, Wu; Weixiong, Liang

    2014-07-01

    Under hard acceleration or on a hill climb of (hybrid) electronic vehicles, the battery temperature would increase rapidly. High temperature decreases the battery cycle life, increases the thermal runaway, and even causes a battery to explode, that making the management of battery temperature an important consideration in the safety using of electronic vehicles. A study of increasing heat transfer area from the beginning design phase has been conducted to determine and enhance the heat dissipation on the battery surface. Both experiment and simulation methods were used to analyze the cooling performance under identical battery capacities and heights. Optimal external dimensions and cell sizes with the consideration of better battery workability was obtained from the analysis. The heat transfer coefficients were investigated in order to regulate the battery temperature under safety operating range. It was found that the temperature of the experiment battery would be controlled under safety critical when the cell was designed for 180 mm × 30 mm × 185 mm sizes and the surface heat transfer coefficient was 20 W m-2 K-1 at least.

  10. Epileptic aphasia: a consequence of regional hypometabolic encephalopathy?

    PubMed

    O'Regan, M E; Brown, J K; Goodwin, G M; Clarke, M

    1998-08-01

    A series of 25 children, 13 females and 12 males, who had an acquired communication disorder together with epilepsy, but did not fulfil the strict criteria of the Landau-Kleffner syndrome, was studied. All children had a clinical neurological evaluation, speech and language assessment, an awake and sleep EEG, cranial MRI, SPET scan, and audiometry. Clinical seizures were most often polymorphic in type (17 of 25). Atypical absences were the commonest individual seizure type occurring in 15 cases. All patients had an unequivocal epileptiform EEG. Normal sleep phenomena were only observed in 10 cases, enhancement of epileptiform activity in sleep was seen in 16. Cranial MRI was abnormal in six and normal in 19 cases. The SPET scans were abnormal in 22 of 25 children. The language deficits were classified neurologically as receptive aphasia, 24 of 25; expressive aphasia, 20 of 25; nominal aphasia, eight of 25; articulatory dyspraxia, 10 of 25; and auditory agnosia, nine of 25. It is hypothesized that the loss of communication skills is due to an encephalopathy secondary to the persistent epileptic discharge and manifests as a hypometabolic area on the SPET scan. PMID:9746002

  11. From singing to speaking: facilitating recovery from nonfluent aphasia.

    PubMed

    Schlaug, Gottfried; Norton, Andrea; Marchina, Sarah; Zipse, Lauryn; Wan, Catherine Y

    2010-09-01

    It has been reported for more than 100 years that patients with severe nonfluent aphasia are better at singing lyrics than they are at speaking the same words. This observation led to the development of melodic intonation therapy (MIT). However, the efficacy of this therapy has yet to be substantiated in a randomized controlled trial. Furthermore, its underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. The two unique components of MIT are the intonation of words and simple phrases using a melodic contour that follows the prosody of speech and the rhythmic tapping of the left hand that accompanies the production of each syllable and serves as a catalyst for fluency. Research has shown that both components are capable of engaging fronto-temporal regions in the right hemisphere, thereby making MIT particularly well suited for patients with large left hemisphere lesions who also suffer from nonfluent aphasia. Recovery from aphasia can happen in two ways: either through the recruitment of perilesional brain regions in the affected hemisphere, with variable recruitment of right-hemispheric regions if the lesion is small, or through the recruitment of homologous language and speech-motor regions in the unaffected hemisphere if the lesion of the affected hemisphere is extensive. Treatment-associated neural changes in patients undergoing MIT indicate that the unique engagement of right-hemispheric structures (e.g., the superior temporal lobe, primary sensorimotor, premotor and inferior frontal gyrus regions) and changes in the connections across these brain regions may be responsible for its therapeutic effect. PMID:21088709

  12. Nonlinguistic Learning in Individuals with Aphasia: Effects of Training Method and Stimulus Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallila-Rohter, Sofia; Kiran, Swathi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to explore nonlinguistic learning ability in individuals with aphasia, examining the impact of stimulus typicality and feedback on success with learning. Method: Eighteen individuals with aphasia and 8 nonaphasic controls participated in this study. All participants completed 4 computerized,…

  13. Using Text-to-Speech Reading Support for an Adult with Mild Aphasia and Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Judy; Hux, Karen; Snell, Jeffry

    2013-01-01

    This single case study served to examine text-to-speech (TTS) effects on reading rate and comprehension in an individual with mild aphasia and cognitive impairment. Findings showed faster reading, given TTS presented at a normal speaking rate, but no significant comprehension changes. TTS may support reading in people with aphasia when time

  14. Revealing and Quantifying the Impaired Phonological Analysis Underpinning Impaired Comprehension in Wernicke's Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Holly; Keidel, James L.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Sage, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Wernicke's aphasia is a condition which results in severely disrupted language comprehension following a lesion to the left temporo-parietal region. A phonological analysis deficit has traditionally been held to be at the root of the comprehension impairment in Wernicke's aphasia, a view consistent with current functional neuroimaging which finds…

  15. A MEG Investigation of Single-Word Auditory Comprehension in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipse, Lauryn; Kearns, Kevin; Nicholas, Marjorie; Marantz, Alec

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore whether individuals with aphasia exhibit differences in the M350, an electrophysiological marker of lexical activation, compared with healthy controls. Method: Seven people with aphasia, 9 age-matched controls, and 10 younger controls completed an auditory lexical decision task while cortical activity was recorded with…

  16. Use of the BAT with a Cantonese-Putonghua Speaker with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Weekes, Brendan Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to illustrate the use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) with a Cantonese-Putonghua speaker. We describe G, who is a relatively young Chinese bilingual speaker with aphasia. G's communication abilities in his L2, Putonghua, were impaired following brain damage. This impairment caused specific difficulties in

  17. A 3-Year Evolution of Linguistic Disorders in Aphasia after Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Hachioui, Hanane; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke W. M. E.; Dippel, Diederik W. J.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Visch-Brink, Evy G.

    2011-01-01

    Aphasia recovery after stroke has been the subject of several studies, but in none the deficits on the various linguistic levels were examined, even though in the diagnosis and treatment of aphasia the emphasis lays more and more on these linguistic level disorders. In this observational prospective follow-up study, we explored whether it is…

  18. Masked Priming Effects in Aphasia: Evidence of Altered Automatic Spreading Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silkes, JoAnn P.; Rogers, Margaret A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research has suggested that impairments of automatic spreading activation may underlie some aphasic language deficits. The current study further investigated the status of automatic spreading activation in individuals with aphasia as compared with typical adults. Method: Participants were 21 individuals with aphasia (12 fluent, 9

  19. Default-Mode Network Functional Connectivity in Aphasia: Therapy-Induced Neuroplasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotte, Karine; Perlbarg, Vincent; Marrelec, Guillaume; Benali, Habib; Ansaldo, Ana Ines

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on participants with aphasia has mainly been based on standard functional neuroimaging analysis. Recent studies have shown that functional connectivity analysis can detect compensatory activity, not revealed by standard analysis. Little is known, however, about the default-mode network in aphasia. In the current study, we studied…

  20. Releasing the Constraints on Aphasia Therapy: The Positive Impact of Gesture and Multimodality Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Miranda L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: There is a 40-year history of interest in the use of arm and hand gestures in treatments that target the reduction of aphasic linguistic impairment and compensatory methods of communication (Rose, 2006). Arguments for constraining aphasia treatment to the verbal modality have arisen from proponents of constraint-induced aphasia therapy…

  1. Changes in N400 Topography Following Intensive Speech Language Therapy for Individuals with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, K. Ryan; O'Rourke, Heather; Wozniak, Linda A.; Kostopoulos, Ellina; Marchand, Yannick; Newman, Aaron J.

    2012-01-01

    Our goal was to characterize the effects of intensive aphasia therapy on the N400, an electrophysiological index of lexical-semantic processing. Immediately before and after 4 weeks of intensive speech-language therapy, people with aphasia performed a task in which they had to determine whether spoken words were a "match" or a "mismatch" to…

  2. Speech-Language Therapists' Process of Including Significant Others in Aphasia Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallé, Marie-Christine; Le Dorze, Guylaine; Mingant, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although aphasia rehabilitation should include significant others, it is currently unknown how this recommendation is adopted in speech-language therapy practice. Speech-language therapists' (SLTs) experience of including significant others in aphasia rehabilitation is also understudied, yet a better understanding of clinical…

  3. Attention and Other Cognitive Deficits in Aphasia: Presence and Relation to Language and Communication Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to further elucidate the relationship between cognition and aphasia, with a focus on attention. It was hypothesized that individuals with aphasia would display variable deficit patterns on tests of attention and other cognitive functions and that their attention deficits, particularly those of complex attention…

  4. Exposed and Embedded Corrections in Aphasia Therapy: Issues of Voice and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Damico, Jack S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Because communication after the onset of aphasia can be fraught with errors, therapist corrections are pervasive in therapy for aphasia. Although corrections are designed to improve the accuracy of communication, some corrections can have social and emotional consequences during interactions. That is, exposure of errors can potentially…

  5. The Use of a Modified Semantic Features Analysis Approach in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Naomi; Frome, Amber

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have reported improved naming using the semantic feature analysis (SFA) approach in individuals with aphasia. Whether the SFA can be modified and still produce naming improvements in aphasia is unknown. The present study was designed to address this question by using a modified version of the SFA approach. Three, rather than the…

  6. A Comparison of Aphasia Therapy Outcomes before and after a Very Early Rehabilitation Programme Following Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godecke, Erin; Ciccone, Natalie A.; Granger, Andrew S.; Rai, Tapan; West, Deborah; Cream, Angela; Cartwright, Jade; Hankey, Graeme J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Very early aphasia rehabilitation studies have shown mixed results. Differences in therapy intensity and therapy type contribute significantly to the equivocal results. Aims: To compare a standardized, prescribed very early aphasia therapy regimen with a historical usual care control group at therapy completion (4-5 weeks post-stroke)…

  7. Language Assessment of a Farsi-Norwegian Bilingual Speaker with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koumanidi Knoph, Monica I.

    2011-01-01

    The increased occurrence of strokes combined with the high incidence of bilingualism in many regions of the world has led to an increasing number of bilingual adults with aphasia. The literature on bilingual aphasia shows the need for valid, comprehensive and reliable assessment tools for diagnostic and treatment purposes. In spite of a growing…

  8. Supervised Home Training of Dialogue Skills in Chronic Aphasia: A Randomized Parallel Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nobis-Bosch, Ruth; Springer, Luise; Radermacher, Irmgard; Huber, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to prove the efficacy of supervised self-training for individuals with aphasia. Linguistic and communicative performance in structured dialogues represented the main study parameters. Method: In a cross-over design for randomized matched pairs, 18 individuals with chronic aphasia were examined during 12 weeks of…

  9. Asking New Questions and Seeking New Answers: The Reality of Aphasia Practice in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Emerging policy in South Africa has had a marked impact on delivery of service by speech-language pathologists, particularly in the field of aphasia. This article describes major policy influences in the areas of language use, health, education, disability, and the elderly, which have had an impact on service delivery. Aphasia assessment and

  10. A Comparison of Intention and Pantomime Gesture Treatment for Noun Retrieval in People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Neina F.; Evans, Kelli; Raymer, Anastasia M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of intention gesture treatment (IGT) and pantomime gesture treatment (PGT) on word retrieval were compared in people with aphasia. Method: Four individuals with aphasia and word retrieval impairments subsequent to left-hemisphere stroke participated in a single-participant crossover treatment design. Each participant viewed

  11. A Comparison of Aphasia Therapy Outcomes before and after a Very Early Rehabilitation Programme Following Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godecke, Erin; Ciccone, Natalie A.; Granger, Andrew S.; Rai, Tapan; West, Deborah; Cream, Angela; Cartwright, Jade; Hankey, Graeme J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Very early aphasia rehabilitation studies have shown mixed results. Differences in therapy intensity and therapy type contribute significantly to the equivocal results. Aims: To compare a standardized, prescribed very early aphasia therapy regimen with a historical usual care control group at therapy completion (4-5 weeks post-stroke)

  12. Communication Difficulties and the Use of Communication Strategies: From the Perspective of Individuals with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Monica Blom; Carlsson, Marianne; Sonnander, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Background: To enhance communicative ability and thereby the possibility of increased participation of persons with aphasia, the use of communication strategies has been proposed. However, little is known about how persons with aphasia experience having conversations and how they perceive their own and their conversation partner's use of…

  13. Masked Priming Effects in Aphasia: Evidence of Altered Automatic Spreading Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silkes, JoAnn P.; Rogers, Margaret A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research has suggested that impairments of automatic spreading activation may underlie some aphasic language deficits. The current study further investigated the status of automatic spreading activation in individuals with aphasia as compared with typical adults. Method: Participants were 21 individuals with aphasia (12 fluent, 9…

  14. Using Text-to-Speech Reading Support for an Adult with Mild Aphasia and Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Judy; Hux, Karen; Snell, Jeffry

    2013-01-01

    This single case study served to examine text-to-speech (TTS) effects on reading rate and comprehension in an individual with mild aphasia and cognitive impairment. Findings showed faster reading, given TTS presented at a normal speaking rate, but no significant comprehension changes. TTS may support reading in people with aphasia when time…

  15. Changes in N400 Topography Following Intensive Speech Language Therapy for Individuals with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, K. Ryan; O'Rourke, Heather; Wozniak, Linda A.; Kostopoulos, Ellina; Marchand, Yannick; Newman, Aaron J.

    2012-01-01

    Our goal was to characterize the effects of intensive aphasia therapy on the N400, an electrophysiological index of lexical-semantic processing. Immediately before and after 4 weeks of intensive speech-language therapy, people with aphasia performed a task in which they had to determine whether spoken words were a "match" or a "mismatch" to

  16. Effects of Word Frequency and Modality on Sentence Comprehension Impairments in People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeDe, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: It is well known that people with aphasia have sentence comprehension impairments. The present study investigated whether lexical factors contribute to sentence comprehension impairments in both the auditory and written modalities using online measures of sentence processing. Method: People with aphasia and non brain-damaged controls…

  17. Production Variability and Single Word Intelligibility in Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Katarina L.; Martin, Gwenyth

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to estimate test-retest reliability of orthographic speech intelligibility testing in speakers with aphasia and AOS and to examine its relationship to the consistency of speaker and listener responses. Monosyllabic single word speech samples were recorded from 13 speakers with coexisting aphasia and AOS. These words were…

  18. Support for Anterior Temporal Involvement in Semantic Error Production in Aphasia: New Evidence from VLSM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Grant M.; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Kimberg, Daniel Y.; Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Brecher, Adelyn; Dell, Gary S.; Coslett, H. Branch

    2011-01-01

    Semantic errors in aphasia (e.g., naming a horse as "dog") frequently arise from faulty mapping of concepts onto lexical items. A recent study by our group used voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) methods with 64 patients with chronic aphasia to identify voxels that carry an association with semantic errors. The strongest associations were…

  19. Revealing and Quantifying the Impaired Phonological Analysis Underpinning Impaired Comprehension in Wernicke's Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Holly; Keidel, James L.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Sage, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Wernicke's aphasia is a condition which results in severely disrupted language comprehension following a lesion to the left temporo-parietal region. A phonological analysis deficit has traditionally been held to be at the root of the comprehension impairment in Wernicke's aphasia, a view consistent with current functional neuroimaging which finds

  20. Exposed and Embedded Corrections in Aphasia Therapy: Issues of Voice and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Damico, Jack S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Because communication after the onset of aphasia can be fraught with errors, therapist corrections are pervasive in therapy for aphasia. Although corrections are designed to improve the accuracy of communication, some corrections can have social and emotional consequences during interactions. That is, exposure of errors can potentially

  1. An Exploration of Factors Affecting Performance of Adults with Aphasia on a Functional Communication Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Luke Marcus

    2013-01-01

    In traditional aphasia testing and treatment, clinicians administer a standardized aphasia test that measures language impairment, followed by a linguistic approach to treatment. Many clinicians have argued the need for emphasis on functional communication, and third party payers desire functional information to determine patient progress. This

  2. Impact of Personal Relevance and Contextualization on Word-Picture Matching by People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Miechelle L.; Hux, Karen; Dietz, Aimee; Beukelman, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of personal relevance and contextualization of images on the preferences and word-picture matching accuracy of people with severe aphasia. Method: Eight adults with aphasia performed 2 experimental tasks to reveal their preferences and accuracy during word-picture matching. The researchers used 3 types of visual…

  3. Error Variability and the Differentiation between Apraxia of Speech and Aphasia with Phonemic Paraphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Katarina L.; Jacks, Adam; Cunningham, Kevin T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical utility of error variability for differentiating between apraxia of speech (AOS) and aphasia with phonemic paraphasia. Method: Participants were 32 individuals with aphasia after left cerebral injury. Diagnostic groups were formed on the basis of operationalized measures of recognized…

  4. Linguistic and Neuropsychological Deficits in Crossed Conduction Aphasia: Report of Three Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartha, Lisa; Marien, Peter; Poewe, Werner; Benke, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the linguistic and neuropsychological findings in three right-handed patients with crossed conduction aphasia. Despite the location of the lesion in the right hemisphere, all patients displayed a combination of linguistic deficits typically found in conduction aphasia following analogous damage to the left hemisphere.…

  5. Using Semantic Feature Analysis to Improve Contextual Discourse in Adults with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rider, Jill Davis; Wright, Heather Harris; Marshall, Robert C.; Page, Judith L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Semantic feature analysis (SFA) was used to determine whether training contextually related words would improve the discourse of individuals with nonfluent aphasia in preselected contexts. Method: A modified multiple-probes-across-behaviors design was used to train target words using SFA in 3 adults with nonfluent aphasia. Pretreatment,…

  6. Speech-Like and Non-Speech Lip Kinematics and Coordination in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bose, Arpita; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Background: In addition to the well-known linguistic processing impairments in aphasia, oro-motor skills and articulatory implementation of speech segments are reported to be compromised to some degree in most types of aphasia. Aims: This study aimed to identify differences in the characteristics and coordination of lip movements in the production…

  7. Error Variability and the Differentiation between Apraxia of Speech and Aphasia with Phonemic Paraphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Katarina L.; Jacks, Adam; Cunningham, Kevin T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical utility of error variability for differentiating between apraxia of speech (AOS) and aphasia with phonemic paraphasia. Method: Participants were 32 individuals with aphasia after left cerebral injury. Diagnostic groups were formed on the basis of operationalized measures of recognized

  8. The Use of a Modified Semantic Features Analysis Approach in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Naomi; Frome, Amber

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have reported improved naming using the semantic feature analysis (SFA) approach in individuals with aphasia. Whether the SFA can be modified and still produce naming improvements in aphasia is unknown. The present study was designed to address this question by using a modified version of the SFA approach. Three, rather than the

  9. Production Variability and Single Word Intelligibility in Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Katarina L.; Martin, Gwenyth

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to estimate test-retest reliability of orthographic speech intelligibility testing in speakers with aphasia and AOS and to examine its relationship to the consistency of speaker and listener responses. Monosyllabic single word speech samples were recorded from 13 speakers with coexisting aphasia and AOS. These words were

  10. Use of the BAT with a Cantonese-Putonghua Speaker with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Weekes, Brendan Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to illustrate the use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) with a Cantonese-Putonghua speaker. We describe G, who is a relatively young Chinese bilingual speaker with aphasia. G's communication abilities in his L2, Putonghua, were impaired following brain damage. This impairment caused specific difficulties in…

  11. Using mobile technology with individuals with aphasia: native iPad features and everyday apps.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Gretchen; Dittelman, Janice

    2014-02-01

    The use of mobile technology, including smartphones and tablet devices, is a growing trend among adults nationwide, and its potential use in aphasia rehabilitation has generated widespread interest. Despite this trend, adults living with disability are less likely than other adults to go online. Complicating things further, most adults living with aphasia come from a generation where computers and technology were not an integral part of their lives. Additionally, training adults with aphasia requires a different approach than training those in the same age bracket without a disability. This article describes the mobile technology program at the Adler Aphasia Center in Maywood, New Jersey. The goal of this program is to improve access to mobile technology for people with aphasia. The use of mobile devices is the focus of the article. Mobile technology concepts and skills needed to establish a strong foundation for successful iPad (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA) use are suggested. We discuss how apps may be used to support aphasia therapy with a focus on apps that are native to the iPad and on other apps that were not specifically developed for aphasia rehabilitation. Challenges in implementing a mobile technology program for people with aphasia and individual member success stories are included. PMID:24449461

  12. Singing Therapy Can Be Effective for a Patient with Severe Nonfluent Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Akanuma, Kyoko; Hatayama, Yuka; Otera, Masako; Meguro, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Patients with severe aphasia are rarely treated using speech therapy. We used music therapy to continue to treat a 79-year-old patient with chronic severe aphasia. Interventions 1, 2, and 3 were to practice singing a song that the patient knew, to practice singing a song with a therapist, and to practice saying a greeting using a song with lyrics,…

  13. Asking New Questions and Seeking New Answers: The Reality of Aphasia Practice in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Emerging policy in South Africa has had a marked impact on delivery of service by speech-language pathologists, particularly in the field of aphasia. This article describes major policy influences in the areas of language use, health, education, disability, and the elderly, which have had an impact on service delivery. Aphasia assessment and…

  14. "You Needed to Rehab...Families as Well": Family Members' Own Goals for Aphasia Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Tami; Davidson, Bronwyn; Worrall, Linda; Hersh, Deborah; Ferguson, Alison; Sherratt, Sue; Gilbert, Jocelyn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Aphasia affects family members in addition to the individuals with the communication disorder. In order to develop appropriate services for the relatives of people with aphasia post-stroke, their rehabilitation goals need to be identified. Aim: The aim of the current investigation was to identify the rehabilitation goals that family…

  15. Gesture and Speech Integration: An Exploratory Study of a Man with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocks, Naomi; Sautin, Laetitia; Kita, Sotaro; Morgan, Gary; Zlotowitz, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Background: In order to comprehend fully a speaker's intention in everyday communication, information is integrated from multiple sources, including gesture and speech. There are no published studies that have explored the impact of aphasia on iconic co-speech gesture and speech integration. Aims: To explore the impact of aphasia on co-speech…

  16. The Auditory Comprehension of "Wh"-Questions in Aphasia: Support for the Intervener Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Shannon M.; Walenski, Matthew; Love, Tracy; Shapiro, Lewis P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines 3 hypotheses about the processing of "wh"-questions in both neurologically healthy adults and adults with Broca's aphasia. Method: We used an eye tracking while listening method with 32 unimpaired participants (Experiment 1) and 8 participants with Broca's aphasia (Experiment 2). Accuracy, response time, and…

  17. Group Effects of Instrumentality and Name Relation on Action Naming in Bilingual Anomic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Verb production in sentences was investigated in two groups of late bilingual Greek-English speakers: individuals with anomic aphasia and a control group. Verb retrieval in sentences was significantly impaired in both languages for the individuals with anomic aphasia. Additional results revealed no effect of instrumentality on action naming in…

  18. A Comparison of Intention and Pantomime Gesture Treatment for Noun Retrieval in People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Neina F.; Evans, Kelli; Raymer, Anastasia M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of intention gesture treatment (IGT) and pantomime gesture treatment (PGT) on word retrieval were compared in people with aphasia. Method: Four individuals with aphasia and word retrieval impairments subsequent to left-hemisphere stroke participated in a single-participant crossover treatment design. Each participant viewed…

  19. Development of a Short Form of the Boston Naming Test for Individuals with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Toro, Christina M.; Bislick, Lauren P.; Comer, Matthew; Velozo, Craig; Romero, Sergio; Rothi, Leslie J. Gonzalez; Kendall, Diane L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a short form of the Boston Naming Test (BNT; Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001) for individuals with aphasia and compare it with 2 existing short forms originally analyzed with responses from people with dementia and neurologically healthy adults. Method: Development of the new BNT-Aphasia Short…

  20. C-Speak Aphasia Alternative Communication Program for People with Severe Aphasia: Importance of Executive Functioning and Semantic Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Marjorie; Sinotte, Michele P.; Helm-Estabrooks, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Learning how to use a computer-based communication system can be challenging for people with severe aphasia even if the system is not word-based. This study explored cognitive and linguistic factors relative to how they affected individual patients ability to communicate expressively using C-Speak Aphasia, (CSA), an alternative communication computer program that is primarily picture-based. Ten individuals with severe non-fluent aphasia received at least six months of training with CSA. To assess carryover of training, untrained functional communication tasks (i.e., answering autobiographical questions, describing pictures, making telephone calls, describing a short video, and two writing tasks) were repeatedly probed in two conditions: 1) using CSA in addition to natural forms of communication, and 2) using only natural forms of communication, e.g., speaking, writing, gesturing, drawing. Four of the ten participants communicated more information on selected probe tasks using CSA than they did without the computer. Response to treatment also was examined in relation to baseline measures of non-linguistic executive function skills, pictorial semantic abilities, and auditory comprehension. Only nonlinguistic executive function skills were significantly correlated with treatment response. PMID:21506045

  1. How Does Severity of Aphasia Influence Individual Responsiveness to Rehabilitation? Using Big Data to Understand Theories of Aphasia Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Kiran, Swathi

    2016-02-01

    Our ability to make great progress in delivering, optimizing, and predicting rehabilitation outcomes for individuals with aphasia is challenged by factors that influence rehabilitation outcomes. These include patient demographic factors such as age, education, and neurologic factors such as time poststroke, the site and size of the lesion, and the resulting severity of language impairment. Also variable across individuals is the type of treatment and its duration and intensity. This article examines the utility of big data analysis for understanding one of these factors, severity of impairment, and how individual responsiveness to rehabilitation is influenced by a patient's severity of language and cognitive impairment(s). Using examples from two studies and a larger data set, we show that when rehabilitation is tailored to an individual's specific level of impairment, severe and mild patients both show improvements in accuracy and latency. Furthermore, more severe patients tend to show substantial gains on targeted rehabilitation tasks as well as on standardized tests. These results provide support for recent reviews of aphasia rehabilitation studies in concluding that systematic aphasia rehabilitation is indeed effective, and importantly, severity is not a negative prognostic indicator for successful outcomes. PMID:26882364

  2. Paintable Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-06-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations.

  3. Paintable battery.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations. PMID:22745900

  4. Paintable Battery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations. PMID:22745900

  5. Battery resource assessment. Battery demands scenarios materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, D.

    1980-12-01

    Projections of demand for batteries and battery materials between 1980 and 2000 are presented. The estimates are based on existing predictions for the future of the electric vehicle, photovoltaic, utility load-leveling, and existing battery industry. Battery demand was first computed as kilowatt-hours of storage for various types of batteries. Using estimates for the materials required for each battery, the maximum demand that could be expected for each battery material was determined.

  6. Dry cell battery poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide

  7. Progranulin-associated primary progressive aphasia: a distinct phenotype?

    PubMed

    Rohrer, Jonathan D; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warrington, Elizabeth K; Warren, Jason D

    2010-01-01

    The neuropsychological features of the primary progressive aphasia (PPA) syndromes continue to be defined. Here we describe a detailed neuropsychological case study of a patient with a mutation in the progranulin (GRN) gene who presented with progressive word-finding difficulty. Key neuropsychological features in this case included gravely impoverished propositional speech with anomia and prolonged word-finding pauses, impaired speech repetition most marked for sentences, and severely impaired verbal (with preserved spatial) short-term memory. There was a dissociated profile of performance on semantic processing tasks: visual semantic processing was intact, while within the verbal domain, verb comprehension was impaired and processing of nouns was intact on tasks requiring direct semantic processing but impaired on tasks requiring associative or inferential processing. Brain MRI showed asymmetric left cerebral atrophy particularly affecting the temporo-parietal junction, supero-lateral temporal and inferior frontal lobes. This case most closely resembles the PPA syndrome known as the logopenic/phonological aphasia variant (LPA) however there were also deficits of grammar and speech repetition suggesting an overlap with the progressive non-fluent aphasia (agrammatic) variant (PNFA). Certain prominent features of this case (in particular, the profile of semantic impairment) have not been emphasised in previous descriptions of LPA or PNFA, suggesting that GRN may cause an overlapping PPA syndrome but with a distinctive cognitive profile. This neuropsychological evidence suggests that GRN-PPA may result from damage involving the temporo-parietal junction and its functional connections in both the dorsal and ventral language networks, with implications for our understanding of language network pathophysiology. PMID:19766663

  8. Core auditory processing deficits in primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Grube, Manon; Bruffaerts, Rose; Schaeverbeke, Jolien; Neyens, Veerle; De Weer, An-Sofie; Seghers, Alexandra; Bergmans, Bruno; Dries, Eva; Griffiths, Timothy D; Vandenberghe, Rik

    2016-06-01

    The extent to which non-linguistic auditory processing deficits may contribute to the phenomenology of primary progressive aphasia is not established. Using non-linguistic stimuli devoid of meaning we assessed three key domains of auditory processing (pitch, timing and timbre) in a consecutive series of 18 patients with primary progressive aphasia (eight with semantic variant, six with non-fluent/agrammatic variant, and four with logopenic variant), as well as 28 age-matched healthy controls. We further examined whether performance on the psychoacoustic tasks in the three domains related to the patients' speech and language and neuropsychological profile. At the group level, patients were significantly impaired in the three domains. Patients had the most marked deficits within the rhythm domain for the processing of short sequences of up to seven tones. Patients with the non-fluent variant showed the most pronounced deficits at the group and the individual level. A subset of patients with the semantic variant were also impaired, though less severely. The patients with the logopenic variant did not show any significant impairments. Significant deficits in the non-fluent and the semantic variant remained after partialling out effects of executive dysfunction. Performance on a subset of the psychoacoustic tests correlated with conventional verbal repetition tests. In sum, a core central auditory impairment exists in primary progressive aphasia for non-linguistic stimuli. While the non-fluent variant is clinically characterized by a motor speech deficit (output problem), perceptual processing of tone sequences is clearly deficient. This may indicate the co-occurrence in the non-fluent variant of a deficit in working memory for auditory objects. Parsimoniously we propose that auditory timing pathways are altered, which are used in common for processing acoustic sequence structure in both speech output and acoustic input. PMID:27060523

  9. Bipolar battery

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1992-01-01

    A bipolar battery having a plurality of cells. The bipolar battery includes: a negative electrode; a positive electrode and a separator element disposed between the negative electrode and the positive electrode, the separator element electrically insulating the electrodes from one another; an electrolyte disposed within at least one of the negative electrode, the positive electrode and the separator element; and an electrode containment structure including a cup-like electrode holder.

  10. “Better But No Cigar”: Persons with Aphasia Speak about their Speech

    PubMed Central

    Fromm, Davida; Holland, Audrey; Armstrong, Elizabeth; Forbes, Margaret; MacWhinney, Brian; Risko, Amy; Mattison, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study examined responses of persons with aphasia (PWAs) to a general question about their speech. The goal was to describe their evaluative responses as positive, negative, or neutral/mixed and determine if responses differed, based on time post-onset, aphasia severity, and aphasia type. Methods 71 participants from the AphasiaBank project were included. As part of a larger protocol, investigators asked, “How do you think your speech is these days?” Responses were videotaped and transcribed using CLAN. Two authors coded the evaluative responses and categorized themes in the elaborative content provided by the participants. Results Positive responses accounted for 59% of all responses, followed by neutral/mixed (18%), and negative (17%). Participants also mentioned specific speech problems (35%), improvement (31%), and therapy (8%) in their responses. Time post-onset and aphasia type were not significantly associated with nature of response. Aphasia severity was significantly associated with nature of response, with higher AQ scores in the positive group and vice versa. Conclusions The responses are discussed in the context of self-image and self-expression in PWA and social models in aphasia therapy. Results are also compared with those of others with chronic disabilities and research on resilience, positive affect, and optimism. PMID:22347765

  11. A tutorial on aphasia test development in any language: Key substantive and psychometric considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Maria V.; Hallowell, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    Background There are a limited number of aphasia language tests in the majority of the world's commonly spoken languages. Furthermore, few aphasia tests in languages other than English have been standardized and normed, and few have supportive psychometric data pertaining to reliability and validity. The lack of standardized assessment tools across many of the world's languages poses serious challenges to clinical practice and research in aphasia. Aims The current review addresses this lack of assessment tools by providing conceptual and statistical guidance for the development of aphasia assessment tools and establishment of their psychometric properties. Main Contribution A list of aphasia tests in the 20 most widely spoken languages is included. The pitfalls of translating an existing test into a new language versus creating a new test are outlined. Factors to consider in determining test content are discussed. Further, a description of test items corresponding to different language functions is provided, with special emphasis on implementing important controls in test design. Next, a broad review of principal psychometric properties relevant to aphasia tests is presented, with specific statistical guidance for establishing psychometric properties of standardized assessment tools. Conclusions This article may be used to help guide future work on developing, standardizing and validating aphasia language tests. The considerations discussed are also applicable to the development of standardized tests of other cognitive functions. PMID:23976813

  12. Online Sentence Reading in People With Aphasia: Evidence From Eye Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Knilans, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There is a lot of evidence that people with aphasia have more difficulty understanding structurally complex sentences (e.g., object clefts) than simpler sentences (subject clefts). However, subject clefts also occur more frequently in English than object clefts. Thus, it is possible that both structural complexity and frequency affect how people with aphasia understand these structures. Method Nine people with aphasia and 8 age-matched controls participated in the study. The stimuli consisted of 24 object cleft and 24 subject cleft sentences. The task was eye tracking during reading, which permits a more fine-grained analysis of reading performance than measures such as self-paced reading. Results As expected, controls had longer reading times for critical regions in object cleft sentences compared with subject cleft sentences. People with aphasia showed the predicted effects of structural frequency. Effects of structural complexity in people with aphasia did not emerge on their first pass through the sentence but were observed when they were rereading critical regions of complex sentences. Conclusions People with aphasia are sensitive to both structural complexity and structural frequency when reading. However, people with aphasia may use different reading strategies than controls when confronted with relatively infrequent and complex sentence structures. PMID:26383779

  13. The anterior temporal lobes support residual comprehension in Wernicke’s aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Holly; Zahn, Roland; Keidel, James L.; Binney, Richard J.; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Wernicke’s aphasia occurs after a stroke to classical language comprehension regions in the left temporoparietal cortex. Consequently, auditory–verbal comprehension is significantly impaired in Wernicke’s aphasia but the capacity to comprehend visually presented materials (written words and pictures) is partially spared. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural basis of written word and picture semantic processing in Wernicke’s aphasia, with the wider aim of examining how the semantic system is altered after damage to the classical comprehension regions. Twelve participants with chronic Wernicke’s aphasia and 12 control participants performed semantic animate–inanimate judgements and a visual height judgement baseline task. Whole brain and region of interest analysis in Wernicke’s aphasia and control participants found that semantic judgements were underpinned by activation in the ventral and anterior temporal lobes bilaterally. The Wernicke’s aphasia group displayed an ‘over-activation’ in comparison with control participants, indicating that anterior temporal lobe regions become increasingly influential following reduction in posterior semantic resources. Semantic processing of written words in Wernicke’s aphasia was additionally supported by recruitment of the right anterior superior temporal lobe, a region previously associated with recovery from auditory-verbal comprehension impairments. Overall, the results provide support for models in which the anterior temporal lobes are crucial for multimodal semantic processing and that these regions may be accessed without support from classic posterior comprehension regions. PMID:24519979

  14. Non-linguistic learning and aphasia: evidence from a paired associate and feedback-based task.

    PubMed

    Vallila-Rohter, Sofia; Kiran, Swathi

    2013-01-01

    Though aphasia is primarily characterized by impairments in the comprehension and/or expression of language, research has shown that patients with aphasia also show deficits in cognitive-linguistic domains such as attention, executive function, concept knowledge and memory. Research in aphasia suggests that cognitive impairments can impact the online construction of language, new verbal learning, and transactional success. In our research, we extend this hypothesis to suggest that general cognitive deficits influence progress with therapy. The aim of our study is to explore learning, a cognitive process that is integral to relearning language, yet underexplored in the field of aphasia rehabilitation. We examine non-linguistic category learning in patients with aphasia (n=19) and in healthy controls (n=12), comparing feedback and non-feedback based instruction. Participants complete two computer-based learning tasks that require them to categorize novel animals based on the percentage of features shared with one of two prototypes. As hypothesized, healthy controls showed successful category learning following both methods of instruction. In contrast, only 60% of our patient population demonstrated successful non-linguistic category learning. Patient performance was not predictable by standardized measures of cognitive ability. Results suggest that general learning is affected in aphasia and is a unique, important factor to consider in the field of aphasia rehabilitation. PMID:23127795

  15. Thinking Outside the Stroke: Treating Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA)

    PubMed Central

    Khayum, Becky; Wieneke, Christina; Rogalski, Emily; Robinson, Jaimie; O'Hara, Mary

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore the symptoms, cause, treatment potential, and supportive services for individuals diagnosed with Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA). Although it is possible to regain certain cognitive abilities with stroke or brain injury, in PPA, language abilities worsen and other symptoms emerge with time, shortening the lifespan. The goal of speech therapy for PPA is not to regain lost language, but rather to maximize communication for as long as possible. In this article, we offer information and tools for speech-language pathologists to help people living with PPA achieve these goals and improve overall quality of life. PMID:26500714

  16. Age-related changes in aphasia type and stroke location.

    PubMed

    Habib, M; Ali-Chrif, A; Poncet, M; Salamon, G

    1987-07-01

    Two-hundred consecutive CT scans of patients with an infarction in the territory of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) were examined for evaluation of a possible relationship between age and stroke location. Two distinct procedures, one evaluating the incidence of four areas within the MCA territory and the other measuring some quantified parameters, were used. Statistical studies failed to show any significant correlation between these parameters and the age of patients. These results lead to refute previous claims that semiological changes in aphasia type with age in stroke patients may be due to a posterior shift of cerebral infarcts with age. PMID:2441795

  17. Dissociations Between Fluency And Agrammatism In Primary Progressive Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Cynthia K; Cho, Soojin; Hsu, Chien-Ju; Wieneke, Christina; Rademaker, Alfred; Weitner, Bing Bing; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Weintraub, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Classical aphasiology, based on the study of stroke sequelae, fuses speech fluency and grammatical ability. Nonfluent (Broca's) aphasia often is accompanied by agrammatism; whereas in the fluent aphasias grammatical deficits are not typical. The assumption that a similar relationship exists in primary progressive aphasia (PPA) has led to the dichotomization of this syndrome into fluent and nonfluent subtypes. AIMS: This study compared elements of fluency and grammatical production in the narrative speech of individuals with PPA to determine if they can be dissociated from one another. METHOD: Speech samples from 37 individuals with PPA, clinically assigned to agrammatic (N=11), logopenic (N=20) and semantic (N=6) subtypes, and 13 cognitively healthy control participants telling the "Cinderella Story" were analyzed for fluency (i.e., words per minute (WPM) and mean length of utterance in words (MLU-W)) and grammaticality (i.e., the proportion of grammatically correct sentences, open-to-closed-class word ratio, noun-to-verb ratio, and correct production of verb inflection, noun morphology, and verb argument structure.) Between group differences were analyzed for each variable. Correlational analyses examined the relation between WPM and each grammatical variable, and an off-line measure of sentence production. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: Agrammatic and logopenic groups both had lower scores on the fluency measures and produced significantly fewer grammatical sentences than did semantic and control groups. However, only the agrammatic group evinced significantly impaired production of verb inflection and verb argument structure. In addition, some semantic participants showed abnormal open-to-closed and noun-to-verb ratios in narrative speech. When the sample was divided on the basis of fluency, all the agrammatic participants fell in the nonfluent category. The logopenic participants varied in fluency but those with low fluency showed variable performance on measures of grammaticality. Correlational analyses and scatter plots comparing fluency and each grammatical variable revealed dissociations within PPA participants, with some nonfluent participants showing normal grammatical skill. CONCLUSIONS: Grammatical production is a complex construct comprised of correct usage of several language components, each of which can be selectively affected by disease. This study demonstrates that individuals with PPA show dissociations between fluency and grammatical production in narrative speech. Grammatical ability, and its relationship to fluency, varies from individual to individual, and from one variant of PPA to another, and can even be found in individuals with semantic PPA in whom a fluent aphasia is usually thought to accompany preserved ability to produce grammatical utterances. PMID:22199417

  18. Spatial neglect in a patient with logopenic progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Zilli, Eduardo M; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2016-01-01

    Spatial neglect and extinction are induced by posterior superior temporal and inferior parietal dysfunction. In patients with logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA) these structures are often degenerated, but there are no reports of these disorders being associated. A 53-year-old man with the signs of LPA revealed right-sided spatial neglect on line bisection and drawing tests as well as multimodal extinction. MRI showed left hemispheric posterior temporoparietal atrophy. Since injury to the core structures for these aphasic and attentional syndromes overlaps, patients with LPA should be screened for spatial neglect and extinction. PMID:25845428

  19. Connected speech production in three variants of primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Maya L.; Besbris, Max; Ogar, Jennifer M.; Dronkers, Nina F.; Jarrold, William; Miller, Bruce L.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2010-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia is a clinical syndrome defined by progressive deficits isolated to speech and/or language, and can be classified into non-fluent, semantic and logopenic variants based on motor speech, linguistic and cognitive features. The connected speech of patients with primary progressive aphasia has often been dichotomized simply as ‘fluent’ or ‘non-fluent’, however fluency is a multidimensional construct that encompasses features such as speech rate, phrase length, articulatory agility and syntactic structure, which are not always impacted in parallel. In this study, our first objective was to improve the characterization of connected speech production in each variant of primary progressive aphasia, by quantifying speech output along a number of motor speech and linguistic dimensions simultaneously. Secondly, we aimed to determine the neuroanatomical correlates of changes along these different dimensions. We recorded, transcribed and analysed speech samples for 50 patients with primary progressive aphasia, along with neurodegenerative and normal control groups. Patients were scanned with magnetic resonance imaging, and voxel-based morphometry was used to identify regions where atrophy correlated significantly with motor speech and linguistic features. Speech samples in patients with the non-fluent variant were characterized by slow rate, distortions, syntactic errors and reduced complexity. In contrast, patients with the semantic variant exhibited normal rate and very few speech or syntactic errors, but showed increased proportions of closed class words, pronouns and verbs, and higher frequency nouns, reflecting lexical retrieval deficits. In patients with the logopenic variant, speech rate (a common proxy for fluency) was intermediate between the other two variants, but distortions and syntactic errors were less common than in the non-fluent variant, while lexical access was less impaired than in the semantic variant. Reduced speech rate was linked with atrophy to a wide range of both anterior and posterior language regions, but specific deficits had more circumscribed anatomical correlates. Frontal regions were associated with motor speech and syntactic processes, anterior and inferior temporal regions with lexical retrieval, and posterior temporal regions with phonological errors and several other types of disruptions to fluency. These findings demonstrate that a multidimensional quantification of connected speech production is necessary to characterize the differences between the speech patterns of each primary progressive aphasic variant adequately, and to reveal associations between particular aspects of connected speech and specific components of the neural network for speech production. PMID:20542982

  20. Novel word acquisition in aphasia: Facing the word-referent ambiguity of natural language learning contexts.

    PubMed

    Peñaloza, Claudia; Mirman, Daniel; Tuomiranta, Leena; Benetello, Annalisa; Heikius, Ida-Maria; Järvinen, Sonja; Majos, Maria C; Cardona, Pedro; Juncadella, Montserrat; Laine, Matti; Martin, Nadine; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2016-06-01

    Recent research suggests that some people with aphasia preserve some ability to learn novel words and to retain them in the long-term. However, this novel word learning ability has been studied only in the context of single word-picture pairings. We examined the ability of people with chronic aphasia to learn novel words using a paradigm that presents new word forms together with a limited set of different possible visual referents and requires the identification of the correct word-object associations on the basis of online feedback. We also studied the relationship between word learning ability and aphasia severity, word processing abilities, and verbal short-term memory (STM). We further examined the influence of gross lesion location on new word learning. The word learning task was first validated with a group of forty-five young adults. Fourteen participants with chronic aphasia were administered the task and underwent tests of immediate and long-term recognition memory at 1 week. Their performance was compared to that of a group of fourteen matched controls using growth curve analysis. The learning curve and recognition performance of the aphasia group was significantly below the matched control group, although above-chance recognition performance and case-by-case analyses indicated that some participants with aphasia had learned the correct word-referent mappings. Verbal STM but not word processing abilities predicted word learning ability after controlling for aphasia severity. Importantly, participants with lesions in the left frontal cortex performed significantly worse than participants with lesions that spared the left frontal region both during word learning and on the recognition tests. Our findings indicate that some people with aphasia can preserve the ability to learn a small novel lexicon in an ambiguous word-referent context. This learning and recognition memory ability was associated with verbal STM capacity, aphasia severity and the integrity of the left inferior frontal region. PMID:27085892

  1. A method for studying the evolution of naming error types in the recovery of acute aphasia: a single-patient and single-stimulus approach.

    PubMed

    Capitani, Erminio; Laiacona, Marcella

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we present a method for analysing the evolution of picture naming errors in the follow-up of single patients affected by acute aphasia. In particular, we have based our analysis on the presence of response type inconsistency, as patients often fail to give the same type of response to the same stimulus at a task repetition attempted after a short time. Due to the uncertain definition of the type of response associated to a given stimulus for each stage of the clinical course, the investigation of the factors underlying the transition between different types of response is a serious methodological challenge. The solution presented here is based on a multiple presentation of the same naming battery at different stages of the clinical course, on the estimation of the probability associated with each response type at each stage, and on the estimation of the transition probability between different response types from one clinical stage to another. The basic idea was to use the set of probabilities referred to above as single stimuli weights in the study of linear models; these permit to compare different types of responses and different types of transitions. We present the application of this method to the study of a single case, a woman affected by fluent aphasia examined twice in the first 2 weeks following stroke. Besides discussing empirical findings, we comment on the usefulness of this method for wider fields of inquiry. PMID:14725799

  2. Theoretical analysis of word production deficits in adult aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2014-01-01

    The cognitive analysis of adult language disorders continues to draw heavily on linguistic theory, but increasingly it reflects the influence of connectionist, spreading activation models of cognition. In the area of spoken word production, localist connectionist models represent a natural evolution from the psycholingistic theories of earlier decades. By contrast, the parallel distributed processing framework forces more radical rethinking of aphasic impairments. This paper exemplifies these multiple influences in contemporary cognitive aphasiology. Topics include (i) what aphasia reveals about semantic-phonological interaction in lexical access; (ii) controversies surrounding the interpretation of semantic errors and (iii) a computational account of the relationship between naming and word repetition in aphasia. Several of these topics have been addressed using case series methods, including computational simulation of the individual, quantitative error patterns of diverse groups of patients and analysis of brain lesions that correlate with error rates and patterns. Efforts to map the lesion correlates of nonword errors in naming and repetition highlight the involvement of sensorimotor areas in the brain and suggest the need to better integrate models of word production with models of speech and action. PMID:24324234

  3. [Charcot and cerebral localizations. From aphasia to amnesia].

    PubMed

    Gasser, J

    1994-01-01

    During the course of his convincing research into localizing cerebral motor areas, Charcot used the clinico-pathological method and his faith in localization for the study of aphasia. Thus, in 1883, he gave a course on the subject which is one of the most complex among the study of cerebral diseases. In this series of lessons, he was able to organize data from clinical studies, anatomy and psychology. In fact, for Charcot in 1883, aphasia was simple a particular kind of amnesia which could be taken as more or less severe partial loss of word memory. Memory itself would not exist, but would be divided into a number of autonomous partial memories. Charcot did not discover until some years later, basically from observing patients with hysteria, that memory is not only a stock of sensations but that it can also be used to save personal, autobiographical information. This led him to consider memory impairment not only as an organic disease but also as a psychological disease. PMID:7754288

  4. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) and Aphasia: The Case of Mr. C

    PubMed Central

    Cherney, Leora R.; Babbitt, Edna M.; Hurwitz, Rosalind; Rogers, Lynn M.; Stinear, James; Wang, Xue; Harvey, Richard L.; Parrish, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To illustrate the ethical challenges that arose from investigating a novel treatment procedure, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in a research participant with aphasia. Method First, we reviewed the current evidence supporting the use of tDCS in aphasia research, highlighting methodological gaps in our knowledge of tDCS. Second, we examined the case of Mr. C, a person with chronic aphasia who participated in a research protocol investigating the impact of tDCS on aphasia treatment. Results We describe the procedures that he underwent and the resulting behavioral and neurophysiological outcomes bed. Finally, we share the steps that were taken to balance beneficence and nonmaleficence, and to ensure Mr. Cs autonomy. Conclusion: Researchers must consider not only the scientific integrity of their studies, but also potential ethical issues and consequences to the research participants. PMID:23340067

  5. Evidence for Intensive Aphasia Therapy: Consideration of Theories From Neuroscience and Cognitive Psychology.

    PubMed

    Dignam, Jade K; Rodriguez, Amy D; Copland, David A

    2016-03-01

    Treatment intensity is a critical component to the delivery of speech-language pathology and rehabilitation services. Within aphasia rehabilitation, however, insufficient evidence currently exists to guide clinical decision making with respect to the optimal treatment intensity. This review considers perspectives from 2 key bodies of research, the neuroscience and cognitive psychology literature, with respect to the scheduling of aphasia rehabilitation services. Neuroscience research suggests that intensive training is a key element of rehabilitation and is necessary to achieve functional and neurologic changes after a stroke occurs. In contrast, the cognitive psychology literature suggests that optimal long-term learning is achieved when training is provided in a distributed or nonintensive schedule. These perspectives are evaluated and discussed with respect to the current evidence for treatment intensity in aphasia rehabilitation. In addition, directions for future research are identified, including study design, methods of defining and measuring treatment intensity, and selection of outcome measures in aphasia rehabilitation. PMID:26107539

  6. Unusual Recovery of Aphasia in a Polyglot Iranian Patient after Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mehrpour, Masoud; Motamed, Mohammad R.; Aghaei, Mahboubeh; Jalali, Nazanin; Ghoreishi, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Aphasia is a language disorder resulting from a lesion in the cerebral cortex. In this case report, we present a polyglot patient who recovered from aphasia by speaking his newly active learned language Case Report A 69 years old male referred with acute onset right hemiparesis and global aphasia. After imaging, he treated with 75 mg r-TPA (0.9 mg/kg). After the fourth day of hospitalization, he could name some objects and some short phrases but interestingly only in French language (although his mother language was Persian). Discussion In our patient, recovery was first in the last learned language and his learning memory was recovered earlier than his native languages. As in our case, we can expect to have different recovery theory that means active learning language could be the first part of recovery in aphasia. PMID:25337377

  7. Community: the key to building and extending engagement for individuals with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Maura English

    2011-08-01

    The response by the aphasia community to the call of the Life Participation Approach to Aphasia Project Team to offer a framework for the management of aphasia was swift and expansive. Speech pathologists across the world accepted the paradigm shift from language goals within the clinic office to the short-term and long-term life objectives of their clients. The definition of service now included access to those communicative barriers that persons with aphasia face within their community. The recruitment, training, and shaping of that engagement must be individualized for successful (re)engagement. This article aims to present perspective on that process from a program that utilizes a unique center without walls concept. PMID:21968561

  8. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS): Potential Progress for Language Improvement in Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Galletta, Elizabeth E; Rao, Paul R; Barrett, Anna M

    2013-01-01

    Aphasia researchers and clinicians share some basic beliefs about language recovery post stroke. Most agree there is a spontaneous recovery period and language recovery may be enhanced by participation in a behavioral therapy program. The application of biological interventions in the form of pharmaceutical treatments or brain stimulation is less well understood in the community of people who work with individuals having aphasia. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on electrical brain stimulation as an intervention to improve aphasia recovery. The article will emphasize emerging research on the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to accelerate stroke recovery. We will profile the current US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved application to depression to introduce its potential for future application to other syndromes such as aphasia. PMID:21447455

  9. "Waiting on the words": procedures and outcomes of a drama class for individuals with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Cherney, Leora R; Oehring, Ann K; Whipple, Keith; Rubenstein, Ted

    2011-08-01

    Drama therapy offers an authentic medium through which people with aphasia can interact and share their experiences. We describe the rationale and procedures of a drama class, informed by the principles and practices of drama therapy, in which individuals with chronic aphasia conceptualized, wrote, and produced a play addressing their experiences of having, living with, and coping with the effects of aphasia. Sessions were cofacilitated by a speech-language pathologist and a drama therapist. We describe the drama activities and techniques in each of four distinct stages of a drama therapy process through which the group transitioned. We also summarize patient-reported outcomes of a representational group of seven participants. Subscales of the Burden of Stroke Scale and the Communication Confidence Rating Scale for Aphasia were administered before and after participation in the 18-week class. Means, standard deviations, and effect sizes were computed. Results indicated perceived improvements in both communication and mood. PMID:21968559

  10. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  11. Spared musical abilities in a conductor with global aphasia and ideomotor apraxia.

    PubMed Central

    Basso, A; Capitani, E

    1985-01-01

    A conductor suddenly developed global aphasia and severe ideomotor apraxia as a result of an infarct in the territory of the left middle cerebral artery. Although aphasia and apraxia remained unchanged during the following six years, his musical capacities were largely spared and he was still able to conduct. This case provides some evidence in favour of right hemisphere dominance for music. Images PMID:2582094

  12. Classification and clinicoradiologic features of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and apraxia of speech.

    PubMed

    Botha, Hugo; Duffy, Joseph R; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Strand, Edythe A; Machulda, Mary M; Schwarz, Christopher G; Reid, Robert I; Spychalla, Anthony J; Senjem, Matthew L; Jones, David T; Lowe, Val; Jack, Clifford R; Josephs, Keith A

    2015-08-01

    The consensus criteria for the diagnosis and classification of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) have served as an important tool in studying this group of disorders. However, a large proportion of patients remain unclassifiable whilst others simultaneously meet criteria for multiple subtypes. We prospectively evaluated a large cohort of patients with degenerative aphasia and/or apraxia of speech using multidisciplinary clinical assessments and multimodal imaging. Blinded diagnoses were made using operational definitions with important differences compared to the consensus criteria. Of the 130 included patients, 40 were diagnosed with progressive apraxia of speech (PAOS), 12 with progressive agrammatic aphasia, 9 with semantic dementia, 52 with logopenic progressive aphasia, and 4 with progressive fluent aphasia, while 13 were unclassified. The PAOS and progressive fluent aphasia groups were least impaired. Performance on repetition and sentence comprehension was especially poor in the logopenic group. The semantic and progressive fluent aphasia groups had prominent anomia, but only semantic subjects had loss of word meaning and object knowledge. Distinct patterns of grey matter loss and white matter changes were found in all groups compared to controls. PAOS subjects had bilateral frontal grey matter loss, including the premotor and supplementary motor areas, and bilateral frontal white matter involvement. The agrammatic group had more widespread, predominantly left sided grey matter loss and white matter abnormalities. Semantic subjects had bitemporal grey matter loss and white matter changes, including the uncinate and inferior occipitofrontal fasciculi, whereas progressive fluent subjects only had left sided temporal involvement. Logopenic subjects had diffuse and bilateral grey matter loss and diffusion tensor abnormalities, maximal in the posterior temporal region. A diagnosis of logopenic aphasia was strongly associated with being amyloid positive (46/52 positive). Our findings support consideration of an alternative way of identifying and categorizing subtypes of degenerative speech and language disorders. PMID:26103600

  13. Aphasia and unilateral spatial neglect due to acute thalamic hemorrhage: clinical correlations and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Aiko; Maeshima, Shinichiro

    2016-04-01

    Thalamic hemorrhages are associated with a variety of cognitive dysfunctions, and it is well known that such cognitive changes constitute a limiting factor of recovery of the activities of daily living (ADL). The relationship between cognitive dysfunction and hematomas is unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationship between aphasia/neglect and hematoma volume, hematoma type, and the ADL. One hundred fifteen patients with thalamic hemorrhage (70 men and 45 women) were studied. Their mean age was 68.9 ± 10.3 years, and patients with both left and right lesions were included. We calculated hematoma volume and examined the presence or absence of aphasia/neglect and the relationships between these dysfunctions and hematoma volume, hematoma type, and the ADL. Fifty-nine patients were found to have aphasia and 35 were found to have neglect. Although there was no relationship between hematoma type and cognitive dysfunction, hematoma volume showed a correlation with the severity of cognitive dysfunction. The ADL score and ratio of patient discharge for patients with aphasia/neglect were lower than those for patients without aphasia/neglect. We observed a correlation between the hematoma volume in thalamic hemorrhage and cognitive dysfunction. Aphasia/neglect is found frequently in patients with acute thalamic hemorrhage and may influence the ADL. PMID:26796359

  14. A qualitative study of legal and social justice needs for people with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Morris, Karen; Ferguson, Alison; Worrall, Linda

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an exploratory investigation of situations in which people with aphasia may be vulnerable to legal and access to justice issues. The study used a qualitative descriptive approach to analyse 167 de-identified transcriptions of previously collected interviews, with 50 participants with mild-to-severe aphasia following stroke, 48 family members, and their treating speech-language pathologists. Situations experienced by people with aphasia and their family members were coded using key-word searches based on the previously published framework developed by Ellison and colleagues to describe situations of vulnerability to legal and access to justice needs for older people. Health and financial and consumer situations were most frequently identified in the data. Additionally, there were a number of situations found specifically relating to people with aphasia involving their signatures and credit card use. Instances of discrimination and abuse were also identified, and, although infrequent, these issues point to the profound impact of aphasia on the ability to complain and, hence, to ensure rights to care are upheld. The findings of this study are consistent with previous research in suggesting that legal and access to justice needs are an important issue for people with aphasia and their families. PMID:24228890

  15. A new modified listening span task to enhance validity of working memory assessment for people with and without aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Maria V.; Hallowell, Brooke

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in working memory (WM) are an important subset of cognitive processing deficits associated with aphasia. However, there are serious limitations to research on WM in aphasia largely due to the lack of an established valid measure of WM impairment for this population. The aim of the current study was to address shortcomings of previous measures by developing and empirically evaluating a novel WM task with a sentence-picture matching processing component designed to circumvent confounds inherent in existing measures of WM in aphasia. The novel WM task was presented to persons with (n = 27) and without (n = 33) aphasia. Results demonstrated high concurrent validity of a novel WM task. Individuals with aphasia performed significantly worse on all conditions of the WM task compared to individuals without aphasia. Different patterns of performance across conditions were observed for the two groups. Additionally, WM capacity was significantly related to auditory comprehension abilities in individuals with mild aphasia but not those with moderate aphasia. Strengths of the novel WM task are that it allows for differential control for length versus complexity of verbal stimuli and indexing of the relative influence of each, minimizes metalinguistic requirements, enables control for complexity of processing components, allows participants to respond with simple gestures or verbally, and eliminates reading requirements. Results support the feasibility and validity of using a novel task to assess WM in individuals with and without aphasia. PMID:24986153

  16. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and electric vehicles (EVs); a market predicted to be potentially ten times greater than that of consumer electronics. In fact, only Liion batteries can meet the requirements for PHEVs as set by the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), although they still fall slightly short of EV goals. In the case of Li-ion batteries, the trade-off between power and energy shown in Figure 1 is a function both of device design and the electrode materials that are used. Thus, a high power battery (e.g., one intended for an HEV) will not necessarily contain the same electrode materials as one designed for high energy (i.e., for an EV). As is shown in Figure 1, power translates into acceleration, and energy into range, or miles traveled, for vehicular uses. Furthermore, performance, cost, and abuse-tolerance requirements for traction batteries differ considerably from those for consumer electronics batteries. Vehicular applications are particularly sensitive to cost; currently, Li-ion batteries are priced at about $1000/kWh, whereas the USABC goal is $150/kWh. The three most expensive components of a Li-ion battery, no matter what the configuration, are the cathode, the separator, and the electrolyte. Reduction of cost has been one of the primary driving forces for the investigation of new cathode materials to replace expensive LiCoO{sub 2}, particularly for vehicular applications. Another extremely important factor is safety under abuse conditions such as overcharge. This is particularly relevant for the large battery packs intended for vehicular uses, which are designed with multiple cells wired in series arrays. Premature failure of one cell in a string may cause others to go into overcharge during passage of current. These considerations have led to the development of several different types of cathode materials, as will be covered in the next section. Because there is not yet one ideal material that can meet requirements for all applications, research into cathodes for Li-ion batteries is, as of this writing, a very active field.

  17. Verb inflections in agrammatic aphasia: Encoding of tense features ⋆

    PubMed Central

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2008-01-01

    Across most languages, verbs produced by agrammatic aphasic individuals are frequently marked by syntactically and semantically inappropriate inflectional affixes, such as Last night, I walking home. As per language production models, verb inflection errors in English agrammatism could arise from three potential sources: encoding the verbs’ morphology based on temporal information at the conceptual level, accessing syntactic well-formedness constraints of verbal morphology, and encoding morphophonological form. We investigate these aspects of encoding verb inflections in agrammatic aphasia. Using three sentence completion experiments, it was demonstrated that production of verb inflections was impaired whenever temporal reference was involved; while morphological complexity and syntactic constraints were less likely to be the source of verb inflection errors in agrammatism. These findings are discussed in relation to current language production models. PMID:18392120

  18. The language–gesture connection: Evidence from aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Dipper, Lucy; Pritchard, Madeleine; Morgan, Gary; Cocks, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A significant body of evidence from cross-linguistic and developmental studies converges to suggest that co-speech iconic gesture mirrors language. This paper aims to identify whether gesture reflects impaired spoken language in a similar way. Twenty-nine people with aphasia (PWA) and 29 neurologically healthy control participants (NHPs) produced a narrative discourse, retelling the story of a cartoon video. Gesture and language were analysed in terms of semantic content and structure for two key motion events. The aphasic data showed an influence on gesture from lexical choices but no corresponding clausal influence. Both the groups produced gesture that matched the semantics of the spoken language and gesture that did not, although there was one particular gesture–language mismatch (semantically “light” verbs paired with semantically richer gesture) that typified the PWA narratives. These results indicate that gesture is both closely related to spoken language impairment and compensatory. PMID:26169504

  19. Inflectional morphology in primary progressive aphasia: an elicited production study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stephen M; Brandt, Temre H; Henry, Maya L; Babiak, Miranda; Ogar, Jennifer M; Salli, Chelsey; Wilson, Lisa; Peralta, Karen; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2014-09-01

    Inflectional morphology lies at the intersection of phonology, syntax and the lexicon, three language domains that are differentially impacted in the three main variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). To characterize spared and impaired aspects of inflectional morphology in PPA, we elicited inflectional morphemes in 48 individuals with PPA and 13 healthy age-matched controls. We varied the factors of regularity, frequency, word class, and lexicality, and used voxel-based morphometry to identify brain regions where atrophy was predictive of deficits on particular conditions. All three PPA variants showed deficits in inflectional morphology, with the specific nature of the deficits dependent on the anatomical and linguistic features of each variant. Deficits in inflecting low-frequency irregular words were associated with semantic PPA, with lexical/semantic deficits, and with left temporal atrophy. Deficits in inflecting pseudowords were associated with non-fluent/agrammatic and logopenic variants, with phonological deficits, and with left frontal and parietal atrophy. PMID:25129631

  20. Inflectional morphology in primary progressive aphasia: An elicited production study

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Stephen M.; Brandt, Temre H.; Henry, Maya L.; Babiak, Miranda; Ogar, Jennifer M.; Salli, Chelsey; Wilson, Lisa; Peralta, Karen; Miller, Bruce L.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Inflectional morphology lies at the intersection of phonology, syntax and the lexicon, three language domains that are differentially impacted in the three main variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). To characterize spared and impaired aspects of inflectional morphology in PPA, we elicited inflectional morphemes in 48 individuals with PPA and 13 healthy age-matched controls. We varied the factors of regularity, frequency, word class, and lexicality, and used voxel-based morphometry to identify brain regions where atrophy was predictive of deficits on particular conditions. All three PPA variants showed deficits in inflectional morphology, with the specific nature of the deficits dependent on the anatomical and linguistic features of each variant. Deficits in inflecting low-frequency irregular words were associated with semantic PPA, with lexical/semantic deficits, and with left temporal atrophy. Deficits in inflecting pseudowords were associated with non-fluent/agrammatic and logopenic variants, with phonological deficits, and with left frontal and parietal atrophy. PMID:25129631

  1. A Computational Evaluation of Sentence Processing Deficits in Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Patil, Umesh; Hanne, Sandra; Burchert, Frank; De Bleser, Ria; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia experience difficulty when processing reversible non-canonical sentences. Different accounts have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. The Trace Deletion account (Grodzinsky, 1995, 2000, 2006) attributes this deficit to an impairment in syntactic representations, whereas others (e.g., Caplan, Waters, Dede, Michaud, & Reddy, 2007; Haarmann, Just, & Carpenter, 1997) propose that the underlying structural representations are unimpaired, but sentence comprehension is affected by processing deficits, such as slow lexical activation, reduction in memory resources, slowed processing and/or intermittent deficiency, among others. We test the claims of two processing accounts, slowed processing and intermittent deficiency, and two versions of the Trace Deletion Hypothesis (TDH), in a computational framework for sentence processing (Lewis & Vasishth, 2005) implemented in ACT-R (Anderson, Byrne, Douglass, Lebiere, & Qin, 2004). The assumption of slowed processing is operationalized as slow procedural memory, so that each processing action is performed slower than normal, and intermittent deficiency as extra noise in the procedural memory, so that the parsing steps are more noisy than normal. We operationalize the TDH as an absence of trace information in the parse tree. To test the predictions of the models implementing these theories, we use the data from a German sentence-picture matching study reported in Hanne, Sekerina, Vasishth, Burchert, and De Bleser (2011). The data consist of offline (sentence-picture matching accuracies and response times) and online (eye fixation proportions) measures. From among the models considered, the model assuming that both slowed processing and intermittent deficiency are present emerges as the best model of sentence processing difficulty in aphasia. The modeling of individual differences suggests that, if we assume that patients have both slowed processing and intermittent deficiency, they have them in differing degrees. PMID:26016698

  2. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  3. Battery Safety Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  4. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  5. Battery Safety Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or

  6. Battery management system

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, C.D.

    1993-07-06

    A battery management system is described, comprising: a main battery; main battery charging system means coupled to the main battery for charging the main battery during operation of the main battery charging system means; at least one auxiliary battery; primary switching means for coupling the auxiliary battery to a parallel configuration with the main battery charging system means and with the main battery, where upon both the main battery and the auxiliary battery are charged by the main battery charging system means, the primary switching means also being operable to decouple the auxiliary battery from the parallel configuration; and sensing means coupled to the primary switching means and operable to sense presence or absence of charging current from the main battery charging system means to the main battery, the sensing means being operable to activate the switching means for coupling the auxiliary battery into the parallel configuration during presence of the charging current, wherein the main battery charging system provides a charging signal to the main battery having an alternating current component, and wherein the sensing means includes transformer means coupled to the charging signal for inducing a voltage, the voltage being applied to a switching circuit of the switching means.

  7. Battery depletion monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.S.

    1982-01-26

    A cmos inverter is used to compare pacemaker battery voltage to a referenced voltage. When the reference voltage exceeds the measured battery voltage, the inverter changes state to indicate battery depletion.

  8. 9-Volt Battery Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... and negative posts are close together. If a metal object touches the two posts of a 9- ... 9-volt batteries were thrown away with other metal items. Storing 9-volt batteries KKK Keep batteries ...

  9. Profiling Performance in L1 and L2 Observed in Greek-English Bilingual Aphasia Using the Bilingual Aphasia Test: A Case Study from Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambanaros, Maria; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.

    2011-01-01

    The Greek and the English versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) were used to assess the linguistic abilities of a premorbidly highly proficient late bilingual female after a haemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident involving the left temporo-parietal lobe. The BAT was administered in the two languages on separate occasions by the first author,

  10. Profiling Performance in L1 and L2 Observed in Greek-English Bilingual Aphasia Using the Bilingual Aphasia Test: A Case Study from Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambanaros, Maria; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.

    2011-01-01

    The Greek and the English versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) were used to assess the linguistic abilities of a premorbidly highly proficient late bilingual female after a haemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident involving the left temporo-parietal lobe. The BAT was administered in the two languages on separate occasions by the first author,…

  11. Influences of Electromagnetic Articulography Sensors on Speech Produced by Healthy Adults and Individuals with Aphasia and Apraxia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, William F.; Bharadwaj, Sneha V.; Stettler, Monica P.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether the intraoral transducers used in electromagnetic articulography (EMA) interfere with speech and whether there is an added risk of interference when EMA systems are used to study individuals with aphasia and apraxia. Method: Ten adult talkers (5 individuals with aphasia/apraxia, 5 controls) produced 12 American…

  12. Motivating for Infrastructure Change: Toward a Communicatively Accessible, Participation-Based Stroke Care System for All Those Affected by Aphasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Aura; LeBlanc, Kathryn

    2002-01-01

    This article provides a rationale for changing the base upon which healthcare services for individuals with stroke and aphasia can be provided. It summarizes the interaction between the Aphasia Institute and the West Greater Toronto Stroke Network who worked together to effect meaningful change. A set of guidelines is provided. (Contains…

  13. The Influence of Phonomotor Treatment on Word Retrieval Abilities in 26 Individuals with Chronic Aphasia: An Open Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Diane L.; Oelke, Megan; Brookshire, Carmel Elizabeth; Nadeau, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The ultimate goal of aphasia therapy should be to achieve gains in function that generalize to untrained exemplars and daily conversation. Anomia is one of the most disabling features of aphasia. The predominantly lexical/semantic approaches used to treat anomia have low potential for generalization due to the orthogonality of semantic…

  14. Improved Vocabulary Production after Naming Therapy in Aphasia: Can Gains in Picture Naming Generalise to Connected Speech?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Paul; Sage, Karen; Ralph, Matt Lambon

    2009-01-01

    Background: Naming accuracy for nouns and verbs in aphasia can vary across different elicitation contexts, for example, simple picture naming, composite picture description, narratives, and conversation. For some people with aphasia, naming may be more accurate to simple pictures as opposed to naming in spontaneous, connected speech; for others,…

  15. "That Doesn't Translate": The Role of Evidence-Based Practice in Disempowering Speech Pathologists in Acute Aphasia Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Abby; Worrall, Linda; Rose, Miranda; O'Halloran, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Background: An evidence-practice gap has been identified in current acute aphasia management practice, with the provision of services to people with aphasia in the acute hospital widely considered in the literature to be inconsistent with best-practice recommendations. The reasons for this evidence-practice gap are unclear; however, speech…

  16. Using Computers to Enable Self-Management of Aphasia Therapy Exercises for Word Finding: The Patient and Carer Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Rebecca; Enderby, Pam; Paterson, Gail

    2013-01-01

    Background: Speech and language therapy (SLT) for aphasia can be difficult to access in the later stages of stroke recovery, despite evidence of continued improvement with sufficient therapeutic intensity. Computerized aphasia therapy has been reported to be useful for independent language practice, providing new opportunities for continued…

  17. An Integrated Approach for Treating Discourse in Aphasia: Bridging the Gap between Language Impairment and Functional Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milman, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A primary goal of aphasia intervention is to improve everyday communication. Although a large body of research focuses on treatment generalization, transfer of learning to real-world interactions involving discourse does not always occur. The goal of an integrated discourse treatment for aphasia (IDTA) approach is to facilitate such…

  18. Grammatical Planning Units during Real-Time Sentence Production in Speakers with Agrammatic Aphasia and Healthy Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jiyeon; Yoshida, Masaya; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Grammatical encoding (GE) is impaired in agrammatic aphasia; however, the nature of such deficits remains unclear. We examined grammatical planning units during real-time sentence production in speakers with agrammatic aphasia and control speakers, testing two competing models of GE. We queried whether speakers with agrammatic aphasia…

  19. Influences of Electromagnetic Articulography Sensors on Speech Produced by Healthy Adults and Individuals with Aphasia and Apraxia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, William F.; Bharadwaj, Sneha V.; Stettler, Monica P.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether the intraoral transducers used in electromagnetic articulography (EMA) interfere with speech and whether there is an added risk of interference when EMA systems are used to study individuals with aphasia and apraxia. Method: Ten adult talkers (5 individuals with aphasia/apraxia, 5 controls) produced 12 American

  20. Production of Graphic Symbol Sentences by Individuals with Aphasia: Efficacy of a Computer-Based Augmentative and Alternative Communication Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koul, Rajinder; Corwin, Melinda; Hayes, Summer

    2005-01-01

    The study employed a single-subject multiple baseline design to examine the ability of 9 individuals with severe Broca's aphasia or global aphasia to produce graphic symbol sentences of varying syntactical complexity using a software program that turns a computer into a speech output communication device. The sentences ranged in complexity from…

  1. The Participants' Perspective: How Biographic-Narrative Intervention Influences Identity Negotiation and Quality of Life in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsten, Sabine; Schimpf, Erika J.; Konradi, Jürgen; Keilmann, Annerose; Hardering, Friedericke

    2015-01-01

    Background: People with aphasia experience a pronounced decrease in quality of life (QoL). Beyond that identity negotiation is hindered, which is crucial for QoL. Biographic-narrative approaches use life story telling to support identity (re)development after disruptive events like stroke. Because of the language deficits inherent in aphasia such…

  2. Aphasia Rehabilitation in Asia and the Pacific Region: Japan, China, India, Australia and New Zealand. Monograph #45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarno, Martha Taylor, Ed.; Woods, Diane E., Ed.

    This monograph presents a "state of the art" overview of contemporary aphasia rehabilitation policies and resources in Asia and the Pacific region. Following Martha Taylor Sarno's introduction, Sumiko Sasanuma discusses the history and development of Japan's aphasia rehabilitation services, focusing on demography and data sources, assessment and…

  3. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1995-01-01

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

  4. Different impairments of semantic cognition in semantic dementia and semantic aphasia: evidence from the non-verbal domain

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Faye; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Ehsan, Sheeba

    2009-01-01

    Disorders of semantic cognition in different neuropsychological conditions result from diverse areas of brain damage and may have different underlying causes. This study used a comparative case-series design to examine the hypothesis that relatively circumscribed bilateral atrophy of the anterior temporal lobe in semantic dementia (SD) produces a gradual degradation of core semantic representations, whilst a deficit of cognitive control produces multi-modal semantic impairment in a subset of patients with stroke aphasia following damage involving the left prefrontal cortex or regions in and around the temporoparietal area; this condition, which transcends traditional aphasia classifications, is referred to as ‘semantic aphasia’ (SA). There have been very few direct comparisons of these patient groups to date and these previous studies have focussed on verbal comprehension. This study used a battery of object-use tasks to extend this line of enquiry into the non-verbal domain for the first time. A group of seven SA patients were identified who failed both word and picture versions of a semantic association task. These patients were compared with eight SD cases. Both groups showed significant deficits in object use but these impairments were qualitatively different. Item familiarity correlated with performance on object-use tasks for the SD group, consistent with the view that core semantic representations are degrading in this condition. In contrast, the SA participants were insensitive to the familiarity of the objects. Further, while the SD patients performed consistently across tasks that tapped different aspects of knowledge and object use for the same items, the performance of the SA participants reflected the control requirements of the tasks. Single object use was relatively preserved in SA but performance on complex mechanical puzzles was substantially impaired. Similarly, the SA patients were able to complete straightforward item matching tasks, such as word-picture matching, but performed more poorly on associative picture-matching tasks, even when the tests involved the same items. The two groups of patients also showed a different pattern of errors in object use. SA patients made substantial numbers of erroneous intrusions in their demonstrations, such as inappropriate object movements. In contrast, response omissions were more common in SD. This study provides converging evidence for qualitatively different impairments of semantic cognition in SD and SA, and uniquely demonstrates this pattern in a non-verbal expressive domain—object use. PMID:19506072

  5. Guiding principles for printed education materials: design preferences of people with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Rose, Tanya A; Worrall, Linda E; Hickson, Louise M; Hoffmann, Tammy C

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain the preferences of people with aphasia for the design of stroke and aphasia printed education materials (PEMs) and to compare these preferences with recommendations in the literature for developing written information for other populations. A face-to-face quantitative questionnaire was completed with 40 adults with aphasia post-stroke. The questionnaire explored preferences for: (1) the representation of numbers, (2) font size and type, (3) line spacing, (4) document length, and (5) graphic type. Most preferences (62.4%, n = 146) were for numbers expressed as figures rather than words. The largest proportion of participants selected 14 point (28.2%, n = 11) and Verdana ref (33.3%, n = 13) as the easiest font size and type to read, and a preference for 1.5 line spacing (41.0%, n = 16) was identified. Preference for document length was not related to the participant's reading ability or aphasia severity. Most participants (95.0%, n = 38) considered graphics to be helpful, with photographs more frequently reported as a helpful graphic type. The identified preferences support many of the formatting recommendations found within the literature. This research provides guiding principles for developing PEMs in preferred formats for people with aphasia. PMID:22136650

  6. Validating new diagnostic imaging criteria for primary progressive aphasia via anatomical likelihood estimation meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Bisenius, S; Neumann, J; Schroeter, M L

    2016-04-01

    Recently, diagnostic clinical and imaging criteria for primary progressive aphasia (PPA) have been revised by an international consortium (Gorno-Tempini et al. Neurology 2011;76:1006-14). The aim of this study was to validate the specificity of the new imaging criteria and investigate whether different imaging modalities [magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)] require different diagnostic subtype-specific imaging criteria. Anatomical likelihood estimation meta-analyses were conducted for PPA subtypes across a large cohort of 396 patients: firstly, across MRI studies for each of the three PPA subtypes followed by conjunction and subtraction analyses to investigate the specificity, and, secondly, by comparing results across MRI vs. FDG-PET studies in semantic dementia and progressive nonfluent aphasia. Semantic dementia showed atrophy in temporal, fusiform, parahippocampal gyri, hippocampus, and amygdala, progressive nonfluent aphasia in left putamen, insula, middle/superior temporal, precentral, and frontal gyri, logopenic progressive aphasia in middle/superior temporal, supramarginal, and dorsal posterior cingulate gyri. Results of the disease-specific meta-analyses across MRI studies were disjunct. Similarly, atrophic and hypometabolic brain networks were regionally dissociated in both semantic dementia and progressive nonfluent aphasia. In conclusion, meta-analyses support the specificity of new diagnostic imaging criteria for PPA and suggest that they should be specified for each imaging modality separately. PMID:26901360

  7. Acquisition and Maintenance of Scripts in Aphasia: A Comparison of Two Cuing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cherney, Leora R.; Kaye, Rosalind C.; van Vuuren, Sarel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to compare acquisition and maintenance of scripts under two conditions: High Cue which provided numerous multimodality cues designed to minimize errors, and Low Cue which provided minimal cues. Methods In a randomized controlled cross-over study, eight individuals with chronic aphasia received intensive computer-based script training under two cuing conditions. Each condition lasted three weeks, with a three-week washout period. Trained and untrained scripts were probed for accuracy and rate at baseline, during treatment, immediately post-treatment, and at three and six weeks post-treatment. Significance testing was conducted on gain scores and effect sizes were calculated. Results Training resulted in significant gains in script acquisition with maintenance of skills at three and six weeks post-treatment. Differences between cuing conditions were not significant. When severity of aphasia was considered, there also were no significant differences between conditions, although magnitude of change was greater in the High Cue condition versus the Low Cue condition for those with more severe aphasia. Conclusions Both cuing conditions were effective in acquisition and maintenance of scripts. The High Cue condition may be advantageous for those with more severe aphasia. Findings support the clinical use of script training and importance of considering aphasia severity. PMID:24686911

  8. Verbal Description of Concrete Objects: A Method for Assessing Semantic Circumlocution in Persons With Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    MacWilliam, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated from a theoretically motivated perspective what information differentiated sufficient from insufficient descriptions of objects provided by persons with aphasia. Method Twenty-one adults with aphasia consequent to single left-hemisphere stroke verbally described 9 living and 9 nonliving objects. Responses were scored for accuracy (i.e., sufficiency) and tallied for type and quantity of semantic feature information provided. Main effects and interactions were identified using repeated measures analyses of variance, with significant findings followed up with planned comparisons. Results Differences between correct and incorrect descriptions were identified with respect to both feature type and feature distinctiveness for living and nonliving items, in particular highlighting the importance of distinctive features in descriptions of both domains. Conclusions These findings add to the relatively small body of literature investigating semantic feature processing in adults with aphasia. This is a critical gap to close when considered in light of the preponderance of semantically based treatments for word-retrieval impairment in stroke-aphasia. Our findings provide preliminary support for the notion that semantically guided treatments for word-retrieval impairment in stroke-aphasia may be geared toward increasing specificity of semantic circumlocution to increase semantic self-cueing and to improve communication of information to conversation partners. PMID:26381474

  9. Primary progressive aphasia in a bilingual speaker: a single-case study.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Sergio; Angeli, Valentina; Tavano, Alessandro

    2011-06-01

    We report on the case of an elderly bilingual woman presenting with a diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia. The participant's native language was Friulian (L1), a predominantly oral Romance language, and her second language was Italian (L2), formally learned at primary school in oral and written forms. We investigated her linguistic abilities by means of the Bilingual Aphasia Test ( Paradis, M., & Libben, G. (1987). The assessment of bilingual aphasia. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates), which is specifically devised for studying language levels and skills in bilingual/polyglot individuals with aphasia. Specifically, we focused on different tasks extracted from the Bilingual Aphasia Test, targeting phonology, morphology, syntax and lexical semantics. Results show that both languages were affected to a clinically significant degree, but with different profiles in terms of linguistic levels, suggesting the presence of greater phonological, morphological, grammatical and syntactic impairments in L2. Results are discussed in terms of possible dissociations both within the language system of each language and between languages, within the Procedural/Declarative theoretical framework of language acquisition in bilinguals. PMID:21631307

  10. Verb Production in Aphasia: Testing the Division of Labor between Syntax and Semantics.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Julia; Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen

    2016-02-01

    Some individuals with aphasia preferably use semantically general light verbs, whereas others prefer semantically specific heavy verbs. This study aimed to test Gordon and Dell's "division of labor" hypothesis that light versus heavy verb usage depends on syntactic and semantic processes, respectively. In a retrospective analysis of data from the AphasiaBank corpus, narrative language of neurologically healthy individuals and individuals with aphasia was analyzed for the proportion of light verbs used, and its relationship with narrative measures of syntactic and semantic sophistication and verb naming scores was examined. In individuals with aphasia, light verb usage was positively correlated with a syntactic measure (developmental sentence score) and negatively associated with two semantic measures (idea density and verb naming). For healthy individuals, the number of verbs per utterance, which is a measure of syntactic complexity, predicted light verb use. These findings suggest that light verb usage in aphasia observes an inverse relationship with syntactic and semantic abilities, supporting the division of labor hypothesis. PMID:26882362

  11. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Perilesional Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Aphasia: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Ulm, Lena; McMahon, Katie; Copland, David; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Meinzer, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the neural mechanisms by which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) impacts on language processing in post-stroke aphasia. This was addressed in a proof-of-principle study that explored the effects of tDCS application in aphasia during simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We employed a single subject, cross-over, sham-tDCS controlled design, and the stimulation was administered to an individualized perilesional stimulation site that was identified by a baseline fMRI scan and a picture naming task. Peak activity during the baseline scan was located in the spared left inferior frontal gyrus and this area was stimulated during a subsequent cross-over phase. tDCS was successfully administered to the target region and anodal- vs. sham-tDCS resulted in selectively increased activity at the stimulation site. Our results thus demonstrate that it is feasible to precisely target an individualized stimulation site in aphasia patients during simultaneous fMRI, which allows assessing the neural mechanisms underlying tDCS application. The functional imaging results of this case report highlight one possible mechanism that may have contributed to beneficial behavioral stimulation effects in previous clinical tDCS trials in aphasia. In the future, this approach will allow identifying distinct patterns of stimulation effects on neural processing in larger cohorts of patients. This may ultimately yield information about the variability of tDCS effects on brain functions in aphasia. PMID:26500522

  12. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Perilesional Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Aphasia: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Ulm, Lena; McMahon, Katie; Copland, David; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Meinzer, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the neural mechanisms by which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) impacts on language processing in post-stroke aphasia. This was addressed in a proof-of-principle study that explored the effects of tDCS application in aphasia during simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We employed a single subject, cross-over, sham-tDCS controlled design, and the stimulation was administered to an individualized perilesional stimulation site that was identified by a baseline fMRI scan and a picture naming task. Peak activity during the baseline scan was located in the spared left inferior frontal gyrus and this area was stimulated during a subsequent cross-over phase. tDCS was successfully administered to the target region and anodal- vs. sham-tDCS resulted in selectively increased activity at the stimulation site. Our results thus demonstrate that it is feasible to precisely target an individualized stimulation site in aphasia patients during simultaneous fMRI, which allows assessing the neural mechanisms underlying tDCS application. The functional imaging results of this case report highlight one possible mechanism that may have contributed to beneficial behavioral stimulation effects in previous clinical tDCS trials in aphasia. In the future, this approach will allow identifying distinct patterns of stimulation effects on neural processing in larger cohorts of patients. This may ultimately yield information about the variability of tDCS effects on brain functions in aphasia. PMID:26500522

  13. Battery separator

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, W.M.

    1988-03-29

    An alkaline battery is described comprising one or more positive electrodes, one or more negative electrodes, an alkaline based electrolyte solution and a sheet material for use as a separator or interseparator comprised of from about 30 to about 70 weight percent of the sheet material of synthetic polyolefin pulp, from about 15 to about 65 weight percent of the sheet material of inorganic alkali resistant filler, and from about 1 to about 35 weight percent of the sheet material of a long synthetic fiber, at least some of which is water swellable vinyl alcohol polymer.

  14. Piezonuclear battery

    DOEpatents

    Bongianni, Wayne L.

    1992-01-01

    A piezonuclear battery generates output power arising from the piezoelectric voltage produced from radioactive decay particles interacting with a piezoelectric medium. Radioactive particle energy may directly create an acoustic wave in the piezoelectric medium or a moderator may be used to generate collision particles for interacting with the medium. In one embodiment a radioactive material (.sup.252 Cf) with an output of about 1 microwatt produced a 12 nanowatt output (1.2% conversion efficiency) from a piezoelectric copolymer of vinylidene fluoride/trifluorethylene.

  15. Therapy-induced brain reorganization patterns in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Abel, Stefanie; Weiller, Cornelius; Huber, Walter; Willmes, Klaus; Specht, Karsten

    2015-04-01

    Both hemispheres are engaged in recovery from word production deficits in aphasia. Lexical therapy has been shown to induce brain reorganization even in patients with chronic aphasia. However, the interplay of factors influencing reorganization patterns still remains unresolved. We were especially interested in the relation between lesion site, therapy-induced recovery, and beneficial reorganization patterns. Thus, we applied intensive lexical therapy, which was evaluated with functional magnetic resonance imaging, to 14 chronic patients with aphasic word retrieval deficits. In a group study, we aimed to illuminate brain reorganization of the naming network in comparison with healthy controls. Moreover, we intended to analyse the data with joint independent component analysis to relate lesion sites to therapy-induced brain reorganization, and to correlate resulting components with therapy gain. As a result, we found peri-lesional and contralateral activations basically overlapping with premorbid naming networks observed in healthy subjects. Reduced activation patterns for patients compared to controls before training comprised damaged left hemisphere language areas, right precentral and superior temporal gyrus, as well as left caudate and anterior cingulate cortex. There were decreasing activations of bilateral visuo-cognitive, articulatory, attention, and language areas due to therapy, with stronger decreases for patients in right middle temporal gyrus/superior temporal sulcus, bilateral precuneus as well as left anterior cingulate cortex and caudate. The joint independent component analysis revealed three components indexing lesion subtypes that were associated with patient-specific recovery patterns. Activation decreases (i) of an extended frontal lesion disconnecting language pathways occurred in left inferior frontal gyrus; (ii) of a small frontal lesion were found in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus; and (iii) of a large temporo-parietal lesion occurred in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and contralateral superior temporal gyrus. All components revealed increases in prefrontal areas. One component was negatively correlated with therapy gain. Therapy was associated exclusively with activation decreases, which could mainly be attributed to higher processing efficiency within the naming network. In our joint independent component analysis, all three lesion patterns disclosed involved deactivation of left inferior frontal gyrus. Moreover, we found evidence for increased demands on control processes. As expected, we saw partly differential reorganization profiles depending on lesion patterns. There was no compensatory deactivation for the large left inferior frontal lesion, with its less advantageous outcome probably being related to its disconnection from crucial language processing pathways. PMID:25688082

  16. Battery technology handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Kiehne, H.A. )

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses batteries in various applications as rechargeable secondary batteries or as nonrechargeable primary batteries. Improvements to the existing and well-established systems, e.g., the lead-acid battery, the nickel-cadmium battery, and the well-known primary battery systems, have been made in recent years. Increased energy density and maintenance-free operation as well as an extended temperature range are the main aims of development. At the same time, research and development on new systems, e.g., fuel cells and high-temperature batteries, are needed for coming applications as battery-powered road vehicles with a wider range are already being demonstrated with the existing types of batteries. Furthermore miniaturized batteries, such as lithium batteries, are needed as power sources for appliances and electronic watches.

  17. Recovery from aphasia: a longitudinal study on language recovery, lateralization patterns, and attentional resources.

    PubMed

    Ansaldo, Ana Inés; Arguin, Martin; Lecours, André Roch

    2004-08-01

    Despite the large body of evidence on the neural basis of the recovery from aphasia, the role of either cerebral hemisphere remains controversial. This paper reports the results of a longitudinal single-case study on the patterns of lateralization for lexical semantic processing during the recovery from aphasia. The experimental protocol included a lateralized lexical decision task (LDT), an attentional task and a language test. There was no presentation site effect on the LDT, and the performance was jointly influences by attentional and language factors. These findings suggest that the recovery of lexical semantic processing may be sustained by both cerebral hemispheres, and highlights the importance of experimental protocols that allow examining both language and attentional factors modulating factors modulating the recovery from aphasia. PMID:15370384

  18. Contributions of bilateral white matter to chronic aphasia symptoms as assessed by diffusion tensor MRI

    PubMed Central

    Geva, Sharon; Correia, Marta M.; Warburton, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Language reorganisation following stroke has been studied widely. However, while studies of brain activation and grey matter examined both hemispheres, studies of white matter changes have mostly focused on the left hemisphere. Here we examined the relationship between bilateral hemispheric white matter and aphasia symptoms. 15 chronic stroke patients with aphasia and 18 healthy adults were studied using Diffusion Weighted Imaging data. By applying histogram analysis, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics, tractography and lesion-tract overlap methods, it was found that damage to the left hemisphere in general, and to the arcuate fasciculus in particular, correlated with impairments on word repetition, object naming, sentence comprehension and homophone and rhyme judgement. However, no such relationship was found in the right hemisphere. It is suggested that while some language function in aphasia can be explained by damage to the left arcuate fasciculus, it cannot be explained by looking at the contra-lesional tract. PMID:26401977

  19. Progression of logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia to apraxia and semantic memory deficits

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to the nature of neurodegenerative disorders, patients with primary progressive aphasia develop cognitive impairment other than aphasia as the disorder progresses. The progression of logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA), however, has not been well described. In particular, praxic disorders and semantic memory deficits have rarely been reported. Case presentations We report three patients in the initial stage of lvPPA who subsequently developed apraxia in the middle stage and developed clinically evident semantic memory deficits in the advanced stages. Conclusions The present case series suggests that some patients with lvPPA develop an atypical type of dementia with apraxia and semantic memory deficits, suggesting that these cases should be classified as a type of early-onset Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24176108

  20. Predictability effect on N400 reflects the severity of reading comprehension deficits in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Ting; Lee, Chia-Ying; Chou, Chia-Ju; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Wu, Hsin-Chi

    2016-01-29

    Predictability effect on N400, in which low predictability words elicited a larger N400 than high predictability words did over central to posterior electrodes, has been used to index difficulty of lexical retrieval and semantic integration of words in sentence comprehension. This study examined predictability effect on N400 in aphasic patients to determine if the properties of N400 are suited to indexing the severity of reading comprehension deficits. Patients with aphasia were divided into high and low ability groups based on scores on the reading comprehension subtest in the Chinese Concise Aphasia Test (CCAT). The two aphasia groups, a group of healthy elders who were age-matched to the aphasic participants, and a group of young adults, were requested to read sentences that either ended with highly predictable words or unexpected but plausible words, while undergoing electroencephalography (EEG). The young adult and healthy elderly groups exhibited the typical centro-parietal distributed effect of predictability on N400; however, healthy elders exhibited a reduced N400 effect in a delayed time window compared to the young adults. Compared with the elderly control, the high ability aphasia group exhibited a comparable N400 effect in a more restricted time window; by contrast, the low ability aphasia group exhibited a frontal distributed N400 in a much later time window (400-700ms). These data suggest that the severity of reading comprehension deficits affects predictability effect on a set of N400 characteristics (i.e., amplitude, time window, and topographic distribution), which may be effective as ERP signatures in the evaluation of language recovery in aphasia. PMID:26686551

  1. Distinctive pathological mechanisms involved in primary progressive aphasias.

    PubMed

    Leyton, Cristian E; Britton, Anna K; Hodges, John R; Halliday, Glenda M; Kril, Jillian J

    2016-02-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) comprises a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative conditions that can be classified in three cliniconeuroanatomic syndromes. Limited information exists, however, about patterns of neuropathologic spreading and microscopic changes underpinning each syndrome. We performed an analysis of a longitudinal in vivo cohort and a postmortem PPA cohort to investigate neurodegeneration over time and to quantify microscopic changes in key language brain areas. The longitudinal analyses demonstrated distinctive patterns of topological extension of brain atrophy. Although semantic variant (sv-PPA) showed an eccentric pattern, nonfluent and/or agrammatic (nfv-PPA) and logopenic (lv-PPA) variants showed additional multifocal extension. The quantitative pathology showed that sv-PPA had neuronal loss and thinning in BA 38, whereas nfv-PPA showed thinning in BA 44/45 and evidence of microscopic involvement in BA 40/22. Although lv-PPA showed neuronal loss focused on BA 40/22, imaging results demonstrated widespread left-sided brain atrophy. These analyses provide an account of the pathologic process whereby each variant has stereotypical patterns of brain atrophy extension, which is largely determined by the specific pathologic type. PMID:26827646

  2. Deficit-lesion correlations in syntactic comprehension in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Caplan, David; Michaud, Jennifer; Hufford, Rebecca; Makris, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    The effects of lesions on syntactic comprehension were studied in thirty-one people with aphasia (PWA). Participants were tested for the ability to parse and interpret four types of syntactic structures and elements - passives, object extracted relative clauses, reflexives and pronouns - in three tasks - object manipulation, sentence picture matching with full sentence presentation and sentence picture matching with self-paced listening presentation. Accuracy, end-of-sentence RT and self-paced listening times for each word were measured. MR scans were obtained and analyzed for total lesion volume and for lesion size in 48 cortical areas. Lesion size in several areas of the left hemisphere was related to accuracy in particular sentence types in particular tasks and to self-paced listening times for critical words in particular sentence types. The results support a model of brain organization that includes areas that are specialized for the combination of particular syntactic and interpretive operations and the use of the meanings produced by those operations to accomplish task-related operations. PMID:26688433

  3. Classification of primary progressive aphasia and its variants

    PubMed Central

    Hillis, A.E.; Weintraub, S.; Kertesz, A.; Mendez, M.; Cappa, S.F.; Ogar, J.M.; Rohrer, J.D.; Black, S.; Boeve, B.F.; Manes, F.; Dronkers, N.F.; Vandenberghe, R.; Rascovsky, K.; Patterson, K.; Miller, B.L.; Knopman, D.S.; Hodges, J.R.; Mesulam, M.M.; Grossman, M.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a classification of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and its 3 main variants to improve the uniformity of case reporting and the reliability of research results. Criteria for the 3 variants of PPA—nonfluent/agrammatic, semantic, and logopenic—were developed by an international group of PPA investigators who convened on 3 occasions to operationalize earlier published clinical descriptions for PPA subtypes. Patients are first diagnosed with PPA and are then divided into clinical variants based on specific speech and language features characteristic of each subtype. Classification can then be further specified as “imaging-supported” if the expected pattern of atrophy is found and “with definite pathology” if pathologic or genetic data are available. The working recommendations are presented in lists of features, and suggested assessment tasks are also provided. These recommendations have been widely agreed upon by a large group of experts and should be used to ensure consistency of PPA classification in future studies. Future collaborations will collect prospective data to identify relationships between each of these syndromes and specific biomarkers for a more detailed understanding of clinicopathologic correlations. PMID:21325651

  4. Lexical acquisition in progressive aphasia and frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Murray, Ryan; Koenig, Phyllis; Antani, Shweta; McCawley, Gwyneth; Grossman, Murray

    2007-02-01

    We investigated the characteristics of language difficulty in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) by exposing these patients to a new verb in a naturalistic manner and then assessing acquisition of the grammatical, semantic, and thematic matrix information associated with the new word. We found that FTD patients have difficulty relative to healthy seniors in their acquisition of the new verb, but that progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), semantic dementia (SD), and social/dysexecutive variant (SOC/EXEC) subgroups of FTD demonstrate relatively distinct impairment profiles. Specifically, PNFA patients showed relative difficulty assigning the new verb to its correct grammatical form class, reflecting compromised processing of the associated grammatical information. SD patients were impaired at associating the new word with its pictorial representation, suggesting impaired processing of the new verb's semantic attributes. SOC/EXEC patients showed their greatest difficulty judging violations of the new word's associated thematic roles, implying that limited executive resources underlie in part the difficulty in integrating grammatical and semantic information into a coherent thematic matrix. Similar impairment profiles were seen during a follow-up session one week after the initial evaluation. These deficits in lexical acquisition reflect the breakdown of a language-processing system that consists of highly interactive but partially dissociable grammatical, semantic, and resource-based components, leading to relatively distinct language-processing deficits in each subgroup of patients with FTD. PMID:18416483

  5. Subdivision of frontal cortex mechanisms for language production in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Thothathiri, Malathi; Gagliardi, Maureen; Schwartz, Myrna F

    2012-12-01

    Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) has long been linked to language production, but the precise mechanisms are still being elucidated. Using neuropsychological case studies, we explored possible sub-specialization within this region for different linguistic and executive functions. Frontal patients with different lesion profiles completed two sequencing tasks, which were hypothesized to engage partially overlapping components. The multi-word priming task tested the sequencing of co-activated representations and the overriding of primed word orders. The sequence reproduction task tested the sequencing of co-activated representations, but did not employ a priming manipulation. We compared patients' performance on the two tasks to that of healthy, age-matched controls. Results are partially consistent with an anterior-posterior gradient of cognitive control within lateral prefrontal cortex (Koechlin & Summerfield, 2007). However, we also found a stimulus-specific pattern, which suggests that sub-specialization might be contingent on type of representation as well as type of control signal. Isolating such components functionally and anatomically might lead to a better understanding of language production deficits in aphasia. PMID:23022077

  6. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in primary progressive aphasia and apraxia of speech

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Tarun D.; Duffy, Joseph R; Strand, Edythe A.; Machulda, Mary M.; Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To conduct a prospective analysis of the neuropsychiatric symptoms(NPS) across the three categories of primary progressive aphasia(PPA) and apraxia of speech(PPAOS), to compare the prevalence and nature of the symptoms, and look at which symptoms could be helpful to better differentiate these PPA and PPAOS categories. Methods 106 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of semantic variant{svPPA}(13), logopenic variant{lvPPA}(37), agrammatic variant{agPPA}(15) or PPAOS(41), were included in this prospective study. The NPS were measured by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q). Results There were 65 patients with PPA and 41 with PPAOS diagnosis. The most distinguishing features between the two groups were anxiety, apathy, aberrant motor behavior and appetite, while among the subtypes of PPA were disinhibition and appetite changes. PPA and PPAOS patients initially exhibited depression but with increase in disease duration, the PPAOS patients showed apathy (55.5%) while the PPA patients showed disinhibition (28.6%) and aberrant motor behavior (14.3%). Conclusion Mood symptoms like anxiety and appetite changes are more likely to be present in initial stages of PPA whereas behavioral symptoms like aberrant motor behavior and apathy are likely to occur in PPAOS. The NPS seems to evolve with the progression of the disease in both PPA and PPAOS. PMID:25613190

  7. Frontotemporal networks and behavioral symptoms in primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Mesulam, Marsel M.; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Murphy, Declan; Wieneke, Christina; Martersteck, Adam; Cobia, Derin; Rogalski, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine if behavioral symptoms in patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) were associated with degeneration of a ventral frontotemporal network. Methods: We used diffusion tensor imaging tractography to quantify abnormalities of the uncinate fasciculus that connects the anterior temporal lobe and the ventrolateral frontal cortex. Two additional ventral tracts were studied: the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. We also measured cortical thickness of anterior temporal and orbitofrontal regions interconnected by these tracts. Thirty-three patients with PPA and 26 healthy controls were recruited. Results: In keeping with the PPA diagnosis, behavioral symptoms were distinctly less prominent than the language deficits. Although all 3 tracts had structural pathology as determined by tractography, significant correlations with scores on the Frontal Behavioral Inventory were found only for the uncinate fasciculus. Cortical atrophy of the orbitofrontal and anterior temporal lobe cortex was also correlated with these scores. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that damage to a frontotemporal network mediated by the uncinate fasciculus may underlie the emergence of behavioral symptoms in patients with PPA. PMID:26992858

  8. Speech Therapy in Primary Progressive Aphasia: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Farrajota, Luísa; Maruta, Carolina; Maroco, João; Martins, Isabel Pavão; Guerreiro, Manuela; de Mendonça, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Background Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative disorder with no effective pharmacological treatment. Cognition-based interventions are adequate alternatives, but their benefit has not been thoroughly explored. Our aim was to study the effect of speech and language therapy (SLT) on naming ability in PPA. Methods An open parallel prospective longitudinal study involving two centers was designed to compare patients with PPA submitted to SLT (1 h/week for 11 months) with patients receiving no therapy. Twenty patients were enrolled and undertook baseline language and neuropsychological assessments; among them, 10 received SLT and 10 constituted an age- and education-matched historical control group. The primary outcome measure was the change in group mean performance on the Snodgrass and Vanderwart naming test between baseline and follow-up assessments. Results Intervention and control groups did not significantly differ on demographic and clinical variables at baseline. A mixed repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant main effect of therapy (F(1,18) = 10.763; p = 0.005) on the performance on the Snodgrass and Vanderwart naming test. Conclusion Although limited by a non-randomized open study design with a historical control group, the present study suggests that SLT may have a benefit in PPA, and it should prompt a randomized, controlled, rater-blind clinical trial. PMID:22962556

  9. Primary progressive aphasia as the initial manifestation of corticobasal degeneration. A "three in one " syndrome?

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Panos; Karacostas, Dimitris; Hatzipantazi, Maria; Ioannis, Milonas

    2005-01-01

    In 1994, the term "Pick complex" was proposed to indicate significant clinical and pathological overlapping between primary progressive aphasia, frontal lobe dementia and corticobasal degeneration. We report the case of a 60-year-old man, who initially presented progressive non-fluent aphasia with orofacial apraxia, and subsequently, over a period of 3 years, developed mutism, pathological laughter, extrapyramidal rigidity, dystonia, alien hand syndrome and bulbar signs. An extensive haematological, immunological and biochemical work up was normal. The results of neuroimaging studies and neuropsychological tests, along with the clinical evolution, finally led us to the ?three in one? diagnosis, supporting the concept of Pick complex. PMID:16324238

  10. Handedness and language learning disability differentially distribute in progressive aphasia variants.

    PubMed

    Miller, Zachary A; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Rankin, Katherine P; Henry, Maya L; Babiak, Miranda C; Frazier, Darvis T; Lobach, Iryna V; Bettcher, Brianne M; Wu, Teresa Q; Rabinovici, Gil D; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2013-11-01

    Primary progressive aphasia is a neurodegenerative clinical syndrome that presents in adulthood with an isolated, progressive language disorder. Three main clinical/anatomical variants have been described, each associated with distinctive pathology. A high frequency of neurodevelopmental learning disability in primary progressive aphasia has been reported. Because the disorder is heterogeneous with different patterns of cognitive, anatomical and biological involvement, we sought to identify whether learning disability had a predilection for one or more of the primary progressive aphasia subtypes. We screened the University of California San Francisco Memory and Aging Center's primary progressive aphasia cohort (n = 198) for history of language-related learning disability as well as hand preference, which has associations with learning disability. The study included logopenic (n = 48), non-fluent (n = 54) and semantic (n = 96) variant primary progressive aphasias. We investigated whether the presence of learning disability or non-right-handedness was associated with differential effects on demographic, neuropsychological and neuroimaging features of primary progressive aphasia. We showed that a high frequency of learning disability was present only in the logopenic group (χ(2) = 15.17, P < 0.001) and (χ(2) = 11.51, P < 0.001) compared with semantic and non-fluent populations. In this group, learning disability was associated with earlier onset of disease, more isolated language symptoms, and more focal pattern of left posterior temporoparietal atrophy. Non-right-handedness was instead over-represented in the semantic group, at nearly twice the prevalence of the general population (χ(2) = 6.34, P = 0.01). Within semantic variant primary progressive aphasia the right-handed and non-right-handed cohorts appeared homogeneous on imaging, cognitive profile, and structural analysis of brain symmetry. Lastly, the non-fluent group showed no increase in learning disability or non-right-handedness. Logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia and developmental dyslexia both manifest with phonological disturbances and posterior temporal involvement. Learning disability might confer vulnerability of this network to early-onset, focal Alzheimer's pathology. Left-handedness has been described as a proxy for atypical brain hemispheric lateralization. As non-right-handedness was increased only in the semantic group, anomalous lateralization mechanisms might instead be related to frontotemporal lobar degeneration with abnormal TARDBP. Taken together, this study suggests that neurodevelopmental signatures impart differential trajectories towards neurodegenerative disease. PMID:24056533

  11. Asymmetry and heterogeneity of Alzheimer's and frontotemporal pathology in primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Mesulam, M-Marsel; Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily J; Wieneke, Christina; Geula, Changiz; Bigio, Eileen H

    2014-04-01

    Fifty-eight autopsies of patients with primary progressive aphasia are reported. Twenty-three of these were previously described (Mesulam et al., 2008) but had their neuropathological diagnoses updated to fit current criteria. Thirty-five of the cases are new. Their clinical classification was guided as closely as possible by the 2011 consensus guidelines (Gorno-Tempini et al., 2011). Tissue diagnoses included Alzheimer's disease in 45% and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) in the others, with an approximately equal split between TAR DNA binding protein 43 proteinopathies and tauopathies. The most common and distinctive feature for all pathologies associated with primary progressive aphasia was the asymmetric prominence of atrophy, neuronal loss, and disease-specific proteinopathy in the language-dominant (mostly left) hemisphere. The Alzheimer's disease pathology in primary progressive aphasia displayed multiple atypical features. Males tended to predominate, the neurofibrillary pathology was more intense in the language-dominant hemisphere, the Braak pattern of hippocampo-entorhinal prominence was tilted in favour of the neocortex, and the APOE e4 allele was not a risk factor. Mean onset age was under 65 in the FTLD as well as Alzheimer's disease groups. The FTLD-TAR DNA binding protein 43 group had the youngest onset and fastest progression whereas the Alzheimer's disease and FTLD-tau groups did not differ from each other in either onset age or progression rate. Each cellular pathology type had a preferred but not invariant clinical presentation. The most common aphasic manifestation was of the logopenic type for Alzheimer pathology and of the agrammatic type for FTLD-tau. The progressive supranuclear palsy subtype of FTLD-tau consistently caused prominent speech abnormality together with agrammatism whereas FTLD-TAR DNA binding protein 43 of type C consistently led to semantic primary progressive aphasia. The presence of agrammatism made Alzheimer's disease pathology very unlikely whereas the presence of a logopenic aphasia or word comprehension impairment made FTLD-tau unlikely. The association of logopenic primary progressive aphasia with Alzheimer's disease pathology was much more modest than has been implied by results of in vivo amyloid imaging studies. Individual features of the aphasia, such as agrammatism and comprehension impairment, were as informative of underlying pathology as more laborious subtype diagnoses. At the single patient level, no clinical pattern was pathognomonic of a specific neuropathology type, highlighting the critical role of biomarkers for diagnosing the underlying disease. During clinical subtyping, some patients were unclassifiable by the 2011 guidelines whereas others simultaneously fit two subtypes. Revisions of criteria for logopenic primary progressive aphasia are proposed to address these challenges. PMID:24574501

  12. Asymmetry and heterogeneity of Alzheimer’s and frontotemporal pathology in primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily J.; Wieneke, Christina; Geula, Changiz; Bigio, Eileen H.

    2014-01-01

    Fifty-eight autopsies of patients with primary progressive aphasia are reported. Twenty-three of these were previously described (Mesulam et al., 2008) but had their neuropathological diagnoses updated to fit current criteria. Thirty-five of the cases are new. Their clinical classification was guided as closely as possible by the 2011 consensus guidelines (Gorno-Tempini et al., 2011). Tissue diagnoses included Alzheimer’s disease in 45% and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) in the others, with an approximately equal split between TAR DNA binding protein 43 proteinopathies and tauopathies. The most common and distinctive feature for all pathologies associated with primary progressive aphasia was the asymmetric prominence of atrophy, neuronal loss, and disease-specific proteinopathy in the language-dominant (mostly left) hemisphere. The Alzheimer’s disease pathology in primary progressive aphasia displayed multiple atypical features. Males tended to predominate, the neurofibrillary pathology was more intense in the language-dominant hemisphere, the Braak pattern of hippocampo-entorhinal prominence was tilted in favour of the neocortex, and the APOE e4 allele was not a risk factor. Mean onset age was under 65 in the FTLD as well as Alzheimer’s disease groups. The FTLD-TAR DNA binding protein 43 group had the youngest onset and fastest progression whereas the Alzheimer’s disease and FTLD-tau groups did not differ from each other in either onset age or progression rate. Each cellular pathology type had a preferred but not invariant clinical presentation. The most common aphasic manifestation was of the logopenic type for Alzheimer pathology and of the agrammatic type for FTLD-tau. The progressive supranuclear palsy subtype of FTLD-tau consistently caused prominent speech abnormality together with agrammatism whereas FTLD-TAR DNA binding protein 43 of type C consistently led to semantic primary progressive aphasia. The presence of agrammatism made Alzheimer’s disease pathology very unlikely whereas the presence of a logopenic aphasia or word comprehension impairment made FTLD-tau unlikely. The association of logopenic primary progressive aphasia with Alzheimer’s disease pathology was much more modest than has been implied by results of in vivo amyloid imaging studies. Individual features of the aphasia, such as agrammatism and comprehension impairment, were as informative of underlying pathology as more laborious subtype diagnoses. At the single patient level, no clinical pattern was pathognomonic of a specific neuropathology type, highlighting the critical role of biomarkers for diagnosing the underlying disease. During clinical subtyping, some patients were unclassifiable by the 2011 guidelines whereas others simultaneously fit two subtypes. Revisions of criteria for logopenic primary progressive aphasia are proposed to address these challenges. PMID:24574501

  13. Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

  14. Western Skink

    The Western skink (Plestiodon skiltonianus) is a relatively common and widespread lizard in Southern California. It is more secretive and prefers more grassy habitat than the Western fence lizard or the side-blotched lizard, yet USGS and National Park Service biologists are finding signs of genetic ...

  15. The forgotten grammatical category: Adjective use in agrammatic aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer-Asscher, Aya; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2014-01-01

    Background In contrast to nouns and verbs, the use of adjectives in agrammatic aphasia has not been systematically studied. However, because of the linguistic and psycholinguistic attributes of adjectives, some of which overlap with nouns and some with verbs, analysis of adjective production is important for testing theories of word class production deficits in agrammatism. Aims The objective of the current study was to compare adjective use in agrammatic and healthy individuals, focusing on three factors: overall adjective production rate, production of predicative and attributive adjectives, and production of adjectives with complex argument structure. Method & Procedures Narratives elicited from 14 agrammatic and 14 control participants were coded for open class grammatical category production (i.e., nouns, verbs, adjectives), with each adjective also coded for its syntactic environment (attributive/predicative) and argument structure. Outcomes & Results Overall, agrammatic speakers used adjectives in proportions similar to that of cognitively healthy speakers. However, they exhibited a greater proportion of predicative adjectives and a lesser proportion of attributive adjectives, compared to controls. Additionally, agrammatic participants produced adjectives with less complex argument structure than controls. Conclusions The overall normal-like frequency of adjectives produced by agrammatic speakers suggests that agrammatism does not involve an inherent difficulty with adjectives as a word class or with predication, or that it entails a deficit in processing low imageability words. However, agrammatic individuals’ reduced production of attributive adjectives and adjectives with complements extends previous findings of an adjunction deficit and of impairment in complex argument structure processing, respectively, to the adjectival domain. The results suggest that these deficits are not tied to a specific grammatical category. PMID:24882945

  16. Verbal creativity in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Teresa Q; Miller, Zachary A; Adhimoolam, Babu; Zackey, Diana D; Khan, Baber K; Ketelle, Robin; Rankin, Katherine P; Miller, Bruce L

    2015-02-01

    Emergence of visual and musical creativity in the setting of neurologic disease has been reported in patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), also called semantic dementia (SD). It is hypothesized that loss of left anterior frontotemporal function facilitates activity of the right posterior hemispheric structures, leading to de novo creativity observed in visual artistic representation. We describe creativity in the verbal domain, for the first time, in three patients with svPPA. Clinical presentations are carefully described in three svPPA patients exhibiting verbal creativity, including neuropsychology, neurologic exam, and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed to quantify brain atrophy patterns in these patients against age-matched healthy controls. All three patients displayed new-onset creative writing behavior and produced extensive original work during the course of disease. Patient A developed interest in wordplay and generated a large volume of poetry. Patient B became fascinated with rhyming and punning. Patient C wrote and published a lifestyle guidebook. An overlap of their structural MR scans showed uniform sparing in the lateral portions of the language-dominant temporal lobe (superior and middle gyri) and atrophy in the medial temporal cortex (amygdala, limbic cortex). New-onset creativity in svPPA may represent a paradoxical functional facilitation. A similar drive for production is found in visually artistic and verbally creative patients. Mirroring the imaging findings in visually artistic patients, verbal preoccupation and creativity may be associated with medial atrophy in the language-dominant temporal lobe, but sparing of lateral dominant temporal and non-dominant posterior cortices. PMID:24329034

  17. Treatment of verb anomia in aphasia: efficacy of self-administered therapy using a smart tablet.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Monica; Routhier, Sonia; Légaré, Annie; Macoir, Joël

    2016-01-01

    Aphasia is a chronic condition that usually requires long-term rehabilitation. However, even if many effective treatments can be offered to patients and families, speech therapy services for individuals with aphasia often remain limited because of logistical and financial considerations, especially more than 6 months after stroke. Therefore, the need to develop tools to maximize rehabilitation potential is unquestionable. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a self-administered treatment delivered with a smart tablet to improve written verb naming skills in CP, a 63-year-old woman with chronic aphasia. An ABA multiple baseline design was used to compare CP's performance in verb naming on three equivalent lists of stimuli trained with a hierarchy of cues, trained with no cues, and not trained. Results suggest that graphemic cueing therapy, done four times a week for 3 weeks, led to better written verb naming compared to baseline and to the untrained list. Moreover, generalization of the effects of treatment was observed in verb production, assessed with a noun-to-verb production task. Results of this study suggest that self-administered training with a smart tablet is effective in improving naming skills in chronic aphasia. Future studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of new technologies in self-administered treatment of acquired language deficits. PMID:26007615

  18. Should Pantomime and Gesticulation Be Assessed Separately for Their Comprehensibility in Aphasia? A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Nispen, Karin; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke; Mol, Lisette; Krahmer, Emiel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gesticulation (gestures accompanying speech) and pantomime (gestures in the absence of speech) can each be comprehensible. Little is known about the differences between these two gesture modes in people with aphasia. Aims: To discover whether there are differences in the communicative use of gesticulation and pantomime in QH, a person

  19. A Novel Pupillometric Method for Indexing Word Difficulty in Individuals with and without Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Laura R.; Hallowell, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Cognitive effort is a clinically important facet of linguistic processing that is often overlooked in the assessment and treatment of people with aphasia (PWA). Furthermore, there is a paucity of valid ways to index cognitive effort in PWA. The construct of cognitive effort has been indexed for decades via pupillometry (measurement of…

  20. Where language meets meaningful action: a combined behavior and lesion analysis of aphasia and apraxia.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Peter H; Ubben, Simon D; Kaesberg, Stephanie; Kalbe, Elke; Kessler, Josef; Liebig, Thomas; Fink, Gereon R

    2016-01-01

    It is debated how language and praxis are co-represented in the left hemisphere (LH). As voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping in LH stroke patients with aphasia and/or apraxia may contribute to this debate, we here investigated the relationship between language and praxis deficits at the behavioral and lesion levels in 50 sub-acute stroke patients. We hypothesized that language and (meaningful) action are linked via semantic processing in Broca's region. Behaviorally, half of the patients suffered from co-morbid aphasia and apraxia. While 24 % (n = 12) of all patients exhibited aphasia without apraxia, apraxia without aphasia was rare (n = 2, 4 %). Left inferior frontal, insular, inferior parietal, and superior temporal lesions were specifically associated with deficits in naming, reading, writing, or auditory comprehension. In contrast, lesions affecting the left inferior frontal gyrus, premotor cortex, and the central region as well as the inferior parietal lobe were associated with apraxic deficits (i.e., pantomime, imitation of meaningful and meaningless gestures). Thus, contrary to the predictions of the embodied cognition theory, lesions to sensorimotor and premotor areas were associated with the severity of praxis but not language deficits. Lesions of Brodmann area (BA) 44 led to combined apraxic and aphasic deficits. Data suggest that BA 44 acts as an interface between language and (meaningful) action thereby supporting parcellation schemes (based on connectivity and receptor mapping) which revealed a BA 44 sub-area involved in semantic processing. PMID:25352157

  1. Legal Decision-Making by People with Aphasia: Critical Incidents for Speech Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Alison; Duffield, Gemma; Worrall, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Background: The assessment and management of a person with aphasia for whom decision-making capacity is queried represents a highly complex clinical issue. In addition, there are few published guidelines and even fewer published accounts of empirical research to assist. Aims: The research presented in this paper aimed to identify the main issues…

  2. Overcoming Unintelligibility in Aphasia: The Impact of Non-Verbal Interactive Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damico, Jack S.; Wilson, Brent T.; Simmons-Mackie, Nina N.; Tetnowski, John A.

    2008-01-01

    As a follow-up to previous research, this report focuses on the wide range of gestures employed by an individual with aphasia to overcome instances of unintelligibility and re-establish intelligibility. The gestures observed are woven seamlessly into the fabric of the interactions and range from deictic to metaphorical or symbolic in nature.

  3. The Use of Semantic- and Phonological-Based Feature Approaches to Treat Naming Deficits in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare approaches highlighting either semantic or phonological features to treat naming deficits in aphasia. Treatment focused on improving picture naming. An alternating treatments design was used with a multiple baseline design across stimuli to examine effects of both approaches in two participants with varying…

  4. Mechanisms of Aphasia Recovery after Stroke and the Role of Noninvasive Brain Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Roy H.; Chrysikou, Evangelia G.; Coslett, Branch

    2011-01-01

    One of the most frequent symptoms of unilateral stroke is aphasia, the impairment or loss of language functions. Over the past few years, behavioral and neuroimaging studies have shown that rehabilitation interventions can promote neuroplastic changes in aphasic patients that may be associated with the improvement of language functions. Following…

  5. Perspectives on Public Awareness of Stroke and Aphasia among Turkish Patients in a Neurology Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavis, Ilknur

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies on awareness have drawn attention to the fact that aphasia is a little known disorder to the public, in spite of all the publicity about this frequently occurring neurogenic language disorder. Being a very new concept, studies of awareness are rare in Turkey. This survey study assessed the extent of public awareness of neurological…

  6. Adapting the Bilingual Aphasia Test to Rarotongan (Cook Islands Maori): Linguistic and Clinical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amberber, Amanda Miller

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the adaptation of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) to the Rarotongan dialect of Cook Islands Maori, a Polynesian language spoken in the Cook Islands and expatriate communities. A brief linguistic sketch of Rarotongan is presented. As Rarotongan is characterised by a complex pronominal system, "a" versus "o" possession and

  7. Induction of neuroplasticity and recovery in post-stroke aphasia by non-invasive brain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Priyanka P.; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Allendorfer, Jane; Hamilton, Roy H.

    2013-01-01

    Stroke victims tend to prioritize speaking, writing, and walking as the three most important rehabilitation goals. Of note is that two of these goals involve communication. This underscores the significance of developing successful approaches to aphasia treatment for the several hundred thousand new aphasia patients each year and over 1 million stroke survivors with chronic aphasia in the U.S. alone. After several years of growth as a research tool, non-invasive brain stimulation (NBS) is gradually entering the arena of clinical aphasiology. In this review, we first examine the current state of knowledge of post-stroke language recovery including the contributions from the dominant and non-dominant hemispheres. Next, we briefly discuss the methods and the physiologic basis of the use of inhibitory and excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as research tools in patients who experience post-stroke aphasia. Finally, we provide a critical review of the most influential evidence behind the potential use of these two brain stimulation methods as clinical rehabilitative tools. PMID:24399952

  8. Model Choice and Sample Size in Item Response Theory Analysis of Aphasia Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hula, William D.; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Martin, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the most appropriate item response theory (IRT) measurement model for aphasia tests requiring 2-choice responses and to determine whether small samples are adequate for estimating such models. Method: Pyramids and Palm Trees (Howard & Patterson, 1992) test data that had been collected from…

  9. Intentional and Reactive Inhibition during Spoken-Word Stroop Task Performance in People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pompon, Rebecca Hunting; McNeil, Malcolm R.; Spencer, Kristie A.; Kendall, Diane L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The integrity of selective attention in people with aphasia (PWA) is currently unknown. Selective attention is essential for everyday communication, and inhibition is an important part of selective attention. This study explored components of inhibition--both intentional and reactive inhibition--during spoken-word production in PWA and in…

  10. The Effect of a Therapy Dog on the Communication Skills of an Adult with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFrance, Caroline; Garcia, Linda J.; Labreche, Julianne

    2007-01-01

    Little evidence-based research has been published within the field of communication disorders on the role of dogs as catalysts for human communication. This single participant study, a point of entry into this realm of research, explores the effects of a therapy dog on the communication skills of a patient with aphasia receiving intensive speech

  11. Fluent Versus Nonfluent Primary Progressive Aphasia: A Comparison of Clinical and Functional Neuroimaging Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, D.G.; Charuvastra, A.; Miller, B.L.; Shapira, J.S.; Mendez, M.F.

    2005-01-01

    To better characterize fluent and nonfluent variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Although investigators have recognized both fluent and nonfluent patients with PPA (Mesulam, 2001), the clinical and neuroimaging features of these variants have not been fully defined. We present clinical and neuropsychological data on 47 PPA patients

  12. A Proposed Regional Hierarchy in Recovery of Post-Stroke Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiss, W.-D.; Thiel, A.

    2006-01-01

    Activation studies in patients with aphasia due to stroke or tumours in the dominant hemisphere have revealed effects of disinhibition in ipsilateral perilesional and in contralateral homotopic cortical regions, referred to as collateral and transcallosal disinhibition. These findings were supported by studies with selective disturbance of…

  13. A Multimodal Communication Program for Aphasia during Inpatient Rehabilitation: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Sarah E.; Purdy, Mary; Skidmore, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Communication is essential for successful rehabilitation, yet few aphasia treatments have been investigated during the acute stroke phase. Alternative modality use including gesturing, writing, or drawing has been shown to increase communicative effectiveness in people with chronic aphasia. Instruction in alternative modality use during acute stroke may increase patient communication and participation, therefore resulting in fewer adverse situations and improved rehabilitation outcomes. OBJECTIVE The study purpose was to explore a multimodal communication program for aphasia (MCPA) implemented during acute stroke rehabilitation. MCPA aims to improve communication modality production, and to facilitate switching among modalities to resolve communication breakdowns. METHODS Two adults with severe aphasia completed MCPA beginning at 2 and 3 weeks post onset a single left-hemisphere stroke. Probes completed during each session allowed for evaluation of modality production and modality switching accuracy. RESULTS Participants completed MCPA (10 and 14 treatment sessions respectively) and their performance on probes suggested increased accuracy in the production of various alternate communication modalities. However, increased switching to an alternate modality was noted for only one participant. CONCLUSIONS Further investigation of multimodal treatment during inpatient rehabilitation is warranted. In particular, comparisons between multimodal and standard treatments would help determine appropriate interventions for this setting. PMID:25227547

  14. The Effect of a Therapy Dog on the Communication Skills of an Adult with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFrance, Caroline; Garcia, Linda J.; Labreche, Julianne

    2007-01-01

    Little evidence-based research has been published within the field of communication disorders on the role of dogs as catalysts for human communication. This single participant study, a point of entry into this realm of research, explores the effects of a therapy dog on the communication skills of a patient with aphasia receiving intensive speech…

  15. The Phonomotor Approach to Treating Phonological-Based Language Deficits in People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Diane L.; Nadeau, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    The phonomotor treatment program for treating word-retrieval deficits among people with aphasia is inspired by a parallel distributed processing model of lexical processing and is focused at the level of individual phonemes and phoneme sequences. Because verbal production of words involves the translation of a lexical-semantic representation into…

  16. Treatment of Semantic Verb Classes in Aphasia: Acquisition and Generalization Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Graham, Lauren E.

    2011-01-01

    Verb retrieval difficulties are common in aphasia; however, few successful treatments have been documented (e.g. Conroy, P., Sage, K., & Lambon Ralph, M. A. (2006). Towards theory-driven therapies for aphasic verb impairments: A review of current theory and practice. "Aphasiology", 20, 1159-1185). This study investigated the efficacy of a novel…

  17. Bilingual Aphasia and Language Control: A Follow-Up fMRI and Intrinsic Connectivity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abutalebi, Jubin; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Tettamanti, Marco; Green, David W.; Cappa, Stefano F.

    2009-01-01

    In a world that is becoming more multilingual, bilingual aphasia is a clinical problem with a major clinical impact. However, at present we lack causal explanations of the many features of recovery patterns and there is no consensus about the language in which the patient should receive speech therapy. Further advance requires an understanding of…

  18. Evolution of Phonemic Word Fluency Performance in Post-Stroke Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarno, Martha Taylor; Postman, Whitney Anne; Cho, Young Susan; Norman, Robert G.

    2005-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, quantitative and qualitative changes in responses of people with aphasia were examined on a phonemic fluency task. Eighteen patients were tested at 3-month intervals on the letters F-A-S while they received comprehensive, intensive treatment from 3 to 12 months post-stroke. They returned for a follow-up evaluation at an…

  19. The Effects of Modified Melodic Intonation Therapy on Nonfluent Aphasia: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklyn, Dwyer; Novak, Eric; Boissy, Adrienne; Bethoux, Francois; Chemali, Kamal

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Positive results have been reported with melodic intonation therapy (MIT) in nonfluent aphasia patients with damage to their left-brain speech processes, using the patient's intact ability to sing to promote functional language. This pilot study sought to determine the immediate effects of introducing modified melodic intonation therapy…

  20. Treatment Fidelity: Its Importance and Reported Frequency in Aphasia Treatment Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinckley, Jacqueline J.; Douglas, Natalie F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment fidelity is a measure of the reliability of the administration of an intervention in a treatment study. It is an important aspect of the validity of a research study, and it has implications for the ultimate implementation of evidence-supported interventions in typical clinical settings. Method: Aphasia treatment studies…

  1. Coverbal Gestures in the Recovery from Severe Fluent Aphasia: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlomagno, Sergio; Zulian, Nicola; Razzano, Carmelina; De Mercurio, Ilaria; Marini, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    This post hoc study investigated coverbal gesture patterns in two persons with chronic Wernicke's aphasia. They had both received therapy focusing on multimodal communication therapy, and their pre- and post-therapy verbal and gestural skills in face-to-face conversational interaction with their speech therapist were analysed by administering a…

  2. Gesture and Naming Therapy for People with Severe Aphasia: A Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jane; Best, Wendy; Cocks, Naomi; Cruice, Madeline; Pring, Tim; Bulcock, Gemma; Creek, Gemma; Eales, Nancy; Mummery, Alice Lockhart; Matthews, Niina; Caute, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors (a) investigated whether a group of people with severe aphasia could learn a vocabulary of pantomime gestures through therapy and (b) compared their learning of gestures with their learning of words. The authors also examined whether gesture therapy cued word production and whether naming therapy cued gestures.…

  3. Reconciling the Perspective of Practitioner and Service User: Findings from The Aphasia in Scotland Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, James; Huby, Guro; Irving, Anne-Marie; Pringle, Ann-Marie; Conochie, Douglas; Haworth, Catherine; Burston, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is widely accepted that service users should be actively involved in new service developments, but there remain issues about how best to consult with them and how to reconcile their views with those of service providers. Aims: This paper uses data from The Aphasia in Scotland study, set up by NHS Quality Improvement Scotland to…

  4. Treating Verbs in Aphasia: Exploring the Impact of Therapy at the Single Word and Sentence Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Janet; Whitworth, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Background: In recent years there has been significant interest in the differential processing of nouns and verbs in people with aphasia, but more limited consideration about whether the differences have implications for therapy. It remains unclear whether verbs can be treated in a similar way to nouns or should be treated using approaches that…

  5. Sparing of Written Production of Proper Nouns and Dates in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Darren; Buchanan, Lori

    2004-01-01

    Aphasia is a total or partial loss of the ability to produce or understand language, usually caused by brain disease or injury. In this case study, the aphasic patient (BMW) has a profound impairment of oral production and a very moderate impairment in comprehension. Several years of informal observation lead to the current study that contrasts

  6. Primary Progressive Aphasia in a Bilingual Speaker: A Single-Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanini, Sergio; Angeli, Valentina; Tavano, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We report on the case of an elderly bilingual woman presenting with a diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia. The participant's native language was Friulian (L1), a predominantly oral Romance language, and her second language was Italian (L2), formally learned at primary school in oral and written forms. We investigated her linguistic abilities…

  7. Reaction Time and Accuracy in Individuals with Aphasia during Auditory Vigilance Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laures, Jacqueline S.

    2005-01-01

    Research indicates that attentional deficits exist in aphasic individuals. However, relatively little is known about auditory vigilance performance in individuals with aphasia. The current study explores reaction time (RT) and accuracy in 10 aphasic participants and 10 nonbrain-damaged controls during linguistic and nonlinguistic auditory…

  8. Altered Intrinsic Regional Activity and Interregional Functional Connectivity in Post-stroke Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mi; Li, Jiao; Li, Yibo; Li, Rong; Pang, Yajing; Yao, Dezhong; Liao, Wei; Chen, Huafu

    2016-01-01

    Several neuroimaging studies have examined cerebral function in patients who suffer from aphasia, but the mechanism underlying this disorder remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined alterations in the local regional and remote interregional network cerebral functions in aphasia combined with amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and interregional functional connectivity (FC) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 17 post-stroke aphasic patients, all having suffered a stroke in the left hemisphere, as well as 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, were enrolled in this study. The aphasic patients showed significantly increased intrinsic regional activity mainly in the contralesional mesial temporal (hippocampus/parahippocampus, [HIP/ParaHIP]) and lateral temporal cortices. In addition, intrinsic regional activity in the contralesional HIP/ParaHIP was negatively correlated with construction score. Aphasic patients showed increased remote interregional FC between the contralesional HIP/ParaHIP and fusiform gyrus, but reduced FC in the ipsilesional occipital and parietal cortices. These findings suggested that the intrinsic regional brain dysfunctions in aphasia were related to interregional functional connectivity. Changes in the intrinsic regional brain activity and associated remote functional connectivity pattern would provide valuable information to enhance the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of aphasia. PMID:27091494

  9. Perceived Liveliness and Speech Comprehensibility in Aphasia: The Effects of Direct Speech in Auditory Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groenewold, Rimke; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Nickels, Lyndsey; Huiskes, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that in semi-spontaneous speech, individuals with Broca's and anomic aphasia produce relatively many direct speech constructions. It has been claimed that in "healthy" communication direct speech constructions contribute to the liveliness, and indirectly to the comprehensibility, of speech.…

  10. Expressive Language Recovery in Aphasia Using the "Shewan Spontaneous Language Analysis" (SSLA) System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shewan, Cynthia M.

    1988-01-01

    The oral expressive language of 47 aphasic subjects (who had suffered a single unilateral occlusive cerebral vascular accident two to four weeks prior to original testing) was measured on two occasions a year apart. Results found positive changes toward normal language functioning for several variables with type of aphasia affecting outcome on…

  11. Evaluation of Attention Training and Metacognitive Facilitation to Improve Reading Comprehension in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaime B.; Sohlberg, McKay Moore

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This pilot study investigated the impact of direct attention training combined with metacognitive facilitation on reading comprehension in individuals with aphasia. Method: A single-subject, multiple baseline design was employed across 4 participants to evaluate potential changes in reading comprehension resulting from an 8-week…

  12. Health-Related Quality of Life in People with Severe Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilari, Katerina; Byng, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) measures are increasingly used to help us understand the impact of disease or disability on a person's life and to measure the effectiveness of interventions. A small number of studies have looked at perceived HRQL in people with mild or moderate aphasia. They report that reduced HRQL is associated…

  13. Tell Me Your Story: Analysis of Script Topics Selected by Persons with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Audrey L.; Halper, Anita S.; Cherney, Leora R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the content of 100 short scripts, co-constructed by persons with aphasia (PWA) and a clinician. The PWA subsequently learned the scripts by interacting with a computerized virtual therapist. The goal was to provide clinicians with ideas regarding content for treatment that is meaningful to PWAs. Method: Thirty-three…

  14. Effect of Verb Network Strengthening Treatment in Moderate-to-Severe Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Lisa A.; Babb, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This Phase II treatment study examined the effect of Verb Network Strengthening Treatment (VNeST) on individuals with moderate-to-severe aphasia. Research questions addressed (a) pre- to posttreatment changes and pretreatment to treatment phase changes on probe sentences containing trained verbs (e.g., "The carpenter is 'measuring' the

  15. Single Subject Controlled Experiments in Aphasia: The Science and the State of the Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of single subject controlled experimental designs for investigating the effects of treatment for aphasia. A brief historical perspective is presented, followed by discussions of the advantages and disadvantages of single subject and group approaches, the basic requirements of single subject experimental research, and…

  16. Stronger Accent Following a Stroke: The Case of a Trilingual with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Erika S.; Goral, Mira; De Diesbach, Catharine Castelluccio; Law, Franzo, II

    2011-01-01

    This study documents patterns of change in speech production in a multilingual with aphasia following a cerebrovascular accident (CVA). EC, a right-handed Hebrew-English-French trilingual man, had a left fronto-temporo-parietal CVA, after which he reported that his (native) Hebrew accent became stronger in his (second language) English. Recordings…

  17. Mechanisms of Aphasia Recovery after Stroke and the Role of Noninvasive Brain Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Roy H.; Chrysikou, Evangelia G.; Coslett, Branch

    2011-01-01

    One of the most frequent symptoms of unilateral stroke is aphasia, the impairment or loss of language functions. Over the past few years, behavioral and neuroimaging studies have shown that rehabilitation interventions can promote neuroplastic changes in aphasic patients that may be associated with the improvement of language functions. Following

  18. The Potential of Virtual Reality to Assess Functional Communication in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Linda J.; Rebolledo, Mercedes; Metthe, Lynn; Lefebvre, Renee

    2007-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who work with adults with cognitive-linguistic impairments, including aphasia, have long needed an assessment tool that predicts ability to function in the real world. In this article, it is argued that virtual reality (VR)-supported approaches can address this need. Using models of disability such as the…

  19. Fluent Versus Nonfluent Primary Progressive Aphasia: A Comparison of Clinical and Functional Neuroimaging Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, D.G.; Charuvastra, A.; Miller, B.L.; Shapira, J.S.; Mendez, M.F.

    2005-01-01

    To better characterize fluent and nonfluent variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Although investigators have recognized both fluent and nonfluent patients with PPA (Mesulam, 2001), the clinical and neuroimaging features of these variants have not been fully defined. We present clinical and neuropsychological data on 47 PPA patients…

  20. The Merest L"ogomachy": The 1868 Norwich Discussion of Aphasia by Hughlings Jackson and Broca

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorch, Marjorie Perlman

    2008-01-01

    This article reconsiders the events that took place at the 1868 meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BA) in Norwich. Paul Broca and John Hughlings Jackson were invited to speak on the new and controversial subject of aphasia. Over the ensuing decades, there have been repeated references made to a debate between Broca…

  1. Typicality of Inanimate Category Exemplars in Aphasia Treatment: Further Evidence for Semantic Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiran, Swathi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The typicality treatment approach on improving naming was investigated within 2 inanimate categories ("furniture" and "clothing") using a single-subject experimental design across participants and behaviors in 5 patients with aphasia. Method: Participants received a semantic feature treatment to improve naming of either typical or…

  2. Patterns of Comprehension Performance in Agrammatic Broca's Aphasia: A Test of the Trace Deletion Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caramazza, A.; Capasso, R.; Capitani, E.; Miceli, G.

    2005-01-01

    We tested the core prediction of the Trace Deletion Hypothesis (TDH) of agrammatic Broca's aphasia, which contends that such patients' comprehension performance is normal for active reversible sentences but at chance level for passive reversible sentences. We analyzed the comprehension performance of 38 Italian Broca's aphasics with verified…

  3. A Comparison of Two Theoretically Driven Treatments for Verb Inflection Deficits in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen

    2008-01-01

    Errors in the production of verb inflections, especially tense inflections, are pervasive in agrammatic Broca's aphasia ("*The boy eat"). The neurolinguistic underpinnings of these errors are debated. One group of theories attributes verb inflection errors to disruptions in encoding the verb's morphophonological form, resulting from either a…

  4. Anatomic, Clinical, and Neuropsychological Correlates of Spelling Errors in Primary Progressive Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, HyungSub; Hurley, Robert S.; Rogalski, Emily; Mesulam, M.-Marsel

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates spelling errors in the three subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA): agrammatic (PPA-G), logopenic (PPA-L), and semantic (PPA-S). Forty-one PPA patients and 36 age-matched healthy controls were administered a test of spelling. The total number of errors and types of errors in spelling to dictation of regular words,…

  5. A Novel Pupillometric Method for Indexing Word Difficulty in Individuals with and without Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Laura R.; Hallowell, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Cognitive effort is a clinically important facet of linguistic processing that is often overlooked in the assessment and treatment of people with aphasia (PWA). Furthermore, there is a paucity of valid ways to index cognitive effort in PWA. The construct of cognitive effort has been indexed for decades via pupillometry (measurement of

  6. Lesion Characteristics Related to Treatment Improvement in Object and Action Naming for Patients with Chronic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, R. Bruce; Raymer, Anastasia; Chang, Yu-Ling; FitzGerald, David B.; Crosson, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between degree of lesion in various locations and improvement during treatment in stroke patients with chronic aphasia. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether the degree of lesion in specific brain regions was related to magnitude of improvement over the course of object and action naming…

  7. Effect of Verb Network Strengthening Treatment in Moderate-to-Severe Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Lisa A.; Babb, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This Phase II treatment study examined the effect of Verb Network Strengthening Treatment (VNeST) on individuals with moderate-to-severe aphasia. Research questions addressed (a) pre- to posttreatment changes and pretreatment to treatment phase changes on probe sentences containing trained verbs (e.g., "The carpenter is 'measuring' the…

  8. Aphasia and Cognitive Sciences: Problems of Appraisal Tests in Indian Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Santosh

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the urgency of therapeutic appraisal tests for various types of aphasia in India, where the clinical population comes from multilingual, multiethnic, and multicultural backgrounds; has a low literacy level; and hails from various geographical regions. The need for good diagnostic tests is imperative for a detailed evaluation of language…

  9. Word-Category Violations in Patients with Broca's Aphasia: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassenaar, Marlies; Hagoort, Peter

    2005-01-01

    An event-related brain potential experiment was carried out to investigate on-line syntactic processing in patients with Broca's aphasia. Subjects were visually presented with sentences that were either syntactically correct or contained violations of word-category. Three groups of subjects were tested: Broca patients (N=11), non-aphasic patients…

  10. TMS Suppression of Right Pars Triangularis, but Not Pars Opercularis, Improves Naming in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naeser, Margaret A.; Martin, Paula I.; Theoret, Hugo; Kobayashi, Masahito; Fregni, Felipe; Nicholas, Marjorie; Tormos, Jose M.; Steven, Megan S.; Baker, Errol H.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to discover if an optimum 1 cm[squared] area in the non-damaged right hemisphere (RH) was present, which could temporarily improve naming in chronic, nonfluent aphasia patients when suppressed with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Ten minutes of slow, 1 Hz rTMS was applied to suppress different RH ROIs in…

  11. The Time-Course of Lexical Activation during Sentence Comprehension in People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrill, Michelle; Love, Tracy; Walenski, Matthew; Shapiro, Lewis P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the time-course of processing of lexical items in auditorily presented canonical (subject-verb-object) constructions in young, neurologically unimpaired control participants and participants with left-hemisphere damage and agrammatic aphasia. Method: A cross modal picture priming (CMPP) paradigm was used to test 114 control…

  12. Beginning to Teach the End: The Importance of Including Discharge from Aphasia Therapy in the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, Deborah; Cruice, Madeline

    2010-01-01

    Background: Discharging clients with long-term aphasia from therapy services constitutes a challenging dilemma for practising clinicians for a multitude of reasons. Although discharge was raised and discussed as a contentious issue in the field of aphasiology ten years ago, it remains an aspect of practice which is complex and underexplored. We

  13. Legal Decision-Making by People with Aphasia: Critical Incidents for Speech Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Alison; Duffield, Gemma; Worrall, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Background: The assessment and management of a person with aphasia for whom decision-making capacity is queried represents a highly complex clinical issue. In addition, there are few published guidelines and even fewer published accounts of empirical research to assist. Aims: The research presented in this paper aimed to identify the main issues

  14. Category and Letter Fluency in Semantic Dementia, Primary Progressive Aphasia, and Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marczinski, Cecile A.; Kertesz, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the impact of various degenerative dementias on access to semantic knowledge and the status of semantic representations. Patients with semantic dementia, primary progressive aphasia, and Alzheimer's disease were compared with elderly controls on tasks of category and letter fluency, with number of words generated, mean lexical…

  15. Access to Knowledge from Pictures but not Words n a Patient with Progressive Fluent Aphasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saffran, Eleanor M.; Coslett, H. Branch; Martin, Nadine; Boronat, Consuelo B.

    2003-01-01

    Presents data from a patient with a progressive fluent aphasia, who exhibited a severe verbal impairment but a relatively preserved access to knowledge from pictures. Argues for a distributed, multi-modality system for semantic memory in which information is stored in different brain regions and in different representational formats. (Author/VWL)

  16. Semantic Interference during Object Naming in Agrammatic and Logopenic Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Cho, Soojin; Price, Charis; Wieneke, Christina; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Rogalski, Emily; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the time course of object naming in 21 individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) (8 agrammatic (PPA-G); 13 logopenic (PPA-L)) and healthy age-matched speakers (n=17) using a semantic interference paradigm with related and unrelated interfering stimuli presented at stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) of -1000, -500, -100

  17. Effect of Semantic Naming Treatment on Crosslinguistic Generalization in Bilingual Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Lisa A.; Kiran, Swathi

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The effect of semantic naming treatment on crosslinguistic generalization was investigated in 3 participants with English-Spanish bilingual aphasia. Method: A single-subject experimental designed was used. Participants received semantic treatment to improve naming of English or Spanish items, while generalization was tested to untrained…

  18. Learning to Fail in Aphasia: An Investigation of Error Learning in Naming

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Erica L.; Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine if the naming impairment in aphasia is influenced by error learning and if error learning is related to type of retrieval strategy. Method Nine participants with aphasia and ten neurologically-intact controls named familiar proper noun concepts. When experiencing tip-of-the-tongue naming failure (TOT) in an initial TOT-elicitation phase, participants were instructed to adopt phonological or semantic self-cued retrieval strategies. In the error learning manipulation, items evoking TOT states during TOT-elicitation were randomly assigned to a short or long time condition where participants were encouraged to continue to try to retrieve the name for either 20 seconds (short interval) or 60 seconds (long). The incidence of TOT on the same items was measured on a post test after 48-hours. Error learning was defined as a higher rate of recurrent TOTs (TOT at both TOT-elicitation and post test) for items assigned to the long (versus short) time condition. Results In the phonological condition, participants with aphasia showed error learning whereas controls showed a pattern opposite to error learning. There was no evidence for error learning in the semantic condition for either group. Conclusion Error learning is operative in aphasia, but dependent on the type of strategy employed during naming failure. PMID:23816662

  19. Treatment of Semantic Verb Classes in Aphasia: Acquisition and Generalization Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Graham, Lauren E.

    2011-01-01

    Verb retrieval difficulties are common in aphasia; however, few successful treatments have been documented (e.g. Conroy, P., Sage, K., & Lambon Ralph, M. A. (2006). Towards theory-driven therapies for aphasic verb impairments: A review of current theory and practice. "Aphasiology", 20, 1159-1185). This study investigated the efficacy of a novel

  20. Semantic Interference during Object Naming in Agrammatic and Logopenic Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Cho, Soojin; Price, Charis; Wieneke, Christina; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Rogalski, Emily; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the time course of object naming in 21 individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) (8 agrammatic (PPA-G); 13 logopenic (PPA-L)) and healthy age-matched speakers (n=17) using a semantic interference paradigm with related and unrelated interfering stimuli presented at stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) of -1000, -500, -100…

  1. Evaluation of Attention Training and Metacognitive Facilitation to Improve Reading Comprehension in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaime B.; Sohlberg, McKay Moore

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This pilot study investigated the impact of direct attention training combined with metacognitive facilitation on reading comprehension in individuals with aphasia. Method: A single-subject, multiple baseline design was employed across 4 participants to evaluate potential changes in reading comprehension resulting from an 8-week

  2. Anatomic, Clinical, and Neuropsychological Correlates of Spelling Errors in Primary Progressive Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, HyungSub; Hurley, Robert S.; Rogalski, Emily; Mesulam, M.-Marsel

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates spelling errors in the three subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA): agrammatic (PPA-G), logopenic (PPA-L), and semantic (PPA-S). Forty-one PPA patients and 36 age-matched healthy controls were administered a test of spelling. The total number of errors and types of errors in spelling to dictation of regular words,

  3. Jean-Martin Charcot's Role in the 19th Century Study of Music Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Julene K.; Lorch, Marjorie; Nicolas, Serge; Graziano, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-93) was a well-known French neurologist. Although he is widely recognized for his discovery of several neurological disorders and his research into aphasia, Charcot's ideas about how the brain processes music are less well known. Charcot discussed the music abilities of several patients in the context of his "Friday

  4. Jean-Martin Charcot's Role in the 19th Century Study of Music Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Julene K.; Lorch, Marjorie; Nicolas, Serge; Graziano, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-93) was a well-known French neurologist. Although he is widely recognized for his discovery of several neurological disorders and his research into aphasia, Charcot's ideas about how the brain processes music are less well known. Charcot discussed the music abilities of several patients in the context of his "Friday…

  5. Beginning to Teach the End: The Importance of Including Discharge from Aphasia Therapy in the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, Deborah; Cruice, Madeline

    2010-01-01

    Background: Discharging clients with long-term aphasia from therapy services constitutes a challenging dilemma for practising clinicians for a multitude of reasons. Although discharge was raised and discussed as a contentious issue in the field of aphasiology ten years ago, it remains an aspect of practice which is complex and underexplored. We…

  6. Visuomotor Tracking Abilities of Speakers with Apraxia of Speech or Conduction Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Donald A.; Jacks, Adam; Hageman, Carlin; Clark, Heather M.; Woodworth, George

    2008-01-01

    This investigation examined the visuomotor tracking abilities of persons with apraxia of speech (AOS) or conduction aphasia (CA). In addition, tracking performance was correlated with perceptual judgments of speech accuracy. Five individuals with AOS and four with CA served as participants, as well as an equal number of healthy controls matched by…

  7. Should Pantomime and Gesticulation Be Assessed Separately for Their Comprehensibility in Aphasia? A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Nispen, Karin; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke; Mol, Lisette; Krahmer, Emiel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gesticulation (gestures accompanying speech) and pantomime (gestures in the absence of speech) can each be comprehensible. Little is known about the differences between these two gesture modes in people with aphasia. Aims: To discover whether there are differences in the communicative use of gesticulation and pantomime in QH, a person…

  8. Bilingual aphasia due to spontaneous acute subdural haematoma from a ruptured intracranial infectious aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Vajramani, Girish V; Akrawi, Hawar; McCarthy, Rosaleen A; Gray, William P

    2008-09-01

    We report a case of spontaneous subdural haematoma due to ruptured intracranial infectious aneurysm, presenting with bilingual aphasia and illustrating differential language recovery. A 62-year-old right-handed bilingual gentleman, with a diagnosis of infective endocarditis, developed headache and became expressively aphasic in the English language. Three days later he was receptively and expressively aphasic in both English and Arabic. Cranial MRI scans showed a left-sided acute subdural haematoma with mass effect and midline shift. Contrast CT brain scans showed an enhancing speck adjacent to the clot and cerebral angiogram confirmed a distal middle cerebral artery aneurysm. He underwent image-guided craniotomy, evacuation of the subdural haematoma and excision of the aneurysm. Histopathological examination was consistent with an infectious intracranial aneurysm. Postoperatively his aphasia did not improve immediately. He had widened pulse pressure due to severe aortic regurgitation, confirmed on echocardiography. He underwent aortic valve replacement and mitral valve repair, following which his aphasia recovered gradually. Initially the recovery of his language was limited to Arabic. About a week later he recovered his English language as well. At 3-year follow-up he is doing well and has no neurological deficits. His aphasia has recovered completely. The present case is unique because of (a) presence of pure subdural haematoma, and (b) the differential susceptibility and recovery of native (L1) and acquired language (L2) in presence of a common pathology. The neurology of language in a bilingual is analysed and possible mechanisms discussed. PMID:18599195

  9. A Comparison of Computerized and Paper-Based Language Tests with Adults with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Caroline; Acres, Kadia; Bruce, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated whether computers are a useful tool in the assessment of people with aphasia (PWA). Computerized and traditionally administered versions of tasks were compared to determine whether (a) the scores were equivalent, (b) the administration was comparable, (c) variables such as age affected performance, and (d) the…

  10. The Time Course of Neurolinguistic and Neuropsychological Symptoms in Three Cases of Logopenic Primary Progressive Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etcheverry, Louise; Seidel, Barbara; Grande, Marion; Schulte, Stephanie; Pieperhoff, Peter; Sudmeyer, Martin; Minnerop, Martina; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Huber, Walter; Grodzinsky, Yosef; Amunts, Katrin; Heim, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a rare clinical dementia syndrome affecting predominantly language abilities. Word-finding difficulties and comprehension deficits despite relatively preserved cognitive functions are characteristic symptoms during the first two years, and distinguish PPA from other dementia types like Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Visuomotor Tracking Abilities of Speakers with Apraxia of Speech or Conduction Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Donald A.; Jacks, Adam; Hageman, Carlin; Clark, Heather M.; Woodworth, George

    2008-01-01

    This investigation examined the visuomotor tracking abilities of persons with apraxia of speech (AOS) or conduction aphasia (CA). In addition, tracking performance was correlated with perceptual judgments of speech accuracy. Five individuals with AOS and four with CA served as participants, as well as an equal number of healthy controls matched by

  12. Adapting the Bilingual Aphasia Test to Rarotongan (Cook Islands Maori): Linguistic and Clinical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amberber, Amanda Miller

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the adaptation of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) to the Rarotongan dialect of Cook Islands Maori, a Polynesian language spoken in the Cook Islands and expatriate communities. A brief linguistic sketch of Rarotongan is presented. As Rarotongan is characterised by a complex pronominal system, "a" versus "o" possession and…

  13. Altered Intrinsic Regional Activity and Interregional Functional Connectivity in Post-stroke Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mi; Li, Jiao; Li, Yibo; Li, Rong; Pang, Yajing; Yao, Dezhong; Liao, Wei; Chen, Huafu

    2016-01-01

    Several neuroimaging studies have examined cerebral function in patients who suffer from aphasia, but the mechanism underlying this disorder remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined alterations in the local regional and remote interregional network cerebral functions in aphasia combined with amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and interregional functional connectivity (FC) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 17 post-stroke aphasic patients, all having suffered a stroke in the left hemisphere, as well as 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, were enrolled in this study. The aphasic patients showed significantly increased intrinsic regional activity mainly in the contralesional mesial temporal (hippocampus/parahippocampus, [HIP/ParaHIP]) and lateral temporal cortices. In addition, intrinsic regional activity in the contralesional HIP/ParaHIP was negatively correlated with construction score. Aphasic patients showed increased remote interregional FC between the contralesional HIP/ParaHIP and fusiform gyrus, but reduced FC in the ipsilesional occipital and parietal cortices. These findings suggested that the intrinsic regional brain dysfunctions in aphasia were related to interregional functional connectivity. Changes in the intrinsic regional brain activity and associated remote functional connectivity pattern would provide valuable information to enhance the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of aphasia. PMID:27091494

  14. Sparing of Written Production of Proper Nouns and Dates in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Darren; Buchanan, Lori

    2004-01-01

    Aphasia is a total or partial loss of the ability to produce or understand language, usually caused by brain disease or injury. In this case study, the aphasic patient (BMW) has a profound impairment of oral production and a very moderate impairment in comprehension. Several years of informal observation lead to the current study that contrasts…

  15. Aphasia with left occipitotemporal hypometabolism: a novel presentation of posterior cortical atrophy?

    PubMed

    Wicklund, Meredith R; Duffy, Joseph R; Strand, Edythe A; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Machulda, Mary M; Josephs, Keith A

    2013-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a common neurodegenerative disease often characterized by initial episodic memory loss. Atypical focal cortical presentations have been described, including the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA) which presents with language impairment, and posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) which presents with prominent visuospatial deficits. Both lvPPA and PCA are characterized by specific patterns of hypometabolism: left temporoparietal in lvPPA and bilateral parietoccipital in PCA. However, not every patient fits neatly into these categories. We retrospectively identified two patients with progressive aphasia and visuospatial deficits from a speech and language based disorders study. The patients were further characterized by MRI, fluorodeoxyglucose F18 and Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography. Two women, aged 62 and 69, presented with a history of a few years of progressive aphasia characterized by fluent output with normal grammar and syntax, anomia without loss of word meaning, and relatively spared repetition. They demonstrated striking deficits in visuospatial function for which they were lacking insight. Prominent hypometabolism was noted in the left occipitotemporal region and diffuse retention of PiB was noted. Posterior cortical atrophy may present focally with left occipitotemporal metabolism characterized clinically with a progressive fluent aphasia and prominent ventral visuospatial deficits with loss of insight. PMID:23850398

  16. Word Order and Finiteness in Dutch and English Broca's and Wernicke's Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastiaanse, Roelien; Edwards, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The effect of two linguistic factors in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia was examined using Dutch and English subjects. Three tasks were used to test (1) the comprehension and (2) the construction of sentences, where verbs (in Dutch) and verb arguments (in Dutch and English) are in canonical versus non-canonical position; (3) the production of…

  17. Role of Importance and Distinctiveness of Semantic Features in People with Aphasia: A Replication Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason-Baughman, Mary Beth; Wallace, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that people with aphasia have incomplete lexical-semantic representations with decreased low-importance distinctive (LID) feature knowledge. In addition, decreased LID feature knowledge correlates with ability to discriminate among semantically related words. The current study seeks to replicate and extend previous…

  18. The Time Course of Neurolinguistic and Neuropsychological Symptoms in Three Cases of Logopenic Primary Progressive Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etcheverry, Louise; Seidel, Barbara; Grande, Marion; Schulte, Stephanie; Pieperhoff, Peter; Sudmeyer, Martin; Minnerop, Martina; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Huber, Walter; Grodzinsky, Yosef; Amunts, Katrin; Heim, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a rare clinical dementia syndrome affecting predominantly language abilities. Word-finding difficulties and comprehension deficits despite relatively preserved cognitive functions are characteristic symptoms during the first two years, and distinguish PPA from other dementia types like Alzheimer's disease.…

  19. Motor cortex pre-activation by standing facilitates word retrieval in aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Meinzer, M.; Breitenstein, C.; Westerhoff, U.; Sommer, J.; Rösser, N.; Rodriguez, A.D.; Harnish, S.; Knecht, S.; Flöel, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives A tight link between linguistic functions and activation of motor areas has been consistently reported, indicating that the two systems share functional neural resources. However, little efforts have been made to explore whether this knowledge could aid the rehabilitation of neurological conditions affecting language functions (e.g., aphasia). Moreover, the few previous studies that assessed the impact of motor-language interactions in aphasia used manual gestures, which are an integral component of language comprehension and production. Methods In the present study we assessed whether pre-activation of the leg-motor cortex, during standing vs. sitting, can facilitate language production in chronic aphasia. In a cross-over within-subject design, we assessed performance on a picture naming task and controlled for effects on processing speed and simple verbal reaction time. Results We found that standing compared to sitting had a beneficial effect on the number of semantic self-corrections that resulted in correct naming. In the absence of effects on motor or general processing speed, this points to a specific effect on lexical retrieval and selection. This was further corroborated by an error pattern analysis. Successful semantic self-corrections during standing were only found when there was already partial activation of the target semantic network, i.e., when self-corrections were preceded by an incorrect, but semantically associated naming response. Discussion Our findings show that pre-activation of the motor system, that extends beyond the intrinsic link between manual gestures and language, can facilitate lexical access in chronic aphasia and may open new directions in aphasia rehabilitation. PMID:20966157

  20. The psychometric properties of the Turkish Stroke and Aphasia Quality Of Life Scale-39.

    PubMed

    Atamaz Calis, Funda; Celik, Serpil; Demir, Orcun; Aykanat, Dilek; Yagiz On, Arzu

    2016-06-01

    The Stroke and Aphasia Quality Of Life Scale (SAQOL-39) is a widely used instrument in assessing the quality of life in aphasic patients. Our purpose was to translate the SAQOL-39 into the Turkish language (SAQOL-39/TR) and assess its reliability and validity in patients who had aphasia. SAQOL-39/TR was obtained using the 'translation-backward translation' method and administered to 40 patients with aphasia. The reliability studies were performed by means of internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The validation studies were carried out by means of construct validity using within-scale analyses and analyses against the external criteria. Correlation analysis was performed between scales and the Ege Aphasia Test, the Barthel index, the 12-item General Health Questionnaire and the Brunnstrom recovery stages (BRS) of the arm, hand, and lower extremity. In the results, the scores of the SAQOL-39 were not different between groups. Cronbach's α variables were good for all domains (0.80, 0.88, 0.89, 0.82, and 0.83). Test-retest reliability was also high (0.96, 0.97, 0.91, 0.70, and 0.96). There were significant correlations with coefficients ranging from 0.36 to 0.60 among the domains of scale and other measures. Moderate-high correlations were also seen with BRS-arm, BRS-hand, and BRS-lower extremity (r, 0.27-0.58). It was found that all domains were highly related with all domains of Ege aphasia test, except praxia (P<0.001). This study showed that the SAQOL-39/TR has acceptable validity and reliability in assessing the quality of life. However, similar results of the scale in patients with dysarthria suggest that the SAQOL-39 may not be specific to only aphasic patients. PMID:26954990

  1. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1995-03-14

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

  2. Ionene membrane battery separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moacanin, J.; Tom, H. Y.

    1969-01-01

    Ionic transport characteristics of ionenes, insoluble membranes from soluble polyelectrolyte compositions, are studied for possible application in a battery separator. Effectiveness of the thin film of separator membrane essentially determines battery lifetime.

  3. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  4. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  5. Grammatical Planning Units During Real-Time Sentence Production in Speakers With Agrammatic Aphasia and Healthy Speakers

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Masaya; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Grammatical encoding (GE) is impaired in agrammatic aphasia; however, the nature of such deficits remains unclear. We examined grammatical planning units during real-time sentence production in speakers with agrammatic aphasia and control speakers, testing two competing models of GE. We queried whether speakers with agrammatic aphasia produce sentences word by word without advanced planning or whether hierarchical syntactic structure (i.e., verb argument structure; VAS) is encoded as part of the advanced planning unit. Method Experiment 1 examined production of sentences with a predefined structure (i.e., “The A and the B are above the C”) using eye tracking. Experiment 2 tested production of transitive and unaccusative sentences without a predefined sentence structure in a verb-priming study. Results In Experiment 1, both speakers with agrammatic aphasia and young and age-matched control speakers used word-by-word strategies, selecting the first lemma (noun A) only prior to speech onset. However, in Experiment 2, unlike controls, speakers with agrammatic aphasia preplanned transitive and unaccusative sentences, encoding VAS before speech onset. Conclusions Speakers with agrammatic aphasia show incremental, word-by-word production for structurally simple sentences, requiring retrieval of multiple noun lemmas. However, when sentences involve functional (thematic to grammatical) structure building, advanced planning strategies (i.e., VAS encoding) are used. This early use of hierarchical syntactic information may provide a scaffold for impaired GE in agrammatism. PMID:25908309

  6. "Well it has to be language-related": speech-language pathologists' goals for people with aphasia and their families.

    PubMed

    Sherratt, Sue; Worrall, Linda; Pearson, Charlene; Howe, Tami; Hersh, Deborah; Davidson, Bronwyn

    2011-08-01

    Goal-setting is considered an essential part of rehabilitation practice and integral to person-centredness. However, people with aphasia are not always satisfied with goal-setting, and speech-language pathologists are concerned about the appropriateness of therapy. Furthermore, family members are often excluded from goal-setting, despite the impact aphasia has on them. The actual goals set by clinicians for clients with aphasia and their family members have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to examine the goals that clinicians set for their clients with aphasia and their family members. Data from in-depth interviews with 34 speech-language pathologists describing 84 goal-setting experiences with people with aphasia were coded into superordinate goals for both groups. Clinicians expressed a wide range of goals for people with aphasia and their family members, relating to communication, coping and participation factors, and education. In addition, evaluation was considered a goal for the clients. There were clients for whom no goals were set, particularly for family members, due to a lack of/limited contact. The goals described broadly addressed all aspects of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and reflected the use of both functional and impairment-based therapeutic approaches; they also emphasize the importance of providing goal-setting options for the family members of these clients. PMID:21793777

  7. Using Visual Scene Displays as Communication Support Options for People with Chronic, Severe Aphasia: A Summary of AAC Research and Future Research Directions.

    PubMed

    Beukelman, David R; Hux, Karen; Dietz, Aimee; McKelvey, Miechelle; Weissling, Kristy

    2015-01-01

    Research about the effectiveness of communicative supports and advances in photographic technology has prompted changes in the way speech-language pathologists design and implement interventions for people with aphasia. The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of photographic images as a basis for developing communication supports for people with chronic aphasia secondary to sudden-onset events due to cerebrovascular accidents (strokes). Topics include the evolution of AAC-based supports as they relate to people with aphasia, the development and key features of visual scene displays (VSDs), and future directions concerning the incorporation of photographs into communication supports for people with chronic and severe aphasia. PMID:26044911

  8. Graphene nanoarchitecture in batteries.

    PubMed

    Wei, Di; Astley, Michael R; Harris, Nadine; White, Richard; Ryhänen, Tapani; Kivioja, Jani

    2014-08-21

    We compare three different carbon nanoarchitectures used to produce standard coin cell batteries: graphene monolayer, graphite paper and graphene foam. The batteries' electrochemical performances are characterised using cyclic voltammetry, constant-current discharge and dynamic galvanostatic techniques. Even though graphene is the fundamental building block of graphite its properties are intrinsically different when used in batteries because there is no ion intercalation in graphene. The nanoarchitecture of the graphene electrode is shown to have a strong influence over the battery's electrochemical performance. This provides a versatile way to design various battery electrodes on different demands. PMID:24990483

  9. Chemically rechargeable battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, James E. (Inventor); Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Batteries (50) containing oxidized, discharged metal electrodes such as an iron-air battery are charged by removing and storing electrolyte in a reservoir (98), pumping fluid reductant such as formalin (aqueous formaldehyde) from a storage tank (106) into the battery in contact with the surfaces of the electrodes. After sufficient iron hydroxide has been reduced to iron, the spent reductant is drained, the electrodes rinsed with water from rinse tank (102) and then the electrolyte in the reservoir (106) is returned to the battery. The battery can be slowly electrically charged when in overnight storage but can be quickly charged in about 10 minutes by the chemical procedure of the invention.

  10. Silicon Carbide Radioisotope Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, George C.

    2005-01-01

    The substantial radiation resistance and large bandgap of SiC semiconductor materials makes them an attractive candidate for application in a high efficiency, long life radioisotope battery. To evaluate their potential in this application, simulated batteries were constructed using SiC diodes and the alpha particle emitter Americium Am-241 or the beta particle emitter Promethium Pm-147. The Am-241 based battery showed high initial power output and an initial conversion efficiency of approximately 16%, but the power output decayed 52% in 500 hours due to radiation damage. In contrast the Pm-147 based battery showed a similar power output level and an initial conversion efficiency of approximately 0.6%, but no degradation was observed in 500 hours. However, the Pm-147 battery required approximately 1000 times the particle fluence as the Am-242 battery to achieve a similar power output. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of battery and suggestions for future improvements will be discussed.

  11. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy. PMID:26404834

  12. Western USA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ...     View Larger Image The breathtaking beauty of the western United States is apparent in ... were used to create this cloud-free natural-color image mosaic. The image is draped over a 100-meter (328-foot) shaded relief Digital ...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  18. Neurophysiological sensitivity for impaired phonological processing in the acute stage of aphasia.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Annelies; van Mierlo, Pieter; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Santens, Patrick; De Letter, Miet

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate neurophysiological substrates of phoneme and word processing in 10 patients with acute aphasia (PWA). More specifically, phoneme discrimination was studied in a passive and active oddball task with respect to different phonemic contrasts, while lexical detection was investigated by presenting infrequent pseudowords among frequent words in a passive oddball task. Concerning phoneme discrimination, PWA in the acute stage had smaller MMN and P300 amplitudes than the norm group for voicing, whereas for place and manner they only demonstrated smaller P300 amplitudes. PWA showed a distinct pattern of impaired phonemic contrast sensitivity, with place displaying the largest amplitude and voicing the smallest. Concerning lexical detection, pseudowords elicited larger responses than words in both groups, but with a delay and larger P200 amplitude for pseudowords in PWA compared to the norm group. For clinical practice, passive tasks seem more suitable than active tasks in acute aphasia. PMID:26197257

  19. Effects of two lexical retrieval cueing treatments on action naming in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Wambaugh, Julie L; Doyle, Patrick J; Martinez, Aida L; Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene

    2002-01-01

    The effects of two cueing treatments, Phonological Cueing Treatment (PCT) and Semantic Cueing Treatment (SCT), were examined with three chronic speakers with aphasia. The effects of treatment on action naming were measured with the use of single-subject experimental designs. The participants had received PCT and SCT to improve object naming in a previous investigation and had responded positively to both treatments. In the current study, Speaker 1 received SCT, Speaker 2 received PCT, and Speaker 3 received both SCT and PCT. Action naming improved for Speakers 1 and 3, but not for Speaker 2. These findings indicate that PCT and SCT may have utility in facilitating action naming for some speakers with aphasia but that the effects of these treatments may vary across grammatical form classes (e.g., nouns versus verbs). PMID:17638143

  20. Episodic Aphasia Associated With Cortical Spreading Depression After Subdural Hemorrhage Evacuation.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nirav H; Adams, David

    2016-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) has been associated with many pathological entities including migraine, trauma, hemorrhage, and mitochondrial disease. The clinical diagnosis remains challenging without the other concomitant features such as headache because CSD can mimic seizure or acute stroke. Wereport of a 77 year-old right handed man with a left subdural hematoma evacuation that subsequently developed episodic aphasia, slurred speech, right nasolabial fold flattening, and right pronator drift. In this case report, we discuss our multimodal diagnostic approach and treatment in a patient with episodic aphasia and neurological deficits in order to propose the diagnosis of cortical spreading depression. CSD should be considered when focal deficits in brief episodes occur after stroke and seizures have been ruled out. Treatment choices as illustrated by this case report can have an impact on outcome and resolution of episodes. PMID:26740859

  1. When semantics aids phonology: A processing advantage for iconic word forms in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Meteyard, Lotte; Stoppard, Emily; Snudden, Dee; Cappa, Stefano F; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2015-09-01

    Iconicity is the non-arbitrary relation between properties of a phonological form and semantic content (e.g. "moo", "splash"). It is a common feature of both spoken and signed languages, and recent evidence shows that iconic forms confer an advantage during word learning. We explored whether iconic forms conferred a processing advantage for 13 individuals with aphasia following left-hemisphere stroke. Iconic and control words were compared in four different tasks: repetition, reading aloud, auditory lexical decision and visual lexical decision. An advantage for iconic words was seen for some individuals in all tasks, with consistent group effects emerging in reading aloud and auditory lexical decision. Both these tasks rely on mapping between semantics and phonology. We conclude that iconicity aids spoken word processing for individuals with aphasia. This advantage is due to a stronger connection between semantic information and phonological forms. PMID:25637775

  2. 1992 five year battery forecast

    SciTech Connect

    Amistadi, D.

    1992-12-01

    Five-year trends for automotive and industrial batteries are projected. Topic covered include: SLI shipments; lead consumption; automotive batteries (5-year annual growth rates); industrial batteries (standby power and motive power); estimated average battery life by area/country for 1989; US motor vehicle registrations; replacement battery shipments; potential lead consumption in electric vehicles; BCI recycling rates for lead-acid batteries; US average car/light truck battery life; channels of distribution; replacement battery inventory end July; 2nd US battery shipment forecast.

  3. Electric-vehicle batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

    1995-02-01

    Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

  4. The Wernicke conundrum and the anatomy of language comprehension in primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Mesulam, M-Marsel; Thompson, Cynthia K; Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily J

    2015-08-01

    Wernicke's aphasia is characterized by severe word and sentence comprehension impairments. The location of the underlying lesion site, known as Wernicke's area, remains controversial. Questions related to this controversy were addressed in 72 patients with primary progressive aphasia who collectively displayed a wide spectrum of cortical atrophy sites and language impairment patterns. Clinico-anatomical correlations were explored at the individual and group levels. These analyses showed that neuronal loss in temporoparietal areas, traditionally included within Wernicke's area, leave single word comprehension intact and cause inconsistent impairments of sentence comprehension. The most severe sentence comprehension impairments were associated with a heterogeneous set of cortical atrophy sites variably encompassing temporoparietal components of Wernicke's area, Broca's area, and dorsal premotor cortex. Severe comprehension impairments for single words, on the other hand, were invariably associated with peak atrophy sites in the left temporal pole and adjacent anterior temporal cortex, a pattern of atrophy that left sentence comprehension intact. These results show that the neural substrates of word and sentence comprehension are dissociable and that a circumscribed cortical area equally critical for word and sentence comprehension is unlikely to exist anywhere in the cerebral cortex. Reports of combined word and sentence comprehension impairments in Wernicke's aphasia come almost exclusively from patients with cerebrovascular accidents where brain damage extends into subcortical white matter. The syndrome of Wernicke's aphasia is thus likely to reflect damage not only to the cerebral cortex but also to underlying axonal pathways, leading to strategic cortico-cortical disconnections within the language network. The results of this investigation further reinforce the conclusion that the left anterior temporal lobe, a region ignored by classic aphasiology, needs to be inserted into the language network with a critical role in the multisynaptic hierarchy underlying word comprehension and object naming. PMID:26112340

  5. “Pre-semantic” cognition revisited: Critical differences between semantic aphasia and semantic dementia

    PubMed Central

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal “pre-semantic” tasks: e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are atypical of the domain and “regularisation errors” (irregular/atypical items are produced as if they were domain-typical). The emergence of this pattern across diverse tasks in the same patients indicates that semantic memory plays a key role in all of these types of “pre-semantic” processing. However, this claim remains controversial because semantically-impaired patients sometimes fail to show an influence of regularity. This study demonstrates that (a) the location of brain damage and (b) the underlying nature of the semantic deficit affect the likelihood of observing the expected relationship between poor comprehension and regularity effects. We compared the effect of multimodal semantic impairment in the context of semantic dementia and stroke aphasia on the seven “pre-semantic” tasks listed above. In all of these tasks, the semantic aphasia patients were less sensitive to typicality than the semantic dementia patients, even though the two groups obtained comparable scores on semantic tests. The semantic aphasia group also made fewer regularisation errors and many more unrelated and perseverative responses. We propose that these group differences reflect the different locus for the semantic impairment in the two conditions: patients with semantic dementia have degraded semantic representations, whereas semantic aphasia patients show deregulated semantic cognition with concomitant executive deficits. These findings suggest a reinterpretation of single case studies of comprehension-impaired aphasic patients who fail to show the expected effect of regularity on “pre-semantic” tasks. Consequently, such cases do not demonstrate the independence of these tasks from semantic memory. PMID:19766662

  6. [An autopsied case of corticobasal degeneration with onset of nonfluent aphasia revealing symmetrical cerebral involvement].

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Kenji; Mimura, Masaru; Ishigaki, Seiichirou; Shiota, Jun-ichi; Nakano, Imaharu; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2012-08-01

    Herein we describe a patient with established corticobasal degeneration with onset of nonfluent aphasia and showing symmetrical cerebral involvement. A 64-year-old man with a speech disorder for 2 years visited our hospital. He had nonfluent aphasia (reduced spontaneous speech, loss of intonation, anomia, repetition disorder, and difficulty in speaking short sentences). He also showed right-sided motor neglect, hypertonus of the left lower limb, a mask-like facial expression, and difficulty in closing his eyes. He was restless and walked around even during examination, suggesting frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) revealed symmetrical reduction of cerebral blood flow in the bilateral fronto-temporo-parietal lobes. His neurological condition deteriorated gradually and a year later he could not speak comprehensive sentences. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head at age 70 showed symmetrical atrophy of the bilateral fronto-temporal lobes. He died of respiratory failure after clinical problems lasting ten years. On pathological examination, the fixed brain weighed 1,010 g and showed bilateral symmetrical atrophy of the frontal lobes. Histopathological examination revealed neuronal loss and gliosis in the frontal lobes, especially in the frontal convexity, superior frontal gyrus and precentral gyrus. Gallyas-Braak silver staining showed astrocytic plaques, argyrophilic threads and coiled bodies mainly in the frontal lobes. The substantia nigra showed severe neuronal loss on both sides and presence of free melanin. Pathological diagnosis was corticobasal degeneration (CBD). We believe that the patient had nonfluent aphasia and FTD reflected in bilateral degeneration of the frontal lobes. Some cases of CBD may present with symmetrical degeneration of the brain, even though left-hemisphere symptoms such as aphasia reveal themselves at an early stage. PMID:22868886

  7. Making sense of progressive non-fluent aphasia: an analysis of conversational speech.

    PubMed

    Knibb, Jonathan A; Woollams, Anna M; Hodges, John R; Patterson, Karalyn

    2009-10-01

    The speech of patients with progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA) has often been described clinically, but these descriptions lack support from quantitative data. The clinical classification of the progressive aphasic syndromes is also debated. This study selected 15 patients with progressive aphasia on broad criteria, excluding only those with clear semantic dementia. It aimed to provide a detailed quantitative description of their conversational speech, along with cognitive testing and visual rating of structural brain imaging, and to examine which, if any features were consistently present throughout the group; as well as looking for sub-syndromic associations between these features. A consistent increase in grammatical and speech sound errors and a simplification of spoken syntax relative to age-matched controls were observed, though telegraphic speech was rare; slow speech was common but not universal. Almost all patients showed impairments in picture naming, syntactic comprehension and executive function. The degree to which speech was affected was independent of the severity of the other cognitive deficits. A partial dissociation was also observed between slow speech with simplified grammar on the one hand, and grammatical and speech sound errors on the other. Overlap between these sets of impairments was however, the rule rather than the exception, producing continuous variation within a single consistent syndrome. The distribution of atrophy was remarkably variable, with frontal, temporal and medial temporal areas affected, either symmetrically or asymmetrically. The study suggests that PNFA is a coherent, well-defined syndrome and that varieties such as logopaenic progressive aphasia and progressive apraxia of speech may be seen as points in a space of continuous variation within progressive non-fluent aphasia. PMID:19696033

  8. Substance use history in behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia versus primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Kalapatapu, Raj K; Delucchi, Kevin L; Wang, Sophia; Harbison, John D; Nelson, Emily E; Kramer, Joel H

    2016-01-01

    As older adults are prone to cognitive disorders, the interaction of the fields of substance use and misuse and cognitive neuroscience is an emerging area of research. Substance use has been reported in some subtypes of frontotemporal dementia, such as behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia. However, characterization of substance use in other subtypes of frontotemporal dementia, such as primary progressive aphasia, is unknown. The objective of this baseline analysis was to explore whether any measures of substance use history differed significantly among behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (n = 842) and primary progressive aphasia (n = 526) in a large national dataset. The National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center's Uniform Data Set study is a national dataset that collects data on patients with various cognitive disorders and includes some questions on substance use. Each substance use variable was used as the outcome and the frontotemporal dementia subtype as the predictor. Total years smoked cigarettes, age when last smoked cigarettes, average number of packs/day smoked when participants smoked, and any recent, remote, or combined recent/remote history of alcohol abuse or drug abuse did not significantly differ between the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia and primary progressive aphasia subtypes (all p-values > .001). A significantly greater percentage of participants smoked in the last 30 days in the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia subtype (10.4%, n = 834) compared to the primary progressive aphasia subtype (3.3%, n = 517; p < .001). Clinical providers in both the dementia and substance use fields are encouraged to screen for and monitor substance use in all frontotemporal dementia subtypes. PMID:26485480

  9. The 1975 GSFC Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The proceedings of the 1975 Goddard Space Flight Center Battery Workshop are presented. The major topics of discussion were nickel cadmium batteries and, to a lesser extent, nickel hydrogen batteries. Battery design, manufacturing techniques, testing programs, and electrochemical characteristics were considered. The utilization of these batteries for spacecraft power supplies was given particular attention.

  10. Single subject controlled experiments in aphasia: The science and the state of the science

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of single subject controlled experimental designs for investigating the effect of treatment for aphasia. A brief historical perspective is presented, followed by discussions of the advantages and disadvantages of single subject and group approaches, the basic requirements of single subject experimental research, and crucial considerations in design selection. In the final sections, results of reviews of published single subject controlled experiments are discussed, with emphasis on internal validity issues, the number of participants enrolled in published studies, operational specification of the dependent and independent variables, and reliability of measurement. Learning outcomes As a result of reading this paper, the participant will: (1) understand the mechanisms required for demonstration of internal and external validity using single subject controlled experimental designs, (2) become familiar with the basic requirements of single subject controlled experimental research, (3) understand the types of single subject controlled experimental designs that are the most appropriate for studying the effects of treatment for aphasia, and (4) become familiar with trends in the published aphasia treatment literature in which single subject controlled experimental designs have been used. PMID:16635494

  11. An Examination of Strategy Implementation During Abstract Nonlinguistic Category Learning in Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Swathi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Our purpose was to study strategy use during nonlinguistic category learning in aphasia. Method Twelve control participants without aphasia and 53 participants with aphasia (PWA) completed a computerized feedback-based category learning task consisting of training and testing phases. Accuracy rates of categorization in testing phases were calculated. To evaluate strategy use, strategy analyses were conducted over training and testing phases. Participant data were compared with model data that simulated complex multi-cue, single feature, and random pattern strategies. Learning success and strategy use were evaluated within the context of standardized cognitive–linguistic assessments. Results Categorization accuracy was higher among control participants than among PWA. The majority of control participants implemented suboptimal or optimal multi-cue and single-feature strategies by testing phases of the experiment. In contrast, a large subgroup of PWA implemented random patterns, or no strategy, during both training and testing phases of the experiment. Conclusions Person-to-person variability arises not only in category learning ability but also in the strategies implemented to complete category learning tasks. PWA less frequently developed effective strategies during category learning tasks than control participants. Certain PWA may have impairments of strategy development or feedback processing not captured by language and currently probed cognitive abilities. PMID:25908438

  12. A Novel Pupillometric Method for Indexing Word Difficulty in Individuals With and Without Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Hallowell, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cognitive effort is a clinically important facet of linguistic processing that is often overlooked in the assessment and treatment of people with aphasia (PWA). Furthermore, there is a paucity of valid ways to index cognitive effort in PWA. The construct of cognitive effort has been indexed for decades via pupillometry (measurement of pupil dilation and constriction during a cognitive task), yet pupillometry has not been implemented in studies including PWA. In the present study, we tested a novel method for indexing cognitive effort during linguistic processing in people with and without aphasia. Method Forty control participants and 39 PWA listened to semantically easy and difficult single nouns and looked at images while their pupillary responses were monitored. Mean pupil dilation in response to easy versus difficult nouns was calculated to index cognitive effort. Results Larger mean pupil dilation values were obtained for difficult compared with easy nouns for both groups. Conclusion Results provide preliminary evidence that pupillometry can be used to index cognitive effort during linguistic processing of single nouns in people with and without aphasia. Methods for indexing cognitive effort will be a valuable addition to existing assessment methods. Suggestions for further research are offered. PMID:26163655

  13. Cases of aphasia in a work on medicine from the 16th century.

    PubMed

    Munoz-Sanz, Augustin; Garcia-Avila, Juan Fernando; Vallejo, Jose Ramon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to bring to the attention of the international community the role in the history of aphasiology of the eminent Renaissance figure, the Extremaduran Francisco Arceo de Fregenal. To present the subject, after a brief biography of this surgeon, we will trace the development of the concept of aphasia up to the 16th century. In some ancient cultures we find that this disorder was described as a "cerebral accident", to be presented subsequently in the Middle Ages as a divine punishment, only for the original idea to be taken up again during the Renaissance. This return to the concept of the early civilisations was not to lead to the formal classification of this condition however, until the studies of Broca and Wernicke were published in the 19th century. The contribution of Arceo lies in the description of clinical cases included in his book De Recta cvrandorum, which are presented in their original written version in Latin accompanied by a translation in English. The first of these cases tells of spontaneous recovery from the disease, and the second of the evolution of a patient with aphasia secondary to traumatic brain injury following surgery. Despite the great value of Arceo's report, the historical context and his professional attitude did not allow for a localisationist interpretation of the concept of aphasia. PMID:25811692

  14. [Crossed aphasia in right-handed patients. I. Review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Joanette, Y; Puel, M; Nespoulous, J L; Rascol, A; Lecours, A R

    1982-01-01

    More than 70 cases of crossed dextral aphasia have been reported in the literature since the end of the XIXth century. If a genetic, environmental or even pathological factor--or lack of information about it--could be suspected to be responsible of a majority of these cases, 10 of them in which all these factors were eliminated still remain. A summary of the neurological, neuropsychological and neurolinguistic features of these 10 cases shows, among other things: 1. that nearly all of them present a (left) motor deficit associated with a quite large and deep right-hemispheric lesion; 2. that most of them also report the presence of one or the other of the neuropsychological signs usually seen in right hemisphere lesions in dextrals; 3. that if reduction and agrammatism are frequent aphasic signs, fluent jargon is also reported, more so in written than in oral expression. Some of the hypotheses put forward to explain crossed aphasia in dextrals are discussed in the light of these facts. It appears that none of these hypotheses can satisfactorily account for the occurrence of a right hemisphere aphasia in some dextrals. PMID:6185997

  15. Language specificity of lexical-phonological therapy in bilingual aphasia: A clinical and electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Radman, Narges; Spierer, Lucas; Laganaro, Marina; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Colombo, Françoise

    2016-08-01

    Based on findings for overlapping representations of bilingual people's first (L1) and second (L2) languages, unilingual therapies of bilingual aphasia have been proposed to benefit the untrained language. However, the generalisation patterns of intra- and cross-language and phonological therapy and their neural bases remain unclear. We tested whether the effects of an intensive lexical-phonological training (LPT) in L2 transferred to L1 word production in a Persian-French bilingual stroke patient with Broca's aphasia. Language performance was assessed using the Bilingual Aphasia Test, a 144-item picture naming (PN) task and a word-picture verification (WPV) task. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded during PN and WPV in both languages before and after an LPT in French on a wordlist from the PN task. After the therapy, naming improved only for the treated L2 items. The naming performance improved neither in the untrained L2 items nor in the corresponding items in L1. EEG analyses revealed a Language x Session topographic interaction at 540 ms post-stimulus, driven by a modification of the electrophysiological response to the treated L2 but not L1 items. These results indicate that LPT modified the brain networks engaged in the phonological-phonetic processing during naming only in the trained language for the trained items. PMID:26010483

  16. Psychosocial Well-Being in Persons with Aphasia Participating in a Nursing Intervention after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bronken, Berit Arnesveen; Kirkevold, Marit; Martinsen, Randi; Wyller, Torgeir Bruun; Kvigne, Kari

    2012-01-01

    The psychosocial adjustment process after stroke is complicated and protracted. The language is the most important tool for making sense of experiences and for human interplay, making persons with aphasia especially prone to psychosocial problems. Persons with aphasia are systematically excluded from research projects due to methodological challenges. This study explored how seven persons with aphasia experienced participating in a complex nursing intervention aimed at supporting the psychosocial adjustment process and promoting psychosocial well-being. The intervention was organized as an individual, dialogue-based collaboration process based upon ideas from “Guided self-determination.” The content addressed psychosocial issues as mood, social relationships, meaningful activities, identity, and body changes. Principles from “Supported conversation for adults with aphasia” were used to facilitate the conversations. The data were obtained by participant observation during the intervention, qualitative interviews 2 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after the intervention and by standardized clinical instruments prior to the intervention and at 2 weeks and 12 months after the intervention. Assistance in narrating about themselves and their experiences with illness, psychological support and motivation to move on during the difficult adjustment process, and exchange of knowledge and information were experienced as beneficial and important by the participants in this study. PMID:22888417

  17. Neuroimaging in aphasia treatment research: Consensus and practical guidelines for data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meinzer, Marcus; Beeson, Pélagie M.; Cappa, Stefano; Crinion, Jenny; Kiran, Swathi; Saur, Dorothee; Parrish, Todd; Crosson, Bruce; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2012-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging is the most widely used imaging technique to study treatment-induced recovery in post-stroke aphasia. The longitudinal design of such studies adds to the challenges researchers face when studying patient populations with brain damage in cross-sectional settings. The present review focuses on issues specifically relevant to neuroimaging data analysis in aphasia treatment research identified in discussions among international researchers at the Neuroimaging in Aphasia Treatment Research Workshop held at Northwestern University (Evanston, Illinois, USA). In particular, we aim to provide the reader with a critical review of unique problems related to the pre-processing, statistical modeling and interpretation of such data sets. Despite the fact that data analysis procedures critically depend on specific design features of a given study, we aim to discuss and communicate a basic set of practical guidelines that should be applicable to a wide range of studies and useful as a reference for researchers pursuing this line of research. PMID:22387474

  18. The heterogeneity of verbal short-term memory impairment in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Majerus, Steve; Attout, Lucie; Artielle, Marie-Amélie; Van der Kaa, Marie-Anne

    2015-10-01

    Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairment represents a frequent and long-lasting deficit in aphasia, and it will prevent patients from recovering fully functional language abilities. The aim of this study was to obtain a more precise understanding of the nature of verbal STM impairment in aphasia, by determining whether verbal STM impairment is merely a consequence of underlying language impairment, as suggested by linguistic accounts of verbal STM, or whether verbal STM impairment reflects an additional, specific deficit. We investigated this question by contrasting item-based STM measures, supposed to depend strongly upon language activation, and order-based STM measures, supposed to reflect the operation of specific, serial order maintenance mechanisms, in a sample of patients with single-word processing deficits at the phonological and/or lexical level. A group-level analysis showed robust impairment for both item and serial order STM aspects in the aphasic group relative to an age-matched control group. An analysis of individual profiles revealed an important heterogeneity of verbal STM profiles, with patients presenting either selective item STM deficits, selective order STM deficits, generalized item and serial order STM deficits or no significant STM impairment. Item but not serial order STM impairment correlated with the severity of phonological impairment. These results disconfirm a strong version of the linguistic account of verbal STM impairment in aphasia, by showing variable impairment to both item and serial order processing aspects of verbal STM. PMID:26275964

  19. Are vowel errors influenced by consonantal context in the speech of persons with aphasia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfer, Carole E.; Bell-Berti, Fredericka; Boyle, Mary

    2001-05-01

    The literature suggests that vowels and consonants may be affected differently in the speech of persons with conduction aphasia (CA) or nonfluent aphasia with apraxia of speech (AOS). Persons with CA have shown similar error rates across vowels and consonants, while those with AOS have shown more errors for consonants than vowels. These data have been interpreted to suggest that consonants have greater gestural complexity than vowels. However, recent research [M. Boyle et al., Proc. International Cong. Phon. Sci., 3265-3268 (2003)] does not support this interpretation: persons with AOS and CA both had a high proportion of vowel errors, and vowel errors almost always occurred in the context of consonantal errors. To examine the notion that vowels are inherently less complex than consonants and are differentially affected in different types of aphasia, vowel production in different consonantal contexts for speakers with AOS or CA was examined. The target utterances, produced in carrier phrases, were bVC and bV syllables, allowing us to examine whether vowel production is influenced by consonantal context. Listener judgments were obtained for each token, and error productions were grouped according to the intended utterance and error type. Acoustical measurements were made from spectrographic displays.

  20. The Auditory Comprehension of Wh-Questions in Aphasia: Support for the Intervener Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Walenski, Matthew; Love, Tracy; Shapiro, Lewis P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examines 3 hypotheses about the processing of wh-questions in both neurologically healthy adults and adults with Broca's aphasia. Method We used an eye tracking while listening method with 32 unimpaired participants (Experiment 1) and 8 participants with Broca's aphasia (Experiment 2). Accuracy, response time, and online gaze data were collected. Results In Experiment 1, we established a baseline for how unimpaired processing and comprehension of 4 types of wh-question (subject- and object-extracted who- and which-questions) manifest. There was no unambiguous support found for any of the 3 hypotheses in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2 with the Broca's participants, however, we found significantly lower accuracy, slower response times, and increased interference in our gaze data in the object-extracted which-questions relative to the other conditions. Conclusions Our results provide support for the intervener hypothesis, which states that sentence constructions that contain an intervener (a lexical noun phrase) between a displaced noun phrase and its gap site result in a significant processing disadvantage relative to other constructions. We argue that this hypothesis offers a compelling explanation for the comprehension deficits seen in some participants with Broca's aphasia. PMID:25675427

  1. TRAINING VERB PRODUCTION IN COMMUNICATIVE CONTEXT: EVIDENCE FROM A PERSON WITH CHRONIC NON-FLUENT APHASIA

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Mira; Kempler, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Background The use of constraint-induced treatment in aphasia therapy has yielded promising but mixed results. Aims We conducted a treatment study with an individual with chronic non-fluent aphasia. The goal of the treatment was to improve verb production in sentence- and narrative- contexts. Methods & Procedures We administered a modified constraint-induced aphasia treatment in a single-subject design. Treatment emphasized the production of verbs within informative exchanges. Verb production in narratives was assessed before and after the treatment. Outcomes & Results Results demonstrated a significant increase in the number of verbs produced during narrative generation following treatment. Moreover, a positive change was perceived by naïve listeners who rated the social-communicative impact of the participant’s narratives. Conclusions The increase in verb production seen in the post-treatment measures is attributed to a combination of the constraints imposed on sentence production during the treatment sessions, the informative nature of the treatment exchanges, and the relative intensity of the treatment schedule. PMID:19911035

  2. Jean-Martin Charcot's role in the 19th century study of music aphasia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Julene K; Lorch, Marjorie; Nicolas, Serge; Graziano, Amy

    2013-05-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-93) was a well-known French neurologist. Although he is widely recognized for his discovery of several neurological disorders and his research into aphasia, Charcot's ideas about how the brain processes music are less well known. Charcot discussed the music abilities of several patients in the context of his 'Friday Lessons' on aphasia, which took place at the Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris in 1883-84. In his most comprehensive discussion about music, Charcot described a professional trombone player who developed difficulty copying music notation and playing his instrument, thereby identifying a new isolated syndrome of music agraphia without aphasia. Because the description of this case was published only in Italian by one of his students, Domenico Miliotti, there has been considerable confusion and under-acknowledgement of Charcot's ideas about music and the brain. In this paper, we describe Charcot's ideas regarding music and place them within the historical context of the growing interest in the neurological underpinnings of music abilities that took place in the 1880s. PMID:23576129

  3. Motor Aphasia as a Rare Presentation of Fat Embolism Syndrome; A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Saeed-Banadaky, Seyed Houssein; Valizadeh, Sima; Ghilian, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome is a clinical diagnosis, and diagnostic procedures are not specific. In every trauma patient, Fat embolism syndrome has to be considered as a possibility and supportive treatment should begin as soon as possible. The authors reported a rare case of Fat embolism syndrome whose only neurological symptom was motor aphasia. A young man sustained comminuted femoral shaft fracture following an accident presented dyspnea, motor aphasia and petechial rash. The Po2 and O2 Saturation were 53 and 91.1%. The body temperature was 38.5 °C. The hemoglobin decreased from 12.9 to 8.7 and platelet from 121000 to 84000 mg/dl. The pulse rate was 120 bpm. The CT scan and MRI were normal. Fat embolism syndrome was diagnosed according to both Gurd and Schonfeld criteria ruling out other possible causes. Patient recovered completely. Although rare, focal neurological symptoms and motor aphasia should be kept in mind as a part of diagnostic criteria. PMID:25692172

  4. Button battery ingestions.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, D W; Dire, D J

    1989-03-01

    Although ingestions of button batteries can have serious complications, the majority of these ingestions will be benign. Button batteries that lodge in the esophagus should be removed immediately by endoscopy. Other ingestions can be managed with observation at home unless symptoms develop. Weekly radiographic examinations should be done to follow the progression of the button battery in these patients. The expected threat of mercury toxicity has not materialized. Patients who ingest mercury-containing button batteries should undergo chelation therapy and monitoring of levels only if symptoms characteristic of mercury toxicity develop. Cathartics and water-soluble enemas, although not indicated for intact button batteries, may be useful in speeding transit of mercury if it is released into the bowel. Other metals present in button batteries appear to pose no health threat. PMID:2647000

  5. Satellite battery testing status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, R.; Hall, S.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the large numbers of satellite cells currently being tested and anticipated at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NAVWPNSUPPCEN) Crane, Indiana, satellite cell testing is being integrated into the Battery Test Automation Project (BTAP). The BTAP, designed to meet the growing needs for battery testing at the NAVWPNSUPPCEN Crane, will consist of several Automated Test Stations (ATSs) which monitor batteries under test. Each ATS will interface with an Automation Network Controller (ANC) which will collect test data for reduction.

  6. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Yahnke, Mark S.; Shlomo, Golan; Anderson, Marc A.

    1994-01-01

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

  7. Inorganic nanomaterials for batteries.

    PubMed

    Whittingham, M Stanley

    2008-10-28

    The availability of inorganic materials at the nano-dimension opens up opportunities for advanced battery designs and architectures. This Perspective focuses on the opportunities for nanomaterials in all elements of batteries, describing where they might find application and also discussing their limitations. We concentrate on alloys and oxides for the anode, on the olivine phosphate for the cathode and the formation of the interphases between them and its dependence on the electrolyte in lithium batteries. PMID:19082022

  8. Electric Vehicle Battery Performance

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-02-20

    DIANE is used to analyze battery performance in electric vehicle (EV) applications. The principal objective of DIANE is to enable the prediction of EV performance on the basis of laboratory test data for batteries. The model provides a second-by-second simulation of battery voltage and current for any specified velocity/time or power/time profile. Two releases are included with the package. Diane21 has a graphics capability; DIANENP has no graphics capability.

  9. Lithium battery management system

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, Thomas J.

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  10. Viking lander spacecraft battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The Viking Lander was the first spacecraft to fly a sterilized nickel-cadmium battery on a mission to explore the surface of a planet. The significant results of the battery development program from its inception through the design, manufacture, and test of the flight batteries which were flown on the two Lander spacecraft are documented. The flight performance during the early phase of the mission is also presented.

  11. Outcomes of Treatment Targeting Syntax Production in People with Broca's-Type Aphasia: Evidence from Psycholinguistic Assessment Tasks and Everyday Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carragher, Marcella; Sage, Karen; Conroy, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Capturing evidence of the effects of therapy within everyday communication is the holy grail of aphasia treatment design and evaluation. Whilst impaired sentence production is a predominant symptom of Broca's-type aphasia, the effects of sentence production therapy on everyday conversation have not been investigated. Given the

  12. Outcomes of Treatment Targeting Syntax Production in People with Broca's-Type Aphasia: Evidence from Psycholinguistic Assessment Tasks and Everyday Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carragher, Marcella; Sage, Karen; Conroy, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Capturing evidence of the effects of therapy within everyday communication is the holy grail of aphasia treatment design and evaluation. Whilst impaired sentence production is a predominant symptom of Broca's-type aphasia, the effects of sentence production therapy on everyday conversation have not been investigated. Given the…

  13. Constrained versus Unconstrained Intensive Language Therapy in Two Individuals with Chronic, Moderate-to-Severe Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech: Behavioral and fMRI Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurland, Jacquie; Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Silva, Nicole; Burke, Katherine; Andrianopoulos, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This Phase I study investigated behavioral and functional MRI (fMRI) outcomes of 2 intensive treatment programs to improve naming in 2 participants with chronic moderate-to-severe aphasia with comorbid apraxia of speech (AOS). Constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT; Pulvermuller et al., 2001) has demonstrated positive outcomes in some…

  14. Effects of Cognate Status and Language of Therapy during Intensive Semantic Naming Treatment in a Case of Severe Nonfluent Bilingual Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurland, Jacquie; Falcon, Marahu

    2011-01-01

    As bilingualism becomes less exceptional in the world, and with the growing incidence of stroke and aphasia, a better understanding of how bilingualism affects aphasia recovery is increasingly important. The present study examined the effect of intensive semantic naming therapy in three phases (Spanish, English and mixed) on within- and…

  15. Evidence-Based Systematic Review: Effects of Intensity of Treatment and Constraint-Induced Language Therapy for Individuals with Stroke-Induced Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherney, Leora R.; Patterson, Janet P.; Raymer, Anastasia; Frymark, Tobi; Schooling, Tracy

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review summarizes evidence for intensity of treatment and constraint-induced language therapy (CILT) on measures of language impairment and communication activity/participation in individuals with stroke-induced aphasia. Method: A systematic search of the aphasia literature using 15 electronic databases (e.g., PubMed,…

  16. Conduction Aphasia, Sensory-Motor Integration, and Phonological Short-Term Memory--An Aggregate Analysis of Lesion and fMRI Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Baldo, Juliana; Okada, Kayoko; Berman, Karen F.; Dronkers, Nina; D'Esposito, Mark; Hickok, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Conduction aphasia is a language disorder characterized by frequent speech errors, impaired verbatim repetition, a deficit in phonological short-term memory, and naming difficulties in the presence of otherwise fluent and grammatical speech output. While traditional models of conduction aphasia have typically implicated white matter pathways,…

  17. Conduction Aphasia, Sensory-Motor Integration, and Phonological Short-Term Memory--An Aggregate Analysis of Lesion and fMRI Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Baldo, Juliana; Okada, Kayoko; Berman, Karen F.; Dronkers, Nina; D'Esposito, Mark; Hickok, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Conduction aphasia is a language disorder characterized by frequent speech errors, impaired verbatim repetition, a deficit in phonological short-term memory, and naming difficulties in the presence of otherwise fluent and grammatical speech output. While traditional models of conduction aphasia have typically implicated white matter pathways,

  18. Assessing Cortisol Reactivity to a Linguistic Task as a Marker of Stress in Individuals with Left-Hemisphere Stroke and Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laures-Gore, Jacqueline; Heim, Christine M.; Hsu, Yu-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explore a method of measuring physiologic and perceived stress in individuals with aphasia by investigating salivary cortisol reactivity and subjectively perceived stress in response to a standardized linguistic task. Method: Fifteen individuals with aphasia and 15 age-matched healthy controls participated in a…

  19. Constrained versus Unconstrained Intensive Language Therapy in Two Individuals with Chronic, Moderate-to-Severe Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech: Behavioral and fMRI Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurland, Jacquie; Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Silva, Nicole; Burke, Katherine; Andrianopoulos, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This Phase I study investigated behavioral and functional MRI (fMRI) outcomes of 2 intensive treatment programs to improve naming in 2 participants with chronic moderate-to-severe aphasia with comorbid apraxia of speech (AOS). Constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT; Pulvermuller et al., 2001) has demonstrated positive outcomes in some

  20. Assessing Cortisol Reactivity to a Linguistic Task as a Marker of Stress in Individuals with Left-Hemisphere Stroke and Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laures-Gore, Jacqueline; Heim, Christine M.; Hsu, Yu-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explore a method of measuring physiologic and perceived stress in individuals with aphasia by investigating salivary cortisol reactivity and subjectively perceived stress in response to a standardized linguistic task. Method: Fifteen individuals with aphasia and 15 age-matched healthy controls participated in a