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1

The rate and extent of improvement with therapy from the different types of aphasia in the first year after stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the rate and extent of improvement from the different types of aphasia in the first year after stroke.Design: A prospective longitudinal study.Setting: A specialist stroke unit.Participants: Seventy-five aphasic patients with first-ever stroke.Intervention: The type of aphasia was classified according to the criteria of the Western Aphasia Battery. The Western Aphasia Battery aphasia quotient was used to measure

A. M. O. Bakheit; S. Shaw; S. Carrington; S. Griffiths

2007-01-01

2

Aphasia  

MedlinePLUS

... voice or sees the print but cannot make sense of the words. (3) Patients with anomic or amnesia aphasia, the least severe form of aphasia, have difficulty in using the correct names for particular objects, people, places, or events. (4) Global aphasia results from severe ...

3

Aphasia  

MedlinePLUS

... People with Broca's aphasia have damage to the frontal lobe of the brain. They frequently speak in short ... paralysis of the arm and leg because the frontal lobe is also important for motor movements. Another type ...

4

Verb and noun deficits in stroke-induced and primary progressive aphasia: The Northwestern Naming Battery1  

PubMed Central

Background Word class naming deficits are commonly seen in aphasia resulting from stroke (StrAph) and primary progressive aphasia (PPA), with differential production of nouns (objects) and verbs (actions) found based on StrAph type or PPA variant for some individuals. Studies to date, however, have not compared word class naming (or comprehension) ability in the two aphasic disorders. In addition, there are no available measures for testing word class deficits, which control for important psycholinguistic variables across language domains. This study examined noun and verb production and comprehension in individuals with StrAph and PPA using a new test, the Northwestern Naming Battery (NNB; Thompson & Weintraub, experimental version), developed explicitly for this purpose. In addition, we tested verb type effects, based on verb argument structure characteristics, which also is addressed by the NNB. Method Fifty-two participants with StrAph (33 agrammatic, Broca’s (StrAg); 19 anomic (StrAn)) and 28 PPA (10 agrammatic (PPA-G); 14 logopenic (PPA-L); 4 semantic (PPA-S)) were included in the study. Nouns and verbs were tested in the Confrontation Naming and Auditory Comprehension subtests of the NNB, with scores used to compute noun to verb ratios as well as performance by verb type. Performance patterns within and across StrAph and PPA groups were then examined. The external validity of the NNB also was tested by comparing (a) NNB Noun Naming scores to the Boston Naming Test (BNT; Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 1983) and Western Aphasia Battery (WAB-R, Kertesz, 2007) Noun Naming subtest scores, (b) NNB Verb Naming scores to the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE; Goodglass, Kaplan & Barresi, 2001) Action Naming score (for StrAph participants only), and (c) NNB Comprehension subtest scores to WAB-R Auditory Comprehension subtest scores. Outcomes and Results Both agrammatic (StrAg and PPA-G) groups showed significantly greater difficulty producing verbs compared to nouns, but no comprehension impairment for either word class. Whereas, three of the four PPA-S participants showed poorer noun compared to verb production, as well as comprehension. However, neither the StrAn or PPA-L participants showed significant differences between the two word classes in production or comprehension. In addition, similar to the agrammatic participants, the StrAn participants showed a significant transitivity effect, producing intransitive (one-argument) verbs with greater accuracy than transitive (two- and three-argument) verbs. However, no transitivity effects were found for the PPA-L or PPA-S participants. There were significant correlations between NNB scores and all external validation measures. Conclusions These data indicate that the NNB is sensitive to word class deficits in stroke and neurodegenerative aphasia. This is important both clinically for treatment planning and theoretically to inform both psycholinguistic and neural models of language processing.

Thompson, Cynthia K.; Lukic, Sladjana; King, Monique C.; Mesulam, M. Marsel; Weintraub, Sandra

2012-01-01

5

Temporoparietal cortex in aphasia. Evidence from positron emission tomography  

SciTech Connect

Forty-four aphasic patients were examined with (F18)-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in a resting state to determine whether consistent glucose metabolic abnormalities were present. Ninety-seven percent of subjects showed metabolic abnormalities in the angular gyrus, 89% in the supramarginal gyrus, and 87% in the lateral and transverse superior temporal gyrus. Pearson product moment correlations were calculated between regional metabolic measures and performance on the Western Aphasia Battery. No significant correlations were found between the Western Aphasia Battery scores and right hemisphere metabolic measures. Most left hemisphere regions correlated with more than one score from the Western Aphasia Battery. Temporal but not frontal regions had significant correlations to the comprehension score. The left temporoparietal region was consistently affected in these subjects, suggesting that common features in the aphasias were caused by left temporoparietal dysfunction, while behavioral differences resulted from (1) the extent of temporoparietal changes, and (2) dysfunction elsewhere in the brain, particularly the left frontal and subcortical areas.

Metter, E.J.; Hanson, W.R.; Jackson, C.A.; Kempler, D.; van Lancker, D.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Phelps, M.E. (National Institute of Aging, Baltimore, MD (USA))

1990-11-01

6

Ideomotor apraxia in agrammatic and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia.  

PubMed

There are few studies examining praxis in subjects with primary progressive aphasia. The aim of this study was to examine the pattern and severity of ideomotor apraxia in subjects with logopenic and agrammatic variants of primary progressive aphasia and to determine if the presence of ideomotor apraxia correlated with specific neuroanatomical structural abnormalities. Subjects with primary progressive aphasia were prospectively recruited and classified according to published criteria. Using the apraxia subtest of the Western Aphasia Battery, pattern and severity of ideomotor apraxia was examined in all subjects diagnosed with agrammatic and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia. The study included 47 subjects, 21 diagnosed with agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia and 26 with logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia. Subjects with agrammatic aphasia were older at onset than the logopenic variant (67.2 vs. 61.7 years, p = 0.02), but there was no difference in illness duration prior to evaluation. Those with logopenic aphasia showed more cognitive impairment on the Mini-Mental Status Examination (agrammatic = 26.7/30, logopenic = 22/30, p = 0.002), and a trend for more severe language impairment as measured by the Western Aphasia Battery-Aphasia Quotient (agrammatic = 82.3, logopenic = 75.2, p = 0.11). Strong correlations were found between Western Aphasia Battery-Aphasia Quotient and total apraxia, instrumental apraxia, and complex apraxia, while average to modest correlations were seen with upper limb apraxia and facial apraxia. After adjusting for age, mental status performance, and Western Aphasia Battery-Aphasia Quotient score, those with agrammatic aphasia had a higher degree of total apraxia (p = 0.004), facial apraxia (p = 0.03), instrumental apraxia (p = 0.0006), and complex apraxia (p = 0.0006) than those with logopenic aphasia. The agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia was associated with greater praxis deficits but less cognitive impairment than the logopenic variant. The presence of ideomotor apraxia was associated with grey matter loss in the left lateral premotor cortex with extension into the motor cortex. These findings suggest that although some affected areas in the agrammatic and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia overlap, there exists an area that is more affected in the agrammatic variant than the logopenic variant that accounts for the greater association of agrammatic aphasia with ideomotor apraxia. PMID:23358624

Adeli, Anahita; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Duffy, Joseph R; Strand, Edyth A; Josephs, Keith A

2013-01-29

7

Retrospective analysis of outcomes from two intensive comprehensive aphasia programs.  

PubMed

Positive outcomes from intensive therapy for individuals with aphasia have been reported in the literature. Little is known about the characteristics of individuals who attend intensive comprehensive aphasia programs (ICAPs) and what factors may predict who makes clinically significant changes when attending such programs. Demographic data on participants from 6 ICAPs showed that individuals who attend these programs spanned the entire age range (from adolescence to late adulthood), but they generally tended to be middle-aged and predominantly male. Analysis of outcome data from 2 of these ICAPs found that age and gender were not significant predictors of improved outcome on measures of language ability or functional communication. However, time post onset was related to clinical improvement in functional communication as measured by the Communication Activities of Daily Living, second edition (CADL-2). In addition, for one sample, initial severity of aphasia was related to outcome on the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised, such that individuals with more severe aphasia tended to show greater recovery compared to those with mild aphasia. Initial severity of aphasia also was highly correlated with changes in CADL-2 scores. These results suggest that adults of all ages with aphasia in either the acute or chronic phase of recovery can continue to show positive improvements in language ability and functional communication with intensive treatment. PMID:24091281

Persad, Carol; Wozniak, Linda; Kostopoulos, Ellina

8

Temporoparietal cortex and the recovery of language comprehension in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovering aphasic patients were studied to determine if changes in comprehension were linked to improvement in temporoparietal regional glucose metabolism. Eight aphasic patients were evaluated at two points in time, using (F-18)-fluorodeoxyglucose with positron emission tomography to determine resting cerebral glucose metabolism, and by the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) to determine language function. Significant correlations were found between changes over

E. Jeffrey Metter; Catherine A. Jackson; Daniel Kempler; Wayne R. Hanson

1992-01-01

9

Distinct regional anatomic and functional correlates of neurodegenerative apraxia of speech and aphasia: an MRI and FDG-PET study.  

PubMed

Progressive apraxia of speech (AOS) can result from neurodegenerative disease and can occur in isolation or in the presence of agrammatic aphasia. We aimed to determine the neuroanatomical and metabolic correlates of progressive AOS and aphasia. Thirty-six prospectively recruited subjects with progressive AOS or agrammatic aphasia, or both, underwent the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and Token Test to assess aphasia, an AOS rating scale (ASRS), 3T MRI and 18-F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET. Correlations between clinical measures and imaging were assessed. The only region that correlated to ASRS was left superior premotor volume. In contrast, WAB and Token Test correlated with hypometabolism and volume of a network of left hemisphere regions, including pars triangularis, pars opercularis, pars orbitalis, middle frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, precentral gyrus and inferior parietal lobe. Progressive agrammatic aphasia and AOS have non-overlapping regional correlations, suggesting that these are dissociable clinical features that have different neuroanatomical underpinnings. PMID:23542727

Whitwell, Jennifer L; Duffy, Joseph R; Strand, Edythe A; Xia, Rong; Mandrekar, Jay; Machulda, Mary M; Senjem, Matthew L; Lowe, Val J; Jack, Clifford R; Josephs, Keith A

2013-03-28

10

Cortical neuroanatomic correlates of symptom severity in primary progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

Objective: To test the validity and reliability of a new measure of clinical impairment in primary progressive aphasia (PPA), the Progressive Aphasia Severity Scale (PASS), and to investigate relationships with MRI-based cortical thickness biomarkers for localizing and quantifying the severity of anatomic abnormalities. Methods: Patients with PPA were rated using the PASS and underwent performance-based language testing and MRI scans that were processed for cortical thickness measures. Results: The level of impairment in PASS fluency, syntax/grammar, and word comprehension showed strong specific correlations with performance-based measures of these domains of language, and demonstrated high interrater reliability. Left inferior frontal thinning correlated with impairment in fluency and grammar/syntax, while left temporopolar thinning correlated with impairment in word comprehension. Discriminant function analysis demonstrated that a combination of left inferior frontal, left temporopolar, and left superior temporal sulcal thickness separated the 3 PPA subtypes from each other with 100% accuracy (87% accuracy in a leave-one-out analysis). Conclusions: The PASS, a novel measure of the severity of clinical impairment within domains of language typically affected in PPA, demonstrates reliable and valid clinical-behavioral properties. Furthermore, the presence of impairment in individual PASS domains demonstrates specific relationships with focal abnormalities in particular brain regions and the severity of impairment is strongly related to the severity of anatomic abnormality within the relevant brain region. These anatomic imaging biomarkers perform well in classifying PPA subtypes. These data provide robust support for the value of this novel clinical measure and the new imaging measure as markers for potential use in clinical research and trials in PPA. GLOSSARY AD = Alzheimer disease; BDAE = Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination; CDR = Clinical Dementia Rating; CSB = Cambridge Semantic Battery; ICC = intraclass correlation coefficient; NACC UDS = National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set; OC = older control participants; PASS = Progressive Aphasia Severity Scale; PPA = primary progressive aphasia; PPA-G = agrammatic primary progressive aphasia; PPA-L = logopenic primary progressive aphasia; PPA-S = semantic primary progressive aphasia; ROI = region of interest; WAB = Western Aphasia Battery.

Sapolsky, D.; Bakkour, A.; Negreira, A.; Nalipinski, P.; Weintraub, S.; Mesulam, M.-M.; Caplan, D.; Dickerson, B.C.

2010-01-01

11

[Slowly progressive fluent aphasia--clinical features and an imaging study including MRI, SPECT and PET].  

PubMed

Three cases of slowly progressive fluent aphasia were presented. In all it began with word amnesia or stuttering, and in one to five years impairment of auditory comprehension, and reading and writing difficulties with kanji (Japanese morphograms) appeared. The neuropsychological and radiological findings were as follows: Case 1: a right-handed 65-year-old man showed severe fluent aphasia (the Western Aphasia Battery profile was rated as corresponding to Wernicke's aphasia but his score on the Token test was too high for Wernicke's aphasia) and memory disturbance. Cortical atrophy was prominent in the left temporal and parietal lobes. Hypoperfusion was evident in the bilateral anterior temporal region, suggesting the diagnosis of Pick's disease. Case 2: a right-handed 42-year-old man presented amnesic aphasia with buccofacial and ideomotor apraxia. The left frontal, temporal and parietal lobes were all atrophic. Hypoperfusion was marked in the left perisylvian and temporo-parietal regions, being similar to the pattern of Mesulam's slowly progressive aphasia. Case 3: a right-handed 55-year-old man with amnesic aphasia. Left-side dominant cortical atrophy involved the frontal, temporal and parietal lobes. The metabolic rate was lower in the left anterior temporal lobe, compatible with the finding in Pick's disease. The common clinical features of these patients were selective deficits in vocabulary, resulting in impairment of confrontation naming, and auditory comprehension. They sometimes could not recognize things even when they were told their names; case 1 could not even point to objects on command, while their syntactic comprehension was well preserved.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1934763

Sakurai, Y; Momose, T; Watanabe, T; Bando, M; Ishikawa, T; Iwata, M

1991-05-01

12

Treatability of different components of aphasia - insights from a case study.  

PubMed

In this phase I clinical rehabilitation study, we investigated the effects of phonological rehabilitation for alexia and aphasia in an individual 54 years after a left-hemisphere ischemic infarction. In the context of a single-subject design, we studied whether treatment would improve phonological processing, reading, and generalization to untreated behaviors. While results showed a lack of generalization to real-word reading aloud, improvement was present in phonological processing, language function (Western Aphasia Battery Aphasia Quotient, Boston Naming Test, Reading Comprehension Battery for Aphasia), and auditory processing (Revised Token Test). Improvement in the lexical-semantic system was attributed to informal forced-use language treatment. We concluded that phonological therapies are unlikely to be successful unless a minimum initial level of phonological sequence knowledge exists; therapies that pressure subjects to use verbal communication can achieve clinically important gains in communicative ability that generalize to untreated behaviors. This study also demonstrates the importance of a careful analysis of the patient's language ability before a therapeutic strategy is chosen. PMID:17041818

Kendall, Diane L; Nadeau, Stephen E; Conway, Tim; Fuller, Renee H; Riestra, Alonso; Gonzalez Rothi, Leslie J

13

Damage to the anterior arcuate fasciculus predicts non-fluent speech production in aphasia.  

PubMed

Non-fluent aphasia implies a relatively straightforward neurological condition characterized by limited speech output. However, it is an umbrella term for different underlying impairments affecting speech production. Several studies have sought the critical lesion location that gives rise to non-fluent aphasia. The results have been mixed but typically implicate anterior cortical regions such as Broca's area, the left anterior insula, and deep white matter regions. To provide a clearer picture of cortical damage in non-fluent aphasia, the current study examined brain damage that negatively influences speech fluency in patients with aphasia. It controlled for some basic speech and language comprehension factors in order to better isolate the contribution of different mechanisms to fluency, or its lack. Cortical damage was related to overall speech fluency, as estimated by clinical judgements using the Western Aphasia Battery speech fluency scale, diadochokinetic rate, rudimentary auditory language comprehension, and executive functioning (scores on a matrix reasoning test) in 64 patients with chronic left hemisphere stroke. A region of interest analysis that included brain regions typically implicated in speech and language processing revealed that non-fluency in aphasia is primarily predicted by damage to the anterior segment of the left arcuate fasciculus. An improved prediction model also included the left uncinate fasciculus, a white matter tract connecting the middle and anterior temporal lobe with frontal lobe regions, including the pars triangularis. Models that controlled for diadochokinetic rate, picture-word recognition, or executive functioning also revealed a strong relationship between anterior segment involvement and speech fluency. Whole brain analyses corroborated the findings from the region of interest analyses. An additional exploratory analysis revealed that involvement of the uncinate fasciculus adjudicated between Broca's and global aphasia, the two most common kinds of non-fluent aphasia. In summary, the current results suggest that the anterior segment of the left arcuate fasciculus, a white matter tract that lies deep to posterior portions of Broca's area and the sensory-motor cortex, is a robust predictor of impaired speech fluency in aphasic patients, even when motor speech, lexical processing, and executive functioning are included as co-factors. Simply put, damage to those regions results in non-fluent aphasic speech; when they are undamaged, fluent aphasias result. PMID:24131592

Fridriksson, Julius; Guo, Dazhou; Fillmore, Paul; Holland, Audrey; Rorden, Chris

2013-10-15

14

Non-verbal sound processing in the primary progressive aphasias  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the processing of non-verbal sounds in the primary progressive aphasias. Here, we investigated the processing of complex non-verbal sounds in detail, in a consecutive series of 20 patients with primary progressive aphasia [12 with progressive non-fluent aphasia; eight with semantic dementia]. We designed a novel experimental neuropsychological battery to probe complex sound processing at early perceptual, apperceptive and semantic levels, using within-modality response procedures that minimized other cognitive demands and matching tests in the visual modality. Patients with primary progressive aphasia had deficits of non-verbal sound analysis compared with healthy age-matched individuals. Deficits of auditory early perceptual analysis were more common in progressive non-fluent aphasia, deficits of apperceptive processing occurred in both progressive non-fluent aphasia and semantic dementia, and deficits of semantic processing also occurred in both syndromes, but were relatively modality specific in progressive non-fluent aphasia and part of a more severe generic semantic deficit in semantic dementia. Patients with progressive non-fluent aphasia were more likely to show severe auditory than visual deficits as compared to patients with semantic dementia. These findings argue for the existence of core disorders of complex non-verbal sound perception and recognition in primary progressive aphasia and specific disorders at perceptual and semantic levels of cortical auditory processing in progressive non-fluent aphasia and semantic dementia, respectively.

Goll, Johanna C.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Loo, Jenny H. Y.; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Frost, Chris; Bamiou, Doris-Eva

2010-01-01

15

Pharmacotherapy of Aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ANY efforts have been undertaken at helping patients with aphasia recover from their deficits by using various rehabilitation techniques. A number of studies have also been carried out to investigate the role of pharmacological agents in the treatment of aphasia. Aphasia can result from a variety of injuries to the brain, including trauma and stroke. However, most of the re-

David Q. Beversdorf

2007-01-01

16

Test-retest reliability of three aphasia tests: Performance of non-brain-damaged older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to assess the test-retest reliability of three aphasia tests. The Auditory Comprehension Test for Sentences (ACTS), the Boston Naming Test (BNT), and the Reading Comprehension Battery for Aphasia (RCBA) were administered on two separate occasions to 31 non-brain-damaged adults aged 50 to 76 years. The results showed acceptable score stability for all three aphasia tests. Sixty-eight

Jennifer L. Flanagan; Susan T. Jackson

1997-01-01

17

National Aphasia Association  

MedlinePLUS

... L Alexander 07/27/2013 Texas Tech Health Sciences Center’s STAR Program Offers Musical Therapy For Victims Of Aphasia [AUDIO] Ariel Walden 07/25/2013 Oklahoma State University-Tulsa's aphasia camp is hearing kind words Shannon Muchmore 07/17/2013 1 ...

18

Communicating with someone with aphasia  

MedlinePLUS

... family or caregivers to improve their ability to communicate. The most common cause of aphasia is a ... person with aphasia to use other ways to communicate. Some are: Pointing Hand gestures Drawings It may ...

19

Aphasia Classification Using Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A web-based software model (http:\\/\\/fuzzy.iau.dtu.dk\\/aphasia.nsf) was developed as an example for classification of aphasia using neural networks. Two multilayer perceptrons were used to classify the type of aphasia (Broca, Wernicke, anomic, global) according to the results in some subtests of the Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT). First a coarse classification was achieved by using an assessment of spontaneous speech of the

Hubertus Axer; Jan Jantzen; Georg Berks; RWTH Aachen

2000-01-01

20

Working Memory and Aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between working memory capacity and reading comprehension in aphasia. A measurement of working memory capacity was obtained using a modified version of Daneman and Carpenter's (1980) Reading Span Task. Sets of sentences ranging in length from one to six words were presented to 22 aphasic subjects who were required to retain the terminal words following

Isabelle Caspari; Stanley R. Parkinson; Leonard L. LaPointe; Richard C. Katz

1998-01-01

21

Neuroplasticity: Evidence from Aphasia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents data showing that two of the four forms of neuroplasticity, homologous area adaptation and map extension, are relevant to recovery from aphasia. It discusses factors related to neuroplastic activity during language recovery, including neurophysiological, subject, and environmental treatment variables. (Contains references.)…

Thompson, Cynthia K.

2000-01-01

22

Recursion in aphasia.  

PubMed

This study investigates how aphasic impairment impinges on syntactic and/or semantic recursivity of human language. A series of tests has been conducted with the participation of five Hungarian speaking aphasic subjects and 10 control subjects. Photographs representing simple situations were presented to subjects and questions were asked about them. The responses are supposed to involve formal structural recursion, but they contain semantic-pragmatic operations instead, with 'theory of mind' type embeddings. Aphasic individuals tend to exploit the parallel between 'theory of mind' embeddings and syntactic-structural embeddings in order to avoid formal structural recursion. Formal structural recursion may be more impaired in Broca's aphasia and semantic recursivity may remain selectively unimpaired in this type of aphasia. PMID:20964508

Bánréti, Zoltán

2010-11-01

23

First Aid for Aphasia: Home Exercises.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This pamphlet is designed for use by nonprofessionals as a guide to providing speech therapy for persons with aphasia. It includes an introduction that reviews the causes of aphasia, its immediate effects at onset, and the reactions typical to persons who develop aphasia. Uncomplicated aphasia is described first with eleven specific therapy…

Keenan, Joseph S.

24

Situational therapy for Wernicke's aphasia.  

PubMed

Patients with Wernicke's or expressive aphasia are able to produce fluent speech, however, this speech may be complete gibberish sounds and totally incomprehensible, or even when comprehensible to a degree is often laced with severe errors and abnormalities such as verbal and phonemic paraphasias and neologisms. Furthermore, patient's with Wernicke's aphasia have poor to no understanding of speech or language. There is no proven method for rehabilitation of Wernicke's aphasia, or even much guidance for physicians or speech therapists to treat Wernicke's aphasia patients. In contrast to their poor to non-existent communication skills using speech or other forms of language, it has long been appreciated informally and formally that Wernicke's aphasia patients are able to communicate well, even normally, using non-verbal means such as actions, movements, props, gestures, facials expressions, and affect. Furthermore, in non-language domains Wernicke's aphasia patients can show normal memory and learning abilities. Thus, we here suggest that the non-language communication channels of Wernicke's aphasia patients be channeled and utilized in their functional rehabilitation: Specifically, we suggest that therapy for Wernicke's aphasia patients should consist of placing patients in real or simulated important functional situations--e.g., buying food, taking transport--and let the patients train and learn to use and hone their non-language communication means and skills for improved practical functioning. PMID:16740368

Altschuler, Eric Lewin; Multari, Alicia; Hirstein, William; Ramachandran, V S

2006-06-05

25

A Behavioral Conceptualization of Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aphasia is an acquired language impairment that affects over 1 million individuals, the majority of whom are over age 65 (Groher, 1989). This disorder has typically been conceptualized within a cognitive neuroscience framework, but a behavioral interpretation of aphasia is also possible. Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior proposes a…

Baker, Jonathan C.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Raetz, Paige B.

2008-01-01

26

A Behavioral Conceptualization of Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Aphasia is an acquired language impairment that affects over 1 million individuals, the majority of whom are over age 65 (Groher, 1989). This disorder has typically been conceptualized within a cognitive neuroscience framework, but a behavioral interpretation of aphasia is also possible. Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior proposes a…

Baker, Jonathan C.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Raetz, Paige B.

2008-01-01

27

[Gogi (word-meaning) aphasia].  

PubMed

Gogi (word meaning) aphasia is an aphasic syndrome originally described by Tsuneo Imura in 1943. According to Imura, this syndrome is characterized by 4 symptoms: (1) difficulty in comprehending the meaning of a word despite perfect perception of the sound of the word; (2) presence of word amnesia and verbal paraphasia; (3) preservation of the ability to repeat spoken words; and (4) characteristic disturbances in reading and writing, in which Kana (Japanese syllabogram) can be correctly read and written, but Kanji (Japanese logogram) is read and transcribed in a peculiar way without comprehension, resulting in strange paragraphia. Gogi aphasia occupies a unique seat in the category of transcortical sensory aphasia. While the latter is grossly defined as fluent sensory aphasia with good repetition and without any specification about the linguistic level of deficit, the former is defined more specifically as fluent sensory aphasia with the deficit limited to the level of words. The characteristic Kana-Kanji dissociation aids in the diagnosis of this syndrome. Recently, it has been repeatedly confirmed that the temporal lobe type of Pick disease (known as semantic dementia in recent English literature) often presents the clinical picture of Gogi aphasia in its early course. Many Japanese physicians have contributed to the elucidation of this clinicopathological correlation. This is mainly because many neurologists and psychiatrists in Japan have long been familiar with the concept of Gogi aphasia and the nosology of Pick disease. PMID:21817172

Yamadori, Atsushi

2011-08-01

28

Validity and reliability of a new test for Turkish-speaking aphasic patients: Ege Aphasia Test.  

PubMed

Due to the fact that the phonetic, morphological and syntactic structures of the Turkish language differ significantly from other European languages, the translated forms of the currently available aphasia assessment batteries are not adequate for Turkish-speaking aphasic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Ege Aphasia Test that we have developed. The test, which includes the 8 subtests of praxia, spontaneous language, auditory and verbal comprehension, repetition, naming, reading, writing and calculating, was applied into 100 aphasic patients, 40 dysarthric patients and 40 healthy subjects. All test-retest intra-class correlation coefficients were found to be excellent (ICC = 0.99). The Cronbach's coefficients ranged from 0.71 to 0.91. All the subtests showed significantly greater scores in aphasic patients (p < 0.05). Significant correlations were found between the subtests and corrected total score (p < 0.05). Finally, the Ege Aphasia Test has an acceptable validity and reliability. It seems to be a promising battery for evaluation of aphasia in the Turkish language, which is spoken mainly in Turkey and in the surrounding regions. We believe that this study will pioneer the development of aphasia rehabilitation in these countries and contribute to future studies. PMID:23422469

Calis, Funda Atamaz; On, Arzu Yagiz; Durmaz, Berrin

2013-01-01

29

Developing a Clinician-Friendly Aphasia Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The Kentucky Aphasia Test (KAT) is an objective measure of language functioning for persons with aphasia. This article describes materials, administration, and scoring of the KAT; presents the rationale for development of test items; reports information from a pilot study; and discusses the role of the KAT in aphasia assessment. Method:…

Marshall, Robert C.; Wright, Heather Harris

2007-01-01

30

Patterns of Breakdown in Spelling in Primary Progressive Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Introduction The objective of this study is to determine which cognitive processes underlying spelling are most affected in the three variants of Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA): Logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA), Semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), and Nonfluent variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA). Methods 23 PPA patients were administered The Johns Hopkins Dysgraphia Battery to assess spelling. Subtests evaluate for effects of word frequency, concreteness, word length, grammatical word class, lexicality (words vs. pseudowords), and “regularity” by controlling for the other variables. Significant effects of each variable were identified with chi square tests. Responses on all spelling to dictation tests were scored by error type. 16 of the 23 subjects also had a high resolution MRI brain scan to identify areas of atrophy. Results We identified 4 patterns of spelling that could be explained by damage to one or more cognitive processes underlying spelling. Nine patients (3 unclassifiable, 4 with lvPPA, 2 with svPPA) had dysgraphia explicable by impaired access to lexical representations, with reliance on sublexical phonology-to-orthography conversion (POC). Two patients (with nfvPPA) showed dysgraphia explicable by impaired access to lexical representations and complete disruption of sublexical POC. Seven patients (4 with lvPPA, 1 with svPPA, 2 unclassifiable) showed dysgraphia explicable by impaired access to lexical-semantic representations and/or lexical representations with partially spared sublexical POC mechanisms. Five patients (1 with nfvPPA, 2 with svPPA, 1 with lvPPA, and 1 unclassifiable) showed dysgraphia explicable by impairment of the graphemic buffer. Conclusions Any cognitive process underlying spelling can be affected in PPA. Predominance of phonologically plausible errors, more accurate spelling of regular words than irregular words, and more accurate spelling of pseudowords than words (indicating spared POC mechanisms) may indicate a low probability of progression to nfvPPA.

Sepelyak, Kathryn; Crinion, Jennifer; Molitoris, John; Epstein-Peterson, Zachary; Bann, Maralyssa; Davis, Cameron; Newhart, Melissa; Heidler-Gary, Jennifer; Tsapkini, Kyrana; Hillis, Argye E.

2009-01-01

31

Primary progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

Objective: Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) has been proposed to comprise 3 discrete clinical subtypes: semantic, agrammatic/nonfluent, and logopenic. Recent consensus recommendations suggest a diagnostic framework based primarily on clinical and neuropsychological findings to classify these variants. Our objective was to evaluate the extent to which patients with PPA would conform to the proposed tripartite system and whether the clustering pattern of elements of the linguistic profile suggests discrete clinical syndromes. Methods: A total of 46 patients with PPA were prospectively recruited to the Cambridge Longitudinal Study of PPA. Sufficient data were collected to assess all consensus-proposed diagnostic domains. By comparing patients' performances against those of 30 age- and education-matched healthy volunteers, z scores were calculated, and values of 1.5 SDs outside control participants' means were considered abnormal. Raw test scores were used to undertake a principal factor analysis to identify the clustering pattern of individual measures. Results: Of the patients, 28.3%, 26.1%, and 4.3% fitted semantic, nonfluent/agrammatic, and logopenic categories respectively, and 41.3% did not fulfill the diagnostic recommendations for any of the 3 proposed variants. There was no significant between-group difference in age, education, or disease duration. Furthermore, the outcome of the factor analysis was in keeping with discrete semantic and nonfluent/agrammatic syndromes but did not support a logopenic variant. Conclusion: Taken together, the results of this prospective data-driven study suggest that although a substantial proportion of patients with PPA have neither the semantic nor the nonfluent variants, they do not necessarily conform to a discrete logopenic variant.

Sajjadi, S.A.; Patterson, K.; Arnold, R.J.; Watson, P.C.

2012-01-01

32

Aphasia and communicative speech therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thus far, aphasiological research has focused primarily on a linguistic framework within which language is regarded in terms of a code consisting of vocabulary and grammar. Aphasia has been seen in terms of a linguistic code breakdown, due to brain damage. The relevance of a linguistic classification of the symptoms, however, has also been challenged. In a recent paper, Miceli

Matti Leiwo

1994-01-01

33

The Bilingual Brain: Bilingual Aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since most people in the world know more than one language, bilingual aphasia is an important line of research in clinical and theoretical neurolinguistics. From a clinical and ethical viewpoint, it is no longer acceptable that bilingual aphasics be assessed in only one of the languages they know. Bilingual aphasic patients should receive comparable language tests in all their languages.

Franco Fabbro

2001-01-01

34

Gesture and aphasia: Helping hands?  

PubMed Central

Background The study of communicative gestures is one of considerable interest for aphasia, in relation to theory, diagnosis, and treatment. Significant limitations currently permeate the general (psycho)linguistic literature on gesture production, and attention to these limitations is essential for both continued investigation and clinical application of gesture for people with aphasia. Aims The aims of this paper are to discuss issues imperative to advancing the gesture production literature and to provide specific suggestions for applying the material herein to studies in gesture production for people with aphasia. Main Contribution Two primary perspectives in the gesture production literature are distinct in their proposals about the function of gesture, and about where gesture arises in the communication stream. These two perspectives will be discussed, along with three elements considered to be prerequisites for advancing the research on gesture production. These include: operational definitions, coding systems, and the temporal synchrony characteristics of gesture. Conclusions Addressing the specific elements discussed in this paper will provide essential information for both continued investigation and clinical application of gesture for people with aphasia.

Scharp, Victoria L.; Tompkins, Connie A.; Iverson, Jana M.

2009-01-01

35

The Main Concept Analysis in Cantonese Aphasic Oral Discourse: External Validation and Monitoring Chronic Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The 1st aim of this study was to further establish the external validity of the main concept (MC) analysis by examining its relationship with the Cantonese Linguistic Communication Measure (CLCM; Kong, 2006; Kong & Law, 2004)--an established quantitative system for narrative production--and the Cantonese version of the Western Aphasia

Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin

2011-01-01

36

An Aphasia Mentoring Program: Perspectives of Speech-Language Pathology Students and of Mentors with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: In contrast to clinician-as-expert models, social models of clinical practice typically acknowledge people with aphasia as equal partners in intervention. Given this, there may be a place within speech-language pathology education for programs situating people with aphasia as experts. This paper describes an aphasia mentoring program…

Purves, Barbara A.; Petersen, Jill; Puurveen, Gloria

2013-01-01

37

Non-verbal disturbances in crossed aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aphasia is generally accompanied by signs of non-verbal dysfunction. The study of crossed aphasia can help to clarify the relationship between the two orders of phenomena. Four personal cases are reported and the relevant literature is reviewed concerning disorders of non-verbal function which accompany crossed aphasia. Left-sided neglect and constructional apraxia are common findings. Limb apraxia is a rarity among

A. Castro-caldas; A. Confraria; P. Poppe

1987-01-01

38

Aphasia centers in North America: a survey.  

PubMed

There is a growing trend toward dedicated programs designed to improve the lives of people with aphasia and their families. We are referring to these programs collectively as "aphasia centers." These programs purportedly differ from more traditional medically based aphasia rehabilitation. However, there is no directory of aphasia centers and no definition of what constitutes such a program. Therefore, an online survey was designed to identify and describe aphasia centers in the United States and Canada. A 37-question survey was posted online via SurveyMonkey. An introductory letter was distributed by electronic mail to a listserv and mailing lists of programs associated with aphasia. Potential respondents who considered themselves an aphasia center were asked to complete the survey. A total of 33 survey responses were analyzed, and descriptive data were compiled resulting in a description of the following aspects of aphasia centers: demographic information, mission, admission and discharge policies, assessment practices, program logistics, staffing patterns, marketing, funding, and services offered. In addition, a qualitative analysis of written text responses revealed the following key themes that appear to characterize the responding programs: services that differ from traditional aphasia rehabilitation; a sense of community; a holistic focus on quality of life, psychosocial well-being, participation, and social support; the centrality of group interaction; and variety/intensity of services. PMID:21968557

Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Holland, Audrey L

2011-09-23

39

BIOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO APHASIA TREATMENT  

PubMed Central

Herein, we review the basic mechanisms neural regeneration and repair and attempt to correlate the findings from animal models of stroke recovery to clinical trials for aphasia. Several randomized, controlled clinical trials that have involved manipulation of different neurotransmitter systems, including noradrenergic, dopaminergic, cholinergic and glutamatergic systems, have shown signals of efficacy. Biological approaches such as anti-Nogo and cell-replacement therapy have shown efficacy in preclinical models, but have yet to reach proof of concept in the clinic. Finally, noninvasive cortical stimulation techniques have been used in a few small trials, and have shown promising results. It appears that the efficacy of all of these platforms can be potentiated through coupling with speech-language therapy. Given this array of potential mechanisms that exist to augment and/or stimulate neural reorganization after stroke, we are optimistic that approaches to aphasia therapy will transition from compensatory models to models where brain reorganization is the goal.

Small, Steven L.; Llano, Daniel A.

2010-01-01

40

Neurobehavioral Models for Aphasia Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurobehavioral models for aphasia rehabilitation appear to have their roots in Mills’ (1904) ideas about processes responsible\\u000a for improvement of language with treatment. The more recent theories of Luria (1970) and Albert’s (1989) application of the\\u000a Laurence and Stein model, as well as Rothi’s (1995) application of Finger and Stein’s model, show a great deal of overlap\\u000a with one another

Nancy Helm-Estabrooks

41

Variability in recovery from aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinicians have long recognized the enormous variability of recovery among patients with aphasia. Accordingly, the identification\\u000a of specific factors most important in determining the extent of recovery has been the subject of many investigations. Yet,\\u000a the reasons for two patients of the same age, nearly identical clinical presentations, and similar MRI findings having completely\\u000a dissimilar recoveries are still unknown. It

Ronald M. Lazar; Daniel Antoniello

2008-01-01

42

Primary progressive aphasia: clinicopathological correlations  

PubMed Central

Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a disorder of declining language that is a frequent presentation of neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Three variants of PPA are recognized: progressive nonfluent aphasia, semantic dementia, and logopenic progressive aphasia. In an era of etiology-specific treatments for neurodegenerative conditions, determining the histopathological basis of PPA is crucial. Clinicopathological correlations in PPA emphasize the contributory role of dementia with Pick bodies and other tauopathies, TDP-43 proteinopathies, and Alzheimer disease. These data suggest an association between a specific PPA variant and an underlying pathology, although many cases of PPA are associated with an unexpected pathology. Neuroimaging and biofluid biomarkers are now emerging as important adjuncts to clinical diagnosis. There is great hope that the addition of biomarker assessments to careful clinical examination will enable accurate diagnosis of the pathology associated with PPA during a patient’s life, and that such findings will serve as the basis for clinical trials in this spectrum of disease.

Grossman, Murray

2013-01-01

43

Semantic Dementia and Persisting Wernicke's Aphasia: Linguistic and Anatomical Profiles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Few studies have directly compared the clinical and anatomical characteristics of patients with progressive aphasia to those of patients with aphasia caused by stroke. In the current study we examined fluent forms of aphasia in these two groups, specifically semantic dementia (SD) and persisting Wernicke's aphasia (WA) due to stroke. We compared…

Ogar, J. M.; Baldo, J. V.; Wilson, S. M.; Brambati, S. M.; Miller, B. L.; Dronkers, N. F.; Gorno-Tempini, M. L.

2011-01-01

44

Semantic Dementia and Persisting Wernicke's Aphasia: Linguistic and Anatomical Profiles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have directly compared the clinical and anatomical characteristics of patients with progressive aphasia to those of patients with aphasia caused by stroke. In the current study we examined fluent forms of aphasia in these two groups, specifically semantic dementia (SD) and persisting Wernicke's aphasia (WA) due to stroke. We compared…

Ogar, J. M.; Baldo, J. V.; Wilson, S. M.; Brambati, S. M.; Miller, B. L.; Dronkers, N. F.; Gorno-Tempini, M. L.

2011-01-01

45

Let's Talk about Stroke and Aphasia  

MedlinePLUS

... often caused by strokes that occur in areas of the brain that control speech and language. What are the effects of aphasia? Aphasia does ... of the brain (usually in the left side of the brain) influence one’s ability to communicate and understand language. When a stroke occurs in one of these ...

46

Resumption of driving with aphasia following stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Fitness to drive may be compromised by a variety of medical conditions, including stroke. Driving may legally be resumed 1 month after stroke if clinical recovery is deemed satisfactory. Advice available for patients and medical practitioners is unclear and inconsistent as to whether return to driving is influenced by aphasia. Information on the opinions of medical practitioners and aphasia

Catherine Mackenzie; Gillian Paton

2003-01-01

47

Pharmacotherapy of Aphasia: Myth or Reality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Pharmacotherapy of aphasia had been discussed for the last twenty years with first bromocriptine and amphetamine and then serotoninergic, GABAergic and cholinergic agents. Here, we reviewed the MEDLINE available reports of drug therapy for aphasia. So far, proofs of efficiency were found indubitable for none of the studied molecules. However,…

de Boissezon, Xavier; Peran, Patrice; de Boysson, Chloe; Demonet, Jean-Francois

2007-01-01

48

Training-induced brain plasticity in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary It has long been a matter of debate whether recovery from aphasia after left perisylvian lesions is mediated by the preserved left hemispheric language zones or by the homologous right hemisphere regions. Using PET, we investigated the short-term changes in the cortical network involved in language comprehension during recovery from aphasia. In 12 consecutive measurements of regional cerebral blood

Mariacristina Musso; Cornelius Weiller; Stefan Kiebel; Stephan P. Muller; Peter Bulau; Michel Rijntjes

1999-01-01

49

Language as a Stressor in Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Background Persons with aphasia often report feeling anxious when using language while communicating. While many patients, caregivers, clinicians and researchers would agree that language may be a stressor for persons with aphasia, systematic empirical studies of stress and/or anxiety in aphasia remain scarce. Aim The aim of this paper is to review the existing literature discussing language as a stressor in aphasia, identify key issues, highlight important gaps, and propose a program for future study. In doing so, we hope to underscore the importance of understanding aspects of the emotional aftermath of aphasia, which plays a critical role in the process of recovery and rehabilitation. Main Contribution Post stroke emotional dysregulation in persons with chronic aphasia clearly has adverse effects for language performance and prospects of recovery. However, the specific role anxiety might play in aphasia has yet to be determined. As a starting point, we propose to view language in aphasia as a stressor, linked to an emotional state we term “linguistic anxiety.” Specifically, a person with linguistic anxiety is one in whom the deliberate, effortful production of language involves anticipation of an error, with the imminence of linguistic failure serving as the threat. Since anticipation is psychologically linked to anxiety and also plays an important role in the allostatic system, we suggest that examining physiologic stress responses in persons with aphasia when they are asked to perform a linguistic task would be a productive tool for assessing the potential relation of stress to “linguistic anxiety.” Conclusion Exploring the putative relationship between anxiety and language in aphasia, through the study of physiologic stress responses, could establish a platform for investigating language changes in the brain in other clinical populations, such as in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease or persons with post traumatic stress disorder, or even with healthy aging persons, in whom “linguistic anxiety” might be at work when they have trouble finding words.

Cahana-Amitay, Dalia; Albert, Martin L.; Pyun, Sung-Bom; Westwood, Andrew; Jenkins, Theodore; Wolford, Sarah; Finley, Mallory

2012-01-01

50

Ambient Experience in Restitutive Treatment of Aphasia  

PubMed Central

One of the greatest challenges to language rehabilitation is reconciling the fact that the same therapeutic intervention, provided to different individuals with similar types of stroke-induced aphasia, may result in divergent outcomes. In this paper, the authors reviewed existing literature to identify relevant ambient factors – those outside the control of the clinician – that may potentially influence functional language recovery in aphasia and response to treatment. The goal was to develop a clinical history-taking tool to assist clinicians in gathering information germane to each individual's unique circumstances and environment, elements that may have previously been underestimated, to provide a complete inventory of potentially potent prognostic factors. First, two of the authors, speech–language pathologists experienced in aphasia rehabilitation, identified and categorized factors that seemed likely to influence aphasia outcomes. Then, a wide range of literature was reviewed in an effort to identify factors empirically found to be potent influences on aphasia recovery. Where studies relating these factors to aphasia were not found, relevant research from allied fields that examined recovery from brain injury is reported. Moreover, some factors thought to be potentially potent have yet to be examined. Finally, the ambient factors supported by evidence were categorized as facilitators or barriers to functional improvement, and the Ambient Influences on Outcome Checklist (AOC) was developed, including only those factors shown to be potent in the recovery process. It is hoped that this checklist can be used to more broadly assess potential prognostic influences in aphasia restitution, as well as spawn further research.

McClung, Jill S.; Rothi, Leslie J. Gonzalez; Nadeau, Stephen E.

2010-01-01

51

Lithium batteries: Future batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main characteristics and applications of lithium batteries are reviewed. Miniature batteries for quartz crystal watches have been developed and fabricated in Switzerland since 1970. High technology systems like lithium batteries are largely used for their low auto-discharge during storage and for their high energy density. Two kinds of lithium batteries can be distinguished concerning their place in the watch:

Harald Reiche

1991-01-01

52

Lithium batteries: Future batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main characteristics and applications of lithium batteries are reviewed. Miniature batteries for quartz crystal watches have been developed and fabricated in Switzerland since 1970. High technology systems like lithium batteries are largely used for their low auto-discharge during storage and for their high energy density. Two kinds of lithium batteries can be distinguished concerning their place in the watch: integrated batteries; and batteries placed between motion parts and the bottom of the watchcase. Lithium batteries are also used in pocket calculators, electronic modules for integrated circuits, telephone, control systems, electronic games, bank cards, and heart stimulators.

Reiche, Harald

53

Fluent Aphasia in Telugu: A Case Comparison Study of Semantic Dementia and Stroke Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study presents two cases with fluent aphasia in Telugu with semantic dementia and post-stroke fluent aphasia. Comparable scores were obtained on the conventional neuropsychological and language tests that were administered on the two cases. Both cases demonstrated fluent, grammatical and well-articulated speech with little content, impaired…

Alladi, Suvarna; Mridula, Rukmini; Mekala, Shailaja; Rupela, Vani; Kaul, Subhash

2010-01-01

54

Adynamic Aphasia: A Transcortical Motor Aphasia with Defective Semantic Strategy Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adynamic aphasia is a form of transcortical motor aphasia characterized by sparse but otherwise normal spontaneous speech that may improve when concepts are introduced by external stimuli. Akinesia, impaired concept formation, inertia of concept generation, a defective semantic network, damage or impaired access to the verbal output lexicon, and defective semantic strategy formation have been proposed to account for this

Michael Gold; Stephen E. Nadeau; Daniel H. Jacobs; John C. Adair; Leslie J. Gonzalez Rothi; Kenneth M. Heilman

1997-01-01

55

Social networks after the onset of aphasia: The impact of aphasia group attendance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Social networks are the context for communication and life participation and are associated with adults' health, well-being, and longevity. Compared to other populations, persons with aphasia have not been included in social network research in the US.Aims: The study aimed to measure and compare 40 participants' social networks and frequency of contact within networks before and after aphasia. It

Candace P. Vickers

2010-01-01

56

Occupational lead exposure in battery manufacturing workers, silver jewelry workers, and spray painters in western Maharashtra (India): effect on liver and kidney function.  

PubMed

We studied liver and kidney function tests of occupational lead exposed Battery Manufacturing Workers (BMW) (n = 30), Silver Jewelry Workers (SJW) (n = 30), and Spray Painters (SP) (n = 35) and normal healthy subjects (n = 35), all 20 to 40 years of age, in Western Maharashtra (India). Venous blood and random urine samples were collected from all groups. The blood lead (Pb-B) and urinary lead (Pb-U) levels were significantly increased in all experimental groups, except urinary lead excretion in SJW as compared with the controls. Liver functions tests parameters (serum transaminase enzymes SGOT, AST, SGPT, ALT) activities were significantly increased only in SP; no alteration was noticed in BMW and SJW as compared with the control group. Serum total protein levels were significantly decreased in all three experimental groups as compared with control subjects. Serum albumin concentrations were significantly decreased in SJW, SP, and increased in BMW. The serum globulin levels, however, were significantly decreased, and the albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio was increased in BMW and SJW as compared with the control. The bilirubin level was significantly increased only in BMW. Blood urea was significantly increased only in BMW, and blood urea and serum uric acid were decreased in SJW. The serum creatinine level was not significantly altered in any experimental groups. Increased Pb-B values in all experimental groups indicate the greater rate of lead absorption and impairment of liver and kidney functions in all three types of occupational lead-exposed workers of Western Maharashtra (India). PMID:17715565

Patil, Arun J; Bhagwat, Vinod R; Patil, Jyotsna A; Dongre, Nilima N; Ambekar, Jeevan G; Das, Kusal K

2007-01-01

57

Dissociations between fluency and agrammatism in primary progressive aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Classical aphasiology, based on the study of stroke sequelae, fuses speech fluency and grammatical ability. Nonfluent (Broca's) aphasia often is accompanied by agrammatism; whereas in the fluent aphasias grammatical deficits are not typical. The assumption that a similar relationship exists in primary progressive aphasia (PPA) has led to the dichotomisation of this syndrome into fluent and nonfluent subtypes.Aims: This

Cynthia K. Thompson; Soojin Cho; Chien-Ju-Hsu; Christina Wieneke; Alfred Rademaker; Bing Bing Weitner; M-Marsel Mesulam; Sandra Weintraub

2011-01-01

58

Dissociations between fluency and agrammatism in primary progressive aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Classical aphasiology, based on the study of stroke sequelae, fuses speech fluency and grammatical ability. Nonfluent (Broca's) aphasia often is accompanied by agrammatism; whereas in the fluent aphasias grammatical deficits are not typical. The assumption that a similar relationship exists in primary progressive aphasia (PPA) has led to the dichotomisation of this syndrome into fluent and nonfluent subtypes.Aims: This

Cynthia K. Thompson; Soojin Cho; Chien-Ju Hsu; Christina Wieneke; Alfred Rademaker; Bing Bing Weitner; M. Marsel Mesulam; Sandra Weintraub

2012-01-01

59

The Role of the Arcuate Fasciculus in Conduction Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In aphasia literature, it has been considered that a speech repetition defect represents the main constituent of conduction aphasia. Conduction aphasia has frequently been interpreted as a language impairment due to lesions of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) that disconnect receptive language areas from expressive ones. Modern neuroradiological…

Bernal, Byron; Ardila, Alfredo

2009-01-01

60

Aphasia  

MedlinePLUS

... a disorder caused by damage to the parts of the brain that control language. It can make it hard for you to read, write, and say what you mean to say. It is most common in adults who have had ... can also cause it. The type of problem you have and how bad it is ...

61

Aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

For each issue of Journal of Consumer Health on the Internet, the editor selects three to five health care sites containing high quality health care information on a given subject. The topic for each issue is very much dependent on the whim of the editor and the consumer questions that have crossed her desk. Sites used within the column are

Nighat Ispahany

2012-01-01

62

Aphasia  

MedlinePLUS

... to rehabilitate their language skills and supplement their communication experiences. Researchers are currently investigating the use of medications, alone or in combination with speech therapy, to ...

63

Effect of lead (Pb) exposure on the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in battery manufacturing workers (BMW) of Western Maharashtra (India) with reference to heme biosynthesis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to estimate the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in erythrocytes and malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma of battery manufacturing workers (BMW) of Western Maharashtra (India) who were occupationally exposed to lead (Pb) over a long period of time (about 15 years). This study was also aimed to determine the Pb intoxication resulted in a disturbance of heme biosynthesis in BMW group. The blood Pb level of BMW group (n = 28) was found to be in the range of 25.8 - 78.0 microg/dL (mean + SD, 53.63 + 16.98) whereas in Pb unexposed control group (n = 35) the range was 2.8 - 22.0 microg/dL (mean + SD, 12.52 + 4.08). The blood level (Pb-B) and urinary lead level (Pb-U) were significantly increased in BMW group as compared to unexposed control. Though activated d- aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activities in BMW group did not show any significant change when compared to control group but activated / non activated erythrocyte - ALAD activities in BMW group showed a significant increase. Erythrocyte- zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), urinary daminolevulinic acid (ALA-U) and porphobilinogen (PBG-U) of BMW groups elevated significantly as compared to control. A positive correlation (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) between Pb-B and ALA-U were found in BMW group but no such significant correlation (r = 0.02, p> 1.0) were observed in control group. Hematological study revealed a significant decrease of hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume (%) and other blood indices and a significant increase of total leucocytes count in BMW group in comparison to control group. The serum MDA content was significantly increased (p < 0.001) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as erythrocyte- SOD (p < 0.001) and erythrocytecatalase (p < 0.001) were significantly reduced in BMW group as compared to control group. A positive correlation (r = 0.45, p < 0.02) between Pb-B and serum MDA level was observed in BMW group (Pb-B range 25.8 - 78.0 microg / dL) but such significant correlation did not notice in control group (Pb-B range 2.8 - 22.0 microg / dL). The study clearly showed an adverse effect of heme biosynthesis and imbalance of pro-oxidant / antioxidant status in lead exposed battery manufacturing workers resulting in increase in lipid peroxidation associated with decrease in erythrocyte-SOD and erythrocyte-catalase activities. PMID:17159274

Patil, Arun J; Bhagwat, Vinod R; Patil, Jyotsna A; Dongre, Nilima N; Ambekar, Jeevan G; Jailkhani, Rama; Das, Kusal K

2006-12-01

64

[Crossed aphasia: considerations on a clinical case].  

PubMed

A right-handed patient with no family history of either neurological disorders or of left-handedness was affected by crossed aphasia due to a focal hemorrhagic lesion in the right hemisphere at the level of the basal ganglia. The CAT-scan revealed the site of the brain change. Our case is uncommon in that the aphasia. Assessed by neuropsychological tests, was associated with impairment of right functions such as visual and spatial cognition. Thus he does not fit the classic description of crossed aphasia, exhibiting instead language disorders similar to those following deep brain lesions. Various hypotheses were considered in attempting to explain the pathogenesis of our neurological data, none of which proved adequate to account for all the reported findings. PMID:6571444

Colombo, A; Guerzoni, M C; Miscio, G; Panzetti, P

65

[Primary progressive non-fluente aphasia].  

PubMed

When a subject shows changes in his/her ability to express himself/herself verbally or to understand the messages from the people he/she relates with, it is customary to say that such a person has a language disorder, nosologically classified in the field of aphasias. In this article, we show the case of a patient diagnosed with progressive aphasia, where such a diagnosis describes the data resulting from the neuropsychological assessment process. Finally, we provide a few reflections with regard to the case. PMID:16987448

Maia, Luis; Vaz Patto, Maria Assunção; Correia, Carina; Perea-Bartolomé, Maria Victoria

2006-04-30

66

Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical structures and…

Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

2003-01-01

67

A Computational Account of Bilingual Aphasia Rehabilitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Current research on bilingual aphasia highlights the paucity in recommendations for optimal rehabilitation for bilingual aphasic patients (Edmonds & Kiran, 2006; Roberts & Kiran, 2007). In this paper, we have developed a computational model to simulate an English-Spanish bilingual language system in which language representations can vary by age…

Kiran, Swathi; Grasemann, Uli; Sandberg, Chaleece; Miikkulainen, Risto

2013-01-01

68

Further Evidence of Auditory Extinction in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Preliminary research ( Shisler, 2005) suggests that auditory extinction in individuals with aphasia (IWA) may be connected to binding and attention. In this study, the authors expanded on previous findings on auditory extinction to determine the source of extinction deficits in IWA. Method: Seventeen IWA (M[subscript age] = 53.19 years)…

Marshall, Rebecca Shisler; Basilakos, Alexandra; Love-Myers, Kim

2013-01-01

69

Temporal Processing Capabilities in Repetition Conduction Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates the temporal resolution capacities of the central-auditory system in a subject (NP) suffering from repetition conduction aphasia. More specifically, the patient was asked to detect brief gaps between two stretches of broadband noise (gap detection task) and to evaluate the duration of two biphasic (WN-3) continuous noise…

Sidiropoulos, Kyriakos; Ackermann, Hermann; Wannke, Michael; Hertrich, Ingo

2010-01-01

70

Accent Identification by Adults with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The UK is a diverse society where individuals regularly interact with speakers with different accents. Whilst there is a growing body of research on the impact of speaker accent on comprehension in people with aphasia, there is none which explores their ability to identify accents. This study investigated the ability of this group to identify the…

Newton, Caroline; Burns, Rebecca; Bruce, Carolyn

2013-01-01

71

The logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this review is to explore the evolution of the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia as a distinct clinical entity and to outline recent advances that have clarified its clinical characteristics, neural underpinnings and potential genetic and pathological bases. This is particularly relevant as researchers attempt to identify clinico-pathological relationships in subtypes of primary progressive aphasia in hopes of utilizing language phenotype as a marker of underlying disease. Recent findings Recent work has served to refine and expand upon the clinical phenotype of the logopenic variant. Logopenic patients show a unique pattern of spared and impaired language processes that reliably distinguish this syndrome from other variants of progressive aphasia. Specifically, they exhibit deficits in naming and repetition in the context of spared semantic, syntactic and motor speech abilities. Further, there is a growing body of evidence indicating a possible link between the logopenic variant phenotype and specific pathological and genetic correlates. Summary Findings indicate that the logopenic variant is a distinct subtype of progressive aphasia that may hold value as a predictor of underlying pathology. Additional research, however, is warranted in order to further clarify the cognitive-linguistic profile and to confirm its relation to certain pathological and genetic processes.

Henry, M.L.; Gorno-Tempini, M.L.

2010-01-01

72

Drawing: Its Contribution to Naming in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Drawing in aphasia therapy has been used predominately as a substitution for speech or to augment communication when other modalities are non-functional. The value of drawing as a route for facilitating verbal expression has not been a focus of prior research. We compared the usefulness of drawing and writing as compensatory strategies for…

Farias, Dana; Davis, Christine; Harrington, Gregory

2006-01-01

73

Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical structures…

Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

2003-01-01

74

Teaching nursing assistant students about aphasia and communication.  

PubMed

Research indicates that communication between patients with communication disorders and their health care providers may be compromised, which leads to adverse outcomes and reduced participation in patients' own health care. Emerging studies demonstrate that effective communication education programs may decrease communication difficulties. This feasibility study of an education program that includes people with aphasia as educators aims to improve nursing assistant students' knowledge of aphasia and awareness of supported communication strategies while also examining the experiences of participants with aphasia. This preliminary study suggests that explicit aphasia and communication training delivered in this format has positive learning outcomes for nursing assistant students and potential psychosocial benefits to participants with aphasia. The format can be modified for a variety of health care audiences and lends itself to implementation by community aphasia groups and centers. PMID:21968560

Welsh, Jessica Dionne; Szabo, Gretchen Beideman

2011-09-23

75

Implementation of Computer-Based Language Therapy in Aphasia  

PubMed Central

A first step in evaluating the use of computers in language therapy for individuals with aphasia is to establish the treatment as active in small groups prior to large-scale clinical trials. The present study evaluated a comprehensive computer-based language therapy program in a group of eight individuals with chronic in aphasia varying broadly in age, time post onset and aphasia type. Results revealed an overall therapeutic benefit in auditory comprehension, as well as positive trends in functional communication. Findings suggest that comprehensive therapy programs may be beneficial for many individuals with aphasia, and computer-based therapy may be one feasible avenue of providing this intervention.

Orange, Joseph B.; Jamieson, Donald J.

2009-01-01

76

Constraint-induced aphasia therapy stimulates language recovery in patients with chronic aphasia after ischemic stroke  

PubMed Central

Background Constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT) offers potential benefits to individuals with history of aphasia-producing ischemic stroke. The goals of this pilot study were to implement the original German CIAT protocol, refine the treatment program, and confirm its efficacy in patients with chronic aphasia. Material/Methods We translated and modified the original CIAT protocol to include a hierarchy of individual skill levels for semantic, syntactic, and phonological language production, while constraining non-use behaviors. Three male participants with moderate to severe post-stroke aphasia received CIAT 3-4 hours/day for 5 consecutive days. Pre and post-testing included formal language evaluation, linguistic analysis of story retell, and mini-Communication Activity Log (mini-CAL). Results Substantial improvements in comprehension and verbal skills were noted in 2 patients with an increase in the total number of words (31% and 95%) and in number of utterances for story-retell task (57% and 75%). All participants demonstrated an improvement on at least one linguistic measure. No subjective improvements on mini-CAL were noted by any of the participants. Conclusions Given that the duration of treatment was only 1 week, these linguistic improvements in post stroke aphasia participants were remarkable. The results indicate that the CIAT protocol used in this study may be a useful tool in language restoration after stroke. These initial findings should be confirmed in a larger, randomized study.

Ball, Angel L.; Grether, Sandra; Al-fwaress, Firas; Griffith, Nathan M.; Neils-Strunjas, Jean; Newmeyer, Amy; Reichhardt, Robert

2008-01-01

77

Aphasia, language, and theory of mind.  

PubMed

We address the issue of the relation between language and theory of mind (ToM) reasoning involving the understanding of others' mental states. In particular, we focus on the evidence from people with aphasia and consider methodological issues concerning the nature of ToM tasks and test instructions. Research to date points to the independence of ToM from grammar in that studies of people with aphasia who have profound grammatical impairment retain ToM reasoning. By contrast, difficulties shown by young children and by adults with right hemisphere brain damage on certain ToM tasks often appear to involve the absence of a pragmatic awareness that precludes the expression of ToM reasoning. PMID:18633785

Siegal, Michael; Varley, Rosemary

2006-01-01

78

Enteroviral encephalitis presenting as rapidly progressive aphasia.  

PubMed

Enteroviral CNS infection is common and its clinical course is usually benign. In immunocompromised patients, however, it can cause meningoencephalitis, presenting with altered mentality and seizure. We describe a previously healthy female patient with enteroviral meningoencephalitis who showed rapidly progressive aphasia. Examination of her cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed pleocytosis with lymphocyte dominance, elevated protein, and normal glucose, findings compatible with viral encephalitis. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) brain MRI showed hyperintensity in the left frontal and parietal cortices. Enterovirus in the CSF was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of the CSF. Although her neurological deficits had progressed to global aphasia, conservative management resulted in complete improvement within 3 months. This case provides unusual clinical manifestations and imaging findings in enteroviral encephalitis. PMID:22632779

Kim, Ko-Woon; Ahn, Suk-Won; Park, Kwang-Yeol; Youn, Young Chul; Shin, Hae-Won

2012-05-24

79

Neural Substrate Responsible for Crossed Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Crossed aphasia (CA) refers to language impairment secondary to right hemisphere lesion. Imaging analysis on the lesion location of CA has not yet been reported in the literature. This study was proposed to analyze the most prevalent lesion site related to CA. Brain MRI of 7 stroke patients satisfying the criteria for CA were used to define Region of interest (ROIs) before overlaying the images to visualize the most overlapped area. Talairach coordinates for the most overlapped areas were converted to corresponding anatomical regions. Anatomical lesions where more than 3 patients' images were overlapped were considered significant. The overlayed ROIs of 7 patients revealed the lentiform nucleus as the most frequently involved area, overlapping in 6 patients. Our study first demonstrates the areas involved in CA by lesion mapping using brain MRI, and lentiform nucleus is the responsible neural substrate for crossed aphasia.

Kim, Woo Jin; Yang, Eun Joo

2013-01-01

80

Receptive prosody in nonfluent primary progressive aphasias  

PubMed Central

Introduction Prosody has been little studied in the primary progressive aphasias (PPAs), a group of neurodegenerative disorders presenting with progressive language impairment. Methods Here we conducted a systematic investigation of different dimensions of prosody processing (acoustic, linguistic and emotional) in a cohort of 19 patients with nonfluent PPA syndromes (11 with progressive nonfluent aphasia, PNFA; five with progressive logopenic/phonological aphasia, LPA; three with progranulin-associated aphasia, GRN-PPA) compared with a group of healthy older controls. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to identify neuroanatomical associations of prosodic functions. Results Broadly comparable receptive prosodic deficits were exhibited by the PNFA, LPA and GRN-PPA subgroups, for acoustic, linguistic and affective dimensions of prosodic analysis. Discrimination of prosodic contours was significantly more impaired than discrimination of simple acoustic cues, and discrimination of intonation was significantly more impaired than discrimination of stress at phrasal level. Recognition of vocal emotions was more impaired than recognition of facial expressions for the PPA cohort, and recognition of certain emotions (in particular, disgust and fear) was relatively more impaired than others (sadness, surprise). VBM revealed atrophy associated with acoustic and linguistic prosody impairments in a distributed cortical network including areas likely to be involved in perceptual analysis of vocalisations (posterior temporal and inferior parietal cortices) and working memory (fronto-parietal circuitry). Grey matter associations of emotional prosody processing were identified for negative emotions (disgust, fear, sadness) in a broadly overlapping network of frontal, temporal, limbic and parietal areas. Conclusions Taken together, the findings show that receptive prosody is impaired in nonfluent PPA syndromes, and suggest a generic early perceptual deficit of prosodic signal analysis with additional relatively specific deficits (recognition of particular vocal emotions).

Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Sauter, Disa; Scott, Sophie; Rossor, Martin N.; Warren, Jason D.

2012-01-01

81

A second chance: Recovering language with aphasia (†).  

PubMed

Dr Christopher Green is a well-known paediatrician and parenting author, who appeared frequently on Australian radio and television and lectured in Australia and many countries around the world. In 1999, Dr Green had a stroke which left him with aphasia and ended his career. After the death of his wife in 2004, Dr Green used exercise and the goal of writing again to lift himself out of his grief. With the help of a gifted editor, he wrote a new edition of his best-selling book Toddler Taming (Green, 2006 ), and in the process recovered much of his language. Dr Green is the Patron of the Australian Aphasia Association, and has in recent years returned to public speaking. In this address, he shares his message that the language gains made with aphasia may occur over decades, not merely one or two years. This article is an edited version of the keynote speech Dr Green presented at the Speech Pathology Australia annual conference in 2007. PMID:20840046

Green, Christopher; Waks, Leonie

2008-01-01

82

Baudelaire's aphasia: from poetry to cursing.  

PubMed

At 45 years of age, Charles Baudelaire suffered a left hemispheric stroke that left him with a right hemiplegia and severe aphasia. In this chapter, we investigate the nature of his symptoms, drawing mostly on his own and his contemporaries' correspondence. Before specifically examining his aphasia, we put the poet's life, work, and health in context, notably his tormented mind, his probable syphilitic infection and the intellectual milieu of 19th century France. The time when Baudelaire was struck with aphasia coincides with early discoveries and debates that centered on the nature and implications of this neurological disorder. Many of the questions raised at that time still await definitive answers. Here, we compare Baudelaire's language disorder with recent research that has shed new light on the poet's disease. Most interestingly, we explore the nature of his dramatic use of the expletive Cré nom!, which was the only word he was able to express. Finally, we discuss the links between disease and creativity and dismiss the frequent notion that Baudelaire, in the end, paid the price of his genius. PMID:17495509

Dieguez, Sebastian; Bogousslavsky, Julien

2007-01-01

83

Snapshots of success: An insider perspective on living successfully with aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:?While the negative impact of aphasia has been the focus of much research, few studies have investigated more positive examples of people living with aphasia. Exploring the concept of living successfully with aphasia from an insider perspective can enhance current research by providing positively framed data that balance this negative skew. Collectively, the perspectives of people with aphasia on themes

Kyla Brown; Linda Worrall; Bronwyn Davidson; Tami Howe

2010-01-01

84

Conceptualising and measuring working memory and its relationship to aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: General agreement exists in the literature that individuals with aphasia can exhibit a working memory deficit that contributes to their language-processing impairments. Although conceptualised within different working memory frameworks, researchers have suggested that individuals with aphasia have limited working memory capacity and impaired attention-control processes as well as impaired inhibitory mechanisms. However, across studies investigating working memory ability in

Heather Harris Wright; Gerasimos Fergadiotis

2012-01-01

85

Conceptualising and measuring working memory and its relationship to aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: General agreement exists in the literature that individuals with aphasia can exhibit a working memory deficit that contributes to their language-processing impairments. Although conceptualised within different working memory frameworks, researchers have suggested that individuals with aphasia have limited working memory capacity and impaired attention-control processes as well as impaired inhibitory mechanisms. However, across studies investigating working memory ability in

Heather Harris Wright; Gerasimos Fergadiotis

2011-01-01

86

Aphasia in an artist: A disorder of symbolic processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study of a prominent Polish painter who suffered from a left brain stroke resulting in hemiparesis and aphasia. His drawing abilities were preserved on the performance level but he was not able to create the highly symbolic pictures he used to paint before the stroke. A neuropsychological examination, using Luria's approach, revealed a kinetic aphasia with

B. L. J. Kaczmarek

1991-01-01

87

Informed consent and aphasia: Evidence of pitfalls in the process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Persons with aphasia are particularly vulnerable when taking part in research studies. The process of informed consent (IC) depends on a number of factors, which may be compromised in aphasia. Very little research has been conducted on the process, and the issue is often neglected in published research.Aims: The aim of the research was to identify potential facilitators and

Claire Penn; Tali Frankel; Jennifer Watermeyer; Madeleine Müller

2009-01-01

88

Principles Underlying the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) and Its Uses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) is designed to be objective (so it can be administered by a lay native speaker of the language) and equivalent across languages (to allow for a comparison between the languages of a given patient as well as across patients from different institutions). It has been used not only with aphasia but also with any…

Paradis, Michel

2011-01-01

89

Mild Aphasia: Is This the Place for an Argument?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Individuals with mild aphasia often report significant disruption to their communication despite seemingly minor impairment. This study explored this phenomenon through examining conversations of a person with mild aphasia engaging in argumentation--a skill she felt had significantly deteriorated after her stroke. Method: A person with…

Armstrong, Elizabeth; Fox, Sarah; Wilkinson, Ray

2013-01-01

90

Principles Underlying the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) and Its Uses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) is designed to be objective (so it can be administered by a lay native speaker of the language) and equivalent across languages (to allow for a comparison between the languages of a given patient as well as across patients from different institutions). It has been used not only with aphasia but also with any…

Paradis, Michel

2011-01-01

91

Measuring and Inducing Brain Plasticity in Chronic Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Brain plasticity associated with anomia recovery in aphasia is poorly understood. Here, I review four recent studies from my lab that focused on brain modulation associated with long-term anomia outcome, its behavioral treatment, and the use of transcranial brain stimulation to enhance anomia treatment success in individuals with chronic aphasia

Fridriksson, Julius

2011-01-01

92

Aphasia, Apraxia, and Agnosia in the Diagnosis of Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association of aphasia, apraxia and agnosia with cortical but not subcortical dementias, is a widely held belief. The purpose of the present study was to determine the frequency of aphasia, apraxia, and agnosia in groups of cortical and subcortical dementia patients, and to assess the diagnostic utility of these symptoms. Subjects were 64 patients with subcortical dementias (Parkinson's disease

Joel H. Kramer; Jennifer M. Duffy

1996-01-01

93

Paraphasias in Multilingual Conduction Aphasia: A Single Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Conduction aphasia is a type of fluent aphasia, which is caused due to the damage to the supramarginal gyrus and arcuate fasciculus resulting in repetition disturbance. It has been speculated that linguistic system in bilingual aphasics can breakdown in different ways across languages. There is a lack of detailed linguistic studies in specific…

Hegde, Medha; Bhat, Sapna

2007-01-01

94

Readability of written health information provided to people with aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Providing appropriate written health materials to people with aphasia presents a challenge for health professionals. To overcome this dilemma, the suitability of current written health materials intended for people with aphasia, and the measures that examine their suitability, need to be assessed.Aims: The primary aims of this research were to investigate the readability levels of written health materials given

Annalle Aleligay; Linda E. Worrall; Tanya A. Rose

2008-01-01

95

Educating and training caregivers of persons with aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Because communication deficits caused by aphasia affect both persons with aphasia and their communication partners, most speech-language pathologists are aware of the importance of client and caregiver education. To maximise the effectiveness of their communicative interactions, training should be conducted for both the aphasic clients and their caregivers. Training conducted in group environments offers peer support through shared learning

Mary Purdy; Jane Hindenlang

2005-01-01

96

The uniqueness of Gogi aphasia owing to temporal lobar atrophy.  

PubMed

In Japan, a syndrome in which the semantic memory for words is impaired, in the presence of preserved phonological and syntactic aspects of language, is called Gogi (for the Japanese term meaning "word meaning") aphasia. In this brief historical report, Gogi aphasia is described and compared with the corresponding disorder called semantic dementia. PMID:18090416

Tanabe, Hirotaka

97

A Comparison between Written and Spoken Narratives in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present study was to explore how a personal narrative told by a group of eight persons with aphasia differed between written and spoken language, and to compare this with findings from 10 participants in a reference group. The stories were analysed through holistic assessments made by 60 participants without experience of aphasia

Behrns, Ingrid; Wengelin, Asa; Broberg, Malin; Hartelius, Lena

2009-01-01

98

Transient crossed aphasia evidenced by functional brain imagery.  

PubMed

Crossed aphasia refers to language deficits induced by unilateral right hemisphere injuries in right-handed people who had no previous history of brain damage. One of the intriguing questions concerning crossed aphasia is the atypical language representation in the brain. In this respect, fMRI is a valuable tool for understanding the neural basis of crossed aphasia. Here, we used neuropsychological and fMRI language tasks in a right-handed subject who presented a crossed aphasia due to a right frontal meningioma. fMRI maps from two language tasks showed bilateral patterns of activation. In the light of previous studies reporting much frequent bilateral than exclusive right hemisphere representations, we hypothesise that some crossed aphasia cases could occur in subjects with bilateral language representation. PMID:15073515

Khateb, Asaid; Martory, Marie-Dominique; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Lazeyras, François; de Tribolet, Nicolas; Pegna, Alan J; Mayer, Eugène; Michel, Christoph M; Seghier, Mohamed L

2004-04-01

99

Evaluating the use of TalksBac, a predictive communication device for nonfluent adults with aphasia.  

PubMed

This paper describes the design and evaluation of a computer-based communication system called 'TalksBac' with four nonfluent adults with aphasia. Despite the increased availability of computer-based augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices, their use with adults with aphasia is limited as few devices have been designed for this population. The TalksBac system was designed specifically for nonfluent adults with aphasia and was used by four nonfluent aphasic individuals for a period of 9 months. The TalksBac system is word-based and exploits the ability of some nonfluent individuals with aphasia to recognize familiar words and short sentences. The system consists of two programs. Personal sentences and stories are entered into the TalksBac database by use of a 'carer program'. The 'user program' assists the nonfluent aphasic user to retrieve these prestored conversational items by offering probable items based on previous use of the system. The database has a hierarchical structure, but the links to individual items adapt automatically to reflect usage by individual users over time. Four nonfluent adults with aphasia were selected to participate in the study. Each subject was assessed by use of a battery of tests to provide pre-intervention data about their comprehension, expression and communication skills. Subjects and their carers were trained to use the TalksBac system and were involved in developing personalized databases. They were supported in use of the personalized systems for an intervention period of 9 months. At the end of this period, subjects' communication skills wre reassessed by use of a battery of tests. Clients' conversational abilities with and without the TalksBac system were also compared to see if use of TalksBac did augment their conversation and allow the aphasic partner to participate more fully within conversations. This was done by analysing videotaped conversations between subjects and non-aphasic partners. Results from the formal assessments indicated that there was little change in the underlying comprehension and expressive abilities of the subjects. An analysis of videotaped conversations showed that 1 subject was unable to carry out conversations using TalksBac independently, so the data for this subject was not included in the results of the analysis of conversations. Results from the video analysis for the remaining three subjects indicated that when using the TalksBac system, the conversational abilities of two subjects improved. The conversational abilities of the other subject were not enhanced by using the system as he had developed his own nonverbal strategies which he found to be more effective. This study has shown that TalksBac has the potential to augment the communication abilities of nonfluent adults with aphasia, who have not been able to develop their own compensatory strategies. Work continues to improve the efficiency of the software and to develop techniques to facilitate the carers' ability to generate conversational information for the system. PMID:9673218

Waller, A; Dennis, F; Brodie, J; Cairns, A Y

100

GOGI APHASIA OR SEMANTIC DEMENTIA? SIMULATING AND ASSESSING POOR VERBAL COMPREHENSION IN A CASE OF PROGRESSIVE FLUENT APHASIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many patients with progressive fluent aphasia present with poor verbal comprehension and profound word-finding difficulties in the context of much better picture comprehension and object use. The Japanese term Gogi (literally ?word-meaning?) aphasia matches this behavioural pattern. The alternative label of semantic dementia is most often used for these patients and this term emphasises a generalised degradation of conceptual knowledge

Matthew A. Lambon Ralph; David Howard

2000-01-01

101

What People Living with Aphasia Think about the Availability of Aphasia Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Obtaining health information and resources can influence an individual's (a) access to services, (b) interactions with health care providers, and (c) ability to manage one's own health needs. The purpose of this study was to gather the perceptions of consumers living with aphasia about resource availability and information needs. Method:…

Hinckley, Jacqueline J.; Hasselkus, Amy; Ganzfried, Ellayne

2013-01-01

102

Parallel Recovery in a Trilingual Speaker: The Use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test as a Diagnostic Complement to the Comprehensive Aphasia Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We illustrate the value of the Bilingual Aphasia Test in the diagnostic assessment of a trilingual speaker post-stroke living in England for whom English was a non-native language. The Comprehensive Aphasia Test is routinely used to assess patients in English, but only in combination with the Bilingual Aphasia Test is it possible and practical to…

Green, David W.; Ruffle, Louise; Grogan, Alice; Ali, Nilufa; Ramsden, Sue; Schofield, Tom; Leff, Alex P.; Crinion, Jenny; Price, Cathy J.

2011-01-01

103

[Evaluation of language therapy in aphasia after stroke].  

PubMed

In 27 patients with aphasia and hemiparesis following strokes speech was tested before and after completion of sanatorium treatment. After three weeks of speech re-education aphasia improved in various degrees in 19 patients. The best results of logopedic treatment were obtained in patients with medium-grade or slight aphasia subjected to rehabilitation treatment during the first three months after stroke. Effective motor rehabilitation conducted parallelly with re-education exercises in early period after stroke has a favourable effect on advance in therapy and later resocialization of patients. PMID:6167887

Podemski, R; Bakierowska, A; Rudkowska, A; Brzecki, A

104

Adaptation to aphasia: grammar, prosody and interaction.  

PubMed

This paper investigates recurrent use of the phrase very good by a speaker with non-fluent agrammatic aphasia. Informal observation of the speaker's interaction reveals that she appears to be an effective conversational partner despite very severe word retrieval difficulties that result in extensive reliance on variants of the phrase very good. The question that this paper addresses using an essentially conversation analytic framework is: What is the speaker achieving through these variants of very good and what are the linguistic and interactional resources that she draws on to achieve these communicative effects? Tokens of very good in the corpus were first analyzed in a bottom-up fashion, attending to sequential position, structure and participant orientation. This revealed distinct uses that were subsequently subjected to detailed acoustic analysis in order to investigate specific prosodic characteristics within and across the interactional variants. We identified specific clusters of prosodic cues that were exploited by the speaker to differentiate interactional uses of very good. The analysis thus shows how, in the adaptation to aphasia, the speaker exploits the rich interface between prosody, grammar and interaction both to manage the interactional demands of conversation and to communicate propositional content. PMID:23237417

Rhys, Catrin S; Ulbrich, Christiane; Ordin, Mikhail

2013-01-01

105

Non-verbal communication in severe aphasia: Influence of aphasia, apraxia, or semantic processing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients suffering from severe aphasia have to rely on non-verbal means of communication to convey a message. However, to date it is not clear which patients are able to do so. Clinical experience indicates that some patients use non-verbal communication strategies like gesturing very efficiently whereas others fail to transmit semantic content by non-verbal means. Concerns have been expressed that

Katharina Hogrefe; Wolfram Ziegler; Nicole Weidinger; Georg Goldenberg

106

Spelling Intervention in Post-Stroke Aphasia and Primary Progressive Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Spelling—a core language skill—is commonly affected in neurological diseases such as stroke and Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA). We present two case studies of the same spelling therapy (learning of phoneme-to-grapheme correspondences with help from key words) in two participants: one who had a stroke and one with PPA (logopenic variant). Our study highlights similarities and differences in the time course of each indivdual’s therapy. The study evaluates the effectiveness and generalization of treatment in each case, i.e. whether the treatment affected the trained items and/or untrained items, and whether or not the treatment gains were maintained after the end of therapy. Both participants were able to learn associations between phonemes and graphemes as well as between phonemes and words. Reliable generalization to untrained words was shown only for the participant with post-stroke aphasia, but we were not able to test generalization to untrained words in the individual with PPA. The same spelling therapy followed a different time course in each case. The participant with post-stroke aphasia showed a lasting effect of improved spelling, but we were unable to assess maintenance of improvement in the participant with PPA. We discuss these differences in light of the underlying nature of each disease.

Tsapkini, Kyrana; Hillis, Argye E.

2012-01-01

107

Spelling intervention in post-stroke aphasia and primary progressive aphasia.  

PubMed

Spelling - a core language skill - is commonly affected in neurological diseases such as stroke and Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA). We present two case studies of the same spelling therapy (learning of phoneme-to-grapheme correspondences with help from key words) in two participants: one who had a stroke and one with PPA (logopenic variant). Our study highlights similarities and differences in the time course of each indivdual's therapy. The study evaluates the effectiveness and generalization of treatment in each case, i.e. whether the treatment affected the trained items and/or untrained items, and whether or not the treatment gains were maintained after the end of therapy. Both participants were able to learn associations between phonemes and graphemes as well as between phonemes and words. Reliable generalization to untrained words was shown only for the participant with post-stroke aphasia, but we were not able to test generalization to untrained words in the individual with PPA. The same spelling therapy followed a different time course in each case. The participant with post-stroke aphasia showed a lasting effect of improved spelling, but we were unable to assess maintenance of improvement in the participant with PPA. We discuss these differences in light of the underlying nature of each disease. PMID:22713403

Tsapkini, Kyrana; Hillis, Argye E

2013-01-01

108

Conceptualising quality of life for older people with aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is an increasing need in speech and language therapy for clinicians to provide intervention in the context of the broader life?quality issues for people with aphasia. However, there is no descriptive research that is explicitly focused on quality of life (QoL) from the perspectives of older people with aphasia.Aims: The current study explores how older people with chronic

Madeline Cruice; Ruth Hill; Linda Worrall; Louise Hickson

2010-01-01

109

An analysis of the “goal” in aphasia rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite the central importance of goal setting in aphasia rehabilitation, the notion of the goal itself has not been fully explored.Aims: This paper considers how speech pathologists conceptualise the nature of the “goal” in aphasia rehabilitation.Methods & Procedures: The researchers conducted a qualitative study involving 34 speech pathologists (32 female and 2 male; mean age 41 years, range 24–60

Deborah Hersh; Sue Sherratt; Tami Howe; Linda Worrall; Bronwyn Davidson; Alison Ferguson

2012-01-01

110

Mechanisms of change in the evolution of jargon aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The evolution of jargon aphasia may reflect recovery in the speech production processes. Alternatively or additionally there may be improved self-monitoring, enabling the person to suppress jargon errors. Previous case reports offer evidence for both mechanisms of change, and suggest that they can co-occur.Aims: This longitudinal study aimed to uncover mechanisms of change in an individual with jargon aphasia.

Emma Eaton; Jane Marshall; Tim Pring

2011-01-01

111

Research with rTMS in the treatment of aphasia  

PubMed Central

This review of our research with rTMS to treat aphasia contains four parts: Part 1 reviews functional brain imaging studies related to recovery of language in aphasia with emphasis on nonfluent aphasia. Part 2 presents the rationale for using rTMS to treat nonfluent aphasia patients (based on results from functional imaging studies). Part 2 also reviews our current rTMS treatment protocol used with nonfluent aphasia patients, and our functional imaging results from overt naming fMRI scans, obtained pre- and post- a series of rTMS treatments. Part 3 presents results from a pilot study where rTMS treatments were followed immediately by constraint-induced language therapy (CILT). Part 4 reviews our diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study that examined white matter connections between the horizontal, midportion of the arcuate fasciculus (hAF) to different parts within Broca’s area (pars triangularis, PTr; pars opercularis, POp), and the ventral premotor cortex (vPMC) in the RH and in the LH. Part 4 also addresses some of the possible mechanisms involved with improved naming and speech, following rTMS with nonfluent aphasia patients.

Naeser, Margaret A.; Martin, Paula I; Treglia, Ethan; Ho, Michael; Kaplan, Elina; Bashir, Shahid; Hamilton, Roy; Coslett, H. Branch; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

2013-01-01

112

The interactional organization of aphasia naming testing.  

PubMed

Abstract In this article, Conversation Analysis (CA) is used to investigate the nature of aphasia naming tests in terms of their properties as a specialized form of social interaction. The basic test-item sequence which occurs in these tests is shown to be made up of a three-part sequential structure consisting of (1) a testing prompt, (2) a proffered answer by the testee, and (3) an acceptance or declining of that proffered answer by the tester. A declining prompts a further answer to be proffered, and this cycle continues until either an answer is accepted by the tester or until the participants treat the testee as being unable to produce the relevant picture name. It is suggested that the results of the analysis have implications for understanding naming tests as instruments which generate theoretical and clinical findings through particular talk-in-interaction practices. PMID:24073858

Wilkinson, Ray

2013-09-27

113

Lexical priming in Alzheimer's disease and aphasia.  

PubMed

Lexical priming was examined in patients with Alzheimer's disease and in aphasic patients. Control participants were divided into young and elderly [cf. Arroyo-Anlló et al.: Eur J Cogn Psychol 2004;16:535-553]. For lexical priming, a word-stem completion task was used. Normal elderly participants had lexical priming scores that were significantly lower than those of young individuals. Analysis of covariance with age and educational level as covariates showed that the control participants, aphasic and Alzheimer patients did not differ significantly on the lexical priming task. Our results suggest that performance in the lexical priming task diminishes with physiological aging, but is not significantly affected by mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease or by fluent or non-fluent aphasia. PMID:23635864

Arroyo-Anlló, Eva Maria; Beauchamps, Mireille; Ingrand, Pierre; Neau, Jean Philippe; Gil, Roger

2013-04-25

114

Aphasia severity and salivary cortisol over time.  

PubMed

The current study explored the complicated interplay between aphasia and the stress biomarker, cortisol, in left-hemisphere (LH) and right-hemisphere (RH) stroke patients. Nineteen LH patients and 12 RH patients began the study between one to six months post stroke and were followed for three months. During this time, language skills were assessed monthly while afternoon salivary cortisol samples were collected biweekly. The LH and RH groups showed improvements in language test scores over the course of three months; however, only naming skills in the RH group appeared to be associated with afternoon salivary cortisol levels. Furthermore, contradicting previous reports regarding laterality and cortisol regulation in humans, the current study found that both LH patients and RH patients exhibited similar afternoon salivary cortisol levels across all time points. PMID:22352852

Laures-Gore, Jacqueline S

2012-02-22

115

Aphasia Severity and Salivary Cortisol over Time  

PubMed Central

The current study explored the complicated interplay between aphasia and the stress biomarker, cortisol, in left hemisphere (LH) and right hemisphere (RH) stroke patients. Nineteen LH patients and 12 RH patients began the study between one to six months post-stroke and were followed for three months. During this time, language skills were assessed monthly while afternoon salivary cortisol samples were collected biweekly. The LH and RH groups showed improvements in language test scores over the course of three months; however, only naming skills in the RH group appeared to be associated with afternoon salivary cortisol levels. Furthermore, contradicting previous reports regarding laterality and cortisol regulation in humans, the current study found that both LH patients and RH patients exhibited similar afternoon salivary cortisol levels across all time points.

Laures-Gore, Jacqueline S.

2012-01-01

116

“Better but no cigar”: Persons with aphasia speak about their speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study examined responses of persons with aphasia (PWAs) to a general question about their speech.Aims: The goal was to describe their evaluative responses as positive, negative, or neutral\\/mixed and determine if responses differed, based on time post-onset, aphasia severity, and aphasia type.Methods & Procedures: A total of 71 participants from the AphasiaBank project were included. As part of

Davida Fromm; Audrey Holland; Elizabeth Armstrong; Margaret Forbes; Brian MacWhinney; Amy Risko; Nicole Mattison

2011-01-01

117

Functional activation studies of word processing in the recovery from aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some reviews on theories of recovery in aphasia put an emphasis on neural network models based on empirical data from evoked-potentials in aphasia as an approach to mapping recovery of cognitive function to neural structure. We will focus here on what we call an “anatomical” approach to look at recovery in aphasia. “Anatomical” theories of recovery stated by classical aphasiologists

Roland Zahn; Michael Schwarz; Walter Huber

2006-01-01

118

Direct and indirect treatment approaches for addressing short-term or working memory deficits in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A growing literature has documented that aphasia is frequently accompanied by deficits of short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM), and that such memory impairments may negatively influence language abilities and aphasia treatment outcomes. Consequently, treating STM and WM impairments in individuals with aphasia should not only remediate these memory impairments but also positively affect their response to language

Laura L. Murray

2012-01-01

119

Direct and indirect treatment approaches for addressing short-term or working memory deficits in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A growing literature has documented that aphasia is frequently accompanied by deficits of short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM), and that such memory impairments may negatively influence language abilities and aphasia treatment outcomes. Consequently, treating STM and WM impairments in individuals with aphasia should not only remediate these memory impairments but also positively affect their response to language

Laura L. Murray

2011-01-01

120

Neural Correlates of Phonological and Semantic-Based Anomia Treatment in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most naming treatments in aphasia either assume a phonological or semantic emphasis or a combination thereof. However, it is unclear whether semantic or phonological treatments recruit the same or different cortical areas in chronic aphasia. Employing three persons with aphasia, two of whom were non-fluent, the present study compared changes in…

Fridriksson, Julius; Moser, Dana; Bonilha, Leonardo; Morrow-Odom, K. Leigh; Shaw, Heather; Fridriksson, Astrid; Baylis, Gordon C.; Rorden, Chris

2007-01-01

121

Computer-Based Script Training for Aphasia: Emerging Themes from Post-Treatment Interviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study presents results of post-treatment interviews following computer-based script training for persons with chronic aphasia. Each of the 23 participants received 9 weeks of AphasiaScripts training. Post-treatment interviews were conducted with the person with aphasia and/or a significant other person. The 23 interviews yielded 584 coded…

Cherney, Leora R.; Halper, Anita S.; Kaye, Rosalind C.

2011-01-01

122

Relearning lost vocabulary in nonfluent progressive aphasia with MossTalk Words®  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The literature on aphasia has been growing rapidly, with reports of different therapeutic approaches for a post?stroke anomia. While individuals with post?stroke anomia frequently recover to some extent, the other end of the aphasia recovery continuum is occupied by those who experience relentless language dissolution as a result of progressive disorders such as primary progressive aphasia. One of the

R. Jokel; J. Cupit; E. Rochon; C. Leonard

2009-01-01

123

Crossed Aphasia and Related Anomalies of Cerebral Organization: Case Reports and a Genetic Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomalous lateralization of cognitive functions is observed in a small percentage of right-handed patients with unilateral brain damage, either crossed aphasia (aphasia after right brain damage) or “crossed nonaphasia” (left brain damage without aphasia but with visuospatial and other deficits typical of right brain damage). No comprehensive theory of these anomalous cases has been proposed. Nine new right-handed cases (plus

Marian Annett

1996-01-01

124

Battery system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A battery system includes: a battery unit formed by electrically connected in series a plurality of cell groups each made up with a plurality of battery cells electrically connected in series; a plurality of sensing lines for detecting voltages of respective battery cells in the battery unit; an integrated circuit provided to each of the cell group, to which the sensing lines for detecting voltages of respective battery cells in the cell group are connected; a case having housed therein a substrate at which a plurality of integrated circuits provided for the cell groups respectively are mounted; noise protection capacitors disposed between input terminals of the plurality of sensing lines; and at least one protection element against static electricity which is connected between the input terminals and the case.

2013-08-27

125

Conceptualizing and Measuring Working Memory and its Relationship to Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Background General agreement exists in the literature that individuals with aphasia can exhibit a working memory deficit that contributes to their language processing impairments. Though conceptualized within different working memory frameworks, researchers have suggested that individuals with aphasia have limited working memory capacity, impaired attention-control processes as well as impaired inhibitory mechanisms. However, across studies investigating working memory ability in individuals with aphasia, different measures have been used to quantify their working memory ability and identify the relationship between working memory and language performance. Aims The primary objectives of this article are to (1) review current working memory theoretical frameworks, (2) review tasks used to measure working memory, and (3) discuss findings from studies that have investigated working memory as they relate to language processing in aphasia. Main Contribution Though findings have been consistent across studies investigating working memory ability in individuals with aphasia, discussion of how working memory is conceptualized and defined is often missing, as is discussion of results within a theoretical framework. This is critical, as working memory is conceptualized differently across the different theoretical frameworks. They differ in explaining what limits capacity and the source of individual differences as well as how information is encoded, maintained, and retrieved. When test methods are considered within a theoretical framework, specific hypotheses can be tested and stronger conclusions that are less susceptible to different interpretations can be made. Conclusions Working memory ability has been investigated in numerous studies with individuals with aphasia. To better understand the underlying cognitive constructs that contribute to the language deficits exhibited by individuals with aphasia, future investigations should operationally define the cognitive constructs of interest and discuss findings within theoretical frameworks.

Wright, Heather Harris; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

2011-01-01

126

Measuring and inducing brain plasticity in chronic aphasia  

PubMed Central

Brain plasticity associated with anomia recovery in aphasia is poorly understood. Here, I review four recent studies from my lab that focused on brain modulation associated with long-term anomia outcome, its behavioral treatment, and the use of transcranial brain stimulation to enhance anomia treatment success in individuals with chronic aphasia caused by left hemisphere stroke. In a study that included 15 participants with aphasia who were compared to a group of 10 normal control subjects, we found that improved naming ability was associated with increased left hemisphere activity. A separate study (N=26) revealed similar results in that improved anomia treatment outcome was associated with increased left hemisphere recruitment. Taken together, these two studies suggest that improved naming in chronic aphasia relies on the damaged left hemisphere. Based on these findings, we conducted two studies to appreciate the effect of using low current transcranial electrical stimulation as an adjuvant to behavioral anomia treatment. Both studies yielded positive findings in that anomia treatment outcome was improved when it was coupled with real brain stimulation as compared with a placebo (sham) condition. Overall, these four studies support the notion that the intact cortex in the lesioned left hemisphere supports anomia recovery in aphasia. Learning outcomes: Readers will (a) be able to appreciate the possible influence of animal research upon the understanding of brain plasticity induced by aphasia treatment, (b) understand where functional changes associated with anomia treatment occur in the brain, (c) understand the basic principles of transcranial direct current stimulation, and (d) understand how brain stimulation coupled with aphasia treatment may potentially improve treatment outcome.

Fridriksson, Julius

2011-01-01

127

Polymer batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a state-of-the-art report on polymer battery development. The research and development activities related to materials of construction for battery components, i.e., anode, electrolyte, and cathode are reviewed. Major achievements have been accomplished in the last decade and the progress is very encouraging. Some potential problems have been identified and these problems may require significant development efforts before polymer batteries become a commercial reality.

Kumar, Binod; Marsh, Richard A.

1991-04-01

128

Rope batteries  

SciTech Connect

A flexible, water activated electrochemical cell and battery suitable generally for application in marine devices requiring low power levels for long periods of time without maintenance or replacement is fabricated in the shape of a rope. This novel shape permits extension of the rope battery cells over long distances and greatly increases the rates at which deleterious reaction products can be liberated to the surrounding water and thus greatly improves the efficiency of low drain water activated batteries.

Walsh, M. A.

1985-06-11

129

Battery monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Battery Monitoring's basic function is to monitor battery status. It can be able to timely report the states to user in order to maximize using of battery storage capacity and cycle life. We use 1-wire bus digital sensor. The sensor is DS2438.It can detect voltage, current, power consumption and temperature of the battery. 1~Wire Bus is a technology that it can communicate with the peripheral only with one line. This can greatly save system resources. Digital sensors integrates A/D conversion and the measured data is the digital traffic. This can improve system integration, simplify the circuit.

Li, Yamei; Wen, Jihua; Ma, Yanling

2009-11-01

130

Gogi aphasia or semantic dementia? Simulating and assessing poor verbal comprehension in a case of progressive fluent aphasia.  

PubMed

Many patients with progressive fluent aphasia present with poor verbal comprehension and profound word-finding difficulties in the context of much better picture comprehension and object use. The Japanese term Gogi (literally "word-meaning") aphasia matches this behavioural pattern. The alternative label of semantic dementia is most often used for these patients and this term emphasises a generalised degradation of conceptual knowledge that encompasses both verbal and nonverbal comprehension. The study presented here investigates whether progressive fluent aphasia has a functional impairment limited to the verbal domain (Gogi aphasia) or more widespread involvement of all conceptual knowledge (semantic dementia). We report data collected from a patient with progressive fluent aphasia, IW, who presented with profound word-finding difficulties and relatively poor word comprehension. The predictions of three theoretical interpretations of this pattern are investigated in a series of experimental tasks. We argue that IW's poor verbal comprehension and anomia cannot easily be explained as an impairment to either a semantic lexicon or a modality-specific verbal semantic system. Instead we favour an explanation in terms of a single impairment to a unitary semantic system within a framework that emphasises the underlying differences in the mapping between surface form and meaning, for words and pictures. We demonstrate how IW's pattern of data can be replicated in an implemented connectionist network that includes a systematic mapping for pictures but an arbitrary relationship for words. We conclude that although Gogi aphasia may be an accurate clinical description of the most striking features observed in progressive fluent aphasia, the disorder is primarily a progressive loss of conceptual knowledge-it is semantic dementia. PMID:20945190

Ralph, M A; Howard, D

2000-07-01

131

Wernicke's Aphasia Reflects a Combination of Acoustic-Phonological and Semantic Control Deficits: A Case-Series Comparison of Wernicke's Aphasia, Semantic Dementia and Semantic Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Wernicke's aphasia (WA) is the classical neurological model of comprehension impairment and, as a result, the posterior temporal lobe is assumed to be critical to semantic cognition. This conclusion is potentially confused by (a) the existence of patient groups with semantic impairment following damage to other brain regions (semantic dementia…

Robson, Holly; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

2012-01-01

132

Flat battery  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of the method of making a thin flat laminar battery comprising the steps of coating a substrate with a dispersion of zinc powder and water to produce an anode slurry, and thereafter diffusing electrolytes into said anode slurry; and electrical cells and batteries made by this process.

Buckler, S.A.; Cohen, F.S.; Kennedy, D.P.

1980-12-30

133

Battery housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention comprises a battery housing suitable for holding a battery which may generate a dangerously high level of internal pressure. The housing includes a receptacle having a vent passage covered by a rupture disc, the rupture disc in turn covered by a diffuser head having a longitudinal bore therein extending from the rupture disc to a blind end,

1985-01-01

134

Paintable battery.  

PubMed

If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations. PMID:22745900

Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M

2012-06-28

135

Paintable Battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations.

Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

2012-06-01

136

Paintable Battery  

PubMed Central

If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations.

Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

2012-01-01

137

Steps to success with technology for individuals with aphasia.  

PubMed

This article discusses how the Snyder Center for Aphasia Life Enhancement, an aphasia center in Baltimore, MD, currently uses technology in its programming to empower individuals with aphasia to actively participate in communications with families, friends, and the community. We describe the steps used to promote successful use of technology in everyday life. This process includes: (1) identifying a client's strongest modality/modalities for communication; (2) matching the individual's strengths with their personal goals and preferences; (3) developing a way to determine personal goals for technology use; and (4) selecting and training use of technologies that will support them in achieving their goals. Three brief case studies are presented to demonstrate the process by which programs were judged to be "best fits" for each member, and permitted them to reach a self-chosen goal. Finally, the steps that promoted successful learning and generalization to everyday life are described. PMID:22851345

McCall, Denise

2012-07-31

138

Amantadine for adynamic speech: possible benefit for aphasia?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Dopaminergic agents may stimulate behavior and verbal expression after frontal lobe dysfunction. Although amantadine is used in neurorehabilitation of motivational disorders and head injury, it is not commonly prescribed to improve aphasia. This pilot study examined verbal fluency on and off amantadine for nonfluent speech. DESIGN Four participants undergoing inpatient rehabilitation, meeting criteria for transcortical motor aphasia had stroke (2), stroke post-aneurysm surgery (1), or brain tumor resection (1). We administered amantadine 100 mg bid in an open-label, on-off protocol with multiple assessments per on-off period. RESULTS Off medication, subjects generated a mean 12.62 words (abnormally few) on the Controlled Oral Word Association test. On medication, word generation significantly improved to 17.71 words (p = 0.04), although scores remained psychometrically in the abnormal range. CONCLUSIONS Further research on amantadine specifically for nonfluent speech and nonfluent aphasia, including effect on functional communication and control conditions, may be warranted.

Barrett, Anna M.; Eslinger, Paul J.

2007-01-01

139

Progressive supranuclear palsy presenting with dynamic aphasia.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is an akinetic-rigid syndrome of unknown aetiology which usually presents with a combination of unsteadiness, bradykinesia, and disordered eye movement. Speech often becomes dysarthric but language disorders are not well recognised. METHODS: Three patients with PSP (pathologically confirmed in two) are reported in which the presenting symptoms were those of difficulty with language output. RESULTS: Neuropsychological testing showed considerable impairment on a range of single word tasks which require active initiation and search strategies (letter and category fluency, sentence completion), and on tests of narrative language production. By contrast, naming from pictures and from verbal descriptions, and word and sentence comprehension were largely intact. The degree of semantic memory impairment was also slight. CONCLUSIONS: Relatively selective involvement of cognitive processes critical for planning and initiating language output may occur in some patients with PSP. This presentation resembles the phenomenon of "verbal adynamia" or "dynamic aphasia" seen in patients with frontal lobe damage. Although definite cortical changes were present at postmortem examination, it is likely that the neuropsychological deficits reflect functional frontal deafferentation secondary to interruption of frontostriatal feedback loops.

Esmonde, T; Giles, E; Xuereb, J; Hodges, J

1996-01-01

140

Lithium battery  

SciTech Connect

In a lithium battery having a negative electrode formed with lithium as active material and the positive electrode formed with manganese dioxide, carbon fluoride or the like as the active material, the discharge capacity of the negative electrode is made smaller than the discharge capacity of the positive electrode, whereby a drop in the battery voltage during the final discharge stage is steepened, and prevents a device using such a lithium battery as a power supply from operating in an unstable manner, thereby improving the reliability of such device.

Ikeda, H.; Nakaido, S.; Narukara, S.

1983-08-16

141

A Comparison of Picture Description Abilities in Individuals with Vascular Subcortical Lesions and Huntington's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The lexical-semantic and syntactic abilities of a group of individuals with chronic nonthalamic subcortical (NS) lesions following stroke (n=6) were investigated using the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) picture description task [Kertesz, A. (1982). "The Western aphasia battery." New York: Grune and Stratton] and compared with those of a group of…

Jensen, Angela M.; Chenery, Helen J.; Copland, David A.

2006-01-01

142

A comparison of picture description abilities in individuals with vascular subcortical lesions and Huntington's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lexical–semantic and syntactic abilities of a group of individuals with chronic nonthalamic subcortical (NS) lesions following stroke (n=6) were investigated using the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) picture description task [Kertesz, A. (1982). The Western aphasia battery. New York: Grune and Stratton] and compared with those of a group of subjects with Huntington's Disease (HD) (n=6) and a nonneurologically impaired

Angela M. Jensen; Helen J. Chenery; David A. Copland

2006-01-01

143

Redox battery  

SciTech Connect

In a redox battery using a titanium redox system or chromium redox system as an active material for the negative electrode or a manganese redox system as an active material for the positive electrode, the electromotive force of the battery and the stability of electrolyte solutions are enhanced by addition of a chelating agent such as citric acid or a complexing agent such as phosphoric acid to the redox system used therein.

Kaneko, H.; Nozaki, K.

1982-12-07

144

Remediation of language processing in aphasia: Improving activation and maintenance of linguistic representations in (verbal) short-term memory  

PubMed Central

Background Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairments are invariably present in aphasia. Word processing involves a minimal form of verbal STM, i.e., the time course over which semantic and phonological representations are activated and maintained until they are comprehended, produced, or repeated. Thus it is reasonable that impairments of word processing and verbal STM may co-occur. The co-occurrence of language and STM impairments in aphasia has motivated an active area of research that has revealed much about the relationship of these two systems and the effect of their impairment on language function and verbal learning (Freedman & Martin, 2001; Martin & Saffran, 1999; Trojano & Grossi, 1995). In keeping with this view a number of researchers have developed treatment protocols to improve verbal STM in order to improve language function (e.g., Koenig-Bruhin & Studer-Eichenberger, 2007). This account of aphasia predicts that treatment of a fundamental ability, such as STM, which supports language function, should lead to improvements that generalise to content and tasks beyond those implemented in treatment. Aims We investigated the efficacy of a treatment for language impairment that targets two language support processes: verbal short-term memory (STM) and executive processing, in the context of a language task (repetition). We hypothesised that treatment of these abilities would improve repetition abilities and performance on other language tasks that require STM. Method A single-participant, multiple-baseline, multiple-probe design across behaviours was used with a participant with conduction aphasia. The treatment involved repetition of words and nonwords under three “interval” conditions, which varied the time between hearing and repeating the stimulus. Measures of treatment effects included acquisition, maintenance, and follow-up data, effect sizes, and pre- and post-treatment performance on a test battery that varies the STM and executive function demands of language tasks. Outcomes & Results Improvement of repetition was mostly specific to treated stimuli. Post-treatment measures of language ability indicated improvements in single and multiple word processing tasks, verbal working memory tasks, and verbal span. Conclusions Treatment of STM and executive processes in the context of a word repetition task resulted in improvements in other non-treated language tasks. The approach used in this study can be incorporated into other language-processing tasks typically used in treatment of language disorders (e.g., sentence processing).

Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Kohen, Francine; Martin, Nadine

2012-01-01

145

Reciprocal scaffolding treatment: A person with aphasia as clinical teacher  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Reciprocal Scaffolding Treatment (RST) is one of several potentially beneficial life participation approaches for aphasia. In RST, treatment occurs during genuine, relevant, and context dependent interactions that represent goals at the activity and participation levels of the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF; World Health Organization, 2001) and is based on an apprenticeship model

Jan Avent; Janet Patterson; Angelica Lu; Kelly Small

2009-01-01

146

Cognition and Aphasia: A Discussion and a Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study involving 13 right-handed, left hemisphere stroke patients with aphasia investigated the relationship between linguistic and nonlinguistic skills. No significant relationship was found between linguistic and nonlinguistic skills, and between nonlinguistic skills and age, education, or time post onset. Instead, individual profiles of…

Helm-Estabrooks, Nancy

2002-01-01

147

WORKING MEMORY AND L2 CONSTRAINTS IN APHASIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether aphasia, as a result of a stroke, has any impact on working memory capacity and performance in L2 tasks. Three span tests - operation-word span, reading span and syntactic span - and two L2 tasks - reading comprehension and syntactic analysis - were performed by one adult with left-hemisphere brain damage and three normal individuals. The

INGRID FONTANINI

148

Acute conduction aphasia: An analysis of 20 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the linguistic performance of 20 patients with acute conduction aphasia (CA) is described. CA presented as a relatively homogeneous aphasic syndrome characterized by a severe impairment of repetition and fluent expressive language functions with frequent phonemic paraphasias, repetitive self-corrections, word-finding difficulties, and paraphrasing. Language comprehension as assessed by tests of auditory and reading comprehension was only mildly

Lisa Bartha; Thomas Benke

2003-01-01

149

Oral Reading in Bilingual Aphasia: Evidence from Mongolian and Chinese  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cognitive neuropsychological studies of bilingual patients with aphasia have contributed to our understanding of how the brain processes different languages. The question we asked is whether differences in script have any impact on language processing in bilingual aphasic patients who speak languages with different writing systems: Chinese and…

Weekes, Brendan Stuart; Su, I. Fan; Yin, Wengang; Zhang, Xihong

2007-01-01

150

The Neural Basis of Syntactic Deficits in Primary Progressive Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) vary considerably in terms of which brain regions are impacted, as well as in the extent to which syntactic processing is impaired. Here we review the literature on the neural basis of syntactic deficits in PPA. Structural and functional imaging studies have most consistently associated syntactic…

Wilson, Stephen M.; Galantucci, Sebastiano; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

2012-01-01

151

Working Memory in Aphasia: Theory, Measures, and Clinical Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recently, researchers have suggested that deficits in working memory capacity contribute to language-processing difficulties observed in individuals with aphasia (e.g., I. Caspari, S. Parkinson, L. LaPointe, & R. Katz, 1998; R. A. Downey et al., 2004; N. Friedmann & A. Gvion, 2003; H. H. Wright, M. Newhoff, R. Downey, & S. Austermann, 2003). A…

Wright, Heather Harris; Shisler, Rebecca J.

2005-01-01

152

Measuring Lexical Diversity in Narrative Discourse of People with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: A microlinguistic content analysis for assessing lexical semantics in people with aphasia (PWA) is lexical diversity (LD). Sophisticated techniques have been developed to measure LD. However, validity evidence for these methodologies when applied to the discourse of PWA is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four measures…

Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather H.; West, Thomas M.

2013-01-01

153

Progranulin-Associated Primary Progressive Aphasia: A Distinct Phenotype?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The neuropsychological features of the primary progressive aphasia (PPA) syndromes continue to be defined. Here we describe a detailed neuropsychological case study of a patient with a mutation in the progranulin ("GRN") gene who presented with progressive word-finding difficulty. Key neuropsychological features in this case included gravely…

Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warrington, Elizabeth K.; Warren, Jason D.

2010-01-01

154

Effects of Utterance Length on Lip Kinematics in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most existing models of language production and speech motor control do not explicitly address how language requirements affect speech motor functions, as these domains are usually treated as separate and independent from one another. This investigation compared lip movements during bilabial closure between five individuals with mild aphasia and…

Bose, Arpita; van Lieshout, Pascal

2008-01-01

155

ACES: aphasia emulation, realism, and the turing test  

Microsoft Academic Search

To an outsider it may appear as though an individual with aphasia has poor cognitive function. However, the problem resides in the individual's receptive and expressive language, and not in their ability to think. This misperception, paired with a lack of empathy, can have a direct impact on quality of life and medical care. Hailpern's 2011 paper on ACES demonstrated

Joshua Hailpern; Marina Danilevsky; Karrie Karahalios

2011-01-01

156

Diffusion tensor imaging in the study of language and aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an emerging research technique that is used to map and characterise white matter tracts in the healthy and damaged brain.Aims: The aim of this paper is to familiarise the readers with DTI while giving the tools to understand and evaluate recent developments in aphasia research that use DTI methodology.Main Contribution: Principles of DTI technology

Sharon Geva; Marta Correia; Elizabeth A. Warburton

2011-01-01

157

Executive function and conversational strategies in bilingual aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Deficits of executive function (EF) have been proposed as all or part of the underlying mechanisms of language impairment in at least some types of aphasia. Executive functions also play a role in the recovery process. There is evidence that bilingual persons have some executive functioning advantages compared to monolingual persons. In this paper we combine two lines of

Claire Penn; Tali Frankel; Jennifer Watermeyer; Nicole Russell

2010-01-01

158

Oral Reading in Bilingual Aphasia: Evidence from Mongolian and Chinese  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive neuropsychological studies of bilingual patients with aphasia have contributed to our understanding of how the brain processes different languages. The question we asked is whether differences in script have any impact on language processing in bilingual aphasic patients who speak languages with different writing systems: Chinese and…

Weekes, Brendan Stuart; Su, I. Fan; Yin, Wengang; Zhang, Xihong

2007-01-01

159

Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Three Individuals with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: There is evidence to suggest that people with aphasia (PWA) may have deficits in attention stemming from the inefficient allocation of resources. The inaccurate perception of task demand, or sense of effort, may underlie the misallocation of the available attention resources. Given the lack of treatment options for improving attention…

Orenstein, Ellen; Basilakos, Alexandra; Marshall, Rebecca Shisler

2012-01-01

160

Identifying Behavioral Measures of Stress in Individuals with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: To develop valid indicators of stress in individuals with aphasia (IWA) by examining the relationship between certain language variables (error frequency [EF] and word productivity [WP]) and cortisol reactivity. Method: Fourteen IWA and 10 controls participated in a speaking task. Salivary cortisol was collected pre- and posttask. WP and…

Laures-Gore, Jacqueline S.; DuBay, Michaela F.; Duff, Melissa C.; Buchanan, Tony W.

2010-01-01

161

Clinical Trajectories and Biological Features of Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by a gradual dissolution of language, but relative sparing of other cognitive domains during the initial stages of the disease. Research has led to sub- stantial progress in understanding the clinical characteristics, genetics, and neuropathology of this syndrome. This article reviews the clinical criteria for diagnosing PPA, discusses the utility of

E. J. Rogalski; M. M. Mesulam

2009-01-01

162

Speech Errors in Progressive Non-Fluent Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The nature and frequency of speech production errors in neurodegenerative disease have not previously been precisely quantified. In the present study, 16 patients with a progressive form of non-fluent aphasia (PNFA) were asked to tell a story from a wordless children's picture book. Errors in production were classified as either phonemic,…

Ash, Sharon; McMillan, Corey; Gunawardena, Delani; Avants, Brian; Morgan, Brianna; Khan, Alea; Moore, Peachie; Gee, James; Grossman, Murray

2010-01-01

163

Non-verbal communication in severe aphasia: influence of aphasia, apraxia, or semantic processing?  

PubMed

Patients suffering from severe aphasia have to rely on non-verbal means of communication to convey a message. However, to date it is not clear which patients are able to do so. Clinical experience indicates that some patients use non-verbal communication strategies like gesturing very efficiently whereas others fail to transmit semantic content by non-verbal means. Concerns have been expressed that limb apraxia would affect the production of communicative gestures. Research investigating if and how apraxia influences the production of communicative gestures, led to contradictory outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of limb apraxia on spontaneous gesturing. Further, linguistic and non-verbal semantic processing abilities were explored as potential factors that might influence non-verbal expression in aphasic patients. Twenty-four aphasic patients with highly limited verbal output were asked to retell short video-clips. The narrations were videotaped. Gestural communication was analyzed in two ways. In the first part of the study, we used a form-based approach. Physiological and kinetic aspects of hand movements were transcribed with a notation system for sign languages. We determined the formal diversity of the hand gestures as an indicator of potential richness of the transmitted information. In the second part of the study, comprehensibility of the patients' gestural communication was evaluated by naive raters. The raters were familiarized with the model video-clips and shown the recordings of the patients' retelling without sound. They were asked to indicate, for each narration, which story was being told and which aspects of the stories they recognized. The results indicate that non-verbal faculties are the most important prerequisites for the production of hand gestures. Whereas results on standardized aphasia testing did not correlate with any gestural indices, non-verbal semantic processing abilities predicted the formal diversity of hand gestures while apraxia predicted the comprehensibility of gesturing. PMID:21458789

Hogrefe, Katharina; Ziegler, Wolfram; Weidinger, Nicole; Goldenberg, Georg

2011-03-08

164

(MPCBM?\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Global aphasia without hemiparesis (GAWH) is a rare stroke syndrome, which typically occurs after large perisylvian lesions involving both the Broca's and Wernicke's areas. This study localized the lesions and examined the pathogenic mechanism in Korean patients with GAWH. Methods: Twelve patients were diagnosed with aphasia using the Western Aphasia Battery. To identify decreased perfusion, which might be functionally

Kwang Gi Heo; Yong Tae Kwak; Kyoon Huh

165

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Intervention in Long-Term Aphasia Post-Stroke: The Experience from CHANT (Communication Hub for Aphasia in North Tyneside)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Despite recognition of the need for increased long-term support for people with aphasia following stroke, there remains limited evidence for effective service-level interventions. Aims: To evaluate the outcomes and experiences of people participating in the Communication Hub for Aphasia in North Tyneside (CHANT), a 2-year partnership…

Mumby, Katharyn; Whitworth, Anne

2012-01-01

166

Emerging Battery Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report outlines emerging battery technologies. Included in this report are the following sections. The need for energy storage, the resulting programs, some results (lead-acid battery, zinc/chlorine battery and zinc/bromine battery) and the potential...

J. L. Chamberlin

1984-01-01

167

Unexpected brain-language relationships in aphasia: Evidence from transcortical sensory aphasia associated with frontal lobe lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The syndrome of transcortical sensory aphasia (TCSA) is usually associated with extraperisylvian lesions of the left hemisphere that involve either posterior cortical regions (temporal-occipital cortex and inferior parietal cortex) or subcortical structures (thalamus). In exceptional cases, TCSA occurs in association with anterior perisylvian lesions involving the left Broca's area and its adjoining regions. This unconventional brain?language relationship is intriguing, because

Marcelo L. Berthier

2001-01-01

168

Using visual scene displays to create a shared communication space for a person with aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Low-tech visual scene displays (VSDs) combine contextually rich pictures and written text to support the communication of people with aphasia. VSDs create a shared communication space in which a person with aphasia and a communication partner co-construct messages.Aims: The researchers examined the effect of low-tech VSDs on the content and quality of communicative interactions between a person with aphasia

Karen Hux; Megan Buechter; Sarah Wallace; Kristy Weissling

2010-01-01

169

Recent developments in functional and structural imaging of aphasia recovery after stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Functional and structural neuroimaging techniques can increase our knowledge about the neural processes underlying recovery from post-stroke language impairments (aphasia).Aims: In the present review we highlight recent developments in neuroimaging research of aphasia recovery.Main Contribution: We review (a) cross-sectional findings in aphasia with regard to local brain functions and functional connectivity, (b) structural and functional imaging findings using longitudinal

Marcus Meinzer; Stacy Harnish; Tim Conway; Bruce Crosson

2011-01-01

170

A comparison of drill- and communication-based treatment for aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Traditional aphasia therapy is based primarily on repetition and drill. Recent treatment studies have suggested that communication-based interactions may be at least as effective if not more so in achieving positive outcomes.Aims: This study was undertaken to directly compare the outcomes of drill-based vs. communication-based interactions in modified Constraint-Induced Aphasia Therapy.Methods & Procedures: Two women with chronic non-fluent aphasia

Daniel Kempler; Mira Goral

2011-01-01

171

RADIOACTIVE BATTERY  

DOEpatents

A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

1959-11-17

172

"Making a good time": the role of friendship in living successfully with aphasia.  

PubMed

Loss of friendship post-onset of aphasia is well documented, with reduced social network size and social isolation commonly reported. Because friendship has strong links to psychological well-being and health, increased knowledge about friendships of individuals with aphasia will have important clinical implications. This study aimed to explore the perspectives of 25 community dwelling individuals with chronic aphasia on the role of friendship in living successfully with aphasia. Thematic analysis of transcripts from semi-structured in-depth interviews revealed three over-arching themes relating to the role of friendship in participants' experience of life with aphasia: living with changes in friendships, good times together and support from friends, and the importance of stroke and aphasia friends. Overall, findings highlighted the valued role of friendship in living successfully with aphasia, while also providing evidence of how friendships change and evolve in both negative and positive ways following onset of aphasia. Clinicians are challenged to work creatively to address the role of friendship in life post-stroke in partnership with individuals with aphasia, their families, and friends. PMID:22713174

Brown, Kyla; Davidson, Bronwyn; Worrall, Linda E; Howe, Tami

2012-06-19

173

The syndrome of Gogi (word meaning) aphasia. Selective impairment of kanji processing.  

PubMed

In 1943, Imura described an aphasic syndrome shown by Japanese patients and designated it as Gogi ("word-meaning") aphasia. Salient features are selective impairment of processing kanji or Chinese characters and difficulty in finding access to the lexicon in both production and reception, with preservation of processing kana or phonetic signs, and fluent oral repetition. A patient with this syndrome is presented, with emphasis on the nature of his kanji impairment. Cases of Gogi aphasia in the literature are reviewed and contrasted to cases of Broca's aphasia with selective impairment of kana processing. The implications for a neurolinguistic model of language processing in aphasia are discussed. PMID:1171393

Sasanuma, S; Monoi, H

1975-07-01

174

Battery casing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A battery casing comprises an inner casing of a solid sodium ion-conductive material with one open end and an outer metallic casing with an upper portion and a lower portion. The upper portion has opposite open ends, with an inwardly extending flange affixed to the upper portion at its first open end. The lower portion has opposite open ends, a

Thornton

1974-01-01

175

Principles underlying the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) and its uses.  

PubMed

The Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) is designed to be objective (so it can be administered by a lay native speaker of the language) and equivalent across languages (to allow for a comparison between the languages of a given patient as well as across patients from different institutions). It has been used not only with aphasia but also with any condition that results in language impairment (Alzheimer's, autism, cerebellar lesions, developmental language disorders, mild cognitive impairment, motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's, vascular dementia, etc.). It has also been used for research purposes on non-brain-damaged unilingual and bilingual populations. By means of its 32 tasks, it assesses comprehension and production of implicit linguistic competence and metalinguistic knowledge (which provide indications for apposite rehabilitation strategies). Versions of the BAT are available for free download at www.mcgill.ca/linguistics/research/bat/. PMID:21675824

Paradis, Michel

2011-06-01

176

Towards a clearer definition of logopenic progressive aphasia.  

PubMed

Logopenic progressive aphasia is the most recently described clinical variant of primary progressive aphasia (PPA), defined by impairment of lexical retrieval and sentence repetition. Unlike other PPA variants, the logopenic variant of PPA (lv-PPA) is commonly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), a fact that is relevant to the selection of patients for clinical trials and disease-modifying therapies. Despite the straightforward definition and coherent pathological association, the existence of lv-PPA has been challenged, as its distinction from AD or other PPA variants can be difficult. Despite these issues, lv-PPA patients display characteristic linguistic deficits, a pattern of brain atrophy, and possibly genetic susceptibility, which warrant considering this variant as a discrete AD endophenotype. More specific clinical and anatomical markers can strengthen the consistency of this syndrome. PMID:24027007

Leyton, Cristian E; Hodges, John R

2013-11-01

177

Validity of an eye-tracking method to index working memory in people with and without aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Working memory (WM) is essential to auditory comprehension; thus understanding of the nature of WM is vital to research and clinical practice to support people with aphasia. A key challenge in assessing WM in people with aphasia is related to the myriad deficits prevalent in aphasia, including deficits in attention, hearing, vision, speech, and motor control of the limbs.

Maria V. Ivanova; Brooke Hallowell

2012-01-01

178

Validity of an eye-tracking method to index working memory in people with and without aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Working memory (WM) is essential to auditory comprehension; thus understanding of the nature of WM is vital to research and clinical practice to support people with aphasia. A key challenge in assessing WM in people with aphasia is related to the myriad deficits prevalent in aphasia, including deficits in attention, hearing, vision, speech, and motor control of the limbs.

Maria V. Ivanova; Brooke Hallowell

2011-01-01

179

Can tDCS enhance treatment of aphasia after stroke?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent advances in the application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in healthy populations have led to the exploration of the technique as an adjuvant method to traditional speech therapies in patients with post-stroke aphasia.Aims: The purpose of the review is: (i) to review the features of tDCS that make it an attractive tool for research and potential future use in

Rachel Holland; Jenny Crinion

2011-01-01

180

Investigation of self-monitoring in fluent aphasia with jargon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Some individuals with fluent aphasia produce jargon errors in speech production. Jargon likely results from derailed encoding operations required for language production, although the exact mechanism remains debated. It is also unclear if persons who produce jargon are able to self-monitor; that is, detect the non-word status of their imminent utterance and self-correct the error.Aims: This study investigated the

Monica Sampson; Yasmeen Faroqi-Shah

2011-01-01

181

Anomia training and brain stimulation in chronic aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have reported enhanced performance on language tasks induced by non-invasive brain stimulation, i.e., repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in patients with aphasia due to stroke or Alzheimer's disease (AD). The first part of this article reviews brain stimulation studies related to language recovery in aphasic patients. The second part reports results from

Maria Cotelli; Anna Fertonani; Antonio Miozzo; Sandra Rosini; Rosa Manenti; Alessandro Padovani; Ana Ines Ansaldo; Stefano F. Cappa; Carlo Miniussi

2011-01-01

182

Inflammatory pseudotumor of the head presenting with hemiparesis and aphasia.  

PubMed

Inflammatory pseudotumor most commonly occurs in the orbit and produces orbital pseudotumor, but extension into brain parenchyma is uncommon. We report a case of inflammatory pseudotumor involving sphenoid sinus, cavernous sinus, superior orbital fissure, orbital muscle, and intracranial extension into left temporal lobe producing right hemiparesis and wernicke's aphasia. The patient improved clinically and radiologically with steroid administration. This paper provides an insight into the spectrum of involvement of inflammatory pseudotumor and the importance of early diagnosis of the benign condition. PMID:22937331

Saifudheen, K; Jose, James; Gafoor, V Abdul

2011-07-14

183

Inflammatory Pseudotumor of the Head Presenting with Hemiparesis and Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory pseudotumor most commonly occurs in the orbit and produces orbital pseudotumor, but extension into brain parenchyma is uncommon. We report a case of inflammatory pseudotumor involving sphenoid sinus, cavernous sinus, superior orbital fissure, orbital muscle, and intracranial extension into left temporal lobe producing right hemiparesis and wernicke's aphasia. The patient improved clinically and radiologically with steroid administration. This paper provides an insight into the spectrum of involvement of inflammatory pseudotumor and the importance of early diagnosis of the benign condition.

Saifudheen, K.; Jose, James; Gafoor, V. Abdul

2011-01-01

184

Psychological distress after stroke and aphasia: the first six months  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We explored the factors that predicted psychological distress in the first six months post stroke in a sample including people with aphasia.Design: Prospective longitudinal observational study.Setting and subjects: Participants with a first stroke from two acute stroke units were assessed while still in hospital (baseline) and at three and six months post stroke.Main measures: Distress was assessed with the

Katerina Hilari; Sarah Northcott; Penny Roy; Jane Marshall; Richard D Wiggins; Jeremy Chataway; Diane Ames

2010-01-01

185

Describing the experience of aphasia rehabilitation through metaphor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous research into metaphoric expression has suggested that metaphor offers a window into intra-individual conceptions as well as into socio-cultural understandings of illness and recovery. This study explored how people with aphasia, their family members, and their speech-language pathologists described their experiences of rehabilitation through the linguistic resource of metaphor.Aims: This study aimed to compare the perspectives of five

Alison Ferguson; Linda Worrall; Bronwyn Davidson; Deborah Hersh; Tami Howe; Sue Sherratt

2010-01-01

186

Lexical and Prosodic Effects on Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution in Aphasia  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine whether and when individuals with aphasia and healthy controls use lexical and prosodic information during on-line sentence comprehension. Individuals with aphasia and controls (n = 12 per group) participated in a self-paced listening experiment. The stimuli were early closure sentences, such as “While the parents watched(,) the child sang a song.” Both lexical and prosodic cues were manipulated. The cues were biased toward the subject- or object- of the ambiguous noun phrase (the child). Thus, there were two congruous conditions (in which both lexical cues and prosodic cues were consistent) and two incongruous conditions (in which lexical and prosodic cues conflicted). The results showed that the people with aphasia had longer listening times for the ambiguous noun phrase (the child) when the cues were conflicting, rather than consistent. The controls showed effects earlier in the sentence, at the subordinate verb (watched or danced). Both groups showed evidence of reanalysis at the main verb (sang). These effects demonstrate that the aphasic group was sensitive to the lexical and prosodic cues, but used them on a delayed time course relative to the control group.

DeDe, Gayle

2012-01-01

187

Effects of utterance length on lip kinematics in aphasia.  

PubMed

Most existing models of language production and speech motor control do not explicitly address how language requirements affect speech motor functions, as these domains are usually treated as separate and independent from one another. This investigation compared lip movements during bilabial closure between five individuals with mild aphasia and five age and gender-matched control speakers when the linguistic characteristics of the stimuli were varied by increasing the number of syllables. Upper and lower lip movement data were collected for mono-, bi- and tri-syllabic nonword sequences using an AG 100 EMMA system. Each task was performed under both normal and fast rate conditions. Single articulator kinematic parameters (peak velocity, amplitude, duration, and cyclic spatio-temporal index) were measured to characterize lip movements. Results revealed that compared to control speakers, individuals with aphasia showed significantly longer movement duration and lower movement stability for longer items (bi- and tri-syllables). Moreover, utterance length affected the lip kinematics, in that the monosyllables had smaller peak velocities, smaller amplitudes and shorter durations compared to bi- and trisyllables, and movement stability was lowest for the trisyllables. In addition, the rate-induced changes (smaller amplitude and shorter duration with increased rate) were most prominent for the short items (i.e., monosyllables). These findings provide further support for the notion that linguistic changes have an impact on the characteristics of speech movements, and that individuals with aphasia are more affected by such changes than control speakers. PMID:18440061

Bose, Arpita; van Lieshout, Pascal

2008-04-25

188

Building on residual speech: a portable processing prosthesis for aphasia.  

PubMed

This article examines the challenges of developing electronic communication aids for individuals with mild-to-moderate aphasia and introduces a new portable aid designed for this population. People with some residual speech are often reluctant to use communication aids that replace their natural speech with synthesized speech or the recorded utterances of another individual. SentenceShaper (computer software; Psycholinguistic Technologies, Inc; Jenkintown, Pennsylvania; www.sentenceshaper.com), a computerized "processing prosthesis," allows the user to record spoken sentence fragments and hold them in memory long enough to combine them into larger structures. Previous studies have shown that spoken narratives created with SentenceShaper--composed of concatenated, recorded segments in the user's own voice--may show marked superiority to the individual's spontaneous speech and that sustained use may engender treatment effects. However, these findings do not guarantee the program's efficacy to support functional communication or its acceptance by people with aphasia. Here, we examine strengths and weaknesses of SentenceShaper as the basis for a communication aid for individuals with mild-to-moderate aphasia and review factors guiding the design of SentenceShaper To Go, a portable extension to the program. Data from a "proof-of-concept" pilot study with the portable system suggest the viability of providing computer-based support for users' residual speech in composing and delivering spoken messages. PMID:19319763

Linebarger, Marcia C; Romania, John F; Fink, Ruth B; Bartlett, Megan R; Schwartz, Myrna F

2008-01-01

189

From singing to speaking: facilitating recovery from nonfluent aphasia.  

PubMed

It has been reported for more than 100 years that patients with severe nonfluent aphasia are better at singing lyrics than they are at speaking the same words. This observation led to the development of melodic intonation therapy (MIT). However, the efficacy of this therapy has yet to be substantiated in a randomized controlled trial. Furthermore, its underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. The two unique components of MIT are the intonation of words and simple phrases using a melodic contour that follows the prosody of speech and the rhythmic tapping of the left hand that accompanies the production of each syllable and serves as a catalyst for fluency. Research has shown that both components are capable of engaging fronto-temporal regions in the right hemisphere, thereby making MIT particularly well suited for patients with large left hemisphere lesions who also suffer from nonfluent aphasia. Recovery from aphasia can happen in two ways: either through the recruitment of perilesional brain regions in the affected hemisphere, with variable recruitment of right-hemispheric regions if the lesion is small, or through the recruitment of homologous language and speech-motor regions in the unaffected hemisphere if the lesion of the affected hemisphere is extensive. Treatment-associated neural changes in patients undergoing MIT indicate that the unique engagement of right-hemispheric structures (e.g., the superior temporal lobe, primary sensorimotor, premotor and inferior frontal gyrus regions) and changes in the connections across these brain regions may be responsible for its therapeutic effect. PMID:21088709

Schlaug, Gottfried; Norton, Andrea; Marchina, Sarah; Zipse, Lauryn; Wan, Catherine Y

2010-09-01

190

Metal-Air Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

2011-08-01

191

Battery Safety Basics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

Roy, Ken

2010-01-01

192

Battery Safety Basics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

Roy, Ken

2010-01-01

193

Support for Anterior Temporal Involvement in Semantic Error Production in Aphasia: New Evidence from VLSM  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Semantic errors in aphasia (e.g., naming a horse as "dog") frequently arise from faulty mapping of concepts onto lexical items. A recent study by our group used voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) methods with 64 patients with chronic aphasia to identify voxels that carry an association with semantic errors. The strongest associations were…

Walker, Grant M.; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Kimberg, Daniel Y.; Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Brecher, Adelyn; Dell, Gary S.; Coslett, H. Branch

2011-01-01

194

A qualitative longitudinal case study of a daughter's adaptation process to her father's aphasia and stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Aphasia has repercussions on the lives of families who adjust to the new situation of their parent. Most data concerning how family members adapt to aphasia concern spouses, and less so children. However, adult children are likely to encounter specific problems because of the different nature of parent–child relationships.Aims: This study aimed to describe the experience of a daughter's

Guylaine Le Dorze; Véronique Tremblay; Claire Croteau

2009-01-01

195

What people with aphasia want: Their goals according to the ICF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The goals of people with aphasia should guide service delivery. Services are increasingly influenced by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) (WHO, 2001), but little is yet known about whether the goals of people with aphasia span the full spectrum of the ICF.Aims: The purpose of this study was to describe the goals of people with

Linda Worrall; Sue Sherratt; Penny Rogers; Tami Howe; Deborah Hersh; Alison Ferguson; Bronwyn Davidson

2011-01-01

196

Revealing and Quantifying the Impaired Phonological Analysis Underpinning Impaired Comprehension in Wernicke's Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Wernicke's aphasia is a condition which results in severely disrupted language comprehension following a lesion to the left temporo-parietal region. A phonological analysis deficit has traditionally been held to be at the root of the comprehension impairment in Wernicke's aphasia, a view consistent with current functional neuroimaging which finds…

Robson, Holly; Keidel, James L.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Sage, Karen

2012-01-01

197

Linguistic and Neuropsychological Deficits in Crossed Conduction Aphasia: Report of Three Cases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study describes the linguistic and neuropsychological findings in three right-handed patients with crossed conduction aphasia. Despite the location of the lesion in the right hemisphere, all patients displayed a combination of linguistic deficits typically found in conduction aphasia following analogous damage to the left hemisphere.…

Bartha, Lisa; Marien, Peter; Poewe, Werner; Benke, Thomas

2004-01-01

198

Releasing the Constraints on Aphasia Therapy: The Positive Impact of Gesture and Multimodality Treatments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: There is a 40-year history of interest in the use of arm and hand gestures in treatments that target the reduction of aphasic linguistic impairment and compensatory methods of communication (Rose, 2006). Arguments for constraining aphasia treatment to the verbal modality have arisen from proponents of constraint-induced aphasia therapy…

Rose, Miranda L.

2013-01-01

199

Attention and Other Cognitive Deficits in Aphasia: Presence and Relation to Language and Communication Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study was designed to further elucidate the relationship between cognition and aphasia, with a focus on attention. It was hypothesized that individuals with aphasia would display variable deficit patterns on tests of attention and other cognitive functions and that their attention deficits, particularly those of complex attention…

Murray, Laura L.

2012-01-01

200

Use of semantic feature analysis in group discourse treatment for aphasia: Extension and expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Semantic feature analysis (SFA) is a treatment for lexical retrieval impairment in which participants are cued to provide semantic information about concepts they have difficulty naming, in an effort to facilitate accurate lexical retrieval (Boyle, 2004a). Previous work has provided preliminary evidence that persons with aphasia who participated in SFA-focused group aphasia treatment demonstrate improved lexical retrieval in discourse,

Carolyn Falconer; Sharon M. Antonucci

2011-01-01

201

Use of semantic feature analysis in group discourse treatment for aphasia: Extension and expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Semantic feature analysis (SFA) is a treatment for lexical retrieval impairment in which participants are cued to provide semantic information about concepts they have difficulty naming, in an effort to facilitate accurate lexical retrieval (Boyle, 2004a). Previous work has provided preliminary evidence that persons with aphasia who participated in SFA-focused group aphasia treatment demonstrate improved lexical retrieval in discourse,

Carolyn Falconer; Sharon M. Antonucci

2012-01-01

202

Exploring the use of graphics in written health information for people with aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: One of the documented design features of aphasia-friendly written information is the inclusion of graphics. People with aphasia have identified a preference for the inclusion of photographic illustrations in printed education materials (PEMs); however this preference contrasts with research suggesting that line drawings may be a more effective graphic type. Few studies have explored how graphics affect reading comprehension

Tanya A. Rose; Linda E. Worrall; Louise M. Hickson; Tammy C. Hoffmann

2011-01-01

203

Attention and Other Cognitive Deficits in Aphasia: Presence and Relation to Language and Communication Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This study was designed to further elucidate the relationship between cognition and aphasia, with a focus on attention. It was hypothesized that individuals with aphasia would display variable deficit patterns on tests of attention and other cognitive functions and that their attention deficits, particularly those of complex attention…

Murray, Laura L.

2012-01-01

204

Group Effects of Instrumentality and Name Relation on Action Naming in Bilingual Anomic Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Verb production in sentences was investigated in two groups of late bilingual Greek-English speakers: individuals with anomic aphasia and a control group. Verb retrieval in sentences was significantly impaired in both languages for the individuals with anomic aphasia. Additional results revealed no effect of instrumentality on action naming in…

Kambanaros, Maria

2009-01-01

205

Conversational partner training programmes in aphasia: A review of key themes and participants' roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Conversational training programmes are increasingly being reported for partners of people with aphasia. While these all aim to increase communicative effectiveness between people with aphasia and their communication partners, and all report measurable success, the programmes vary in terms of selection criteria for participants, the methods used, and the way in which they have been evaluated. This paper critically

Sonja Turner; Anne Whitworth

2006-01-01

206

"You Needed to Rehab...Families as Well": Family Members' Own Goals for Aphasia Rehabilitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Aphasia affects family members in addition to the individuals with the communication disorder. In order to develop appropriate services for the relatives of people with aphasia post-stroke, their rehabilitation goals need to be identified. Aim: The aim of the current investigation was to identify the rehabilitation goals that family…

Howe, Tami; Davidson, Bronwyn; Worrall, Linda; Hersh, Deborah; Ferguson, Alison; Sherratt, Sue; Gilbert, Jocelyn

2012-01-01

207

Development of a Short Form of the Boston Naming Test for Individuals with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a short form of the Boston Naming Test (BNT; Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001) for individuals with aphasia and compare it with 2 existing short forms originally analyzed with responses from people with dementia and neurologically healthy adults. Method: Development of the new BNT-Aphasia

del Toro, Christina M.; Bislick, Lauren P.; Comer, Matthew; Velozo, Craig; Romero, Sergio; Rothi, Leslie J. Gonzalez; Kendall, Diane L.

2011-01-01

208

Impact of Personal Relevance and Contextualization on Word-Picture Matching by People with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: To determine the effect of personal relevance and contextualization of images on the preferences and word-picture matching accuracy of people with severe aphasia. Method: Eight adults with aphasia performed 2 experimental tasks to reveal their preferences and accuracy during word-picture matching. The researchers used 3 types of visual…

McKelvey, Miechelle L.; Hux, Karen; Dietz, Aimee; Beukelman, David R.

2010-01-01

209

Integrated narrative analysis in multilingual aphasia: The relationship among narrative structure, grammaticality, and fluency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Amid robust evidence for the efficacy of language treatment in aphasia, equivocal results have been reported for the generalisation of treatment effects to items and tasks not practised during therapy. Moreover, measuring generalisation using functional language production has proven challenging, especially in the context of multilingual aphasia.Aim: In this paper we analysed four domains—discourse structure, sentence structure, instances of

Carmit Altman; Mira Goral; Erika S. Levy

2012-01-01

210

Real-Time Comprehension of Wh- Movement in Aphasia: Evidence from Eyetracking while Listening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sentences with non-canonical wh- movement are often difficult for individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia to understand (Carramazza & Zurif, 1976, inter alia). However, the explanation of this difficulty remains controversial, and little is known about how individuals with aphasia try to understand such sentences in real time. This study uses…

Dickey, Michael Walsh; Choy, JungWon Janet; Thompson, Cynthia, K.

2007-01-01

211

"You Needed to Rehab...Families as Well": Family Members' Own Goals for Aphasia Rehabilitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Aphasia affects family members in addition to the individuals with the communication disorder. In order to develop appropriate services for the relatives of people with aphasia post-stroke, their rehabilitation goals need to be identified. Aim: The aim of the current investigation was to identify the rehabilitation goals that family…

Howe, Tami; Davidson, Bronwyn; Worrall, Linda; Hersh, Deborah; Ferguson, Alison; Sherratt, Sue; Gilbert, Jocelyn

2012-01-01

212

A Comparison of Intention and Pantomime Gesture Treatment for Noun Retrieval in People with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The effects of intention gesture treatment (IGT) and pantomime gesture treatment (PGT) on word retrieval were compared in people with aphasia. Method: Four individuals with aphasia and word retrieval impairments subsequent to left-hemisphere stroke participated in a single-participant crossover treatment design. Each participant viewed…

Ferguson, Neina F.; Evans, Kelli; Raymer, Anastasia M.

2012-01-01

213

Use of the BAT with a Cantonese-Putonghua Speaker with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this article is to illustrate the use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) with a Cantonese-Putonghua speaker. We describe G, who is a relatively young Chinese bilingual speaker with aphasia. G's communication abilities in his L2, Putonghua, were impaired following brain damage. This impairment caused specific difficulties in…

Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Weekes, Brendan Stuart

2011-01-01

214

Speech-Like and Non-Speech Lip Kinematics and Coordination in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: In addition to the well-known linguistic processing impairments in aphasia, oro-motor skills and articulatory implementation of speech segments are reported to be compromised to some degree in most types of aphasia. Aims: This study aimed to identify differences in the characteristics and coordination of lip movements in the…

Bose, Arpita; van Lieshout, Pascal

2012-01-01

215

Production Variability and Single Word Intelligibility in Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was designed to estimate test-retest reliability of orthographic speech intelligibility testing in speakers with aphasia and AOS and to examine its relationship to the consistency of speaker and listener responses. Monosyllabic single word speech samples were recorded from 13 speakers with coexisting aphasia and AOS. These words were…

Haley, Katarina L.; Martin, Gwenyth

2011-01-01

216

Use of the BAT with a Cantonese-Putonghua Speaker with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this article is to illustrate the use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) with a Cantonese-Putonghua speaker. We describe G, who is a relatively young Chinese bilingual speaker with aphasia. G's communication abilities in his L2, Putonghua, were impaired following brain damage. This impairment caused specific difficulties in…

Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Weekes, Brendan Stuart

2011-01-01

217

Default-Mode Network Functional Connectivity in Aphasia: Therapy-Induced Neuroplasticity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research on participants with aphasia has mainly been based on standard functional neuroimaging analysis. Recent studies have shown that functional connectivity analysis can detect compensatory activity, not revealed by standard analysis. Little is known, however, about the default-mode network in aphasia. In the current study, we studied…

Marcotte, Karine; Perlbarg, Vincent; Marrelec, Guillaume; Benali, Habib; Ansaldo, Ana Ines

2013-01-01

218

Changes in N400 Topography Following Intensive Speech Language Therapy for Individuals with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Our goal was to characterize the effects of intensive aphasia therapy on the N400, an electrophysiological index of lexical-semantic processing. Immediately before and after 4 weeks of intensive speech-language therapy, people with aphasia performed a task in which they had to determine whether spoken words were a "match" or a "mismatch" to…

Wilson, K. Ryan; O'Rourke, Heather; Wozniak, Linda A.; Kostopoulos, Ellina; Marchand, Yannick; Newman, Aaron J.

2012-01-01

219

Singing Therapy Can Be Effective for a Patient with Severe Nonfluent Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Patients with severe aphasia are rarely treated using speech therapy. We used music therapy to continue to treat a 79-year-old patient with chronic severe aphasia. Interventions 1, 2, and 3 were to practice singing a song that the patient knew, to practice singing a song with a therapist, and to practice saying a greeting using a song with…

Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Akanuma, Kyoko; Hatayama, Yuka; Otera, Masako; Meguro, Kenichi

2012-01-01

220

Default-Mode Network Functional Connectivity in Aphasia: Therapy-Induced Neuroplasticity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Previous research on participants with aphasia has mainly been based on standard functional neuroimaging analysis. Recent studies have shown that functional connectivity analysis can detect compensatory activity, not revealed by standard analysis. Little is known, however, about the default-mode network in aphasia. In the current study, we…

Marcotte, Karine; Perlbarg, Vincent; Marrelec, Guillaume; Benali, Habib; Ansaldo, Ana Ines

2013-01-01

221

Verb impairment in aphasia: A priming study of body-part overlap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Verb production impairments are well documented in aphasia, especially in non-fluent aphasias with lesions of the left frontal lobe. Evidence is inconclusive about whether the impaired verb production is accompanied by inefficient processing and comprehension of verbs. It is unknown if specific semantic features of verbs, such as knowledge of the effector (body-part used to implement the action), are

Yasmeen Faroqi-Shah; Esther Wood; Juliette Gassert

2010-01-01

222

Exploring the interactional dimension of social communication: A collective case study of older people with aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Increasingly, clinicians and researchers emphasise the need to investigate the social consequences of living with aphasia. While the importance of social affiliation and conversations has been acknowledged, there has been limited research that specifically addresses the impact of aphasia on this interactional dimension of communication.Aims: The aims of this study were to explore the insider perspective on the impact

Bronwyn Davidson; Linda Worrall; Louise Hickson

2008-01-01

223

Communication Difficulties and the Use of Communication Strategies: From the Perspective of Individuals with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: To enhance communicative ability and thereby the possibility of increased participation of persons with aphasia, the use of communication strategies has been proposed. However, little is known about how persons with aphasia experience having conversations and how they perceive their own and their conversation partner's use of…

Johansson, Monica Blom; Carlsson, Marianne; Sonnander, Karin

2012-01-01

224

Bilingualism and Memory: Early 19 th Century Ideas About the Significance of Polyglot Aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the second half of the 19th century, there was very little attention given to bilingual speakers within the growing clinical literature on aphasia. The first major publication on this topic (Pitres, 1895), appeared three decades after Broca's seminal work. Previously, Ribot (1881) had discussed the phenomenon of bilingual aphasia in the context of diseases of memory. Although interest in

Marjorie Lorch

2007-01-01

225

Communicative competence in persons with aphasia: The impact of executive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between executive function and performance on selected linguistic and non-linguistic tasks in persons with aphasia secondary to left frontal lobe lesions.^ A group of fifteen persons with aphasia (PWA) completed three communication board tasks of varying levels of complexity and structure. The subject's functional use of the picture\\/word communication board

Judy M Mikola

2010-01-01

226

Effect of Propranolol on Naming in Chronic Broca's Aphasia with Anomia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research suggests that the noradrenergic system modulates flexibility of access to the lexical-semantic network, with propranolol benefiting normal subjects in lexical-semantic problem solving tasks. Patients with Broca's aphasia with anomia have impaired ability to access appropriate verbal output for a given visual stimulus in a naming task. Therefore, we tested naming in a pilot study of chronic Broca's aphasia

David Q. Beversdorf; Umesh K. Sharma; Nicole N. Phillips; Margaret A. Notestine; Andrew P. Slivka; Norman M. Friedman; Sandra L. Schneider; Haikady N. Nagaraja; Ashleigh Hillier

2007-01-01

227

Word prediction in assistive technologies for aphasia rehabilitation using Systemic Functional Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the potential application of natural language processing techniques in order to improve the effectiveness of assistive technologies in Aphasia rehabilitation. Aphasia rehabilitation has predominately been centered on therapy sessions with speech language pathologists. While augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices have made identifiable progress in providing support which is able to be managed by the individual, language

Chris Sorna; Richard Steele; Atsushi Inoue

2009-01-01

228

Exposed and Embedded Corrections in Aphasia Therapy: Issues of Voice and Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Because communication after the onset of aphasia can be fraught with errors, therapist corrections are pervasive in therapy for aphasia. Although corrections are designed to improve the accuracy of communication, some corrections can have social and emotional consequences during interactions. That is, exposure of errors can potentially…

Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Damico, Jack S.

2008-01-01

229

Animal-assisted therapy for persons with aphasia: A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the effects and effectiveness of animal-assisted therapy (AAT) for persons with aphasia. Three men with aphasia from left-hemisphere strokes participated in this study. The men received one semester of traditional ther- apy followed by one semester of AAT. While both therapies were effective, in that each participant met his goals, no significant differences existed between test results

Beth L. Macauley

2006-01-01

230

A 3-Year Evolution of Linguistic Disorders in Aphasia after Stroke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aphasia recovery after stroke has been the subject of several studies, but in none the deficits on the various linguistic levels were examined, even though in the diagnosis and treatment of aphasia the emphasis lays more and more on these linguistic level disorders. In this observational prospective follow-up study, we explored whether it is…

El Hachioui, Hanane; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke W. M. E.; Dippel, Diederik W. J.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Visch-Brink, Evy G.

2011-01-01

231

Crossed aphasia in a patient with congenital lesion in the right hemisphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Described over 100 years ago by Bramwell (1899) as an example of atypical cerebral dominance, crossed aphasia is a clinical condition where a lesion in the right hemisphere in a right-handed person leads to aphasia. Occurring worldwide only in a few cases, it is not known what initially leads to the ontogenetic lateralisation of language to the right brain.

Subhash C. Bhatnagar; Hugh W. Buckingham; Santina Puglisi-Creegan; Lotfi Hacein-Bey

2011-01-01

232

Effects of Word Frequency and Modality on Sentence Comprehension Impairments in People with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: It is well known that people with aphasia have sentence comprehension impairments. The present study investigated whether lexical factors contribute to sentence comprehension impairments in both the auditory and written modalities using online measures of sentence processing. Method: People with aphasia and non brain-damaged controls…

DeDe, Gayle

2012-01-01

233

Battery separator  

SciTech Connect

In an alkaline dry cell battery separator being a laid mat of non-dissolvable polyvinyl alcohol fibers held together by a matrix of dissolved or partially dissolved dissolvable polyvinyl alcohol fibers, an improvement is described comprising the mat having up to 85% of cellulosic fibers relatively uniformly distributed in and among the non-dissolvable polyvinyl alcohol fibers and held therein by the matrix.

La Bonte, R.J.

1988-08-30

234

C-Speak Aphasia alternative communication program for people with severe aphasia: importance of executive functioning and semantic knowledge.  

PubMed

Learning how to use a computer-based communication system can be challenging for people with severe aphasia even if the system is not word-based. This study explored cognitive and linguistic factors relative to how they affected individual patients' ability to communicate expressively using C-Speak Aphasia (CSA), an alternative communication computer program that is primarily picture-based. Ten individuals with severe non-fluent aphasia received at least six months of training with CSA. To assess carryover of training, untrained functional communication tasks (i.e., answering autobiographical questions, describing pictures, making telephone calls, describing a short video, and two writing tasks) were repeatedly probed in two conditions: (1) using CSA in addition to natural forms of communication, and (2) using only natural forms of communication, e.g., speaking, writing, gesturing, drawing. Four of the 10 participants communicated more information on selected probe tasks using CSA than they did without the computer. Response to treatment was also examined in relation to baseline measures of non-linguistic executive function skills, pictorial semantic abilities, and auditory comprehension. Only nonlinguistic executive function skills were significantly correlated with treatment response. PMID:21506045

Nicholas, Marjorie; Sinotte, Michele P; Helm-Estabrooks, Nancy

2011-06-01

235

C-Speak Aphasia Alternative Communication Program for People with Severe Aphasia: Importance of Executive Functioning and Semantic Knowledge  

PubMed Central

Learning how to use a computer-based communication system can be challenging for people with severe aphasia even if the system is not word-based. This study explored cognitive and linguistic factors relative to how they affected individual patients’ ability to communicate expressively using C-Speak Aphasia, (CSA), an alternative communication computer program that is primarily picture-based. Ten individuals with severe non-fluent aphasia received at least six months of training with CSA. To assess carryover of training, untrained functional communication tasks (i.e., answering autobiographical questions, describing pictures, making telephone calls, describing a short video, and two writing tasks) were repeatedly probed in two conditions: 1) using CSA in addition to natural forms of communication, and 2) using only natural forms of communication, e.g., speaking, writing, gesturing, drawing. Four of the ten participants communicated more information on selected probe tasks using CSA than they did without the computer. Response to treatment also was examined in relation to baseline measures of non-linguistic executive function skills, pictorial semantic abilities, and auditory comprehension. Only nonlinguistic executive function skills were significantly correlated with treatment response.

Nicholas, Marjorie; Sinotte, Michele P.; Helm-Estabrooks, Nancy

2011-01-01

236

Effects of Syntactic Complexity, Semantic Reversibility and Explicitness on Discourse Comprehension in Persons with Aphasia and in Healthy Controls  

PubMed Central

Purpose Prior studies of discourse comprehension have concluded that the deficits of persons with aphasia (PWA) in syntactically based comprehension of sentences in isolation are not predictive of deficits in comprehending sentences in discourse (Brookshire & Nicholas, 1984; Caplan & Evans, 1990). However, these studies used semantically constrained sentences in discourse, which do not require syntactic analysis to be understood. We developed a discourse task to assess the effect of syntactic complexity, among other factors, upon discourse comprehension. Method 38 PWA and 30 healthy control subjects were presented with passages that contained 2 – 3 semantically reversible sentences that were either syntactically simple or syntactically complex. The passages were presented auditorily and comprehension was assessed with the auditory and written presentation of four multiple-choice questions immediately following each passage. Results Passages with syntactically simple sentences were better understood than passages with syntactically complex sentences. Moreover, semantically constrained sentences were more likely to be accurately interpreted than semantically reversible sentences. Comprehension accuracy on our battery correlated positively with comprehension accuracy on an existing battery. Conclusions The results show that the presence of semantically reversible syntactically complex sentences in a passage affects comprehension of the passage in both PWA and neurologically healthy individuals.

Levy, Joshua; Hoover, Elizabeth; Waters, Gloria; Kiran, Swathi; Caplan, David; Berardino, Alex; Sandberg, Chaleece

2012-01-01

237

The Time-Course of Lexical Activation During Sentence Comprehension in People With Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the time-course of processing of lexical items in auditorily presented canonical (subject–verb–object) constructions in young, neurologically unimpaired control participants and participants with left-hemisphere damage and agrammatic aphasia. Method A cross modal picture priming (CMPP) paradigm was used to test 114 control participants and 8 participants with agrammatic aphasia for priming of a lexical item (direct object noun) immediately after it is initially encountered in the ongoing auditory stream and at 3 additional time points at 400-ms intervals. Results The control participants demonstrated immediate activation of the lexical item, followed by a rapid loss (decay). The participants with aphasia demonstrated delayed activation of the lexical item. Conclusion This evidence supports the hypothesis of a delay in lexical activation in people with agrammatic aphasia. The delay in lexical activation feeds syntactic processing too slowly, contributing to comprehension deficits in people with agrammatic aphasia.

Ferrill, Michelle; Love, Tracy; Walenski, Matthew; Shapiro, Lewis P.

2012-01-01

238

Battery depletion monitor  

SciTech Connect

A cmos inverter is used to compare pacemaker battery voltage to a referenced voltage. When the reference voltage exceeds the measured battery voltage, the inverter changes state to indicate battery depletion.

Lee, Y.S.

1982-01-26

239

Introduction to Lithium Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium batteries are being introduced into all three services in the Australian Defence Force. However, general information concerning lithium batteries is not available in a condensed form. This review examines various aspects of lithium batteries, incl...

W. N. Garrard

1988-01-01

240

Emerging battery technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for energy storge and the resulting research programs are discussed. Some results or lead-acid batteries, zine/chloride batteries, and zinc/bromine batteries are provided. The potential market is examined.

Chamberlin, J. L.

241

Multiple duty battery  

SciTech Connect

A laminar battery capable of providing multiple currents and capacities at different voltages is described in which electrical access is provided to intermediate cells in the battery by conductive metal terminal layers incorporated in the structure of the battery.

Cohen, F.S.; Hyland, A.L.

1980-05-20

242

Lithium Ion Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be conne...

1997-01-01

243

Different impairments of semantic cognition in semantic dementia and semantic aphasia: evidence from the non-verbal domain  

PubMed Central

Disorders of semantic cognition in different neuropsychological conditions result from diverse areas of brain damage and may have different underlying causes. This study used a comparative case-series design to examine the hypothesis that relatively circumscribed bilateral atrophy of the anterior temporal lobe in semantic dementia (SD) produces a gradual degradation of core semantic representations, whilst a deficit of cognitive control produces multi-modal semantic impairment in a subset of patients with stroke aphasia following damage involving the left prefrontal cortex or regions in and around the temporoparietal area; this condition, which transcends traditional aphasia classifications, is referred to as ‘semantic aphasia’ (SA). There have been very few direct comparisons of these patient groups to date and these previous studies have focussed on verbal comprehension. This study used a battery of object-use tasks to extend this line of enquiry into the non-verbal domain for the first time. A group of seven SA patients were identified who failed both word and picture versions of a semantic association task. These patients were compared with eight SD cases. Both groups showed significant deficits in object use but these impairments were qualitatively different. Item familiarity correlated with performance on object-use tasks for the SD group, consistent with the view that core semantic representations are degrading in this condition. In contrast, the SA participants were insensitive to the familiarity of the objects. Further, while the SD patients performed consistently across tasks that tapped different aspects of knowledge and object use for the same items, the performance of the SA participants reflected the control requirements of the tasks. Single object use was relatively preserved in SA but performance on complex mechanical puzzles was substantially impaired. Similarly, the SA patients were able to complete straightforward item matching tasks, such as word-picture matching, but performed more poorly on associative picture-matching tasks, even when the tests involved the same items. The two groups of patients also showed a different pattern of errors in object use. SA patients made substantial numbers of erroneous intrusions in their demonstrations, such as inappropriate object movements. In contrast, response omissions were more common in SD. This study provides converging evidence for qualitatively different impairments of semantic cognition in SD and SA, and uniquely demonstrates this pattern in a non-verbal expressive domain—object use.

Corbett, Faye; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Ehsan, Sheeba

2009-01-01

244

Battery cell feedthrough apparatus  

DOEpatents

A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

1995-01-01

245

Piezonuclear battery  

DOEpatents

This invention, a piezonuclear battery generates output power arising from the piezoelectric voltage produced from radioactive decay particles interacting with a piezoelectric medium. Radioactive particle energy may directly create an acoustic wave in the piezoelectric medium or a moderator may be used to generate collision particles for interacting with the medium. In one embodiment a radioactive material ({sup 252}Cf) with an output of about 1 microwatt produced a 12 nanowatt output (1.2% conversion efficiency) from a piezoelectric copolymer of vinylidene fluoride/trifluroethylene.

Bongianni, W.L.

1990-12-31

246

Piezonuclear battery  

DOEpatents

A piezonuclear battery generates output power arising from the piezoelectric voltage produced from radioactive decay particles interacting with a piezoelectric medium. Radioactive particle energy may directly create an acoustic wave in the piezoelectric medium or a moderator may be used to generate collision particles for interacting with the medium. In one embodiment a radioactive material (.sup.252 Cf) with an output of about 1 microwatt produced a 12 nanowatt output (1.2% conversion efficiency) from a piezoelectric copolymer of vinylidene fluoride/trifluorethylene.

Bongianni, Wayne L. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01

247

Piezonuclear battery  

DOEpatents

This invention, a piezonuclear battery generates output power arising from the piezoelectric voltage produced from radioactive decay particles interacting with a piezoelectric medium. Radioactive particle energy may directly create an acoustic wave in the piezoelectric medium or a moderator may be used to generate collision particles for interacting with the medium. In one embodiment a radioactive material ({sup 252}Cf) with an output of about 1 microwatt produced a 12 nanowatt output (1.2% conversion efficiency) from a piezoelectric copolymer of vinylidene fluoride/trifluroethylene.

Bongianni, W.L.

1990-01-01

248

Rechargeable manganese oxide batteries. (Genopladelige manganoxid batterier).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Former work on lithium and sodium batteries proved the feasibility of making solid state cells with high energy density and reversibility. The utility of manganese oxides as cathode material in rechargeable alkali metal solid state intercalation batteries...

B. Zachau-Christensen K. West S. Skaarup

1992-01-01

249

Progranulin-associated primary progressive aphasia: A distinct phenotype?  

PubMed Central

The neuropsychological features of the primary progressive aphasia (PPA) syndromes continue to be defined. Here we describe a detailed neuropsychological case study of a patient with a mutation in the progranulin (GRN) gene who presented with progressive word-finding difficulty. Key neuropsychological features in this case included gravely impoverished propositional speech with anomia and prolonged word-finding pauses, impaired speech repetition most marked for sentences, and severely impaired verbal (with preserved spatial) short-term memory. There was a dissociated profile of performance on semantic processing tasks: visual semantic processing was intact, while within the verbal domain, verb comprehension was impaired and processing of nouns was intact on tasks requiring direct semantic processing but impaired on tasks requiring associative or inferential processing. Brain MRI showed asymmetric left cerebral atrophy particularly affecting the temporo-parietal junction, supero-lateral temporal and inferior frontal lobes. This case most closely resembles the PPA syndrome known as the logopenic/phonological aphasia variant (LPA) however there were also deficits of grammar and speech repetition suggesting an overlap with the progressive non-fluent aphasia (agrammatic) variant (PNFA). Certain prominent features of this case (in particular, the profile of semantic impairment) have not been emphasised in previous descriptions of LPA or PNFA, suggesting that GRN may cause an overlapping PPA syndrome but with a distinctive cognitive profile. This neuropsychological evidence suggests that GRN-PPA may result from damage involving the temporo-parietal junction and its functional connections in both the dorsal and ventral language networks, with implications for our understanding of language network pathophysiology.

Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warrington, Elizabeth K.; Warren, Jason D.

2010-01-01

250

Progressive logopenic/phonological aphasia: Erosion of the language network  

PubMed Central

The primary progressive aphasias (PPA) are paradigmatic disorders of language network breakdown associated with focal degeneration of the left cerebral hemisphere. Here we addressed brain correlates of PPA in a detailed neuroanatomical analysis of the third canonical syndrome of PPA, logopenic/phonological aphasia (LPA), in relation to the more widely studied clinico-anatomical syndromes of semantic dementia (SD) and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA). 32 PPA patients (9 SD, 14 PNFA, 9 LPA) and 18 cognitively normal controls had volumetric brain MRI with regional volumetry, cortical thickness, grey and white matter voxel-based morphometry analyses. Five of nine patients with LPA had cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers consistent with Alzheimer (AD) pathology (AD-PPA) and 2/9 patients had progranulin (GRN) mutations (GRN-PPA). The LPA group had tissue loss in a widespread left hemisphere network. Compared with PNFA and SD, the LPA group had more extensive involvement of grey matter in posterior temporal and parietal cortices and long association white matter tracts. Overlapping but distinct networks were involved in the AD-PPA and GRN-PPA subgroups, with more anterior temporal lobe involvement in GRN-PPA. The importance of these findings is threefold: firstly, the clinico-anatomical entity of LPA has a profile of brain damage that is complementary to the network-based disorders of SD and PNFA; secondly, the core phonological processing deficit in LPA is likely to arise from temporo-parietal junction damage but disease spread occurs through the dorsal language network (and in GRN-PPA, also the ventral language network); and finally, GRN mutations provide a specific molecular substrate for language network dysfunction.

Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Ridgway, Gerard R.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Hailstone, Julia; Goll, Johanna C.; Clarkson, Matthew J.; Mead, Simon; Beck, Jonathan; Mummery, Cath; Ourselin, Sebastien; Warrington, Elizabeth K.; Rossor, Martin N.; Warren, Jason D.

2010-01-01

251

Intensive comprehensive aphasia programs: an international survey of practice.  

PubMed

Background: In response to the need to simultaneously address multiple domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in aphasia therapy and to incorporate intensive treatment doses consistent with principles of neuroplasticity, a potentially potent treatment option termed intensive comprehensive aphasia programs (ICAPs) has been developed. Objective: To conduct an international survey of ICAPs to determine the extent of their use and to explore current ICAP practices. Methods: A 32-item online survey was distributed internationally through Survey Monkey between May and August 2012. The survey addressed ICAP staffing, philosophy, values, funding, admission criteria, activities, family involvement, outcome measures, and factors considered important to success. Results: Twelve ICAPs responded: 8 from the United States, 2 from Canada, and 1 each from Australia and the United Kingdom. The majority of ICAPs are affiliated with university programs and are funded through participant self-pay. ICAPs emphasize individualized treatment goals and evidence-based practices, with a focus on applying the principles of neuroplasticity related to repetition and intensity of treatment. On average, 6 people with aphasia attend each ICAP, for 4 days per week for 4 weeks, receiving about 100 hours of individual, group, and computer-based treatment. Speech-language pathologists, students, and volunteers staff the majority of ICAPs. Conclusions: ICAPs are increasing in number but remain a rare service delivery option. They address the needs of individuals who want access to intensive treatment and are interested in making significant changes to their communication skills and psychosocial well-being in a short period of time. Their efficacy and cost-effectiveness require future investigation. PMID:24091280

Rose, Miranda L; Cherney, Leora R; Worrall, Linda E

252

Non-linguistic learning and aphasia: evidence from a paired associate and feedback-based task.  

PubMed

Though aphasia is primarily characterized by impairments in the comprehension and/or expression of language, research has shown that patients with aphasia also show deficits in cognitive-linguistic domains such as attention, executive function, concept knowledge and memory. Research in aphasia suggests that cognitive impairments can impact the online construction of language, new verbal learning, and transactional success. In our research, we extend this hypothesis to suggest that general cognitive deficits influence progress with therapy. The aim of our study is to explore learning, a cognitive process that is integral to relearning language, yet underexplored in the field of aphasia rehabilitation. We examine non-linguistic category learning in patients with aphasia (n=19) and in healthy controls (n=12), comparing feedback and non-feedback based instruction. Participants complete two computer-based learning tasks that require them to categorize novel animals based on the percentage of features shared with one of two prototypes. As hypothesized, healthy controls showed successful category learning following both methods of instruction. In contrast, only 60% of our patient population demonstrated successful non-linguistic category learning. Patient performance was not predictable by standardized measures of cognitive ability. Results suggest that general learning is affected in aphasia and is a unique, important factor to consider in the field of aphasia rehabilitation. PMID:23127795

Vallila-Rohter, Sofia; Kiran, Swathi

2012-11-02

253

Recovery of aphasia after stroke: a 1-year follow-up study.  

PubMed

Semantics, phonology, and syntax are essential elements of aphasia diagnosis and treatment. Until now, these linguistic components have not been specifically addressed in follow-up studies of aphasia recovery after stroke. The aim of this observational prospective follow-up study was to investigate semantic, phonological, and syntactic recovery in aphasic stroke patients. In addition, we investigated the recovery of verbal communication and of aphasia severity. We assessed 147 aphasic patients at 1, 2, and 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months, and 1 year after stroke with the ScreeLing, a screening test for detecting deficits on the three main linguistic components, the aphasia severity rating scale (ASRS), a measure of verbal communication, and the Token test, a measure of aphasia severity. We investigated the differences in scores between the six time points with mixed models. Semantics and syntax improved up to 6 weeks (p < 0.001) after stroke, and phonology up to 3 months (p ? 0.001). ASRS improved up to 6 months (p < 0.05) and the Token test up to 3 months (p < 0.001). We conclude that in aphasia after stroke, various linguistic components have a different recovery pattern, with phonology showing the longest period of recovery that paralleled aphasia severity, as measured with the Token test. The improvement of verbal communication continues after the stabilization of the recovery of the linguistic components. PMID:22820721

El Hachioui, Hanane; Lingsma, Hester F; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke E; Dippel, Diederik W J; Koudstaal, Peter J; Visch-Brink, Evy G

2012-07-22

254

Dystypia in acute stroke not attributable to aphasia or neglect.  

PubMed

A 68-year-old right-handed man had a sudden onset of impaired typing ability due to an ischaemic stroke that recovered over 2 months. The typing impairment was grossly out of proportion to his transient handwriting disturbance. Diffusion MRI showed a recent acute left temporoparietal infarct. There was no evidence of aphasia, alexia, agraphia, visuospatial inattention, sensory loss, neglect or poor coordination that could account for his isolated typing impairment. This example of a stroke that disproportionately affected typing more than handwriting abilities has practical implications for what deficits to look for in patients with stroke when assessing their fitness for work and rehabilitation requirements. PMID:24045760

Cook, Fabian Alexander Blyth; Makin, Stephen D J; Wardlaw, Joanna; Dennis, Martin S

2013-09-17

255

Clinical Trajectories and Biological Features of Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA)  

PubMed Central

Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by a gradual dissolution of language, but relative sparing of other cognitive domains during the initial stages of the disease. Research has led to substantial progress in understanding the clinical characteristics, genetics, and neuropathology of this syndrome. This article reviews the clinical criteria for diagnosing PPA, discusses the utility of defining the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage of PPA, and highlights some of the more recent research advances particularly in the area of pathology and genetics.

Rogalski, E.J.; Mesulam, M.M.

2010-01-01

256

Clinical trajectories and biological features of primary progressive aphasia (PPA).  

PubMed

Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by a gradual dissolution of language, but relative sparing of other cognitive domains during the initial stages of the disease. Research has led to substantial progress in understanding the clinical characteristics, genetics, and neuropathology of this syndrome. This article reviews the clinical criteria for diagnosing PPA, discusses the utility of defining the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage of PPA, and highlights some of the more recent research advances particularly in the area of pathology and genetics. PMID:19689231

Rogalski, E J; Mesulam, M M

2009-08-01

257

Effect of two layouts on high technology AAC navigation and content location by people with aphasia.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: Navigating high-technology augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices with dynamic displays can be challenging for people with aphasia. The purpose of this study was to determine which of two AAC interfaces two people with aphasia could use most efficiently and accurately. Method: The researchers used a BCB'C' alternating treatment design to provide device-use instruction to two people with severe aphasia regarding two personalised AAC interfaces that had different navigation layouts but identical content. One interface had static buttons for homepage and go-back features, and the other interface had static buttons in a navigation ring layout. Throughout treatment, the researchers monitored participants' mastery patterns regarding navigation efficiency and accuracy when locating target messages. Results: Participants' accuracy and efficiency improved with both interfaces given intervention; however, the navigation ring layout appeared more transparent and better facilitated navigation than the homepage layout. Conclusions: People with aphasia can learn to navigate computerised devices; however, interface layout can substantially affect the efficiency and accuracy with which they locate messages. Implications for Rehabilitation Given intervention incorporating errorless learning principles, people with chronic aphasia can learn to navigate across multiple device levels to locate target sentences. Both navigation ring and homepage interfaces may be used by people with aphasia. Some people with aphasia may be more consistent and efficient in finding target sentences using the navigation ring interface than the homepage interface. Additionally, the navigation ring interface may be more transparent and easier for people with aphasia to master - that is, they may require fewer intervention sessions to learn to navigate the navigation ring interface. Generalisation of learning may result from use of the navigation ring interface. Specifically, people with aphasia may improve navigation with the homepage interface as a result of instruction on the navigation interface, but not vice versa. PMID:23692409

Wallace, Sarah E; Hux, Karen

2013-05-21

258

Emerging battery technologies  

SciTech Connect

Some of the battery systems now in the research and development stages are discussed. These batteries include the lead-acid, zinc-chlorine, zinc-bromine, and sodium-sulfur batteries. The technology and potential market penetration of these batteries are discussed.

Chamberlin, J.L.

1984-07-01

259

Emerging battery technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report outlines emerging battery technologies. Included in this report are the following sections. The need for energy storage, the resulting programs, some results (lead-acid battery, zinc/chlorine battery and zinc/bromine battery) and the potential market. (CAS)

Chamberlin, J.L.

1984-01-01

260

Arrangement for monitoring batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A battery-condition monitoring operation is performed by connecting a load resistor across the battery terminals for a time interval to draw a definite battery discharge current. A metering unit measures the voltage across the load resistor or that directly across the terminals of the battery. A timing switch sensible to the temperature of the load resistor automatically terminates the time

H. Harer; J. Juhasz

1981-01-01

261

Sea water rope batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research demonstrated the feasibility of supplying approximately 1 watt of electrical power for one year on the sea bed with a novel battery, the rope battery. The proposed battery would look very much like a small diameter wire rope, possibly hundreds of feet long. This unusual shape permits the rope battery to take full advantage of the vastness of

M. Walsh

1984-01-01

262

Living successfully with aphasia: a qualitative meta-analysis of the perspectives of individuals with aphasia, family members, and speech-language pathologists.  

PubMed

The concept of living successfully with aphasia has recently emerged as an alternative to more traditional "deficit" models in aphasiology, encouraging a focus on positive rather than negative outcomes. This research aimed to integrate findings from studies exploring the perspectives of three participant groups (individuals with aphasia, speech-language pathologists, and family members) about living successfully with aphasia. Qualitative meta-analysis of three studies conducted by the authors was used to integrate perspectives across the participant groups. Steps in the qualitative meta-analysis were based on those described in the process of "meta-ethnography" by Noblit and Hare (1988) . Analysis was an inductive process, in which data from each study were re-analysed and translated into each other in order to identify higher-level overarching themes that accounted for similarities and discrepancies across the original studies. A total of seven overarching themes related to living successfully with aphasia were identified. These were: participation, meaningful relationships, support, communication, positivity, independence and autonomy, and living successfully with aphasia as a journey over time. Findings indicate the need for a holistic, client-centred approach that considers communication in the broader context of an individual's daily life. The overarching themes may act as guides for areas of importance to be addressed in clinical practice, as well as in future research. By working in partnership with individuals with aphasia and their families, speech-language pathologists are challenged to continue to improve services and assist clients on their journey of living successfully with aphasia. PMID:22149648

Brown, Kyla; Worrall, Linda E; Davidson, Bronwyn; Howe, Tami

2011-12-12

263

Battery life extender  

SciTech Connect

A battery life extender is described which comprises: (a) a housing disposed around the battery with terminals of the battery extending through top of the housing so that battery clamps can be attached thereto, the housing having an access opening in the top thereof; (b) means for stabilizing temperature of the battery within the housing during hot and cold weather conditions so as to extend operating life of the battery; and (c) a removable cover sized to fit over the access opening in the top of the housing so that the battery can be serviced without having to remove the housing or any part thereof.

Foti, M.; Embry, J.

1989-06-20

264

Alkaline battery  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An alkaline battery comprising a positive electrode, a negative electrode, a separator disposed between the positive electrode and the negative electrode; and an alkaline electrolyte, wherein the positive electrode includes manganese dioxide and graphite; the cumulative pore volume of pores with diameters of 3 to 5 nm in the manganese dioxide is X (cm.sup.3/g), and the weight loss rate of the manganese dioxide when heated from 150 to 400.degree. C. is Y (%), X and Y satisfying 0.005.ltoreq.X.ltoreq.0.011, 3.4.ltoreq.Y.ltoreq.3.9, and -16.7X+3.58.ltoreq.Y.ltoreq.66.7X+3.17; the negative electrode includes zinc; and the alkaline electrolyte includes an aqueous potassium hydroxide solution.

Nunome; Jun (Kyoto, JP); Kato; Fumio (Osaka, JP); Shimamura; Harunari (Osaka, JP)

2011-11-01

265

Industrial battery technologies and markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial battery market segments generally fall into two major categories--traction batteries, also called motive power batteries; and stationary batteries, also referred to as standby power batteries. The major industrial battery subcategories are discussed. Industrial trucks and rail and mine vehicles represent two major subcategories of motive power batteries. Industrial trucks include forklifts, automated guided vehicles (AGVs), various types of towing

C. W. Seitz

1994-01-01

266

Materials for advanced batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The requirements of battery systems are considered along with some recent studies of materials of importance in aqueous electrochemical energy-storage systems, lithium-aluminum\\/iron sulfide batteries, solid electrolytes, molten salt electrolytes in secondary batteries, the recharging of the lithium electrode in organic electrolytes, intercalation electrodes, and interface phenomena in advanced batteries. Attention is given to a lead-acid battery overview, the design and

D. W. Murphy; J. Broadhead; B. C. H. Steele

1980-01-01

267

Metal-Air Batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods,

Jiguang Zhang; Peter G. Bruce; Gregory Zhang

2011-01-01

268

A profile of aphasia services in three health districts.  

PubMed

The study examines language rehabilitation provisions for aphasic people and their families in three health districts, as perceived by speech and language therapists. The study is exploratory. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with each District Speech Therapist and with speech and language therapists whose caseloads regularly included aphasic people, and documentary evidence was used where available. Comparison is made of: speech and language therapy expenditure and staffing in the three districts (West Suffolk, West Essex and Newcastle-upon-Tyne); aphasia therapy staffing; caseloads of aphasic people; patterns of treatment (inpatient/outpatient/community; individual/group) and reasons for these; provision for relatives; relationships between speech and language therapy and other services; volunteer involvement; and speech and language therapists' work situations (support from colleagues, post-qualification training, secretarial support and accommodation). Differences are found in levels of provision, with Newcastle having considerably more resources devoted to aphasia services than the other two districts, and modes of service delivery. Some shared concerns are identified (e.g. relationships with other professions, accommodation and transport). Implications of the findings are discussed and areas for further research identified. PMID:1726051

Jordan, L

1991-12-01

269

Deterioration of naming nouns versus verbs in primary progressive aphasia.  

PubMed

Disproportionate impairment of naming nouns versus verbs and the opposite pattern have been reported in cases of focal brain damage or degenerative disease, indicating that processing of nouns and verbs may rely on different brain regions. However, it has not been clear whether it is the spoken word forms or the meanings (or both) of nouns and verbs that depend on separate neural regions. We tested oral and written naming of nouns and verbs, matched in difficulty, in patients with nonfluent primary progressive aphasia (nonfluent PPA; n = 15), fluent primary progressive aphasia (fluent PPA; n = 7), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD; n = 6). Patients with nonfluent PPA and ALS-FTD, both individually and as groups, were significantly more impaired on verb naming than on noun naming and significantly more impaired on oral naming than written naming. Patients with fluent PPA showed the opposite pattern for both word class and modality, significantly more impaired naming of nouns versus verbs and significantly more impaired written versus oral naming. Results indicate that separate regions of the brain are essential for access to oral and written word forms of verbs and nouns, and that these neural regions can be differentially damaged in separate forms of PPA. PMID:14755731

Hillis, Argye E; Oh, Sangjin; Ken, Lynda

2004-02-01

270

Neuroimaging in aphasia treatment research: quantifying brain lesions after stroke.  

PubMed

New structural and functional neuroimaging methods continue to rapidly develop, offering promising tools for cognitive neuroscientists. In the last 20 years, advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have provided invaluable insights into how language is represented and processed in the brain and how it can be disrupted by damage to, or dysfunction of, various parts of the brain. Current functional MRI (fMRI) approaches have also allowed researchers to purposefully investigate how individuals recover language after stroke. This paper presents recommendations for quantification of brain lesions derived from discussions among international researchers at the Neuroimaging in Aphasia Treatment Research Workshop held at Northwestern University (Evanston, Illinois, USA). Methods for detailing and characterizing the brain damage that can influence results of fMRI studies in chronic aphasic stroke patients are discussed. Moreover, we aimed to provide the reader with a set of general practical guidelines and references to facilitate choosing adequate structural imaging strategies that facilitate fMRI studies in aphasia treatment research. PMID:22846659

Crinion, Jenny; Holland, Audrey L; Copland, David A; Thompson, Cynthia K; Hillis, Argye E

2012-07-27

271

TMS suppression of right pars triangularis, but not pars opercularis, improves naming in aphasia  

PubMed Central

This study sought to discover if an optimum 1 cm2 area in the non-damaged right hemisphere (RH) was present, which could temporarily improve naming in chronic, nonfluent aphasia patients when suppressed with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Ten minutes of slow, 1 Hz rTMS was applied to suppress different RH ROIs in eight aphasia cases. Picture naming and response time (RT) were examined before, and immediately after rTMS. In aphasia patients, suppression of right pars triangularis (PTr) led to significant increase in pictures named, and significant decrease in RT. Suppression of right pars opercularis (POp), however, led to significant increase in RT, but no change in number of pictures named. Eight normals named all pictures correctly; similar to aphasia patients, RT significantly decreased following rTMS to suppress right PTr, versus right POp. Differential effects following suppression of right PTr versus right POp suggest different functional roles for these regions.

Naeser, Margaret A.; Martin, Paula I.; Theoret, Hugo; Kobayashi, Masahito; Fregni, Felipe; Nicholas, Marjorie; Tormos, Jose M.; Steven, Megan S.; Baker, Errol H.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

2011-01-01

272

Communicating with People Who Have Aphasia: Some Do's and Don't's  

MedlinePLUS

... Aphasia thus changes the way in which we communicate with those people most important to us: family, ... cases it is essential for the person to communicate as successfully as possible from the very beginning ...

273

Reading comprehension by people with chronic aphasia: A comparison of three levels of visuographic contextual support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: People with aphasia often have concomitant reading comprehension deficits that interfere with their full participation in leisure and social activities involving written text comprehension.Aims: The purpose of this investigation was to explore the impact of three levels of visuographic support—(a) high?context photographs, (b) low?context photographs, and (c) no photographs—on the reading comprehension of narratives by people with chronic aphasia.Methods

Aimee Dietz; Karen Hux; Miechelle L. McKelvey; David R. Beukelman; Kristy Weissling

2009-01-01

274

Communicative value of self cues in aphasia: A re?evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Adults with aphasia often try mightily to produce specific words, but their word?finding attempts are frequently unsuccessful. However, the word retrieval process may contain rich information that communicates a desired message regardless of word?finding success.Originally published as: Tompkins, C. A., & Marshall, R. C. (1982). Communicative value of self cues in aphasia. In R. Brookshire (Ed.), Clinical Aphasiology Conference

Connie A. Tompkins; Victoria L. Scharp; Robert C. Marshall

2006-01-01

275

Localization of cerebral lesions in aphasia – a computer aided comparison between men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a It is still a matter of debate whether there are differences between men and women concerning the localization of higher cerebral\\u000a functions. To further elucidate this problem we conjointly evaluated the aphasia protocols and corresponding computer-assisted\\u000a tomography (CT) scans of 49 men and 35 women who presented with unilateral ischemic cerebral lesions. Both, the aphasia tests\\u000a and CT scans,

C. J. G. Lang; F. Moser

2003-01-01

276

The right hemisphere is not unitary in its role in aphasia recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurologists and aphasiologists have debated for over a century whether right hemisphere recruitment facilitates or impedes recovery from aphasia. Here we present a well-characterized patient with sequential left and right hemisphere strokes whose case substantially informs this debate. A 72-year-old woman with chronic nonfluent aphasia was enrolled in a trial of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). She underwent 10 daily sessions of

Peter E. Turkeltaub; H. Branch Coslett; Amy L. Thomas; Olufunsho Faseyitan; Jennifer Benson; Catherine Norise; Roy H. Hamilton

277

Communicative Competence In Persons With Aphasia: The Impact Of Executive Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between executive function and performance on selected linguistic tasks in persons with aphasia secondary to left frontal lesions.\\u000aA group of 15 persons with aphasia (PWA) completed three communication board tasks of varying levels of complexity and structure. The subject's functional use of the picture\\/word communication board was tested during

Judy Marie Mikola

2010-01-01

278

Aphasia, Depression, and Non-Verbal Cognitive Impairment in Ischaemic Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aphasia, depression, and cognitive dysfunction are common consequences of stroke, but knowledge of their interrelationship is limited. This 1-year prospective study was designed to evaluate prevalence and course of post-stroke aphasia and to study its psychiatric, neurological, and cognitive correlates. We studied a series of 106 consecutive patients (46 women and 60 men, mean age 65.8 years) with first-ever ischaemic

M.-L. Kauhanen; J. T. Korpelainen; P. Hiltunen; R. Määttä; H. Mononen; E. Brusin; K. A. Sotaniemi; V. V. Myllylä

2000-01-01

279

Rechargeable batteries and battery management systems design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimated worldwide sales for rechargeable batteries, was around US$36 billion in 2008 and this is expected to grow towards US$51 billion by 2013. As per market reports, US demand for primary and secondary batteries will increase by 2.5% annually to 16.8 billion in 2012, while primary batteries will account for 5.8 billion with a growth rate of 3%. The insatiable

N. Kularatna

2010-01-01

280

Verb inflections in agrammatic aphasia: Encoding of tense features ?  

PubMed Central

Across most languages, verbs produced by agrammatic aphasic individuals are frequently marked by syntactically and semantically inappropriate inflectional affixes, such as Last night, I walking home. As per language production models, verb inflection errors in English agrammatism could arise from three potential sources: encoding the verbs’ morphology based on temporal information at the conceptual level, accessing syntactic well-formedness constraints of verbal morphology, and encoding morphophonological form. We investigate these aspects of encoding verb inflections in agrammatic aphasia. Using three sentence completion experiments, it was demonstrated that production of verb inflections was impaired whenever temporal reference was involved; while morphological complexity and syntactic constraints were less likely to be the source of verb inflection errors in agrammatism. These findings are discussed in relation to current language production models.

Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Thompson, Cynthia K.

2008-01-01

281

Setting a research agenda to inform intensive comprehensive aphasia programs.  

PubMed

Research into intensive comprehensive aphasia programs (ICAPs) has yet to show that this service delivery model is efficacious, effective, has cost utility, or can be broadly implemented. This article describes a phased research approach to the study of ICAPs and sets out a research agenda that considers not only the specific issues surrounding ICAPs, but also the phase of the research. Current ICAP research is in the early phases, with dosing and outcome measurement as prime considerations as well as refinement of the best treatment protocol. Later phases of ICAP research are outlined, and the need for larger scale collaborative funded research is recognized. The need for more rapid translation into practice is also acknowledged, and the use of hybrid models of phased research is encouraged within the ICAP research agenda. PMID:24091283

Hula, William D; Cherney, Leora R; Worrall, Linda E

282

Battery optimization considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computerized method for establishing battery requirements for electric vehicles has been developed. This system, which is called Eva (Electric Vehicle Analysis), enables least cost analyses for optimizing battery characteristics tailored to specific vehicle types and missions. Eva is a user friendly, interactive software package which allows complex battery and vehicle optimization with relative ease. Key features of Eva include extensive modeling of battery interrelationships and a consistent attempt to avoid premature specification of any parameter. An equation for life cycle cost is derived in terms of mission requirements, battery characteristics, and vehicle factors. Advance specification is limited to electrochemical system, vehicle class, and mission requirements. Eva determines the combination of battery characteristics which results in least cost while fully satisfying the mission requirements. The objective is to establish battery requirements of minimum difficulty which lead to electric vehicle batteries of satisfactory performance and maximum cost competitiveness.

Walsh, W. J.; Marr, W. W.

1983-12-01

283

Batteries for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric-vehicle batteries are under development in programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy with the main objectives of accelerating development in industry when the program began and of developing new high-performance systems. To achieve the first objective, lead-acid, nickel-iron, nickel-zinc and zinc chlorine batteries are under development. Of these batteries, the lead-acid battery is most certain of achieving its

P. A. Nelson; W. H. Webster; H. Shimotake

1981-01-01

284

Lithium battery thermal models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal characteristics and thermal behavior of lithium batteries are important both for the batteries meeting operating life requirements and for safety considerations. Sandia National Laboratories has a broad-based program that includes analysis, engineering and model development. We have determined thermal properties of lithium batteries using a variety of calorimetric methods for many years. We developed the capability to model temperature

Daniel H Doughty; Paul C Butler; Rudolph G Jungst; E. Peter Roth

2002-01-01

285

Polymer electrolyte batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium secondary batteries have been actively investigated during the past ten years and small cells with liquid electrolytes have been commercialized. In view of the concerns about safety, solid state batteries that use solid polymers in place of both the electrolyte and the separator offer a unique design for a high rate battery for implantable medical devices. The solid electrolyte

Boone B. Owens

1991-01-01

286

Recycle of battery materials  

SciTech Connect

Studies were conducted on the recycling of advanced battery system components for six different battery systems. These include: Nickel/Zinc, Nickel/Iron, Zinc/Chlorine, Zinc/Bromine, Sodium/Sulfur, and Lithium-Aluminum/Iron Sulfide. For each battery system, one or more processes has been developed which would permit recycling of the major or active materials.

Pemsler, J.P.; Spitz, R.A.

1981-01-01

287

Cellphone battery charger miniaturization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fast off-line travel battery charger for cellular telephones is typically as large, or larger than some cellular telephones. This paper presents a miniaturized off-line travel battery charger for cellular phones. The aim of the work was to explore the theoretical and practical limitations of reducing the size of such a battery charger. The difficulty in miniaturizing such a charger

Juan A. Sabate; Daniel Kustera; Shri Sridhar

2000-01-01

288

Portable photovoltaic battery recharger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A portable photovoltaic battery recharger is described for simultaneously recharging a plurality of rechargeable batteries having different sizes and respective optimum charging current levels, comprising: a plurality of photovoltaic solar cell arrays corresponding to the number of different battery sizes, each of the cell arrays having a plurality of individual solar cells, each cell of a respective array having a

A. M. Ricaud; F. Artigliere

1989-01-01

289

Secondary alkaline batteries  

SciTech Connect

This report on secondary alkaline batteries covers the overall reactions (charge/discharge characteristics), electrode structures and materials, and cell construction. The following batteries are studied, nickel oxide-cadmium, nickel oxide-iron, nickel oxide-hydrogen, nickel oxide-zinc, silver oxide-zinc, and silver oxide-cadmium, silver oxide-iron, and manganese dioxide-zinc batteries.

McBreen, J.

1984-03-01

290

Sodium sulfur battery seal  

DOEpatents

This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

Topouzian, Armenag (Birmingham, MI)

1980-01-01

291

An Intention Manipulation to Change Lateralization of Word Production in Nonfluent Aphasia: Current Status  

PubMed Central

A review of recent aphasia literature indicates that both the left and right hemispheres participate, under various circumstances, in recovery of language and in treatment response. In chronic aphasias with large lesions and poor recovery of function, the right hemisphere is more likely to demonstrate prominent activity than in cases with small lesions and good recoveries. Extraneous activity during language tasks for aphasia patients may occur in both the left and right hemispheres. Right hemisphere activity during language in aphasia patients is likely to occur in structures homologous to damaged left hemisphere structures. When the left hemisphere is so damaged as to preclude a good recovery, recruitment of right-hemisphere mechanisms in the service of rehabilitation may be desirable. Hence, a treatment with an intention manipulation (complex left-hand movement) was developed for nonfluent aphasia to assist in re-lateralization of language production. A review of existing evidence indicates that the intention manipulation adds value to naming treatments and helps to shift lateralization of language production to right frontal structures. However, wholesale transfer of language function to the right hemisphere does not occur, and residual language knowledge in the left hemisphere also seems vital for relearning of word production. Further research is needed to fully understand the contribution of the intention manipulation to treatment response. Learning Objective After reading this article, the reader should be able (1) to cite instances in which left-hemisphere mechanisms support language recovery in aphasia and aphasia treatment, (2) to cite instances in which right-hemisphere mechanisms support such language recovery, and (3) to assess the treatment implications of this information.

Crosson, Bruce

2008-01-01

292

The lived experience of engaging in everyday occupations in persons with mild to moderate aphasia.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: Impairment of language ability, aphasia, can cause barriers to communication and hence impact on participation in many life situations. This study aimed to describe and explore how persons with aphasia following stroke experience engaging in everyday occupations. Method: Six persons from Southwest Finland who had aphasia due to stroke one to four years previously were interviewed for the study. A modified form of the empirical phenomenological psychological method was used for data analysis. Results: Three main characteristics of experiences of engaging in everyday occupations were identified: (1) encountering new experiences in everyday occupations, (2) striving to handle everyday occupations and (3) going ahead with life. The participants had experienced an altering life-world. Engagement in occupations affected their perceptions of competence and identity, and experiences of belonging and well-being. It was also through engagement in everyday occupations that they had discovered and learnt to handle changes in their everyday life. Conclusion: Aphasia can have a long-term impact on engagement in everyday occupations and participation in society, but conversely, engagement in meaningful occupations can also contribute to adaptation to disability and life changes. Implications for Rehabilitation Aphasia can have a long-term impact on engagement in everyday occupations and participation in society. Health care professionals need to determine what clients with aphasia think about their occupations and life situations in spite of difficulties they may have verbalizing their thoughts. Experiences of engaging in meaningful occupations can help clients with aphasia in reconstructing their life stories, thereby contributing to adaptation to disability and life changes. PMID:23350760

Niemi, Tuuli; Johansson, Ulla

2013-01-25

293

Automatic battery charger  

SciTech Connect

An automatic battery charging circuit for use with battery powered vehicles such as golf carts includes an automatically timed charging switch which is connected in parallel with the conventional manually timed charging switch of the battery charger. The automatically timed charging switch includes an electrical clock connected across the power line of the charger. When the charger is plugged into the power line, the clock closes the terminals of the automatically timed charging switch for a brief period of time on a periodic basis. This prevents the batteries of the vehicle from becoming substantially discharged during extended periods of non-use, thereby increasing the life of the batteries.

Schub, L.

1984-06-26

294

Profiling Performance in L1 and L2 Observed in Greek-English Bilingual Aphasia Using the Bilingual Aphasia Test: A Case Study from Cyprus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Greek and the English versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) were used to assess the linguistic abilities of a premorbidly highly proficient late bilingual female after a haemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident involving the left temporo-parietal lobe. The BAT was administered in the two languages on separate occasions by the first…

Kambanaros, Maria; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.

2011-01-01

295

Profiling Performance in L1 and L2 Observed in Greek-English Bilingual Aphasia Using the Bilingual Aphasia Test: A Case Study from Cyprus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Greek and the English versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) were used to assess the linguistic abilities of a premorbidly highly proficient late bilingual female after a haemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident involving the left temporo-parietal lobe. The BAT was administered in the two languages on separate occasions by the first author,…

Kambanaros, Maria; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.

2011-01-01

296

Portable photovoltaic battery recharger  

SciTech Connect

A portable photovoltaic battery recharger is described for simultaneously recharging a plurality of rechargeable batteries having different sizes and respective optimum charging current levels, comprising: a plurality of photovoltaic solar cell arrays corresponding to the number of different battery sizes, each of the cell arrays having a plurality of individual solar cells, each cell of a respective array having a selectively chosen surface area for generating the respective optimum charging current levels when insolated; battery receptacle means for holding the plurality of rechargeable batteries in a recharging position; and circuit means for connecting the plurality of photovoltaic solar cell arrays to the battery receptacle means to charge each of the different size batteries with the respective optimum charging current level.

Ricaud, A.M.; Artigliere, F.

1989-02-28

297

1. Voxel-based Lesion Analysis of Phonological, Lexical, and Syntactic Production Deficits in Post-stroke Aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with aphasia vary in the extent to which lexical, phonological, and syntactic impairments underlie their language production difficulties. Most aphasic individuals have a combination of these impairments that cannot be always predicted from their aphasia classification. The present study investigated the lesion correlates of lexical, phonological and syntactic production deficits and examined the findings in the context of current

298

Improved Vocabulary Production after Naming Therapy in Aphasia: Can Gains in Picture Naming Generalise to Connected Speech?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Naming accuracy for nouns and verbs in aphasia can vary across different elicitation contexts, for example, simple picture naming, composite picture description, narratives, and conversation. For some people with aphasia, naming may be more accurate to simple pictures as opposed to naming in spontaneous, connected speech; for others,…

Conroy, Paul; Sage, Karen; Ralph, Matt Lambon

2009-01-01

299

Improved Vocabulary Production after Naming Therapy in Aphasia: Can Gains in Picture Naming Generalise to Connected Speech?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Naming accuracy for nouns and verbs in aphasia can vary across different elicitation contexts, for example, simple picture naming, composite picture description, narratives, and conversation. For some people with aphasia, naming may be more accurate to simple pictures as opposed to naming in spontaneous, connected speech; for others,…

Conroy, Paul; Sage, Karen; Ralph, Matt Lambon

2009-01-01

300

Influences of Electromagnetic Articulography Sensors on Speech Produced by Healthy Adults and Individuals with Aphasia and Apraxia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This study examined whether the intraoral transducers used in electromagnetic articulography (EMA) interfere with speech and whether there is an added risk of interference when EMA systems are used to study individuals with aphasia and apraxia. Method: Ten adult talkers (5 individuals with aphasia/apraxia, 5 controls) produced 12…

Katz, William F.; Bharadwaj, Sneha V.; Stettler, Monica P.

2006-01-01

301

Influences of Electromagnetic Articulography Sensors on Speech Produced by Healthy Adults and Individuals with Aphasia and Apraxia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined whether the intraoral transducers used in electromagnetic articulography (EMA) interfere with speech and whether there is an added risk of interference when EMA systems are used to study individuals with aphasia and apraxia. Method: Ten adult talkers (5 individuals with aphasia/apraxia, 5 controls) produced 12 American…

Katz, William F.; Bharadwaj, Sneha V.; Stettler, Monica P.

2006-01-01

302

The first decade of research on constrained-induced treatment approaches for aphasia rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Approaches for treating post-stroke language impairments (aphasia) based upon Constraint-Induced (CI) principles were first introduced in 2001. CI principles as previously applied to upper extremity and locomotor retraining in stroke survivors were derived from basic neuroscience. They comprise forced-use of the affected modality, a gradual rebuilding of targeted functions using a highly intensive treatment protocol, administered in a behaviorally-relevant context. CI-based approaches have stimulated considerable neurorehabilitation research interest in the past decade. The original CI aphasia treatment protocol was tailored to improve functional communication in chronic aphasia (i.e., 6–12 months after stroke) and more recently, it has been adapted to treat language impairments in acute stroke survivors as well. Moreover, CI therapy applied to aphasia has been used as a model to assess language network plasticity in response to treatment using functional imaging techniques. In the following paper, we review the first 10 years of behavioral and functional brain imaging research on CI-based approaches for aphasia rehabilitation.

Meinzer, Marcus; Rodriguez, Amy D.; Gonzalez Rothi, Leslie J.

2013-01-01

303

Aphasia following left putaminal hemorrhage. Statistical analysis of factors affecting prognosis.  

PubMed

Multivariate and single variable analyses were employed to investigate the recovery mode of aphasia in right-handed patients with putaminal hemorrhage on the left side. Speech disturbance was evaluated using the standard language test for aphasia (SLTA) at intervals of 1, 3 and 6 months after the ictus. Recovery was assessed in relation to age, gender, volume and location of hematoma, and treatment modalities. Extension of the hematoma into the corona radiata was the factor that dominated the prognosis of aphasia at all intervals during the follow-up period. Good recovery was documented in patients with less than 2 cm2 of the hematoma volume located in the corona radiata. Recovery was poor, however, in patients with more than 12 cm2 of the hematoma in the corona radiata. While aphasia continued to improve over 6 months after the ictus, recovery was more prominent in the first 3 months. Our study precisely demonstrated that the extension into the corona radiata independently and strongly influenced the outcome of aphasia in patients with left putaminal hemorrhage. PMID:12500706

Kawanishi, Masahiro; Kajikawa, Hiroshi; Yamamura, Kunio; Nomura, Eiichi; Kajikawa, Minako; Hihara, Rinko; Ogawa, Ryusuke; Nagasawa, Shiro

2002-12-01

304

Primary progressive aphasia in a bilingual speaker: a single-case study.  

PubMed

We report on the case of an elderly bilingual woman presenting with a diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia. The participant's native language was Friulian (L1), a predominantly oral Romance language, and her second language was Italian (L2), formally learned at primary school in oral and written forms. We investigated her linguistic abilities by means of the Bilingual Aphasia Test ( Paradis, M., & Libben, G. (1987). The assessment of bilingual aphasia. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates), which is specifically devised for studying language levels and skills in bilingual/polyglot individuals with aphasia. Specifically, we focused on different tasks extracted from the Bilingual Aphasia Test, targeting phonology, morphology, syntax and lexical semantics. Results show that both languages were affected to a clinically significant degree, but with different profiles in terms of linguistic levels, suggesting the presence of greater phonological, morphological, grammatical and syntactic impairments in L2. Results are discussed in terms of possible dissociations both within the language system of each language and between languages, within the Procedural/Declarative theoretical framework of language acquisition in bilinguals. PMID:21631307

Zanini, Sergio; Angeli, Valentina; Tavano, Alessandro

2011-06-01

305

Why are patients with progressive nonfluent aphasia nonfluent?  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the cognitive and neural basis for nonfluent speech in progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA). Background: Nonfluent speech is the hallmark feature of PNFA, and this has been attributed to impairments in syntactic processing, motor-speech planning, and executive functioning that also occur in these patients. Patients with PNFA have left inferior frontal atrophy. Methods: A large semi-structured speech sample and neuropsychological measures of language and executive functioning were examined in 16 patients with PNFA, 12 patients with behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), and 13 age-matched controls. Speech fluency was quantified as words per minute (WPM) in the semi-structured speech sample. Stepwise linear regression analyses were used to relate WPM to grammatic, motor-speech planning, and executive aspects of patient functioning. These measures were then related to cortical thickness in 8 patients with PNFA and 7 patients with bvFTD using structural MRI. Results: WPM was significantly reduced in patients with PNFA relative to controls and patients with bvFTD. Regression analyses revealed that only grammatic measures predicted WPM in PNFA, whereas executive measures were the only significant predictor of WPM in bvFTD. Cortical thinning was significant in PNFA relative to controls in left inferior frontal and anterior-superior temporal regions, and a regression analysis related this area to reduced WPM in PNFA. Significant cortical thinning associated with limited grammatic processing also was seen in the left inferior frontal-superior temporal region in PNFA, and this overlapped with the area of frontal-temporal thinning related to reduced WPM. Conclusion: Nonfluent speech in PNFA may be due in part to difficulty with grammatic processing associated with left inferior frontal and anterior-superior temporal disease. GLOSSARY AOS = apraxia of speech; aSTC = anterior superior temporal cortex; bvFTD = behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia; CBD = corticobasal degeneration; CBS = corticobasal syndrome; FTLD = frontotemporal lobar degeneration; IFC = inferior frontal cortex; PNFA = progressive nonfluent aphasia; PSP = progressive supranuclear palsy; WPM = words per minute.

Gunawardena, D.; Ash, S.; McMillan, C.; Avants, B.; Gee, J.; Grossman, M.

2010-01-01

306

Electric-vehicle batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

1995-02-01

307

Study about lithium battery's characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

To make certain the lithium battery's terminal limited discharge voltage and internal resistance in different load, four 3.2 V\\/60Ah lithium batteries are put in series to form battery pack in tests. The lithium battery pack terminal voltage, current and overall internal resistance were recorded with the discharge time. By analyze datas from the tests with MATLAB, the lithium battery pack

Ding Zuowu; Wang Shulin; Zhao Weijun; Qu Min

2010-01-01

308

The first 3-months post-stroke: what facilitates successfully living with aphasia?  

PubMed

This study used a qualitative approach to describe the experience of the first 3 months post-stroke in order to identify factors which facilitate successfully living with aphasia. Fifteen participants completed semi-structured interviews and self-perceived ratings of how successfully he or she was living with aphasia. A number of themes were identified from the interviews, including: a need to do things in order to be actively engaged in rehabilitation; increase independence and have a purpose in life; the importance of social support; the value of rehabilitation; a need to adapt and make adjustments; and having a positive outlook. These results suggest that a range of service delivery models need to be considered during the early stages post-stroke in order to address individual needs and so that long-term outcomes of people with aphasia may be improved. PMID:22762206

Grohn, Brooke; Worrall, Linda E; Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Brown, Kyla

2012-08-01

309

Paul Broca's less heralded contributions to aphasia research. Historical perspective and contemporary relevance.  

PubMed

In addition to discovering the dominant role of the left hemisphere for language and describing what is now known as Broca's aphasia, Paul Broca made other insightful, but less well-recalled, aphasiologic observations. He distinguished symptoms of Wernicke's aphasia five years before Carl Wernicke's famous monograph, and he was the first to exploit the surgical relevance of language localization. Broca investigated the anatomic substrate of language laterality by comparing the relative weights of the two hemispheres and the two frontal lobes. He considered language lateralization from a developmental point of view and in relation to handedness. A relatively small portion of Broca's prodigious scientific career was devoted to the study of aphasia, but his seminal work encompasses a number of issues of contemporary concern. PMID:3521554

Henderson, V W

1986-06-01

310

Batteries for Vehicular Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will describe battery technology as it relates to use in vehicular applications, including hybrid-electric vehicles (HEV), electric vehicles (EV), and plug-in-hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEV). The present status of rechargeable batteries, the requirements for each application, and the scientific stumbling blocks that stop batteries from being commercialized for these applications will be discussed. Focus will be on the class of batteries referred to as lithium batteries and the various chemistries that are the most promising for these applications. While Li-ion is expected in HEVs in the very near future, use in PHEVs are expected to be more gradual and dependent on solving the life, safety, and cost challenges. Finally, batteries for EVs remain problematic because of the range and charging-time issues.

Srinivasan, Venkat

2008-09-01

311

A desalination battery.  

PubMed

Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l(-1) for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (~ 0.2 Wh l(-1)), the most efficient technique presently available. PMID:22268456

Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

2012-01-27

312

A case of primary progressive aphasia. A 14-year follow-up study with neuropathological findings.  

PubMed

Primary progressive aphasia has been clinically defined as a progressive language deficit leading to the dissolution of almost all language functions with relative preservation of other cognitive functions until late in the course of the disease. Two types of language impairment have been described for primary progressive aphasia, which differ with respect to the degree of fluency of spontaneous speech. Whereas some authors have emphasized non-fluency as a defining characteristic of primary progressive aphasia, others have proposed that phonemic rather than semantic paraphasias in naming, both in the fluent and the non-fluent subtype, should be used as a criterion to distinguish primary progressive aphasia from slowly progressive aphasia in other forms of degenerative brain disease. Patients with fluent speech and semantic dementia, as typically seen in Alzheimer's disease, produce semantic paraphasias and circumlocutions rather than phonemic errors in naming. This paper reports the long-term follow-up of a patient with fluent aphasic speech, whose language profile over a decade was similar to that of patients with semantic dementia. Neuropathological examination revealed no evidence of Alzheimer's disease. Pick's disease or Pick variant, but showed spongiform changes of cortical layers (II and III) in temporal and, less severely, in frontal gyri. The present case indicates that semantic dementia is not a reliable indicator of probable Alzheimer's disease and supports the notion that there are different subtypes of primary progressive aphasia which cannot be defined by fluency or by the presence of phonemic paraphasia. Progress in identifying the neuropathological correlates of these subtypes in cases with lobar atrophy and spongiform changes should be expected from hereditary variants of progressive disorder. PMID:9549492

Schwarz, M; De Bleser, R; Poeck, K; Weis, J

1998-01-01

313

White matter tract signatures of the progressive aphasias.  

PubMed

The primary progressive aphasias (PPA) are a heterogeneous group of language-led neurodegenerative diseases resulting from large-scale brain network degeneration. White matter (WM) pathways bind networks together, and might therefore hold information about PPA pathogenesis. Here we used diffusion tensor imaging and tract-based spatial statistics to compare WM tract changes between PPA syndromes and with respect to Alzheimer's disease and healthy controls in 33 patients with PPA (13 nonfluent/agrammatic PPA); 10 logopenic variant PPA; and 10 semantic variant PPA. Nonfluent/agrammatic PPA was associated with predominantly left-sided and anterior tract alterations including uncinate fasciculus (UF) and subcortical projections; semantic variant PPA with bilateral alterations in inferior longitudinal fasciculus and UF; and logopenic variant PPA with bilateral but predominantly left-sided alterations in inferior longitudinal fasciculus, UF, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and subcortical projections. Tract alterations were more extensive than gray matter alterations, and the extent of alteration across tracts and PPA syndromes varied between diffusivity metrics. These WM signatures of PPA syndromes illustrate the selective vulnerability of brain language networks in these diseases and might have some pathologic specificity. PMID:23312804

Mahoney, Colin J; Malone, Ian B; Ridgway, Gerard R; Buckley, Aisling H; Downey, Laura E; Golden, Hannah L; Ryan, Natalie S; Ourselin, Sebastien; Schott, Jonathan M; Rossor, Martin N; Fox, Nick C; Warren, Jason D

2013-01-09

314

White matter tract signatures of the progressive aphasias  

PubMed Central

The primary progressive aphasias (PPA) are a heterogeneous group of language-led neurodegenerative diseases resulting from large-scale brain network degeneration. White matter (WM) pathways bind networks together, and might therefore hold information about PPA pathogenesis. Here we used diffusion tensor imaging and tract-based spatial statistics to compare WM tract changes between PPA syndromes and with respect to Alzheimer's disease and healthy controls in 33 patients with PPA (13 nonfluent/agrammatic PPA); 10 logopenic variant PPA; and 10 semantic variant PPA. Nonfluent/agrammatic PPA was associated with predominantly left-sided and anterior tract alterations including uncinate fasciculus (UF) and subcortical projections; semantic variant PPA with bilateral alterations in inferior longitudinal fasciculus and UF; and logopenic variant PPA with bilateral but predominantly left-sided alterations in inferior longitudinal fasciculus, UF, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and subcortical projections. Tract alterations were more extensive than gray matter alterations, and the extent of alteration across tracts and PPA syndromes varied between diffusivity metrics. These WM signatures of PPA syndromes illustrate the selective vulnerability of brain language networks in these diseases and might have some pathologic specificity.

Mahoney, Colin J.; Malone, Ian B.; Ridgway, Gerard R.; Buckley, Aisling H.; Downey, Laura E.; Golden, Hannah L.; Ryan, Natalie S.; Ourselin, Sebastien; Schott, Jonathan M.; Rossor, Martin N.; Fox, Nick C.; Warren, Jason D.

2013-01-01

315

Classification of primary progressive aphasia and its variants  

PubMed Central

This article provides a classification of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and its 3 main variants to improve the uniformity of case reporting and the reliability of research results. Criteria for the 3 variants of PPA—nonfluent/agrammatic, semantic, and logopenic—were developed by an international group of PPA investigators who convened on 3 occasions to operationalize earlier published clinical descriptions for PPA subtypes. Patients are first diagnosed with PPA and are then divided into clinical variants based on specific speech and language features characteristic of each subtype. Classification can then be further specified as “imaging-supported” if the expected pattern of atrophy is found and “with definite pathology” if pathologic or genetic data are available. The working recommendations are presented in lists of features, and suggested assessment tasks are also provided. These recommendations have been widely agreed upon by a large group of experts and should be used to ensure consistency of PPA classification in future studies. Future collaborations will collect prospective data to identify relationships between each of these syndromes and specific biomarkers for a more detailed understanding of clinicopathologic correlations.

Hillis, A.E.; Weintraub, S.; Kertesz, A.; Mendez, M.; Cappa, S.F.; Ogar, J.M.; Rohrer, J.D.; Black, S.; Boeve, B.F.; Manes, F.; Dronkers, N.F.; Vandenberghe, R.; Rascovsky, K.; Patterson, K.; Miller, B.L.; Knopman, D.S.; Hodges, J.R.; Mesulam, M.M.; Grossman, M.

2011-01-01

316

THE NON-FLUENT/AGRAMMATIC VARIANT OF PRIMARY PROGRESSIVE APHASIA  

PubMed Central

In an era of disease-modifying treatments, the non-fluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia (naPPA) may help screen for a specific cause of neurodegenerative disease. However, there are controversies surrounding the identification of naPPA. This review describes the characteristic features associated with this discrete, young-onset neurodegenerative condition. Patients with naPPA have a distinct limitation in language emphasizingtheir poor grammatical comprehension and expression, as well as a disorder of speech sound production. Imaging studies associate an impairment of this uniquely human language capacity with disruption of a large-scale neural network centered in left inferior frontal and anterior-superior temporal regions. This corresponds to thepathologic burden of disease anatomically focused in left inferior frontal and anterior-superior temporal regions. A review of the histopathology underlying naPPA relates this condition to frontotemporal lobar degeneration spectrum pathology involving the microtubule-associated protein tau in a majority of cases. While much work remains to be done, these observations point to unique clinical-pathological correlations that can advance care for an important class of diseases while supplementing our knowledge of human cognitive neuroscience.

Grossman, Murray

2012-01-01

317

Microbleeds in the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Microbleeds have been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), although it is unclear whether they occur in atypical presentations of AD, such as the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA). We aimed to assess the presence and clinical correlates of microbleeds in lvPPA. METHODS: Thirteen lvPPA subjects underwent 3T T2*-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging and Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography imaging. Microbleeds were identified on manual review and assigned a regional location. Total and regional white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden was measured. RESULTS: Microbleeds were observed in four lvPPA subjects (31%), most commonly in the frontal lobe. Subjects with microbleeds were older, more likely female, and had a greater burden of WMH than those without microbleeds. The regional distribution of microbleeds did not match the regional distribution of WMH. All cases were PiB positive. CONCLUSIONS: Microbleeds occur in approximately one third of subjects with lvPPA, with older women at the highest risk. PMID:23562427

Whitwell, Jennifer L; Jack, Clifford R; Duffy, Joseph R; Strand, Edythe A; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Senjem, Matthew L; Murphy, Matthew C; Kantarci, Kejal; Machulda, Mary M; Lowe, Val J; Josephs, Keith A

2013-04-01

318

Asian battery forecast report  

SciTech Connect

A forecast battery production in Asia is a particularly relevant subject for an Australian lead man to speak of as the majority of our own business is in the region. While total consumption of battery units still does not match that of the North American market of some 80-85 million units per annum, Asian economic growth in the next decade has the potential to result in the battery market matching or even exceeding the above figures.

Wyeth, R.

1995-08-01

319

Flash report: Automotive batteries  

SciTech Connect

Battery inventories soared early in the years after sales plunged 15% due to the mild winter. But in the last 90 days, admist a hot summer, industry leader Exide announced a 5% price hike to assess the current market, OTR interviewed 14 professionals from the battery industry - Contacts include four battery manufacturers, one industry specialists, seven retail chains plus two wholesalers. The nine sales groups supply about 10,000 stores an automotive shops nationwide.

Gates, J.H.

1995-12-01

320

Battery utilizing ceramic membranes  

DOEpatents

A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

Yahnke, Mark S. (Berkeley, CA); Shlomo, Golan (Haifa, IL); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

1994-01-01

321

Handedness and language learning disability differentially distribute in progressive aphasia variants.  

PubMed

Primary progressive aphasia is a neurodegenerative clinical syndrome that presents in adulthood with an isolated, progressive language disorder. Three main clinical/anatomical variants have been described, each associated with distinctive pathology. A high frequency of neurodevelopmental learning disability in primary progressive aphasia has been reported. Because the disorder is heterogeneous with different patterns of cognitive, anatomical and biological involvement, we sought to identify whether learning disability had a predilection for one or more of the primary progressive aphasia subtypes. We screened the University of California San Francisco Memory and Aging Center's primary progressive aphasia cohort (n = 198) for history of language-related learning disability as well as hand preference, which has associations with learning disability. The study included logopenic (n = 48), non-fluent (n = 54) and semantic (n = 96) variant primary progressive aphasias. We investigated whether the presence of learning disability or non-right-handedness was associated with differential effects on demographic, neuropsychological and neuroimaging features of primary progressive aphasia. We showed that a high frequency of learning disability was present only in the logopenic group (?(2) = 15.17, P < 0.001) and (?(2) = 11.51, P < 0.001) compared with semantic and non-fluent populations. In this group, learning disability was associated with earlier onset of disease, more isolated language symptoms, and more focal pattern of left posterior temporoparietal atrophy. Non-right-handedness was instead over-represented in the semantic group, at nearly twice the prevalence of the general population (?(2) = 6.34, P = 0.01). Within semantic variant primary progressive aphasia the right-handed and non-right-handed cohorts appeared homogeneous on imaging, cognitive profile, and structural analysis of brain symmetry. Lastly, the non-fluent group showed no increase in learning disability or non-right-handedness. Logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia and developmental dyslexia both manifest with phonological disturbances and posterior temporal involvement. Learning disability might confer vulnerability of this network to early-onset, focal Alzheimer's pathology. Left-handedness has been described as a proxy for atypical brain hemispheric lateralization. As non-right-handedness was increased only in the semantic group, anomalous lateralization mechanisms might instead be related to frontotemporal lobar degeneration with abnormal TARDBP. Taken together, this study suggests that neurodevelopmental signatures impart differential trajectories towards neurodegenerative disease. PMID:24056533

Miller, Zachary A; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Rankin, Katherine P; Henry, Maya L; Babiak, Miranda C; Frazier, Darvis T; Lobach, Iryna V; Bettcher, Brianne M; Wu, Teresa Q; Rabinovici, Gil D; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

2013-09-20

322

Aphasia for Morse code: a comment on Wyler and Ray (1986).  

PubMed

A. R. Wyler and R. W. Ray (1986, Brain and Language, 27, 195-199), present a case of aphasia for Morse code; they relate the deficit to the inability to detect high-speed auditory temporal sequences. Based on a personal observation of transient aphasia for Morse code, we proposed that at least three different abilities participate in recognizing and producing Morse code messages: (1) a specific linguistic ability, (2) a praxic skill, and (3) an auditory discrimination skill. Our patient presents difficulties in the first and second abilities, Wyler and Ray's in the third ability. PMID:3567555

Ardila, A

1987-03-01

323

Battery test plan  

SciTech Connect

This test plan describes the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) approach to testing electric vehicle (EV) batteries. Each individual module and vehicle battery pack is given an identification that is traceable through its history. Computer-controlled battery capacity testing equipment is used at the Electric Vehicle Test Facility. Two types of testing are performed - acceptance and operational. Records of tests are maintained on the forms illustrated and on computer-generated outputs shown. The results of the testing is documented in a report on individual battery products of a manufacturer.

Blickwedel, T.W.

1982-06-01

324

Lithium-Air Battery Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium-air battery is considered as one of the highest energy density batteries for various future applications. There are only limited studies reported in the literature on this battery system. In the present project studies, various aspects related to ...

N. Munichandraiah

2009-01-01

325

78 FR 55773 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size...Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size DATES: The meeting will be...

2013-09-11

326

Small batteries. Vol. 2: Primary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Covered are: Leclanche carbon - zinc and zinc chloride batteries. Alkaline - manganese batteries. Mercury - zinc and other mercury types of battery. Manganese dioxide - magnesium perchlorate batteries. Zinc - air cells. Lithium - based systems. Lithium - iodine batteries. High-temperature thermally activated reserve batteries. Water-activated batteries. Ammonia reserve batteries. Index.

Crompton

1983-01-01

327

Profiling performance in L1 and L2 observed in Greek-English bilingual aphasia using the Bilingual Aphasia Test: a case study from Cyprus.  

PubMed

The Greek and the English versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) were used to assess the linguistic abilities of a premorbidly highly proficient late bilingual female after a haemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident involving the left temporo-parietal lobe. The BAT was administered in the two languages on separate occasions by the first author, a bilingual English-Greek speech pathologist. The results revealed a non-parallel recovery in the two languages. This information will be used not only to guide clinical intervention for the patient but also to provide the first report on the manifestations of aphasia in Greek. Moreover, the use of the (Standard Modern) Greek version of the BAT to investigate Greek Cypriot aphasics has implications for the use of the BAT on underspecified languages or dialects. Such studies may help with the development of assessment measures and therapy strategies that focus on specific characteristics of one or multiple languages. PMID:21453038

Kambanaros, Maria; Grohmann, Kleanthes K

2011-03-31

328

Aluminum-ferricyanide battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A battery capable of producing high current densities with high charge capacity is described which includes an aluminum anode, a ferricyanide electrolyte and a second electrode capable of reducing ferricyanide electrolyte which is either dissolved in an alkaline solution or alkaline seawater solution. The performance of the battery is enhanced by high temperature and high electrolyte flow rates.

Marsh, Catherine; Licht, Stuart L.

1993-11-01

329

Aluminum-Air Battery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation of aluminum alloyed with small amounts (less than 0.1%) of In, Ga, and Tl in an aluminum-air battery with 2M NaCl as the electrolyte is reported. The tested laboratory model of the battery with a total weight of about 500 g operated at a ...

A. Despic D. Drazic S. Zecevic

1979-01-01

330

Anhydrous primary battery  

SciTech Connect

There is disclosed an anhydrous primary battery. The battery comprises an anode, an inorganic liquid electrolyte and a cathode. The electrolyte comprises an electrolyte salt in a solvent consisting of oxyhalides or thiohalides. The cathode is a substantially pure material selected from the group of materials consisting of polyacetylene, polypyrrole, polyparaphenylene, polyparaphenylenesulfide, and their derivatives.

Kruger, F. J.

1985-12-03

331

Emergency battery cell monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wet cell battery monitor is described for single cell monitoring of both electrolyte fluid level and electrolyte fluid charge, which comprises: (a) a conductive probe adapted for insertion into a single cell of a wet cell battery to a predetermined depth, the predetermined depth corresponding to a minimum acceptable electrolyte fluid level contained within the single cell. The probe

1986-01-01

332

Battery thermal management unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A battery warming device has been designed which uses waste heat from an operating internal combustion engine to warm a battery. A portion of the waste heat is stored in the sensible and latent heat of a phase change type material for use in maintaining the battery temperature after the engine is shut off. The basic design of the device consists of a Phase Change Material (PCM) reservoir and a simple heat exchanger connected to the engineer's cooling system. Two types of units were built, tested and field trialed. A strap-on type which was strapped to the side of an automotive battery and was intended for the automotive after-market and a tray type on which a battery or batteries sat. This unit was intended for the heavy duty truck market. It was determined that both types of units increased the average cranking power of the batteries they were applied to. Although there were several design problems with the units such as the need for an automatic thermostatically controlled bypass valve, the overall feeling is that there is a market opportunity for both the strap-on and tray type battery warming units.

Sanders, Nicholas A.

1989-03-01

333

Recovering lead from batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 20 years, a significant number of processes have been developed to recover lead from scrap batteries. These processes recover lead via hydrometallurgical processing of the paste component of the battery followed by electrowinning. A number of pilot plant operations have been conducted, but thus far none of the processes have become operational.

David Prengaman, R.

1995-01-01

334

Battery Thermal Runaway Monitor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A device for determining a thermal runaway condition in a nickel-cadmium battery is described. A current sensor develops a DC voltage proportional to battery current and a converter converts the voltage to a pulse train whose frequency is directly proport...

H. L. Benham S. D. Clark H. L. Huffman R. J. Stovall

1977-01-01

335

Battery charging apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes in combination: a portable module having a light mounted thereon, at least one rechargeable battery therein for operating the light, and a pair of contacts connected to the battery; an electrical system of an automotive vehicle having a second battery and an operation switch connected to the second battery, the switch having a normally open position; an apparatus for charging the rechargeable battery from the second battery. The apparatus has a charging circuit with a diode between the second battery and one of the contacts for the rechargeable battery, means for short circuiting the diode to permit a current flow around the diode, the means including a second switch having a normally closed position to complete a short circuit about the diode and an open position to interrupt the short circuit, and actuating means for actuating the second switch connected with the operation switch to move the second switch to the open position in response to closing of the operation switch.

Mc Dermott, J.A.

1987-09-01

336

Batterie fuellungs systeme gmbh  

SciTech Connect

Batteries Fullings Systems gmbh, or BFS, located in Munich, manufactures and supplies an automatic filling system for all types of traction and stationary batteries that feed from a single source of water. Operation of the system and various options and applications are briefly discussed.

Not Available

1993-05-01

337

Arrangement for monitoring batteries  

SciTech Connect

A battery-condition monitoring operation is performed by connecting a load resistor across the battery terminals for a time interval to draw a definite battery discharge current. A metering unit measures the voltage across the load resistor or that directly across the terminals of the battery. A timing switch sensible to the temperature of the load resistor automatically terminates the time interval, and a start switch is pressed to initiate the time interval; alternatively, the timing switch automatically initiates the measurement at successive time intervals. Latest at the end of the time interval, an arresting device prevents the metering unit from responding further to the metered signal, and the value most recently metered by the metering unit is persistently held, until the next such measurement operation, and constitutes an indication of the remaining capacity of the battery.

Harer, H.; Juhasz, J.

1981-06-23

338

Electrophysiology of Object Naming in Primary Progressive Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Primary progressive aphasia (PPA), a selective neurodegeneration of the language network, frequently causes object naming impairments. We examined the N400 event-related potential (ERP) to explore interactions between object recognition and word processing in 20 PPA patients and 15 controls. Participants viewed photographs of objects, each followed by a word that was either a match to the object, a semantically related mismatch, or an unrelated mismatch. Patients judged whether word– object pairs matched with high accuracy (94% PPA group; 98% control group), but they failed to exhibit the normal N400 category effect (N400c), defined as a larger N400 to unrelated versus related mismatch words. In contrast, the N400 mismatch effect (N400m), defined as a larger N400 to mismatch than match words, was observed in both groups. N400m magnitude was positively correlated with neuropsychological measures of word comprehension but not fluency or grammatical competence, and therefore reflected the semantic component of naming. After ERP testing, patients were asked to name the same set of objects aloud. Trials with objects that could not be named were found to lack an N400m, although the name had been correctly recognized at the matching stage. Even accurate overt naming did not necessarily imply normal semantic processing, as shown by the absent N400c. The N400m was preserved in one patient with postsemantic anomia, who could write the names of objects she could not verbalize. N400 analyses can thus help dissect the multiple cognitive mechanisms that contribute to object naming failures in PPA.

Hurley, Robert S.; Paller, Ken A.; Wieneke, Christina A.; Weintraub, Sandra; Thompson, Cynthia K.; Federmeier, Kara D.; Mesulam, M.-Marsel

2009-01-01

339

Model Choice and Sample Size in Item Response Theory Analysis of Aphasia Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the most appropriate item response theory (IRT) measurement model for aphasia tests requiring 2-choice responses and to determine whether small samples are adequate for estimating such models. Method: Pyramids and Palm Trees (Howard & Patterson, 1992) test data that had been collected from…

Hula, William D.; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Martin, Nadine

2012-01-01

340

Semantic Interference during Object Naming in Agrammatic and Logopenic Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the time course of object naming in 21 individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) (8 agrammatic (PPA-G); 13 logopenic (PPA-L)) and healthy age-matched speakers (n=17) using a semantic interference paradigm with related and unrelated interfering stimuli presented at stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) of -1000, -500,…

Thompson, Cynthia K.; Cho, Soojin; Price, Charis; Wieneke, Christina; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Rogalski, Emily; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel

2012-01-01

341

A Proposed Regional Hierarchy in Recovery of Post-Stroke Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Activation studies in patients with aphasia due to stroke or tumours in the dominant hemisphere have revealed effects of disinhibition in ipsilateral perilesional and in contralateral homotopic cortical regions, referred to as collateral and transcallosal disinhibition. These findings were supported by studies with selective disturbance of…

Heiss, W.-D.; Thiel, A.

2006-01-01

342

Model?driven intervention in bilingual aphasia: Evidence from a case of pathological language mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Speech?language pathologists are meeting an increasing number of bilingual clients. This poses a special challenge to clinical practice, given that bilingualism adds to the complexity of aphasia patterns and clinical decisions must be made accordingly. One question that has come to the attention of clinical aphasiologists is that of the language in which therapy should be administered. This issue

Ana Inés Ansaldo; Ladan Ghazi Saidi; Adelaida Ruiz

2010-01-01

343

Reaction Time and Accuracy in Individuals with Aphasia during Auditory Vigilance Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research indicates that attentional deficits exist in aphasic individuals. However, relatively little is known about auditory vigilance performance in individuals with aphasia. The current study explores reaction time (RT) and accuracy in 10 aphasic participants and 10 nonbrain-damaged controls during linguistic and nonlinguistic auditory…

Laures, Jacqueline S.

2005-01-01

344

Category and Letter Fluency in Semantic Dementia, Primary Progressive Aphasia, and Alzheimer's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the impact of various degenerative dementias on access to semantic knowledge and the status of semantic representations. Patients with semantic dementia, primary progressive aphasia, and Alzheimer's disease were compared with elderly controls on tasks of category and letter fluency, with number of words generated, mean lexical…

Marczinski, Cecile A.; Kertesz, Andrew

2006-01-01

345

Stronger Accent Following a Stroke: The Case of a Trilingual with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study documents patterns of change in speech production in a multilingual with aphasia following a cerebrovascular accident (CVA). EC, a right-handed Hebrew-English-French trilingual man, had a left fronto-temporo-parietal CVA, after which he reported that his (native) Hebrew accent became stronger in his (second language) English.…

Levy, Erika S.; Goral, Mira; De Diesbach, Catharine Castelluccio; Law, Franzo, II

2011-01-01

346

Mechanisms of Aphasia Recovery after Stroke and the Role of Noninvasive Brain Stimulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of the most frequent symptoms of unilateral stroke is aphasia, the impairment or loss of language functions. Over the past few years, behavioral and neuroimaging studies have shown that rehabilitation interventions can promote neuroplastic changes in aphasic patients that may be associated with the improvement of language functions. Following…

Hamilton, Roy H.; Chrysikou, Evangelia G.; Coslett, Branch

2011-01-01

347

Comparison of Graphic Symbol Learning in Individuals with Aphasia and Right Hemisphere Brain Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the differences in performance on recognition of graphic symbols across time by individuals with aphasia, individuals with right-hemisphere brain damage, and neurologically normal adults. The subjects, seen individually, learned 40 Blissymbols. The symbols were selected so that the effects of symbol translucency and complexity on the recognition of graphic symbols could be examined. A paired-associate learning paradigm

Rajinder K. Koul; Lyle L. Lloyd

1998-01-01

348

Speech pathology services for primary progressive aphasia: Exploring an emerging area of practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a clinical dementia syndrome characterised by the gradual dissolution of language without impairment of other cognitive domains for at least the first 2 years of illness (Mesulam, 2001). In recent years the authors had observed an increase in the number of referrals of individuals with a queried diagnosis of PPA to their speech pathology

Cathleen Taylor; Rachel Miles Kingma; Karen Croot; Lyndsey Nickels

2009-01-01

349

“That mea::n dog”: Linguistic mischief and verbal play as a communicative resource in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Linguists, sociolinguists, and anthropologists point to verbal play (e.g., rhyming, punning, teasing) as a pervasive communicative practice that crosses contexts, serves developmental and interpersonal functions, and foregrounds participants' metacommunicative awareness, as utterances must be framed as playful. Researchers investigating the communicative practices of persons with aphasia have yet to explore the presence and functions of verbal play.Data collection for

Julie A. Hengst

2006-01-01

350

A Proposed Regional Hierarchy in Recovery of Post-Stroke Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Activation studies in patients with aphasia due to stroke or tumours in the dominant hemisphere have revealed effects of disinhibition in ipsilateral perilesional and in contralateral homotopic cortical regions, referred to as collateral and transcallosal disinhibition. These findings were supported by studies with selective disturbance of…

Heiss, W.-D.; Thiel, A.

2006-01-01

351

Perspectives on Public Awareness of Stroke and Aphasia among Turkish Patients in a Neurology Unit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent studies on awareness have drawn attention to the fact that aphasia is a little known disorder to the public, in spite of all the publicity about this frequently occurring neurogenic language disorder. Being a very new concept, studies of awareness are rare in Turkey. This survey study assessed the extent of public awareness of neurological…

Mavis, Ilknur

2007-01-01

352

Verbal and non-verbal semantic impairment From fl uent primary progressive aphasia to semantic dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective disturbances of semantic memory have attracted the interest of many investigators and the question of the existence of single or multiple semantic systems remains a very controversial theme in the litera- ture. Objectives: To discuss the question of multiple semantic systems based on a longitudinal study of a patient who presented semantic dementia from fl uent primary progressive aphasia.

Mirna Lie; Hosogi Senaha; Paulo Caramelli; Claudia Sellitto Porto; Ricardo Nitrini

353

Department of Veterans Affairs' contributions to treatment outcomes research in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Since at least 1948, Veterans Administration (VA) clinicians have been reporting the outcomes of treatment administered to mend aphasia. These range from retrospective clinical observations to controlled, multicentre clinical trials. While the rigour of research varies among reports, the body of work is considerable.Aims: The purpose of this paper is to review VA contributions to treatment outcomes research in

Robert T. Wertz; Michael de Riesthal; William H. Irwin; Katherine B. Ross

2009-01-01

354

The Time Course of Neurolinguistic and Neuropsychological Symptoms in Three Cases of Logopenic Primary Progressive Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a rare clinical dementia syndrome affecting predominantly language abilities. Word-finding difficulties and comprehension deficits despite relatively preserved cognitive functions are characteristic symptoms during the first two years, and distinguish PPA from other dementia types like Alzheimer's disease.…

Etcheverry, Louise; Seidel, Barbara; Grande, Marion; Schulte, Stephanie; Pieperhoff, Peter; Sudmeyer, Martin; Minnerop, Martina; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Huber, Walter; Grodzinsky, Yosef; Amunts, Katrin; Heim, Stefan

2012-01-01

355

Tell Me Your Story: Analysis of Script Topics Selected by Persons with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This study examined the content of 100 short scripts, co-constructed by persons with aphasia (PWA) and a clinician. The PWA subsequently learned the scripts by interacting with a computerized virtual therapist. The goal was to provide clinicians with ideas regarding content for treatment that is meaningful to PWAs. Method: Thirty-three…

Holland, Audrey L.; Halper, Anita S.; Cherney, Leora R.

2010-01-01

356

Single Subject Controlled Experiments in Aphasia: The Science and the State of the Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper discusses the use of single subject controlled experimental designs for investigating the effects of treatment for aphasia. A brief historical perspective is presented, followed by discussions of the advantages and disadvantages of single subject and group approaches, the basic requirements of single subject experimental research, and…

Thompson, Cynthia K.

2006-01-01

357

Single subject controlled experiments in aphasia: The science and the state of the science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the use of single subject controlled experimental designs for investigating the effects of treatment for aphasia. A brief historical perspective is presented, followed by discussions of the advantages and disadvantages of single subject and group approaches, the basic requirements of single subject experimental research, and crucial considerations in design selection. In the final sections, results of reviews

Cynthia K. Thompson

2006-01-01

358

Effects of syntactic cueing therapy on picture naming and connected speech in acquired aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Language therapy for word-finding difficulties in aphasia usually involves picture naming of single words with the support of cues. Most studies have addressed nouns in isolation, even though in connected speech nouns are more frequently produced with determiners. We hypothesised that improved word finding in connected speech would be most likely if intervention treated nouns in usual syntactic contexts. Six

Ruth Herbert; Dianne Webster; Lucy Dyson

2012-01-01

359

A Study of Syntactic Processing in Aphasia I: Behavioral (Psycholinguistic) Aspects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents the results of a study of syntactically based comprehension in aphasic patients. We studied 42 patients with aphasia secondary to left hemisphere strokes and 25 control participants. We measured off-line, end-of-sentence, performance (accuracy and reaction time) in two tasks that require comprehension--enactment and…

Caplan, David; Waters, Gloria; DeDe, Gayle; Michaud, Jennifer; Reddy, Amanda

2007-01-01

360

Beginning to Teach the End: The Importance of Including Discharge from Aphasia Therapy in the Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Discharging clients with long-term aphasia from therapy services constitutes a challenging dilemma for practising clinicians for a multitude of reasons. Although discharge was raised and discussed as a contentious issue in the field of aphasiology ten years ago, it remains an aspect of practice which is complex and underexplored. We…

Hersh, Deborah; Cruice, Madeline

2010-01-01

361

Perspectives on Public Awareness of Stroke and Aphasia among Turkish Patients in a Neurology Unit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies on awareness have drawn attention to the fact that aphasia is a little known disorder to the public, in spite of all the publicity about this frequently occurring neurogenic language disorder. Being a very new concept, studies of awareness are rare in Turkey. This survey study assessed the extent of public awareness of neurological…

Mavis, Ilknur

2007-01-01

362

Health-Related Quality of Life in People with Severe Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) measures are increasingly used to help us understand the impact of disease or disability on a person's life and to measure the effectiveness of interventions. A small number of studies have looked at perceived HRQL in people with mild or moderate aphasia. They report that reduced HRQL is…

Hilari, Katerina; Byng, Sally

2009-01-01

363

Fluent Versus Nonfluent Primary Progressive Aphasia: A Comparison of Clinical and Functional Neuroimaging Features  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To better characterize fluent and nonfluent variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Although investigators have recognized both fluent and nonfluent patients with PPA (Mesulam, 2001), the clinical and neuroimaging features of these variants have not been fully defined. We present clinical and neuropsychological data on 47 PPA patients…

Clark, D.G.; Charuvastra, A.; Miller, B.L.; Shapira, J.S.; Mendez, M.F.

2005-01-01

364

Non-linguistic learning in aphasia: Effects of training method and stimulus characteristics  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of the current study was to explore non-linguistic learning ability in patients with aphasia, examining the impact of stimulus typicality and feedback on success with learning. Method Eighteen patients with aphasia and eight healthy controls participated in this study. All participants completed four computerized, non-linguistic category-learning tasks. We probed learning ability under two methods of instruction: feedback-based (FB) and paired-associate (PA). We also examined the impact of task complexity on learning ability, comparing two stimulus conditions: typical (Typ) and atypical (Atyp). Performance was compared between groups and across conditions. Results Results demonstrated that healthy controls were able to successfully learn categories under all conditions. For our patients with aphasia, two patterns of performance arose. One subgroup of patients was able to maintain learning across task manipulations and conditions. The other subgroup of patients demonstrated a sensitivity to task complexity, learning successfully only in the typical training conditions. Conclusions Results support the hypothesis that impairments of general learning are present in aphasia. Some patients demonstrated the ability to extract category information under complex training conditions, while others learned only under conditions that were simplified and emphasized salient category features. Overall, the typical training condition facilitated learning for all participants. Findings have implications for therapy, which are discussed.

Vallila-Rohter, Sofia; Kiran, Swathi

2013-01-01

365

Adapting the Bilingual Aphasia Test to Rarotongan (Cook Islands Maori): Linguistic and Clinical Considerations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes the adaptation of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) to the Rarotongan dialect of Cook Islands Maori, a Polynesian language spoken in the Cook Islands and expatriate communities. A brief linguistic sketch of Rarotongan is presented. As Rarotongan is characterised by a complex pronominal system, "a" versus "o" possession and…

Amberber, Amanda Miller

2011-01-01

366

Treatment Fidelity: Its Importance and Reported Frequency in Aphasia Treatment Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Treatment fidelity is a measure of the reliability of the administration of an intervention in a treatment study. It is an important aspect of the validity of a research study, and it has implications for the ultimate implementation of evidence-supported interventions in typical clinical settings. Method: Aphasia treatment studies…

Hinckley, Jacqueline J.; Douglas, Natalie F.

2013-01-01

367

Lesion Characteristics Related to Treatment Improvement in Object and Action Naming for Patients with Chronic Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have examined the relationship between degree of lesion in various locations and improvement during treatment in stroke patients with chronic aphasia. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether the degree of lesion in specific brain regions was related to magnitude of improvement over the course of object and action naming…

Parkinson, R. Bruce; Raymer, Anastasia; Chang, Yu-Ling; FitzGerald, David B.; Crosson, Bruce

2009-01-01

368

Evaluation of Attention Training and Metacognitive Facilitation to Improve Reading Comprehension in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This pilot study investigated the impact of direct attention training combined with metacognitive facilitation on reading comprehension in individuals with aphasia. Method: A single-subject, multiple baseline design was employed across 4 participants to evaluate potential changes in reading comprehension resulting from an 8-week…

Lee, Jaime B.; Sohlberg, McKay Moore

2013-01-01

369

Communicative access and decision making for people with aphasia: Implementing sustainable healthcare systems change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Communicative access to information and decision making in health care appears limited for people with aphasia in spite of research demonstrating that communicative participation can be enhanced with skilled communication partners and appropriate resources. In order to address this concern, a project was designed to target the “systems” level of health care via a multi?faceted, team?based intervention called the

Aura Kagan; Charlene O'Neill Christie; Maria Huijbregts; Sara McEwen; Jacqueline Willems

2007-01-01

370

Patterns of Comprehension Performance in Agrammatic Broca's Aphasia: A Test of the Trace Deletion Hypothesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested the core prediction of the Trace Deletion Hypothesis (TDH) of agrammatic Broca's aphasia, which contends that such patients' comprehension performance is normal for active reversible sentences but at chance level for passive reversible sentences. We analyzed the comprehension performance of 38 Italian Broca's aphasics with verified…

Caramazza, A.; Capasso, R.; Capitani, E.; Miceli, G.

2005-01-01

371

The Merest L"ogomachy": The 1868 Norwich Discussion of Aphasia by Hughlings Jackson and Broca  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reconsiders the events that took place at the 1868 meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BA) in Norwich. Paul Broca and John Hughlings Jackson were invited to speak on the new and controversial subject of aphasia. Over the ensuing decades, there have been repeated references made to a debate between Broca…

Lorch, Marjorie Perlman

2008-01-01

372

Computerised training for impairments of word comprehension and retrieval in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Semantic comprehension training paired with verbal production leads to improved word retrieval in individuals with aphasia. Few studies have also examined effects of such training for word comprehension. MossTalk Words includes a training module to provide semantic comprehension training via computerised exercises. Variations in the treatment schedule may influence the impact of word retrieval and comprehension treatment gains.We extend

Anastasia M. Raymer; Francine P. Kohen; Diane Saffell

2006-01-01

373

Task-modulated neural activation patterns in chronic stroke patients with aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Neuroimaging research on language recovery in patients with aphasia due to left hemisphere damage has generated some intriguing results. However, it is still not clear what role the right hemisphere plays in supporting recovered language functions in the chronic phase for patients with different site and size of lesion when different tasks are used.Aims: The present study aimed at

Rajani Sebastian; Swathi Kiran

2011-01-01

374

Empathy and aphasia rehabilitation-are there contradictory requirements of treatment and psychological support?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the target article of this ‘Clinical Forum’ Brumfitt rightly points out that aphasia should not be merely interpreted as a linguistic disorder but also as an illness that affects the premorbidly acquired identity and that confronts the aphasic patient with the task to develop a new concept of his\\/her self. She quotes a number of (not representative) self reports

Manfred Herrmann; Helga Johannsen-Horbach; Claus W. Wallesch

1993-01-01

375

Claiming Mutual Stance: On the Use of that's right by a Person With Aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the key contributions of conversation analytic research has been revealing the interactional work undertaken by recipients via minimal vocal responses. In recent years, conversation analysis has been increasingly applied to interactions involving people with aphasia (i.e., an acquired language disorder), but few studies have focused on the work they undertake as recipients of talk. This article discusses how

Scott E. Barnes

2011-01-01

376

A stroke of misfortune: Cultural interpretations of aphasia in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cultural perspectives about illness influence the experience of illness and disability, shaping the nature of both formal and lay care. However, very little has been written about cultural understandings of aphasia despite a renewed focus on contextual influences. Methods from anthropology have the potential to improve our understanding of this condition.Aims: In this paper we explore understandings of stroke

Carol Legg; Claire Penn

2012-01-01

377

Changes in Language-specific Brain Activation after Therapy for Aphasia using Magnetoencephalography: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient with chronic aphasia underwent functional imaging during a language comprehension task using magnetoencephalography (MEG) before and after constraint induced language therapy (CILT). In the pre- and immediate post-treatment (TX) scans MEG activity sources were observed within right hemisphere only, and were located in areas homotopic to left hemisphere language areas. There was a significant increase in activation in

Joshua I. Breier; Lynn M. Maher; Stephanie Schmadeke; Khader M. Hasan; Andrew C. Papanicolaou

2007-01-01

378

Evolution of Phonemic Word Fluency Performance in Post-Stroke Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this longitudinal study, quantitative and qualitative changes in responses of people with aphasia were examined on a phonemic fluency task. Eighteen patients were tested at 3-month intervals on the letters F-A-S while they received comprehensive, intensive treatment from 3 to 12 months post-stroke. They returned for a follow-up evaluation at an…

Sarno, Martha Taylor; Postman, Whitney Anne; Cho, Young Susan; Norman, Robert G.

2005-01-01

379

Legal Decision-Making by People with Aphasia: Critical Incidents for Speech Pathologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: The assessment and management of a person with aphasia for whom decision-making capacity is queried represents a highly complex clinical issue. In addition, there are few published guidelines and even fewer published accounts of empirical research to assist. Aims: The research presented in this paper aimed to identify the main issues…

Ferguson, Alison; Duffield, Gemma; Worrall, Linda

2010-01-01

380

The Efficacy of Group Communication Treatment in Adults with Chronic Aphasia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined effects of group communication treatment on the linguistic and communicative performance of 24 adults with chronic aphasia. Participants received five hours of group communication treatment weekly provided by a speech-language pathologist. Participants had significantly higher scores on communicative and linguistic measures…

Elman, Roberta J.; Bernstein-Ellis, Ellen

1999-01-01

381

Adapting the Bilingual Aphasia Test to Rarotongan (Cook Islands Maori): Linguistic and Clinical Considerations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the adaptation of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) to the Rarotongan dialect of Cook Islands Maori, a Polynesian language spoken in the Cook Islands and expatriate communities. A brief linguistic sketch of Rarotongan is presented. As Rarotongan is characterised by a complex pronominal system, "a" versus "o" possession and…

Amberber, Amanda Miller

2011-01-01

382

The Effects of Modified Melodic Intonation Therapy on Nonfluent Aphasia: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Positive results have been reported with melodic intonation therapy (MIT) in nonfluent aphasia patients with damage to their left-brain speech processes, using the patient's intact ability to sing to promote functional language. This pilot study sought to determine the immediate effects of introducing modified melodic intonation therapy…

Conklyn, Dwyer; Novak, Eric; Boissy, Adrienne; Bethoux, Francois; Chemali, Kamal

2012-01-01

383

Mechanisms of Aphasia Recovery after Stroke and the Role of Noninvasive Brain Stimulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most frequent symptoms of unilateral stroke is aphasia, the impairment or loss of language functions. Over the past few years, behavioral and neuroimaging studies have shown that rehabilitation interventions can promote neuroplastic changes in aphasic patients that may be associated with the improvement of language functions. Following…

Hamilton, Roy H.; Chrysikou, Evangelia G.; Coslett, Branch

2011-01-01

384

Sparing of Written Production of Proper Nouns and Dates in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Aphasia is a total or partial loss of the ability to produce or understand language, usually caused by brain disease or injury. In this case study, the aphasic patient (BMW) has a profound impairment of oral production and a very moderate impairment in comprehension. Several years of informal observation lead to the current study that contrasts…

Schmidt, Darren; Buchanan, Lori

2004-01-01

385

Effect of Verb Network Strengthening Treatment in Moderate-to-Severe Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This Phase II treatment study examined the effect of Verb Network Strengthening Treatment (VNeST) on individuals with moderate-to-severe aphasia. Research questions addressed (a) pre- to posttreatment changes and pretreatment to treatment phase changes on probe sentences containing trained verbs (e.g., "The carpenter is 'measuring' the…

Edmonds, Lisa A.; Babb, Michelle

2011-01-01

386

Bilingual Aphasia and Language Control: A Follow-Up fMRI and Intrinsic Connectivity Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a world that is becoming more multilingual, bilingual aphasia is a clinical problem with a major clinical impact. However, at present we lack causal explanations of the many features of recovery patterns and there is no consensus about the language in which the patient should receive speech therapy. Further advance requires an understanding of…

Abutalebi, Jubin; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Tettamanti, Marco; Green, David W.; Cappa, Stefano F.

2009-01-01

387

Patterns of Comprehension Performance in Agrammatic Broca's Aphasia: A Test of the Trace Deletion Hypothesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We tested the core prediction of the Trace Deletion Hypothesis (TDH) of agrammatic Broca's aphasia, which contends that such patients' comprehension performance is normal for active reversible sentences but at chance level for passive reversible sentences. We analyzed the comprehension performance of 38 Italian Broca's aphasics with verified…

Caramazza, A.; Capasso, R.; Capitani, E.; Miceli, G.

2005-01-01

388

Brain Plasticity in Poststroke Aphasia: What Is the Contribution of the Right Hemisphere?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brain may use two strategies to recover from poststroke aphasia: the structural repair of primarily speech-relevant regions or the activation of compensatory areas. We studied the cortical metabolic recovery in aphasic stroke patients with positron emission tomography (PET) at rest and during word repetition. The left supplementary motor area (SMA) showed the most prominent compensatory activation in the subacute

Hans Karbe; Alexander Thiel; Gerald Weber-Luxenburger; Karl Herholz; Josef Kessler; Wolf-Dieter Heiss

1998-01-01

389

The Time Course of Neurolinguistic and Neuropsychological Symptoms in Three Cases of Logopenic Primary Progressive Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a rare clinical dementia syndrome affecting predominantly language abilities. Word-finding difficulties and comprehension deficits despite relatively preserved cognitive functions are characteristic symptoms during the first two years, and distinguish PPA from other dementia types like Alzheimer's disease.…

Etcheverry, Louise; Seidel, Barbara; Grande, Marion; Schulte, Stephanie; Pieperhoff, Peter; Sudmeyer, Martin; Minnerop, Martina; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Huber, Walter; Grodzinsky, Yosef; Amunts, Katrin; Heim, Stefan

2012-01-01

390

Real-time processing in reading sentence comprehension for normal adult individuals and persons with aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Persons with aphasia (PWA) have shown difficulties in integrating linguistic materials over time and distance in sentence processing. However, few studies have investigated sentence-processing difficulties among PWA as reflected in online processing measures. Furthermore, relatively few studies have examined the online processing of syntactically simple but computationally demanding sentences among PWA. Such sentences are important from the perspective of

Jee Eun Sung; Malcolm R. McNeil; Sheila R. Pratt; Michael Walsh Dickey; Wiltrud Fassbinder; Neil J. Szuminsky; Aelee Kim; Patrick J. Doyle

2011-01-01

391

The Aphasia Database on the Web: Description of a Model for Problems of Classification in Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In aphasiology many inconsistencies exist in the definition and interpretation of aphasic syndromes. These syndromes are the co-occurrence of a set of symptoms. Thus, ambiguities in these clinical, aphasic categories are suited to be generalized to many problems of classification in medicine. In this paper the aphasia database is launched as a model for data mining in medicine. Nominal and

Hubertus Axer; Jan Jantzen; Georg Berks; Dagmar Südfeld; RWTH Aachen

2000-01-01

392

The Merest L"ogomachy": The 1868 Norwich Discussion of Aphasia by Hughlings Jackson and Broca  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reconsiders the events that took place at the 1868 meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BA) in Norwich. Paul Broca and John Hughlings Jackson were invited to speak on the new and controversial subject of aphasia. Over the ensuing decades, there have been repeated references made to a debate between Broca…

Lorch, Marjorie Perlman

2008-01-01

393

Functional re-recruitment of dysfunctional brain areas predicts language recovery in chronic aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional recovery in response to a brain lesion, such as a stroke, can even occur years after the incident and may be accelerated by effective rehabilitation strategies. In eleven chronic aphasia patients, we administered a short-term intensive language training to improve language functions and to induce cortical reorganization under rigorously controlled conditions. Overt naming performance was assessed during functional magnetic

Marcus Meinzer; Tobias Flaisch; Caterina Breitenstein; Christian Wienbruch; Thomas Elbert; Brigitte Rockstroh

2008-01-01

394

High?tech AAC and severe aphasia: Candidacy for TouchSpeak (TS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Increasingly, computerised communication aids are used by people with severe, chronic aphasia. Although the candidacy for these devices is relatively unknown, it has been hypothesised that cognitive deficits have a negative impact on the functional use of Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC). Deficits of executive functioning are assumed to be particularly important, but other functions, such as memory and

Jiska Wiegers; Sandra M. Wielaert; Hugo J. Duivenvoorden; Gerard M. Ribbers

2007-01-01

395

Investigating the predictors of lifestyle satisfaction among younger adults withchronic aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceptions of lifestyle satisfaction are an important component of quality of life and handicap measurements. Thirty-one adults with aphasia completed a questionnaire in which they rated their lifestyle satisfaction and reported other demographic, health, communication, social contact and vocational information. Forty-six per cent of the respondents reported general lifestyle satisfaction. Logistic regressions were estimated to differentiate the effects of the

Jacqueline J. Hinckley

1998-01-01

396

Semantic dementia and fluent primary progressive aphasia: two sides of the same coin?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable controversy exists regarding the relationship between semantic dementia (SD) and progressive aphasia. SD patients present with anomia and impaired word comprehension. The widely used consensus criteria also include the need for patients to exhibit associative agnosia and\\/or prosopagnosia: many authors have used the label SD for patients with non-verbal, as well as verbal, semantic deficits on formal testing even

A.-L. R. Adlam; K. Patterson; T. T. Rogers; P. J. Nestor; C. H. Salmond; J. Acosta-Cabronero; J. R. Hodges

2006-01-01

397

Defects of Non-Verbal Auditory Perception in Children with Developmental Aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SOME otherwise normal children fail to learn to speak and are designated developmental aphasics. Several authors have suggested that auditory perceptual deficits, particularly of sequencing, may be the primary dysfunction1-4. Efron5 suggested that the left temporal lobe mediates temporal analysis and that it is the disruption of this function which is central to adult aphasia. We examined children with developmental

Paula Tallal; M. Piercy

1973-01-01

398

The effect of a therapy dog on the communication skills of an adult with aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little evidence-based research has been published within the field of communication disorders on the role of dogs as catalysts for human communication. This single participant study, a point of entry into this realm of research, explores the effects of a therapy dog on the communication skills of a patient with aphasia receiving intensive speech and language therapy within a rehabilitation

Caroline LaFrance; Linda J. Garcia; Julianne Labreche

2007-01-01

399

The Effect of a Therapy Dog on the Communication Skills of an Adult with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Little evidence-based research has been published within the field of communication disorders on the role of dogs as catalysts for human communication. This single participant study, a point of entry into this realm of research, explores the effects of a therapy dog on the communication skills of a patient with aphasia receiving intensive speech…

LaFrance, Caroline; Garcia, Linda J.; Labreche, Julianne

2007-01-01

400

Direct attention training as a treatment for reading impairment in mild aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although a variety of interventions for acquired reading disorders have been described in the aphasia literature, most have been designed for severe impairments. Individuals with mildly impaired reading characterised by inconsistent comprehension problems and\\/or by slower and variable reading rates, do not seem to benefit as much from these treatment approaches. These difficulties suggest relatively intact constituent reading processes

Carl Coelho

2005-01-01

401

A Comparison of Two Theoretically Driven Treatments for Verb Inflection Deficits in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Errors in the production of verb inflections, especially tense inflections, are pervasive in agrammatic Broca's aphasia ("*The boy eat"). The neurolinguistic underpinnings of these errors are debated. One group of theories attributes verb inflection errors to disruptions in encoding the verb's morphophonological form, resulting from either a…

Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen

2008-01-01

402

An online multimedia language assistant for people with aphasia and other language barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with aphasia, a language disorder, are seldom able to utilize the Internet as a source of information, because their disability makes many written words incomprehensible. A similar situation exists for individuals who read and speak a second language but do not possess a vocabulary as extensive as in their native language. Pictures have been demonstrated to help in both

Xiaojuan Ma

2010-01-01

403

TMS Suppression of Right Pars Triangularis, but Not Pars Opercularis, Improves Naming in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study sought to discover if an optimum 1 cm[squared] area in the non-damaged right hemisphere (RH) was present, which could temporarily improve naming in chronic, nonfluent aphasia patients when suppressed with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Ten minutes of slow, 1 Hz rTMS was applied to suppress different RH ROIs in…

Naeser, Margaret A.; Martin, Paula I.; Theoret, Hugo; Kobayashi, Masahito; Fregni, Felipe; Nicholas, Marjorie; Tormos, Jose M.; Steven, Megan S.; Baker, Errol H.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

2011-01-01

404

Single Subject Controlled Experiments in Aphasia: The Science and the State of the Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the use of single subject controlled experimental designs for investigating the effects of treatment for aphasia. A brief historical perspective is presented, followed by discussions of the advantages and disadvantages of single subject and group approaches, the basic requirements of single subject experimental research, and…

Thompson, Cynthia K.

2006-01-01

405

Coverbal gestures in the recovery from severe fluent aphasia: a pilot study.  

PubMed

This post hoc study investigated coverbal gesture patterns in two persons with chronic Wernicke's aphasia. They had both received therapy focusing on multimodal communication therapy, and their pre- and post-therapy verbal and gestural skills in face-to-face conversational interaction with their speech therapist were analysed by administering a partial barrier Referential Communication Task (RCT). The RCT sessions were reviewed in order to analyse: (a) participant coverbal gesture occurrence and types when in speaker role, (b) distribution of iconic gestures in the RCT communicative moves, (c) recognisable semantic content, and (d) the ways in which gestures were combined with empty or paraphasic speech. At post-therapy assessment only one participant showed improved communication skills in spite of his persistent language deficits. The improvement corresponded to changes on all gesturing measures, suggesting thereby that his communication relied more on gestural information. No measurable changes were observed for the non-responding participant-a finding indicating that the coverbal gesture measures used in this study might account for the different outcomes. These results point to the potential role of gestures in treatment aimed at fostering recovery from severe fluent aphasia. Moreover, this pattern of improvement runs contrary to a view of gestures used as a pure substitute for lexical items, in the communication of people with severe fluent aphasia. Learning outcomes: The readers will describe how to assess and interpret the patterns of coverbal gesturing in persons with fluent aphasia. They will also recognize the potential role of coverbal gestures in recovery from severe fluent aphasia. PMID:22989506

Carlomagno, Sergio; Zulian, Nicola; Razzano, Carmelina; De Mercurio, Ilaria; Marini, Andrea

2012-09-04

406

Battery equalizer circuit  

SciTech Connect

A battery equalizer circuit is described for preparing a battery for charge, consisting of: a battery discharge circuit including resistor means and switch means in series therewith for connection across the terminals of a battery to draw current therefrom when the switch means is closed, control circuit means for opening and closing such switch means, voltage sensing the voltage across the battery terminals, and means actuatable by the sensing means for actuating the control circuit means whereby to close the switch means when the sensed battery voltage is equal to or more than a predetermined upper voltage and for opening the switch means when the sensed battery voltage is in a lower range which is equal to or less than a predetermined voltage which is lower than the upper voltage, the switch means comprising a transistor having its emittercollector terminals in series with the resistor means and a base, the means actuable by the sensing means comprising a Schmitt-Trigger having output terminals operably connected to the transistor base, the voltage sensing means being connected to one input circuit means of the Schmitt-Trigger, regulated power supply means for establishing a reference voltage which is substantially lower than the lower range of voltage and which is connected to another input terminal of the Schmitt-Trigger whereby the latter is flipped ''on'' and the transistor is thereby rendered conductive when the sensed voltage exceeds the reference voltage by a predetermined amount.

Brown, H.B.

1986-03-11

407

Features of aphasic gesturing - An exploratory study of features in gestures produced by persons with and without aphasia.  

PubMed

Abstract The purpose of this study was to see how features of gestures produced by persons with aphasia (PWA) are affected and to relate the findings to possible underlying factors. Spontaneous gestures were studied in two contexts: (i) associated with the production of nouns and verbs and (ii) in relation to word finding or production difficulties. The method involved assembling two datasets of co-speech gestures, produced by PWA and by persons without aphasia and to code the gestures for a number of features of expression and content. Features that were affected in the Aphasia dataset were gaze, head movements, hand use and semantic features. The results point to possibly converging explanations, such as generally lower semantic complexity as a direct effect of the aphasia, more cognitive effort and/or a greater dependence on one-hand gestures leading more indirectly to increased gaze aversion, more head shakes and lower complexity in gestures in PWA. PMID:23889213

Ahlsén, Elisabeth; Schwarz, Anneli

2013-07-26

408

Battery utilizing ceramic membranes  

DOEpatents

A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range. 2 figs.

Yahnke, M.S.; Shlomo, G.; Anderson, M.A.

1994-08-30

409

BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries  

SciTech Connect

BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

None

2010-07-01

410

Electricity: Fruit Batteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a battery from fruit. This activity helps learners explore electricity, electrochemistry, and series circuits as well as the process of scientific inquiry. Learners will use a voltmeter to measure voltage and a multimeter to measure how much work their fruit battery can do. They will record the measurements on a data table and compare voltage amongst different types of fruits. Learners will also link together multiple fruit batteries to create a series circuit. This lesson guide includes background information, key vocabulary terms, blackline masters, and extension ideas.

Habib, Maria

2008-01-01

411

Assessment of battery technologies for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document, Part 2 of Volume 2, provides appendices to this report and includes the following technologies, zinc\\/air battery; lithium\\/molybdenum disulfide battery; sodium\\/sulfur battery; nickel\\/cadmium battery; nickel\\/iron battery; iron\\/oxygen battery and iron\\/air battery. (FI)

E. Z. Ratner; G. L. Henriksen

1990-01-01

412

Accelerated testing of batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three methods of evaluating accelerated battery test data are described. Criteria for each method are used to determine the minimum test matrix required for accurate predictions. Other test methods involving high current discharge and real time techniques...

S. C. Levy P. Bro

1992-01-01

413

Methanol-Air Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The methanol-air battery shows promise of meeting the operational requirements of low power equipments, such as sensors, mines, and similar equipments. While primarily designed to satisfy low level output requirements, the system is capable of supporting ...

J. Perry

1977-01-01

414

Sodium sulfur battery seal  

DOEpatents

This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

Mikkor, Mati (Ann Arbor, MI)

1981-01-01

415

How Batteries Work Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an introductory activity on how batteries work. As the module states, "batteries have traditionally been made from one or more electrochemical cellsâÂÂa package that contains chemicals needed to run a redox reaction, but separated such that exchange of electrons happens by passing through a circuit external to the battery." The activity covers concepts such as voltage, chemical equilibrium and charge build-up, making a simple battery, and combining half reactions. This module allows students to test their knowledge as they go.The other educational modules in this series can be found here. Instructors and students are encouraged to sign up with the Electron Technologies site here before starting to use these materials.

2012-10-08

416

Solid Electrolyte Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Until recently points in favor of solid electrolyte systems were overshadowed by several major disadvantages, the greatest of which was the extremely low conductivity of the electrolyte. This meant that solid electrolyte batteries were capable of deliveri...

M. N. Hull

1968-01-01

417

Auto Battery Safety Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... number and copyright information may not be omitted. Electronic reproduction, other reprint, excerption or use is not ... open flame such as a match, lighter or cigarette. Batteries contain hydrogen and oxygen: a spark could ...

418

Parallel flow diffusion battery  

DOEpatents

A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

Yeh, Hsu-Chi (Albuquerque, NM); Cheng, Yung-Sung (Albuquerque, NM)

1984-08-07

419

Parallel flow diffusion battery  

DOEpatents

A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

1984-01-01

420

Seawater Battery Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results from an experimental study pertaining to the development of a high energy density seawater battery are presented. In the initial phase of the study, cell orientation, cell geometry, electrode structure, and salinity effects were examined as to the...

J. P. Wagner

1971-01-01

421

Sea water activated battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This single cell, sea water activated battery has a plurality of alternately sequenced plates each positioned to extend radially outwardly of a central core. The plates are made of magnesium and of silver chloride.

R. H. Dreisbach; R. G. Bergstedt; D. W. Sieglin

1970-01-01

422

Communicative value of self cues in aphasia: A re-evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Adults with aphasia often try mightily to produce specific words, but their word-finding attempts are frequently unsuccessful. However, the word retrieval process may contain rich information that communicates a desired message regardless of word-finding success. Aims The original article reprinted here reports an investigation that assessed whether patient-generated self cues inherent in the word retrieval process could be interpreted by listener/observers and improve on communicative effectiveness for adults with aphasia. The newly added commentary identifies and reports tentative conclusions from 18 investigations of self-generated cues in aphasia since the 1982 paper. It further provides a rationale for increasing research on self-generated cueing and notes a surprising lack of attention to the questions investigated in the original article. The original research is also connected with more recent qualitative investigations of interactional, as opposed to transactional, communicative exchange. Methods & Procedures While performing single-word production tasks, 10 adults with aphasia produced 107 utterances that contained spontaneous word retrieval behaviours. To determine the “communicative value” of these behaviours, herein designated self cues or self-generated cues, the utterance-final (potential target) word was edited out and the edited utterances were dubbed onto a videotape. Six naïve observers, three of whom received some context about the nature of word retrieval in aphasia and possible topics for the utterances, and three of whom got no information, predicted the target word of each utterance from the word-finding behaviours alone. The communicative value of the self-generated cues was determined for each individual with aphasia by summing percent correct word retrieval and percent correct observer prediction of target words, based on word retrieval behaviours. The newly added commentary describes some challenges of investigating a “communicative value” outcome, and indicates what would and would not change about the methods, if we did the study today. Outcomes & Results The observer group that was given some context information appeared to be more successful at predicting target words than the group without any such information. Self-generated cues enhanced communication for the majority of individuals with aphasia, with some cues (e.g., descriptions/gestures of action or function) appearing to carry more communicative value than others (e.g., semantic associates). The commentary again indicates how and why we would change this portion of the investigation if conducting the study at this time. Conclusions The results are consistent with Holland’s (1977) premise that people with aphasia do well at communication, regardless of the words they produce. The finding that minimal context information may assist observers in understanding the communicative intent of people with aphasia has important implications for training family members to interpret self-generated cues. The new commentary reinforces these conclusions, highlights potential differences between self cues that improve word-finding success and those that enhance message transmission, and points to some additional research needs.

Tompkins, Connie A.; Scharp, Victoria L.; Marshall, Robert C.

2009-01-01

423

Advanced thermal batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of building thermal batteries with cells composed of an anode of LiAl alloy, a cathode of a heavy metal chloride and a NaAlCl4 electrolyte has been demonstrated. Engineering research is now being done to further characterize and improve this battery system. A commercial source of NaAlCl4 has been tested and found to be quite satisfactory for the preparation

D. M. Ryan

1978-01-01

424

Aluminum permanganate battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A battery is provided comprising an aluminum anode, an aqueous solution of permanganate as the cathodic species and a second electrode capable of reducing permanganate. Such a battery system is characterized by its high energy density and low polarization losses when operating at high temperatures in a strong caustic electrolyte, i.e., high concentration of hydroxyl ions. A variety of anode and electrocatalyst materials are suitable for the efficient oxidation-reduction process and are elucidated.

Marsh, Catherine; Licht, Stuart L.

1993-11-01

425

Aluminum-air battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum alloyed with small amounts (less than 0.1%) of In, Ga, and Tl in an aluminum air battery with 2M NaCl as the electrolyte is reported. The tested laboratory model of the battery with a total weight of about 500 g operated at a total current of 8 A (j = 30 mA\\/cu cm) and a voltage of about 1

A. R. Despic; D. Drazic; S. Zecevic

1979-01-01

426

Thin film lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

New electrolyte materials, polymers or inorganic glasses, allow the design of flat lithium primary or secondary batteries for miniaturised devices from smart cards to CMOS back up. The so-called “hybrid plastic electrolytes” allow the design of thick film cells (1–3 mm) with a surface capacity of some mA h cm?2. For Li-ion secondary batteries, the number of cycles does not

Jean Louis Souquet; Michel Duclot

2002-01-01

427

Chemically stable battery membrane  

DOEpatents

For batteries containing strong oxidizing electrolytes and a membrane separating two electrolyte solutions, e.g., a zinc/ferrocyanide battery, an improved oxidation-resistant, conductive, ion-selective membrane fabricated from an inert porous perfluorinated polymer sheet, e.g., of poly(tetrafluoroethylene), radiatively grafted with {proportional to}-methylstyrene and adequately sulfonated. A minor quantity of a divinyl compound is preferably added to the {proportional to}-methylstyrene to crosslink the grafted structure. 5 figs.

Arnold, C. Jr.; Assink, R.A.; Hollandsworth, R.P.

1988-10-05

428

Magnesium battery characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cell design chosen for the initial work was the zinc carbon construction, leading to prototype BA4590 batteries. The efforts to develop a magnesium-based 14-cell BA4590 battery showed that increased continuous rate capability increased service life, and improved low temperature performance could be achieved by modification of the zinc carbon construction. This design, however, was totally inadequate for transmit\\/receive cycles.

D. M. Larsen; K. L. Dittberner; R. J. Ekern; P. J. Spellman; J. E. Oxley

1992-01-01

429

Battery energy storage technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Battery energy storage systems, comprising lead-acid batteries, power conversion systems, and control systems, are used by three main groups: power generating utilities, power distributing utilities, and major power consumers (such as electric furnace foundries). The principal advantages of battery energy storage systems to generating utilities include load leveling, frequency control, spinning reserve, modular construction, convenient siting, no emissions, and investment deferral for new generation and transmission equipment. Power distributing utilities and major power consumers can avoid costly demand changes by discharging their batteries at peak periods and then recharging with lower cost off-peak power (say, at night). Battery energy storage systems are most cost effective when designed for discharge periods of less than 5 h; other systems (for example, pumped water storage) are better suited for longer discharges. It is estimated that by the year 2000 there will be a potential need for 4000 MW of battery energy storage. New construction of five plants totaling 100 MW is presently scheduled for completion by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority between 1992 and 1995.

Anderson, Max D.; Carr, Dodd S.

1993-03-01

430

Deciphering logopenic primary progressive aphasia: a clinical, imaging and biomarker investigation.  

PubMed

Within primary progressive aphasia the logopenic variant remains less understood than the two other main variants, namely semantic and non-fluent progressive aphasia. This may be because of the relatively small number of explored patients and because of the lack of investigations with a comprehensive three-level characterization of cognitive, brain localization and biological aspects. The aim of the present study was to decipher the logopenic variant through a multimodal approach with a large cohort of 19 patients (age 66.5 ± 8.7 years, symptom duration 3.2 ± 0.6 years) using detailed cognitive and linguistic assessments, magnetic resonance imaging and perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography as well as cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers screening for Alzheimer pathology. The linguistic assessment unveiled that language dysfunction is not limited to the typical feature of word finding and verbal working memory impairments but that it extends into the language system affecting to some degree syntactic production, phonological encoding and semantic representations. Perfusion tomography revealed damage of the temporal-parietal junction with a peak of significance in the superior temporal gyrus (Brodmann area 42), and of some less significant prefrontal areas (Brodmann areas 8, 9 and 46), whereas hippocampal cortices were unaffected. Magnetic resonance imaging, which was visually assessed in a larger group of 54 patients with logopenic, non-fluent, semantic variants as well as with posterior cortical atrophy, confirmed that the logopenic variant demonstrates predominant atrophy of left temporal-parietal junction, but that this atrophy pattern has a relatively poor sensitivity and specificity for clinical diagnosis. Finally, the biomarker study revealed that two-thirds of the logopenic patients demonstrated a profile indicative of Alzheimer pathology whereas one-third had a non-Alzheimer profile. Splitting the two groups showed that logopenic aphasia due to probable Alzheimer pathology is a more aggressive variant characterized by more extensive language/cognitive disorders affecting, in addition to lexical processes and verbal working memory, also phoneme sequencing, semantic processing and ideomotor praxis. Concordantly, logopenic aphasia due to probable Alzheimer pathology demonstrated more extensive brain hypoperfusion involving larger regions throughout the inferior parietal, the posterior-superior and the middle temporal cortex. These findings allow for unfolding logopenic aphasia into two subvariants differing by disease severity, lesion nature and lesion distribution, which has important implications for diagnosis, patient management and for potential future trials with anti-Alzheimer drugs. The present data therefore provide novel insight into the cognition and brain damage of logopenic patients while unveiling the existence of distinct diseases constituting a 'logopenic aphasia complex'. PMID:24108322

Teichmann, Marc; Kas, Aurélie; Boutet, Claire; Ferrieux, Sophie; Nogues, Marie; Samri, Dalila; Rogan, Christina; Dormont, Didier; Dubois, Bruno; Migliaccio, Raffaella

2013-10-08

431

Waste product profile: Household batteries  

SciTech Connect

This is the fourteenth in a series of profiles -- brief, factual listings of the solid waste management characteristics of materials in the waste stream. These profiles highlight a product, explain how it fits into integrated waste management systems, and provide current data on recycling and markets for the product. This profile does not cover wet cell lead-acid batteries such as car batteries. Household batteries include primary batteries, which cannot be recharged, and secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Household batteries are available in many sizes including bottom, AAA, AA, C, D, N, and 9-volt. In 1991, 3.8 billion household batteries, or 145,000 tons, were incinerated or landfilled in the US. Due to a limited number of programs collecting batteries, the recycling rate is very small. An EPA study estimated than in 1989, 52% of the cadmium and 88% of the mercury in MSW came from household batteries.

Miller, C. (Environmental Industry Associations, Washington, DC (United States))

1994-04-01

432

Competitive systems - High temperature batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature batteries utilizing solid or fused salt electrolytes operating above 200 C are discussed. Special consideration is given to the principles of operation, construction design, and performance characteristics of lithium/iron sulfide batteries (which use LiCl-KCl electrolytes), sodium/sulfur batteries (with beta alumina as an electrolyte), and fused salt/solid hybrid batteries. High-temperature batteries are presently employed in the military field as a power source for the guidance system of missiles. Future applications include uses as secondary batteries for satellites, in electric road vehicles, and for bulk electricity storage at the generating stations.

dell, R. M.

433

Lithium use in batteries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

Goonan, Thomas G.

2012-01-01

434

49 CFR 173.159 - Batteries, wet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Electric storage batteries, containing electrolyte acid or alkaline corrosive battery...adequately sealed to prevent leakage of electrolyte fluid in the event of spillage; and...electric storage batteries containing electrolyte or corrosive battery fluid are not...

2012-10-01

435

49 CFR 173.159 - Batteries, wet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Electric storage batteries, containing electrolyte acid or alkaline corrosive battery...adequately sealed to prevent leakage of electrolyte fluid in the event of spillage; and...electric storage batteries containing electrolyte or corrosive battery fluid are not...

2011-10-01

436

COBE battery overview: History, handling, and performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The following topics are presented in viewgraph format: Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission background; battery background and specifications; cell history; battery mechanical/structural design; battery test data; and flowcharts of the various battery approval procedures.

Yi, Thomas; Tiller, Smith; Sullivan, David

1991-05-01

437

From primary progressive aphasia to corticobasal syndrome: two clinical and rCBF functional reports.  

PubMed

We describe two cases, both presenting with a 2-year history of isolated language disorders, one compatible with logopenic variant and the other with non-fluent variant of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Afterwards, each developed a corticobasal syndrome (CBS) with alien limb phenomenon and a multi-domain cognitive impairment. Regional cerebral perfusion (rCBF) study using 99mTc-ECD single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) revealed hypoperfusion patterns consistent with these aphasia types and with the presence of limb apraxia. We report two cases of PPA variants associated with CBS and we suggest that SPECT rCBF correlates can be useful in making a differential diagnosis within the PPA spectrum. PMID:22512772

Caso, F; Onofrio, F; Falautano, M; Todeschini, P; Migliaccio, R; Comi, G; Perani, D; Magnani, G

2012-04-18

438

Cross-language generalization following treatment in bilingual speakers with aphasia: a review.  

PubMed

The focus of this article is on the potential transfer or generalization of positive effects from a treated to an untreated language in bilingual or multilingual individuals with primary acquired aphasia. Twelve studies are reviewed: All were previously published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Half of these studies failed to account for spontaneous recovery. Results from the remaining case reports and single-subject studies are mixed, with four finding evidence for cross-language generalization under some conditions and two finding that improved language performance was restricted to the treated language. Collective findings are discussed within the broader literature in terms of factors to consider when planning for effective, efficient intervention with bilinguals with aphasia. PMID:19711235

Kohnert, Kathryn

2009-08-26

439

[The Aachen Aphasia Bedside Test--criteria for validity of psychologic tests].  

PubMed

The Aachen Aphasia Bedside Test (AABT) has been developed in order to examine aphasic patients within the first 4 to 6 weeks after onset of illness. The psychometric properties of the AABT were established by repeated examination of 82 acute stroke patients, ratings by 20 raters on the basis of 10 videotapes, repeated examination of 28 chronic aphasics three times with an interval of 2 days, and parallel examination of 47 chronic aphasic patients with the AABT and the Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT), administered on the same day. Objectivity, reliability and validity of the AABT were highly rated, indicating its usefulness in acute stroke cases. Data on the 82 acute stroke patients showed that an initial prognosis can be made as early as the fourth day after the stroke. PMID:1381813

Biniek, R; Huber, W; Glindemann, R; Willmes, K; Klumm, H

1992-08-01

440

Singing therapy can be effective for a patient with severe nonfluent aphasia.  

PubMed

Patients with severe aphasia are rarely treated using speech therapy. We used music therapy to continue to treat a 79-year-old patient with chronic severe aphasia. Interventions 1, 2, and 3 were to practice singing a song that the patient knew, to practice singing a song with a therapist, and to practice saying a greeting using a song with lyrics, respectively. In addition, practice of uttering names of body parts was initiated using touch and rhythm. After intervention 1, the patient could sing spontaneously and repeat lyrics. After intervention 2, she could sing with the therapist, and sing spontaneously and repeat lyrics. After intervention 3, she could memorize words with meaning, say the words in context, and use them. The patient could utter the names of two body parts after therapy with touch and rhythm. These suggest that rehabilitation therapy can still be used in patients with severe cognitive impairment. PMID:22274592

Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Akanuma, Kyoko; Hatayama, Yuka; Otera, Masako; Meguro, Kenichi

2012-03-01

441

[A case of Gogi aphasia with predominantly left temporal and parietal lobe atrophy].  

PubMed

We report a 68-year-old right-handed Japanese woman who had a history of progressive difficulty in understanding speech and naming. Neuropsychological examination presented Gogi (word meaning) aphasia and impairment of semantic memory for some common objects. She also presented acalculia and mild constructional impairment. There was no evidence of impairment in elementary perception and motor skills. Her memory performance of visual task was within normal range. She had neither personality change nor behavioral disorder. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed atrophy in the left temporal lobe and the left parietal lobe. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans demonstrated a decrease of regional cerebral blood flow in the atrophic sites and the left frontal lobe. We pointed out that the atrophy of the parietal lobe was atypical in the early stage of cortical degenerative disease presenting Gogi aphasia, in addition to in the light of classification of Fronto-Temporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD). PMID:12166102

Wada, Yuko; Nakagawa, Yoshitsugu; Suenaga, Toshihiko; Hashimoto, Shuji

2002-06-01

442

Battery venting system and method  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve. 8 figs.

Casale, T.J.; Ching, L.K.W.; Baer, J.T.; Swan, D.H.

1999-01-05

443

Battery venting system and method  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

Casale, Thomas J. (Aurora, CO); Ching, Larry K. W. (Littleton, CO); Baer, Jose T. (Gaviota, CA); Swan, David H. (Monrovia, CA)

1999-01-05

444

Battery Vent Mechanism And Method  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

Ching, Larry K. W. (Littleton, CO)

2000-02-15

445

Neuroimaging in aphasia treatment research: issues of experimental design for relating cognitive to neural changes.  

PubMed

The design of functional neuroimaging studies investigating the neural changes that support treatment-based recovery of targeted language functions in acquired aphasia faces a number of challenges. In this paper, we discuss these challenges and focus on experimental tasks and experimental designs that can be used to address the challenges, facilitate the interpretation of results and promote integration of findings across studies. PMID:22974976

Rapp, Brenda; Caplan, David; Edwards, Susan; Visch-Brink, Evy; Thompson, Cynthia K

2012-09-10

446

Graded modality-specific specialisation in semantics: A computational account of optic aphasia.  

PubMed

A long-standing debate regarding the representation of semantic knowledge is whether such knowledge is represented in a single, amodal system or whether it is organised into multiple subsystems based on modality of input or type of information. The current paper presents a distributed connectionist model of semantics that constitutes a middle ground between these unitary- versus multiple-semantics accounts. In the model, semantic representations develop under the pressure of learning to mediate between multiple input and output modalities in performing various tasks. The system has a topographic bias on learning that favours short connections, leading to a graded degree of modality-specific functional specialisation within semantics. The model is applied to the specific empirical phenomena of optic aphasia--a neuropsychological disorder in which patients exhibit a selective deficit in naming visually presented objects that is not attributable to more generalised impairments in object recognition (visual agnosia) or naming (anomia). As a result of the topographic bias in the model, as well as the relative degrees of systematicity among tasks, damage to connections from vision to regions of semantics near phonology impairs visual object naming far more than visual gesturing or tactile naming, as observed in optic aphasia. Moreover, as in optic aphasia, the system is better at generating the name of an action associated with an object than at generating the name of the object itself, because action naming receives interactive support from the activation of action representations. The ability of the model to account for the pattern of performance observed in optic aphasia across the full range of severity of impairment provides support for the claim that semantic representations exhibit graded functional specialisation rather than being entirely amodal or modality-specific. PMID:20957556

Plaut, David C

2002-10-01

447

Categorization in aphasia: Access and organization of goal-derived and common categories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation examined aphasic adults' access and organization for goal-derived and common categories. Fluent and non-fluent aphasic subject groups and a group of non-brain-damaged controls participated in category verification and exemplar generation tasks. Although both groups with aphasia consistently required additional time to verify category examples for both types of categories, performance accuracy was similar for all three groups, regardless

Monica Strauss Hough

1993-01-01

448

Psychometric properties of the Communication Confidence Rating Scale for Aphasia (CCRSA): Phase 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The construct of communication confidence was introduced by participants and family members during qualitative post-treatment interviews as part of a research study using a computer programme to deliver language therapy. However, there was no standardised method of evaluating communication confidence. Therefore the Communication Confidence Rating Scale for Aphasia (CCRSA) was developed, asking persons to self-rate communication confidence.Aims: This study

Edna M. Babbitt; Allen W. Heinemann; Patrick Semik; Leora R. Cherney

2011-01-01

449

"Pre-semantic" cognition revisited: Critical differences between semantic aphasia and semantic dementia  

PubMed Central

Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal “pre-semantic” tasks: e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are atypical of the domain and “regularisation errors” (irregular/atypical items are produced as if they were domain-typical). The emergence of this pattern across diverse tasks in the same patients indicates that semantic memory plays a key role in all of these types of “pre-semantic” processing. However, this claim remains controversial because semantically-impaired patients sometimes fail to show an influence of regularity. This study demonstrates that (a) the location of brain damage and (b) the underlying nature of the semantic deficit affect the likelihood of observing the expected relationship between poor comprehension and regularity effects. We compared the effect of multimodal semantic impairment in the context of semantic dementia and stroke aphasia on the seven “pre-semantic” tasks listed above. In all of these tasks, the semantic aphasia patients were less sensitive to typicality than the semantic dementia patients, even though the two groups obtained comparable scores on semantic tests. The semantic aphasia group also made fewer regularisation errors and many more unrelated and perseverative responses. We propose that these group differences reflect the different locus for the semantic impairment in the two conditions: patients with semantic dementia have degraded semantic representations, whereas semantic aphasia patients show deregulated semantic cognition with concomitant executive deficits. These findings suggest a reinterpretation of single case studies of comprehension-impaired aphasic patients who fail to show the expected effect of regularity on “pre-semantic” tasks. Consequently, such cases do not demonstrate the independence of these tasks from semantic memory.

Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

2009-01-01

450

Positive Effects of Language Treatment for the Logopenic Variant of Primary Progressive Aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite considerable recent progress in understanding the underlying neurobiology of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) syndromes,\\u000a relatively little attention has been directed toward the examination of behavioral interventions that may lessen the pervasive\\u000a communication problems associated with PPA. In this study, we report on an individual with a behavioral profile and cortical\\u000a atrophy pattern consistent with the logopenic variant of PPA.

Pélagie M. Beeson; Rachel M. King; Borna Bonakdarpour; Maya L. Henry; Hyesuk Cho; Steven Z. Rapcsak

451

Treating agrammatic aphasia within a linguistic framework: Treatment of Underlying Forms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background : Formal linguistic properties of sentences—both lexical, i.e., argument structure, and syntactic, i.e., movement —as well as what is known about normal and disordered sentence processing and production, were considered in the development of Treatment of Underlying Forms (TUF), a linguistic approach to treatment of sentence deficits in patients with agrammatic aphasia. TUF is focused on complex, non-canonical sentence

Cynthia K. Thompson; Lewis P. Shapiro

2005-01-01

452

Pearls & Oy-sters: Selective postictal aphasia: Cerebral language organization in bilingual patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Ictal and postictal language dysfunction is common and strongly predictive of lan- guage laterality in monolingual patients. For bilingual patients, selective dysfunction has been reported for a single language with focal cerebral lesions, electrical brain stimulation, and intraca- rotid sodium amytal. Methods: Two right-handed Ukrainian-English bilingual patients with left perisylvian structural lesions, late onset complex-partial seizures, and postictal aphasia

Yasser Aladdin; Thomas J. Snyder; S. N. Ahmed

2008-01-01

453

Behavioural analysis of an inherited speech and language disorder: comparison with acquired aphasia.  

PubMed

Genetic speech and language disorders provide the opportunity to investigate the biological bases of language and its development. Critical to these investigations are the definition of behavioural phenotypes and an understanding of their interaction with epigenetic factors. Here, we report our investigations of the KE family, half the members of which are affected by a severe disorder of speech and language, which is transmitted as an autosomal-dominant monogenic trait. The cognitive manifestations of this disorder were investigated using a number of linguistic and non-linguistic tests. The aims of these investigations were to establish the existence of a 'core' deficit, or behavioural phenotype, and to explain how such a deficit during development might give rise to the range of other impairments demonstrated by affected family members. The affected family members were compared both with the unaffected members and with a group of adult patients with aphasia resulting from a stroke. The score on a test of repetition of non-words with complex articulation patterns successfully discriminated the affected and unaffected family members. The affected family members and the patients with aphasia had remarkably similar profiles of impairment on the tests administered. Pre-morbidly, however, the patients with aphasia had enjoyed a normal course of cognitive development and language experience. This benefit was reflected on a number of tests in which the patients with aphasia performed significantly better than the affected family members and, in the case of some tests, at normal levels. We suggest that, in the affected family members, the verbal and non-verbal deficits arise from a common impairment in the ability to sequence movement or in procedural learning. Alternatively, the articulation deficit, which itself might give rise to a host of other language deficits, is separate from a more general verbal and non-verbal developmental delay. PMID:11872604

Watkins, K E; Dronkers, N F; Vargha-Khadem, F

2002-03-01

454

Clinical comparison of progressive aphasia associated with Alzheimer versus FTD-spectrum pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveRecent post-mortem studies indicate that 30–40% of patients with clinically diagnosed progressive aphasia (PA) have Alzheimer's disease pathology, while the remainder have pathology in the FTD spectrum. This study aimed to compare the clinical features of patients from these two groups.Materials and methodsA retrospective chart review was conducted on 33 pathologically verified PA patients: n=13 AD and n=20 FTD-spectrum pathology.

Li Xiong; John H Xuereb; Maria Grazia Spillantini; Karalyn Patterson; John R Hodges; Peter J Nestor

2010-01-01

455

Making sense of progressive non-fluent aphasia: an analysis of conversational speech  

PubMed Central

The speech of patients with progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA) has often been described clinically, but these descriptions lack support from quantitative data. The clinical classification of the progressive aphasic syndromes is also debated. This study selected 15 patients with progressive aphasia on broad criteria, excluding only those with clear semantic dementia. It aimed to provide a detailed quantitative description of their conversational speech, along with cognitive testing and visual rating of structural brain imaging, and to examine which, if any features were consistently present throughout the group; as well as looking for sub-syndromic associations between these features. A consistent increase in grammatical and speech sound errors and a simplification of spoken syntax relative to age-matched controls were observed, though telegraphic speech was rare; slow speech was common but not universal. Almost all patients showed impairments in picture naming, syntactic comprehension and executive function. The degree to which speech was affected was independent of the severity of the other cognitive deficits. A partial dissociation was also observed between slow speech with simplified grammar on the one hand, and grammatical and speech sound errors on the other. Overlap between these sets of impairments was however, the rule rather than the exception, producing continuous variation within a single consistent syndrome. The distribution of atrophy was remarkably variable, with frontal, temporal and medial temporal areas affected, either symmetrically or asymmetrically. The study suggests that PNFA is a coherent, well-defined syndrome and that varieties such as logopaenic progressive aphasia and progressive apraxia of speech may be seen as points in a space of continuous variation within progressive non-fluent aphasia.

Woollams, Anna M.; Hodges, John R.; Patterson, Karalyn

2009-01-01

456

Improved naming after TMS treatments in a chronic, global aphasia patient – case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report improved ability to name pictures at 2 and 8 months after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatments to the pars triangularis portion of right Broca’s homologue in a 57 year-old woman with severe nonfluent\\/global aphasia (6.5 years post left basal ganglia bleed, subcortical lesion). TMS was applied at 1 Hz, 20 minutes a day, 10 days, over a

Margaret A. Naeser; Paula I Martin; Marjorie Nicholas; Errol H. Baker; Heidi Seekins; Nancy Helm-Estabrooks; Carol Cayer-Meade; Masahito Kobayashi; Hugo Theoret; Felipe Fregni; Jose Maria Tormos; Jacquie Kurland; Karl W. Doron; Alvaro Pascual-Leone

2005-01-01

457

Conduction Aphasia in a 3YearOld with a Left Posterior Cortical\\/Subcortical Abscess  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3-year-old, right-handed girl developed a conduction-type aphasia following a second generalized seizure in the setting of a developing abscess involving left subcortical and cortical angular gyrus and arcuate fasciculus, and the posterior corpus callosum. The language disorder was fluent, characterized by age appropriate mean length of utterance and syntax, but with markedly reduced spontaneity of output, rapid rate of

Ruth Nass; Fern Leventhal; Beth Levine; Diana Lebron; Carol Maxfield; Patricia McCaul; Ajax George; Jeffrey Allen

1998-01-01

458

Overt naming in aphasia studied with a functional MRI hemodynamic delay design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop a functional MRI method to examine overt speech in stroke patients with aphasia. An fMRI block design for overt picture naming was utilized which took advantage of the hemodynamic response delay where increased blood flow remains for 4–8 s after the task [(Friston, K.J., Jezzard, P., Turner, R., 1994. Analysis of functional

Paula I. Martin; Margaret A. Naeser; Karl W. Doron; Andrew Bogdan; Errol H. Baker; Jacquie Kurland; Perry Renshaw; Deborah Yurgelun-Todd

2005-01-01

459

Primary Progressive Aphasias and Their Contribution to the Contemporary Knowledge About the Brain-Language Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary progressive aphasia (PPA), typically resulting from a neurodegenerative disease such as frontotemporal dementia\\/Pick\\u000a Complex or Alzheimer’s disease, is a heterogeneous clinical condition characterized by a progressive loss of specific language\\u000a functions with initial sparing of other cognitive domains. Based on the constellation of symptoms, PPA has been classified\\u000a into a nonfluent, semantic, or logopenic variant. This review of the

Micha? Harciarek; Andrew Kertesz

2011-01-01

460

Cognitive neuropsychological approaches to word production in aphasia: Beyond boxes and arrows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The cognitive neuropsychological approach aims to describe aphasic disorders of word production by identifying the specific cognitive process(es) that are impaired in each individual. This approach is becoming increasingly influential in the assessment, investigation, and treatment of word production difficulties in aphasia. The classical cognitive neuropsychological approach, with its signature box?and?arrow diagrams, is now highly familiar to most aphasiologists.

Carolyn E. Wilshire

2008-01-01

461

Use of AAC to enhance linguistic communication skills in an adult with chronic severe aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Individuals with non?fluent aphasia (NA) exhibit sparse verbal output and impaired word?finding skills. For some, traditional speech?language therapy aids in regaining verbal communication. For other aphasic individuals these techniques are unsuccessful. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) provides a means of communicating through devices\\/techniques when spoken skills are not adequate. Individuals with chronic NA can use AAC to communicate; however,

Monica Hough; Rachel Kay Johnson

2009-01-01

462

[Comparison between anomia with word comprehension difficulty and Gogi aphasia due to lobar atrophy].  

PubMed

We used naming and pointing tests and a proverb completion task to compare two cases of aphasia that exhibited a selective disturbance of word processing. One patient had anomia with word comprehension difficulty due to partial ablation of the left temporal lobe and the other patient had Gogi aphasia due to lobar atrophy with left temporal predominance. We presented 90 pictures of common objects divided into 9 categories in the naming and pointing tests, and used 10 well-known Japanese proverbs as stimuli in the proverb completion task. Performance of the naming and pointing tests was severely impaired in both patients. In the patient with anomia, words the patient could not name or point to varied from session to session and phonemic cue effects were frequently observed. The proverb completion phenomenon was positive. These findings indicate that the patient had an obstruction of the access route to the intact word store or a partial rarefaction of the word store itself. In the patient with Gogi aphasia, the words the patient could not name or point to were consistent from one occasion to another, and no phonemic cue effects or signs of familiarity were observed at all. The proverb completion phenomenon was totally negative. These findings indicate that the patient has lost the word store itself. MR images in the case of anomia revealed a lesion extending from the anterior to the central portion of the inferior part of the left temporal lobe. In the case of Gogi aphasia, the MR images displayed knife-edged focal atrophy in the anterior aspect of both temporal lobes, more prominently on the left.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7495611

Yamada, N; Tanabe, H; Kazui, H; Hashimoto, M; Nakagawa, Y; Ikeda, M; Wada, Y; Yoshimine, T; Hayakawa, T

1995-11-01

463

Cortical Language Activation in Stroke Patients Recovering From Aphasia With Functional MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Two mechanisms for recovery from aphasia, repair of damaged language networks and activation of compensatory areas, have been proposed. In this study, we investigated whether both mechanisms or one instead of the other take place in the brain of recovered aphasic patients . Methods—Using blood oxygenation level- dependent functional MRI (fMRI), we studied cortical language networks during lexical-semantic

Yue Cao; Eric M. Vikingstad; K. Paige George; Alex F. Johnson; K. M. A. Welch

464

The right hemisphere is not unitary in its role in aphasia recovery  

PubMed Central

Neurologists and aphasiologists have debated for over a century whether right hemisphere recruitment facilitates or impedes recovery from aphasia. Here we present a well-characterized patient with sequential left and right hemisphere strokes whose case substantially informs this debate. A 72-year-old woman with chronic nonfluent aphasia was enrolled in a trial of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). She underwent 10 daily sessions of inhibitory TMS to the right pars triangularis. Brain activity was measured during picture naming using fMRI prior to TMS exposure and before and after TMS on the first day of treatment. Language and cognition were tested behaviorally three times prior to treatment, and at 2 and 6 months afterwards. Inhibitory TMS to the right pars triangularis induced immediate improvement in naming, which was sustained 2 months later. FMRI confirmed a local reduction in activity at the TMS target, without expected increased activity in corresponding left hemisphere areas. Three months after TMS, the patient suffered a right hemisphere ischemic stroke, resulting in worsening of aphasia without other clinical deficits. Behavioral testing 3 months later confirmed that language function was impacted more than other cognitive domains. The paradoxical effects of inhibitory TMS and the stroke to the right hemisphere demonstrate that even within a single patient, involvement of some right hemisphere areas may support recovery, while others interfere. The behavioral evidence confirms that compensatory reorganization occurred within the right hemisphere after the original stroke. No support is found for interhemispheric inhibition, the theoretical framework on which most therapeutic brain stimulation protocols for aphasia are based.

Turkeltaub, Peter E.; Coslett, H. Branch; Thomas, Amy L.; Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Benson, Jennifer; Norise, Catherine; Hamilton, Roy H.

2011-01-01

465

Automotive Battery Inspection & Cleaning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever entered your car, turned the key and the engine would not start? You may have heard a click coming from under the hood each time you turn the key. Your headlights and interior lights are as dim as a nightlight and your horn gives a weak low muffle that sounds like someone is growling at you as you attempt to see what might work. This usually happens when you are in a hurry, its raining, and no one is around to help. The automotive battery is a key component and the primary source of electricity of the automotive electrical system. It helps provide the electricity to run the convenient amenities that we have grown to appreciate including radios, CD and DVD players, GPS systems that help guide us to our locations, and all the neat-o gages that tell us the current condition of the vehicle. Regular battery inspection and maintenance is easy and critical to avoid situations such as described above. OBJECTIVES: In this instructional module, you will: Understand the definition of the automotive battery. Gain a detailed understanding of battery basics. Learn how to inspect and service an automotive battery. MATERIALS: To complete this assignment, each student will need access to a computer with internet capabilities. PROCEDURES: This instructional module is divided into four steps. It is ...

Hjorten, Mr.

2006-02-03

466

Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems  

DOEpatents

Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

Tuffner, Francis K. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. (Richland, WA); Hammerstrom, Donald J. (West Richland, WA); Pratt, Richard M. (Richland, WA)

2012-05-22

467

Multi-Battery Scheduling for Battery-Powered DVS Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More and more mobile devices adopt multi-battery and dynamic voltage scaling policy (DVS) to reduce the energy consumption and extend the battery runtime. However, since the nonlinear characteristics of the multi-battery are not considered, the practical efficiency is not good enough. In order to reduce the energy consumption and extend the battery runtime, this paper proposes an approach based on the battery characteristics to implement the co-optimization of the multi-battery scheduling and dynamic voltage scaling on multi-battery powered systems. In this work, considering the nonlinear discharging characteristics of the existing batteries, we use the Markov process to depict the multi-battery discharging behavior, and build a multi-objective optimal model to denote the energy consumption and battery states, then propose a binary tree based algorithm to solve this model. By means of this method, we get an optimal and applicable scheme about multi-battery scheduling and dynamic voltage scaling. Experimental results show that this approach achieves an average improvement in battery runtime of 17.5% over the current methods in physical implementation.

Ouyang, Peng; Yin, Shouyi; Liu, Leibo; Wei, Shaojun

468

Complexity in battery systems: Thermal runaway in VRLA batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

During battery discharge, the heat generated is the sum of the Joule (resistive) and enthalpic (chemical) heating effects. Conversely, during battery charging, the heat generated is the Joule minus the enthalpic heating. If the conditions are carefully selected, one can observe a net battery cooling during charging.However, an interesting phenomenon takes place during overcharge. Those cells designed as sealed recombinant

Henry A. Catherino

2006-01-01

469

Recent developments in functional and structural imaging of aphasia recovery after stroke  

PubMed Central

Background Functional and structural neuroimaging techniques can increase our knowledge about the neural processes underlying recovery from post-stroke language impairments (aphasia). Aims In the present review we highlight recent developments in neuroimaging research of aphasia recovery. Main Contribution We review (a) cross-sectional findings in aphasia with regard to local brain functions and functional connectivity, (b) structural and functional imaging findings using longitudinal (intervention) paradigms, (c) new adjunct treatments that are guided by functional imaging techniques (e.g., electrical brain stimulation) and (d) studies related to the prognosis of language recovery and treatment responsiveness after stroke. Conclusions More recent developments in data acquisition and analysis foster better understanding and more realistic modelling of the neural substrates of language recovery after stroke. Moreover, the combination of different neuroimaging protocols can provide converging evidence for neuroplastic brain remodelling during spontaneous and treatment-induced recovery. Researchers are also beginning to use sophisticated imaging analyses to improve accuracy of prognosis, which may eventually improve patient care by allowing for more efficient treatment planning. Brain stimulation techniques offer a new and exciting way to improve the recovery potential after stroke.

Meinzer, Marcus; Harnish, Stacy; Conway, Tim; Crosson, Bruce

2010-01-01

470

Personality Differences among Patients with Chronic Aphasia Predict Improvement in Speech-Language Therapy.  

PubMed

Background: Negative affectivity and neurocognitive deficits including executive dysfunction have been shown to be detrimental to rehabilitation therapies. However, research on the relationship between neuropsychological deficits and improvement in speech-language therapy (SLT) for aphasia is sparse. Objective: To examine the relationships among neurocognitive and psychological functioning and improvement in SLT following aphasia due to stroke. Methods: Fifty patients who were ? 9 months post stroke and enrolled in outpatient SLT to treat aphasia participated. Using standard language assessment measures, the authors evaluated language functioning at initiation of the study and after participants completed various SLT protocols. Executive functioning, visuospatial skills, attention, and memory also were assessed to provide indices of convergent and discriminant validity. Participants' mood and affectivity were evaluated by self-report, and their functional abilities and recovery of function since stroke were assessed via caregiver report. Results: A multiple regression model testing the combined powers of neurocognitive and psychological variables was significant (P = .004, R2 = 0.33), with psychological and neurocognitive functioning accounting for 15% of the variance in relative language change beyond that accounted for by stroke severity and gross cognitive functioning. Negative affectivity expressed on the Positive and Negative Affectivity Scale made unique contributions to the model. Conclusions: Improvement in SLT is substantially related to neurocognitive and psychological functioning, particularly affectivity. Assessment of these characteristics may assist in identifying patients who are likely to improve and in tailoring treatment programs to yield optimal outcomes. PMID:24091284

Votruba, Kristen L; Rapport, Lisa J; Whitman, R Douglas; Johnson, Alex; Langenecker, Scott

471

Jean-Martin Charcot's role in the 19th century study of music aphasia.  

PubMed

Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-93) was a well-known French neurologist. Although he is widely recognized for his discovery of several neurological disorders and his research into aphasia, Charcot's ideas about how the brain processes music are less well known. Charcot discussed the music abilities of several patients in the context of his 'Friday Lessons' on aphasia, which took place at the Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris in 1883-84. In his most comprehensive discussion about music, Charcot described a professional trombone player who developed difficulty copying music notation and playing his instrument, thereby identifying a new isolated syndrome of music agraphia without aphasia. Because the description of this case was published only in Italian by one of his students, Domenico Miliotti, there has been considerable confusion and under-acknowledgement of Charcot's ideas about music and the brain. In this paper, we describe Charcot's ideas regarding music and place them within the historical context of the growing interest in the neurological underpinnings of music abilities that took place in the 1880s. PMID:23576129

Johnson, Julene K; Lorch, Marjorie; Nicolas, Serge; Graziano, Amy

2013-04-09

472

Iconic gesture in normal language and word searching conditions: A case of conduction aphasia.  

PubMed

Abstract Although there is a substantive body of research about the language used by individuals with aphasia, relatively little is known about their spontaneous iconic gesture. A single case study of LT, an individual with conduction aphasia indicated qualitative differences between the spontaneous iconic gestures produced alongside fluent speech and in tip of the tongue states. The current study examined the iconic gestures produced by another individual with conduction aphasia, WT, and a group of 11 control participants. Comparisons were made between iconic gestures produced alongside normal language and those produced alongside word-searching behaviour. Participants recounted the Tweety and Sylvester cartoon Canary Row. All gesture produced was analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. WT produced more iconic gestures than controls accompanying word searching behaviour, whereas he produced a similar frequency of iconic gestures to control participants alongside normal language. The iconic gestures produced in the two language contexts also differed qualitatively. Frequency of iconic gesture production was not affected by limb apraxia. This study suggests that there are differences between iconic gestures that are produced alongside normal language and those produced alongside word-searching behaviour. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:23534389

Pritchard, Madeleine; Cocks, Naomi; Dipper, Lucy

2013-03-27

473

Progress in the last decade in our understanding of primary progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a focal neurodegeneration of the brain affecting the language network. Patients can have isolated language impairment for years without impairment in other areas. PPA is classified as primary progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), semantic dementia (SD), and logopenic aphasia, which have distinct patterns of atrophy on neuroimaging. PNFA and SD are included under frontotemporal lobar degenerations. PNFA patients have effortful speech with agrammatism, which is frequently associated with apraxia of speech and demonstrate atrophy in the left Broca’s area and surrounding region on neuroimaging. Patients with SD have dysnomia with loss of word and object (or face) meaning with asymmetric anterior temporal lobe atrophy. Logopenic aphasics have word finding difficulties with frequent pauses in conversation, intact grammar, and word comprehension but impaired repetition for sentences. The atrophy is predominantly in the left posterior temporal and inferior parietal regions. Recent studies have described several progranulin mutations on chromosome 17 in PNFA. The three clinical syndromes have a less robust relationship to the underlying pathology, which is heterogeneous and includes tauopathy, ubiquitinopathy, Pick’s disease, corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, and Alzheimer’s disease. Recent studies, however, seem to indicate that a better characterization of the clinical phenotype (apraxic, agrammatic, semantic, logopenic, jargon) increases the predictive value of the underlying pathology. Substantial advances have been made in our understanding of PPAs but developing new biomarkers is essential in making accurate causative diagnoses in individual patients. This is critically important in the development and evaluation of disease-modifying drugs.

Ratnavalli, Ellajosyula

2010-01-01

474

Single subject controlled experiments in aphasia: The science and the state of the science  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses the use of single subject controlled experimental designs for investigating the effect of treatment for aphasia. A brief historical perspective is presented, followed by discussions of the advantages and disadvantages of single subject and group approaches, the basic requirements of single subject experimental research, and crucial considerations in design selection. In the final sections, results of reviews of published single subject controlled experiments are discussed, with emphasis on internal validity issues, the number of participants enrolled in published studies, operational specification of the dependent and independent variables, and reliability of measurement. Learning outcomes As a result of reading this paper, the participant will: (1) understand the mechanisms required for demonstration of internal and external validity using single subject controlled experimental designs, (2) become familiar with the basic requirements of single subject controlled experimental research, (3) understand the types of single subject controlled experimental designs that are the most appropriate for studying the effects of treatment for aphasia, and (4) become familiar with trends in the published aphasia treatment literature in which single subject controlled experimental designs have been used.

Thompson, Cynthia K.

2007-01-01

475

Neuroimaging in aphasia treatment research: consensus and practical guidelines for data analysis.  

PubMed

Functional magnetic resonance imaging is the most widely used imaging technique to study treatment-induced recovery in post-stroke aphasia. The longitudinal design of such studies adds to the challenges researchers face when studying patient populations with brain damage in cross-sectional settings. The present review focuses on issues specifically relevant to neuroimaging data analysis in aphasia treatment research identified in discussions among international researchers at the Neuroimaging in Aphasia Treatment Research Workshop held at Northwestern University (Evanston, Illinois, USA). In particular, we aim to provide the reader with a critical review of unique problems related to the pre-processing, statistical modeling and interpretation of such data sets. Despite the fact that data analysis procedures critically depend on specific design features of a given study, we aim to discuss and communicate a basic set of practical guidelines that should be applicable to a wide range of studies and useful as a reference for researchers pursuing this line of research. PMID:22387474

Meinzer, Marcus; Beeson, Pélagie M; Cappa, Stefano; Crinion, Jenny; Kiran, Swathi; Saur, Dorothee; Parrish, Todd; Crosson, Bruce; Thompson, Cynthia K

2012-02-24

476

Mechanisms of Aphasia Recovery After Stroke and the Role of Noninvasive Brain Stimulation  

PubMed Central

One of the most frequent symptoms of unilateral stroke is aphasia, the impairment or loss of language functions. Over the past few years, behavioral and neuroimaging studies have shown that rehabilitation interventions can promote neuroplastic changes in aphasic patients that may be associated with the improvement of language functions. Following left-hemisphere strokes, the functional reorganization of language in aphasic patients has been proposed to involve both intrahemispheric interactions between damaged left-hemisphere and perilesional sites and transcallosal interhemispheric interactions between the lesioned left-hemisphere language areas and homotopic regions in the right hemisphere. A growing body of evidence for such reorganization comes from studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), two safe and noninvasive procedures that can be applied clinically to modulate cortical excitability during poststroke language recovery. We discuss a hierarchical model for the plastic changes in language representation that occur in the setting of dominant hemisphere stroke and aphasia. We further argue that TMS and tDCS are potentially promising tools for enhancing functional recovery of language and for further elucidating mechanisms of plasticity in patients with aphasia.

Hamilton, Roy H.; Chrysikou, Evangelia G.; Coslett, Branch

2011-01-01

477

Recent advances in lithium battery technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portable electronics such as cellular telephones and laptop computers have produced a surge in battery development and the introduction of rechargeable lithium battery systems. The most dramatic improvement in rechargeable battery technology was the introduction of the lithium-ion battery in 1990. Today, the sale of lithium-ion systems dominates the rechargeable battery market. The cell voltage for any battery system is

Melvin H. Miles

2001-01-01

478

Handbook of batteries and fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed information is given on the properties, performance characteristics, and applications of all major battery and fuel cell power sources currently being manufactured. The basic concepts, comparative features, and selection criteria that apply to all battery systems are first discussed. Comprehensive coverage is then given to primary batteries, secondary batteries, advanced secondary batteries, reserve and special batteries, and fuel cells.

David Linden

1984-01-01

479

Advanced Rechargeable Batteries, Phase 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the framework of the program Advanced rechargeable batteries, intended to evaluate the suitability, the applicability and possible problems of advanced batteries on naval ships (both surface and submarine) studies and tests have been performed on two p...

I. D. Schmal I. W. ter Veen I. C. Kluiters

1999-01-01

480

Chymist.com: Batteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of five lab guides for constructing various types of batteries: 1) voltaic pile, 2) electrochemical cell, 3) lemon cell, 4) storage cell, and 5) a zinc-carbon dry cell battery. It was developed by David Katz, chemistry instructor and author of Chemistry in the Toy Store. For grades 4-8, the voltaic pile experiment and the lemon cell would be most appropriate, as there are no safety hazards. Safety Precautions The electrochemical cell and the storage call use sulfuric acid, which is corrosive. The zinc-carbon dry cell battery uses zinc chloride, which is a skin and eye irritant. This item is part of a much larger collection of resources that include lesson plans for K-12, labs and hands-on activities, authentic assessments, projects spanning several days, and detailed guides for demonstrations.

Katz, David

2010-05-26

481

Microfluidic redox battery.  

PubMed

A miniaturized microfluidic battery is proposed, which is the first membraneless redox battery demonstrated to date. This unique concept capitalizes on dual-pass flow-through porous electrodes combined with stratified, co-laminar flow to generate electrical power on-chip. The fluidic design is symmetric to allow for both charging and discharging operations in forward, reverse, and recirculation modes. The proof-of-concept device fabricated using low-cost materials integrated in a microfluidic chip is shown to produce competitive power levels when operated on a vanadium redox electrolyte. A complete charge/discharge cycle is performed to demonstrate its operation as a rechargeable battery, which is an important step towards providing sustainable power to lab-on-a-chip and microelectronic applications. PMID:23712370

Lee, Jin Wook; Goulet, Marc-Antoni; Kjeang, Erik

2013-05-28

482

Battery powered electric motor vehicle  

SciTech Connect

The battery energized electric motor vehicle has a main driving motor connected to the battery via a footpedal operated control circuit; an auxiliary electric motor for a steering device is connected to the battery in series with the main driving motor and across the control circuit of the latter so that a difference voltage between the battery voltage and the instant driving voltage applied to the main driving motor controls the steering device.

Olbrich, G.; Pfeffer, P.

1982-09-21

483

New electric-vehicle batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors' impact, for example, uses starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but

Henry Oman

1994-01-01

484

Batteries, from Cradle to Grave  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As battery producers and vendors, legislators, and the consumer population become aware of the consequences of inappropriate disposal of batteries to landfill sites instead of responsible chemical neutralization and reuse, the topic of battery recycling has begun to appear on the environmental agenda. In the United Kingdom, estimates of annual…

Smith, Michael J.; Gray, Fiona M.

2010-01-01

485

Battery-powered electric bicycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric bicycles powered with today's nickel-metal hydride batteries offer a 100 km range between recharges and have a potential of 300 km when polymer batteries become available. The author discusses the development of the electric bicycle, presents a mathematical model, and considers general requirements. The available battery powered electric bicycles are listed and some test comparisons are given

W. C. Morchin

1994-01-01

486

Lithium Batteries for Memory Backup.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium batteries in general refer to those batteries which use the metal lithium for their anodes. Various types of lithium batteries have been developed. The typical types produced in quatity for consumer use are the BR and CR systems which use carbon-m...

Y. Okuzaki M. Nakai S. Oguro M. Esa K. Numata

1986-01-01

487

BATTERY THERMAL MANAGEMENT DESIGN MODELING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Battery thermal management is critical in achieving performance and extended life of batteries in electric and hybrid vehicles under real driving conditions. Appropriate modeling for predicting thermal behavior of battery systems in vehicles helps to make decisions for improved design and shortens the development process. For this paper, we looked at the impact of cooling strategies with air and both

Gi-Heon Kim; AHMAD A. PESARAN

2007-01-01

488

Batteries, from Cradle to Grave  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As battery producers and vendors, legislators, and the consumer population become aware of the cons