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1

Grammaticality Judgment in Aphasia: Deficits Are Not Specific to Syntactic Structures, Aphasic Syndromes, or  

E-print Network

Grammaticality Judgment in Aphasia: Deficits Are Not Specific to Syntactic Structures, Aphasic in agrammatic aphasia. However, not all syntactic structures are judged equally accurately, and several types, regardless of whether the patients were grouped based on Western Aphasia Battery classification

2

Aphasia  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Aphasia Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Aphasia? Is there any treatment? ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Aphasia? Aphasia is a neurological disorder caused by damage ...

3

Progressive Non-Fluent Aphasia in Malayalam: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) is a degenerative condition characterized by deterioration in language for at least two years without deterioration in other cognitive domains. This report highlights the language profile in a 79-year-old male with progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) who was assessed using the Western Aphasia Battery and the…

George, Annamma; Mathuranath, P. S.

2010-01-01

4

Concurrent treatment for reading and spelling in aphasia Sarah A. Orjada and Pelagie M. Beeson  

E-print Network

Concurrent treatment for reading and spelling in aphasia Sarah A. Orjada and PeĂ?lagie M. Beeson with chronic aphasia, alexia, and agraphia partici- pated in the treatment, which consisted of a combination by the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) showed clinically significant improvement. Conclusions: Concurrent reading

5

Severity of Post-stroke Aphasia According to Aphasia Type and Lesion Location in Koreans  

PubMed Central

To determine the relations between post-stroke aphasia severity and aphasia type and lesion location, a retrospective review was undertaken using the medical records of 97 Korean patients, treated within 90 days of onset, for aphasia caused by unilateral left hemispheric stroke. Types of aphasia were classified according to the validated Korean version of the Western Aphasia Battery (K-WAB), and severities of aphasia were quantified using WAB Aphasia Quotients (AQ). Lesion locations were classified as cortical or subcortical, and were determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Two-step cluster analysis was performed using AQ values to classify aphasia severity by aphasia type and lesion location. Cluster analysis resulted in four severity clusters: 1) mild; anomic type, 2) moderate; Wernicke's, transcortical motor, transcortical sensory, conduction, and mixed transcortical types, 3) moderately severe; Broca's aphasia, and 4) severe; global aphasia, and also in three lesion location clusters: 1) mild; subcortical 2) moderate; cortical lesions involving Broca's and/or Wernicke's areas, and 3) severe; insular and cortical lesions not in Broca's or Wernicke's areas. These results revealed that within 3 months of stroke, global aphasia was the more severely affected type and cortical lesions were more likely to affect language function than subcortical lesions. PMID:20052357

Kang, Eun Kyoung; Sohn, Hae Min; Han, Moon-Ku; Kim, Won; Han, Tai Ryoon

2010-01-01

6

Temporoparietal cortex in aphasia. Evidence from positron emission tomography  

SciTech Connect

Forty-four aphasic patients were examined with (F18)-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in a resting state to determine whether consistent glucose metabolic abnormalities were present. Ninety-seven percent of subjects showed metabolic abnormalities in the angular gyrus, 89% in the supramarginal gyrus, and 87% in the lateral and transverse superior temporal gyrus. Pearson product moment correlations were calculated between regional metabolic measures and performance on the Western Aphasia Battery. No significant correlations were found between the Western Aphasia Battery scores and right hemisphere metabolic measures. Most left hemisphere regions correlated with more than one score from the Western Aphasia Battery. Temporal but not frontal regions had significant correlations to the comprehension score. The left temporoparietal region was consistently affected in these subjects, suggesting that common features in the aphasias were caused by left temporoparietal dysfunction, while behavioral differences resulted from (1) the extent of temporoparietal changes, and (2) dysfunction elsewhere in the brain, particularly the left frontal and subcortical areas.

Metter, E.J.; Hanson, W.R.; Jackson, C.A.; Kempler, D.; van Lancker, D.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Phelps, M.E. (National Institute of Aging, Baltimore, MD (USA))

1990-11-01

7

Verb and noun deficits in stroke-induced and primary progressive aphasia: The Northwestern Naming Battery1  

PubMed Central

Background Word class naming deficits are commonly seen in aphasia resulting from stroke (StrAph) and primary progressive aphasia (PPA), with differential production of nouns (objects) and verbs (actions) found based on StrAph type or PPA variant for some individuals. Studies to date, however, have not compared word class naming (or comprehension) ability in the two aphasic disorders. In addition, there are no available measures for testing word class deficits, which control for important psycholinguistic variables across language domains. This study examined noun and verb production and comprehension in individuals with StrAph and PPA using a new test, the Northwestern Naming Battery (NNB; Thompson & Weintraub, experimental version), developed explicitly for this purpose. In addition, we tested verb type effects, based on verb argument structure characteristics, which also is addressed by the NNB. Method Fifty-two participants with StrAph (33 agrammatic, Broca’s (StrAg); 19 anomic (StrAn)) and 28 PPA (10 agrammatic (PPA-G); 14 logopenic (PPA-L); 4 semantic (PPA-S)) were included in the study. Nouns and verbs were tested in the Confrontation Naming and Auditory Comprehension subtests of the NNB, with scores used to compute noun to verb ratios as well as performance by verb type. Performance patterns within and across StrAph and PPA groups were then examined. The external validity of the NNB also was tested by comparing (a) NNB Noun Naming scores to the Boston Naming Test (BNT; Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 1983) and Western Aphasia Battery (WAB-R, Kertesz, 2007) Noun Naming subtest scores, (b) NNB Verb Naming scores to the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE; Goodglass, Kaplan & Barresi, 2001) Action Naming score (for StrAph participants only), and (c) NNB Comprehension subtest scores to WAB-R Auditory Comprehension subtest scores. Outcomes and Results Both agrammatic (StrAg and PPA-G) groups showed significantly greater difficulty producing verbs compared to nouns, but no comprehension impairment for either word class. Whereas, three of the four PPA-S participants showed poorer noun compared to verb production, as well as comprehension. However, neither the StrAn or PPA-L participants showed significant differences between the two word classes in production or comprehension. In addition, similar to the agrammatic participants, the StrAn participants showed a significant transitivity effect, producing intransitive (one-argument) verbs with greater accuracy than transitive (two- and three-argument) verbs. However, no transitivity effects were found for the PPA-L or PPA-S participants. There were significant correlations between NNB scores and all external validation measures. Conclusions These data indicate that the NNB is sensitive to word class deficits in stroke and neurodegenerative aphasia. This is important both clinically for treatment planning and theoretically to inform both psycholinguistic and neural models of language processing. PMID:23188949

Thompson, Cynthia K.; Lukic, Sladjana; King, Monique C.; Mesulam, M. Marsel; Weintraub, Sandra

2012-01-01

8

A Comparison of the BAT and BDAE-SF Batteries in Determining the Linguistic Ability in Greek-Speaking Patients with Broca's Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to test the validity and reliability of the Bilingual Aphasia Test as a measure of language impairment in a Greek-speaking Broca's aphasic population and to investigate relationships with the same aphasic group's performance on the Greek version of the short form of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination battery, mainly…

Peristeri, Eleni; Tsapkini, Kyrana

2011-01-01

9

Cortical neuroanatomic correlates of symptom severity in primary progressive aphasia  

E-print Network

Cortical neuroanatomic correlates of symptom severity in primary progressive aphasia D. Sapolsky of a new measure of clinical impairment in primary progressive aphasia (PPA), the Progressive Aphasia Diagnostic Aphasia Examination; CDR Clinical Dementia Rating; CSB Cam- bridge Semantic Battery; ICC

Dickerson, Brad

10

Characteristics of Cognitive Impairment in Patients With Post-stroke Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyze cognitive functions of post-stroke aphasia patients compared to patients having right hemispheric stroke and left hemispheric lesions without aphasia, and to look for a relationship between cognitive deficits and aphasia severity. Methods Thirty-six patients with right hemispheric stroke (group 1), 32 with left hemispheric lesion without aphasia (group 2), and 26 left hemispheric stroke patients with aphasia (group 3) completed a set of tests in the computerized neurocognitive function batteries for attention, executive function and intelligence and Korean version of Western Aphasia Battery. Data analyses explored cognitive characteristics among the three groups and the correlation between cognitive deficits and aphasia severity. Results Right hemispheric and left hemispheric stroke patients without aphasia showed similar findings except for digit span forward test. Cognitive tests for working memory and sustained attention were significantly impaired in the aphasic patients, but intelligence was shown to be similar in the three groups. Significant correlation between cognitive deficit and aphasia severity was only shown in some attention tests. Conclusion Cognitive deficits may be accompanied with post-stroke aphasia and there are possible associations between language and cognitive measures. Therefore, detection and treatment towards coexisting cognitive impairment may be necessary for efficient aphasia treatment. PMID:25566474

Lee, Boram

2014-01-01

11

Subcortical Aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We critically review the literature on subcortical aphasia, suggest that a number of traditional concepts regarding mechanisms of aphasia are inconsistent with now abundant data, and propose several new hypotheses. The absence of aphasia in 17 reported cases of dominant hemisphere striatocapsular infarction and the finding of nearly every conceivable pattern of language impairment in 33 different reported cases of

Stephen E. Nadeau; Bruce Crosson

1997-01-01

12

ILLITERACY AND BRAIN DAMAGE-l. APHASIA TESTING IN CULTURALLY CONTRASTED POPULATIONS (CONTROL  

E-print Network

ing in ~,NJ. ILLITERACY AND BRAIN DAMAGE-l. APHASIA TESTING IN CULTURALLY CONTRASTED POPULATIONS of aphasia if one does not refer to norms which explicitly take educationallevcl into accounl.lI DEFINING a major preoccupation of clinicians involved in aphasia research: MOUTIER'S [28] battery, which included

Mehler, Jacques

13

Damage to the anterior arcuate fasciculus predicts non-fluent speech production in aphasia  

PubMed Central

Non-fluent aphasia implies a relatively straightforward neurological condition characterized by limited speech output. However, it is an umbrella term for different underlying impairments affecting speech production. Several studies have sought the critical lesion location that gives rise to non-fluent aphasia. The results have been mixed but typically implicate anterior cortical regions such as Broca’s area, the left anterior insula, and deep white matter regions. To provide a clearer picture of cortical damage in non-fluent aphasia, the current study examined brain damage that negatively influences speech fluency in patients with aphasia. It controlled for some basic speech and language comprehension factors in order to better isolate the contribution of different mechanisms to fluency, or its lack. Cortical damage was related to overall speech fluency, as estimated by clinical judgements using the Western Aphasia Battery speech fluency scale, diadochokinetic rate, rudimentary auditory language comprehension, and executive functioning (scores on a matrix reasoning test) in 64 patients with chronic left hemisphere stroke. A region of interest analysis that included brain regions typically implicated in speech and language processing revealed that non-fluency in aphasia is primarily predicted by damage to the anterior segment of the left arcuate fasciculus. An improved prediction model also included the left uncinate fasciculus, a white matter tract connecting the middle and anterior temporal lobe with frontal lobe regions, including the pars triangularis. Models that controlled for diadochokinetic rate, picture-word recognition, or executive functioning also revealed a strong relationship between anterior segment involvement and speech fluency. Whole brain analyses corroborated the findings from the region of interest analyses. An additional exploratory analysis revealed that involvement of the uncinate fasciculus adjudicated between Broca’s and global aphasia, the two most common kinds of non-fluent aphasia. In summary, the current results suggest that the anterior segment of the left arcuate fasciculus, a white matter tract that lies deep to posterior portions of Broca’s area and the sensory-motor cortex, is a robust predictor of impaired speech fluency in aphasic patients, even when motor speech, lexical processing, and executive functioning are included as co-factors. Simply put, damage to those regions results in non-fluent aphasic speech; when they are undamaged, fluent aphasias result. PMID:24131592

Guo, Dazhou; Fillmore, Paul; Holland, Audrey; Rorden, Chris

2013-01-01

14

Batteries  

MedlinePLUS

... combine to make power: an electrolyte and a heavy metal. More Battery Information The Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation ( ... battery recycling. Just the Facts Inside a battery, heavy metals react with chemical electrolyte to produce the battery?s ...

15

Tips for Socializing with Aphasia  

MedlinePLUS

... continue to limit distractions such as background noise (music, other talking, TV). As you become more comfortable ... org . Read more Aphasia articles: Talking Tech: How technology helps survivors with aphasia Aphasia: Helping others get ...

16

Do people with aphasia receive written stroke and aphasia information?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite the well?documented benefits of providing people with written health information, there is a growing body of evidence indicating that people who have aphasia are poorly informed about both their stroke and aphasia. Although extensive research has been conducted into stroke education, limited research has specifically investigated the provision of written health information to people with aphasia.Aims: This study

Tanya A. Rose; Linda E. Worrall; Kryss T. McKenna; Louise M. Hickson; Tammy C. Hoffmann

2009-01-01

17

The influence of event-related knowledge on verb-argument processing in aphasia.  

PubMed

Event-related conceptual knowledge outside the language system rapidly affects verb-argument processing in unimpaired adults (McRae and Matsuki, 2009). Some have argued that verb-argument processing is in fact reducible to the activation of such event-related knowledge. However, data favoring this conclusion have come primarily from college-aged healthy adults, for whom both linguistic and conceptual semantic processing is fast and automatic. This study examined the influence of event-related knowledge on verb-argument processing among adults with aphasia (n=8) and older unimpaired controls (n=60), in two self-paced reading studies. Participants read sentences containing a plausible verb-argument combination (Mary used a knife to chop the large carrots before dinner), a combination that violated event-related world knowledge (Mary used some bleach to clean the large carrots before dinner), or a combination that violated the verb's selectional restrictions (Mary used a pump to inflate the large carrots before dinner). The participants with aphasia naturally split into two groups: Group 1 (n=4) had conceptual-semantic impairments (evidenced by poor performance on tasks like Pyramids & Palm Trees) but reasonably intact language processing (higher Western Aphasia Battery Aphasia Quotients), while Group 2 (n=4) had intact conceptual semantics but poorer language processing. Older unimpaired controls and aphasic Group 1 showed rapid on-line disruption for sentences with selectional-restriction violations (SRVs) and event-related knowledge violations, and also showed SRV-specific penalties in sentence-final acceptability judgments (Experiment 1) and comprehension questions (Experiment 2). In contrast, Group 2 showed very few reliable differences across conditions in either on-line or off-line measures. This difference between aphasic groups suggests that verb-related information and event-related knowledge may be dissociated in aphasia. Furthermore, it suggests that intact language processing is more critical for successful verb-argument integration than intact access to event-related world knowledge. This pattern is unexpected if verb-argument processing is reducible to activation of event-related conceptual knowledge. PMID:25484306

Dickey, Michael Walsh; Warren, Tessa

2015-01-01

18

Aphasia in Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Aphasia is a central language impairment with word finding and comprehension deficit and paraphasias. The highlights of the essential language tests and the classification based on a scorable assessment are presented. The clinical syndromes of Broca's, global, Wernicke, conduction, anomic and transcortical aphasias are detailed with definition, localization, and prognosis. Modality specific disorders associated with aphasic syndromes are discussed. The management of the aphasic patient, consisting of informed support and coordination of available services, is often the responsibility of the family physician. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:21286589

Kertesz, Andrew

1983-01-01

19

Neuroplasticity: Evidence from Aphasia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents data showing that two of the four forms of neuroplasticity, homologous area adaptation and map extension, are relevant to recovery from aphasia. It discusses factors related to neuroplastic activity during language recovery, including neurophysiological, subject, and environmental treatment variables. (Contains references.)…

Thompson, Cynthia K.

2000-01-01

20

Dopaminergic therapy in aphasia  

PubMed Central

Background The dopaminergic system is involved in a wide range of cognitive functions including motor control, reward, memory, attention, problem-solving and learning. This has stimulated interest in investigating the potential of dopaminergic drugs as cognitive enhancers in aphasic patients. Aim To discuss the evidence for the use of dopaminergic agents in patients with aphasia. Levodopa (L-dopa) and the dopamine agonist bromocriptine are the two drugs that have been trialled to date. We discuss, in some detail, the 15 studies that have been published on this topic from the first case report in 1988 to the present (2012), and assess the evidence from each. Main contribution In addition to summarising the effectiveness of the drugs that have been tried, we examine the possible cognitive mechanisms by which dopaminergic drugs may act on language function and aphasia recovery. Given the wide range of dopaminergic drugs, it is surprising that such a narrow range has been trialled in aphasic patients. Important lessons are to be learned from published studies and we discuss optimal trial designs to help guide future work. Conclusions The evidence for the efficacy of dopaminergic agents in aphasia therapy is mixed. Further trials with better tolerated agents are required. Optimal trial designs with appropriate control groups or blocks should be used. The mechanism of action is unclear, but at the cognitive level the evidence points towards either (re)learning of word-forms or their improved retrieval. PMID:25076804

Gill, Sumanjit K.

2013-01-01

21

Speech-induced cerebral metabolic activation reflects recovery from aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six stroke patients with clinically significant aphasia were studied 4 weeks and again 12–18 months after their first left hemispheric ictus. The regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglc) was measured repeatedly by PET at rest and during word repetition, and severity of speech impairment was assessed by a neuropsychologic test battery. The patterns of speech-associated activation of glucose metabolism

Wolf-Dieter Heiss; Hans Karbe; Gerald Weber-Luxenburger; Karl Herholz; Josef Kessler; Uwe Pietrzyk; Gunter Pawlik

1997-01-01

22

A Behavioral Conceptualization of Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aphasia is an acquired language impairment that affects over 1 million individuals, the majority of whom are over age 65 (Groher, 1989). This disorder has typically been conceptualized within a cognitive neuroscience framework, but a behavioral interpretation of aphasia is also possible. Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior proposes a…

Baker, Jonathan C.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Raetz, Paige B.

2008-01-01

23

[Primary progressive aphasias.  

PubMed

Primary progressive aphasias (PPA) is a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders related to focal degenerations of the brain which are characterized by continuous loss of speech. According to the Classification developed by the International body of experts, 3 main variants of PPA are singled out: agrammatic, logopenic and semantic. This stratification is based on the differences in clinical features of speech defect, neuroimaging and pathomorphological data. The search for treatment strategies is related with putative neurochemical deficit but the results of clinical trials on the efficacy of different drugs remain unequivocal. PMID:25042497

Vasenina, E E; Levin, O S

2014-01-01

24

Insights from the Aphasia Project: Designing Technology For and With People who have Aphasia  

E-print Network

Insights from the Aphasia Project: Designing Technology For and With People who have Aphasia Joanna Purves , Sarah Yang aphasia-ubc@cs.ubc.ca Department of Computer Science Department of Psychology School issues in the context of the Aphasia Project, a recently established project on the design of assistive

McGrenere, Joanna

25

Written Language Impairments in Primary Progressive Aphasia: A Reflection of Damage to Central  

E-print Network

and comprehension, a view referred to as the "primary systems" hypothesis. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the primary systems account in a mixed group of individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA administered a language battery, including assessments of semantics, phonology, reading, and spelling. Voxel

26

INTRODUCTION Comprehension in Broca's Aphasia: Representational Considerations  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Comprehension in Broca's Aphasia: Representational Considerations Most Broca's aphasic-Line Analysis of Syntactic Processing in Broca's and Wernicke's Aphasia E. ZURIF, * $ D. SWINNEY, # § P. PRATHER; $Aphasia Research Center, Boston University School of Medicine; ||Boston V. A. Medical Center; #University

27

The USC Aphasia Newsletter Summer 2011  

E-print Network

The USC Aphasia Newsletter Summer 2011 Dear All, What a brutal summer this has been! I cannot to stroke and aphasia, you may have heard that South Carolina recently passed the Stroke Prevention Act recovery from aphasia. We look forward to sharing our latest findings with you when we get together again

Almor, Amit

28

CROSSLINGUISTIC RESEARCH IN APHASIA: AN OVERVIEW  

E-print Network

CROSSLINGUISTIC RESEARCH IN APHASIA: AN OVERVIEW Elizabeth Bates University of California at San modern research on aphasia has been carried out in English, it is difficult to separate universal and in fluent patients with a diagnosis of Wernicke's aphasia. These crosslinguistic studies fall into two

29

Developing a Clinician-Friendly Aphasia Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The Kentucky Aphasia Test (KAT) is an objective measure of language functioning for persons with aphasia. This article describes materials, administration, and scoring of the KAT; presents the rationale for development of test items; reports information from a pilot study; and discusses the role of the KAT in aphasia assessment. Method:…

Marshall, Robert C.; Wright, Heather Harris

2007-01-01

30

Writing Treatment for Severe Aphasia: Who Benefits?  

E-print Network

Writing Treatment for Severe Aphasia: Who Benefits? P61agie M. Beeson Kindle Rising Jennifer Volk was implemented with 8 individuals with severe aphasia in order to discern the best candidates for the treatment)ad- equately preserved nonverbal visual problem-solving skills. Aphasia severity and minimal pretreatment

31

Verbal Comprehension Ability in Aphasia: Demographic and Lexical Knowledge Effects  

PubMed Central

Background. Assessment of sentence-level auditory comprehension can be performed with a variety of tests varying in response requirements. A brief and easy to administer measure, not requiring an overt verbal or a complex motor response, is essential in any test battery for aphasia. Objective. The present study examines the clinical utility of receptive language indices for individuals with aphasia based on the Comprehension of Instructions in Greek (CIG), a variant of the Token Test, and the Greek version of PPVT-R. Methods. Normative data from a large community sample of Greek adults aged 46–80 years was available on both measures. A word-level-independent measure of auditory comprehension was computed as the standard score difference between the two tests and used to compare patients with and without comprehension deficits as indicated by their Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination profile. Results and Conclusions. Indices of internal consistency and test-retest reliability were very good. Education and age effects on performance were significant, with the former being stronger. The potential clinical utility of differential ability indices (contrasting sentence- and word-level auditory comprehension tests) is discussed. PMID:24825951

Simos, Panagiotis G.; Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Potagas, Constantin; Evdokimidis, Ioannis

2014-01-01

32

Independent Study in the Aphasia Research Project Undergraduate Students  

E-print Network

Independent Study in the Aphasia Research Project Undergraduate Students Research in the Aphasia Research Project involves the study of the nature the research project by their contributions. Independent study in the Aphasia

33

Translational Research in Aphasia: From Neuroscience to Neurorehabilitation  

E-print Network

Translational Research in Aphasia: From Neuroscience to Neurorehabilitation SUPPLEMENT Purpose with aphasia recovery and treatment. The authors then summarize basic science evidence from animals, human cognition, and computational neuroscience that is relevant to aphasia treatment research. They then turn

34

The Main Concept Analysis in Cantonese Aphasic Oral Discourse: External Validation and Monitoring Chronic Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The 1st aim of this study was to further establish the external validity of the main concept (MC) analysis by examining its relationship with the Cantonese Linguistic Communication Measure (CLCM; Kong, 2006; Kong & Law, 2004)--an established quantitative system for narrative production--and the Cantonese version of the Western Aphasia

Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin

2011-01-01

35

An Aphasia Mentoring Program: Perspectives of Speech-Language Pathology Students and of Mentors with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In contrast to clinician-as-expert models, social models of clinical practice typically acknowledge people with aphasia as equal partners in intervention. Given this, there may be a place within speech-language pathology education for programs situating people with aphasia as experts. This paper describes an aphasia mentoring program that…

Purves, Barbara A.; Petersen, Jill; Puurveen, Gloria

2013-01-01

36

Primary Progressive Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech  

PubMed Central

Primary progressive aphasia is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive language dysfunction. The majority of primary progressive aphasia cases can be classified into three subtypes: non-fluent/agrammatic, semantic, and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia. Each variant presents with unique clinical features, and is associated with distinctive underlying pathology and neuroimaging findings. Unlike primary progressive aphasia, apraxia of speech is a disorder that involves inaccurate production of sounds secondary to impaired planning or programming of speech movements. Primary progressive apraxia of speech is a neurodegenerative form of apraxia of speech, and it should be distinguished from primary progressive aphasia given its discrete clinicopathological presentation. Recently, there have been substantial advances in our understanding of these speech and language disorders. Here, we review clinical, neuroimaging, and histopathological features of primary progressive aphasia and apraxia of speech. The distinctions among these disorders will be crucial since accurate diagnosis will be important from a prognostic and therapeutic standpoint. PMID:24234355

Jung, Youngsin; Duffy, Joseph R.; Josephs, Keith A.

2014-01-01

37

Verb retrieval in fluent aphasia: A clinical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Problems with lexical retrieval are common across all types of aphasia but certain word classes are thought to be more vulnerable in some aphasia types. Traditionally, verb retrieval problems have been considered characteristic of non?fluent aphasias but there is growing evidence that verb retrieval problems are also found in fluent aphasia. As verbs are retrieved from the mental lexicon

Susan Edwards; Kate Tucker

2006-01-01

38

working memory in aphasia 1 In Press, Aphasiology  

E-print Network

working memory in aphasia 1 In Press, Aphasiology RUNNING HEAD: working memory in aphasia Processing Distinct Linguistic Information Types in Working Memory in Aphasia Heather Harris Wright Arizona) 965-8516 Email: Heather.Wright.1@asu.edu #12;working memory in aphasia 2 ABSTRACT Background: Recent

39

Constraint-Induced Therapy of Chronic Aphasia After Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with chronic aphasia were assigned randomly to a group to receive either conventional aphasia therapy or constraint-induced (CI) aphasia therapy, a new therapeutic technique requiring intense practice over a relatively short period of consecutive days. CI aphasia therapy is realized in a communicative therapeutic environment constraining patients to practice systematically speech acts with which they have difficulty. Patients in

Friedemann Pulvermüller; Bettina Neininger; Thomas Elbert; Bettina Mohr; Brigitte Rockstroh; Peter Koebbel; Edward Taub

40

Semantic Dementia and Persisting Wernicke's Aphasia: Linguistic and Anatomical Profiles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have directly compared the clinical and anatomical characteristics of patients with progressive aphasia to those of patients with aphasia caused by stroke. In the current study we examined fluent forms of aphasia in these two groups, specifically semantic dementia (SD) and persisting Wernicke's aphasia (WA) due to stroke. We compared…

Ogar, J. M.; Baldo, J. V.; Wilson, S. M.; Brambati, S. M.; Miller, B. L.; Dronkers, N. F.; Gorno-Tempini, M. L.

2011-01-01

41

Primary progressive aphasia : a case report.  

PubMed

Primary progressive aphasia is due to focal left perisylvian degeneration and manifests with progressive decline in language function for two or more years. There is preservation of cognitive functions and activities of daily living continue to be normal. We report a case of progressive aphasia in a 65 year old lady. PMID:10402342

Arora, A; Sawhney, I M; Verma, S K; Lal, V; Prabhakar, S

1999-06-01

42

Pharmacotherapy of Aphasia: Myth or Reality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pharmacotherapy of aphasia had been discussed for the last twenty years with first bromocriptine and amphetamine and then serotoninergic, GABAergic and cholinergic agents. Here, we reviewed the MEDLINE available reports of drug therapy for aphasia. So far, proofs of efficiency were found indubitable for none of the studied molecules. However, some…

de Boissezon, Xavier; Peran, Patrice; de Boysson, Chloe; Demonet, Jean-Francois

2007-01-01

43

Training-induced brain plasticity in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary It has long been a matter of debate whether recovery from aphasia after left perisylvian lesions is mediated by the preserved left hemispheric language zones or by the homologous right hemisphere regions. Using PET, we investigated the short-term changes in the cortical network involved in language comprehension during recovery from aphasia. In 12 consecutive measurements of regional cerebral blood

Mariacristina Musso; Cornelius Weiller; Stefan Kiebel; Stephan P. Muller; Peter Bulau; Michel Rijntjes

1999-01-01

44

Reduced Short-Term Memory in Aphasia 1 Running head: REDUCED SHORT-TERM MEMORY IN APHASIA  

E-print Network

Reduced Short-Term Memory in Aphasia 1 Running head: REDUCED SHORT-TERM MEMORY IN APHASIA Reduced Short-Term Memory Span in Aphasia and Susceptibility to Interference: Contribution of Material in Aphasia 2 Abstract Semantic short-term memory (STM) deficits have been traditionally defined

Thompson-Schill, Sharon

45

WESTERN  

E-print Network

utilized as native hay, especially when harvested in overflow or run in sites that collect additional moisture. Erosion control/reclamation: Western wheatgrass is well suited for stabilization of disturbed soils because of its strong spreading rhizomes. It should not be planted with aggressive introduced grasses, but is very compatible with slower developing natives such as bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata), thickspike wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus ssp. lanceolatus), streambank wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus ssp. psammophilus), and needlegrass species (Achnatherum spp., Hesperostipa spp., Nassella spp., Stipa spp., and Ptilagrostis spp.). Its relatively good drought tolerance combined with strong rhizomatous root systems and adaptation to a variety of soils makes this species ideal for reclamation in areas receiving 12 to 20 inches annual precipitation. Its low growth form, vigorous sod, and low maintenance requirements make it ideal for ground cover purposes. This grass can be used in urban areas where irrigation water is limited to provide ground cover and to stabilize ditch banks, dikes, and roadsides.

Pascopyrum Smithii (rydb; A. Löve

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Fluent Aphasia in Telugu: A Case Comparison Study of Semantic Dementia and Stroke Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents two cases with fluent aphasia in Telugu with semantic dementia and post-stroke fluent aphasia. Comparable scores were obtained on the conventional neuropsychological and language tests that were administered on the two cases. Both cases demonstrated fluent, grammatical and well-articulated speech with little content, impaired…

Alladi, Suvarna; Mridula, Rukmini; Mekala, Shailaja; Rupela, Vani; Kaul, Subhash

2010-01-01

47

Effects of language proficiency and language of the environment on aphasia therapy in a multilingual  

PubMed Central

We examined the relative proficiency of four languages (Spanish, German, French, English) of a multilingual speaker with aphasia, JM. JM’s self-rated proficiency was consistent with his naming accuracy for nouns and verbs (The Object and Action Naming Battery, Druks & Masterson, 2000) and with his performance on selected subtests of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (Paradis & Libben, 1987). Within and between-language changes were measured following two periods of language treatment, one in a highly-proficient language (Spanish) and one in a less-proficient language (English). The various outcome measures differed in their sensitivity to treatment-associated changes. Cross-language treatment effects were linked to the language of the environment at the time of testing and to relative language proficiency. PMID:23185107

Goral, Mira; Rosas, Jason; Conner, Peggy S.; Maul, Kristen K.; Obler, Loraine K.

2011-01-01

48

A MEG investigation of lexical access in aphasia  

E-print Network

Aphasia is an acquired impairment of language ability that occurs secondary to brain damage, and auditory comprehension deficits are a defining component of aphasia. At the single-word level, these deficits are thought to ...

Zipse, Lauryn Rose

2008-01-01

49

Treating anomia in post stroke and primary progressive aphasia  

E-print Network

Treating anomia in post stroke and primary progressive aphasia Elizabeth Rochon, Ph.D Department superiority. 4 #12;Phonological Components Analysis (PCA) for naming impairments in aphasia Study 1 Leonard

Volesky, Bohumil

50

Narrative discourse in anomic aphasia.  

PubMed

Anomic aphasia is a disturbance affecting lexical retrieval. Nonetheless, persons with this disorder may also experience difficulties in the construction of coherent narratives. Whether this symptom is a sign of a macrolinguistic difficulty per se or reflects the lexical disorder is still an open debate. In order to analyze the effect of the lexical impairment on macrolinguistic processing, we compared the narrative skills of a group of ten participants with chronic anomic aphasia with those of ten healthy control individuals matched for age and educational level. The anomic participants produced narratives with lowered speech rate, reduced mean length of utterance, fewer grammatically well-formed sentences, more semantic paraphasias. The macrolinguistic analysis showed that they also produced more errors of cohesion and global coherence and fewer lexical information units. Interestingly, their levels of thematic selection were normal. A bivariate correlational analysis showed a strong correlation between the production of errors of cohesion and production of complete sentences, and between production of errors of global coherence and lexical information units. These correlations showed that aspects related to lexical retrieval may affect macrolinguistic processing during the construction of a narrative. Indeed, it is suggested that lexical deficits lead to two main consequences: First, patients with anomia frequently interrupt the utterances they are producing and this reduces the levels of sentence completeness and the overall degree of cohesion across the utterances; Second, they use strategies to cope with the lexical impairment and produce a quantity of lexical fillers and repetitions that, clustered in utterances, reduce the levels of global coherence. PMID:22564448

Andreetta, Sara; Cantagallo, Anna; Marini, Andrea

2012-07-01

51

The Role of the Arcuate Fasciculus in Conduction Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In aphasia literature, it has been considered that a speech repetition defect represents the main constituent of conduction aphasia. Conduction aphasia has frequently been interpreted as a language impairment due to lesions of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) that disconnect receptive language areas from expressive ones. Modern neuroradiological…

Bernal, Byron; Ardila, Alfredo

2009-01-01

52

ACES: Aphasia Emulation, Realism, and the Turing Test Joshua Hailpern  

E-print Network

ACES: Aphasia Emulation, Realism, and the Turing Test Joshua Hailpern Department of Computer 61801 kkarahal@cs.uiuc.edu ABSTRACT To an outsider it may appear as though an individual with aphasia the communication-distorting effects of aphasia. While their paper illustrated the impact of ACES on empathy, it did

Karahalios, Karrie G.

53

Revisiting the dissociation between singing and speaking in expressive aphasia  

E-print Network

Revisiting the dissociation between singing and speaking in expressive aphasia Sylvie HeĂ?bert,1 Ame a severe expressive aphasia following a right-hemisphere stroke, but whose language comprehension from the operation of same mechanisms. Keywords: aphasia; melody intonation therapy; singing; songs

54

Brain (1982), 105,29-51 APHASIA IN A PRELINGUALLY  

E-print Network

Brain (1982), 105,29-51 APHASIA IN A PRELINGUALLY DEAF WOMAN by CHRISTINE CHIARELLO, ROBERT KNIGHT). Only a handful of cases of sign language aphasia have been recorded (Burr, 1905; Critchley, 1938 association areas, would subserve the decoding of sign language. Previous studies of sign language aphasia

Knight, Robert T.

55

Phonological Therapy in Jargon Aphasia: Effects on Naming and Neologisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Jargon aphasia is one of the most intractable forms of aphasia with limited recommendation on amelioration of associated naming difficulties and neologisms. The few naming therapy studies that exist in jargon aphasia have utilized either semantic or phonological approaches, but the results have been equivocal. Moreover, the effect of…

Bose, Arpita

2013-01-01

56

Social Participation through the Eyes of People with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Little is known about the way people with aphasia perceive their social participation and its influencing factors. Aims: To explore how people with aphasia perceive participation in society and to investigate influencing factors. Methods & Procedures: In this qualitative study thirteen persons with aphasia and twelve central caregivers…

Dalemans, Ruth J. P.; de Witte, Luc; Wade, Derick; van den Heuvel, Wim

2010-01-01

57

Aphasia  

MedlinePLUS

... an infection, or dementia. The disorder impairs the expression and understanding of language as well as reading ... examination includes the person's ability to speak, express ideas, converse socially, understand language, read, and write, as ...

58

September 8, 1998 Cognitive Communication Disorders After Traumatic  

E-print Network

. Furthermore, the adequacy of aphasia batteries as assessment tools for communication deficits and their effect to predict satisfactory communication outcomes, as determined by the Western Aphasia Battery. Yet, the patient's performance on the Western Aphasia Battery, after speech- language pathology intervention, does

Santner, Thomas

59

Training Undergraduate Students in Communication Sciences and Disorders As Conversational Partners for Persons with Aphasia  

E-print Network

for Persons with Aphasia This Educational Enhancement Grant was funded for the 2009-10 academic year with aphasia 2. Minimize discrepancy in services to University of Kentucky Aphasia Program (UKAP) clients with aphasia 4. Improve outcomes for UKAP clients 5. Provide "hands on" experience with clients with aphasia

Hayes, Jane E.

60

Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences 544 Adult Language Disorders: Aphasia & Right Hemisphere Disorders  

E-print Network

Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences 544 Adult Language Disorders: Aphasia & Right Hemisphere://beeson.web.arizona.edu/ Aphasia Research Project Website: http://web.me.com/pelagie1/Aphasia_Research_Project/ Aphasia Treatment; and the nature and treatment of aphasia, alexia, and agraphia, and right hemisphere disorders. Format: Students

61

Lithium batteries: Future batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main characteristics and applications of lithium batteries are reviewed. Miniature batteries for quartz crystal watches have been developed and fabricated in Switzerland since 1970. High technology systems like lithium batteries are largely used for their low auto-discharge during storage and for their high energy density. Two kinds of lithium batteries can be distinguished concerning their place in the watch: integrated batteries; and batteries placed between motion parts and the bottom of the watchcase. Lithium batteries are also used in pocket calculators, electronic modules for integrated circuits, telephone, control systems, electronic games, bank cards, and heart stimulators.

Reiche, Harald

62

Semantic Weight and Verb Retrieval in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals with agrammatic aphasia may have difficulty with verb production in comparison to nouns. Additionally, they may have greater difficulty producing verbs that have fewer semantic components (i.e., are semantically "light") compared to verbs that have greater semantic weight. A connectionist verb-production model proposed by Gordon and…

Barde, Laura H. F.; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Boronat, Consuelo B.

2006-01-01

63

Writing Treatment for Aphasia: A Texting Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Treatment studies have documented the therapeutic and functional value of lexical writing treatment for individuals with severe aphasia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such retraining could be accomplished using the typing feature of a cellular telephone, with the ultimate goal of using text messaging for…

Beeson, Pelagie M.; Higginson, Kristina; Rising, Kindle

2013-01-01

64

Connectionist diagnosis of lexical disorders in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In the cognitive neurolinguistic approach to lexical deficits in aphasia, impaired levels of processing are localised in a cognitive model. Model-oriented treatment may target these impaired components. Thus a precise assessment of the disorder is crucial. Connectionist models add to this by using computer simulation to specify the details of the functioning of these components. The connectionist semantic-phonological model

Stefanie Abel; Walter Huber; Gary S. Dell

2009-01-01

65

Accent Identification by Adults with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The UK is a diverse society where individuals regularly interact with speakers with different accents. Whilst there is a growing body of research on the impact of speaker accent on comprehension in people with aphasia, there is none which explores their ability to identify accents. This study investigated the ability of this group to identify the…

Newton, Caroline; Burns, Rebecca; Bruce, Carolyn

2013-01-01

66

Let's Talk about Stroke and Aphasia  

MedlinePLUS

... the garage” and it comes out “put the train in the house” or “widdle tee car ung sender plissen.” Thousands of alert, intelligent men and women are suddenly plunged into a world of jumbled communication because of aphasia. Are there different types of ...

67

Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical structures and…

Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

2003-01-01

68

Measuring Working Memory Deficits in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Many adults with aphasia demonstrate concomitant deficits in working memory (WM), but such deficits are difficult to quantify because of a lack of validated measures as well as the complex interdependence between language and WM. We examined the feasibility, reliability, and internal consistency of an "n"-back task for evaluating WM in…

Mayer, Jamie F.; Murray, Laura L.

2012-01-01

69

Counseling and Aphasia Treatment: Missed Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During clinical interactions between speech-language pathologists and adults with aphasia, a variety of emotional issues arise. The literature suggests that while counseling is within the scope of practice, SLPs tend to avoid emotional issues in therapy (A. Holland, 2007a). The precise mechanisms employed for circumventing emotional issues in…

Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Damico, Jack S.

2011-01-01

70

Temporal Processing Capabilities in Repetition Conduction Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the temporal resolution capacities of the central-auditory system in a subject (NP) suffering from repetition conduction aphasia. More specifically, the patient was asked to detect brief gaps between two stretches of broadband noise (gap detection task) and to evaluate the duration of two biphasic (WN-3) continuous noise…

Sidiropoulos, Kyriakos; Ackermann, Hermann; Wannke, Michael; Hertrich, Ingo

2010-01-01

71

Aphasia: Current Concepts in Theory and Practice.  

PubMed

Recent advances in neuroimaging contribute to a new insights regarding brain-behavior relationships and expand understanding of the functional neuroanatomy of language. Modern concepts of the functional neuroanatomy of language invoke rich and complex models of language comprehension and expression, such as dual stream networks. Increasingly, aphasia is seen as a disruption of cognitive processes underlying language. Rehabilitation of aphasia incorporates evidence based and person-centered approaches. Novel techniques, such as methods of delivering cortical brain stimulation to modulate cortical excitability, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation, are just beginning to be explored. In this review, we discuss the historical context of the foundations of neuroscientific approaches to language. We sample the emergent theoretical models of the neural substrates of language and cognitive processes underlying aphasia that contribute to more refined and nuanced concepts of language. Current concepts of aphasia rehabilitation are reviewed, including the promising role of cortical stimulation as an adjunct to behavioral therapy and changes in therapeutic approaches based on principles of neuroplasticity and evidence-based/person-centered practice to optimize functional outcomes. PMID:24904925

Tippett, Donna C; Niparko, John K; Hillis, Argye E

2014-01-01

72

Cerebral glucose metabolism in Wernicke's, Broca's, and conduction aphasia  

SciTech Connect

Cerebral glucose metabolism was evaluated in patients with either Wernicke's (N = 7), Broca's (N = 11), or conduction (N = 10) aphasia using /sup 18/F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose with positron emission tomography. The three aphasic syndromes differed in the degree of left-to-right frontal metabolic asymmetry, with Broca's aphasia showing severe asymmetry and Wernicke's aphasia mild-to-moderate metabolic asymmetry, while patients with conduction aphasia were metabolically symmetric. On the other hand, the three syndromes showed the same degree of metabolic decline in the left temporal region. The parietal region appeared to separate conduction aphasia from both Broca's and Wernicke's aphasias. Common aphasic features in the three syndromes appear to be due to common changes in the temporal region, while unique features were associated with frontal and parietal metabolic differences.

Metter, E.J.; Kempler, D.; Jackson, C.; Hanson, W.R.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Phelps, M.E.

1989-01-01

73

Walking in Anothers Shoes: Aphasia Emulation Software Joshua Hailpern, Marina Danilevsky, Karrie Karahalios  

E-print Network

Walking in Anothers Shoes: Aphasia Emulation Software Joshua Hailpern, Marina Danilevsky, Karrie to daily struggles brought on by an acquired language disorder such as Aphasia. This work seeks to shed new light on aphasia by creating an instant message client which emulates the effects of aphasia. The goal

Karahalios, Karrie G.

74

Systematicity and Specialization in Semantics: A Computational Account of Optic Aphasia  

E-print Network

Systematicity and Specialization in Semantics: A Computational Account of Optic Aphasia Sean Mc. We account for the critical aspects of optic aphasia in terms of the effects of damage problem comes from modality-specific naming deficits, such as optic aphasia. Optic aphasia is a rel

Plaut, David C.

75

Binding in agrammatic aphasia: Processing to comprehension.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Theories of comprehension deficits in Broca's aphasia have largely been based on the pattern of deficit found with movement constructions. However, some studies have found comprehension deficits with binding constructions, which do not involve movement. AIMS: This study investigates online processing and offline comprehension of binding constructions, such as reflexive (e.g., himself) and pronoun (e.g., him) constructions in unimpaired and aphasic individuals in an attempt to evaluate theories of agrammatic comprehension. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: Participants were eight individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia and eight age-matched unimpaired individuals. We used eyetracking to examine online processing of binding constructions while participants listened to stories. Offline comprehension was also tested. OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: The eye movement data showed that individuals with Broca's aphasia were able to automatically process the correct antecedent of reflexives and pronouns. In addition, their syntactic processing of binding was not delayed compared to normal controls. Nevertheless, offline comprehension of both pronouns and reflexives was significantly impaired compared to the control participants. This comprehension failure was reflected in the aphasic participants' eye movements at sentence end, where fixations to the competitor increased. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that comprehension difficulties with binding constructions seen in agrammatic aphasic patients are not due to a deficit in automatic syntactic processing or delayed processing. Rather, they point to a possible deficit in lexical integration. PMID:20535243

Janet Choy, Jungwon; Thompson, Cynthia K

2010-05-01

76

Quantitating Severity and Progression in Primary Progressive Aphasia  

E-print Network

Quantitating Severity and Progression in Primary Progressive Aphasia Bradford C. Dickerson Received+Business Media, LLC 2011 Abstract Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is an insidi- ously progressive clinical to develop treatments have been hampered by the lack of standardized methods to monitor progression

Dickerson, Brad

77

ACES: Promoting Empathy Towards Aphasia Through Language Distortion Emulation Software  

E-print Network

.0 General, K4.2 [Social Issues]: Assistive technologies for persons with disabilities General Terms living with aphasia [17]. Aphasia is an acquired language disorder that impairs expressive and receptive that are difficult to name, having difficulty organizing coherent strings of words, and making multiple attempts

Karahalios, Karrie G.

78

Principles Underlying the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) and Its Uses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) is designed to be objective (so it can be administered by a lay native speaker of the language) and equivalent across languages (to allow for a comparison between the languages of a given patient as well as across patients from different institutions). It has been used not only with aphasia but also with any…

Paradis, Michel

2011-01-01

79

A Comparison between Written and Spoken Narratives in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present study was to explore how a personal narrative told by a group of eight persons with aphasia differed between written and spoken language, and to compare this with findings from 10 participants in a reference group. The stories were analysed through holistic assessments made by 60 participants without experience of aphasia

Behrns, Ingrid; Wengelin, Asa; Broberg, Malin; Hartelius, Lena

2009-01-01

80

Paraphasias in Multilingual Conduction Aphasia: A Single Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conduction aphasia is a type of fluent aphasia, which is caused due to the damage to the supramarginal gyrus and arcuate fasciculus resulting in repetition disturbance. It has been speculated that linguistic system in bilingual aphasics can breakdown in different ways across languages. There is a lack of detailed linguistic studies in specific…

Hegde, Medha; Bhat, Sapna

2007-01-01

81

Aphasia, Apraxia, and Agnosia in the Diagnosis of Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association of aphasia, apraxia and agnosia with cortical but not subcortical dementias, is a widely held belief. The purpose of the present study was to determine the frequency of aphasia, apraxia, and agnosia in groups of cortical and subcortical dementia patients, and to assess the diagnostic utility of these symptoms. Subjects were 64 patients with subcortical dementias (Parkinson's disease

Joel H. Kramer; Jennifer M. Duffy

1996-01-01

82

Measuring and Inducing Brain Plasticity in Chronic Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brain plasticity associated with anomia recovery in aphasia is poorly understood. Here, I review four recent studies from my lab that focused on brain modulation associated with long-term anomia outcome, its behavioral treatment, and the use of transcranial brain stimulation to enhance anomia treatment success in individuals with chronic aphasia

Fridriksson, Julius

2011-01-01

83

Informed consent and aphasia: Evidence of pitfalls in the process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Persons with aphasia are particularly vulnerable when taking part in research studies. The process of informed consent (IC) depends on a number of factors, which may be compromised in aphasia. Very little research has been conducted on the process, and the issue is often neglected in published research.Aims: The aim of the research was to identify potential facilitators and

Claire Penn; Tali Frankel; Jennifer Watermeyer; Madeleine Müller

2009-01-01

84

Mild Aphasia: Is This the Place for an Argument?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Individuals with mild aphasia often report significant disruption to their communication despite seemingly minor impairment. This study explored this phenomenon through examining conversations of a person with mild aphasia engaging in argumentation--a skill she felt had significantly deteriorated after her stroke. Method: A person with…

Armstrong, Elizabeth; Fox, Sarah; Wilkinson, Ray

2013-01-01

85

Management of Discourse in Group Therapy for Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative study of group therapy for aphasia was undertaken in order to discover interaction patterns and discourse management strategies that help define "social" or "conversation" group therapy for aphasia. Specifically, an analysis of the discourse of clients and therapists was conducted to identify patterns across therapists and settings.…

Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Elman, Roberta J.; Holland, Audrey L.; Damico, Jack S.

2007-01-01

86

Insights from the Aphasia Project: Designing Technology For and With People who have Aphasia  

E-print Network

even if it is provided for them. The use of alternative modes of communication suggests the potential or augmentative communication (AAC) systems only when efforts to regain natural speech have failed, so for a user population with significant communication impairments. We describe the Aphasia Project and our

Findlater, Leah

87

What People Living with Aphasia Think about the Availability of Aphasia Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Obtaining health information and resources can influence an individual's (a) access to services, (b) interactions with health care providers, and (c) ability to manage one's own health needs. The purpose of this study was to gather the perceptions of consumers living with aphasia about resource availability and information needs. Method:…

Hinckley, Jacqueline J.; Hasselkus, Amy; Ganzfried, Ellayne

2013-01-01

88

The anterior temporal lobes support residual comprehension in Wernicke's aphasia.  

PubMed

Wernicke's aphasia occurs after a stroke to classical language comprehension regions in the left temporoparietal cortex. Consequently, auditory-verbal comprehension is significantly impaired in Wernicke's aphasia but the capacity to comprehend visually presented materials (written words and pictures) is partially spared. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural basis of written word and picture semantic processing in Wernicke's aphasia, with the wider aim of examining how the semantic system is altered after damage to the classical comprehension regions. Twelve participants with chronic Wernicke's aphasia and 12 control participants performed semantic animate-inanimate judgements and a visual height judgement baseline task. Whole brain and region of interest analysis in Wernicke's aphasia and control participants found that semantic judgements were underpinned by activation in the ventral and anterior temporal lobes bilaterally. The Wernicke's aphasia group displayed an 'over-activation' in comparison with control participants, indicating that anterior temporal lobe regions become increasingly influential following reduction in posterior semantic resources. Semantic processing of written words in Wernicke's aphasia was additionally supported by recruitment of the right anterior superior temporal lobe, a region previously associated with recovery from auditory-verbal comprehension impairments. Overall, the results provide support for models in which the anterior temporal lobes are crucial for multimodal semantic processing and that these regions may be accessed without support from classic posterior comprehension regions. PMID:24519979

Robson, Holly; Zahn, Roland; Keidel, James L; Binney, Richard J; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

2014-03-01

89

Pathology in primary progressive aphasia syndromes.  

PubMed

'Primary progressive aphasia' (PPA) refers to core linguistic disorders caused by neurodegenerative disease. Three main PPA variants are recognized: nonfluent/agrammatic, semantic and logopenic. Correctly classifying patients during life according to the underlying histopathology will become increasingly important as cause-specific treatments become available. This article reviews clinical and histopathological studies of PPA, with particular reference to updated PPA classifications. Currently, one-to-one relationships do not exist within PPA subtypes. The semantic variant has the best correspondence between the clinical syndrome and the underlying pathological cause and the logopenic variant the worst correspondence. The use of future biomarkers should facilitate accurate clinicopathological correlation of patients during life. PMID:24952480

Harris, Jennifer M; Jones, Matthew

2014-08-01

90

Testing Assumptions in Computational Theories of Aphasia Wheeler Ruml, Alfonso Caramazza, Jennifer R. Shelton, and Doriana Chialant  

E-print Network

Testing Assumptions in Computational Theories of Aphasia Wheeler Ruml, Alfonso Caramazza, Jennifer: computational modeling; aphasia; lexical access; computational neuropsychology. The promise of computational model of normal processing and damage in aphasia. One could even imagine using simula- tion results

Caramazza, Alfonso

91

Parallel Recovery in a Trilingual Speaker: The Use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test as a Diagnostic Complement to the Comprehensive Aphasia Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We illustrate the value of the Bilingual Aphasia Test in the diagnostic assessment of a trilingual speaker post-stroke living in England for whom English was a non-native language. The Comprehensive Aphasia Test is routinely used to assess patients in English, but only in combination with the Bilingual Aphasia Test is it possible and practical to…

Green, David W.; Ruffle, Louise; Grogan, Alice; Ali, Nilufa; Ramsden, Sue; Schofield, Tom; Leff, Alex P.; Crinion, Jenny; Price, Cathy J.

2011-01-01

92

Writing Treatment for Aphasia: A Texting Approach  

PubMed Central

Purpose Treatment studies have documented the therapeutic and functional value of lexical writing treatment for individuals with severe aphasia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such retraining could be accomplished using the typing feature of a cellular telephone, with the ultimate goal of using text messaging for communication. Method A 31-year-old man with persistent Broca’s aphasia, severe apraxia of speech, global dysgraphia, and right hemiparesis participated in this study. Using a multiple baseline design, relearning and maintenance of single-word spellings (and oral naming) of targeted items were examined in response to traditional Copy and Recall Treatment (CART) for handwriting and a new paradigm using 1-handed typing on a cell phone keyboard (i.e., a texting version of CART referred to as T-CART). Results Marked improvements were documented in spelling and spoken naming trained in either modality, with stronger maintenance for handwriting than cell phone typing. Training resulted in functional use of texting that continued for 2 years after treatment. Conclusions These results suggest that orthographic retraining using a cell phone keyboard has the potential to improve spelling knowledge and provide a means to improve functional communication skills. Combined training with both handwriting and cell phone typing should be considered in order to maximize the durability of treatment effects. PMID:23811474

Beeson, Pélagie M.; Higginson, Kristina; Rising, Kindle

2014-01-01

93

A Computational Account of Bilingual Aphasia Rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Current research on bilingual aphasia highlights the paucity in recommendations for optimal rehabilitation for bilingual aphasic patients (Roberts & Kiran, 2007; Edmonds & Kiran, 2006). In this paper, we have developed a computational model to simulate an English-Spanish bilingual language system in which language representations can vary by age of acquisition (AoA) and relative proficiency in the two languages to model individual participants. This model is subsequently lesioned by varying connection strengths between the semantic and phonological networks and retrained based on individual patient demographic information to evaluate whether or not the model’s prediction of rehabilitation matched the actual treatment outcome. In most cases the model comes close to the target performance subsequent to language therapy in the language trained, indicating the validity of this model in simulating rehabilitation of naming impairment in bilingual aphasia. Additionally, the amount of cross-language transfer is limited both in the patient performance and in the model’s predictions and is dependent on that specific patient’s AoA, language exposure and language impairment. It also suggests how well alternative treatment scenarios would have fared, including some cases where the alternative would have done better. Overall, the study suggests how computational modeling could be used in the future to design customized treatment recipes that result in better recovery than is currently possible. PMID:24600315

Kiran, Swathi; Grasemann, Uli; Sandberg, Chaleece; Miikkulainen, Risto

2012-01-01

94

Spelling Intervention in Post-Stroke Aphasia and Primary Progressive Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Spelling—a core language skill—is commonly affected in neurological diseases such as stroke and Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA). We present two case studies of the same spelling therapy (learning of phoneme-to-grapheme correspondences with help from key words) in two participants: one who had a stroke and one with PPA (logopenic variant). Our study highlights similarities and differences in the time course of each indivdual’s therapy. The study evaluates the effectiveness and generalization of treatment in each case, i.e. whether the treatment affected the trained items and/or untrained items, and whether or not the treatment gains were maintained after the end of therapy. Both participants were able to learn associations between phonemes and graphemes as well as between phonemes and words. Reliable generalization to untrained words was shown only for the participant with post-stroke aphasia, but we were not able to test generalization to untrained words in the individual with PPA. The same spelling therapy followed a different time course in each case. The participant with post-stroke aphasia showed a lasting effect of improved spelling, but we were unable to assess maintenance of improvement in the participant with PPA. We discuss these differences in light of the underlying nature of each disease. PMID:22713403

Tsapkini, Kyrana; Hillis, Argye E.

2012-01-01

95

[Specificities of the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia.  

PubMed

The logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia is a syndrome with neuropsychological and linguistic specificities, including phonological loop impairment for which diagnosis is currently mainly based on the exclusion of the two other variants, semantic and nonfluent/agrammatic primary progressive aphasia. The syndrome may be underdiagnosed due (1) to mild language difficulties during the early stages of the disease or (2) to being mistaken for mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease when the evaluation of episodic memory is based on verbal material and (3) finally, it is not uncommon that the disorders are attributed to psychiatric co-morbidities such as, for example, anxiety. Moreover, compared to other variants of primary progressive aphasia, brain abnormalities are different. The left temporoparietal junction is initially affected. Neuropathology and biomarkers (cerebrospinal fluid, molecular amyloid nuclear imaging) frequently reveal Alzheimer's disease. Consequently this variant of primary progressive aphasia does not fall under the traditional concept of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. These distinctive features highlight the utility of correct diagnosis, classification, and use of biomarkers to show the neuropathological processes underlying logopenic primary progressive aphasia. The logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia is a specific form of Alzheimer's disease frequently presenting a rapid decline; specific linguistic therapies are needed. Further investigation of this syndrome is needed to refine screening, improve diagnostic criteria and better understand the epidemiology and the biological mechanisms involved. PMID:25444173

Magnin, E; Teichmann, M; Martinaud, O; Moreaud, O; Ryff, I; Belliard, S; Pariente, J; Moulin, T; Vandel, P; Démonet, J-F

2014-10-13

96

Research with rTMS in the treatment of aphasia  

PubMed Central

This review of our research with rTMS to treat aphasia contains four parts: Part 1 reviews functional brain imaging studies related to recovery of language in aphasia with emphasis on nonfluent aphasia. Part 2 presents the rationale for using rTMS to treat nonfluent aphasia patients (based on results from functional imaging studies). Part 2 also reviews our current rTMS treatment protocol used with nonfluent aphasia patients, and our functional imaging results from overt naming fMRI scans, obtained pre- and post- a series of rTMS treatments. Part 3 presents results from a pilot study where rTMS treatments were followed immediately by constraint-induced language therapy (CILT). Part 4 reviews our diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study that examined white matter connections between the horizontal, midportion of the arcuate fasciculus (hAF) to different parts within Broca’s area (pars triangularis, PTr; pars opercularis, POp), and the ventral premotor cortex (vPMC) in the RH and in the LH. Part 4 also addresses some of the possible mechanisms involved with improved naming and speech, following rTMS with nonfluent aphasia patients. PMID:20714075

Naeser, Margaret A.; Martin, Paula I; Treglia, Ethan; Ho, Michael; Kaplan, Elina; Bashir, Shahid; Hamilton, Roy; Coslett, H. Branch; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

2013-01-01

97

The Nature of Lexical-Semantic Access in Bilingual Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Background. Despite a growing clinical need, there are no clear guidelines on assessment of lexical access in the two languages in individuals with bilingual aphasia. Objective. In this study, we examined the influence of language proficiency on three tasks requiring lexical access in English and Spanish bilingual normal controls and in bilingual individuals with aphasia. Methods. 12 neurologically healthy Spanish-English bilinguals and 10 Spanish-English bilinguals with aphasia participated in the study. All participants completed three lexical retrieval tasks: two picture-naming tasks (BNT, BPNT) and a category generation (CG) task. Results. This study found that across all tasks, the greatest predictors for performance were the effect of group and language ability rating (LAR). Bilingual controls had a greater score or produced more correct responses than participants with bilingual aphasia across all tasks. The results of our study also indicate that normal controls and bilinguals with aphasia make similar types of errors in both English and Spanish and develop similar clustering strategies despite significant performance differences between the groups. Conclusions. Differences between bilingual patients and controls demonstrate a fundamental lexical retrieval deficit in bilingual individuals with aphasia, but one that is further influenced by language proficiency in the two languages. PMID:24825956

Kiran, Swathi; Balachandran, Isabel; Lucas, Jason

2014-01-01

98

Use of the Progressive Aphasia Severity Scale (PASS) in monitoring speech and language status in PPA  

PubMed Central

Background Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a devastating neurodegenerative syndrome involving the gradual development of aphasia, slowly impairing the patient’s ability to communicate. Pharmaceutical treatments do not currently exist and intervention often focuses on speech-language behavioral therapies, although further investigation is warranted to determine how best to harness functional benefits. Efforts to develop pharmaceutical and behavioral treatments have been hindered by a lack of standardized methods to monitor disease progression and treatment efficacy. Aims Here we describe our current approach to monitoring progression of PPA, including the development and applications of a novel clinical instrument for this purpose, the Progressive Aphasia Severity Scale (PASS). We also outline some of the issues related to initial evaluation and longitudinal monitoring of PPA. Methods & Procedures In our clinical and research practice we perform initial and follow-up assessments of PPA patients using a multi-faceted approach. In addition to standardized assessment measures, we use the PASS to rate presence and severity of symptoms across distinct domains of speech, language, and functional and pragmatic aspects of communication. Ratings are made using the clinician’s best judgment, integrating information from patient test performance in the office as well as a companion’s description of routine daily functioning. Outcomes & Results Monitoring symptom characteristics and severity with the PASS can assist in developing behavioral therapies, planning treatment goals, and counseling patients and families on clinical status and prognosis. The PASS also has potential to advance the implementation of PPA clinical trials. Conclusions PPA patients display heterogeneous language profiles that change over time given the progressive nature of the disease. The monitoring of symptom progression is therefore crucial to ensure that proposed treatments are appropriate at any given stage, including speech-language therapy and potentially pharmaceutical treatments once these become available. Because of the discrepancy that can exist between a patient’s daily functioning and standardized test performance, we believe a comprehensive assessment and monitoring battery must include performance-based instruments, interviews with the patient and partner, questionnaires about functioning in daily life, and measures of clinician judgment. We hope that our clinician judgment-based rating scale described here will be a valuable addition to the PPA assessment and monitoring battery. PMID:25419031

Sapolsky, Daisy; Domoto-Reilly, Kimiko; Dickerson, Bradford C.

2014-01-01

99

Lothian assessment for screening cognition in aphasia (LASCA): A new non verbal assessment of cognition.   

E-print Network

Post stroke aphasia often results in cognitive dysfunction affecting the daily functioning of patients. At present there are no well established screening measures for evaluation the cognitive problems with aphasia. As most of the cognitive measures...

Faiz, Ayesha

2012-08-31

100

Battery seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a battery seal comprising a plug of air-tight material which fits within an open end of a battery jacket and which has a layer of sealant on at least one of its surfaces which face the interior of the battery. The battery jacket is comprised of a material having sufficiently elastic properties to cause the jacket to

Van Dyke

1987-01-01

101

Biomarkers in the primary progressive aphasias  

PubMed Central

Background Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a progressive disorder of language that is increasingly recognised as an important presentation of a specific spectrum of neurodegenerative conditions. Aims In an era of etiologically specific treatments for neurodegenerative conditions, it is crucial to establish the histopathologic basis for PPA. In this review, I discuss biomarkers for identifying the pathology underlying PPA. Main Contribution Clinical syndromes suggest a probabilistic association between a specific PPA variant and an underlying pathology, but there are also many exceptions. A considerable body of work with biomarkers is now emerging as an important addition to clinical diagnosis. I review genetic, neuroimaging and biofluid studies that can help determine the pathologic basis for PPA. Conclusions Together with careful clinical examination, there is great promise that supplemental biomarker assessments will lead to accurate diagnosis of the pathology associated with PPA during life and serve as the basis for clinical trials in this spectrum of disease.

Grossman, Murray

2014-01-01

102

Hameau, S. & Kpke, B. (2011). Cross-language transfer following monolingual cognate-based treatment in trilingual aphasia: a case study. Sciences of Aphasia, SOA 12, Barcelona, September 1-5.  

E-print Network

cognate-based treatment in trilingual aphasia: a case study. Sciences of Aphasia-based treatment in trilingual aphasia: a case study Solène Hameau and Barbara Köpke Octogone-Lordat, Université patients with aphasia. According to Edmonds & Kiran (2006), transfer is more likely to occur

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

103

Correlation of Aphasia and\\/or Neglect with Cortical Infarction in a Subpopulation of RANTTAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classically in neurology, aphasia and neglect were accepted as reliable markers of cortical lesions. The actual prognostic values of aphasia and neglect have yet to be formally tested. This analysis sought to determine the predictive accuracy of aphasia and\\/or neglect in acute stroke for cortical infarction. Data from the RANTTAS investigation of tirilazad mesylate in stroke patients were reanalyzed, comparing

Bradford Burke Worrall; Elana Farace; Argye E. Hillis; R. Kent Hutson; Robert Wityk; Jeffrey L. Saver; Karen C. Johnston; E. Clarke Haley

2001-01-01

104

Conversational use of writing in severe aphasia: A group treatment approach  

E-print Network

Conversational use of writing in severe aphasia: A group treatment approach Natalie S. Clausen the ability of individuals with severe aphasia to relearn the spelling of target words so that written & Procedures: Four individuals with chronic, severe aphasia and agraphia received copy and recall treatment

105

Systematicity and Specialization in Semantics: A Computational Account of Optic Aphasia  

E-print Network

Systematicity and Specialization in Semantics: A Computational Account of Optic Aphasia Sean Mc-specific naming deficits, such as optic aphasia, have been taken as evidence that semantics is organized: Performance of brain-damaged patients with modality-specific naming disorders (e.g., optic aphasia) (Gil et al

Plaut, David C.

106

The Participatory Design of a Sound and Image Enhanced Daily Planner for People with Aphasia  

E-print Network

The Participatory Design of a Sound and Image Enhanced Daily Planner for People with Aphasia Karyn of Audiology and Speech Sciences University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada aphasia-ubc@cs.ubc.ca Engineering and Applied Sciences± Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA aphasia-ubc@cs.ubc.ca Abstract

McGrenere, Joanna

107

Computer-Based Script Training for Aphasia: Emerging Themes from Post-Treatment Interviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents results of post-treatment interviews following computer-based script training for persons with chronic aphasia. Each of the 23 participants received 9 weeks of AphasiaScripts training. Post-treatment interviews were conducted with the person with aphasia and/or a significant other person. The 23 interviews yielded 584 coded…

Cherney, Leora R.; Halper, Anita S.; Kaye, Rosalind C.

2011-01-01

108

Automatic speech recognition in the diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia Kathleen Fraser1  

E-print Network

Automatic speech recognition in the diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia Kathleen Fraser1 participants with semantic dementia (SD), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), and healthy con- trols. We of the clas- sifiers. Index Terms: automatic speech recognition, classification, pro- gressive aphasia 1

Penn, Gerald

109

Changes in N400 topography following intensive speech language therapy for individuals with aphasia  

E-print Network

Changes in N400 topography following intensive speech language therapy for individuals with aphasia f o Article history: Accepted 23 June 2012 Available online xxxx Keywords: Aphasia ERP N400 aphasia therapy on the N400, an electrophysiological index of lexical-semantic processing. Immediately

110

Writing Treatment for Aphasia: A Texting Approach Pe lagie M. Beeson,a  

E-print Network

Article Writing Treatment for Aphasia: A Texting Approach Pe´ lagie M. Beeson,a Kristina Higginson writing treatment for individuals with severe aphasia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether of using text messaging for communication. Method: A 31-year-old man with persistent Broca's aphasia

111

BRAIN ORGANIZATION: CLUES FROM APHASIA (NIDCD00201) Publications stemming from research under the grant  

E-print Network

BRAIN ORGANIZATION: CLUES FROM APHASIA (NIDCD00201) Publications stemming from research under of aphasia. In F. Boller & J. Grafman (Series Eds.) & R.S. Berndt (Vol. Ed.), [CD-ROM] & Handbook of neuropsychology: Vol. 3. Language and Aphasia (2nd ed. pp. 31-50). Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Hickok, G

Bellugi, Ursula

112

Decoding Speech for Understanding and Treating Aphasia Brian N. Pasley*,1 and Robert T. Knight*,,  

E-print Network

Decoding Speech for Understanding and Treating Aphasia Brian N. Pasley*,1 and Robert T. Knight, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA Abstract Aphasia is an acquired language disorder of this approach are discussed in the context of applications to understanding the neural basis of aphasia symptoms

Knight, Robert T.

113

Comparison of different feature sets for identification of variants in progressive aphasia  

E-print Network

Comparison of different feature sets for identification of variants in progressive aphasia Kathleen the narrative speech of individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA). We examine several different types Introduction In some types of dementia, such as primary pro- gressive aphasia, language deficit is a core symp

Toronto, University of

114

BRAIN AND LANGUAGE 50, 225-239 (1995) Syntactic Processing in Aphasia  

E-print Network

BRAIN AND LANGUAGE 50, 225-239 (1995) Syntactic Processing in Aphasia DAVID SWINNEY University of syntactic processing in aphasia. Our data show that, like neurologically intact subjects, Wernicke bottleneck in Broca's aphasia and more generally suggest that syntactic comprehension limitations can

115

Participatory Design with Proxies: Developing a Desktop-PDA System to Support People with Aphasia  

E-print Network

Participatory Design with Proxies: Developing a Desktop-PDA System to Support People with Aphasia, BC V6T 1Z4 aphasia-ubc@cs.ubc.ca Rutgers University 96 Frelinghuysen Road Piscataway, NJ 08854 of a hybrid desktop-handheld system developed to support individuals with aphasia, a disorder which impairs

Pratt, Vaughan

116

Primary progressive aphasia New insights paving the way toward clinical research tools  

E-print Network

Primary progressive aphasia New insights paving the way toward clinical research tools Bradford C. Dickerson, MD Neurology® 2010;75:582­583 When a patient presents with acute aphasia, today's neurologist with progressive aphasia. Three articles in the current issue move us in this direction. Patients with primary

Dickerson, Brad

117

Pervasive Rehabilitation of Aphasia with an eXtensible Interactive System  

E-print Network

PRAXIS: Pervasive Rehabilitation of Aphasia with an eXtensible Interactive System Phase I: Design Rehabilitation of Aphasia with an eXtensible Interactive System: Phase I (PRAXIS) Supervisors: Mr. Mikael. _____________________ Kiernan Burke Date: #12;iii ABSTRACT PRAXIS: Pervasive Rehabilitation of Aphasia with an e

Boyer, Edmond

118

Hesitation and the Production of Verbal Paraphasias and Neologisms in Jargon Aphasia  

E-print Network

Hesitation and the Production of Verbal Paraphasias and Neologisms in Jargon Aphasia Universii in a phonotactically regular way. The implications for recovery patterns in jargon aphasia are discussed analyses are used to evaluate two explanations of the jargon aphasia syndrome current in the literature

Butterworth, Brian

119

Author's personal copy Theories of spoken word recognition deficits in Aphasia  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Theories of spoken word recognition deficits in Aphasia: Evidence from eye, Providence, RI 02908, USA e Boston University Harold Goodglass Aphasia Research Center at the VA Boston Available online 2 March 2011 Keywords: Spoken word recognition Aphasia Eye-tracking Computational models

120

Using text and acoustic features to diagnose progressive aphasia and its Kathleen C. Fraser1  

E-print Network

Using text and acoustic features to diagnose progressive aphasia and its subtypes Kathleen C.Rochon@utoronto.ca Abstract This paper presents experiments in automatically diagnosing primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and two of its subtypes, semantic dementia (SD) and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), from

Penn, Gerald

121

Positive Effects of Language Treatment for the Logopenic Variant of Primary Progressive Aphasia  

E-print Network

Positive Effects of Language Treatment for the Logopenic Variant of Primary Progressive Aphasia neurobiology of primary progres- sive aphasia (PPA) syndromes, relatively little attention has been directed the clinical features of such individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA), P. M. Beeson (*) :R. M. King

122

A multi-level approach to the analysis of narrative language in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several studies have shown that traditional standardised aphasia tests may not be sensitive enough to adequately assess linguistic deficits and recovery patterns in persons with aphasia. As a result, both functional and structural methods for the analysis of connected language samples from people with aphasia have been devised (see Armstrong, 2000; Prins & Bastiaanse, 2004).Aims: The present article focuses

Andrea Marini; Sara Andreetta; Silvana del Tin; Sergio Carlomagno

2011-01-01

123

Conceptualizing and Measuring Working Memory and its Relationship to Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Background General agreement exists in the literature that individuals with aphasia can exhibit a working memory deficit that contributes to their language processing impairments. Though conceptualized within different working memory frameworks, researchers have suggested that individuals with aphasia have limited working memory capacity, impaired attention-control processes as well as impaired inhibitory mechanisms. However, across studies investigating working memory ability in individuals with aphasia, different measures have been used to quantify their working memory ability and identify the relationship between working memory and language performance. Aims The primary objectives of this article are to (1) review current working memory theoretical frameworks, (2) review tasks used to measure working memory, and (3) discuss findings from studies that have investigated working memory as they relate to language processing in aphasia. Main Contribution Though findings have been consistent across studies investigating working memory ability in individuals with aphasia, discussion of how working memory is conceptualized and defined is often missing, as is discussion of results within a theoretical framework. This is critical, as working memory is conceptualized differently across the different theoretical frameworks. They differ in explaining what limits capacity and the source of individual differences as well as how information is encoded, maintained, and retrieved. When test methods are considered within a theoretical framework, specific hypotheses can be tested and stronger conclusions that are less susceptible to different interpretations can be made. Conclusions Working memory ability has been investigated in numerous studies with individuals with aphasia. To better understand the underlying cognitive constructs that contribute to the language deficits exhibited by individuals with aphasia, future investigations should operationally define the cognitive constructs of interest and discuss findings within theoretical frameworks. PMID:22639480

Wright, Heather Harris; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

2011-01-01

124

Quality of life measurement and outcome in aphasia  

PubMed Central

Background Quality of life (QL) can be defined as the individual’s perception of their own well-being. Aphasia is the most important potential consequence of stroke and has a profound effect on a patient’s life, causing emotional distress, depression, and social isolation, due to loss of language functions. Aims To draw up a QL questionnaire for aphasics (QLQA) focusing particularly on difficulties in interpersonal relationships and on the loss of independence as a result of language disorders. We reported the results of a psychometric evaluation of this measure. Moreover, we experimentally focused on the differences in QLQA between patients affected only by neurological motor impairment and hemiparetic patients with aphasia (PWA) in order to verify the specific role of aphasia on QL. We also explored if the QLQA is sensitive to the severity of aphasia and to the time elapsing from the stroke. Methods A total of 146 consecutive PWA and 37 control subjects were enrolled to evaluate the reliability (internal consistency and test–retest reliability) and validity of the QLQA, using standard psychometric methods. Patients were divided into acute (within 3 months since stroke) and chronic (beyond 3 months) groups, and into mild and severe according to the severity of aphasia. The experimental group of only acute PWA was compared to control subjects, with right hemispherical lesion and without aphasia in QLQA total and partial scores. Results The QLQA had good internal consistency and test–retest reliability. Acute and chronic PWA and mild and severe ones differed in QLQA total, communication, and autonomy subscales. No differences were found in psychological condition. Between aphasic and control patients, significant differences were found in all QLQA subscales. Conclusion The QLQA is a valid measure of QL in PWA, contributing to a better distinction between severe and mild aphasia, and it is sensitive also to the variations in QL depending on the time interval from stroke. PMID:24368886

Spaccavento, Simona; Craca, Angela; Del Prete, Marina; Falcone, Rosanna; Colucci, Antonia; Di Palma, Angela; Loverre, Anna

2014-01-01

125

Battery case  

SciTech Connect

A battery case for selectively housing batteries of different sizes has a housing dimensioned to receive the largest of the batteries and provided with an opening through which the batteries are insertable into the housing, and a battery holder is movable in the housing in the direction toward and away from the opening to effectively vary the space available in the housing for accommodating a battery between the holder and a lid which is engageable in the opening for closing the housing. Locking arms are pivotally mounted at the opposite sides of the housing and are selectively engageable with the holder for determining the positions of the latter relative to the housing, and battery size detectors are integral with the locking arms and project into the housing for engagement by a battery inserted therein so as to position the locking arms, and hence the holder, in dependence on the size of the inserted battery.

Kikuchi, H.

1984-02-14

126

A hierarchical fuzzy rule-based approach to aphasia diagnosis.  

PubMed

Aphasia diagnosis is a particularly challenging medical diagnostic task due to the linguistic uncertainty and vagueness, inconsistencies in the definition of aphasic syndromes, large number of measurements with imprecision, natural diversity and subjectivity in test objects as well as in opinions of experts who diagnose the disease. To efficiently address this diagnostic process, a hierarchical fuzzy rule-based structure is proposed here that considers the effect of different features of aphasia by statistical analysis in its construction. This approach can be efficient for diagnosis of aphasia and possibly other medical diagnostic applications due to its fuzzy and hierarchical reasoning construction. Initially, the symptoms of the disease which each consists of different features are analyzed statistically. The measured statistical parameters from the training set are then used to define membership functions and the fuzzy rules. The resulting two-layered fuzzy rule-based system is then compared with a back propagating feed-forward neural network for diagnosis of four Aphasia types: Anomic, Broca, Global and Wernicke. In order to reduce the number of required inputs, the technique is applied and compared on both comprehensive and spontaneous speech tests. Statistical t-test analysis confirms that the proposed approach uses fewer Aphasia features while also presenting a significant improvement in terms of accuracy. PMID:17293167

Akbarzadeh-T, Mohammad-R; Moshtagh-Khorasani, Majid

2007-10-01

127

Chapter 36: history of aphasia: from brain to language.  

PubMed

An historical overview is presented that focuses on the changes both in approach and topics with respect to language disturbances due to brain lesions. Early cases of language disorders were described without any theorizing about language or its relation to the brain. Also, three forms of speech disorder were distinguished: traulotes, psellotes and ischophonia, which are only marginally related to aphasia. In the 18th century some authors, in particular Gesner and Crichton, attempted to explain language disorders in terms of mental processes. The great debate on both the anatomical (Broca, Wernicke) and functional (Wernicke, Lichtheim) aspects of aphasia dominated late 19th century discussion of localization of function, leading to the development of what we now call the cognitive neurosciences. In this period, language processing was described in terms of a simple functional model of word recognition and production; linguistic principles played no role. At the beginning of the 20th century the discussion on language disorders waned due to a decrease of interest in the issue of localization; aphasia became primarily a clinical issue of how best to classify patients. In the second half of the 20th century, the field of aphasia developed rapidly due to studies performed at the Boston Aphasia Unit and, more importantly, to a change of orientation to linguistic notions of language structure, as introduced by Chomsky. PMID:19892139

Eling, Paul; Whitaker, Harry

2010-01-01

128

Wernicke's Aphasia Reflects a Combination of Acoustic-Phonological and Semantic Control Deficits: A Case-Series Comparison of Wernicke's Aphasia, Semantic Dementia and Semantic Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wernicke's aphasia (WA) is the classical neurological model of comprehension impairment and, as a result, the posterior temporal lobe is assumed to be critical to semantic cognition. This conclusion is potentially confused by (a) the existence of patient groups with semantic impairment following damage to other brain regions (semantic dementia and…

Robson, Holly; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

2012-01-01

129

The World Report on Disability as a blueprint for international, national, and local aphasia services.  

PubMed

This commentary aims to extend the debate of the lead article authors (Wylie, McAllister, Davidson, and Marshall, 2013) by translating the nine recommendations of the World Report on Disability into a plan of action for the aphasia community. Solutions for the advancement of aphasia science and services are presented at international (macro), national (meso), and local (micro) levels. Implications for speech-language pathologists and aphasia service delivery are discussed. An overarching call to action is the need for speech-language pathologists to support a strong and vibrant aphasia community at all levels, so that the voices of people with aphasia can be heard. PMID:23101515

Worrall, Linda E; Howe, Tami; O'Callaghan, Anna; Hill, Anne J; Rose, Miranda; Wallace, Sarah J; Rose, Tanya; Brown, Kyla; Power, Emma; O'Halloran, Robyn; Rohde, Alexia

2013-02-01

130

Parallel recovery in a trilingual speaker: the use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test as a diagnostic complement to the Comprehensive Aphasia Test  

PubMed Central

We illustrate the value of the Bilingual Aphasia Test in the diagnostic assessment of a trilingual speaker post-stroke living in England for whom English was a non-native language. The Comprehensive Aphasia Test is routinely used to assess patients in English but only in combination with the Bilingual Aphasia Test is it possible and practical to provide a fuller picture of the language impairment. We describe our test selection and the assessment it allows us to make. PMID:21453044

GREEN, DAVID W.; RUFFLE, LOUISE; GROGAN, ALICE; ALI, NILUFA; RAMSDEN, SUE; SCHOFIELD, TOM; LEFF, ALEX P.; CRINION, JENNY; PRICE, CATHY J.

2011-01-01

131

Steps to success with technology for individuals with aphasia.  

PubMed

This article discusses how the Snyder Center for Aphasia Life Enhancement, an aphasia center in Baltimore, MD, currently uses technology in its programming to empower individuals with aphasia to actively participate in communications with families, friends, and the community. We describe the steps used to promote successful use of technology in everyday life. This process includes: (1) identifying a client's strongest modality/modalities for communication; (2) matching the individual's strengths with their personal goals and preferences; (3) developing a way to determine personal goals for technology use; and (4) selecting and training use of technologies that will support them in achieving their goals. Three brief case studies are presented to demonstrate the process by which programs were judged to be "best fits" for each member, and permitted them to reach a self-chosen goal. Finally, the steps that promoted successful learning and generalization to everyday life are described. PMID:22851345

McCall, Denise

2012-08-01

132

Primary progressive aphasia: linguistic patterns and clinical variants.  

PubMed

We investigated whether primary progressive aphasias (PPA) reflect non-random degradation of linguistic dimensions that might be supported by different neural subsystems and to what extent this degradation contributes to the emergence of clinical entities: semantic (S), logopenic (L) and nonfluent (NF) aphasia; apraxia of speech was also considered if associated with language disorders (AOS/aph). Forty-two aphasic patients are reported. Two main definable patterns of linguistic deficits tended to emerge that corresponded with identifiable patterns of brain atrophy, and probably diseases: the S variant, which principally expresses the impact of a "deep" cognitive (semantic) disorder on language, and AOS/aph in which "peripheral" executive components play a significant role. By contrast, NF aphasia emerged as a heterogeneous variant due to disorganization of various dimensions within the linguistic domain, that assumes different patterns depending on the differential distribution of atrophy in the perisylvian regions. PMID:24974082

Silveri, Maria Caterina; Pravatŕ, Emanuele; Brita, Anna Clelia; Improta, Erika; Ciccarelli, Nicoletta; Rossi, Paola; Colosimo, Cesare

2014-08-01

133

FDG positron emission computed tomography in a study of aphasia  

SciTech Connect

Positron emission computed tomography (PECT) using 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) was used to investigate the correlations between clinical status, anatomy (as described by CT), and metabolism in five patients with stable aphasia resulting from ischemic cerebral infarction. Local cerebral metabolic activity was diminished in an area larger than the area of infarction demonstrated by CT. In one patient, FDG PECT revealed a metabolic lesion that probably caused the aphasic syndrome and was not apparent by CT. The data suggest that reliance on CT in delineating the extent of the brain lesion in aphasia or other neuropsychological defects can be misleading; FDG PECT may provide important additional information. Two patients with similar metabolic lesions had very different clinical syndromes, showing that even when currently available methods are combined, major gaps remain in clinicoanatomical correlations in aphasia.

Metter, E.J.; Wasterlain, C.G.; Kuhl, D.E.; Hanson, W.R.; Phelps, M.E.

1981-08-01

134

Capturing multidimensionality in stroke aphasia: mapping principal behavioural components to neural structures  

PubMed Central

Stroke aphasia is a multidimensional disorder in which patient profiles reflect variation along multiple behavioural continua. We present a novel approach to separating the principal aspects of chronic aphasic performance and isolating their neural bases. Principal components analysis was used to extract core factors underlying performance of 31 participants with chronic stroke aphasia on a large, detailed battery of behavioural assessments. The rotated principle components analysis revealed three key factors, which we labelled as phonology, semantic and executive/cognition on the basis of the common elements in the tests that loaded most strongly on each component. The phonology factor explained the most variance, followed by the semantic factor and then the executive-cognition factor. The use of principle components analysis rendered participants’ scores on these three factors orthogonal and therefore ideal for use as simultaneous continuous predictors in a voxel-based correlational methodology analysis of high resolution structural scans. Phonological processing ability was uniquely related to left posterior perisylvian regions including Heschl’s gyrus, posterior middle and superior temporal gyri and superior temporal sulcus, as well as the white matter underlying the posterior superior temporal gyrus. The semantic factor was uniquely related to left anterior middle temporal gyrus and the underlying temporal stem. The executive-cognition factor was not correlated selectively with the structural integrity of any particular region, as might be expected in light of the widely-distributed and multi-functional nature of the regions that support executive functions. The identified phonological and semantic areas align well with those highlighted by other methodologies such as functional neuroimaging and neurostimulation. The use of principle components analysis allowed us to characterize the neural bases of participants’ behavioural performance more robustly and selectively than the use of raw assessment scores or diagnostic classifications because principle components analysis extracts statistically unique, orthogonal behavioural components of interest. As such, in addition to improving our understanding of lesion–symptom mapping in stroke aphasia, the same approach could be used to clarify brain–behaviour relationships in other neurological disorders. PMID:25348632

Butler, Rebecca A.

2014-01-01

135

Can tDCS enhance treatment of aphasia after stroke?  

PubMed Central

Background Recent advances in the application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in healthy populations have led to the exploration of the technique as an adjuvant method to traditional speech therapies in patients with post-stroke aphasia. Aims The purpose of the review is: (i) to review the features of tDCS that make it an attractive tool for research and potential future use in clinical contexts; (ii) to describe recent studies exploring the facilitation of language performance using tDCS in post-stroke aphasia; (iii) to explore methodological considerations of tDCS that may be key to understanding tDCS in treatment of aphasia post stroke; and (iv) to highlight several caveats and outstanding questions that need to be addressed in future work. Main Contribution This review aims to highlight our current understanding of the methodological and theoretical issues surrounding the use of tDCS as an adjuvant tool in the treatment of language difficulties after stroke. Conclusions Preliminary evidence shows that tDCS may be a useful tool to complement treatment of aphasia, particularly for speech production in chronic stroke patients. To build on this exciting work, further systematic research is needed to understand the mechanisms of tDCS-induced effects, its application to current models of aphasia recovery, and the complex interactions between different stimulation parameters and language rehabilitation techniques. The potential of tDCS is to optimise language rehabilitation techniques and promote long-term recovery of language. A stimulating future for aphasia rehabilitation! PMID:23060684

Holland, Rachel; Crinion, Jenny

2011-01-01

136

Psycholinguistics of Aphasia Pharmacotherapy: Asking the Right Questions  

PubMed Central

Background Among the obstacles to demonstrating efficacy of pharmacological intervention for aphasia is quantifying patients’ responses to treatment in a statistically valid and reliable manner. In many of the review papers on this topic (e.g., Berthier et al., 2011; de Boissezon, Peran, de Boysson, & Démonet, 2007; Small & Llano, 2009), detailed discussions of various methodological problems are highlighted, with some suggestions on how these shortcomings should be addressed. Given this deep understanding of caveats associated with the experimental design of aphasia pharmacotherapy studies (e.g., Berthier et al., 2011), investigations continue to produce inconsistent results. Aim In this review paper we suggest that inclusion of theory-driven linguistic measures in aphasia pharmacotherapy studies would add an important step toward elucidating precise patterns of improvement in language performance resulting from pharmacotherapeutic intervention. Main Contribution We provide a brief review of the clinical approaches currently used in pharmacotherapy studies of aphasia, which often lack psycholinguistic grounding. We then present ways in which psycholinguistic models can complement this approach, offering a rationale for task selection, and as a result, lead to a better understanding of treatment effects. We then follow with an example of how such an integrative approach can be implemented in studies targeting stress reduction in people with aphasia, via beta-blocking agents, as a means to augment language performance, using the psycholinguistic framework of “linguistic anxiety” outlined in Cahana-Amitay et al, 2011 as our guideline. Conclusion We conclude that the incorporation of psycholinguistic models into aphasia pharmacotherapy studies can increase the resolution with which we can identify functional changes. PMID:24489425

Cahana-Amitay, Dalia; Albert, Martin L.; Oveis, Abigail

2013-01-01

137

Ammonia battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A deferred-action electro-chemical battery wherein inter-cell leakage is minimized is described. The individual cells of the battery are sealed from each other so that no electrolyte flow between the cells is possible except via a central stem through which the electrolyte is delivered to the cells for energizing the battery.

H. R. Smith; B. P. Sykes

1969-01-01

138

Grammatical category dissociation in multilingual aphasia.  

PubMed

Word retrieval deficits for specific grammatical categories, such as verbs versus nouns, occur as a consequence of brain damage. Such deficits are informative about the nature of lexical organization in the human brain. This study examined retrieval of grammatical categories across three languages in a trilingual person with aphasia who spoke Arabic, French, and English. In order to delineate the nature of word production difficulty, comprehension was tested, and a variety of concomitant lexical-semantic variables were analysed. The patient demonstrated a consistent noun-verb dissociation in picture naming and narrative speech, with severely impaired production of verbs across all three languages. The cross-linguistically similar noun-verb dissociation, coupled with little evidence of semantic impairment, suggests that (a) the patient has a true "nonsemantic" grammatical category specific deficit, and (b) lexical organization in multilingual speakers shares grammatical class information between languages. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the architecture of lexical organization in bilinguals. PMID:20830631

Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Waked, Arifi N

2010-03-01

139

Tracking Passive Sentence Comprehension in Agrammatic Aphasia.  

PubMed

People with agrammatic aphasia often experience greater difficulty comprehending passive compared to active sentences. The Trace Deletion Hypothesis (TDH; Grodzinsky, 2000) proposes that aphasic individuals cannot generate accurate syntactic representations of passive sentences and, hence, use an agent-first processing strategy which leads to at-chance performance. We tested this claim using the eyetracking-while-listening paradigm in order to reveal online processing routines. Ten agrammatic aphasic participants and 10 age-matched controls listened to passive and active sentences and performed a sentence-picture matching task (i.e., selecting between two pictures with reversed thematic roles), while their eye movements were monitored. Control participants' performance was at ceiling, whereas accuracy for the aphasic participants was above chance for active sentences and at chance for passive sentences. Further, for the control participants, the eye movement data showed an initial agent-first processing bias, followed by fixation on the correct picture in the vicinity of the verb in both active and passive sentences. However, the aphasic participants showed no evidence of agent-first processing, counter the predictions of the TDH. In addition, in active sentences, they reliably fixated the correct picture only at sentence offset, reflecting slowed processing. During passive sentence processing, fixations were at chance throughout the sentence, but different patterns were noted for correct and incorrect trials. These results are consistent with the proposal that agrammatic sentence comprehension failure involves lexical processing and/or lexical integration deficits. PMID:22043134

Meyer, Aaron M; Mack, Jennifer E; Thompson, Cynthia K

2012-01-01

140

Battery management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A battery management system is described, comprising: a main battery; main battery charging system means coupled to the main battery for charging the main battery during operation of the main battery charging system means; at least one auxiliary battery; primary switching means for coupling the auxiliary battery to a parallel configuration with the main battery charging system means and with

Albright

1993-01-01

141

Speech Errors in Progressive Non-Fluent Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature and frequency of speech production errors in neurodegenerative disease have not previously been precisely quantified. In the present study, 16 patients with a progressive form of non-fluent aphasia (PNFA) were asked to tell a story from a wordless children's picture book. Errors in production were classified as either phonemic,…

Ash, Sharon; McMillan, Corey; Gunawardena, Delani; Avants, Brian; Morgan, Brianna; Khan, Alea; Moore, Peachie; Gee, James; Grossman, Murray

2010-01-01

142

Pre-Lexical Disorders in Repetition Conduction Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the level of clinical speech/language evaluation, the repetition type of conduction aphasia is characterized by repetition difficulties concomitant with reduced short-term memory capacities, in the presence of fluent spontaneous speech as well as unimpaired naming and reading abilities. It is still unsettled which dysfunctions of the…

Sidiropoulos, Kyriakos; de Bleser, Ria; Ackermann, Hermann; Preilowski, Bruno

2008-01-01

143

Group Treatment for Aphasia Using Cooperative Learning Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cooperative group treatment for aphasia based on cooperative learning principles is designed to improve communication skills during small, two-member group interactions. The treatment involves teamwork incorporating positive interdependence, face-to-face promotive interaction, individual accountability, and group processing. Group size, treatment…

Avent, Jan

2004-01-01

144

Production of Modal and Negative Particles in Greek Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims at investigating the production of the Greek modal and negative particles by non-fluent aphasic patients. These particles belong to the highest part of the verb periphrasis, so they are likely to be impaired in non-fluent aphasia, according to some hypotheses about agrammatic language. Moreover, there is an agreement relation…

Koukoulioti, Vasiliki

2010-01-01

145

Script Training and Generalization for People with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine the effects and generalization of a modified script training intervention, delivered partly via videoconferencing, on dialogue scripts that were produced by 2 individuals with aphasia. Method: Each participant was trained on 2 personally relevant scripts. Intervention sessions occurred 3 times per week, with a combination of…

Goldberg, Samantha; Haley, Katarina L.; Jacks, Adam

2012-01-01

146

Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Three Individuals with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is evidence to suggest that people with aphasia (PWA) may have deficits in attention stemming from the inefficient allocation of resources. The inaccurate perception of task demand, or sense of effort, may underlie the misallocation of the available attention resources. Given the lack of treatment options for improving attention…

Orenstein, Ellen; Basilakos, Alexandra; Marshall, Rebecca Shisler

2012-01-01

147

Working Memory in Aphasia: Theory, Measures, and Clinical Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, researchers have suggested that deficits in working memory capacity contribute to language-processing difficulties observed in individuals with aphasia (e.g., I. Caspari, S. Parkinson, L. LaPointe, & R. Katz, 1998; R. A. Downey et al., 2004; N. Friedmann & A. Gvion, 2003; H. H. Wright, M. Newhoff, R. Downey, & S. Austermann, 2003). A…

Wright, Heather Harris; Shisler, Rebecca J.

2005-01-01

148

Elicitation of Specific Syntactic Structures in Primary Progressive Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) are impaired in syntactic production. Because most previous studies of expressive syntax in PPA have relied on quantitative analysis of connected speech samples, which is a relatively unconstrained task, it is not well understood which specific syntactic structures are most challenging for these…

DeLeon, Jessica; Gesierich, Benno; Besbris, Max; Ogar, Jennifer; Henry, Maya L.; Miller, Bruce L.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Wilson, Stephen M.

2012-01-01

149

Progranulin-Associated Primary Progressive Aphasia: A Distinct Phenotype?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The neuropsychological features of the primary progressive aphasia (PPA) syndromes continue to be defined. Here we describe a detailed neuropsychological case study of a patient with a mutation in the progranulin ("GRN") gene who presented with progressive word-finding difficulty. Key neuropsychological features in this case included gravely…

Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warrington, Elizabeth K.; Warren, Jason D.

2010-01-01

150

The Neural Basis of Syntactic Deficits in Primary Progressive Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) vary considerably in terms of which brain regions are impacted, as well as in the extent to which syntactic processing is impaired. Here we review the literature on the neural basis of syntactic deficits in PPA. Structural and functional imaging studies have most consistently associated syntactic…

Wilson, Stephen M.; Galantucci, Sebastiano; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

2012-01-01

151

Grammatical Category-Specific Deficits in Bilingual Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report the naming performance of an early and highly proficient Spanish-Catalan bilingual (JPG) suffering from Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA). JPG's performance revealed a grammatical category-specific deficit, with worse performance in naming verbs than nouns. This dissociation was present in oral and written naming and in his two…

Hernandez, Mireia; Cano, Agnes; Costa, Albert; Sebastian-Galles, Nuria; Juncadella, Montserrat; Gascon-Bayarri, Jordi

2008-01-01

152

Measuring Lexical Diversity in Narrative Discourse of People with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: A microlinguistic content analysis for assessing lexical semantics in people with aphasia (PWA) is lexical diversity (LD). Sophisticated techniques have been developed to measure LD. However, validity evidence for these methodologies when applied to the discourse of PWA is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four measures…

Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather H.; West, Thomas M.

2013-01-01

153

Analysis of VOT in Turkish Speakers with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies investigating voicing onset time (VOT) production by speakers with aphasia have shown that nonfluent aphasics show a deficit in the articulatory programming of speech sounds based on the range of VOT values produced by aphasic individuals. If the VOT value lies between the normal range of VOT for the voiced and voiceless categories, then…

Kopkalli-Yavuz, Handan; Mavis, Ilknur; Akyildiz, Didem

2011-01-01

154

Treatment of acquired aphasia: speech therapists and volunteers compared  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a multicentre trial comparing the effects of speech therapists and untrained volunteers on recovery from aphasia following stroke. One hundred and fifty-five patients entered the study and 96 completed it. Patients in both treatment groups improved, and there were no differences overall in the amount of progress made. A small subgroup of patients who started treatment

R David; P Enderby; D Bainton

1982-01-01

155

Gesturing by Speakers with Aphasia: How Does It Compare?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To study the independence of gesture and verbal language production. The authors assessed whether gesture can be semantically compensatory in cases of verbal language impairment and whether speakers with aphasia and control participants use similar depiction techniques in gesture. Method: The informativeness of gesture was assessed in 3…

Mol, Lisette; Krahmer, Emiel; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke

2013-01-01

156

Recurrent aphasia with subclinical bioelectric status epilepticus during sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a six years follow up of a 6 1\\/2 year-old boy with recurrent aphasia, sporadic emotional regression and a convulsive disorder. The electroencephalogram reading during sleep showed continuous, generalized, hypersynchronous activity without clinical evidence of seizure (“subclinical bioelectric status epilepticus”). Clinical, laboratory and instrumental data revealed no evidence of a morphological lesion of the brain, either spaceoccupying, inflammatory,

K. Kellermann; Kinderkrankenhaus der Stadt; H. Ewerbeck

1978-01-01

157

Identifying Behavioral Measures of Stress in Individuals with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To develop valid indicators of stress in individuals with aphasia (IWA) by examining the relationship between certain language variables (error frequency [EF] and word productivity [WP]) and cortisol reactivity. Method: Fourteen IWA and 10 controls participated in a speaking task. Salivary cortisol was collected pre- and posttask. WP and…

Laures-Gore, Jacqueline S.; DuBay, Michaela F.; Duff, Melissa C.; Buchanan, Tony W.

2010-01-01

158

Optic Aphasia: A Process of Interaction Between Vision and Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neurological syndrome, called in the literature either optic aphasia or visual anomia, is defined in principle as the inability to name visually presented objects, together with the preservation of both the ability to identify them by sight correctly and to name them when they are presented in another sensory modality. This syndrome was first described by Freund in 1889,

Marie-France Beauvois

1982-01-01

159

Are there susceptibility factors for primary progressive aphasia?  

PubMed Central

The determinants of selective vulnerability in neurodegenerative diseases remain elusive. The asymmetric loss of neurons in primary progressive aphasia offers a unique setting for addressing this question. Although no factor can yet account for the selective vulnerability of the left hemisphere language network to degenerative diseases, a few themes are emerging as potential targets of further investigation. PMID:23489582

Rogalski, Emily; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M.-Marsel

2013-01-01

160

The Vocational Rehabilitation Problems of the Patient with Aphasia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten authorities in the field of aphasia attended a 2-day workshop to discuss the vocational rehabilitation problems of the aphasic patient and to develop guidelines which could be used by the vocational rehabilitation counselor in planning rehabilitation. Presentations were made by L. Kaplan, D. McGeachy, M. Sarno, S. Ainsworth, R. L. Milisen, J.…

Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo.

161

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Intervention in Long-Term Aphasia Post-Stroke: The Experience from CHANT (Communication Hub for Aphasia in North Tyneside)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Despite recognition of the need for increased long-term support for people with aphasia following stroke, there remains limited evidence for effective service-level interventions. Aims: To evaluate the outcomes and experiences of people participating in the Communication Hub for Aphasia in North Tyneside (CHANT), a 2-year partnership…

Mumby, Katharyn; Whitworth, Anne

2012-01-01

162

power battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under hard acceleration or on a hill climb of (hybrid) electronic vehicles, the battery temperature would increase rapidly. High temperature decreases the battery cycle life, increases the thermal runaway, and even causes a battery to explode, that making the management of battery temperature an important consideration in the safety using of electronic vehicles. A study of increasing heat transfer area from the beginning design phase has been conducted to determine and enhance the heat dissipation on the battery surface. Both experiment and simulation methods were used to analyze the cooling performance under identical battery capacities and heights. Optimal external dimensions and cell sizes with the consideration of better battery workability was obtained from the analysis. The heat transfer coefficients were investigated in order to regulate the battery temperature under safety operating range. It was found that the temperature of the experiment battery would be controlled under safety critical when the cell was designed for 180 mm × 30 mm × 185 mm sizes and the surface heat transfer coefficient was 20 W m-2 K-1 at least.

Yunyun, Zhang; Guoqing, Zhang; Weixiong, Wu; Weixiong, Liang

2014-07-01

163

Paintable Battery  

PubMed Central

If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations. PMID:22745900

Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

2012-01-01

164

Paintable Battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations.

Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

2012-06-01

165

Paintable battery.  

PubMed

If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations. PMID:22745900

Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M

2012-01-01

166

Rosenbek, J., LaPointe, L, & Wertz, R. (1989) Aphasia: a clinical approach, Austin, Texas: Pro. Schuell, H., Jenkins, J., & JimenezPabon, E. (1964). Aphasia in adults: Diagnosis, prognosis,  

E-print Network

7 Rosenbek, J., LaPointe, L, & Wertz, R. (1989) Aphasia: a clinical approach, Austin, Texas: Pro. ed. Schuell, H., Jenkins, J., & Jimenez­Pabon, E. (1964). Aphasia in adults: Diagnosis, prognosis, Lincoln. Weisenberg, T. & McBride, K. (1935). Aphasia: A clinical and psychological study. New York

McCoy, Kathleen F.

167

Web based aphasia test using service oriented architecture (SOA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on an aphasia test for Spanish speakers which analyze the patient's basic resources of verbal communication, a web-enabled software was developed to automate its execution. A clinical database was designed as a complement, in order to evaluate the antecedents (risk factors, pharmacological and medical backgrounds, neurological or psychiatric symptoms, brain injury -anatomical and physiological characteristics, etc) which are necessary to carry out a multi-factor statistical analysis in different samples of patients. The automated test was developed following service oriented architecture and implemented in a web site which contains a tests suite, which would allow both integrating the aphasia test with other neuropsychological instruments and increasing the available site information for scientific research. The test design, the database and the study of its psychometric properties (validity, reliability and objectivity) were made in conjunction with neuropsychological researchers, who participate actively in the software design, based on the patients or other subjects of investigation feedback.

Voos, J. A.; Vigliecca, N. S.; Gonzalez, E. A.

2007-11-01

168

Frontotemporal dementia and primary progressive aphasia, a review  

PubMed Central

Frontotemporal dementias are neurodegenerative diseases in which symptoms of frontal and/or temporal lobe disease are the first signs of the illness, and as the diseases progress, they resemble a focal left hemisphere process such as stroke or traumatic brain injury, even more than a neurodegenerative disease. Over time, some patients develop a more generalized dementia. Four clinical subtypes characterize the predominant presentations of this illness: behavioral or frontal variant FTD, progressive nonfluent aphasia, semantic dementia, and logopenic primary progressive aphasia. These clinical variants correlate with regional patterns of atrophy on brain imaging studies such as MRI and PET scanning, as well as with biochemical and molecular genetic variants of the disorder. The treatment is as yet only symptomatic, but advances in molecular genetics promise new therapies. PMID:24966676

Kirshner, Howard S

2014-01-01

169

Conversation Therapy for Agrammatism: Exploring the Therapeutic Process of Engagement and Learning by a Person with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background & Aims: A recent systematic review of conversation training for communication partners of people with aphasia has shown that it is effective, and improves participation in conversation for people with chronic aphasia. Other research suggests that people with aphasia are better able to learn communication strategies in an environment…

Beckley, Firle; Best, Wendy; Johnson, Fiona; Edwards, Susan; Maxim, Jane; Beeke, Suzanne

2013-01-01

170

Using statistical parsing to detect agrammatic aphasia Kathleen C. Fraser1, Graeme Hirst1, Jed A. Meltzer2,  

E-print Network

Using statistical parsing to detect agrammatic aphasia Kathleen C. Fraser1, Graeme Hirst1, Jed A@research.baycrest.org {jennifer-mack-0,ckthom}@northwestern.edu Abstract Agrammatic aphasia is a serious language impairment which features can be used to train a classifier to accurately predict whether or not an individual has aphasia

Toronto, University of

171

The performance of neurologically normal bilingual speakers of Spanish and English on the short version of the Bilingual Aphasia Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The assessment of aphasia in bilingual speakers is complicated by the need to measure language impairment in each language, as well as defining how one language recovers in relation to another. The Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) is a criterion?referenced measure designed to provide the requisite data needed to measure the impairment of bilingual speakers with aphasia while minimising the

Maria L. Muńoz; Thomas P. Marquardt

2008-01-01

172

Manipulating hemispheric attentional mechanisms to modulate word retrieval in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Emerging evidence suggests that left hemisphere damage may create an attentional bias towards stimuli initially processed in the right hemisphere.Aims: The current study aimed to investigate whether this hemispheric attentional bias influences spoken word production in a picture–word interference task.Methods & Procedures: Two participants with aphasia and seven healthy controls named centrally presented pictures that were preceded by a

Sophia J. van Hees; Erin R. Smith; David A. Copland

2011-01-01

173

Effects of utterance length on lip kinematics in aphasia.  

PubMed

Most existing models of language production and speech motor control do not explicitly address how language requirements affect speech motor functions, as these domains are usually treated as separate and independent from one another. This investigation compared lip movements during bilabial closure between five individuals with mild aphasia and five age and gender-matched control speakers when the linguistic characteristics of the stimuli were varied by increasing the number of syllables. Upper and lower lip movement data were collected for mono-, bi- and tri-syllabic nonword sequences using an AG 100 EMMA system. Each task was performed under both normal and fast rate conditions. Single articulator kinematic parameters (peak velocity, amplitude, duration, and cyclic spatio-temporal index) were measured to characterize lip movements. Results revealed that compared to control speakers, individuals with aphasia showed significantly longer movement duration and lower movement stability for longer items (bi- and tri-syllables). Moreover, utterance length affected the lip kinematics, in that the monosyllables had smaller peak velocities, smaller amplitudes and shorter durations compared to bi- and trisyllables, and movement stability was lowest for the trisyllables. In addition, the rate-induced changes (smaller amplitude and shorter duration with increased rate) were most prominent for the short items (i.e., monosyllables). These findings provide further support for the notion that linguistic changes have an impact on the characteristics of speech movements, and that individuals with aphasia are more affected by such changes than control speakers. PMID:18440061

Bose, Arpita; van Lieshout, Pascal

2008-07-01

174

Group Effects of Instrumentality and Name Relation on Action Naming in Bilingual Anomic Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Verb production in sentences was investigated in two groups of late bilingual Greek-English speakers: individuals with anomic aphasia and a control group. Verb retrieval in sentences was significantly impaired in both languages for the individuals with anomic aphasia. Additional results revealed no effect of instrumentality on action naming in…

Kambanaros, Maria

2009-01-01

175

Verb retrieval in nonfluent aphasia: A replication of Edwards & Tucker, 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verb retrieval deficits are a common feature associated with aphasia. Verbs play a pivotal role in the grammatical construction of sentences. We hypothesise that an improvement in single verb retrieval will result in an improvement in grammatically well formed sentences. We discuss the effectiveness of a single verb treatment study for three people with nonfluent aphasia.The study design was intended

Clare McCann; John Doleman

2011-01-01

176

A Comparison of Aphasia Therapy Outcomes before and after a Very Early Rehabilitation Programme Following Stroke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Very early aphasia rehabilitation studies have shown mixed results. Differences in therapy intensity and therapy type contribute significantly to the equivocal results. Aims: To compare a standardized, prescribed very early aphasia therapy regimen with a historical usual care control group at therapy completion (4-5 weeks post-stroke)…

Godecke, Erin; Ciccone, Natalie A.; Granger, Andrew S.; Rai, Tapan; West, Deborah; Cream, Angela; Cartwright, Jade; Hankey, Graeme J.

2014-01-01

177

Use of the BAT with a Cantonese-Putonghua Speaker with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this article is to illustrate the use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) with a Cantonese-Putonghua speaker. We describe G, who is a relatively young Chinese bilingual speaker with aphasia. G's communication abilities in his L2, Putonghua, were impaired following brain damage. This impairment caused specific difficulties in…

Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Weekes, Brendan Stuart

2011-01-01

178

Using mobile technology with individuals with aphasia: native iPad features and everyday apps.  

PubMed

The use of mobile technology, including smartphones and tablet devices, is a growing trend among adults nationwide, and its potential use in aphasia rehabilitation has generated widespread interest. Despite this trend, adults living with disability are less likely than other adults to go online. Complicating things further, most adults living with aphasia come from a generation where computers and technology were not an integral part of their lives. Additionally, training adults with aphasia requires a different approach than training those in the same age bracket without a disability. This article describes the mobile technology program at the Adler Aphasia Center in Maywood, New Jersey. The goal of this program is to improve access to mobile technology for people with aphasia. The use of mobile devices is the focus of the article. Mobile technology concepts and skills needed to establish a strong foundation for successful iPad (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA) use are suggested. We discuss how apps may be used to support aphasia therapy with a focus on apps that are native to the iPad and on other apps that were not specifically developed for aphasia rehabilitation. Challenges in implementing a mobile technology program for people with aphasia and individual member success stories are included. PMID:24449461

Szabo, Gretchen; Dittelman, Janice

2014-02-01

179

Effects of working memory load on processing of sounds and meanings of words in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Language performance in aphasia can vary depending on several variables such as stimulus characteristics and task demands. This study focuses on the degree of verbal working memory (WM) load inherent in the language task and how this variable affects language performance by individuals with aphasia.Aims: The first aim was to identify the effects of increased verbal WM load on

Nadine Martin; Francine Kohen; Michelene Kalinyak-Fliszar; Anna Soveri; Matti Laine

2011-01-01

180

Effects of working memory load on processing of sounds and meanings of words in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Language performance in aphasia can vary depending on several variables such as stimulus characteristics and task demands. This study focuses on the degree of verbal working memory (WM) load inherent in the language task and how this variable affects language performance by individuals with aphasia.Aims: The first aim was to identify the effects of increased verbal WM load on

Nadine Martin; Francine Kohen; Michelene Kalinyak-Fliszar; Anna Soveri; Matti Laine

2012-01-01

181

Singing Therapy Can Be Effective for a Patient with Severe Nonfluent Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patients with severe aphasia are rarely treated using speech therapy. We used music therapy to continue to treat a 79-year-old patient with chronic severe aphasia. Interventions 1, 2, and 3 were to practice singing a song that the patient knew, to practice singing a song with a therapist, and to practice saying a greeting using a song with lyrics,…

Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Akanuma, Kyoko; Hatayama, Yuka; Otera, Masako; Meguro, Kenichi

2012-01-01

182

Error Variability and the Differentiation between Apraxia of Speech and Aphasia with Phonemic Paraphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical utility of error variability for differentiating between apraxia of speech (AOS) and aphasia with phonemic paraphasia. Method: Participants were 32 individuals with aphasia after left cerebral injury. Diagnostic groups were formed on the basis of operationalized measures of recognized…

Haley, Katarina L.; Jacks, Adam; Cunningham, Kevin T.

2013-01-01

183

Attention and Other Cognitive Deficits in Aphasia: Presence and Relation to Language and Communication Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study was designed to further elucidate the relationship between cognition and aphasia, with a focus on attention. It was hypothesized that individuals with aphasia would display variable deficit patterns on tests of attention and other cognitive functions and that their attention deficits, particularly those of complex attention…

Murray, Laura L.

2012-01-01

184

Default-Mode Network Functional Connectivity in Aphasia: Therapy-Induced Neuroplasticity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research on participants with aphasia has mainly been based on standard functional neuroimaging analysis. Recent studies have shown that functional connectivity analysis can detect compensatory activity, not revealed by standard analysis. Little is known, however, about the default-mode network in aphasia. In the current study, we studied…

Marcotte, Karine; Perlbarg, Vincent; Marrelec, Guillaume; Benali, Habib; Ansaldo, Ana Ines

2013-01-01

185

Revealing and Quantifying the Impaired Phonological Analysis Underpinning Impaired Comprehension in Wernicke's Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wernicke's aphasia is a condition which results in severely disrupted language comprehension following a lesion to the left temporo-parietal region. A phonological analysis deficit has traditionally been held to be at the root of the comprehension impairment in Wernicke's aphasia, a view consistent with current functional neuroimaging which finds…

Robson, Holly; Keidel, James L.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Sage, Karen

2012-01-01

186

"You Needed to Rehab...Families as Well": Family Members' Own Goals for Aphasia Rehabilitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Aphasia affects family members in addition to the individuals with the communication disorder. In order to develop appropriate services for the relatives of people with aphasia post-stroke, their rehabilitation goals need to be identified. Aim: The aim of the current investigation was to identify the rehabilitation goals that family…

Howe, Tami; Davidson, Bronwyn; Worrall, Linda; Hersh, Deborah; Ferguson, Alison; Sherratt, Sue; Gilbert, Jocelyn

2012-01-01

187

Changes in N400 Topography Following Intensive Speech Language Therapy for Individuals with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our goal was to characterize the effects of intensive aphasia therapy on the N400, an electrophysiological index of lexical-semantic processing. Immediately before and after 4 weeks of intensive speech-language therapy, people with aphasia performed a task in which they had to determine whether spoken words were a "match" or a "mismatch" to…

Wilson, K. Ryan; O'Rourke, Heather; Wozniak, Linda A.; Kostopoulos, Ellina; Marchand, Yannick; Newman, Aaron J.

2012-01-01

188

Communication Difficulties and the Use of Communication Strategies: From the Perspective of Individuals with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: To enhance communicative ability and thereby the possibility of increased participation of persons with aphasia, the use of communication strategies has been proposed. However, little is known about how persons with aphasia experience having conversations and how they perceive their own and their conversation partner's use of…

Johansson, Monica Blom; Carlsson, Marianne; Sonnander, Karin

2012-01-01

189

A 3-Year Evolution of Linguistic Disorders in Aphasia after Stroke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aphasia recovery after stroke has been the subject of several studies, but in none the deficits on the various linguistic levels were examined, even though in the diagnosis and treatment of aphasia the emphasis lays more and more on these linguistic level disorders. In this observational prospective follow-up study, we explored whether it is…

El Hachioui, Hanane; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke W. M. E.; Dippel, Diederik W. J.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Visch-Brink, Evy G.

2011-01-01

190

Effects of Word Frequency and Modality on Sentence Comprehension Impairments in People with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: It is well known that people with aphasia have sentence comprehension impairments. The present study investigated whether lexical factors contribute to sentence comprehension impairments in both the auditory and written modalities using online measures of sentence processing. Method: People with aphasia and non brain-damaged controls…

DeDe, Gayle

2012-01-01

191

Speech-Language Therapists' Process of Including Significant Others in Aphasia Rehabilitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although aphasia rehabilitation should include significant others, it is currently unknown how this recommendation is adopted in speech-language therapy practice. Speech-language therapists' (SLTs) experience of including significant others in aphasia rehabilitation is also understudied, yet a better understanding of clinical…

Hallé, Marie-Christine; Le Dorze, Guylaine; Mingant, Anne

2014-01-01

192

Gesture and Speech Integration: An Exploratory Study of a Man with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In order to comprehend fully a speaker's intention in everyday communication, information is integrated from multiple sources, including gesture and speech. There are no published studies that have explored the impact of aphasia on iconic co-speech gesture and speech integration. Aims: To explore the impact of aphasia on co-speech…

Cocks, Naomi; Sautin, Laetitia; Kita, Sotaro; Morgan, Gary; Zlotowitz, Sally

2009-01-01

193

A Comparison of Intention and Pantomime Gesture Treatment for Noun Retrieval in People with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The effects of intention gesture treatment (IGT) and pantomime gesture treatment (PGT) on word retrieval were compared in people with aphasia. Method: Four individuals with aphasia and word retrieval impairments subsequent to left-hemisphere stroke participated in a single-participant crossover treatment design. Each participant viewed…

Ferguson, Neina F.; Evans, Kelli; Raymer, Anastasia M.

2012-01-01

194

Language Assessment of a Farsi-Norwegian Bilingual Speaker with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increased occurrence of strokes combined with the high incidence of bilingualism in many regions of the world has led to an increasing number of bilingual adults with aphasia. The literature on bilingual aphasia shows the need for valid, comprehensive and reliable assessment tools for diagnostic and treatment purposes. In spite of a growing…

Koumanidi Knoph, Monica I.

2011-01-01

195

Releasing the Constraints on Aphasia Therapy: The Positive Impact of Gesture and Multimodality Treatments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: There is a 40-year history of interest in the use of arm and hand gestures in treatments that target the reduction of aphasic linguistic impairment and compensatory methods of communication (Rose, 2006). Arguments for constraining aphasia treatment to the verbal modality have arisen from proponents of constraint-induced aphasia therapy…

Rose, Miranda L.

2013-01-01

196

Nonlinguistic Learning in Individuals with Aphasia: Effects of Training Method and Stimulus Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to explore nonlinguistic learning ability in individuals with aphasia, examining the impact of stimulus typicality and feedback on success with learning. Method: Eighteen individuals with aphasia and 8 nonaphasic controls participated in this study. All participants completed 4 computerized,…

Vallila-Rohter, Sofia; Kiran, Swathi

2013-01-01

197

An Exploration of Factors Affecting Performance of Adults with Aphasia on a Functional Communication Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In traditional aphasia testing and treatment, clinicians administer a standardized aphasia test that measures language impairment, followed by a linguistic approach to treatment. Many clinicians have argued the need for emphasis on functional communication, and third party payers desire functional information to determine patient progress. This…

Griffith, Luke Marcus

2013-01-01

198

Using Text-to-Speech Reading Support for an Adult with Mild Aphasia and Cognitive Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This single case study served to examine text-to-speech (TTS) effects on reading rate and comprehension in an individual with mild aphasia and cognitive impairment. Findings showed faster reading, given TTS presented at a normal speaking rate, but no significant comprehension changes. TTS may support reading in people with aphasia when time…

Harvey, Judy; Hux, Karen; Snell, Jeffry

2013-01-01

199

Development of a Short Form of the Boston Naming Test for Individuals with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a short form of the Boston Naming Test (BNT; Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001) for individuals with aphasia and compare it with 2 existing short forms originally analyzed with responses from people with dementia and neurologically healthy adults. Method: Development of the new BNT-Aphasia Short…

del Toro, Christina M.; Bislick, Lauren P.; Comer, Matthew; Velozo, Craig; Romero, Sergio; Rothi, Leslie J. Gonzalez; Kendall, Diane L.

2011-01-01

200

A MEG Investigation of Single-Word Auditory Comprehension in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To explore whether individuals with aphasia exhibit differences in the M350, an electrophysiological marker of lexical activation, compared with healthy controls. Method: Seven people with aphasia, 9 age-matched controls, and 10 younger controls completed an auditory lexical decision task while cortical activity was recorded with…

Zipse, Lauryn; Kearns, Kevin; Nicholas, Marjorie; Marantz, Alec

2011-01-01

201

Semantic and syntactic processes in aphasia: A review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews recent investigations of lexical and syntactic aspects of language comprehension in aphasia. It is argued that these studies support theoretical assumptions concerning the functional independence of various components of normal language processing. Studies of the structure of the lexicon in aphasia provide support for componential theories of lexical semantics in that different types of features of meaning can be

Alfonso Caramazza; Rita Sloan Berndt

1978-01-01

202

Supervised Home Training of Dialogue Skills in Chronic Aphasia: A Randomized Parallel Group Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of this study was to prove the efficacy of supervised self-training for individuals with aphasia. Linguistic and communicative performance in structured dialogues represented the main study parameters. Method: In a cross-over design for randomized matched pairs, 18 individuals with chronic aphasia were examined during 12 weeks of…

Nobis-Bosch, Ruth; Springer, Luise; Radermacher, Irmgard; Huber, Walter

2011-01-01

203

The Use of a Modified Semantic Features Analysis Approach in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies have reported improved naming using the semantic feature analysis (SFA) approach in individuals with aphasia. Whether the SFA can be modified and still produce naming improvements in aphasia is unknown. The present study was designed to address this question by using a modified version of the SFA approach. Three, rather than the…

Hashimoto, Naomi; Frome, Amber

2011-01-01

204

Autonomy and empowerment in aphasia assessment and therapy: Isn't it the road more travelled?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the lead article, the author expresses her serious concerns regarding the state-of-the-art in the functional assessment and treatment of aphasia. She offers social models of literacy and disability, which are referred to as ‘radical approaches’, as a means of addressing this current dilemma in aphasia rehabilitation. In reading the lead article, one senses that clinical aphasiologists have been down

Monica Strauss Hough

1996-01-01

205

Masked Priming Effects in Aphasia: Evidence of Altered Automatic Spreading Activation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Previous research has suggested that impairments of automatic spreading activation may underlie some aphasic language deficits. The current study further investigated the status of automatic spreading activation in individuals with aphasia as compared with typical adults. Method: Participants were 21 individuals with aphasia (12 fluent, 9…

Silkes, JoAnn P.; Rogers, Margaret A.

2012-01-01

206

Production Variability and Single Word Intelligibility in Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to estimate test-retest reliability of orthographic speech intelligibility testing in speakers with aphasia and AOS and to examine its relationship to the consistency of speaker and listener responses. Monosyllabic single word speech samples were recorded from 13 speakers with coexisting aphasia and AOS. These words were…

Haley, Katarina L.; Martin, Gwenyth

2011-01-01

207

Exploring the interactional dimension of social communication: A collective case study of older people with aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Increasingly, clinicians and researchers emphasise the need to investigate the social consequences of living with aphasia. While the importance of social affiliation and conversations has been acknowledged, there has been limited research that specifically addresses the impact of aphasia on this interactional dimension of communication.Aims: The aims of this study were to explore the insider perspective on the impact

Bronwyn Davidson; Linda Worrall; Louise Hickson

2008-01-01

208

Linguistic and Neuropsychological Deficits in Crossed Conduction Aphasia: Report of Three Cases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes the linguistic and neuropsychological findings in three right-handed patients with crossed conduction aphasia. Despite the location of the lesion in the right hemisphere, all patients displayed a combination of linguistic deficits typically found in conduction aphasia following analogous damage to the left hemisphere.…

Bartha, Lisa; Marien, Peter; Poewe, Werner; Benke, Thomas

2004-01-01

209

What people with aphasia want: Their goals according to the ICF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The goals of people with aphasia should guide service delivery. Services are increasingly influenced by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) (WHO, 2001), but little is yet known about whether the goals of people with aphasia span the full spectrum of the ICF.Aims: The purpose of this study was to describe the goals of people with

Linda Worrall; Sue Sherratt; Penny Rogers; Tami Howe; Deborah Hersh; Alison Ferguson; Bronwyn Davidson

2011-01-01

210

9-Volt Battery Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169 9-volt Battery 9-volt 9-volt batteries power our smoke ... away with other metal items. Storing 9-volt batteries KKK Keep batteries in original packaging until you ...

211

A tutorial on aphasia test development in any language: Key substantive and psychometric considerations  

PubMed Central

Background There are a limited number of aphasia language tests in the majority of the world's commonly spoken languages. Furthermore, few aphasia tests in languages other than English have been standardized and normed, and few have supportive psychometric data pertaining to reliability and validity. The lack of standardized assessment tools across many of the world's languages poses serious challenges to clinical practice and research in aphasia. Aims The current review addresses this lack of assessment tools by providing conceptual and statistical guidance for the development of aphasia assessment tools and establishment of their psychometric properties. Main Contribution A list of aphasia tests in the 20 most widely spoken languages is included. The pitfalls of translating an existing test into a new language versus creating a new test are outlined. Factors to consider in determining test content are discussed. Further, a description of test items corresponding to different language functions is provided, with special emphasis on implementing important controls in test design. Next, a broad review of principal psychometric properties relevant to aphasia tests is presented, with specific statistical guidance for establishing psychometric properties of standardized assessment tools. Conclusions This article may be used to help guide future work on developing, standardizing and validating aphasia language tests. The considerations discussed are also applicable to the development of standardized tests of other cognitive functions. PMID:23976813

Ivanova, Maria V.; Hallowell, Brooke

2013-01-01

212

The anterior temporal lobes support residual comprehension in Wernicke’s aphasia  

PubMed Central

Wernicke’s aphasia occurs after a stroke to classical language comprehension regions in the left temporoparietal cortex. Consequently, auditory–verbal comprehension is significantly impaired in Wernicke’s aphasia but the capacity to comprehend visually presented materials (written words and pictures) is partially spared. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural basis of written word and picture semantic processing in Wernicke’s aphasia, with the wider aim of examining how the semantic system is altered after damage to the classical comprehension regions. Twelve participants with chronic Wernicke’s aphasia and 12 control participants performed semantic animate–inanimate judgements and a visual height judgement baseline task. Whole brain and region of interest analysis in Wernicke’s aphasia and control participants found that semantic judgements were underpinned by activation in the ventral and anterior temporal lobes bilaterally. The Wernicke’s aphasia group displayed an ‘over-activation’ in comparison with control participants, indicating that anterior temporal lobe regions become increasingly influential following reduction in posterior semantic resources. Semantic processing of written words in Wernicke’s aphasia was additionally supported by recruitment of the right anterior superior temporal lobe, a region previously associated with recovery from auditory-verbal comprehension impairments. Overall, the results provide support for models in which the anterior temporal lobes are crucial for multimodal semantic processing and that these regions may be accessed without support from classic posterior comprehension regions. PMID:24519979

Robson, Holly; Zahn, Roland; Keidel, James L.; Binney, Richard J.; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

2014-01-01

213

Non-linguistic learning and aphasia: Evidence from a paired associate and feedback-based task  

PubMed Central

Though aphasia is primarily characterized by impairments in the comprehension and/or expression of language, research has shown that patients with aphasia also show deficits in cognitive-linguistic domains such as attention, executive function, concept knowledge and memory (Helm-Estabrooks, 2002 for review). Research in aphasia suggests that cognitive impairments can impact the online construction of language, new verbal learning, and transactional success (Freedman & Martin, 2001; Hula & McNeil, 2008; Ramsberger, 2005). In our research, we extend this hypothesis to suggest that general cognitive deficits influence progress with therapy. The aim of our study is to explore learning, a cognitive process that is integral to relearning language, yet underexplored in the field of aphasia rehabilitation. We examine non-linguistic category learning in patients with aphasia (n=19) and in healthy controls (n=12), comparing feedback and non-feedback based instruction. Participants complete two computer-based learning tasks that require them to categorize novel animals based on the percentage of features shared with one of two prototypes. As hypothesized, healthy controls showed successful category learning following both methods of instruction. In contrast, only 60% of our patient population demonstrated successful non-linguistic category learning. Patient performance was not predictable by standardized measures of cognitive ability. Results suggest that general learning is affected in aphasia and is a unique, important factor to consider in the field of aphasia rehabilitation. PMID:23127795

Vallila-Rohter, Sofia; Kiran, Swathi

2013-01-01

214

Dissociations Between Fluency And Agrammatism In Primary Progressive Aphasia.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Classical aphasiology, based on the study of stroke sequelae, fuses speech fluency and grammatical ability. Nonfluent (Broca's) aphasia often is accompanied by agrammatism; whereas in the fluent aphasias grammatical deficits are not typical. The assumption that a similar relationship exists in primary progressive aphasia (PPA) has led to the dichotomization of this syndrome into fluent and nonfluent subtypes. AIMS: This study compared elements of fluency and grammatical production in the narrative speech of individuals with PPA to determine if they can be dissociated from one another. METHOD: Speech samples from 37 individuals with PPA, clinically assigned to agrammatic (N=11), logopenic (N=20) and semantic (N=6) subtypes, and 13 cognitively healthy control participants telling the "Cinderella Story" were analyzed for fluency (i.e., words per minute (WPM) and mean length of utterance in words (MLU-W)) and grammaticality (i.e., the proportion of grammatically correct sentences, open-to-closed-class word ratio, noun-to-verb ratio, and correct production of verb inflection, noun morphology, and verb argument structure.) Between group differences were analyzed for each variable. Correlational analyses examined the relation between WPM and each grammatical variable, and an off-line measure of sentence production. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: Agrammatic and logopenic groups both had lower scores on the fluency measures and produced significantly fewer grammatical sentences than did semantic and control groups. However, only the agrammatic group evinced significantly impaired production of verb inflection and verb argument structure. In addition, some semantic participants showed abnormal open-to-closed and noun-to-verb ratios in narrative speech. When the sample was divided on the basis of fluency, all the agrammatic participants fell in the nonfluent category. The logopenic participants varied in fluency but those with low fluency showed variable performance on measures of grammaticality. Correlational analyses and scatter plots comparing fluency and each grammatical variable revealed dissociations within PPA participants, with some nonfluent participants showing normal grammatical skill. CONCLUSIONS: Grammatical production is a complex construct comprised of correct usage of several language components, each of which can be selectively affected by disease. This study demonstrates that individuals with PPA show dissociations between fluency and grammatical production in narrative speech. Grammatical ability, and its relationship to fluency, varies from individual to individual, and from one variant of PPA to another, and can even be found in individuals with semantic PPA in whom a fluent aphasia is usually thought to accompany preserved ability to produce grammatical utterances. PMID:22199417

Thompson, Cynthia K; Cho, Soojin; Hsu, Chien-Ju; Wieneke, Christina; Rademaker, Alfred; Weitner, Bing Bing; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Weintraub, Sandra

2012-01-01

215

Aphasia severity in chronic stroke patients: a combined disconnection in the dorsal and ventral language pathways.  

PubMed

Background. The contribution of lesion size and location in poststroke aphasia is debated, especially the extent to which aphasia severity is affected by damage to specific white matter areas. Objective. To identify specific white matter areas critical for poststroke aphasia global severity and to determine whether injury to these areas had more impact on aphasia severity than the infarct volume. Methods. Twenty-three chronic poststroke aphasic patients were assessed with the Aphasia Rapid Test (ART) and the Boston Diagnosis Aphasia Examination (BDAE) global severity scales and underwent diffusion tensor and structural imaging. Voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging regression analysis was used to determine in which areas fractional anisotropy (FA) abnormalities were correlated with ART and BDAE severity scales. The relationships between aphasia severity, FA values, and infarct volumes were investigated using global and partial correlations. Results. We found a critical area associated with aphasia severity overlapping with the arcuate and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi, resulting in a combined disconnection of the dorsal and ventral pathways. ART scores were inversely correlated with FA values in this region, with greater severity present with lower FA values (correlation coefficient = -0.833, P < .0001). The proportion of variance explained by the FA value was higher than the proportion of variance explained by the infarct volume (R (2) = 68% vs 27%, P = .01). The impact of infarct volume on aphasia severity disappeared when damage to this critical white matter area was taken into account (P = .38). Conclusion. The assessment of the integrity of this region may potentially have a clinical impact in neurorehabilitation and acute decision making. PMID:25096274

Rosso, Charlotte; Vargas, Patricia; Valabregue, Romain; Arbizu, Céline; Henry-Amar, François; Leger, Anne; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Samson, Yves

2015-03-01

216

[Differences in non-verbal behavior in individuals with various types of aphasia].  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to investigate if there were differences in non-verbal behaviour at persons with different forms of aphasia while resolving certain problems, and time spent for finding solutions to them. The research involved 30 patients with motoric, sensory and senso-motoric aphasia, in the area of 7 non-verbal variables. Using the statistical method (discriminatory analysis) we came up with the results confirming that there is a difference in the quality of problem solution at patients with different forms of aphasia, but the time frame for problem solving does not differ significantly with the same patients. PMID:10872278

Zeci?, S

2000-01-01

217

Aircraft battery  

SciTech Connect

An aircraft battery is described that has a polypropylene casing for receiving the lead plates and acid therein, the casing being configured to fit closely within and be bonded to an aluminum housing and having a thickened base portion with individual cells formed by polypropylene walls to provide improved insulation while maintaining the light weight and the structural integrity of the casing.

Karpal, D.L.

1980-12-02

218

Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes  

SciTech Connect

The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and electric vehicles (EVs); a market predicted to be potentially ten times greater than that of consumer electronics. In fact, only Liion batteries can meet the requirements for PHEVs as set by the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), although they still fall slightly short of EV goals. In the case of Li-ion batteries, the trade-off between power and energy shown in Figure 1 is a function both of device design and the electrode materials that are used. Thus, a high power battery (e.g., one intended for an HEV) will not necessarily contain the same electrode materials as one designed for high energy (i.e., for an EV). As is shown in Figure 1, power translates into acceleration, and energy into range, or miles traveled, for vehicular uses. Furthermore, performance, cost, and abuse-tolerance requirements for traction batteries differ considerably from those for consumer electronics batteries. Vehicular applications are particularly sensitive to cost; currently, Li-ion batteries are priced at about $1000/kWh, whereas the USABC goal is $150/kWh. The three most expensive components of a Li-ion battery, no matter what the configuration, are the cathode, the separator, and the electrolyte. Reduction of cost has been one of the primary driving forces for the investigation of new cathode materials to replace expensive LiCoO{sub 2}, particularly for vehicular applications. Another extremely important factor is safety under abuse conditions such as overcharge. This is particularly relevant for the large battery packs intended for vehicular uses, which are designed with multiple cells wired in series arrays. Premature failure of one cell in a string may cause others to go into overcharge during passage of current. These considerations have led to the development of several different types of cathode materials, as will be covered in the next section. Because there is not yet one ideal material that can meet requirements for all applications, research into cathodes for Li-ion batteries is, as of this writ

Doeff, Marca M

2010-07-12

219

Theoretical analysis of word production deficits in adult aphasia.  

PubMed

The cognitive analysis of adult language disorders continues to draw heavily on linguistic theory, but increasingly it reflects the influence of connectionist, spreading activation models of cognition. In the area of spoken word production, 'localist' connectionist models represent a natural evolution from the psycholingistic theories of earlier decades. By contrast, the parallel distributed processing framework forces more radical rethinking of aphasic impairments. This paper exemplifies these multiple influences in contemporary cognitive aphasiology. Topics include (i) what aphasia reveals about semantic-phonological interaction in lexical access; (ii) controversies surrounding the interpretation of semantic errors and (iii) a computational account of the relationship between naming and word repetition in aphasia. Several of these topics have been addressed using case series methods, including computational simulation of the individual, quantitative error patterns of diverse groups of patients and analysis of brain lesions that correlate with error rates and patterns. Efforts to map the lesion correlates of nonword errors in naming and repetition highlight the involvement of sensorimotor areas in the brain and suggest the need to better integrate models of word production with models of speech and action. PMID:24324234

Schwartz, Myrna F

2014-01-01

220

Sealed Lead Acid Batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing trend among users of lead acid batteries towards use of sealed maintenance free designs. These offer the user many advantages in freedom of battery placement, increased safety, battery size and weight, no need to water, and in some instances superior performance. In standby service, two battery types are rivalling the traditional flooded lead acid stationary battery.

J. J. Kelley; C. K. McManus

1986-01-01

221

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) and Aphasia: The Case of Mr. C  

PubMed Central

Purpose To illustrate the ethical challenges that arose from investigating a novel treatment procedure, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in a research participant with aphasia. Method First, we reviewed the current evidence supporting the use of tDCS in aphasia research, highlighting methodological gaps in our knowledge of tDCS. Second, we examined the case of Mr. C, a person with chronic aphasia who participated in a research protocol investigating the impact of tDCS on aphasia treatment. Results We describe the procedures that he underwent and the resulting behavioral and neurophysiological outcomes bed. Finally, we share the steps that were taken to balance beneficence and nonmaleficence, and to ensure Mr. C’s autonomy. Conclusion: Researchers must consider not only the scientific integrity of their studies, but also potential ethical issues and consequences to the research participants. PMID:23340067

Cherney, Leora R.; Babbitt, Edna M.; Hurwitz, Rosalind; Rogers, Lynn M.; Stinear, James; Wang, Xue; Harvey, Richard L.; Parrish, Todd

2014-01-01

222

Lothian assessment for screening cognition in aphasia (LASCA): A new non verbal assessment of cognition.   

E-print Network

and Language Therapists, Clinical Neuropsychologists and Occupational Therapists in Lothian, Scotland devised a set of cognitive test materials named the Lothian Assessment for Screening of Cognition in Aphasia (LASCA) in an attempt to assess cognition...

Warren, Aisling

2011-11-23

223

Learning ability in post-stroke aphasia : success, strategy use and implications for therapy  

E-print Network

Aphasia is an impairment in the expression or comprehension of language that results from stroke, traumatic brain injury or progressive neurological disease. Approximately one million people in the United States suffer ...

Rohter, Sofia Vallila

2014-01-01

224

Rechargeable battery  

SciTech Connect

A molten salt cell is described in which a special material is used as the active material in the negative electrode. Such active material permits extensive cycling of the battery and does not significantly alter cell voltage. Molten salt cells made in accordance with this invention exhibit high energy content and high discharge rates. In addition, they can be cycled extensively without significant loss of capacity.

Basu, S.

1981-12-08

225

Battery separator  

SciTech Connect

In an alkaline dry cell battery separator being a laid mat of non-dissolvable polyvinyl alcohol fibers held together by a matrix of dissolved or partially dissolved dissolvable polyvinyl alcohol fibers, an improvement is described comprising the mat having up to 85% of cellulosic fibers relatively uniformly distributed in and among the non-dissolvable polyvinyl alcohol fibers and held therein by the matrix.

La Bonte, R.J.

1988-08-30

226

Hand Battery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about chemistry and electricity, learners form a battery by placing their hands onto plates of different metals. Learners detect the current by reading a DC microammeter attached to the metal plates. Learners experiment with different metals to find out what combination produces the most current as well as testing what happens when they press harder on the plates or wet their hands. Learners also investigate what happens when they wire the plates to a voltmeter.

Exploratorium, The

2011-12-05

227

Using a written cueing hierarchy to improve verbal naming in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: For some individuals with aphasia, writing has been used as an alternative modality for communicating (e.g., Clausen & Beeson, 2003; Lustig & Tompkins, 2002). In some investigations where writing ability was treated; post?treatment and\\/or anecdotal reports indicated that verbal naming ability also improved for participants with aphasia (e.g., Beeson, Rising, & Volk, 2003; Kiran, 2005). In some recent studies,

Heather Harris Wright; Robert C. Marshall; Kresta B. Wilson; Judith L. Page

2008-01-01

228

Aphasia secondary to tuberculosis: a review of a nineteenth-century case report by booth and curtis (1893).  

PubMed

The topic of aphasia secondary to tuberculosis deserves attention for two reasons: first, for better understanding rare etiologies of aphasia in medical history; and secondly, for initiating a multidisciplinary discussion relevant to aphasiologists, neurologists, pathologists, and clinicians generally. This article will focus on clinical observations of tuberculosis-related aphasia in the nineteenth century, highlighting a noteworthy case report presented by Booth and Curtis (1893). PMID:25203388

Shafi, Noel

2015-01-01

229

Battery depletion monitor  

SciTech Connect

A cmos inverter is used to compare pacemaker battery voltage to a referenced voltage. When the reference voltage exceeds the measured battery voltage, the inverter changes state to indicate battery depletion.

Lee, Y.S.

1982-01-26

230

Bipolar-Battery Construction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bipolar batteries fabricated in continuous quasi-automated process. Components of battery configured so processing steps run sequentially. Key components of battery, bipolar plate and bipolar separator, fabricated separately and later joined together.

Rippel, Wally E.; Edwards, Dean B.

1988-01-01

231

Electric storage batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombination lead acid electric storage battery of sealed or recombinant type in which the gas evolved during operation or charging is induced to recombine within the battery at the battery electrodes.

B. Culpin; K. Peters

1983-01-01

232

M?ori experiences of aphasia therapy: "But I'm from Hauiti and we've got shags".  

PubMed

This study explored M?ori experiences of aphasia therapy, with a view to ascertaining what makes a service culturally safe as well as "accessible to and culturally appropriate for" M?ori with aphasia and their wh?nau (extended family). M?ori are the indigenous peoples of New Zealand. This study incorporated interpretive description (a qualitative methodology) within kaupapa M?ori research (a M?ori approach to research). In-depth semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 11 M?ori with aphasia and 23 of their nominated wh?nau members. They reported a wide variety of experiences of aphasia therapy, in six themes: We're happy to do the work, but we can't do it alone; Relationship; Our worldview; The speech-language therapy setting; Aphasia resources; and Is this as good as it gets? While some M?ori with aphasia reportedly received an accessible and culturally appropriate service, others did not. It is concluded that, for M?ori with aphasia, a strong therapeutic relationship is central. The success of this relationship is shaped by the SLP's appreciation of the worldview of the person with aphasia and wh?nau, the setting of the therapy, and the resources used. Successful therapy will involve collaboration between clinician and wh?nau, and therapy resources that affirm the identity of the person with aphasia. PMID:24359258

McLellan, Karen M; McCann, Clare M; Worrall, Linda E; Harwood, Matire L N

2014-10-01

233

Battery cell feedthrough apparatus  

DOEpatents

A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

1995-01-01

234

Verb inflections in agrammatic aphasia: Encoding of tense features ?  

PubMed Central

Across most languages, verbs produced by agrammatic aphasic individuals are frequently marked by syntactically and semantically inappropriate inflectional affixes, such as Last night, I walking home. As per language production models, verb inflection errors in English agrammatism could arise from three potential sources: encoding the verbs’ morphology based on temporal information at the conceptual level, accessing syntactic well-formedness constraints of verbal morphology, and encoding morphophonological form. We investigate these aspects of encoding verb inflections in agrammatic aphasia. Using three sentence completion experiments, it was demonstrated that production of verb inflections was impaired whenever temporal reference was involved; while morphological complexity and syntactic constraints were less likely to be the source of verb inflection errors in agrammatism. These findings are discussed in relation to current language production models. PMID:18392120

Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Thompson, Cynthia K.

2008-01-01

235

Inflectional morphology in primary progressive aphasia: an elicited production study.  

PubMed

Inflectional morphology lies at the intersection of phonology, syntax and the lexicon, three language domains that are differentially impacted in the three main variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). To characterize spared and impaired aspects of inflectional morphology in PPA, we elicited inflectional morphemes in 48 individuals with PPA and 13 healthy age-matched controls. We varied the factors of regularity, frequency, word class, and lexicality, and used voxel-based morphometry to identify brain regions where atrophy was predictive of deficits on particular conditions. All three PPA variants showed deficits in inflectional morphology, with the specific nature of the deficits dependent on the anatomical and linguistic features of each variant. Deficits in inflecting low-frequency irregular words were associated with semantic PPA, with lexical/semantic deficits, and with left temporal atrophy. Deficits in inflecting pseudowords were associated with non-fluent/agrammatic and logopenic variants, with phonological deficits, and with left frontal and parietal atrophy. PMID:25129631

Wilson, Stephen M; Brandt, Temre H; Henry, Maya L; Babiak, Miranda; Ogar, Jennifer M; Salli, Chelsey; Wilson, Lisa; Peralta, Karen; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

2014-09-01

236

Hidden word learning capacity through orthography in aphasia.  

PubMed

The ability to learn to use new words is thought to depend on the integrity of the left dorsal temporo-frontal speech processing pathway. We tested this assumption in a chronic aphasic individual (AA) with an extensive left temporal lesion using a new-word learning paradigm. She exhibited severe phonological problems and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) suggested a complete disconnection of this left-sided white-matter pathway comprising the arcuate fasciculus (AF). Diffusion imaging tractography confirmed the disconnection of the direct segment and the posterior indirect segment of her left AF, essential components of the left dorsal speech processing pathway. Despite her left-hemispheric damage and moderate aphasia, AA learned to name and maintain the novel words in her active vocabulary on par with healthy controls up to 6 months after learning. This exceeds previous demonstrations of word learning ability in aphasia. Interestingly, AA's preserved word learning ability was modality-specific as it was observed exclusively for written words. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) revealed that in contrast to normals, AA showed a significantly right-lateralized activation pattern in the temporal and parietal regions when engaged in reading. Moreover, learning of visually presented novel word-picture pairs also activated the right temporal lobe in AA. Both AA and the controls showed increased activation during learning of novel versus familiar word-picture pairs in the hippocampus, an area critical for associative learning. AA's structural and functional imaging results suggest that in a literate person, a right-hemispheric network can provide an effective alternative route for learning of novel active vocabulary. Importantly, AA's previously undetected word learning ability translated directly into therapy, as she could use written input also to successfully re-learn and maintain familiar words that she had lost due to her left hemisphere lesion. PMID:24262200

Tuomiranta, Leena M; Cŕmara, Estela; Froudist Walsh, Seán; Ripollés, Pablo; Saunavaara, Jani P; Parkkola, Riitta; Martin, Nadine; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Laine, Matti

2014-01-01

237

Battery casing  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a battery casing comprising a diametrical can, a recoverable sealing ring, sealing material and a central member. The diametrical can has a flange portion which defines a can opening to be sealed. The can opening is filled by insertion of the central member and sealing material into the can opening. The recoverable sealing ring, which surrounds the flange portion, applies a compressive force so as to decrease the space between the flange portion, sealing material and central member and seal the can opening.

Kruger, F. J.; Szalvay, L.

1985-12-17

238

Visual object naming in optic aphasia The general aim of this thesis is to investigate the effects of damage in connectionist networks that  

E-print Network

Chapter 8 Visual object naming in optic aphasia The general aim of this thesis is to investigate OBJECT NAMING IN OPTIC APHASIA 228 Visual Input Semantics Naming Gesturing Tactile Input I II III Figure distribution of error types. Another common feature is the frequent occurrence, particularly in optic aphasia

Plaut, David C.

239

Conduction aphasia, sensory-motor integration, and phonological short-term memory An aggregate analysis of lesion and fMRI data  

E-print Network

Conduction aphasia, sensory-motor integration, and phonological short-term memory ­ An aggregate, Ontario, Canada b VA Northern California Health Care System, Center for Aphasia and Related Disorders December 2010 Available online 21 January 2011 Keywords: Conduction aphasia Working memory Speech

240

Medium-fi EvaluationMedium-fi PrototypesMedium-fi DesignLow-fi EvaluationLow-fi Prototypes What is Aphasia?  

E-print Network

is Aphasia? ·A cognitive disorder that impairs language abilities: some or all of speaking, listening members of the Aphasia Project: Dr. Anita Borg, CEO and Founder Institute for Women and Technogy, Aphasic to the other members of the Aphasia Project: Dr. Anita Borg, CEO and Founder Institute for Women and Technogy

Findlater, Leah

241

The battery market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The international battery market in general, and the US market in particular, are discussed. The worldwide battery market is estimated to be $21 billion annually. The geographical distribution of this market is shown. Automotive and consumer batteries constitute more than 80% of the world battery market. The United States is the biggest single market among the countries of the world

S. L. Deshpande

1991-01-01

242

Automotive battery management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Battery management system (BMS) is an integral part of an automobile. It protects the battery from damage, predicts battery life and maintains the battery in an operational condition. The BMS performs these tasks by integrating one or more of the functions, such as protecting the cell, controlling the charge, determining the state of charge (SOC), the state of health (SOH),

Bharath Pattipati; Krishna Pattipati; Jon P. Christopherson; Setu Madhavi Namburu; Danil V. Prokhorov; Liu Qiao

2008-01-01

243

Profiling Performance in L1 and L2 Observed in Greek-English Bilingual Aphasia Using the Bilingual Aphasia Test: A Case Study from Cyprus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Greek and the English versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) were used to assess the linguistic abilities of a premorbidly highly proficient late bilingual female after a haemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident involving the left temporo-parietal lobe. The BAT was administered in the two languages on separate occasions by the first author,…

Kambanaros, Maria; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.

2011-01-01

244

Influences of Electromagnetic Articulography Sensors on Speech Produced by Healthy Adults and Individuals with Aphasia and Apraxia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined whether the intraoral transducers used in electromagnetic articulography (EMA) interfere with speech and whether there is an added risk of interference when EMA systems are used to study individuals with aphasia and apraxia. Method: Ten adult talkers (5 individuals with aphasia/apraxia, 5 controls) produced 12 American…

Katz, William F.; Bharadwaj, Sneha V.; Stettler, Monica P.

2006-01-01

245

The Use of Main Concept Analysis to Measure Discourse Production in Cantonese-Speaking Persons with Aphasia: A Preliminary Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discourse produced by speakers with aphasia contains rich and valuable information for researchers to understand the manifestation of aphasia as well as for clinicians to plan specific treatment components for their clients. Various approaches to investigate aphasic discourse have been proposed in the English literature. However, this is not the…

Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin

2009-01-01

246

Improved Vocabulary Production after Naming Therapy in Aphasia: Can Gains in Picture Naming Generalise to Connected Speech?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Naming accuracy for nouns and verbs in aphasia can vary across different elicitation contexts, for example, simple picture naming, composite picture description, narratives, and conversation. For some people with aphasia, naming may be more accurate to simple pictures as opposed to naming in spontaneous, connected speech; for others,…

Conroy, Paul; Sage, Karen; Ralph, Matt Lambon

2009-01-01

247

Using Computers to Enable Self-Management of Aphasia Therapy Exercises for Word Finding: The Patient and Carer Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Speech and language therapy (SLT) for aphasia can be difficult to access in the later stages of stroke recovery, despite evidence of continued improvement with sufficient therapeutic intensity. Computerized aphasia therapy has been reported to be useful for independent language practice, providing new opportunities for continued…

Palmer, Rebecca; Enderby, Pam; Paterson, Gail

2013-01-01

248

The first decade of research on constrained-induced treatment approaches for aphasia rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Approaches for treating post-stroke language impairments (aphasia) based upon Constraint-Induced (CI) principles were first introduced in 2001. CI principles as previously applied to upper extremity and locomotor retraining in stroke survivors were derived from basic neuroscience. They comprise forced-use of the affected modality, a gradual rebuilding of targeted functions using a highly intensive treatment protocol, administered in a behaviorally-relevant context. CI-based approaches have stimulated considerable neurorehabilitation research interest in the past decade. The original CI aphasia treatment protocol was tailored to improve functional communication in chronic aphasia (i.e., 6–12 months after stroke) and more recently, it has been adapted to treat language impairments in acute stroke survivors as well. Moreover, CI therapy applied to aphasia has been used as a model to assess language network plasticity in response to treatment using functional imaging techniques. In the following paper, we review the first 10 years of behavioral and functional brain imaging research on CI-based approaches for aphasia rehabilitation. PMID:22202189

Meinzer, Marcus; Rodriguez, Amy D.; Gonzalez Rothi, Leslie J.

2013-01-01

249

Guiding principles for printed education materials: design preferences of people with aphasia.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to obtain the preferences of people with aphasia for the design of stroke and aphasia printed education materials (PEMs) and to compare these preferences with recommendations in the literature for developing written information for other populations. A face-to-face quantitative questionnaire was completed with 40 adults with aphasia post-stroke. The questionnaire explored preferences for: (1) the representation of numbers, (2) font size and type, (3) line spacing, (4) document length, and (5) graphic type. Most preferences (62.4%, n = 146) were for numbers expressed as figures rather than words. The largest proportion of participants selected 14 point (28.2%, n = 11) and Verdana ref (33.3%, n = 13) as the easiest font size and type to read, and a preference for 1.5 line spacing (41.0%, n = 16) was identified. Preference for document length was not related to the participant's reading ability or aphasia severity. Most participants (95.0%, n = 38) considered graphics to be helpful, with photographs more frequently reported as a helpful graphic type. The identified preferences support many of the formatting recommendations found within the literature. This research provides guiding principles for developing PEMs in preferred formats for people with aphasia. PMID:22136650

Rose, Tanya A; Worrall, Linda E; Hickson, Louise M; Hoffmann, Tammy C

2012-02-01

250

New word learning in aphasic patients: Dissociating phonological and semantic components  

E-print Network

(based on the Western Aphasia Battery, Kertesz, 1988) included: Anomia (7), Conduction (3), Wernicke's (2 accuracy (also obtained for control subjects); (2) digit span; (3) composite semantic processing scores

Gupta, Prahlad

251

Psych verb production and comprehension in agrammatic Broca's aphasia  

PubMed Central

This study examined the factors that affect agrammatic sentence production by testing eight agrammatic aphasic participants' comprehension and production of active and passive sentences using two types of English psych verbs, those with an Experiencer-marked subject (Subject-Experiencer (SubExp)) and those with an Experiencer-marked object (Object-Experiencer (ObjExp)). The Argument Structure Complexity Hypothesis (ASCH, [J. Neuroling. 16 (2003) 151]) posits that the verb (and sentence) production difficulties observed in agrammatic aphasia can be attributed, at least in part, to the argument structure properties of verbs, with verbs that are marked for more complex argument structure (in terms of the number and type of arguments) presenting greater difficulty than those with less complex argument structure entries. Based on previous linguistic analyses of psych verbs, ObjExp psych verbs are more complex than SubjExp verbs. Therefore, we predicted that the former would present greater production (but not comprehension) difficulty than the latter. Results showed above chance comprehension of all sentence types, with the exception of SubjExp passive constructions, in which the subject position is occupied by a non-Experiencer argument. In active sentence production, ObjExp verbs were more impaired than SubjExp verbs. However, the opposite pattern was noted for passive sentence production. While all participants had difficulty producing passive sentences of both types, they showed better performance on ObjExp verbs, as compared to SubjExp verbs, in which the Experiencer is in the subject position. Further, agrammatic aphasic speakers showed a preference for producing actives for SubjExp verbs and passives for ObjExp verbs, indicating that the thematic role requirements of selected verbs (e.g., Experiencer, Theme) influence production patterns, as they do in normal speakers. These data, as well as the error patterns seen in our patients, support the ASCH and suggest that sentence production, disrupted in agrammatic aphasia, is impaired to a greater extent when the argument structure properties of the verb increase in complexity. PMID:20174592

Thompson, Cynthia K.; Lee, Miseon

2010-01-01

252

Word order and finiteness in Dutch and English Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia.  

PubMed

The effect of two linguistic factors in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia was examined using Dutch and English subjects. Three tasks were used to test (1). the comprehension and (2). the construction of sentences, where verbs (in Dutch) and verb arguments (in Dutch and English) are in canonical versus non-canonical position; (3). the production of finite versus infinitive verbs. Proportions of errors as well as types of errors made by each aphasic group are similar on the sentence comprehension and sentence anagram tasks. On the verb production task the performance pattern is, again, the same, but the error types are different. The discussion focuses on how the similarities and differences across languages and across aphasia types may be interpreted with respect to the underlying deficit in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia. PMID:15010241

Bastiaanse, Roelien; Edwards, Susan

2004-04-01

253

Progression of logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia to apraxia and semantic memory deficits  

PubMed Central

Background Due to the nature of neurodegenerative disorders, patients with primary progressive aphasia develop cognitive impairment other than aphasia as the disorder progresses. The progression of logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA), however, has not been well described. In particular, praxic disorders and semantic memory deficits have rarely been reported. Case presentations We report three patients in the initial stage of lvPPA who subsequently developed apraxia in the middle stage and developed clinically evident semantic memory deficits in the advanced stages. Conclusions The present case series suggests that some patients with lvPPA develop an atypical type of dementia with apraxia and semantic memory deficits, suggesting that these cases should be classified as a type of early-onset Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24176108

2013-01-01

254

Aphasia or Neglect after Thalamic Stroke: The Various Ways They may be Related to Cortical Hypoperfusion  

PubMed Central

Although aphasia and hemispatial neglect are classically labeled as cortical deficits, language deficits or hemispatial neglect following lesions to subcortical regions have been reported in many studies. However, whether or not aphasia and hemispatial neglect can be caused by subcortical lesions alone has been a matter of controversy. It has been previously shown that most cases of aphasia or hemispatial neglect due to acute non-thalamic subcortical infarcts can be accounted for by concurrent cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion, reversible by restoring blood flow to the cortex. In this study, we evaluated whether aphasia or neglect occur after acute thalamic infarct without cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion. Twenty patients with isolated acute thalamic infarcts (10 right and 10 left) underwent MRI scanning and detailed cognitive testing. Results revealed that 5/10 patients with left thalamic infarcts had aphasia and only 1 had cortical hypoperfusion, whereas 2/10 patients with right thalamic infarcts had hemispatial neglect and both had cortical hypoperfusion. These findings indicate that aphasia was observed in some cases of isolated left thalamic infarcts without cortical hypoerfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion (measured with time-to-peak delays), but neglect occurred after isolated right thalamic infarcts only when there was cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion. Therefore, neglect after acute right thalamic infarct should trigger evaluation for cortical hypoperfusion that might improve with restoration of blood flow. Further investigation in a larger group of patients and with other imaging modalities is warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:25477859

Sebastian, Rajani; Schein, Mara G.; Davis, Cameron; Gomez, Yessenia; Newhart, Melissa; Oishi, Kenichi; Hillis, Argye E.

2014-01-01

255

Rechargeable batteries and battery management systems design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimated worldwide sales for rechargeable batteries, was around US$36 billion in 2008 and this is expected to grow towards US$51 billion by 2013. As per market reports, US demand for primary and secondary batteries will increase by 2.5% annually to 16.8 billion in 2012, while primary batteries will account for 5.8 billion with a growth rate of 3%. The insatiable

N. Kularatna

2010-01-01

256

Short Term Memory, Working Memory, and Syntactic Comprehension in Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Sixty one people with aphasia were tested on ten tests of short term memory (STM) and for the ability to use syntactic structure to determine the meanings of eleven types of sentences in three tasks – object manipulation, picture matching and picture matching with self-paced listening. Multilevel models showed relationships between measures of the ability to retain and manipulate item and order information in STM and accuracy and RT, and a greater relationship between these STM measures and accuracy and RT for several more complex sentence types in individual tasks. There were no effects of measures of STM that reflect the use of phonological codes or rehearsal on comprehension. There was only one effect of STM measures on self-paced listening times. There were double dissociations between performance on STM and individual comprehension tasks, indicating that normal STM is not necessary to perform normally on these tasks. The results are most easily related to the view that STM plays a facilitatory role in supporting the use of the products of the comprehension process to accomplish operations related to tasks. PMID:23865692

Caplan, David; Michaud, Jennifer; Hufford, Rebecca

2013-01-01

257

White matter tract signatures of the progressive aphasias  

PubMed Central

The primary progressive aphasias (PPA) are a heterogeneous group of language-led neurodegenerative diseases resulting from large-scale brain network degeneration. White matter (WM) pathways bind networks together, and might therefore hold information about PPA pathogenesis. Here we used diffusion tensor imaging and tract-based spatial statistics to compare WM tract changes between PPA syndromes and with respect to Alzheimer's disease and healthy controls in 33 patients with PPA (13 nonfluent/agrammatic PPA); 10 logopenic variant PPA; and 10 semantic variant PPA. Nonfluent/agrammatic PPA was associated with predominantly left-sided and anterior tract alterations including uncinate fasciculus (UF) and subcortical projections; semantic variant PPA with bilateral alterations in inferior longitudinal fasciculus and UF; and logopenic variant PPA with bilateral but predominantly left-sided alterations in inferior longitudinal fasciculus, UF, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and subcortical projections. Tract alterations were more extensive than gray matter alterations, and the extent of alteration across tracts and PPA syndromes varied between diffusivity metrics. These WM signatures of PPA syndromes illustrate the selective vulnerability of brain language networks in these diseases and might have some pathologic specificity. PMID:23312804

Mahoney, Colin J.; Malone, Ian B.; Ridgway, Gerard R.; Buckley, Aisling H.; Downey, Laura E.; Golden, Hannah L.; Ryan, Natalie S.; Ourselin, Sebastien; Schott, Jonathan M.; Rossor, Martin N.; Fox, Nick C.; Warren, Jason D.

2013-01-01

258

Measuring Lexical Diversity in Narrative Discourse of People With Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Purpose A microlinguistic content analysis for assessing lexical semantics in people with aphasia (PWA) is lexical diversity (LD). Sophisticated techniques have been developed to measure LD. However, validity evidence for these methodologies when applied to the discourse of PWA is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four measures of LD to determine how effective they were at measuring LD in PWA. Method Four measures of LD were applied to short discourse samples produced by 101 PWA: (a) the Measure of Textual Lexical Diversity (MTLD; McCarthy, 2005), (b) the Moving-Average Type-Token Ratio (MATTR; Covington, 2007), (c) D (McKee, Malvern, & Richards, 2000), and (d) the Hypergeometric Distribution (HD-D; McCarthy & Jarvis, 2007). LD was estimated using each method, and the scores were subjected to a series of analyses (e.g., curve-fitting, analysis of variance, confirmatory factor analysis). Results Results from the confirmatory factor analysis suggested that MTLD and MATTR reflect LD and little of anything else. Further, two indices (HD-D and D) were found to be equivalent, suggesting that either one can be used when samples are >50 tokens. Conclusion MTLD and MATTR yielded the strongest evidence for producing unbiased LD scores, suggesting that they may be the best measures for capturing LD in PWA. PMID:23695912

Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather H.; West, Thomas M.

2013-01-01

259

Friends and foes in the lexicon: Homophone naming in aphasia.  

PubMed

The study of homophones-words with different meanings that sound the same-has great potential to inform models of language production. Of particular relevance is a phenomenon termed frequency inheritance, where a low-frequency word (e.g., deer) is produced more fluently than would be expected based on its frequency characteristics, presumably because of shared phonology with a high-frequency homophone counterpart (e.g., dear). However, prior studies have been inconsistent in showing frequency inheritance. To explain this inconsistency, we propose a dual nature account of homophony: a high-frequency counterpart exerts 2 counterposing effects on a low-frequency homophone target during the 2 main stages of naming: (a) a detrimental impact during semantically driven lexical retrieval; (b) a beneficial impact during phonological retrieval. In a study of naming in participants with chronic aphasia followed by computational investigations, we find strong evidence for the dual nature account of homophony. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25329091

Middleton, Erica L; Chen, Qi; Verkuilen, Jay

2015-01-01

260

Delayed auditory feedback simulates features of nonfluent primary progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

The pathophysiology of nonfluent primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA) remains poorly understood. Here, we compared quantitatively speech parameters in patients with nfvPPA versus healthy older individuals under altered auditory feedback, which has been shown to modulate normal speech output. Patients (n = 15) and healthy volunteers (n = 17) were recorded while reading aloud under delayed auditory feedback [DAF] with latency 0, 50 or 200 ms and under DAF at 200 ms plus 0.5 octave upward pitch shift. DAF in healthy older individuals was associated with reduced speech rate and emergence of speech sound errors, particularly at latency 200 ms. Up to a third of the healthy older group under DAF showed speech slowing and frequency of speech sound errors within the range of the nfvPPA cohort. Our findings suggest that (in addition to any anterior, primary language output disorder) these key features of nfvPPA may reflect distorted speech input signal processing, as simulated by DAF. DAF may constitute a novel candidate pathophysiological model of posterior dorsal cortical language pathway dysfunction in nfvPPA. PMID:25305712

Maruta, Carolina; Makhmood, Sonya; Downey, Laura E.; Golden, Hannah L.; Fletcher, Phillip D.; Witoonpanich, Pirada; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Warren, Jason D.

2014-01-01

261

Battery management systems (BMS) for increasing battery life time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life time of the battery depends of many different parameters. One parameter set is the internal battery parameters which are influenced by the battery manufacturers, and the second set is the external battery parameters which are influenced by the battery users. The external parameter can have an enormous influence on the life time. By use of a battery management

A. Jossen; V. Spath; H. Doring; J. Garche

1999-01-01

262

Aphasia for Morse code: a comment on Wyler and Ray (1986).  

PubMed

A. R. Wyler and R. W. Ray (1986, Brain and Language, 27, 195-199), present a case of aphasia for Morse code; they relate the deficit to the inability to detect high-speed auditory temporal sequences. Based on a personal observation of transient aphasia for Morse code, we proposed that at least three different abilities participate in recognizing and producing Morse code messages: (1) a specific linguistic ability, (2) a praxic skill, and (3) an auditory discrimination skill. Our patient presents difficulties in the first and second abilities, Wyler and Ray's in the third ability. PMID:3567555

Ardila, A

1987-03-01

263

Battery cell feedthrough apparatus  

DOEpatents

A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

Kaun, T.D.

1995-03-14

264

Series/Parallel Batteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is important for students to understand how resistors, capacitors, and batteries combine in series and parallel. The combination of batteries has a lot of practical applications in science competitions. This lab also reinforces how to use a voltmeter t

Michael Horton

2009-05-30

265

Western Skink  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Western skink (Plestiodon skiltonianus) is a relatively common and widespread lizard in Southern California. It is more secretive and prefers more grassy habitat than the Western fence lizard or the side-blotched lizard, yet USGS and National Park Service biologists are finding signs of genetic ...

2010-09-17

266

Nicad battery packages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problems encountered with purchased battery packages and increasing requirements for larger capacity cells in sounding rocket payloads led to the development of the battery packages in this report. Gell cells, lead acid batteries, silver cells and lithium batteries were considered along with nickel-cadmium (nicad) cells; however, nicads proved to be the most versatile. Several packaging concepts considering ease of assembly and servicing; minimization of weight and volume; and payload environmental requirements were evaluated.

Tracy, F. J.; Tweed, H. M., Jr.

1986-02-01

267

SOLAR BATTERY CHARGERS FOR NIMH BATTERIES1 Abstract -This paper proposes new solar battery  

E-print Network

portable batteries, such as NiMH and/or Li-ion batteries that can be carried by hikers. However, chargingSOLAR BATTERY CHARGERS FOR NIMH BATTERIES1 Abstract - This paper proposes new solar battery chargers for NiMH batteries. Used with portable solar panels, existing charge control methods are shown

Lehman, Brad

268

Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

Roman, Harry T.

2014-01-01

269

Precision Battery Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a new battery management system for a lithium ion battery pack for more efficient operation and sturdy. The new system contains an embedded microcontroller to track the energy content of cell battery, optimize the output current, and to provide extensive feedback of all the measurements taken. This system sends all data to a telemetry system so that

J. A. Asumadu; Mohammed Haque; Helio Vogel; Charles Willards

2005-01-01

270

Sodium sulfur battery seal  

DOEpatents

This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

Topouzian, Armenag (Birmingham, MI)

1980-01-01

271

Battery post seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus that provides a fluid seal between a battery post and battery cover is described. A first stuffing box is located around the battery post. This stuffing box contains an O-ring and a gland fitting that is screwed into the stuffing box for the purpose of squeezing the O-ring to create a fluid seal relationship between the stuffing box

1979-01-01

272

Sealed alkaline battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an alkaline battery hermetically sealed by fusion of an insulator containing silicon oxide such as glass interposed between an annular metal cover electrically connected to one electrode of the battery and a metal member connected to the other electrode of the battery, an annular packing is disposed inside the annular metal cover and in abutment with it, and a

T. Tsuchida; K. Shinoda; N. Sakamoto

1978-01-01

273

Sodium sulfur battery seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery. 3 figs.

Topouzian

1980-01-01

274

Cellphone battery charger miniaturization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fast off-line travel battery charger for cellular telephones is typically as large, or larger than some cellular telephones. This paper presents a miniaturized off-line travel battery charger for cellular phones. The aim of the work was to explore the theoretical and practical limitations of reducing the size of such a battery charger. The difficulty in miniaturizing such a charger

Juan A. Sabate; Daniel Kustera; Shri Sridhar

2000-01-01

275

Electrophysiology of Object Naming in Primary Progressive Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Primary progressive aphasia (PPA), a selective neurodegeneration of the language network, frequently causes object naming impairments. We examined the N400 event-related potential (ERP) to explore interactions between object recognition and word processing in 20 PPA patients and 15 controls. Participants viewed photographs of objects, each followed by a word that was either a match to the object, a semantically related mismatch, or an unrelated mismatch. Patients judged whether word– object pairs matched with high accuracy (94% PPA group; 98% control group), but they failed to exhibit the normal N400 category effect (N400c), defined as a larger N400 to unrelated versus related mismatch words. In contrast, the N400 mismatch effect (N400m), defined as a larger N400 to mismatch than match words, was observed in both groups. N400m magnitude was positively correlated with neuropsychological measures of word comprehension but not fluency or grammatical competence, and therefore reflected the semantic component of naming. After ERP testing, patients were asked to name the same set of objects aloud. Trials with objects that could not be named were found to lack an N400m, although the name had been correctly recognized at the matching stage. Even accurate overt naming did not necessarily imply normal semantic processing, as shown by the absent N400c. The N400m was preserved in one patient with postsemantic anomia, who could write the names of objects she could not verbalize. N400 analyses can thus help dissect the multiple cognitive mechanisms that contribute to object naming failures in PPA. PMID:20016092

Hurley, Robert S.; Paller, Ken A.; Wieneke, Christina A.; Weintraub, Sandra; Thompson, Cynthia K.; Federmeier, Kara D.; Mesulam, M.-Marsel

2009-01-01

276

Impact of aphasia on consciousness assessment: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Background. Previous findings suggest that language disorders may occur in severely brain-injured patients and could interfere with behavioral assessments of consciousness. However, no study investigated to what extent language impairment could affect patients' behavioral responses. Objective. To estimate the impact of receptive and/or productive language impairments on consciousness assessment. Methods. Twenty-four acute and subacute stroke patients with different types of aphasia (global, n = 11; Broca, n = 4; Wernicke, n = 3; anomic, n = 4; mixed, n = 2) were recruited in neurology and neurosurgery units as well as in rehabilitation centers. The Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) was administered. Results. We observed that 25% (6 out of 24) of stroke patients with a diagnosis of aphasia and 54% (6 out of 11) of patients with a diagnosis of global aphasia did not reach the maximal CRS-R total score of 23. An underestimation of the consciousness level was observed in 3 patients with global aphasia who could have been misdiagnosed as being in a minimally conscious state, even in the absence of any documented period of coma. More precisely, lower subscores were observed on the communication, motor, oromotor, and arousal subscales. Conclusion. Consciousness assessment may be complicated by the co-occurrence of severe language deficits. This stresses the importance of developing new tools or identifying items in existing scales, which may allow the detection of language impairment in severely brain-injured patients. PMID:24743226

Schnakers, Caroline; Bessou, Helene; Rubi-Fessen, Ilona; Hartmann, Alexander; Fink, Gereon R; Meister, Ingo; Giacino, Joseph T; Laureys, Steven; Majerus, Steve

2015-01-01

277

Perspectives on Public Awareness of Stroke and Aphasia among Turkish Patients in a Neurology Unit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies on awareness have drawn attention to the fact that aphasia is a little known disorder to the public, in spite of all the publicity about this frequently occurring neurogenic language disorder. Being a very new concept, studies of awareness are rare in Turkey. This survey study assessed the extent of public awareness of neurological…

Mavis, Ilknur

2007-01-01

278

Production and comprehension in aphasia: gains and pitfalls in using macrostructure tasks in Aesop's fables.  

PubMed

Macrostructures provide the global meaning of a text. Using Aesop's fables, the main goal of this study has been to identify the advantages and limitations in using the macrostructure tasks of retell, summary, lesson, and gist as clinical tools in understanding 16 patients with mild-to-moderate aphasia. Results suggest that all of the macrostructure tasks are important in determining the production skills of patients with aphasia. Comprehension, on the other hand, is best determined through the macrostructure tasks of retell and lesson. In addition to the language processing skills of patients with aphasia, macrostructures also provide a cognitive picture of how patients manipulate information from stories (i.e., reducing information, making inferences, and generalizing didactic information). Inherent limitations, however, are seen when interpreting possible reasons why patients with aphasia are unable to perform some of these tasks. Given that the potential gains of using macrostructure tasks outweigh the limitations, this study suggests that macrostructures may have clinical value as a diagnostic tool in understanding the cognitive-linguistic processes of patients with brain injury. PMID:23721371

Ulatowska, Hanna K; Reyes, Belinda; Olea Santos, Tricia; Garst, Diane; Mak, Kelly; Graham, Kelly

2013-12-01

279

The training of verb production in Broca's aphasia: A multiple?baseline across?behaviours study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Verb production is often impaired in Broca's aphasia: Action naming is more affected than object naming and in spontaneous speech the number and\\/or diversity of lexical verbs is low. Because verbs play a pivotal role in the sentence, these verb problems have a serious impact on the communicative contents of speech in daily life.This project has financially been supported

Roelien Bastiaanse; Joost Hurkmans; Petra Links

2006-01-01

280

Sentence Comprehension in Agrammatic Aphasia: History and Variability to Clinical Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals with Broca's aphasia often present with deficits in their ability to comprehend non-canonical sentences. This has been contrastingly characterized as a systematic loss of specific grammatical abilities or as individual variability in the dynamics between processing load and resource availability. The present study investigated sentence…

Johnson, Danielle; Cannizzaro, Michael S.

2009-01-01

281

Word Order and Finiteness in Dutch and English Broca's and Wernicke's Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of two linguistic factors in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia was examined using Dutch and English subjects. Three tasks were used to test (1) the comprehension and (2) the construction of sentences, where verbs (in Dutch) and verb arguments (in Dutch and English) are in canonical versus non-canonical position; (3) the production of…

Bastiaanse, Roelien; Edwards, Susan

2004-01-01

282

Mechanisms of recovery from aphasia: evidence from serial xenon 133 cerebral blood flow studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 21 patients who suffered aphasia resulting from left hemisphere ischemic infarction, the xenon 133 inhalation cerebral blood flow technique was used to measure cerebral blood flow within 3 months and 5 to 12 months after stroke. In addition to baseline measurements, cerebral blood flow measurements were also carried out while the patients were performing purposeful listening. In patients with

David S. Knopman; Alan B. Rubens; Ola A. Selnes; Arthur C. Klassen; Maurice W. Meyer

1984-01-01

283

Evaluation of Attention Training and Metacognitive Facilitation to Improve Reading Comprehension in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This pilot study investigated the impact of direct attention training combined with metacognitive facilitation on reading comprehension in individuals with aphasia. Method: A single-subject, multiple baseline design was employed across 4 participants to evaluate potential changes in reading comprehension resulting from an 8-week…

Lee, Jaime B.; Sohlberg, McKay Moore

2013-01-01

284

Typicality of Inanimate Category Exemplars in Aphasia Treatment: Further Evidence for Semantic Complexity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The typicality treatment approach on improving naming was investigated within 2 inanimate categories ("furniture" and "clothing") using a single-subject experimental design across participants and behaviors in 5 patients with aphasia. Method: Participants received a semantic feature treatment to improve naming of either typical or…

Kiran, Swathi

2008-01-01

285

Adapting the Bilingual Aphasia Test to Rarotongan (Cook Islands Maori): Linguistic and Clinical Considerations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the adaptation of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) to the Rarotongan dialect of Cook Islands Maori, a Polynesian language spoken in the Cook Islands and expatriate communities. A brief linguistic sketch of Rarotongan is presented. As Rarotongan is characterised by a complex pronominal system, "a" versus "o" possession and…

Amberber, Amanda Miller

2011-01-01

286

Where language meets meaningful action: a combined behavior and lesion analysis of aphasia and apraxia.  

PubMed

It is debated how language and praxis are co-represented in the left hemisphere (LH). As voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping in LH stroke patients with aphasia and/or apraxia may contribute to this debate, we here investigated the relationship between language and praxis deficits at the behavioral and lesion levels in 50 sub-acute stroke patients. We hypothesized that language and (meaningful) action are linked via semantic processing in Broca's region. Behaviorally, half of the patients suffered from co-morbid aphasia and apraxia. While 24 % (n = 12) of all patients exhibited aphasia without apraxia, apraxia without aphasia was rare (n = 2, 4 %). Left inferior frontal, insular, inferior parietal, and superior temporal lesions were specifically associated with deficits in naming, reading, writing, or auditory comprehension. In contrast, lesions affecting the left inferior frontal gyrus, premotor cortex, and the central region as well as the inferior parietal lobe were associated with apraxic deficits (i.e., pantomime, imitation of meaningful and meaningless gestures). Thus, contrary to the predictions of the embodied cognition theory, lesions to sensorimotor and premotor areas were associated with the severity of praxis but not language deficits. Lesions of Brodmann area (BA) 44 led to combined apraxic and aphasic deficits. Data suggest that BA 44 acts as an interface between language and (meaningful) action thereby supporting parcellation schemes (based on connectivity and receptor mapping) which revealed a BA 44 sub-area involved in semantic processing. PMID:25352157

Weiss, Peter H; Ubben, Simon D; Kaesberg, Stephanie; Kalbe, Elke; Kessler, Josef; Liebig, Thomas; Fink, Gereon R

2014-10-29

287

The Effect of a Therapy Dog on the Communication Skills of an Adult with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little evidence-based research has been published within the field of communication disorders on the role of dogs as catalysts for human communication. This single participant study, a point of entry into this realm of research, explores the effects of a therapy dog on the communication skills of a patient with aphasia receiving intensive speech…

LaFrance, Caroline; Garcia, Linda J.; Labreche, Julianne

2007-01-01

288

Legal Decision-Making by People with Aphasia: Critical Incidents for Speech Pathologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The assessment and management of a person with aphasia for whom decision-making capacity is queried represents a highly complex clinical issue. In addition, there are few published guidelines and even fewer published accounts of empirical research to assist. Aims: The research presented in this paper aimed to identify the main issues…

Ferguson, Alison; Duffield, Gemma; Worrall, Linda

2010-01-01

289

A theoretical account of lexical and semantic naming deficits in bilingual aphasia  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine pre-morbid language proficiency and lexical and semantic processing deficits in bilingual aphasia and develop a theoretical account of bilingual language processing. Method Nineteen Spanish-English patients with bilingual aphasia completed a language use questionnaire (LUQ) and were administered Spanish and English standardized language assessments. We analyzed the data to (a) identify patterns of lexical and semantic processing deficits in bilingual aphasia and conceptualize a theoretical framework that accounts for language deficits, (b) determine LUQ measures that predict post-stroke language deficits, and (c) evaluate the relationship between predictive LUQ measures and post-stroke language deficits in order to identify impairment patterns. Results Based on results we obtained significant correlations on several measures between language input and output. We identified pre-stroke language ability rating as the strongest predictor of post-stroke outcomes. Based on this data, two distinct groups were identified: patients who lost the same amount of language in Spanish and English and patients who lost different amounts of Spanish and English. Conclusions Our findings suggest it is possible to identify relationships between language patterns and deficits in patients with bilingual aphasia and that these trends will be instrumental in clinical assessments of this understudied population. PMID:23816660

Gray, Teresa; Kiran, Swathi

2013-01-01

290

Lesion Characteristics Related to Treatment Improvement in Object and Action Naming for Patients with Chronic Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have examined the relationship between degree of lesion in various locations and improvement during treatment in stroke patients with chronic aphasia. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether the degree of lesion in specific brain regions was related to magnitude of improvement over the course of object and action naming…

Parkinson, R. Bruce; Raymer, Anastasia; Chang, Yu-Ling; FitzGerald, David B.; Crosson, Bruce

2009-01-01

291

The Time Course of Neurolinguistic and Neuropsychological Symptoms in Three Cases of Logopenic Primary Progressive Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a rare clinical dementia syndrome affecting predominantly language abilities. Word-finding difficulties and comprehension deficits despite relatively preserved cognitive functions are characteristic symptoms during the first two years, and distinguish PPA from other dementia types like Alzheimer's disease.…

Etcheverry, Louise; Seidel, Barbara; Grande, Marion; Schulte, Stephanie; Pieperhoff, Peter; Sudmeyer, Martin; Minnerop, Martina; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Huber, Walter; Grodzinsky, Yosef; Amunts, Katrin; Heim, Stefan

2012-01-01

292

Semantic Interference during Object Naming in Agrammatic and Logopenic Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the time course of object naming in 21 individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) (8 agrammatic (PPA-G); 13 logopenic (PPA-L)) and healthy age-matched speakers (n=17) using a semantic interference paradigm with related and unrelated interfering stimuli presented at stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) of -1000, -500, -100…

Thompson, Cynthia K.; Cho, Soojin; Price, Charis; Wieneke, Christina; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Rogalski, Emily; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel

2012-01-01

293

Fluent Versus Nonfluent Primary Progressive Aphasia: A Comparison of Clinical and Functional Neuroimaging Features  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To better characterize fluent and nonfluent variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Although investigators have recognized both fluent and nonfluent patients with PPA (Mesulam, 2001), the clinical and neuroimaging features of these variants have not been fully defined. We present clinical and neuropsychological data on 47 PPA patients…

Clark, D.G.; Charuvastra, A.; Miller, B.L.; Shapira, J.S.; Mendez, M.F.

2005-01-01

294

Regional White Matter Damage Predicts Speech Fluency in Chronic Post-Stroke Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Recently, two different white matter regions that support speech fluency have been identified: the aslant tract and the anterior segment of the arcuate fasciculus (ASAF). The role of the ASAF was demonstrated in patients with post-stroke aphasia, while the role of the aslant tract shown in primary progressive aphasia. Regional white matter integrity appears to be crucial for speech production; however, the degree that each region exerts an independent influence on speech fluency is unclear. Furthermore, it is not yet defined if damage to both white matter regions influences speech in the context of the same neural mechanism (stroke-induced aphasia). This study assessed the relationship between speech fluency and quantitative integrity of the aslant region and the ASAF. It also explored the relationship between speech fluency and other white matter regions underlying classic cortical language areas such as the uncinate fasciculus and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). Damage to these regions, except the ILF, was associated with speech fluency, suggesting synergistic association of these regions with speech fluency in post-stroke aphasia. These observations support the theory that speech fluency requires the complex, orchestrated activity between a network of pre-motor, secondary, and tertiary associative cortices, supported in turn by regional white matter integrity. PMID:25368572

Basilakos, Alexandra; Fillmore, Paul T.; Rorden, Chris; Guo, Dazhou; Bonilha, Leonardo; Fridriksson, Julius

2014-01-01

295

Anatomic, Clinical, and Neuropsychological Correlates of Spelling Errors in Primary Progressive Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates spelling errors in the three subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA): agrammatic (PPA-G), logopenic (PPA-L), and semantic (PPA-S). Forty-one PPA patients and 36 age-matched healthy controls were administered a test of spelling. The total number of errors and types of errors in spelling to dictation of regular words,…

Shim, HyungSub; Hurley, Robert S.; Rogalski, Emily; Mesulam, M.-Marsel

2012-01-01

296

A Multimodal Communication Program for Aphasia during Inpatient Rehabilitation: A Case Study  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Communication is essential for successful rehabilitation, yet few aphasia treatments have been investigated during the acute stroke phase. Alternative modality use including gesturing, writing, or drawing has been shown to increase communicative effectiveness in people with chronic aphasia. Instruction in alternative modality use during acute stroke may increase patient communication and participation, therefore resulting in fewer adverse situations and improved rehabilitation outcomes. OBJECTIVE The study purpose was to explore a multimodal communication program for aphasia (MCPA) implemented during acute stroke rehabilitation. MCPA aims to improve communication modality production, and to facilitate switching among modalities to resolve communication breakdowns. METHODS Two adults with severe aphasia completed MCPA beginning at 2 and 3 weeks post onset a single left-hemisphere stroke. Probes completed during each session allowed for evaluation of modality production and modality switching accuracy. RESULTS Participants completed MCPA (10 and 14 treatment sessions respectively) and their performance on probes suggested increased accuracy in the production of various alternate communication modalities. However, increased switching to an alternate modality was noted for only one participant. CONCLUSIONS Further investigation of multimodal treatment during inpatient rehabilitation is warranted. In particular, comparisons between multimodal and standard treatments would help determine appropriate interventions for this setting. PMID:25227547

Wallace, Sarah E.; Purdy, Mary; Skidmore, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

297

Coverbal Gestures in the Recovery from Severe Fluent Aphasia: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This post hoc study investigated coverbal gesture patterns in two persons with chronic Wernicke's aphasia. They had both received therapy focusing on multimodal communication therapy, and their pre- and post-therapy verbal and gestural skills in face-to-face conversational interaction with their speech therapist were analysed by administering a…

Carlomagno, Sergio; Zulian, Nicola; Razzano, Carmelina; De Mercurio, Ilaria; Marini, Andrea

2013-01-01

298

Perceived Liveliness and Speech Comprehensibility in Aphasia: The Effects of Direct Speech in Auditory Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Previous studies have shown that in semi-spontaneous speech, individuals with Broca's and anomic aphasia produce relatively many direct speech constructions. It has been claimed that in "healthy" communication direct speech constructions contribute to the liveliness, and indirectly to the comprehensibility, of speech.…

Groenewold, Rimke; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Nickels, Lyndsey; Huiskes, Mike

2014-01-01

299

The Effects of Modified Melodic Intonation Therapy on Nonfluent Aphasia: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Positive results have been reported with melodic intonation therapy (MIT) in nonfluent aphasia patients with damage to their left-brain speech processes, using the patient's intact ability to sing to promote functional language. This pilot study sought to determine the immediate effects of introducing modified melodic intonation therapy…

Conklyn, Dwyer; Novak, Eric; Boissy, Adrienne; Bethoux, Francois; Chemali, Kamal

2012-01-01

300

Defects of Non-Verbal Auditory Perception in Children with Developmental Aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SOME otherwise normal children fail to learn to speak and are designated developmental aphasics. Several authors have suggested that auditory perceptual deficits, particularly of sequencing, may be the primary dysfunction1-4. Efron5 suggested that the left temporal lobe mediates temporal analysis and that it is the disruption of this function which is central to adult aphasia. We examined children with developmental

Paula Tallal; M. Piercy

1973-01-01

301

Mechanisms of recovery from aphasia: evidence from positron emission tomography studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESLanguage functions comprise a distributed neural system, largely lateralised to the left cerebral hemisphere. Late recovery from aphasia after a focal lesion, other than by behavioural strategies, has been attributed to one of two changes at a systems level: a laterality shift, with mirror region cortex in the contralateral cortex assuming the function(s) of the damaged region; or a partial

Elizabeth Warburton; Cathy J Price; Kate Swinburn; Richard J S Wise

1999-01-01

302

Role of Importance and Distinctiveness of Semantic Features in People with Aphasia: A Replication Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies suggest that people with aphasia have incomplete lexical-semantic representations with decreased low-importance distinctive (LID) feature knowledge. In addition, decreased LID feature knowledge correlates with ability to discriminate among semantically related words. The current study seeks to replicate and extend previous…

Mason-Baughman, Mary Beth; Wallace, Sarah E.

2014-01-01

303

Gesture and Naming Therapy for People with Severe Aphasia: A Group Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors (a) investigated whether a group of people with severe aphasia could learn a vocabulary of pantomime gestures through therapy and (b) compared their learning of gestures with their learning of words. The authors also examined whether gesture therapy cued word production and whether naming therapy cued gestures.…

Marshall, Jane; Best, Wendy; Cocks, Naomi; Cruice, Madeline; Pring, Tim; Bulcock, Gemma; Creek, Gemma; Eales, Nancy; Mummery, Alice Lockhart; Matthews, Niina; Caute, Anna

2012-01-01

304

Jean-Martin Charcot's Role in the 19th Century Study of Music Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-93) was a well-known French neurologist. Although he is widely recognized for his discovery of several neurological disorders and his research into aphasia, Charcot's ideas about how the brain processes music are less well known. Charcot discussed the music abilities of several patients in the context of his "Friday…

Johnson, Julene K.; Lorch, Marjorie; Nicolas, Serge; Graziano, Amy

2013-01-01

305

Mismatch Negativity Elicited by Tones and Speech Sounds: Changed Topographical Distribution in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used the event-related brain potential mismatch negativity (MMN) to investigate preconscious discrimination of harmonically rich tones (differing in duration) and consonant-vowel syllables (differing in the initial consonant) in aphasia. Eighteen Norwegian aphasic patients, examined on average 3 months after brain injury, were compared…

Becker, Frank; Reinvang, Ivar

2007-01-01

306

The Time-Course of Lexical Activation during Sentence Comprehension in People with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To investigate the time-course of processing of lexical items in auditorily presented canonical (subject-verb-object) constructions in young, neurologically unimpaired control participants and participants with left-hemisphere damage and agrammatic aphasia. Method: A cross modal picture priming (CMPP) paradigm was used to test 114 control…

Ferrill, Michelle; Love, Tracy; Walenski, Matthew; Shapiro, Lewis P.

2012-01-01

307

Health-Related Quality of Life in People with Severe Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) measures are increasingly used to help us understand the impact of disease or disability on a person's life and to measure the effectiveness of interventions. A small number of studies have looked at perceived HRQL in people with mild or moderate aphasia. They report that reduced HRQL is associated…

Hilari, Katerina; Byng, Sally

2009-01-01

308

Beginning to Teach the End: The Importance of Including Discharge from Aphasia Therapy in the Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Discharging clients with long-term aphasia from therapy services constitutes a challenging dilemma for practising clinicians for a multitude of reasons. Although discharge was raised and discussed as a contentious issue in the field of aphasiology ten years ago, it remains an aspect of practice which is complex and underexplored. We…

Hersh, Deborah; Cruice, Madeline

2010-01-01

309

Bilingual Aphasia and Language Control: A Follow-Up fMRI and Intrinsic Connectivity Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a world that is becoming more multilingual, bilingual aphasia is a clinical problem with a major clinical impact. However, at present we lack causal explanations of the many features of recovery patterns and there is no consensus about the language in which the patient should receive speech therapy. Further advance requires an understanding of…

Abutalebi, Jubin; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Tettamanti, Marco; Green, David W.; Cappa, Stefano F.

2009-01-01

310

Single Subject Controlled Experiments in Aphasia: The Science and the State of the Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the use of single subject controlled experimental designs for investigating the effects of treatment for aphasia. A brief historical perspective is presented, followed by discussions of the advantages and disadvantages of single subject and group approaches, the basic requirements of single subject experimental research, and…

Thompson, Cynthia K.

2006-01-01

311

Reconciling the Perspective of Practitioner and Service User: Findings from The Aphasia in Scotland Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: It is widely accepted that service users should be actively involved in new service developments, but there remain issues about how best to consult with them and how to reconcile their views with those of service providers. Aims: This paper uses data from The Aphasia in Scotland study, set up by NHS Quality Improvement Scotland to…

Law, James; Huby, Guro; Irving, Anne-Marie; Pringle, Ann-Marie; Conochie, Douglas; Haworth, Catherine; Burston, Amanda

2010-01-01

312

Stronger Accent Following a Stroke: The Case of a Trilingual with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study documents patterns of change in speech production in a multilingual with aphasia following a cerebrovascular accident (CVA). EC, a right-handed Hebrew-English-French trilingual man, had a left fronto-temporo-parietal CVA, after which he reported that his (native) Hebrew accent became stronger in his (second language) English. Recordings…

Levy, Erika S.; Goral, Mira; De Diesbach, Catharine Castelluccio; Law, Franzo, II

2011-01-01

313

Mechanisms of Aphasia Recovery after Stroke and the Role of Noninvasive Brain Stimulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most frequent symptoms of unilateral stroke is aphasia, the impairment or loss of language functions. Over the past few years, behavioral and neuroimaging studies have shown that rehabilitation interventions can promote neuroplastic changes in aphasic patients that may be associated with the improvement of language functions. Following…

Hamilton, Roy H.; Chrysikou, Evangelia G.; Coslett, Branch

2011-01-01

314

The Potential of Virtual Reality to Assess Functional Communication in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who work with adults with cognitive-linguistic impairments, including aphasia, have long needed an assessment tool that predicts ability to function in the real world. In this article, it is argued that virtual reality (VR)-supported approaches can address this need. Using models of disability such as the…

Garcia, Linda J.; Rebolledo, Mercedes; Metthe, Lynn; Lefebvre, Renee

2007-01-01

315

Should Pantomime and Gesticulation Be Assessed Separately for Their Comprehensibility in Aphasia? A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Gesticulation (gestures accompanying speech) and pantomime (gestures in the absence of speech) can each be comprehensible. Little is known about the differences between these two gesture modes in people with aphasia. Aims: To discover whether there are differences in the communicative use of gesticulation and pantomime in QH, a person…

van Nispen, Karin; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke; Mol, Lisette; Krahmer, Emiel

2014-01-01

316

Modality-Specific Deterioration in Naming Verbs in Nonfluent Primary Progressive Aphasia  

E-print Network

progressive aphasia (PPA) is reported. M. M. L. showed progressive deterioration of oral naming of verbs well much more than others. Such evidence comes from numerous reports of disproportionate impairment-deficit association have also been reported (see Daniele, 2001, for a review; De Renzi & di Pellegrino, 1995; Hillis

Caramazza, Alfonso

317

Treatment of Semantic Verb Classes in Aphasia: Acquisition and Generalization Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Verb retrieval difficulties are common in aphasia; however, few successful treatments have been documented (e.g. Conroy, P., Sage, K., & Lambon Ralph, M. A. (2006). Towards theory-driven therapies for aphasic verb impairments: A review of current theory and practice. "Aphasiology", 20, 1159-1185). This study investigated the efficacy of a novel…

Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Graham, Lauren E.

2011-01-01

318

Sparing of Written Production of Proper Nouns and Dates in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aphasia is a total or partial loss of the ability to produce or understand language, usually caused by brain disease or injury. In this case study, the aphasic patient (BMW) has a profound impairment of oral production and a very moderate impairment in comprehension. Several years of informal observation lead to the current study that contrasts…

Schmidt, Darren; Buchanan, Lori

2004-01-01

319

Effect of Verb Network Strengthening Treatment in Moderate-to-Severe Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This Phase II treatment study examined the effect of Verb Network Strengthening Treatment (VNeST) on individuals with moderate-to-severe aphasia. Research questions addressed (a) pre- to posttreatment changes and pretreatment to treatment phase changes on probe sentences containing trained verbs (e.g., "The carpenter is 'measuring' the…

Edmonds, Lisa A.; Babb, Michelle

2011-01-01

320

Visuomotor Tracking Abilities of Speakers with Apraxia of Speech or Conduction Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation examined the visuomotor tracking abilities of persons with apraxia of speech (AOS) or conduction aphasia (CA). In addition, tracking performance was correlated with perceptual judgments of speech accuracy. Five individuals with AOS and four with CA served as participants, as well as an equal number of healthy controls matched by…

Robin, Donald A.; Jacks, Adam; Hageman, Carlin; Clark, Heather M.; Woodworth, George

2008-01-01

321

A case of semantic variant primary progressive aphasia with severe insular atrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insular degeneration has been linked to symptoms of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Presented in this case is a patient exhibiting semantic variant primary progressive aphasia, behavioral disturbance. Upon autopsy, he was found to have severe insular atrophy. In addition, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were ineffective in reducing symptoms of obsessive–compulsive behaviors or emotional blunting. This case suggests that Seeley et al.'s

T. W. Chow; K. A. Links; D. L. Masterman; M. F. Mendez; H. V. Vinters

2011-01-01

322

Category and Letter Fluency in Semantic Dementia, Primary Progressive Aphasia, and Alzheimer's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of various degenerative dementias on access to semantic knowledge and the status of semantic representations. Patients with semantic dementia, primary progressive aphasia, and Alzheimer's disease were compared with elderly controls on tasks of category and letter fluency, with number of words generated, mean lexical…

Marczinski, Cecile A.; Kertesz, Andrew

2006-01-01

323

Chemically rechargeable battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Batteries (50) containing oxidized, discharged metal electrodes such as an iron-air battery are charged by removing and storing electrolyte in a reservoir (98), pumping fluid reductant such as formalin (aqueous formaldehyde) from a storage tank (106) into the battery in contact with the surfaces of the electrodes. After sufficient iron hydroxide has been reduced to iron, the spent reductant is drained, the electrodes rinsed with water from rinse tank (102) and then the electrolyte in the reservoir (106) is returned to the battery. The battery can be slowly electrically charged when in overnight storage but can be quickly charged in about 10 minutes by the chemical procedure of the invention.

Graf, James E. (Inventor); Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

1984-01-01

324

Electric storage battery assembly  

SciTech Connect

An automotive storage battery assembly is described including: (a) a primary storage battery provided with positive and negative poles; (b) a secondary storage battery having positive and negative poles; (c) a female coupling member adapted to be coupled to the positive and negative poles of one of the primary and secondary storage batteries and having a positive and negative receiver; (d) a male coupling member adapted to be coupled to the positive and negative poles of the other of the primary and secondary storage batteries and having protruding positive and negative prongs to frictionally engage with the positive and negative receivers to electronically couple the primary and secondary storage batteries in parallel; (e) walls of the primary storage battery casing defining an aperture having a dimension to snugly receive the secondary storage battery; (f) spring clamping members on the primary storage battery on two spaced sides of the primary storage battery defining the aperture; (g) slotted flanges on spaced ends of the top surface of the secondary storage battery; the flanges adapted to receive the clamping members, and (h) a carrying handle adapted to be received at either end in the slotted flanges when the spring clamping members are disengaged.

Cramer, S.L.

1987-08-04

325

Silicon Carbide Radioisotope Batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The substantial radiation resistance and large bandgap of SiC semiconductor materials makes them an attractive candidate for application in a high efficiency, long life radioisotope battery. To evaluate their potential in this application, simulated batteries were constructed using SiC diodes and the alpha particle emitter Americium Am-241 or the beta particle emitter Promethium Pm-147. The Am-241 based battery showed high initial power output and an initial conversion efficiency of approximately 16%, but the power output decayed 52% in 500 hours due to radiation damage. In contrast the Pm-147 based battery showed a similar power output level and an initial conversion efficiency of approximately 0.6%, but no degradation was observed in 500 hours. However, the Pm-147 battery required approximately 1000 times the particle fluence as the Am-242 battery to achieve a similar power output. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of battery and suggestions for future improvements will be discussed.

Rybicki, George C.

2005-01-01

326

Improvement in psychological well-being of people with aphasia and their families: Evaluation of a community-based programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The York-Durham Aphasia Centre comprises a community-based programme for people with aphasia and their families. It offers long-term support and service at any time post-stroke or head injury. This evaluation focused on improvement in psychosocial well-being in the clients and their family members as a measure of programme effectiveness. Trained programme volunteers administered Ryff's Psychological Well-being Scale to 35 clients

Beth Hoen; Mary Thelander; Jill Worsley

1997-01-01

327

Electric-vehicle batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

1995-02-01

328

Remote Control Inserting the batteries  

E-print Network

Top View Rear View Inserting the batteries 1 3Press in on the arrow mark and slide in the direction of the arrow to remove the battery cover. 2 Insert two AA size batteries, making sure their polarities match the and marks inside the battery compartment. Insert the side tabs of the battery cover into their slots

Kostic, Milivoje M.

329

The 1975 GSFC Battery Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proceedings of the 1975 Goddard Space Flight Center Battery Workshop are presented. The major topics of discussion were nickel cadmium batteries and, to a lesser extent, nickel hydrogen batteries. Battery design, manufacturing techniques, testing programs, and electrochemical characteristics were considered. The utilization of these batteries for spacecraft power supplies was given particular attention.

1975-01-01

330

Battery Management in Mobile Systems  

E-print Network

1 Battery Management in Mobile Systems Enrico Macii Politecnico di Torino Torino, Italy 2 Outline for battery-driven optimization capabilities. 4 Dynamic Power Management (DPM) · One of the most effective the "battery is doing" during system operation. · Open-loop policies. 5 Battery-Driven DPM · For battery

Bogliolo, Alessandro

331

Satellite battery testing status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of the large numbers of satellite cells currently being tested and anticipated at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NAVWPNSUPPCEN) Crane, Indiana, satellite cell testing is being integrated into the Battery Test Automation Project (BTAP). The BTAP, designed to meet the growing needs for battery testing at the NAVWPNSUPPCEN Crane, will consist of several Automated Test Stations (ATSs) which monitor batteries under test. Each ATS will interface with an Automation Network Controller (ANC) which will collect test data for reduction.

Haag, R.; Hall, S.

1986-01-01

332

Battery charge condition monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic techniques are presented for determining the charge condition of electric-vehicle propulsion batteries of both the lead--acid and nickel--cadmium types. The techniques presented include those employing measurement of battery parameters, such as electrolyte properties, voltage, and internal resistance, and those utilizing coulometric measurements. An application example employing the coulometric approach is described to demonstrate the usefulness of an accurate battery

Christianson

1974-01-01

333

Viking lander spacecraft battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Viking Lander was the first spacecraft to fly a sterilized nickel-cadmium battery on a mission to explore the surface of a planet. The significant results of the battery development program from its inception through the design, manufacture, and test of the flight batteries which were flown on the two Lander spacecraft are documented. The flight performance during the early phase of the mission is also presented.

Newell, D. R.

1976-01-01

334

Advances in ZEBRA batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ZEBRA batteries use plain salt and nickel as the raw material for their electrodes in combination with a ceramic electrolyte and a molten salt. This combination provides a battery system related specific energy of 120 Wh/kg and a specific power of 180 W/kg. With these data the battery is well designed for all types of electric vehicles and hybrid electric buses. The ZEBRA battery technology is industrialised in Switzerland where a new plant has a capacity of 2000 packs a year with expansion prepared for 30,000 packs a year.

Dustmann, Cord-H.

335

False recognition of incidentally learned pictures and words in primary progressive aphasia?  

PubMed Central

Recognition memory was tested in patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA), a language based dementia with relative preservation of memory for at least the first 2 years. The goal of the study was two-fold: (1) to compare true and false recognition rates for words versus pictures in patients with PPA and cognitively intact controls and (2) to determine if the semantic relatedness of distracters-to-targets influences recognition memory performance. Overall, performance of PPA patients was worse for words than pictures. PPA patients and healthy elderly controls showed similar recognition rates for studied items. However, the patients had significantly more false alarms than controls, particularly to semantically related items. This suggests that the aphasia in PPA patients contributes to their difficulty in selecting among items within a semantic class. PMID:16905162

Rogalski, Emily; Blum, Diana; Rademaker, Alfred; Weintraub, Sandra

2010-01-01

336

The Northwestern Anagram Test: Measuring Sentence Production in Primary Progressive Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a clinical dementia syndrome with early symptoms of language dysfunction. Post mortem findings are varied and include Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), both tauopathies and TDP-43 proteinopathies. Clinical-pathologic correlations in PPA are complex but the presence in the clinical profile of agrammatism has a high association with tauopathy. Grammatical competence is difficult to assess in the clinical setting with available methods. This paper describes the Northwestern Anagram Test (NAT), a new clinical measure of sentence production. Sixteen patients with PPA and their controls assembled single printed words to create sentences describing pictures. NAT performance was significantly correlated with a measure of sentence production and with aphasia severity, but not with measures of naming, single word comprehension, object recognition or motor speech. The NAT can be used to assess syntax competence when patients cannot be tested with measures that requiring intact speech production. PMID:19700669

Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M.-Marsel; Wieneke, Christina; Rademaker, Alfred; Rogalski, Emily J.; Thompson, Cynthia K.

2009-01-01

337

Intensive therapy induces contralateral white matter changes in chronic stroke patients with Broca's aphasia.  

PubMed

Using a pre-post design, eleven chronic stroke patients with large left hemisphere lesions and nonfluent aphasia underwent diffusion tensor imaging and language testing before and after receiving 15 weeks of an intensive intonation-based speech therapy. This treated patient group was compared to an untreated patient group (n=9) scanned twice over a similar time period. Our results showed that the treated group, but not the untreated group, had reductions in fractional anisotropy in the white matter underlying the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, pars opercularis and pars triangularis), the right posterior superior temporal gyrus, and the right posterior cingulum. Furthermore, we found that greater improvements in speech production were associated with greater reductions in FA in the right IFG (pars opercularis). Thus, our findings showed that an intensive rehabilitation program for patients with nonfluent aphasia led to structural changes in the right hemisphere, which correlated with improvements in speech production. PMID:25041868

Wan, Catherine Y; Zheng, Xin; Marchina, Sarah; Norton, Andrea; Schlaug, Gottfried

2014-09-01

338

Sonya S. Nikolova, Jordan Boyd-Graber, and Perry Cook. The Design of ViVA: A Mixed-initiative Visual Vocabulary for Aphasia. Proceedings of the 27th international conference extended abstracts on Human factors in computing  

E-print Network

-initiative Visual Vocabulary for Aphasia. Proceedings of the 27th international conference extended abstracts-initiative Visual Vocabulary for Aphasia}, Booktitle = {Proceedings of the 27th international conference extended-Initiative Visual Vocabulary for Aphasia Abstract In this paper, we present the design of ViVA, a visual vocabulary

Boyd-Graber, Jordan

339

Contrasting effects of errorless naming treatment and gestural facilitation for word retrieval in aphasia.  

PubMed

We compared the effects of two treatments for aphasic word retrieval impairments, errorless naming treatment (ENT) and gestural facilitation of naming (GES), within the same individuals, anticipating that the use of gesture would enhance the effect of treatment over errorless treatment alone. In addition to picture naming, we evaluated results for other outcome measures that were largely untested in earlier ENT studies. In a single participant crossover treatment design, we examined the effects of ENT and GES in eight individuals with stroke-induced aphasia and word retrieval impairments (three semantic anomia, five phonological anomia) in counterbalanced phases across participants. We evaluated effects of the two treatments for a daily picture naming/gesture production probe measure and in standardised aphasia tests and communication rating scales administered across phases of the experiment. Both treatments led to improvements in naming of trained words (small-to-large effect sizes) in individuals with semantic and phonological anomia. Small generalised naming improvements were noted for three individuals with phonological anomia. GES improved use of corresponding gestures for trained words (large effect sizes). Results were largely maintained at one month post-treatment completion. Increases in scores on standardised aphasia testing also occurred for both ENT and GES training. Both ENT and GES led to improvements in naming measures, with no clear difference between treatments. Increased use of gestures following GES provided a potential compensatory means of communication for those who did not improve verbal skills. Both treatments are considered to be effective methods to promote recovery of word retrieval and verbal production skills in individuals with aphasia. PMID:22047100

Raymer, Anastasia M; McHose, Beth; Smith, Kimberly G; Iman, Lisa; Ambrose, Alexis; Casselton, Colleen

2012-01-01

340

Evaluating Single-Subject Treatment Research: Lessons Learned from the Aphasia Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mandate for evidence-based practice has prompted careful consideration of the weight of the scientific evidence regarding\\u000a the therapeutic value of various clinical treatments. In the field of aphasia, a large number of single-subject research studies\\u000a have been conducted, providing clinical outcome data that are potentially useful for clinicians and researchers; however,\\u000a it has been difficult to discern the relative

Pélagie M. Beeson; Randall R. Robey

2006-01-01

341

The perception and production of Voice-Onset Time in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract--This study assessed aphasic and right brain-damaged non-aphasic patients' ability to label and discriminate a synthetic speech continuum,differing in voice-onset time (VOT). We investigated these abilities in relation to type of aphasia and language comprehension facility, and explored the relation between perception and production of voice-onset time distinctions. Results of the perception tasks indicated that if a subject could not

S. Blumstein; W. Cooper; E. Zurif; A. Caramazza

1977-01-01

342

Interviews with people with aphasia: Environmental factors that influence their community participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Speech?language pathologists have been encouraged to create communication?friendly environments to enable the everyday participation of their clients with aphasia. However, we still do not know the scope of the negative environmental factors (barriers) and positive environmental factors (facilitators) that need to be addressed in order to create these types of environments.The authors wish to acknowledge the contributions of the

Tami J. Howe; Linda E. Worrall; Louise M. H. Hickson

2008-01-01

343

at Western University From the production of biofuels, fuel cells and alternative forms of energy,  

E-print Network

at Western University From the production of biofuels, fuel cells and alternative forms of energy tailored nanotube- based materials for applications in such areas as fuel cells, batteries and sensing

Denham, Graham

344

Battery thermal management unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A battery warming device has been designed which uses waste heat from an operating internal combustion engine to warm a battery. A portion of the waste heat is stored in the sensible and latent heat of a phase change type material for use in maintaining the battery temperature after the engine is shut off. The basic design of the device consists of a Phase Change Material (PCM) reservoir and a simple heat exchanger connected to the engineer's cooling system. Two types of units were built, tested and field trialed. A strap-on type which was strapped to the side of an automotive battery and was intended for the automotive after-market and a tray type on which a battery or batteries sat. This unit was intended for the heavy duty truck market. It was determined that both types of units increased the average cranking power of the batteries they were applied to. Although there were several design problems with the units such as the need for an automatic thermostatically controlled bypass valve, the overall feeling is that there is a market opportunity for both the strap-on and tray type battery warming units.

Sanders, Nicholas A.

1989-03-01

345

Aluminum-ferricyanide battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A battery capable of producing high current densities with high charge capacity is described which includes an aluminum anode, a ferricyanide electrolyte and a second electrode capable of reducing ferricyanide electrolyte which is either dissolved in an alkaline solution or alkaline seawater solution. The performance of the battery is enhanced by high temperature and high electrolyte flow rates.

Marsh, Catherine; Licht, Stuart L.

1993-11-01

346

Battery and Lightbulb  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The number of batteries used in this lab is determined by the type of lightbulbs that are used. A 3 V lightbulb will require two batteries. Students should perform this activity after being instructed how to use the multimeter. Instructions will vary base

Michael Horton

2009-05-30

347

Charger for batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a charger for batteries, the combination of a charging station including a housing having a longitudinal recess formed therein, a casing having an interior and which is to hold at least one battery to be charged or recharged adapted to be received within the recess, an upwardly projecting boss on the housing of the charging station above

G. W. McCarty; S. H. Smith

1986-01-01

348

The GSFC Battery Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proceedings of a conference on electric storage batteries are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) a low cost/standardization program, (2) test and flight experience, (3) materials and cell components, and (4) new developments in the nickel/hydrogen system. The application of selected batteries in specific space vehicles is examined.

1974-01-01

349

Battery Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Battery management system is designed with MCU module, measurement module, alarm module, input module, output module and communication module. It can be able to timely report the states to the user in order to maximize using of battery storage capacity and cycle life.

Li Yamei; Zhen Liping

2010-01-01

350

Lithium battery management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the

Thomas J

2012-01-01

351

Sodium sulfur battery seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is

Mikkor; Mati

1981-01-01

352

Hydrophobic, Porous Battery Boxes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boxes made of porous, hydrophobic polymers developed to contain aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte solutions of zinc/air batteries while allowing air to diffuse in as needed for operation. Used on other types of batteries for in-cabin use in which electrolytes aqueous and from which gases generated during operation must be vented without allowing electrolytes to leak out.

Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E., Jr.

1995-01-01

353

Motor Aphasia as a Rare Presentation of Fat Embolism Syndrome; A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Fat embolism syndrome is a clinical diagnosis, and diagnostic procedures are not specific. In every trauma patient, Fat embolism syndrome has to be considered as a possibility and supportive treatment should begin as soon as possible. The authors reported a rare case of Fat embolism syndrome whose only neurological symptom was motor aphasia. A young man sustained comminuted femoral shaft fracture following an accident presented dyspnea, motor aphasia and petechial rash. The Po2 and O2 Saturation were 53 and 91.1%. The body temperature was 38.5 °C. The hemoglobin decreased from 12.9 to 8.7 and platelet from 121000 to 84000 mg/dl. The pulse rate was 120 bpm. The CT scan and MRI were normal. Fat embolism syndrome was diagnosed according to both Gurd and Schonfeld criteria ruling out other possible causes. Patient recovered completely. Although rare, focal neurological symptoms and motor aphasia should be kept in mind as a part of diagnostic criteria.

Saeed-Banadaky, Seyed Houssein; Valizadeh, Sima; Ghilian, Marzieh

2015-01-01

354

Gesture discrimination in primary progressive aphasia: the intersection between gesture and language processing pathways.  

PubMed

The issue of the relationship between language and gesture processing and the partial overlap of their neural representations is of fundamental importance to neurology, psychology, and social sciences. Patients suffering from primary progressive aphasia, a clinical syndrome characterized by comparatively isolated language deficits, may provide direct evidence for anatomical and functional association between specific language deficits and gesture discrimination deficits. A consecutive series of 16 patients with primary progressive aphasia and 16 matched control subjects participated. Our nonverbal gesture discrimination task consisted of 19 trials. In each trial, participants observed three video clips showing the same gesture performed correctly in one clip and incorrectly in the other two. Subjects had to indicate which of the three versions was correct. Language and gesture production were evaluated by means of conventional tasks. All participants underwent high-resolution structural and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. Ten of the primary progressive aphasia patients showed a significant deficit on the nonverbal gesture discrimination task. A factor analysis revealed that this deficit clustered with gesture imitation, word and pseudoword repetition, and writing-to-dictation. Individual scores on this cluster correlated with volume in the left anterior inferior parietal cortex extending into the posterior superior temporal gyrus. Probabilistic tractography indicated this region comprised the cortical relay station of the indirect pathway connecting the inferior frontal gyrus and the superior temporal cortex. Thus, the left perisylvian temporoparietal area may underpin verbal imitative behavior, gesture imitation, and gesture discrimination indicative of a partly shared neural substrate for language and gesture resonance. PMID:20445059

Nelissen, Natalie; Pazzaglia, Mariella; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Sunaert, Stefan; Fannes, Katrien; Dupont, Patrick; Aglioti, Salvatore M; Vandenberghe, Rik

2010-05-01

355

Are vowel errors influenced by consonantal context in the speech of persons with aphasia?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The literature suggests that vowels and consonants may be affected differently in the speech of persons with conduction aphasia (CA) or nonfluent aphasia with apraxia of speech (AOS). Persons with CA have shown similar error rates across vowels and consonants, while those with AOS have shown more errors for consonants than vowels. These data have been interpreted to suggest that consonants have greater gestural complexity than vowels. However, recent research [M. Boyle et al., Proc. International Cong. Phon. Sci., 3265-3268 (2003)] does not support this interpretation: persons with AOS and CA both had a high proportion of vowel errors, and vowel errors almost always occurred in the context of consonantal errors. To examine the notion that vowels are inherently less complex than consonants and are differentially affected in different types of aphasia, vowel production in different consonantal contexts for speakers with AOS or CA was examined. The target utterances, produced in carrier phrases, were bVC and bV syllables, allowing us to examine whether vowel production is influenced by consonantal context. Listener judgments were obtained for each token, and error productions were grouped according to the intended utterance and error type. Acoustical measurements were made from spectrographic displays.

Gelfer, Carole E.; Bell-Berti, Fredericka; Boyle, Mary

2001-05-01

356

Jean-Martin Charcot's role in the 19th century study of music aphasia.  

PubMed

Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-93) was a well-known French neurologist. Although he is widely recognized for his discovery of several neurological disorders and his research into aphasia, Charcot's ideas about how the brain processes music are less well known. Charcot discussed the music abilities of several patients in the context of his 'Friday Lessons' on aphasia, which took place at the Salpętričre Hospital in Paris in 1883-84. In his most comprehensive discussion about music, Charcot described a professional trombone player who developed difficulty copying music notation and playing his instrument, thereby identifying a new isolated syndrome of music agraphia without aphasia. Because the description of this case was published only in Italian by one of his students, Domenico Miliotti, there has been considerable confusion and under-acknowledgement of Charcot's ideas about music and the brain. In this paper, we describe Charcot's ideas regarding music and place them within the historical context of the growing interest in the neurological underpinnings of music abilities that took place in the 1880s. PMID:23576129

Johnson, Julene K; Lorch, Marjorie; Nicolas, Serge; Graziano, Amy

2013-05-01

357

Single subject controlled experiments in aphasia: The science and the state of the science  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses the use of single subject controlled experimental designs for investigating the effect of treatment for aphasia. A brief historical perspective is presented, followed by discussions of the advantages and disadvantages of single subject and group approaches, the basic requirements of single subject experimental research, and crucial considerations in design selection. In the final sections, results of reviews of published single subject controlled experiments are discussed, with emphasis on internal validity issues, the number of participants enrolled in published studies, operational specification of the dependent and independent variables, and reliability of measurement. Learning outcomes As a result of reading this paper, the participant will: (1) understand the mechanisms required for demonstration of internal and external validity using single subject controlled experimental designs, (2) become familiar with the basic requirements of single subject controlled experimental research, (3) understand the types of single subject controlled experimental designs that are the most appropriate for studying the effects of treatment for aphasia, and (4) become familiar with trends in the published aphasia treatment literature in which single subject controlled experimental designs have been used. PMID:16635494

Thompson, Cynthia K.

2007-01-01

358

Rechargeable hybrid aqueous batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new aqueous rechargeable battery combining an intercalation cathode with a metal (first order electrode) anode has been developed. The concept is demonstrated using LiMn2O4 and zinc metal electrodes in an aqueous electrolyte containing two electrochemically active ions (Li+ and Zn2+). The battery operates at about 2 V and preliminarily tests show excellent cycling performance, with about 90% initial capacity retention over 1000 charge-discharge cycles. Use of cation-doped LiMn2O4 cathode further improves the cyclability of the system, which reaches 95% capacity retention after 4000 cycles. The energy density for a prototype battery, estimated at 50-80 Wh kg-1, is comparable or superior to commercial 2 V rechargeable batteries. The combined performance attributes of this new rechargeable aqueous battery indicate that it constitutes a viable alternative to commercial lead-acid system and for large scale energy storage application.

Yan, Jing; Wang, Jing; Liu, Hao; Bakenov, Zhumabay; Gosselink, Denise; Chen, P.

2012-10-01

359

Storage battery systems analysis  

SciTech Connect

Storage Battery Systems Analysis supports the battery Exploratory Technology Development and Testing Project with technical and economic analysis of battery systems in various end-use applications. Computer modeling and simulation techniques are used in the analyses. Analysis objectives are achieved through both in-house efforts and outside contracts. In-house studies during FY82 included a study of the relationship between storage battery system reliability and cost, through cost-of-investment and cost-of-service interruption inputs; revision and update of the SOLSTOR computer code in standard FORTRAN 77 form; parametric studies of residential stand-alone photovoltaic systems using the SOLSTOR code; simulation of wind turbine collector/storage battery systems for the community of Kalaupapa, Molokai, Hawaii.

Murphy, K.D.

1982-01-01

360

Battery management systems (BMS) for increasing battery life time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability and costs of an energy storage system are two very important parameters for uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) and other battery applications. The increasing of battery life and the prediction of battery failure are therefore two important features of a battery management system (BMS). A couple of other helpful features can be implemented in a BMS. In the case of

J. Garche; A. Jossen

2000-01-01

361

Battery status identification of battery management system with asynchronous sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Battery management system (BMS) which measures battery status with high accuracy has a critical effect on the performance of power battery and the entire car. To solve the problem of identification precision decreasing for the reason of BMS asynchronous sampling, the original computing method is improved by using gradient adjustment method and based on order 2 RC battery model. A

Qiang Gu; Xiusheng Cheng; Zhonghua Lu; Xi Liu; Yongdao Song

2011-01-01

362

Research on Battery Identification of Electric Vehicle Battery Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of electric vehicle depends on power battery performance to a great extent. Accurate assessment of the power battery status is the premise of power battery playing its best performance under the existing technology conditions. The order 2 RC battery model is verified by comparing simulation result with experiment data. A standard identification form which is suitable for gradient

Gu Qiang; Cheng Xiusheng

2010-01-01

363

Evidence-Based Systematic Review: Effects of Intensity of Treatment and Constraint-Induced Language Therapy for Individuals with Stroke-Induced Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This systematic review summarizes evidence for intensity of treatment and constraint-induced language therapy (CILT) on measures of language impairment and communication activity/participation in individuals with stroke-induced aphasia. Method: A systematic search of the aphasia literature using 15 electronic databases (e.g., PubMed,…

Cherney, Leora R.; Patterson, Janet P.; Raymer, Anastasia; Frymark, Tobi; Schooling, Tracy

2008-01-01

364

Conduction Aphasia, Sensory-Motor Integration, and Phonological Short-Term Memory--An Aggregate Analysis of Lesion and fMRI Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conduction aphasia is a language disorder characterized by frequent speech errors, impaired verbatim repetition, a deficit in phonological short-term memory, and naming difficulties in the presence of otherwise fluent and grammatical speech output. While traditional models of conduction aphasia have typically implicated white matter pathways,…

Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Baldo, Juliana; Okada, Kayoko; Berman, Karen F.; Dronkers, Nina; D'Esposito, Mark; Hickok, Gregory

2011-01-01

365

Assessing Cortisol Reactivity to a Linguistic Task as a Marker of Stress in Individuals with Left-Hemisphere Stroke and Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors explore a method of measuring physiologic and perceived stress in individuals with aphasia by investigating salivary cortisol reactivity and subjectively perceived stress in response to a standardized linguistic task. Method: Fifteen individuals with aphasia and 15 age-matched healthy controls participated in a…

Laures-Gore, Jacqueline; Heim, Christine M.; Hsu, Yu-Sheng

2007-01-01

366

Le test d'aphasie chez les bilingues (BAT) Le test d'aphasie chez les bilingues (Bilingual Aphasia Test, BAT, Paradis & Libben, 1987) a t conu afin  

E-print Network

Le test d'aphasie chez les bilingues (BAT) Le test d'aphasie chez les bilingues (Bilingual Aphasia.eoa.umontreal.ca/agora_professionnels/professionnels_sante/BAT.html. Paradis, M., & Libben, G. (1987) The Assessment of Bilingual Aphasia, Mahwah, NJ: LEA [Aussi disponible en

Parrott, Lael

367

Constrained versus Unconstrained Intensive Language Therapy in Two Individuals with Chronic, Moderate-to-Severe Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech: Behavioral and fMRI Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This Phase I study investigated behavioral and functional MRI (fMRI) outcomes of 2 intensive treatment programs to improve naming in 2 participants with chronic moderate-to-severe aphasia with comorbid apraxia of speech (AOS). Constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT; Pulvermuller et al., 2001) has demonstrated positive outcomes in some…

Kurland, Jacquie; Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Silva, Nicole; Burke, Katherine; Andrianopoulos, Mary

2012-01-01

368

Verb production in agrammatic aphasia: The influence of semantic class and argument structure properties on generalisation  

PubMed Central

Background Some individuals with agrammatic aphasia have difficulty producing verbs when naming and generating sentences (Miceli, Silveri, Villa, & Caramazza, 1984; Saffran, Schwartz, & Marin, 1980; Zingeser & Berndt, 1990). And when verbs are produced there is an over-reliance on verbs requiring simple argument structure arrangements (Thompson, Lange, Schneider, & Shapiro, 1997; Thompson, Shapiro, Schneider, & Tait, 1994). Verbs, as argument-taking elements, show especially complex semantic and argument structure properties. This study investigated the role these properties have on verb production in individuals with agrammatic aphasia. Aim This treatment study examined the extent to which semantic class and argument structure properties of verbs influenced the ability of seven individuals with agrammatic Broca’s aphasia to retrieve verbs and then use them in correct sentence production. Verbs from two semantic classes and two argument structure categories were trained using either a semantic or an argument structure verb retrieval treatment. Specifically, acquisition and generalisation to trained and untrained verbs within and across semantic and argument structure categories was examined. In addition, the influence of verb production on each participant’s sentence production was also examined. Methods & Procedures Utilising a single-subject crossover design in combination with a multiple baseline design across subjects and behaviours, seven individuals with agrammatic aphasia were trained to retrieve verbs with specific argument structures from two semantic classes under two treatment conditions—semantic verb retrieval treatment and verb argument structure retrieval treatment. Treatment was provided on two-place and three-place motion or change of state verbs, counterbalanced across subjects and behaviours. A total of 102 verbs, depicted in black and white drawings, were utilised in the study, divided equally into motion and change of state verbs (semantic classes) and one-place, two-place, and three-place verbs (argument structure arrangements). Verbs were controlled for syllable length, picturability, phonological complexity, and frequency. These same stimulus items were used to elicit the sentence production probe. Outcomes & Results Both treatments revealed significant effects in facilitating acquisition of verb retrieval in all participants. Minimal within and across verb category generalisation occurred. However, it was found that as retrieval of verbs improved, grammatical sentence production improved. This occurred without direct treatment on sentence production. Conclusions The results of this study lend support for treatment focused on verb production with individuals with agrammatic aphasia and support the use of linguistic-based treatment strategies. PMID:21311720

Schneider, Sandra L.; Thompson, Cynthia K.

2011-01-01

369

Speech entrainment enables patients with Broca's aphasia to produce fluent speech.  

PubMed

A distinguishing feature of Broca's aphasia is non-fluent halting speech typically involving one to three words per utterance. Yet, despite such profound impairments, some patients can mimic audio-visual speech stimuli enabling them to produce fluent speech in real time. We call this effect 'speech entrainment' and reveal its neural mechanism as well as explore its usefulness as a treatment for speech production in Broca's aphasia. In Experiment 1, 13 patients with Broca's aphasia were tested in three conditions: (i) speech entrainment with audio-visual feedback where they attempted to mimic a speaker whose mouth was seen on an iPod screen; (ii) speech entrainment with audio-only feedback where patients mimicked heard speech; and (iii) spontaneous speech where patients spoke freely about assigned topics. The patients produced a greater variety of words using audio-visual feedback compared with audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. No difference was found between audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. In Experiment 2, 10 of the 13 patients included in Experiment 1 and 20 control subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine the neural mechanism that supports speech entrainment. Group results with patients and controls revealed greater bilateral cortical activation for speech produced during speech entrainment compared with spontaneous speech at the junction of the anterior insula and Brodmann area 47, in Brodmann area 37, and unilaterally in the left middle temporal gyrus and the dorsal portion of Broca's area. Probabilistic white matter tracts constructed for these regions in the normal subjects revealed a structural network connected via the corpus callosum and ventral fibres through the extreme capsule. Unilateral areas were connected via the arcuate fasciculus. In Experiment 3, all patients included in Experiment 1 participated in a 6-week treatment phase using speech entrainment to improve speech production. Behavioural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected before and after the treatment phase. Patients were able to produce a greater variety of words with and without speech entrainment at 1 and 6 weeks after training. Treatment-related decrease in cortical activation associated with speech entrainment was found in areas of the left posterior-inferior parietal lobe. We conclude that speech entrainment allows patients with Broca's aphasia to double their speech output compared with spontaneous speech. Neuroimaging results suggest that speech entrainment allows patients to produce fluent speech by providing an external gating mechanism that yokes a ventral language network that encodes conceptual aspects of speech. Preliminary results suggest that training with speech entrainment improves speech production in Broca's aphasia providing a potential therapeutic method for a disorder that has been shown to be particularly resistant to treatment. PMID:23250889

Fridriksson, Julius; Hubbard, H Isabel; Hudspeth, Sarah Grace; Holland, Audrey L; Bonilha, Leonardo; Fromm, Davida; Rorden, Chris

2012-12-01

370

Recovery of injured arcuate fasciculus in the dominant hemisphere in a patient with an intracerebral hemorrhage.  

PubMed

This study reports on a patient with an intracerebral hemorrhage who showed recovery of an injured arcuate fasciculus (AF) in the dominant hemisphere, using follow-up diffusion tensor tractography. A 43-year-old right-handed man presented with severe aphasia and hemiparesis resulting from a spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in the left parietotemporal lobes. The patient showed severe aphasia at 1 month after onset, with an aphasia quotient of 5% on the Korean-Western Aphasia Battery. He underwent comprehensive rehabilitative therapy until 22 months after onset and his aphasia showed improvement, with an aphasia quotient of 58% on the Korean-Western Aphasia Battery. On 1-month diffusion tensor tractography, only the thin ascending part of the left AF from the Wernicke area remained. In contrast, on 16-month diffusion tensor tractography, the injured left AF was thickened and elongated to around the left Broca area; however, discontinuation of the left AF was observed around the left Broca area, and this continuation was elongated to the left Broca area on 22-month diffusion tensor tractography. This study reports on a patient who showed recovery from injury of the left AF along with improvement of aphasia. Recovery of the injured AF in the dominant hemisphere appears to be one of the mechanisms for recovery from aphasia. PMID:25299531

Jang, Sung Ho; Lee, Han Do

2014-12-01

371

The testing of car batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The testing of car batteries is more often a question of why than how. Although such batteries are all fairly simple and similar, the use is very diversified. One could try to approach the problem by making some classification: (1) New batteries: OEM, wet charged; replacement, dry and wet charged (2) Batteries in use: Ordinary passenger cars with good operating

Steffens

1996-01-01

372

Battery equalizer circuit  

SciTech Connect

A battery equalizer circuit is described for preparing a battery for charge, consisting of: a battery discharge circuit including resistor means and switch means in series therewith for connection across the terminals of a battery to draw current therefrom when the switch means is closed, control circuit means for opening and closing such switch means, voltage sensing the voltage across the battery terminals, and means actuatable by the sensing means for actuating the control circuit means whereby to close the switch means when the sensed battery voltage is equal to or more than a predetermined upper voltage and for opening the switch means when the sensed battery voltage is in a lower range which is equal to or less than a predetermined voltage which is lower than the upper voltage, the switch means comprising a transistor having its emittercollector terminals in series with the resistor means and a base, the means actuable by the sensing means comprising a Schmitt-Trigger having output terminals operably connected to the transistor base, the voltage sensing means being connected to one input circuit means of the Schmitt-Trigger, regulated power supply means for establishing a reference voltage which is substantially lower than the lower range of voltage and which is connected to another input terminal of the Schmitt-Trigger whereby the latter is flipped ''on'' and the transistor is thereby rendered conductive when the sensed voltage exceeds the reference voltage by a predetermined amount.

Brown, H.B.

1986-03-11

373

Synthetic battery cycling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of interactive computer graphics is suggested as an aid in battery system development. Mathematical representations of simplistic but fully representative functions of many electrochemical concepts of current practical interest will permit battery level charge and discharge phenomena to be analyzed in a qualitative manner prior to the assembly and testing of actual hardware. This technique is a useful addition to the variety of tools available to the battery system designer as he bridges the gap between interesting single cell life test data and reliable energy storage subsystems.

Thaller, L. H.

1981-01-01

374

PNGV battery test manual  

SciTech Connect

This manual defines a series of tests to characterize aspects of the performance or life cycle behavior of batteries for hybrid electric vehicle applications. Tests are defined based on the Partnership for New Generation Vehicles (PNGV) program goals, although it is anticipated these tests may be generally useful for testing energy storage devices for hybrid electric vehicles. Separate test regimes are defined for laboratory cells, battery modules or full size cells, and complete battery systems. Some tests are common to all three test regimes, while others are not normally applicable to some regimes. The test regimes are treated separately because their corresponding development goals are somewhat different.

NONE

1997-07-01

375

Bipolar battery construction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lightweight, bipolar battery construction for lead acid batteries in which a plurality of thin, rigid, biplates each comprise a graphite fiber thermoplastic composition in conductive relation to lead stripes plated on opposite flat surfaces of the plates, and wherein a plurality of nonconductive thermoplastic separator plates support resilient yieldable porous glass mats in which active material is carried, the biplates and separator plates with active material being contained and maintained in stacked assembly by axial compression of the stacked assembly. A method of assembling such a bipolar battery construction.

Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor); Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor)

1981-01-01

376

Electricity: Fruit Batteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a battery from fruit. This activity helps learners explore electricity, electrochemistry, and series circuits as well as the process of scientific inquiry. Learners will use a voltmeter to measure voltage and a multimeter to measure how much work their fruit battery can do. They will record the measurements on a data table and compare voltage amongst different types of fruits. Learners will also link together multiple fruit batteries to create a series circuit. This lesson guide includes background information, key vocabulary terms, blackline masters, and extension ideas.

Habib, Maria

2008-01-01

377

Deregulated semantic cognition contributes to object-use deficits in Alzheimer's disease: A comparison with semantic aphasia and semantic dementia.  

PubMed

Executive control is impaired from the early stages of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and this produces deregulated semantic cognition (Corbett, Jefferies, Burns, & Lambon Ralph, ; Perry, Watson, & Hodges, ). While control deficits should affect semantic retrieval across all modalities, previous studies have typically focused on verbal semantic tasks. Even when non-verbal semantic tasks have been used, these have typically employed simple picture-matching tasks, which may be influenced by abnormalities in covert naming. Therefore, in the present study, we examined 10 patients with AD on a battery of object-use tasks, in order to advance our understanding of the origins of non-verbal semantic deficits in this population. The AD patients' deficits were contrasted with previously published performance on the same tasks within two additional groups of patients, displaying either semantic degradation (semantic dementia) or deregulation of semantic retrieval (semantic aphasia; Corbett, Jefferies, Ehsan, & Lambon Ralph, ). While overall accuracy was comparable to the scores in both other groups, the AD patients' object-use impairment most closely resembled that observed in SA; they exhibited poorer performance on comprehension tasks that placed strong demands on executive control. A similar pattern was observed in the expressive domain: the AD and SA groups were relatively good at straightforward object use compared to executively demanding, mechanical puzzles. Error types also differed: while all patients omitted essential actions, the SA and AD groups' demonstrations also featured unrelated intrusions. An association between AD patients' object use and their scores on standard executive measures suggested that control deficits contributed to their non-verbal semantic deficits. Moreover, in a task specifically designed to manipulate executive demand, patients with AD (and SA) exhibited difficulty in thinking flexibly about the non-canonical uses of everyday objects, especially when distracted by semantically related objects. This study provides converging evidence for the notion that a failure of regulatory control contributes to multimodal semantic impairment in AD and uniquely demonstrates this pattern for the highly non-verbal domain of object use. PMID:24909263

Corbett, Faye; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Burns, Alistair; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

2014-06-01

378

Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

2008-01-01

379

Parallel flow diffusion battery  

DOEpatents

A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

1984-01-01

380

Auto Battery Safety Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... number and copyright information may not be omitted. Electronic reproduction, other reprint, excerption or use is not ... open flame such as a match, lighter or cigarette. Batteries contain hydrogen and oxygen: a spark could ...

381

Batteries and Power Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that â??provides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â?ť Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Batteries and Power Systems, is the eleventh chapter in Volume I â??Direct Current. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Battery construction, Battery ratings, Special-purpose batteries, and Electron activity in chemical reactions. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

382

Sodium sulfur battery seal  

SciTech Connect

This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

Mikkor, Mati (Ann Arbor, MI)

1981-01-01

383

Advances in alkaline batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alkaline rechargeable battery systems have been under development for more than 100 years yet. Different electrochemical couples of positive and negative materials have been subject of research and development, but only the nickel-cadmium system (NiCd) and, since about 10 years, the nickel-metal hydride system (NiMH) have achieved the stage of large volume production. Particularly, sealed NiCd and NiMH cells have been established in a variety of applications. Recent advances with the NiMH system have brought about portable batteries with energy storing capabilities coming close to those of alkaline primary cells. Although representing a technically interesting solution even for electric vehicles, relatively high cost will limit the use of rechargeable alkaline batteries to small high power batteries for hybrid electric vehicles. Basic technological developments for materials suitable for high energy and high power design are described.

Köhler, Uwe; Antonius, Christina; Bäuerlein, Peter

384

Make Your Own Batteries!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into conductivity. Learners will harness the surprising electricity of fruit when they create a battery out of a lemon stuck with copper and zinc nails. Wiring the nails to a volt meter starts the experimenting stage, trying different wiring connections, different fruit and even making a series of fruit and veggie batteries to make more power. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Body Electricity.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

385

OAO battery data analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Summary, consolidation and analysis of specifications, manufacturing process and test controls, and performance results for OAO-2 and OAO-3 lot 20 Amp-Hr sealed nickel cadmium cells and batteries are reported. Correlation of improvements in control requirements with performance is a key feature. Updates for a cell/battery computer model to improve performance prediction capability are included. Applicability of regression analysis computer techniques to relate process controls to performance is checked.

Gaston, S.; Wertheim, M.; Orourke, J. A.

1973-01-01

386

Chemically stable battery membrane  

SciTech Connect

For batteries containing strong oxidizing electrolytes and a membrane separating two electrolyte solutions, e.g., a zinc/ferrocyanide battery, an improved oxidation-resistant, conductive, ion-selective membrane fabricated from an inert porous perfluorinated polymer sheet, e.g., of poly(tetrafluoroethylene), radiatively grafted with {proportional to}-methylstyrene and adequately sulfonated. A minor quantity of a divinyl compound is preferably added to the {proportional to}-methylstyrene to crosslink the grafted structure. 5 figs.

Arnold, C. Jr.; Assink, R.A.; Hollandsworth, R.P.

1988-10-05

387

Nonaqueous secondary batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The object of the present invention is to make possible the repeated use for a long period of time of nonaqueous secondary battery that contains in the battery case a negative electrode of a carbonized organic substance, a positive electrode with Li(x)MO2 (where M is at least one of Co and Ni; x being 0.05 less than or = x

Takayuki Yamahira; Masanori Anzai

1991-01-01

388

Lead-acid battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A light weight lead-acid battery (30) having a positive terminal (36) and a negative terminal (34) and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates (10, 20) with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers (26, 28) positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars (42, 43) are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates (10) with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars (38, 39) on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates (20) with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive (42, 43) and negative (38, 39) bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals (36, 34) but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates (10, 20) is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

1983-01-01

389

Comparison of metabolic rates, language, and memory in subcortical aphasias. [Tomographic studies using /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglulcose  

SciTech Connect

Four patients with subcortical lesions and either aphasia or amnesia were compared to four patients with cortical lesions and aphasia. Each patient had /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission computed tomography and language and memory evaluations. Metabolic depression was found in the thalamus and caudate in both groups, while only the cortical group showed cortical changes. Language changes were mild in the subcortical, while moderate to severe in the cortical group. Both groups showed severe verbal memory dysfunction. The only common abnormalities in the two groups were metabolic changes in thalamus, and severity of verbal memory dysfunction. These findings suggest a relationship between verbal memory and thalamic function.

Metter, E.J.; Riege, W.H.; Hanson, W.R.

1981-01-01

390

Effects of verb meaning on lexical integration in agrammatic aphasia: Evidence from eyetracking.  

PubMed

Relatively little is known about the time course of access to the lexical representations of verbs in agrammatic aphasia and its effects on the prediction and integration of the verb's arguments. The present study used visual-world eyetracking to test whether verb meaning can be used by agrammatic aphasic individuals to predict and facilitate the integration of a subsequent noun argument. Nine adults with agrammatic aphasia and ten age-matched controls participated in the study. In Experiment 1, participants viewed arrays of four objects (e.g., jar, plate, stick, pencil) while listening to sentences containing either a restrictive verb that was semantically compatible only with the target object or an unrestrictive verb compatible with all four objects (e.g., Susan will open/break the jar). For both participant groups, the restrictive condition elicited more fixations to the target object immediately after the verb. Experiment 2 differed from Experiment 1 in that the auditory sentences presented were incomplete (e.g., Susan will open/break the…). For controls, restrictive verbs elicited more target fixations immediately after the verb; however, the effects of verb type were noted downstream from the verb for the aphasic listeners. The results suggest that individuals with agrammatic aphasia have preserved ability to use verb information to facilitate integration of overt arguments, but prediction of upcoming arguments is impaired. Impaired lexical-semantic prediction processes may be caused by damage to the left inferior frontal gyrus, which has been argued to support higher-level lexical processes. PMID:24092952

Mack, Jennifer E; Ji, Woohyuk; Thompson, Cynthia K

2013-11-01

391

A cortical pathway to olfactory naming: evidence from primary progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

It is notoriously difficult to name odours. Without the benefit of non-olfactory information, even common household smells elude our ability to name them. The neuroscientific basis for this olfactory language ‘deficit’ is poorly understood, and even basic models to explain how odour inputs gain access to transmodal representations required for naming have not been put forward. This study used patients with primary progressive aphasia, a clinical dementia syndrome characterized by primary deficits in language, to investigate the interactions between olfactory inputs and lexical access by assessing behavioural performance of olfactory knowledge and its relationship to brain atrophy. We specifically hypothesized that the temporal pole would play a key role in linking odour object representations to transmodal networks, given its anatomical proximity to olfactory and visual object processing areas. Behaviourally, patients with primary progressive aphasia with non-semantic subtypes were severely impaired on an odour naming task, in comparison with an age-matched control group. However, with the availability of picture cues or word cues, odour matching performance approached control levels, demonstrating an inability to retrieve but not to recognize the name and nature of the odorant. The magnitude of cortical thinning in the temporal pole was found to correlate with reductions in odour familiarity and odour matching to visual cues, whereas the inferior frontal gyrus correlated with both odour naming and matching. Volumetric changes in the mediodorsal thalamus correlated with the proportion of categorical mismatch errors, indicating a possible role of this region in error-signal monitoring to optimize recognition of associations linked to the odour. A complementary analysis of patients with the semantic subtype of primary progressive aphasia, which is associated with marked temporopolar atrophy, revealed much more pronounced impairments of odour naming and matching. In identifying the critical role of the temporal pole and inferior frontal gyrus in transmodal linking and verbalization of olfactory objects, our findings provide a new neurobiological foundation for understanding why even common odours are hard to name. PMID:23471695

Rogalski, Emily; Harrison, Theresa; Mesulam, M.-Marsel; Gottfried, Jay A.

2013-01-01

392

Neurology of anomia in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by the combination of word comprehension deficits, fluent aphasia and a particularly severe anomia. In this study, two novel tasks were used to explore the factors contributing to the anomia. The single most common factor was a blurring of distinctions among members of a semantic category, leading to errors of overgeneralization in word–object matching tasks as well as in word definitions and object descriptions. This factor was more pronounced for natural kinds than artifacts. In patients with the more severe anomias, conceptual maps were more extensively disrupted so that inter-category distinctions were as impaired as intra-category distinctions. Many objects that could not be named aloud could be matched to the correct word in patients with mild but not severe anomia, reflecting a gradual intensification of the semantic factor as the naming disorder becomes more severe. Accurate object descriptions were more frequent than accurate word definitions and all patients experienced prominent word comprehension deficits that interfered with everyday activities but no consequential impairment of object usage or face recognition. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed three characteristics: greater atrophy of the left hemisphere; atrophy of anterior components of the perisylvian language network in the superior and middle temporal gyri; and atrophy of anterior components of the face and object recognition network in the inferior and medial temporal lobes. The left sided asymmetry and perisylvian extension of the atrophy explains the more profound impairment of word than object usage and provides the anatomical basis for distinguishing the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia from the partially overlapping group of patients that fulfil the widely accepted diagnostic criteria for semantic dementia. PMID:19506067

Rogalski, Emily; Wieneke, Christina; Cobia, Derin; Rademaker, Alfred; Thompson, Cynthia; Weintraub, Sandra

2009-01-01

393

A novel frontal pathway underlies verbal fluency in primary progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

The frontal aslant tract is a direct pathway connecting Broca’s region with the anterior cingulate and pre-supplementary motor area. This tract is left lateralized in right-handed subjects, suggesting a possible role in language. However, there are no previous studies that have reported an involvement of this tract in language disorders. In this study we used diffusion tractography to define the anatomy of the frontal aslant tract in relation to verbal fluency and grammar impairment in primary progressive aphasia. Thirty-five patients with primary progressive aphasia and 29 control subjects were recruited. Tractography was used to obtain indirect indices of microstructural organization of the frontal aslant tract. In addition, tractography analysis of the uncinate fasciculus, a tract associated with semantic processing deficits, was performed. Damage to the frontal aslant tract correlated with performance in verbal fluency as assessed by the Cinderella story test. Conversely, damage to the uncinate fasciculus correlated with deficits in semantic processing as assessed by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Neither tract correlated with grammatical or repetition deficits. Significant group differences were found in the frontal aslant tract of patients with the non-fluent/agrammatic variant and in the uncinate fasciculus of patients with the semantic variant. These findings indicate that degeneration of the frontal aslant tract underlies verbal fluency deficits in primary progressive aphasia and further confirm the role of the uncinate fasciculus in semantic processing. The lack of correlation between damage to the frontal aslant tract and grammar deficits suggests that verbal fluency and grammar processing rely on distinct anatomical networks. PMID:23820597

Mesulam, Marsel M.; Jakobsen, Estrid; Malik, Farah; Martersteck, Adam; Wieneke, Christina; Thompson, Cynthia K.; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Dell’Acqua, Flavio; Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily

2013-01-01

394

An Area Essential for Linking Word Meanings to Word Forms: Evidence from Primary Progressive Aphasia  

PubMed Central

We investigated the relationship between deficits in naming and areas of focal atrophy in primary progressive aphasia (a neurodegenerative disease that specifically affects language processing). We tested patients, across multiple input modalities, on traditional naming tasks (picture naming) and more complex tasks (sentence completion with a name, naming in response to a question) and obtained high resolution MRI. Across most tasks, error rates were correlated with atrophy in the left middle and posterior inferior temporal gyrus. Overall, this result converges with prior literature suggesting that this region plays a major role in modality independent lexical processing. PMID:24183469

Race, D.S.; Tsapkini, K.; Crinion, J.; Newhart, M.; Davis, C.; Gomez, Y.; Hillis, A.E.; Faria, A.V.

2013-01-01

395

The Presenilin 1 P264L mutation presenting as non-fluent/agrammatic primary progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) represents a diverse group of language-led dementias most often due to frontotemporal lobar degeneration. We report clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging data in the case of a 47 year old woman presenting with non-fluent PPA due to a genetically confirmed pathogenic Presenilin 1 P264L mutation. This case highlights an unusual clinical presentation of familial Alzheimer’s disease and a novel presentation of the P264L mutation. The case adds to accumulating evidence that particular mutations can promote specific brain network degeneration, with wider implications for understanding the sporadic forms of Alzheimer’s disease and PPA. PMID:23579325

Mahoney, Colin J.; Downey, Laura E.; Beck, Jon; Liang, Yuying; Mead, Simon; Perry, Richard J.; Warren, Jason D.

2014-01-01

396

The New Classification of Primary Progressive Aphasia into Semantic, Logopenic, or Nonfluent/Agrammatic Variants  

PubMed Central

Primary progressive aphasia (PPA), typically resulting from a neurodegenerative disease such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration or Alzheimer’s disease, is characterized by a progressive loss of specific language functions with relative sparing of other cognitive domains. Three variants of PPA are now recognized: semantic variant, logopenic variant, and nonfluent/agrammatic variant. We discuss recent work characterizing the neurolinguistic, neuropsychological, imaging and pathologic profiles associated with these variants. Improved reliability of diagnoses will be increasingly important as trials for etiology-specific treatments become available. We also discuss the implications of these syndromes for theories of language function. PMID:20809401

Bonner, Michael F.; Ash, Sharon

2010-01-01

397

Legal decision-making by people with aphasia: critical incidents for speech pathologists.  

PubMed

Background: The assessment and management of a person with aphasia for whom decision-making capacity is queried represents a highly complex clinical issue. In addition, there are few published guidelines and even fewer published accounts of empirical research to assist. Aims: The research presented in this paper aimed to identify the main issues for speech pathologists when decision-making capacity for legal and related matters arose for their clients with aphasia, and to describe qualitatively the nature of these issues and the practices of the speech pathologists in these situations. Methods: & Procedures: The methodology was informed by the qualitative research paradigm and made use of the semi-structured interview methods developed for the Critical Incident Technique. Nine speech pathologists, with a range of clinical experience between three and 27 years, were interviewed by telephone, with verbatim notes being taken on-line by the interviewer. The speech pathologists described a total of 21 clients (15 male, six female) with acquired neurological communication disorders (including cerebral vascular accident, traumatic brain injury, and tumour) whose care had raised critical incidents for the speech pathologist in relation to legal and related matters. These verbatim notes were qualitatively analysed using NVivo qualitative analysis software. Outcomes & Results: The main incidents related to legal decisions (for example, power of attorney, will-making), as well as decisions involving consent for medical treatment, discharge, accommodation, and business/financial decisions. In all but one of the incidents recounted, the issues centred on a situation of conflict between the person with aphasia and their family, friends or with the multidisciplinary team. The roles taken by the speech pathologists ranged from those expected within a speech pathology scope of practice, such as that of assessor and consultant, to those which arguably present dilemmas and conflict of interest, for example, interpreter, advocate. The assessment practices involved some standardized testing, but this was stressed by all participants to be of lesser importance than informal observations of function. Speech pathologists emphasized the importance of multiple observations, and multimodal means of communication. Conclusions: & Implications: The findings indicate that speech pathologists are currently playing an active role when questions arise regarding capacity for legal and related decision-making by people with aphasia. At the same time, the findings support the need for further research to develop guidelines for practice and to build educational experiences for students and novice clinicians to assist them when they engage with the complex case management issues in this area. PMID:19565393

Ferguson, Alison; Duffield, Gemma; Worrall, Linda

2009-06-28

398

The confidence of speech-language pathology students regarding communicating with people with aphasia  

PubMed Central

Background Aphasia is an acquired language disorder that can present a significant barrier to patient involvement in healthcare decisions. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are viewed as experts in the field of communication. However, many SLP students do not receive practical training in techniques to communicate with people with aphasia (PWA) until they encounter PWA during clinical education placements. Methods This study investigated the confidence and knowledge of SLP students in communicating with PWA prior to clinical placements using a customised questionnaire. Confidence in communicating with people with aphasia was assessed using a 100-point visual analogue scale. Linear, and logistic, regressions were used to examine the association between confidence and age, as well as confidence and course type (graduate-entry masters or undergraduate), respectively. Knowledge of strategies to assist communication with PWA was examined by asking respondents to list specific strategies that could assist communication with PWA. Results SLP students were not confident with the prospect of communicating with PWA; reporting a median 29-points (inter-quartile range 17–47) on the visual analogue confidence scale. Only, four (8.2%) of respondents rated their confidence greater than 55 (out of 100). Regression analyses indicated no relationship existed between confidence and students‘ age (p?=?0.31, r-squared?=?0.02), or confidence and course type (p?=?0.22, pseudo r-squared?=?0.03). Students displayed limited knowledge about communication strategies. Thematic analysis of strategies revealed four overarching themes; Physical, Verbal Communication, Visual Information and Environmental Changes. While most students identified potential use of resources (such as images and written information), fewer students identified strategies to alter their verbal communication (such as reduced speech rate). Conclusions SLP students who had received aphasia related theoretical coursework, but not commenced clinical placements with PWA, were not confident in their ability to communicate with PWA. Students may benefit from an educational intervention or curriculum modification to incorporate practical training in effective strategies to communicate with PWA, before they encounter PWA in clinical settings. Ensuring students have confidence and knowledge of potential communication strategies to assist communication with PWA may allow them to focus their learning experiences in more specific clinical domains, such as clinical reasoning, rather than building foundation interpersonal communication skills. PMID:23806028

2013-01-01

399

Improved naming after TMS treatments in a chronic, global aphasia patient — case report  

PubMed Central

We report improved ability to name pictures at 2 and 8 months after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatments to the pars triangularis portion of right Broca’s homologue in a 57 year-old woman with severe nonfluent/global aphasia (6.5 years post left basal ganglia bleed, subcortical lesion). TMS was applied at 1 Hz, 20 minutes a day, 10 days, over a two-week period. She received no speech therapy during the study. One year after her TMS treatments, she entered speech therapy with continued improvement. TMS may have modulated activity in the remaining left and right hemisphere neural network for naming. PMID:16006338

NAESER, MARGARET A.; MARTIN, PAULA I; NICHOLAS, MARJORIE; BAKER, ERROL H.; SEEKINS, HEIDI; HELM-ESTABROOKS, NANCY; CAYER-MEADE, CAROL; KOBAYASHI, MASAHITO; THEORET, HUGO; FREGNI, FELIPE; TORMOS, JOSE MARIA; KURLAND, JACQUIE; DORON, KARL W.; PASCUAL-LEONE, ALVARO

2005-01-01

400

Battery venting system and method  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

Casale, Thomas J. (Aurora, CO); Ching, Larry K. W. (Littleton, CO); Baer, Jose T. (Gaviota, CA); Swan, David H. (Monrovia, CA)

1999-01-05

401

Battery venting system and method  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve. 8 figs.

Casale, T.J.; Ching, L.K.W.; Baer, J.T.; Swan, D.H.

1999-01-05

402

Battery Vent Mechanism And Method  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

Ching, Larry K. W. (Littleton, CO)

2000-02-15

403

Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems  

DOEpatents

Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

Tuffner, Francis K. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. (Richland, WA); Hammerstrom, Donald J. (West Richland, WA); Pratt, Richard M. (Richland, WA)

2012-05-22

404

Automotive Battery Inspection & Cleaning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever entered your car, turned the key and the engine would not start? You may have heard a click coming from under the hood each time you turn the key. Your headlights and interior lights are as dim as a nightlight and your horn gives a weak low muffle that sounds like someone is growling at you as you attempt to see what might work. This usually happens when you are in a hurry, its raining, and no one is around to help. The automotive battery is a key component and the primary source of electricity of the automotive electrical system. It helps provide the electricity to run the convenient amenities that we have grown to appreciate including radios, CD and DVD players, GPS systems that help guide us to our locations, and all the neat-o gages that tell us the current condition of the vehicle. Regular battery inspection and maintenance is easy and critical to avoid situations such as described above. OBJECTIVES: In this instructional module, you will: Understand the definition of the automotive battery. Gain a detailed understanding of battery basics. Learn how to inspect and service an automotive battery. MATERIALS: To complete this assignment, each student will need access to a computer with internet capabilities. PROCEDURES: This instructional module is divided into four steps. It is ...

Hjorten, Mr.

2006-02-03

405

Circulating current battery heater  

DOEpatents

A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

Ashtiani, Cyrus N. (West Bloomfield, MI); Stuart, Thomas A. (Toledo, OH)

2001-01-01

406

Advanced battery development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to promote national security by ensuring that the United States has an adequate supply of safe, assured, affordable, and environmentally acceptable energy, the Storage Batteries Division at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, is responsible for engineering development of advanced rechargeable batteries for energy applications. This effort is conducted within the Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing (ETD) Lead center, whose activities are coordinated by staff within the Storage Batteries Division. The ETD Project, directed by SNL, is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Systems Research, Energy Storage and Distribution Division (DOE/OESD). SNL is also responsible for technical management of the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EV-ABS) Development Project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS). The ETD Project is operated in conjunction with the Technology Base Research (TBR) Project, which is under the direction of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Together these two projects seek to establish the scientific feasibility of advanced electrochemical energy storage systems, and conduct the initial engineering development on systems suitable for mobile and stationary commercial applications.

407

Energizing the batteries for electric cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports of the nickel-metal-hydride battery and its ability to compete with the lead-acid battery in electric-powered vehicles. The topics of the article include development of the battery, the impetus for development in California environmental law, battery performance, packaging for the battery's hazardous materials, and the solid electrolyte battery.

OConnor

1993-01-01

408

Smart battery controller for lithium sulfur dioxide batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each year, the U.S. Army purchases millions of lithium sulfur dioxide batteries for use in portable electronics equipment. Because of their superior rate capability and service life over a wide variety of conditions, lithium batteries are the power source of choice for military equipment. There is no convenient method of determining the available energy remaining in partially used lithium batteries;

Terrill Atwater; Arnold Bard; Bruce Testa; William Shader

1992-01-01

409

Battery Management System Based on Battery Nonlinear Dynamics Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method of determining electromotive force and battery internal resistance as time functions, which are depicted as functions of state of charge (SOC) because . The model is based on battery discharge and charge characteristics under different constant currents that are tested by a laboratory experiment. This paper further presents the method of determining the battery SOC

Antoni Szumanowski; Yuhua Chang

2008-01-01

410

Mechanical design of flow batteries  

E-print Network

The purpose of this research is to investigate the design of low-cost, high-efficiency flow batteries. Researchers are searching for next-generation battery materials, and this thesis presents a systems analysis encompassing ...

Hopkins, Brandon J. (Brandon James)

2013-01-01

411

Realistic electric vehicle battery evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The STM-5-140 Nickel Cadmium electric vehicle battery was tested under actual operating conditions using the UMASS Lowell battery evaluation laboratory. The battery evaluation system uses battery current data taken from an EV using its on board data acquisition system. The car is driven on a typical commute while battery current as well as other data are taken at one second intervals. In the battery evaluation lab, individual batteries are subjected to the same operating conditions as those in the car. This procedure uses fewer batteries and allows the same commute to be repeated exactly. Three test procedures using 0, 20, and 40 degree centigrade controlled environment temperatures were implemented. Measured data consisted of voltage, current, and temperature. Test cycle, capacity and round trip efficiency data are presented.

Lynch, W.A.; Salameh, Z.M. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering] [Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1997-12-01

412

Effects of Syntactic Complexity, Semantic Reversibility, and Explicitness on Discourse Comprehension in Persons with Aphasia and in Healthy Controls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Prior studies of discourse comprehension have concluded that the deficits of persons with aphasia (PWA) in syntactically based comprehension of sentences in isolation are not predictive of deficits in comprehension of sentences in discourse (Brookshire & Nicholas, 1984; Caplan & Evans, 1990). However, these studies used semantically…

Levy, Joshua; Hoover, Elizabeth; Waters, Gloria; Kiran, Swathi; Caplan, David; Berardino, Alex; Sandberg, Chaleece

2012-01-01

413

Clause Structure and Verb Movement in a Greek-English Speaking Bilingual Patient with Broca's Aphasia: Evidence from Adverb Placement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we investigate the performance of a Greek-English bilingual patient with Broca's aphasia and mild agrammatism on the placement of CP, MoodP, AspectP, and NegP-related adverbs, labeled specifier-type adverbs, and VP-related adverbs, labeled complement-type adverbs, by means of a constituent ordering task and a grammaticality judgment…

Alexiadou, Artemis; Stavrakaki, Stavroula

2006-01-01

414

Action comprehension in aphasia: Linguistic and non-linguistic deficits and their lesion correlates Manuscript in press in Neuropsychologia  

E-print Network

-linguistic action understanding. For reading comprehension deficits, the lesion correlates are brain areas knownAction comprehension in aphasia: Linguistic and non-linguistic deficits and their lesion correlates-858-534-6788 E-mail: asaygin@cogsci.ucsd.edu #12;2 Abstract We tested aphasic patients' comprehension of actions

415

Apraxia of Speech and Phonological Errors in the Diagnosis of Nonfluent/Agrammatic and Logopenic Variants of Primary Progressive Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The International Consensus Criteria for the diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia (PPA; Gorno-Tempini et al., 2011) propose apraxia of speech (AOS) as 1 of 2 core features of nonfluent/agrammatic PPA and propose phonological errors or absence of motor speech disorder as features of logopenic PPA. We investigated the sensitivity and…

Croot, Karen; Ballard, Kirrie; Leyton, Cristian E.; Hodges, John R.

2012-01-01

416

The Design and Field Evaluation of PhotoTalk: a Digital Image Communication Application for People with Aphasia  

E-print Network

. Unlike any other augmentative and alternative communication device for people with aphasia, Photo augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices for individuals who have communication impairmentsThe Design and Field Evaluation of PhotoTalk: a Digital Image Communication Application for People

McGrenere, Joanna

417

Measuring Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in Aphasia: Reliability, Validity, and Sensitivity to Change of the Scenario Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study explores the psychometric qualities of the Scenario Test, a new test to assess daily-life communication in severe aphasia. The test is innovative in that it: (1) examines the effectiveness of verbal and non-verbal communication; and (2) assesses patients' communication in an interactive setting, with a supportive…

van der Meulen, Ineke; van de Sandt-Koenderman, W. Mieke E.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Ribbers, Gerard M.

2010-01-01

418

Knowledge Is BLISS: An Investigation into the Transparency of BLISS Symbol Strings Directed by a Person with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Since his stroke 15 years ago, Tony O'Donnell has worked with BLISS, a symbolic, graphical language. BLISS has been used with a variety of clinical populations, including people with severe aphasia. O'Donnell found his adapted version of BLISS was meaningful to him when spoken and written English was not. The present study is part of a…

O'Donnell, Tony; Bruce, Carolyn; Black, Maria; Clayton, Amanda

2010-01-01

419

The Role of Semantic Complexity in Treatment of Naming Deficits: Training Semantic Categories in Fluent Aphasia by Controlling Exemplar Typicality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of typicality of category exemplars on naming was investigated using a single subject experimental design across participants and behaviors in 4 patients with fluent aphasia. Participants received a semantic feature treatment to improve naming of either typical or atypical items within semantic categories, while generalization was tested to untrained items of the category. The order of typicality and

Swathi Kiran; Cynthia K. Thompson

2003-01-01

420

It's Either a Cook or a Baker: Patients with Conduction Aphasia Get the Gist but Lose the Trace  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patients with conduction aphasia have been characterized as having a short-term memory deficit that leads to relative difficulty on span and repetition tasks. It has also been observed that these same patients often get the gist of what is said to them, even if they are unable to repeat the information verbatim. To study this phenomenon…

Baldo, Juliana V.; Klostermann, Ellen C.; Dronkers, Nina F.

2008-01-01

421

Finding a focus for quality of life with aphasia: Social and emotional health, and psychological well-being  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Speech pathologists infrequently address the quality of aphasic people's lives in a direct manner in rehabilitation, most likely due to the difficulty in grasping the role of communication in quality of life (QOL). Despite considerable research into aphasic language impairments and communication disabilities, there is no clear evidence how aphasia impacts on clients' QOL. This paper reports on a

Madeline Cruice; Linda Worrall; Louise Hickson; Robert Murison

2003-01-01

422

Elucidating the Nature of Deregulated Semantic Cognition in Semantic Aphasia: Evidence for the Roles of Prefrontal and Temporoparietal Cortices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic cognition—semantically driven verbal and nonverbal behavior—is composed of at least two interactive principal components: conceptual representations and executive control processes that regulate and shape activation within the semantic system. Previous studies indicate that semantic dementia follows from a progressive yet specific degradation of conceptual knowledge. In contrast, multimodal semantic impairment in aphasic patients (semantic aphasia [SA]) reflects damage to

Krist A. Noonan; Elizabeth Jefferies; Faye Corbett; Matthew A. Lambon Ralph

2010-01-01

423

Microfluidic redox battery.  

PubMed

A miniaturized microfluidic battery is proposed, which is the first membraneless redox battery demonstrated to date. This unique concept capitalizes on dual-pass flow-through porous electrodes combined with stratified, co-laminar flow to generate electrical power on-chip. The fluidic design is symmetric to allow for both charging and discharging operations in forward, reverse, and recirculation modes. The proof-of-concept device fabricated using low-cost materials integrated in a microfluidic chip is shown to produce competitive power levels when operated on a vanadium redox electrolyte. A complete charge/discharge cycle is performed to demonstrate its operation as a rechargeable battery, which is an important step towards providing sustainable power to lab-on-a-chip and microelectronic applications. PMID:23712370

Lee, Jin Wook; Goulet, Marc-Antoni; Kjeang, Erik

2013-07-01

424

Safe battery solvents  

DOEpatents

An ion transporting solvent maintains very low vapor pressure, contains flame retarding elements, and is nontoxic. The solvent in combination with common battery electrolyte salts can be used to replace the current carbonate electrolyte solution, creating a safer battery. It can also be used in combination with polymer gels or solid polymer electrolytes to produce polymer batteries with enhanced conductivity characteristics. The solvents may comprise a class of cyclic and acyclic low molecular weight phosphazenes compounds, comprising repeating phosphorus and nitrogen units forming a core backbone and ion-carrying pendent groups bound to the phosphorus. In preferred embodiments, the cyclic phosphazene comprises at least 3 phosphorus and nitrogen units, and the pendent groups are polyethers, polythioethers, polyether/polythioethers or any combination thereof, and/or other groups preferably comprising other atoms from Group 6B of the periodic table of elements.

Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Delmastro, Joseph R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stewart, Frederick F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2007-10-23

425

Nicad battery packages. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

Problems encountered with purchased battery packages and increasing requirements for larger-capacity cells in sounding-rocket payloads led to the development of the battery packages in this report. Gell cells, lead-acid batteries, silver cells, and lithium batteries were considered along with nickel-cadmium (nicad) cells; however, nicads proved to be the most versatile. Several packaging concepts considering ease of assembly and servicing; minimization of weight and volume; and payload environmental requirements were evaluated.

Tracy, F.J.; Tweed, H.M.

1986-02-01

426

Support for Anterior Temporal Involvement in Semantic Error Production in Aphasia: New Evidence from VLSM  

PubMed Central

Semantic errors in aphasia (e.g., naming a horse as “dog”) frequently arise from faulty mapping of concepts onto lexical items. A recent study by our group used voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) methods with 64 patients with chronic aphasia to identify voxels that carry an association with semantic errors. The strongest associations were found in the left anterior temporal lobe (L-ATL), in the mid- to anterior MTG region. The absence of findings in Wernicke’s area was surprising, as were indications that ATL voxels made an essential contribution to the post-semantic stage of lexical access. In this follow-up study, we sought to validate these results by re-defining semantic errors in a manner that was less theory dependent and more consistent with prior lesion studies. As this change also increased the robustness of the dependent variable, it made it possible to perform additional statistical analyses that further refined the interpretation. The results strengthen the evidence for a causal relationship between ATL damage and lexically-based semantic errors in naming and lend confidence to the conclusion that chronic lesions in Wernicke’s area are not causally implicated in semantic error production. PMID:20961612

Walker, Grant M.; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Kimberg, Daniel Y.; Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Brecher, Adelyn; Dell, Gary S.; Coslett, H. Branch

2010-01-01

427

Treatment of category generation and retrieval in aphasia: Effect of typicality of category items.  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Kiran and colleagues (Kiran, 2007, 2008; Kiran & Johnson, 2008; Kiran & Thompson, 2003) have previously suggested that training atypical examples within a semantic category is a more efficient treatment approach to facilitating generalization within the category than training typical examples. The present study extended our previous work examining the notion of semantic complexity within goal-derived (ad-hoc) categories in individuals with aphasia. Methods: Six individuals with fluent aphasia (range = 39-84 years) and varying degrees of naming deficits and semantic impairments were involved. Thirty typical and atypical items each from two categories were selected after an extensive stimulus norming task. Generative naming for the two categories was tested during baseline and treatment. Results: As predicted, training atypical examples in the category resulted in generalization to untrained typical examples in five out the five patient-treatment conditions. In contrast, training typical examples (which was in examined three conditions) produced mixed results. One patient showed generalization to untrained atypical examples, whereas two patients did not show generalization to untrained atypical examples. Conclusions: Results of the present study supplement our existing data on the effect of a semantically based treatment for lexical retrieval by manipulating the typicality of category exemplars. PMID:21173393

Kiran, Swathi; Sandberg, Chaleece; Sebastian, Rajani

2011-01-01

428

Encephalopathy with electrical status epilepticus during slow sleep or ESES syndrome including the acquired aphasia.  

PubMed

Encephalopathy with electrical status epilepticus during sleep or ESES is an age-dependent and self-limited syndrome whose distinctive features include a characteristic age of onset (with a peak around 4-5 years), heterogeneous seizures types (mostly partial motor or unilateral seizures during sleep and absences or falls while awake), a typical EEG pattern (with continuous and diffuse paroxysms occupying at least 85% of slow wave sleep) and a variable neuropsychological regression consisting of IQ decrease, reduction of language (as in acquired aphasia or Landau-Kleffner syndrome), disturbance of behaviour (psychotic states) and motor impairment (in the form of ataxia, dyspraxia, dystonia or unilateral deficit). Despite the long-term favourable outcome of epilepsy and status epilepticus during sleep (SES), the prognosis is guarded because of the persistence of severe neuropsychological and/or motor deficits in approximately half of the patients. No specific treatment has been advocated for this syndrome, but valproate sodium, benzodiazepines and ACTH have been shown to control the seizures and the SES pattern in many cases, although often only temporarily. Subpial transection is proposed in some instances as in non-regressive acquired aphasia. Recent data support the concept that ESES syndrome may include a large subset of developmental or acquired regressive conditions of infancy. PMID:10996561

Tassinari, C A; Rubboli, G; Volpi, L; Meletti, S; d'Orsi, G; Franca, M; Sabetta, A R; Riguzzi, P; Gardella, E; Zaniboni, A; Michelucci, R

2000-09-01

429

Automated classification of primary progressive aphasia subtypes from narrative speech transcripts.  

PubMed

In the early stages of neurodegenerative disorders, individuals may exhibit a decline in language abilities that is difficult to quantify with standardized tests. Careful analysis of connected speech can provide valuable information about a patient's language capacities. To date, this type of analysis has been limited by its time-consuming nature. In this study, we present a method for evaluating and classifying connected speech in primary progressive aphasia using computational techniques. Syntactic and semantic features were automatically extracted from transcriptions of narrative speech for three groups: semantic dementia (SD), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), and healthy controls. Features that varied significantly between the groups were used to train machine learning classifiers, which were then tested on held-out data. We achieved accuracies well above baseline on the three binary classification tasks. An analysis of the influential features showed that in contrast with controls, both patient groups tended to use words which were higher in frequency (especially nouns for SD, and verbs for PNFA). The SD patients also tended to use words (especially nouns) that were higher in familiarity, and they produced fewer nouns, but more demonstratives and adverbs, than controls. The speech of the PNFA group tended to be slower and incorporate shorter words than controls. The patient groups were distinguished from each other by the SD patients' relatively increased use of words which are high in frequency and/or familiarity. PMID:23332818

Fraser, Kathleen C; Meltzer, Jed A; Graham, Naida L; Leonard, Carol; Hirst, Graeme; Black, Sandra E; Rochon, Elizabeth

2014-06-01

430

Integrating the iPad into an intensive, comprehensive aphasia program.  

PubMed

The proliferation of tablet technology and the development of apps to support aphasia rehabilitation offer increasing opportunities for speech-language pathologists in a clinical setting. This article describes the components of an Intensive Comprehensive Aphasia Program at Boston University and details how usage of the iPad (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA) was incorporated. We describe how the iPad was customized for use in individual, dyadic, and group treatment formats and how its use was encouraged through home practice tasks. In addition to providing the participants with step-by-step instructions for the usage of each new app, participants had multiple opportunities for practice across various treatment formats. Examples of how the participants continued using their iPad beyond the program suggest how the usage of this device has generalized into their day-to-day life. An overall summary of performance on targeted linguistic measures as well as an analysis of functional and quality-of-life measures reveal statistically significant improvements pre- to posttreatment. PMID:24449463

Hoover, Elizabeth L; Carney, Anne

2014-02-01

431

Battery-Charge-State Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Charge-state model for lead/acid batteries proposed as part of effort to make equivalent of fuel gage for battery-powered vehicles. Models based on equations that approximate observable characteristics of battery electrochemistry. Uses linear equations, easier to simulate on computer, and gives smooth transitions between charge, discharge, and recuperation.

Vivian, H. C.

1985-01-01

432

Batteries, from Cradle to Grave  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As battery producers and vendors, legislators, and the consumer population become aware of the consequences of inappropriate disposal of batteries to landfill sites instead of responsible chemical neutralization and reuse, the topic of battery recycling has begun to appear on the environmental agenda. In the United Kingdom, estimates of annual…

Smith, Michael J.; Gray, Fiona M.

2010-01-01

433

Seal for sodium sulfur battery  

DOEpatents

This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

Topouzian, Armenag (Birmingham, MI); Minck, Robert W. (Lathrup Village, MI); Williams, William J. (Northville, MI)

1980-01-01

434

Sodium--sulfur storage battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates to a novel sodium--sulfur storage battery comprising a sodium reservoir made of metal (incorporating a heater) between double walls, a solid electrolyte connected to it, an anodic reactant contained in it and a cathode reactant outside of it, and a battery housing which contains the above-mentioned components. The battery is sealed at the upper part. According to

Kagawa

1977-01-01

435

Kurt Goldstein's test battery.  

PubMed

Kurt Goldstein was a founder of clinical neuropsychology. This thesis is illustrated with a description of Goldstein's test battery that he used as a screening instrument in a special clinic for soldiers in World War I. Parts of the battery were also used for neuropsychological rehabilitation. Goldstein's early work in Germany focused on both neuropsychological assessment and rehabilitation. He was interested in how individuals go about compensating for their deficits, The notion of ecological validity (Lebenswahr vs Lebensfremd), only becoming widely popular in the nineteen-eighties, played an important role in Goldstein's selection of test procedures. PMID:25241395

Eling, Paul

2015-02-01

436

Speech entrainment enables patients with Broca’s aphasia to produce fluent speech  

PubMed Central

A distinguishing feature of Broca’s aphasia is non-fluent halting speech typically involving one to three words per utterance. Yet, despite such profound impairments, some patients can mimic audio-visual speech stimuli enabling them to produce fluent speech in real time. We call this effect ‘speech entrainment’ and reveal its neural mechanism as well as explore its usefulness as a treatment for speech production in Broca’s aphasia. In Experiment 1, 13 patients with Broca’s aphasia were tested in three conditions: (i) speech entrainment with audio-visual feedback where they attempted to mimic a speaker whose mouth was seen on an iPod screen; (ii) speech entrainment with audio-only feedback where patients mimicked heard speech; and (iii) spontaneous speech where patients spoke freely about assigned topics. The patients produced a greater variety of words using audio-visual feedback compared with audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. No difference was found between audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. In Experiment 2, 10 of the 13 patients included in Experiment 1 and 20 control subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine the neural mechanism that supports speech entrainment. Group results with patients and controls revealed greater bilateral cortical activation for speech produced during speech entrainment compared with spontaneous speech at the junction of the anterior insula and Brodmann area 47, in Brodmann area 37, and unilaterally in the left middle temporal gyrus and the dorsal portion of Broca’s area. Probabilistic white matter tracts constructed for these regions in the normal subjects revealed a structural network connected via the corpus callosum and ventral fibres through the extreme capsule. Unilateral areas were connected via the arcuate fasciculus. In Experiment 3, all patients included in Experiment 1 participated in a 6-week treatment phase using speech entrainment to improve speech production. Behavioural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected before and after the treatment phase. Patients were able to produce a greater variety of words with and without speech entrainment at 1 and 6 weeks after training. Treatment-related decrease in cortical activation associated with speech entrainment was found in areas of the left posterior-inferior parietal lobe. We conclude that speech entrainment allows patients with Broca’s aphasia to double their speech output compared with spontaneous speech. Neuroimaging results suggest that speech entrainment allows patients to produce fluent speech by providing an external gating mechanism that yokes a ventral language network that encodes conceptual aspects of speech. Preliminary results suggest that training with speech entrainment improves speech production in Broca’s aphasia providing a potential therapeutic method for a disorder that has been shown to be particularly resistant to treatment. PMID:23250889

Hubbard, H. Isabel; Hudspeth, Sarah Grace; Holland, Audrey L.; Bonilha, Leonardo; Fromm, Davida; Rorden, Chris

2012-01-01

437

Finding the Right Words: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Improves Discourse Productivity in Non-fluent Aphasia After Stroke  

PubMed Central

Background Loss of fluency is a significant source of functional impairment in many individuals with aphasia. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) administered to the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) has been shown to facilitate naming in persons with chronic left hemisphere stroke and non-fluent aphasia. However, changes in fluency in aphasic subjects receiving rTMS have not been adequately explored. Aims To determine whether rTMS improves fluency in individuals with chronic nonfluent aphasia, and to identify aspects of fluency that are modulated in persons who respond to rTMS. Methods & Procedures Ten individuals with left hemisphere MCA strokes and mild to moderate non-fluent aphasia participated in the study. Before treatment, subjects were asked to describe the Cookie Theft picture in three separate sessions. During treatment, all subjects received 1200 pulses of 1 Hz rTMS daily in 10 sessions over two weeks at a site that had previously been shown to improve naming. Subjects repeated the Cookie Theft description two months after treatment. Five subjects initially received sham stimulation instead of real TMS. Two months after sham treatment, these individuals received real rTMS. Performance both at baseline and after stimulation was coded using Quantitative Production Analysis (Saffran, Berndt & Schwartz, 1989) and Correct Information Unit (Nicholas & Brookshire, 1993) analysis. Outcomes & Results Across all subjects (n=10), real rTMS treatment resulted in a significant increase in multiple measures of discourse productivity compared to baseline performance. There was no significant increase in measures of sentence productivity or grammatical accuracy. There was no significant increase from baseline in the sham condition (n=5) on any study measures. Conclusions Stimulation of the right IFG in patients with chronic non-fluent aphasia facilitates discourse production. We posit that this effect may be attributable to improved lexical-semantic access. PMID:23280015

Medina, Jared; Norise, Catherine; Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Coslett, H. Branch; Turkeltaub, Peter E.; Hamilton, Roy H.

2012-01-01

438

Rechargeable lead-acid batteries.  

PubMed

Batteries used in medical equipment, like their counterparts in consumer products, attract little attention until they fail to function effectively. In some applications, such as in emergency medical devices, battery failure can have fatal consequences. While modern batteries are usually quite reliable, ECRI has received 53 written problem reports and countless verbal reports or questions related to battery problems in hospitals during the past five years. This large number of reports is due, at least in part, to the enormous quality of batteries used to operate or provide backup power in contemporary hospital equipment. As part of an ongoing evaluation of rehabilitation assistive equipment, ECRI has been studying the performance of 12 V rechargeable deep-cycle lead-acid batteries used in powered wheelchairs. During the course of this evaluation, it has become apparent that many professionals, both clinical and industrial, regard batteries as "black box" devices and know little about proper care and maintenance--and even less about battery selection and purchase. Because equipment performance and reliability can be strongly influenced by different battery models, an understanding of battery characteristics and how they affect performance is essential when selecting and purchasing batteries. The types of rechargeable batteries used most commonly in hospitals are lead-acid and nickel-cadmium (nicad), which we compare below; however, the guidance we provide in this article focuses on lead-acid batteries. While the examples given are for high-capacity 12 V deep-cycle batteries, similar analyses can be applied to smaller lead-acid batteries of different voltages. PMID:2211174

1990-09-01

439

[Kurt Goldstein's understanding of amnesic aphasia and its underlying disorder - an early model of the pensée opératoire of the French psychosomatic school?].  

PubMed

Kurt Goldstein's understanding of amnesic aphasia in some regards anticipated the model of the pensée opératoire, a concept developed during the 60's and 70's by the French psychoanalytical school of psychosomatics. Goldstein interpreted amnesic aphasia within the framework of a "basic disorder". Closely following the philosopher Ernst Cassirer, Goldstein described amnesic aphasia as an expression of a general alteration following localized or generalised brain damage. Due to various historical events (world war, fascism, the holocaust) as well as developments during the 20(th) century (dominance of the English language in many areas of science), these connections were forgotten or were no longer recognised as such. Without wanting to determine the extent to which the concept of pensée opératoire possesses validity, one can interpret Goldstein's reflections on aphasia as a heretofore unreceived preliminary model of the psychosomatic concept of the French School. PMID:12089652

Danzer, G; Eisenblätter, A; Belz, W; Schulz, A; Klapp, B F

2002-07-01

440

WEEE and portable batteries in residual household waste: Quantification and characterisation of misplaced waste  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: • We analyse 26.1 Mg of residual waste from 3129 Danish households. • We quantify and characterise misplaced WEEE and portable batteries. • We compare misplaced WEEE and batteries to collection through dedicated schemes. • Characterisation showed that primarily small WEEE and light sources are misplaced. • Significant amounts of misplaced batteries were discarded as built-in WEEE. - Abstract: A total of 26.1 Mg of residual waste from 3129 households in 12 Danish municipalities was analysed and revealed that 89.6 kg of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), 11 kg of batteries, 2.2 kg of toners and 16 kg of cables had been wrongfully discarded. This corresponds to a Danish household discarding 29 g of WEEE (7 items per year), 4 g of batteries (9 batteries per year), 1 g of toners and 7 g of unidentifiable cables on average per week, constituting 0.34% (w/w), 0.04% (w/w), 0.01% (w/w) and 0.09% (w/w), respectively, of residual waste. The study also found that misplaced WEEE and batteries in the residual waste constituted 16% and 39%, respectively, of what is being collected properly through the dedicated special waste collection schemes. This shows that a large amount of batteries are being discarded with the residual waste, whereas WEEE seems to be collected relatively successfully through the dedicated special waste collection schemes. Characterisation of the misplaced batteries showed that 20% (w/w) of the discarded batteries were discarded as part of WEEE (built-in). Primarily alkaline batteries, carbon zinc batteries and alkaline button cell batteries were found to be discarded with the residual household waste. Characterisation of WEEE showed that primarily small WEEE (WEEE directive categories 2, 5a, 6, 7 and 9) and light sources (WEEE directive category 5b) were misplaced. Electric tooth brushes, watches, clocks, headphones, flashlights, bicycle lights, and cables were items most frequently found. It is recommended that these findings are taken into account when designing new or improving existing special waste collection schemes. Improving the collection of WEEE is also recommended as one way to also improve the collection of batteries due to the large fraction of batteries found as built-in. The findings in this study were comparable to other western European studies, suggesting that the recommendations made in this study could apply to other western European countries as well.

Bigum, Marianne, E-mail: mkkb@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Miljřvej 113, 2500 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Petersen, Claus, E-mail: claus_petersen@econet.dk [Econet A/S, Strandboulevarden 122, 5, 2100 Křbenhavn Ř (Denmark); Christensen, Thomas H., E-mail: thho@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Miljřvej 113, 2500 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Scheutz, Charlotte, E-mail: chas@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Miljřvej 113, 2500 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

2013-11-15

441

Bipolar lead acid battery development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modular bipolar battery configuration is under development at Johnson Control, Inc. (JCI) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The battery design, incorporating proven lead acid electrochemistry, yields a rechargeable, high-power source that is light weight and compact. This configuration offers advantages in power capability, weight, and volume over conventional monopolar batteries and other battery chemistries. The lead acid bipolar battery operates in a sealed, maintenance-free mode allowing for maximum application flexibility. It is ideal for high-voltage and high-power applications.

Eskra, Michael; Vidas, Robin; Miles, Ronald; Halpert, Gerald; Attia, Alan; Perrone, David

1991-01-01

442

United States Advanced Battery Consortium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) is a collaboration between DaimlerChrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation and is part of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR). USABC conducts research and development of advanced energy systems with applications for electric vehicles. The website reviews the goals for the battery systems under investigation, provides information on submitting proposals for research funding, and posts manuals on USABC Abuse Test Procedures, Electric Vehicle Battery Test Procedures, the FreedomCAR Power Assist Battery, and 42 Volt Battery Test procedures. Related Links offer additional information on projects such as the Electrochemical Energy Storage Tech Team and the 42 Volt Working Group.

443

Current balancing for battery strings  

DOEpatents

A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means for balancing the electrical current flow through a pluraliircuitbattery strings which are connected electrically in parallel. The magnetic circuit means is associated with the battery strings such that the conductors carrying the electrical current flow through each of the battery strings pass through the magnetic circuit means in directions which cause the electromagnetic fields of at least one predetermined pair of the conductors to oppose each other. In an alternative embodiment, a low voltage converter is associated with each of the battery strings for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings.

Galloway, James H. (New Baltimore, MI)

1985-01-01

444

Battery electrode growth accommodation  

DOEpatents

An electrode for a lead acid flow through battery, the grids including a plastic frame, a plate suspended from the top of the frame to hang freely in the plastic frame and a paste applied to the plate, the paste being free to allow for expansion in the planar direction of the grid.

Bowen, Gerald K. (Cedarburg, WI); Andrew, Michael G. (Wauwatosa, WI); Eskra, Michael D. (Fredonia, WI)

1992-01-01

445

Bipolar battery plate  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of forming a bipolar plate for a battery comprising the steps of: disposing metal pellets in each aperture of a perforated thermoplastic sheet to form an assembly; heating and pressing the assembly to seal the pellets into the apertures with first and second surfaces exposed in the opposite faces of the sheet.

Rowlette, J.J.

1987-04-21

446

Lightweight bipolar storage battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus [10] is disclosed for a lightweight bipolar battery of the end-plate cell stack design. Current flow through a bipolar cell stack [12] is collected by a pair of copper end-plates [16a,16b] and transferred edgewise out of the battery by a pair of lightweight, low resistance copper terminals [28a,28b]. The copper terminals parallel the surface of a corresponding copper end-plate [16a,16b] to maximize battery throughput. The bipolar cell stack [12], copper end-plates [16a,16b] and copper terminals [28a,28b] are rigidly sandwiched between a pair of nonconductive rigid end-plates [20] having a lightweight fiber honeycomb core which eliminates distortion of individual plates within the bipolar cell stack due to internal pressures. Insulating foam [30] is injected into the fiber honeycomb core to reduce heat transfer into and out of the bipolar cell stack and to maintain uniform cell performance. A sealed battery enclosure [ 22] exposes a pair of terminal ends [26a,26b] for connection with an external circuit.

Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

1992-01-01

447

The methodological quality of aphasia therapy research: An investigation of group studies using the PsycBITE evidence?based practice database  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This paper examines the methodological quality of aphasia therapy research using the Psychological database for Brain Impairment Treatment Efficacy (www.psycbite.com). PsycBITE includes five designs: Systematic Reviews (SR), Randomised Controlled Trials (RCT), non?RCTs (NRCT), Case Series (CS), and Single Subject Designs (SSD).Aim: To provide an overview of the types of research designs and levels of compliance used in aphasia treatment

Leanne Togher; Regina Schultz; Robyn Tate; Skye McDonald; Michael Perdices; Kate Smith; Kiri Winders; Sharon Savage

2009-01-01

448

Broca’s aphasia due to cerebral venous sinus thrombosis following chemotherapy for small cell lung cancer: A case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Cancer is associated with an increased risk of cerebrovascular incidents and treatment with chemotherapy enhances that risk further. Brocha’s aphasia is a stroke-related syndrome, the presentation of which has been rarely reported during cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The current study presents the case of a 27-year-old male with advanced-stage small cell lung cancer. The patient developed Broca’s aphasia following cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

TUNCEL, TOLGA; OZGUN, ALPASLAN; EMIRZEO?LU, LEVENT; CEL?K, SERKAN; DEM?R, SERKAN; BILGI, OGUZ; KARAGOZ, BULENT

2015-01-01

449

Improved picture naming in chronic aphasia after TMS to part of right Broca’s area: An open-protocol study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional imaging studies with nonfluent aphasia patients have observed “over-activation” in right (R) language homologues. This may represent a maladaptive strategy; suppression may result in language improvement. We applied slow, 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to an anterior portion of R Broca’s homologue daily, for 10 days in four aphasia patients who were 5–11 years poststroke. Significant improvement

Margaret A. Naeser; Paula I. Martin; Marjorie Nicholas; Errol H. Baker; Heidi Seekins; Masahito Kobayashi; Hugo Theoret; Felipe Fregni; Jose Maria-Tormos; Jacquie Kurland; Karl W. Doron; Alvaro Pascual-Leone

2005-01-01

450

Conversation focused aphasia therapy: investigating the adoption of strategies by people with agrammatism  

PubMed Central

Background: A recent review of interaction (or conversation)-focused therapy highlighted the potential of programmes targeting the person with aphasia (PWA) directly. However, it noted the key limitations of current work in this field to be a reliance on single case analyses and qualitative evidence of change, a situation that is not unusual when a complex behavioural intervention is in the early stages of development and evaluation. Aims: This article aims to evaluate an intervention that targeted a PWA and their conversation partner (CP), a dyad, as equals in a novel conversation therapy for agrammatic aphasia, using both quantitative and qualitative evidence of change. The intervention aimed to increase the insight of a dyad into facilitator and barrier conversation behaviours, to increase the understanding of the effect of agrammatism on communication, and to support each speaker to choose three strategies to work on in therapy to increase mutual understanding and enhance conversation. Methods & Procedures: Quantitative and qualitative methods are used to analyse multiple pre-therapy and follow up assessments of conversation for two dyads. Outcomes & Results: Results show that one person with severe and chronic agrammatic aphasia was able to select and practise strategies that led to qualitative and quantitative changes in his post-therapy conversations. The other PWA showed a numerical increase in one of his three strategies post therapy, but no significant quantitative change. Although both CPs significantly reduced barrier behaviours in their post-therapy conversations, neither showed a significant increase in the strategies they chose to work on. For one CP, there was qualitative evidence of the use of different turn types. Conclusions: Individually tailored input from a speech and language therapist can assist some people with chronic agrammatism to develop conversational strategies that enhance communication. Outcomes are influenced by the severity and extent of language deficits affecting, for example, single word writing. In terms of behaviour change for CPs, it appears that it may be easier to reduce barrier behaviours rather than to increase the use of facilitatory strategies. The results have implications for collaborative goal setting with clients undergoing conversation therapy.

Beeke, Suzanne; Beckley, Firle; Johnson, Fiona; Heilemann, Claudia; Edwards, Susan; Maxim, Jane; Best, Wendy

2015-01-01

451

78 FR 55773 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size...Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size...from last Plenary meeting. Li-ion Current Events. Status of...

2013-09-11

452

78 FR 38093 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size...Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size...and discussion of next steps. Li-ion Current Events. Working...

2013-06-25

453

Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)  

SciTech Connect

LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease payments for space to the IDA. A commercial venture is being formed to utilize the LiFeBATT product for consumer use in enabling photovoltaic powered boat lifts. Field tests of the system have proven to be very effective and commercially promising. This venture is expected to result in significant sales within the next six months.

Stratton, Jeremy

2012-09-30

454

Single cell battery management systems (BMS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional management of batteries is based on the assumption that all cells in a battery are identical. This however, is not a correct assumption. A battery will never be stronger than the weakest cell. If one cell fails, the whole battery fails. To address the problem of monitoring batteries used in critical situations Skand-Instrument AS was commissioned by the Royal

E. Gotaas; A. Nettum

2000-01-01

455

A microprocessor-based battery management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The system was developed for the management of industrial truck batteries and battery charging equipment, but the concepts and architectures used can be expanded for use with stationary battery systems. With the battery charger as an integral part of the BMS (battery management system), modifications in the charging scenario such as automatic equalizing can be introduced. Discharge tests can be

M. W. Healy; E. C. Rhyne

1990-01-01

456

Charger using one or more solar batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A charger, which is useful to power a variety of compact type electronic appliances such as an electronic wristwatch, includes one or more solar batteries as a primary battery, and a sealed type silver oxide battery as a secondary battery. Both the amount of charging current amplitude and of charging voltage are limited to protect the sealed silver oxide battery

H. Fukuda; H. Mori; T. Sasaki

1982-01-01

457

Advances in battery technology from ALABC projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last five years, battery research and development lead by research sponsored by the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC) has produced dramatic improvements in understanding the performance of lead acid batteries, particularly sealed valve regulated batteries (VRLA) for cycling service. Research into battery grid alloys has led to an understanding of the importance of the chemistry and structure

R. D. Prengaman

1999-01-01

458

Evaluating Single-Subject Treatment Research: Lessons Learned from the Aphasia Literature  

PubMed Central

The mandate for evidence-based practice has prompted careful consideration of the weight of the scientific evidence regarding the therapeutic value of various clinical treatments. In the field of aphasia, a large number of single-subject research studies have been conducted, providing clinical outcome data that are potentially useful for clinicians and researchers; however, it has been difficult to discern the relative potency of these treatments in a standardized manner. In this paper we describe an approach to quantify treatment outcomes for single-subject research studies using effect sizes. These values provide a means to compare treatment outcomes within and between individuals, as well as to compare the relative strength of various treatments. Effect sizes also can be aggregated in order to conduct meta-analyses of specific treatment approaches. Consideration is given to optimizing research designs and providing adequate data so that the value of treatment research is maximized. PMID:17151940

Beeson, Pélagie M.; Robey, Randall R.

2007-01-01

459

Application of semantic feature analysis to retrieval of action names in aphasia.  

PubMed

This investigation examined the effects of a semantic feature training procedure on retrieval of action names in a participant with anomic aphasia. Treatment was applied sequentially across two sets of action names in the context of a multiple baseline design across behaviors. Treatment effects were evaluated in terms of naming of trained and untrained actions. Discourse production effects were also examined with respect to verbal productivity, informativeness, and production of nouns and verbs. Increased accuracy of naming was observed for both sets of trained action names, with increases being maintained at 6 weeks posttreatment. However, accuracy of responding did not reach preestablished criterion levels. Repeated exposure to stimulus items without training resulted in unstable and temporary increases in naming accuracy. No changes were observed in accuracy of naming of untrained actions that were measured only at pre- and posttreatment intervals. Increases in verbal productivity and informativeness in discourse production were associated with the treatment. PMID:18247235

Wambaugh, Julie L; Ferguson, Morelia

2007-01-01

460

Preliminary Design of a Smart Battery Controller for SLI Batteries Xiquan Wang and Pritpal Singh  

E-print Network

of these batteries can be improved by using the concept of a smart battery system (SBS). In a SBS, battery data from of time. If more than one SLI battery are in a series string, e.g. in a 36 V system, it may also shift in battery management and control. A sensor attached to the battery continuously conveys

Singh, Pritpal

461

Deferred actuated battery  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a battery assembly. It comprises: an anode plate formed of a material selected from the group consisting of aluminum, magnesium, aluminum alloys, magnesium alloys and mixtures thereof; an inert cathode current collector plate functioning as a hydrogen electrode; spaced-apart bipolar electrodes disposed between and spaced-apart from the anode plate and the inert cathode plate. Each of the bipolar electrodes includes an anode layer formed of a material selected from aluminum, magnesium, aluminum alloys, magnesium alloys and mixtures thereof and an inert cathode current collector layer functioning as a hydrogen electrode and laminated to the anode layer. The battery assembly has an inlet and outlet for electrolyte for electrolyte fluid flow between the anode plate, the bipolar electrodes and the cathode plates.

Rao, B.M.L.; Hamlen, R.P.

1990-03-20

462

The environmentally safe battery  

SciTech Connect

There are three aspects to an environmentally safe battery. The first deals with the manufacturing process, the second with the use of environmentally friendly materials, and the third with the disposal and/or recycling of spent units. In this paper, several ongoing programs at Sandia National Laboratories that relate to the environmentally conscious manufacturing of batteries, are discussed. The solvent substitution/elimination program is a two-pronged effort, aimed at identifying new solvents which are compatible with the environment, while at the same time developing dry process cleaning technology. The joining program is evaluating new solvents for flux removal as well as the development of fluxless soldering processes. In the area of welding, new cleaning processes are under study. Chemical microsensors are under development that are capable of identifying and quantifying single chemical species. These sensors have been used to monitor and improve processes using toxic/hazardous solvents. 1 ref., 1 fig.

Levy, S.C.; Brown, N.E.

1991-01-01

463

Smart battery controller for lithium sulfur dioxide batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each year, the U.S. Army purchases millions of lithium sulfur dioxide batteries for use in portable electronics equipment. Because of their superior rate capability and service life over a wide variety of conditions, lithium batteries are the power source of choice for military equipment. There is no convenient method of determining the available energy remaining in partially used lithium batteries; hence, users do not take full advantage of all the available battery energy. Currently, users replace batteries before each mission, which leads to premature disposal, and results in the waste of millions of dollars in battery energy every year. Another problem of the lithium battery is that it is necessary to ensure complete discharge of the cells when the useful life of the battery has been expended, or when a hazardous condition exists; a hazardous condition may result in one or more of the cells venting. The Electronics Technology and Devices Laboratory has developed a working prototype of a smart battery controller (SBC) that addresses these problems.

Atwater, Terrill; Bard, Arnold; Testa, Bruce; Shader, William

1992-08-01

464

Polyvinyl alcohol battery separator containing inert filler. [alkaline batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol battery separator is disclosed. A particulate filler, inert to alkaline electrolyte of an alkaline battery, is incorporated in the separator in an amount of 1-20% by weight, based on the weight of the polyvinyl alcohol, and is dispersed throughout the product. Incorporation of the filler enhances performance and increases cycle life of alkaline batteries when compared with batteries containing a similar separator not containing filler. Suitable fillers include titanates, silicates, zirconates, aluminates, wood floor, lignin, and titania. Particle size is not greater than about 50 microns.

Sheibley, D. W.; Hsu, L. C.; Manzo, M. A. (inventors)

1981-01-01

465

Advanced Small Rechargeable Batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium-based units offer highest performance. Paper reviews status of advanced, small rechargeable batteries. Covers aqueous systems including lead/lead dioxide, cadmium/nickel oxide, hydrogen/nickel oxide, and zinc/nickel oxide, as well as nonaqueous systems. All based on lithium anodes, nonaqueous systems include solid-cathode cells (lithium/molybdenum disulfide, lithium/titanium disulfide, and lithium/vanadium oxide); liquid-cathode cells (lithium/sulfur dioxide cells); and new category, lithium/polymer cells.

Halpert, Gerald

1989-01-01

466

Multicell electric storage batteries  

SciTech Connect

A lead acid battery comprises two spaced parallel rows of cells connected in parallel, one plate in each cell lying in the same plane as one plate in every other cell. Every alternate plate in the two electrical end cells is a unipolar plate connected to a terminal pillar while every remaining plate is one half of a bipolar pair of plates connected to its other half in an adjacent cell, preferably in the other line of cells, by an integral bridge piece.

Pearson, E. J.

1985-03-12

467

Bipolar plate battery  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes improvement in an assembled battery including a plurality of bipolar cells. The improvement comprises: conduit means for introducing electrolyte into the bipolar cells, each of the conduit means positioned to be in fluid communication with a different single bipolar cell of the plurality of bipolar cells and to cross over at least one other bipolar cell adjacent the single bipolar cell and acting to introduce electrolyte into the single bipolar cell.

Clough, T.J.; Moulton, R.J.

1991-11-26

468

Molten salt battery advances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in molten-salt battery cells which have resulted in significantly improved performance, cycle-life stability, and prospects for low cost are described. Developments in the lithium-alloy electrode and the metal-disulfide electrode are reviewed, and improvements in the lithium-limited FeS cell and the dense U.P. FeS2 cell are considered. Cell hardware development is discussed.

T. D. Kaun; L. Redey; P. A. Nelson

1987-01-01

469

The representation of lexical-syntactic information: evidence from syntactic and lexical retrieval impairments in aphasia.  

PubMed

This study explored lexical-syntactic information - syntactic information that is stored in the lexicon - and its relation to syntactic and lexical impairments in aphasia. We focused on two types of lexical-syntactic information: predicate argument structure (PAS) of verbs (the number and types of arguments the verb selects) and grammatical gender of nouns. The participants were 17 Hebrew-speaking individuals with aphasia who had a syntactic deficit (agrammatism) or a lexical retrieval deficit (anomia) located at the semantic lexicon, the phonological output lexicon, or the phonological output buffer. After testing the participants' syntactic and lexical retrieval abilities and establishing the functional loci of their deficits, we assessed their PAS and grammatical gender knowledge. This assessment included sentence completion, sentence production, sentence repetition, and grammaticality judgment tasks. The participants' performance on these tests yielded several important dissociations. Three agrammatic participants had impaired syntax but unimpaired PAS knowledge. Three agrammatic participants had impaired syntax but unimpaired grammatical gender knowledge. This indicates that lexical-syntactic information is represented separately from syntax, and can be spared even when syntax at the sentence level, such as embedding and movement are impaired. All 5 individuals with phonological output buffer impairment and all 3 individuals with phonological output lexicon impairment had preserved lexical-syntactic knowledge. These selective impairments indicate that lexical-syntactic information is represented at a lexical stage prior to the phonological lexicon and the phonological buffer. Three participants with impaired PAS (aPASia) and impaired grammatical gender who showed intact lexical-semantic knowledge indicate that the lexical-syntactic information is represented separately from the semantic lexicon. This led us to conclude that lexical-syntactic information is stored in a separate syntactic lexicon. A double dissociation between PAS and grammatical gender impairments indicated that different types of lexical-syntactic information are represented separately in this syntactic lexicon. PMID:21798529

Biran, Michal; Friedmann, Naama

2012-10-01

470

Lexicality Effects in Word and Nonword Recall of Semantic Dementia and Progressive Nonfluent Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Background Verbal working memory is an essential component of many language functions, including sentence comprehension and word learning. As such, working memory has emerged as a domain of intense research interest both in aphasiology and in the broader field of cognitive neuroscience. The integrity of verbal working memory encoding relies on a fluid interaction between semantic and phonological processes. That is, we encode verbal detail using many cues related to both the sound and meaning of words. Lesion models can provide an effective means of parsing the contributions of phonological or semantic impairment to recall performance. Methods and Procedures We employed the lesion model approach here by contrasting the nature of lexicality errors incurred during recall of word and nonword sequences by 3individuals with progressive nonfluent aphasia (a phonological dominant impairment) compared to that of 2 individuals with semantic dementia (a semantic dominant impairment). We focused on psycholinguistic attributes of correctly recalled stimuli relative to those that elicited a lexicality error (i.e., nonword ? word OR word ? nonword). Outcomes and results Patients with semantic dementia showed greater sensitivity to phonological attributes (e.g., phoneme length, wordlikeness) of the target items relative to semantic attributes (e.g., familiarity). Patients with PNFA showed the opposite pattern, marked by sensitivity to word frequency, age of acquisition, familiarity, and imageability. Conclusions We interpret these results in favor of a processing strategy such that in the context of a focal phonological impairment patients revert to an over-reliance on preserved semantic processing abilities. In contrast, a focal semantic impairment forces both reliance upon and hypersensitivity to phonological attributes of target words. We relate this interpretation to previous hypotheses about the nature of verbal short-term memory in progressive aphasia. PMID:23486736

Reilly, Jamie; Troche, Joshua; Chatel, Alison; Park, Hyejin; Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Antonucci, Sharon M.; Martin, Nadine

2012-01-01

471

Syntactic and morphosyntactic processing in stroke–induced and primary progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

The paper reports findings derived from three experiments examining syntactic and morphosyntactic processing in individuals with agrammatic and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-G and PPA-L, respectively) and stroke-induced agrammatic and anomic aphasia (StrAg and StrAn, respectively). We examined comprehension and production of canonical and noncanonical sentence structures and production of tensed and nontensed verb forms using constrained tasks in experiments 1 and 2 using the Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS [57]) and the Northwestern Assessment of Verb Inflection (NAVI, Thompson and Lee, experimental version), respectively. Experiment 3 examined free narrative samples, focusing on syntactic and morphosyntactic measures, i.e. production of grammatical sentences, noun to verb ratio, open-class to closed-class word production ratio, and the production of correctly inflected verbs. Results indicate that the two agrammatic groups (i.e., PPA-G and StrAg) pattern alike on syntactic and morphosyntactic measures, showing more impaired noncanonical compared to canonical sentence comprehension and production and greater difficulties producing tensed compared to nontensed verb forms. Their spontaneous speech also contained significantly fewer grammatical sentences and correctly inflected verbs, and they produced a greater proportion of nouns compared to verbs, than healthy speakers. In contrast, PPA-L and StrAn individuals did not display these deficits, and performed significantly better than the agrammatic groups on these measures. The findings suggest that agrammatism, whether induced by degenerative disease or stroke, is associated with characteristic deficits in syntactic and morphosyntactic processing. We therefore recommend that linguistically sophisticated tests and narrative analysis procedures be used to systematically evaluate the linguistic ability of individuals with PPA, contributing to our understanding of the language impairments of different PPA variants. PMID:22713394

Thompson, Cynthia K.; Meltzer-Asscher, Aya; Cho, Soojin; Lee, Jiyeon; Wieneke, Christina; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M.-Marsel

2013-01-01

472

Rehabilitation in bilingual aphasia: Evidence for within and between-language generalization  

PubMed Central

Purpose The goal of this project was to examine if there was a principled way to understand the nature of rehabilitation in bilingual aphasia such that patterns of acquisition and generalization are predictable and logical. Methods Seventeen Spanish-English bilinguals with aphasia participated in the therapy experiment. For each participant, three sets of stimuli were developed for each language: (a) English Set 1, (b) English Set 2 (semantically related to each item in English Set 1), (c) English Set 3 (unrelated control items), (d) Spanish Set 1 (translations of English Set 1), (e) Spanish Set 2 (translations of English Set 2; semantically related to each item in Spanish Set 1), and (f) Spanish Set 3 (translations of English Set 3; unrelated control items). A single subject experimental multiple baseline design across participants was implemented. Treatment was conducted in one language whereas generalization to within and between-language untrained items was examined. Results Treatment for naming on Set 1 items resulted in significant improvement (ES > 4.0) on the trained items in 14/17 participants. Of the 14 participants who showed improvement, within-language generalization to semantically related items was observed in 10 participants. Between-language generalization to the translations of trained items was observed for 5 participants; whereas between-language generalization to the translations of the untrained semantically related items was observed for 6 participants. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate within and between-language patterns that are variable across participants, these differences are indicative of the interplay between facilitation (generalization) and inhibition. PMID:23695906

Kiran, Swathi; Sandberg, Chaleece; Gray, Teresa; Ascenso, Elsa; Kester, Ellen

2013-01-01

473

Lexical diversity for adults with and without aphasia across discourse elicitation tasks  

PubMed Central

Background Differences in lexical diversity (LD) across different discourse elicitation tasks have been found in neurologically intact adults (NIA) (Fergadiotis, Wright, & Capilouto, 2010) but have not been investigated systematically in people with aphasia (PWA). Measuring lexical diversity in PWA may serve as a useful clinical tool for evaluating the impact of word retrieval difficulties at the discourse level. Aims The study aims were (a) to explore the differences between the oral language samples of PWA and NIA in terms of LD as measured by dedicated computer software (voc-D), (b) to determine whether PWA are sensitive to discourse elicitation task in terms of LD, and (c) to identify whether differences between PWA and NIA vary in magnitude as a function of discourse task. Method & Procedures Oral language samples from 25 PWA and 27 NIA were analysed. Participants completed three commonly used discourse elicitation tasks (single pictures, sequential pictures, story telling) and voc-D was used to obtain estimates of their LD. Outcomes & Results A mixed 2 × 3 ANOVA revealed a significant group task interaction that was followed by an investigation of simple main effects and tetrad×comparisons. Different patterns of LD were uncovered for each group. For the NIA group results were consistent with previous findings in the literature according to which LD varies as a function of elicitation technique. However, for PWA sequential pictures and story telling elicited comparable estimates of LD. Conclusions Results indicated that LD is one of the microlinguistic indices that are influenced by elicitation task and the presence of aphasia. These findings have important implications for modelling lexical diversity and selecting and interpreting results from different discourse elicitation tasks. PMID:23125474

Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather Harris

2012-01-01

474

Vaporization Would Cool Primary Battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Temperature of discharging high-power-density primary battery maintained below specified level by evaporation of suitable liquid from jacket surrounding battery, according to proposal. Pressure-relief valve regulates pressure and boiling temperature of liquid. Less material needed in cooling by vaporization than in cooling by melting. Technique used to cool batteries in situations in which engineering constraints on volume, mass, and location prevent attachment of cooling fins, heat pipes, or like.

Bhandari, Pradeep; Miyake, Robert N.

1991-01-01

475

Battery performance models in ADVISOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes battery modeling capabilities in ADVISOR—the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s advanced vehicle simulator written in the Matlab\\/Simulink environment. ADVISOR’s Matlab-oriented battery models consist of the following: (1) an internal resistance model, (2) a resistance–capacitance (RC) model, (3) a PNGV capacitance model, (4) a neural network (nnet) lead acid model, and (5) a fundamental lead acid battery model. For

V. H. Johnson

2002-01-01

476

Temperature control in thermal batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods of temperature control in thermal batteries are described. Different insulating materials are reviewed and the use of metal wraps round the cell stack to act as heat sinks is described. Salt mixtures which undergo phase changes at the operating temperatures of thermal batteries can be used as heat stores. Pyrotechnics with different burning speeds can be chosen to control the rate of heating of thermal batteries.

Sheptunov, V. N.; Kondratenkov, V. I.; Korobov, V. A.; Nakhshin, M. Yu.

1991-03-01

477

The smart Battery management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of the battery pack will directly affect the rapid development of the electric vehicle. In this paper, it presents that in the various states, the Li-lon Battery are controlled and protected by bq78pl114-the latest Battery Management Controller made in TI CO., LTD, and introduces its features. Many controllers are operated on real time by Single Chip Micyoco, it

Xiao-feng Wan; Jian-ping Wu; Hai-lin Hu

2009-01-01

478

Apollo experience report: Battery subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experience with the Apollo command service module and lunar module batteries is discussed. Significant hardware development concepts and hardware test results are summarized, and the operational performance of batteries on the Apollo 7 to 13 missions is discussed in terms of performance data, mission constraints, and basic hardware design and capability. Also, the flight performance of the Apollo battery charger is discussed. Inflight data are presented.

Trout, J. B.

1972-01-01

479

The Role of Semantic Complexity in Treatment of Naming Deficits: Training Semantic Categories in Fluent Aphasia by Controlling Exemplar Typicality  

PubMed Central

The effect of typicality of category exemplars on naming was investigated using a single subject experimental design across participants and behaviors in 4 patients with fluent aphasia. Participants received a semantic feature treatment to improve naming of either typical or atypical items within semantic categories, while generalization was tested to untrained items of the category. The order of typicality and category trained was counterbalanced across participants. Results indicated that patients trained on naming of atypical exemplars demonstrated generalization to naming of intermediate and typical items. However, patients trained on typical items demonstrated no generalized naming effect to intermediate or atypical examples. Furthermore, analysis of errors indicated an evolution of errors throughout training, from those with no apparent relationship to the target to primarily semantic and phonemic paraphasias. Performance on standardized language tests also showed changes as a function of treatment. Theoretical and clinical implications regarding the impact of considering semantic complexity on rehabilitation of naming deficits in aphasia are discussed. PMID:12959459

Kiran, Swathi; Thompson, Cynthia K.

2007-01-01

480

Nickel-based rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nickel–iron (Ni–Fe), nickel–cadmium (Ni–Cd), nickel–hydrogen (Ni–H2), nickel–metal hydride (Ni–MH) and nickel–zinc (Ni–Zn) batteries employ nickel oxide electrodes as the positive plates, and are hence, categorised as nickel-based batteries. This article highlights the operating principles and advances made in these battery systems during the recent years. In particular, significant improvements have been made in the Ni–MH batteries which are slowly capturing

A. K. Shukla; S. Venugopalan; B. Hariprakash

2001-01-01

481

ZEBRA battery meets USABC goals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1990, the California Air Resources Board has established a mandate to introduce electric vehicles in order to improve air quality in Los Angeles and other capitals. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium has been formed by the big car companies, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Department of Energy in order to establish the requirements on EV-batteries and to support battery development. The ZEBRA battery system is a candidate to power future electric vehicles. Not only because its energy density is three-fold that of lead acid batteries (50% more than NiMH) but also because of all the other EV requirements such as power density, no maintenance, summer and winter operation, safety, failure tolerance and low cost potential are fulfilled. The electrode material is plain salt and nickel in combination with a ceramic electrolyte. The cell voltage is 2.58 V and the capacity of a standard cell is 32 Ah. Some hundred cells are connected in series and parallel to form a battery with about 300 V OCV. The battery system including battery controller, main circuit-breaker and cooling system is engineered for vehicle integration and ready to be mounted in a vehicle [J. Gaub, A. van Zyl, Mercedes-Benz Electric Vehicles with ZEBRA Batteries, EVS-14, Orlando, FL, Dec. 1997]. The background of these features are described.

Dustmann, Cord-H.

482

Summary of LDEF battery analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests and analyses of NiCd, LiSO2, and LiCf batteries flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) includes results from NASA, Aerospace, and commercial labs. The LiSO2 cells illustrate six-year degradation of internal components acceptable for space applications, with up to 85 percent battery capacity remaining on discharge of some returned cells. LiCf batteries completed their mission, but lost any remaining capacity due to internal degradation. Returned NiCd batteries tested an GSFC showed slight case distortion due to pressure build up, but were functioning as designed.

Johnson, Chris; Thaller, Larry; Bittner, Harlin; Deligiannis, Frank; Tiller, Smith; Sullivan, David; Bene, James

1992-01-01

483

46 CFR 129.356 - Battery installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Battery installations. 129.356 Section 129...Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.356 Battery installations. (a) Large. Each large battery-installation must be located in a...

2014-10-01

484

46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183...Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements...

2014-10-01

485

46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129...Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements...

2014-10-01

486

Molten salt electrolytes in high temperature batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of molten salt electrolytes in high temperature batteries, both single use thermal batteries and high temperature rechargeable batteries is described. The properties of the existing electrolytes are discussed and current research on new electrolytes is described.

A. G. Ritchie

1990-01-01

487

Advanced battery modeling using neural networks  

E-print Network

battery models are available today that can accurately predict the performance of the battery system. This thesis presents a modeling technique for batteries employing neural networks. The advantage of using neural networks is that the effect of any...

Arikara, Muralidharan Pushpakam

1993-01-01

488

An ampere-hour meter for batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Up-down counter records charge as well as discharge in tests of rechargeable batteries. System uses reversible counter preset to represent 100% charge. As battery discharges, total count decreases; as battery is recharged, counter moves back to 100% indication.

Eklund, B. D.

1973-01-01

489

Hubble space telescope onboard battery performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of six 88 Ah Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries that are used onboard in the Hubble Space Telescope (Flight Spare Module (FSM) and Flight Module 2 (FM2)) is discussed. These batteries have 22 series cells per battery and a common bus that would enable them to operate at a common voltage. It is launched on April 24, 1990. This paper reviews: the cell design, battery specification, system constraints, operating parameters, onboard battery management, and battery performance.

Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Wajsgras, Harry; Vaidyanathan, Hari; Armontrout, Jon D.

1996-01-01

490

Development of nickel hydrogen battery expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed employs the nickel-cadmium battery expert system (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performances of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 also provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate nickel-hydrogen battery environment in testbed is described.

Shiva, Sajjan G.

1990-01-01

491

iPractice: piloting the effectiveness of a tablet-based home practice program in aphasia treatment.  

PubMed

The current study investigated the effectiveness of a home practice program based on the iPad (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA), implemented after 2 weeks of intensive language therapy, for maintaining and augmenting treatment gains in people with chronic poststroke aphasia. Five of eight original participants completed the 6-month home practice program in which they autonomously practiced retrieving words for objects and actions. Half of these words had been trained and half were untrained during therapy. Practice included tasks such as naming to confrontation, repeating from a video model, and picture/word matching presented on an iPad. All participants maintained advances made on words trained during the intensive treatment and additionally were able to learn new words by practicing daily over a 6-month period. The iPad and other tablet devices have great potential for personalized home practice to maintain and augment traditional aphasia rehabilitation. It appears that motivation to use the technology and adequate training are more important factors than age, aphasia type or severity, or prior experience with computers. PMID:24449465

Kurland, Jacquie; Wilkins, Abigail R; Stokes, Polly

2014-02-01

492

iPractice: Piloting the effectiveness of a tablet-based home practice program in aphasia treatment  

PubMed Central

Purpose The current study investigated the effectiveness of an iPad-based home practice program, implemented after two weeks of intensive language therapy, for maintaining and augmenting treatment gains in people with chronic post-stroke aphasia. Method Five of eight original participants completed the six-month home practice program in which they autonomously practiced retrieving words for objects and actions. Half of these words had been trained and half were untrained during therapy. Practice included tasks such as naming to confrontation, repeating from a video model, and picture/word matching presented on an iPad. Results All participants maintained advances made on words trained during the intensive treatment and additionally were able to learn new words by practicing daily over a six-month period. Conclusions The iPad and other tablet devices have great potential for personalized home practice to maintain and augment traditional aphasia rehabilitation. It appears that motivation to use the technology and adequate training are more important factors than age, aphasia type or severity, or prior experience with computers. PMID:24449465

Kurland, Jacquie; Wilkins, Abigail R; Stokes, Polly

2014-01-01

493

A Systematic Review on methods of evaluate sentence production deficits in agrammatic aphasia patients: Validity and Reliability issues  

PubMed Central

Background: The grammar assessment in aphasia has been done by few standard tests, but today these tests cannot precise evaluate the sentence production in agrammatic patients. In this study, we review structures and contents of tests or tasks designed to find more frequent methods for sentence production ability in aphasia patients. Materials and Methods: We searched the Cochrane library, Medline by PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar from 1980 to October 1, 2013 and evaluated all of exist tests or tasks included in the articles and systematic reviews. The sentence production has been studied in three methods. It contains the use of sentence production in spontaneous speech, tasks designed and both methods. The quality of studies was assessed using Critical Appraisal Skills Program. Results: The 160 articles were reviewed and 38 articles were studied according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. They were classified into three categories based on assessment methods of sentence production. In 39.5% studies, researchers have used tasks designed, 7.9% articles have applied spontaneous speech and 52.6% articles have used both methods for evaluation production. Inter-rater reliability was between 90% and 100% and intra-rater reliability was between 96% and 98% in studied. Conclusion: Agrammatic aphasia has syntax disorders, especially in sentence production. Most researchers and clinicians used both methods for evaluation production.

Mehri, Azar; Jalaie, Shohreh

2014-01-01

494

Study on Battery Management System and Lithium-ion Battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper mainly discusses a distributed battery management system (BMS) that used for hybrid electrical vehicle (HEV) and the research on Lithium-ion battery based on the model of PNGV. The BMS presented is composed with the distributed and integrated module, the distributed modules(DM) takes charge of measuring the parameters of voltage and temperature accurately and in time, communicate with the

Li Siguang; Zhang Chengning

2009-01-01

495

Rechargeable electronic textile battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simple fabrication process that produces polymeric charge storage devices directly onto a textile surface. By using a coating of poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulphonic acid) (PEDOT) as a solid electrolytic layer deposited between two woven silver coated polyamide yarns, we have created a simple polymeric textile battery. By studying the device's surface morphology and chemical composition, we determined that in the presence of an electric field, silver ions from the anode yarn migrate to the cathode yarn through the PEDOT. Despite this migration, the device could be charged and discharged five times without suffering degradation in electrical performance.

Bhattacharya, R.; de Kok, M. M.; Zhou, J.

2009-11-01

496

Lightweight metal-gas battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new structure for a pressurized metal-gas battery is presented, with emphasis upon reducing weight and volume. Thus, the battery is particularly suitable for spacecraft applications. Positive and negative terminals are moved away from the center axis of the terminating ellipsoidal domes of a cylindrically shaped pressure vessel, thus permitting smaller size and saving weight while providing torsional support to

T. O. Meyer; T. E. Hickman

1983-01-01

497

Redox Flow Batteries, a Review  

SciTech Connect

Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

U. Tennessee Knoxville; U. Texas Austin; McGill U; Weber, Adam Z.; Mench, Matthew M.; Meyers, Jeremy P.; Ross, Philip N.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qinghua

2011-07-15

498

Battery hydrometer with analog output  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is disclosed a battery hydrometer for providing an analog electrical signal having a magnitude related to the specific gravity of a battery electrolyte. The hydrometer includes a source of radiation for providing a detectable beam of radiation and a piston member arranged to be submerged within the electrolyte and to intercept and modulate the beam of radiation in response

Patis

1982-01-01

499

EXAFS studies of battery materials  

SciTech Connect

X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used at extensively at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to study materials and electrodes of several battery systems. The power and the general applicability of the technique is illustrated by studies of several battery materials such as PEO-salt complexes, PbO{sub 2}, and in situ studies of mossy zinc deposition in alkaline electrolyte.

McBreen, J.

1991-01-01

500

EXAFS studies of battery materials  

SciTech Connect

X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used at extensively at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to study materials and electrodes of several battery systems. The power and the general applicability of the technique is illustrated by studies of several battery materials such as PEO-salt complexes, PbO{sub 2}, and in situ studies of mossy zinc deposition in alkaline electrolyte.

McBreen, J.

1991-12-31