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Sample records for western sichuan china

  1. Black carbon record of the wildfire history of western Sichuan Province in China over the last 12.8 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weiwei; Zhang, Enlou; Shen, Ji; Chen, Rong; Liu, Enfeng

    2016-01-01

    Wildfire is recognized as a critical Earth system process which affects the global carbon cycle, atmospheric chemistry, and ecosystem dynamics. Estimating the potential impact of future climate change on the incidence of fire requires an understanding of the long-term interactions of fire, climate, vegetation, and human activity. Accordingly, we analyzed the black carbon content and the pollen stratigraphy of sediments spanning the past 12.8 ka from Lake Muge Co, an alpine lake in western Sichuan Province, in order to determine the main factors influencing regional fire regimes. The results demonstrate that wildfires occurred frequently and intensively during the late deglaciation and the early Holocene when the regional vegetation was dominated by deciduous forests. Wildfire occurrence decreased significantly during the Holocene climatic optimum between 9.2 and 5.6 cal ka BP. Overall, the wildfire history of western Sichuan Province is similar to that of the Chinese Loess Plateau and of East Asia as a whole, suggesting that regional-scale fires depended mainly on changes in the intensity of the Asian summer monsoon. In addition, the fire regime of western Sichuan Province may have been influenced by the establishment of human settlement and agriculture in western Sichuan Province and the southeastern Tibetan Plateau after about 5.5 cal ka BP, and by an intensification of cereal cultivation coupled with population expansion in southwestern China during the last two millennia.

  2. Sichuan Earthquake in China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Sichuan earthquake in China occurred on May 12, 2008, along faults within the mountains, but near and almost parallel the mountain front, northwest of the city of Chengdu. This major quake caused immediate and severe damage to many villages and cities in the area. Aftershocks pose a continuing danger, but another continuing hazard is the widespread occurrence of landslides that have formed new natural dams and consequently new lakes. These lakes are submerging roads and flooding previously developed lands. But an even greater concern is the possible rapid release of water as the lakes eventually overflow the new dams. The dams are generally composed of disintegrated rock debris that may easily erode, leading to greater release of water, which may then cause faster erosion and an even greater release of water. This possible 'positive feedback' between increasing erosion and increasing water release could result in catastrophic debris flows and/or flooding. The danger is well known to the Chinese earthquake response teams, which have been building spillways over some of the new natural dams.

    This ASTER image, acquired on June 1, 2008, shows two of the new large landslide dams and lakes upstream from the town of Chi-Kua-Kan at 32o12'N latitude and 104o50'E longitude. Vegetation is green, water is blue, and soil is grayish brown in this enhanced color view. New landslides appear bright off-white. The northern (top) lake is upstream from the southern lake. Close inspection shows a series of much smaller lakes in an elongated 'S' pattern along the original stream path. Note especially the large landslides that created the dams. Some other landslides in this area, such as the large one in the northeast corner of the image, occur only on the mountain slopes, so do not block streams, and do not form lakes.

  3. [Response of Picea purpurea and Abies faxoniana tree rings at different slope aspects to rapid warming in western Sichuan, China].

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin-de; Zhang, Yuan-dong; Wang, Xiao-chun

    2016-02-01

    By using an empirical 'signal-free' standardization approach, we constructed four Picea purpurea and Abies faxoniana tree-ring chronologies at southeast and northwest slope aspects of Erdaohai and east slope aspect of Zharisi, Songpan, west Sichuan, China. The response analysis and multivariate analysis of variance between tree rings and climatic variables were conducted to explore the divergent responses of tree growth at different slope aspects to the recent warming climate. Results showed that tree growth of P. purpurea at east slope aspect was obviously accelerated (0.011 a-1) since rapid warming in 1980, whereas those at northwest slope aspect was significantly reduced (-0.006 a-1). Tree growth of P. purpurea at southeast slope aspect and A. faxoniana at northwest slope aspect decreased in significantly. With the rapid warming, growth-climate relationships of P. purpurea and A. faxoniana at different slope aspects changed significantly. After rapid warming in 1980, the promoting effects of growing season temperature (GST) on P. purpurea growth at east slope increased significantly, while the inhibitory effects of GST on its growth at southeast and northwest slopes also increased significantly. However, the effects of GST on A. faxoniana growth at northwest slope did not change significantly before and after rapid warming. The effects of precipitation in May (PM) on P. purpurea growth at east slope was changed from inhibition before rapid warming to significant promotion after rapid warming, while the inhibitory effects of PM on P. purpurea growth at southeast and northwest slopes increased significantly. For A. faioniana at northwest slope, however, it did not change obviously before and after rapid warming. The response analysis between tree growth and the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) showed that soil moisture variations at different slope aspects were an important reason of tree-ring growth response difference since rapid warming. In addition, the

  4. [Difference in responses of major tree species growth to climate in the Miyaluo Mountains, western Sichuan, China].

    PubMed

    Guo, Ming-ming; Zhang, Yuan-dong; Wang, Xiao-chun; Liu, Shi-rong

    2015-08-01

    To explore the responses of different tree species growth to climate change in the semi-humid region of the eastern Tibetan Plateau, we investigated climate-growth relationships of Tsuga chinensis, Abies faxoniana, Picea purpurea at an altitude of 3000 m (low altitude) and A. faxoniana and Larix mastersiana at an altitude of 4000 m (high altitude) using tree ring-width chronologies (total of 182 cores) developed from Miyaluo, western Sichuan, China. Five residual chronologies were developed from the cross-dated ring width series using the program ARSTAN, and the relationships between monthly climate variables and tree-ring index were analyzed. Results showed that the chronologies of trees at low altitudes were negatively correlated with air temperature but positively with precipitation in April and May. This indicated that drought stress limited tree growth at low altitude, but different tree species showed significant variations. T. chinensis was most severely affected by drought stress, followed by A. faxoniana and P. purpurea. Trees at high altitude were mainly affected by growing season temperature. Tree-ring index of A. faxoniana was positively correlated with monthly minimum temperature in February and July of the current year and monthly maximum temperature in October of the previous year. Radial growth of L. mastersiana was positively correlated with monthly maximum temperature in May, and negatively with monthly mean temperature in February and monthly minimum temperature in March. In recent decadal years, the climate in northeast Tibetan Plateau had a warming and drying trend. If this trend continues, we could deduce that P. purpurea should grow faster than T. chinensis and A. faxoniana at low altitudes, while A. faxoniana would benefit more from global warming at high altitudes. PMID:26685584

  5. The anomalous lithium isotopic signature of Himalayan collisional zone carbonatites in western Sichuan, SW China: Enriched mantle source and petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Shihong; Hou, Zengqian; Su, Aina; Qiu, Lin; Mo, Xuanxue; Hou, Kejun; Zhao, Yue; Hu, Wenjie; Yang, Zhusen

    2015-06-01

    Lithium concentrations and isotopic compositions of 38 carbonatites and associated syenites from the Maoniuping, Lizhuang, and Dalucao in western Sichuan, along with previously published and new Pb-Sr-Nd-C-O isotope data and whole-rock analyses, are used to constrain their mantle source and genesis. Carbonatites and syenites are characterized by extremely varying Li concentrations (0.8-120 ppm) and highly variable Li isotopic compositions (-4.5‰ to +10.8‰). Among them, the majority of the carbonatites and syenites have δ7Li values between +0.2‰ and +5.8‰, which overlap with the reported values for MORB and OIB; 3 carbonatites have higher δ7Li values between +8.7‰ and +10.8‰; 5 carbonatites and 4 syenites have lighter δ7Li values between -4.5‰ and -0.3‰. These highly variable δ7Li compositions could not have been produced by diffusive-driven isotopic fractionation of Li and thus may record the isotopic signature of the late Proterozoic subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). This paper demonstrates the existence of anomalous δ7Li within the late Proterozoic subcontinental lithospheric mantle, suggesting that the ancient SCLM beneath western Sichuan was modified by interaction with fluids derived from the subducted oceanic crust and marine sediments. The modeling curves of fluids derived from a dehydrated slab (ratios: AOC80-SED20 to AOC40-SED60) with a representative mantle composition can account for the majority of lithium compositional variations. Some samples with unusual Pb-Sr-Nd-O isotopic compositions and highly variable δ7Li compositions are affected by significant involvement of marine sediments in their source region, not contaminated by crustal materials. The carbonatites and syenites in western Sichuan were generated by the partial melting of subcontinental lithospheric mantle, which was metasomatized by the Li-rich fluids derived from the subducted oceanic crust and marine sediments. This melting was most likely triggered by a

  6. Tree ring-based temperature reconstruction over the past 186 years for the Miyaluo Natural Reserve, western Sichuan Province of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zong Shan; Liu, Guo Hua; Gong, Li; Wang, Meng; Wang, Xiao Chun

    2015-05-01

    The mountain range of western Sichuan Province of China runs roughly north to south defining the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, where high-resolution climate records are essential for understanding regional climatic phenomena. Unfortunately, instrumental records in this region are too short in duration to confidently gauge the long-term variability of climate change. This paper presented a temperature reconstruction for the western Sichuan Province based on a tree ring width chronology developed from a tree line site (4,150 m) of the Faxon fir ( Abies faxoniana) at the Miyaluo Natural Reserve. This reconstruction, spanning the years from 1824 to 2009, could account for 46.7 % of the actual variance of annual mean temperature during the calibration period from 1950 to 2002. The reconstruction could be essentially divided into two distinct subperiods: a relatively cold and stable period in the late nineteenth century and a relatively warm and unstable period in the twentieth century. Years 2001 and 1911 were the warmest (6.32 °C) and coldest (4.87 °C) years in the reconstruction, respectively, while 1960s (5.77 °C) and 1980s (5.08 °C) were the warmest and coldest ten consecutive years within the past 186 years. Close coupling observed with other temperature proxies (tree rings, ice cores, and glaciers) from surrounding areas emphasized the high degree of confidence in our reconstruction.

  7. [Relationships between decomposition rate of leaf litter and initial quality across the alpine timberline ecotone in Western Sichuan, China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Deng, Chang-chun; Chen Ya-mei; He, Run-lian; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    The relationships between litter decomposition rate and their initial quality of 14 representative plants in the alpine forest ecotone of western Sichuan were investigated in this paper. The decomposition rate k of the litter ranged from 0.16 to 1.70. Woody leaf litter and moss litter decomposed much slower, and shrubby litter decomposed a little faster. Then, herbaceous litters decomposed fastest among all plant forms. There were significant linear regression relationships between the litter decomposition rate and the N content, lignin content, phenolics content, C/N, C/P and lignin/N. Lignin/N and hemicellulose content could explain 78.4% variation of the litter decomposition rate (k) by path analysis. The lignin/N could explain 69.5% variation of k alone, and the direct path coefficient of lignin/N on k was -0.913. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the contribution rate of the first sort axis to k and the decomposition time (t) reached 99.2%. Significant positive correlations existed between lignin/N, lignin content, C/N, C/P and the first sort axis, and the closest relationship existed between lignin/N and the first sort axis (r = 0.923). Lignin/N was the key quality factor affecting plant litter decomposition rate across the alpine timberline ecotone, with the higher the initial lignin/N, the lower the decomposition rate of leaf litter. PMID:27111995

  8. [Seasonal dynamics of soil labile nitrogen pools and net nitrogen mineralization in subalpine forests along an elevational gradient in western Sichuan, China].

    PubMed

    Yin, Rui; Xu, Zhen-Feng; Wu, Fu-Zhong; Yang, Wan-Qin; Xiong, Li; Xiao, Sa; Ma, Zhi-Liang; Li, Zhi-Ping

    2013-12-01

    The seasonal dynamics of soil labile nitrogen pools and net nitrogen mineralization of three subalpine forests along an elevation gradient (3600, 3300 and 3000 m), western Sichuan, China were examined. Obvious seasonal dynamics were found in soil labile nitrogen pools (ammonium, nitrate, microbial biomass nitrogen and dissolved organic nitrogen) and net nitrogen mineralization rate, but the seasonality varied with the measured nitrogen pools. The concentrations of soil nitrate (8.38-89.60 mg x kg(-1)) were significantly higher than those of ammonium (0.44-8.43 mg x kg(-1)) in four sampling periods (non-growing season, early, middle and late growing season). Regardless of the elevation, the rate of soil net nitrogen mineralization was negative (-0.77 to -0.56 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) early in the growing season, but positive in the other three periods. Except for nitrate, the contents of ammonium, microbial biomass nitrogen and dissolved organic nitrogen varied significantly with elevation and the altitude effects on those pools were dependent on seasons. In summary, soil nitrification was the major process of net soil nitrogen mineralization and soil nitrogen mineralization was not affected by elevational gradient. Soil nitrogen mineralization (0.42-0.99 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) in winter was considerable in this area. Relatively high inorganic nitrogen in early spring might be favorable for vegetation growth, but might also be lost from soil ecosystem through leaching. PMID:24697050

  9. The effects of China's environmental protection policies on pasture quality and the activities of small-scale herders in Songpan County, Western Sichuan.

    PubMed

    Veeck, Gregory; Li, Zhou; Yu, Fawen; Emerson, Charles

    2015-06-01

    Since 2000, there has been an ambitious governmental effort to protect China's grassland resources through new, often controversial, policies and programs backed up by massive capital investments and subsidies. The policies are intended to protect pastoral ecological systems while allowing the pasture-based husbandry sector to continue to evolve in ways that assure acceptable revenues to affected families and regions. This article reports results of a case study conducted in Songpan County of western Sichuan during the fall of 2013 specifically focused on these issues and interactions. The mixed-method research combines remotely sensed MODIS vegetation indices (EVI), livestock counts by type, and grassland area estimates at the township scale from 2000-2012, with depth interviews with local herding families and husbandry officials to determine how the husbandry sector has changed in the past 12 years under post-2000 policy interventions. Results for Songpan indicate that pasture coverage has improved slightly as grazing livestock density per hectare declined, but herders and local officials report that some of the new laws and programs have important unanticipated negative impacts on pasture quality, pasture ecology, and economic returns from herding for some families. PMID:25995138

  10. [Litter decomposition and lignocellulose enzyme activities of Actinothuidium hookeri and Cys- topteris montana in alpine timberline ecotone of western Sichuan, China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-mei; He, Run-lian; Deng, Chang-chun; Yang, Wan-qin; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Lin; Liu, Yang

    2015-11-01

    The mass loss and lignocellulose enzyme activities of Actinothuidium hookeri residues and Cystopteris montana leaf litter in coniferous forest and timberline of western Sichuan, China were investigated. The results showed that both the mass loss rates of A. hookeri and C. Montana in timberline were higher than those in coniferous forest, while enzyme activities in timberline were lower than those in coniferous forest which was contrast with the hypothesis. The mass loss of two ground covers had significant differences in different seasons. The mass loss rate of A. hookeri in snow-covered season accounted for 69.8% and 83.0% of the whole year' s in timberline and coniferous forest, while that of C. montana in the growing season accounted for 82.6% and 83.4% of the whole year' s in timberline and coniferous forest, respectively. C. montana leaf litter decayed faster in the growing season, which was consistent with its higher cellulase activity in the growing season. The result illustrated that the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose might be the main driving force for the early stage of litter decomposition. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that environmental factors and initial litter quality could explain 45.8%-85.1% variation of enzyme activity. The enzyme activities of A. hookeri and C. montana in the process of decomposition were mainly affected by the freeze-thaw cycle in snow-covered season. PMID:26915177

  11. Development of foreland basins around western Sichuan basin, and implications for mountain building in eastern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Liu, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Sichuan basin is surrounded by the Tibetan Plateau to the west, and the Michang Shan and Daba Shan mountains to the north and northwest. Foreland basins have been developed along the western and northern margins of the Sichuan basin since Triassic, receiving sediments with significant along-strike variations. These sediment records provide useful insights into the history of mountain building around the Sichuan Basin. We have collected exploration well data from western Sichuan Basin. Using backstripping, we reconstructed the basement deformation history, which reflect sedimentary and tectonic loadings related to mountain building. We used a 3-D numerical modeling technique with multi-grid technique to simulate flexural deformation of the Sichuan Basin lithosphere, and to infer tectonic loading and mountain building along western and northern margins of the Sichuan Basin from the late Triassic to the Cenozoic. Our results suggest that the shortening of the Daba Shan and Michuan Shan orogens mainly occurred during the late Jurassic-Cretaceous. During Cenozoic, the tectonic loading mainly occurred along the southwestern margins of the Sichuan Basin, corresponding to the development of the Longmen Shan mountain belt. The tectonic loading of the northern Longmen Shan on the Sichuan Basin has been markedly reduced since the Cenozoic, evidenced by the lack of Cenozoic foreland basin development. This indicates mechanical decoupling between uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin, consistent with the deep down-cutting of the Longmen Shan fault and predominantly strike-slip motion on the fault. The limited Cenozoic foreland basin development in the southwestern margin of the Sichuan Basin is consistent with localized high-angle thrusting of the southern Longmen Shan mountains. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grants 41104046).

  12. Genetic diversity and differentiation of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) population in western Sichuan, China, based on the second exon of the major histocompatibility complex class II DQB (MhcMamu-DQB1) alleles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstracts Background Rhesus macaques living in western Sichuan, China, have been separated into several isolated populations due to habitat fragmentation. Previous studies based on the neutral or nearly neutral markers (mitochondrial DNA or microsatellites) showed high levels of genetic diversity and moderate genetic differentiation in the Sichuan rhesus macaques. Variation at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci is widely accepted as being maintained by balancing selection, even with a low level of neutral variability in some species. However, in small and isolated or bottlenecked populations, balancing selection may be overwhelmed by genetic drift. To estimate microevolutionary forces acting on the isolated rhesus macaque populations, we examined genetic variation at Mhc-DQB1 loci in 119 wild rhesus macaques from five geographically isolated populations in western Sichuan, China, and compared the levels of MHC variation and differentiation among populations with that previously observed at neutral microsatellite markers. Results 23 Mamu-DQB1 alleles were identified in 119 rhesus macaques in western Sichuan, China. These macaques exhibited relatively high levels of genetic diversity at Mamu-DQB1. The Hanyuan population presented the highest genetic variation, whereas the Heishui population was the lowest. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and pairwise FST values showed moderate genetic differentiation occurring among the five populations at the Mhc-DQB1 locus. Non-synonymous substitutions occurred at a higher frequency than synonymous substitutions in the peptide binding region. Levels of MHC variation within rhesus macaque populations are concordant with microsatellite variation. On the phylogenetic tree for the rhesus and crab-eating macaques, extensive allele or allelic lineage sharing is observed betweenthe two species. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses confirm the apparent trans-species model of evolution of the Mhc-DQB1 genes in these

  13. The Features of Condensate Water and Its Guide on Gas Proudction in upper Triassic Gas Reservoir of Western Sichuan Depression, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, C.; Lou, Z.

    2012-12-01

    In upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation of western Sichuan depression, China, there developed ultrathight sandstones reservoirs, of which the mean porosity is 4.02% and the permeability mode is less than 0.1×10-3μm2. Because of the ultrathight sandstones, thick gaseous- liquid phase transition develops in the upper Trassic Xujiahe Formation. The absolute quantity of gaseous water is lager. Due to the change of temperature and pressure at the wellhead, the gaseous water in gas reservoir becomes condensate water. Therefore, the condensate water of low salinity can be widely found at the original productive process in the Xujiahe Formation reservoir, such as wells named Lian 150, Xin 851, Xin 853, Xin 856, Dayi 101, Dayi 103. The main cations are K++Na+, while the anions are HCO3- and Cl-. The main water type is CaCl2, followed by NaHCO3, Na2SO4 and MgCl2. The PH of condensate water is 5.28-8.20 with mean value 6.40. The salinity of condensate water is lower than that of formation water. The milligram equivalent (mEq) percent of ion is used to study the features of condensate water. The anions (mEq) distribution of condensate water are scattered in ternary diagram, while that of formation water concentrate upon the SO42- and Cl- endpoints. The percent of HCO3-(mEq) in condensate water is higher than that of formation water. There is no obvious difference of cations mEq percent between condensate water and formation water, which indicates that condensate water strongly affected by formation water. Through this study, condensate water may originate from formation water and then be affected by complicated physical and chemical interactions. The condensate water is affected by gas and formation water. The relationship between condensate water and gas yield is very close. The variations of water yield, salinity and ions composition can reflect the change of gas yield. Taking well Xin 856 for example, which is located in Xinchang gas felid, there exist a relationship between

  14. A few Issues about Wenchuan earthquake of 2008, Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, J.; Liu, S.; Lu, Z.; Fu, Y.

    2008-12-01

    A devastating earthquake of magnitude 8.0, named Wenchuan earthquake, struck China's Sichuan province on May 12, 2008. The rupture occurred over a length of about 300 km along the northeast-striking Longmen Shan thrust belt. The earthquake resulted in huge casualties and property losses at Longmen Shan region of Sichuan Province, the Southern Shaanxi and Southern Gansu, more than 80,000 people were killed. Longmen Shan is the convergent margin of the eastern Tibetan plateau and Yangtze block. However the area has numerous geological features not typical of active convergent mountain belts. After the earthquake, lots of opinions have been expressed. Basing on field investigation and analysis, we put forward the following opinions: (1) the causative structure of the earthquake may be Pengguan fault, not the Beichuan-Yingxiu fault (central fault)£»(2) the uplift of the Longmen Shan and the earthquakes in Longmen Shan may be controlled by the bilateral stresses from the Songpan -Ganzi block on the west side and Sichuan basin on the east side; (3) by calculating the balance between the accumulation and dissipation of the compressed strain energy, we may make out an estimation of the rhythm of strong Earthquake in Longmen Shan; (4) By analyzing the pressure data measured at oil or gas producing wells, we may monitor the changes of the earth stress in deep; (5) Earthquakes in Longmen Shan may be favorable to the forming of the fractured reservoir and hydrocarbon accumulation in Western Sichuan depression. The work was supported by NSFC under grant No.40739907

  15. Water Availability for Shale Gas Development in Sichuan Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mengjun; Weinthal, Erika; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Deshusses, Marc A; Zou, Caineng; Ni, Yunyan; Vengosh, Avner

    2016-03-15

    Unconventional shale gas development holds promise for reducing the predominant consumption of coal and increasing the utilization of natural gas in China. While China possesses some of the most abundant technically recoverable shale gas resources in the world, water availability could still be a limiting factor for hydraulic fracturing operations, in addition to geological, infrastructural, and technological barriers. Here, we project the baseline water availability for the next 15 years in Sichuan Basin, one of the most promising shale gas basins in China. Our projection shows that continued water demand for the domestic sector in Sichuan Basin could result in high to extremely high water stress in certain areas. By simulating shale gas development and using information from current water use for hydraulic fracturing in Sichuan Basin (20,000-30,000 m(3) per well), we project that during the next decade water use for shale gas development could reach 20-30 million m(3)/year, when shale gas well development is projected to be most active. While this volume is negligible relative to the projected overall domestic water use of ∼36 billion m(3)/year, we posit that intensification of hydraulic fracturing and water use might compete with other water utilization in local water-stress areas in Sichuan Basin. PMID:26881457

  16. Senecio changii (Asteraceae: Senecioneae), a New Species from Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chen; Tong, Tian-Jing; Hong, Yu; Yang, Qin-Er

    2016-01-01

    Senecio changii (Asteraceae: Senecioneae), a new species from Muli, Sichuan, southwestern China, is described. It is distinguished in Chinese Senecio s.s. by having lyrate-pinnatisect to pinnatisect leaves and a single terminal large discoid capitulum which is somewhat nodding. Evidence from floral micromorphology, karyology and molecular phylogenetic analyses based on the nuclear ITS/ETS sequence data all support its membership within Senecio s.s. PMID:27050905

  17. Senecio changii (Asteraceae: Senecioneae), a New Species from Sichuan, China

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Chen; Tong, Tian-Jing; Hong, Yu; Yang, Qin-Er

    2016-01-01

    Senecio changii (Asteraceae: Senecioneae), a new species from Muli, Sichuan, southwestern China, is described. It is distinguished in Chinese Senecio s.s. by having lyrate-pinnatisect to pinnatisect leaves and a single terminal large discoid capitulum which is somewhat nodding. Evidence from floral micromorphology, karyology and molecular phylogenetic analyses based on the nuclear ITS/ETS sequence data all support its membership within Senecio s.s. PMID:27050905

  18. Breastfeeding practices in Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Guldan, G S; Zhang, M; Zeng, G; Hong, J; Yang, Y

    1995-03-01

    Barriers to increased breastfeeding rates in Chengdu, Sichuan were investigated in 1992 and 1993. Responses of focus groups showed that ignorance about breastfeeding and belief that the mother's milk was inadequate, and lack of support from their families, places of employment, and the health system acted as barriers to the women's breastfeeding their infants up to the age of four to six months. Subsequently, 363 mothers of 4- to 12-month-old Chengdu infants were surveyed. Although most mothers in both studies said breastmilk was the best food for their infant up to age of four to six months, only about half of the mothers breastfed for longer than one month. Both studies showed that infants who roomed with their mothers after birth were more likely to have been put to their mother's breast earlier, fed colostrum, breastfed somewhat longer, and exclusively breastfed for a somewhat longer period, although their mothers' infant feeding knowledge did not differ. The researchers conclude that Chengdu health workers should teach parents and parents-to-be more about breastfeeding, and that rooming-in be expanded in Chengdu hospitals. PMID:7718100

  19. Physicomechanical parameters of sedimentary rocks in eastern Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jian; Sun, Yan; Shu, Liangshu; Zhu, Wenbin; Liu, Deliang; Wang, Feng; Li, Benliang

    2009-12-01

    Rock samples were collected and selected from the sedimentary covering strata from Cambrian to Jurassic in eastern Sichuan, China, which belongs to the Upper Yangtze plate. Physicomechanical parameters were measured systematically. Based on parametric texture characteristics and observation data of geology, five regional layer-slip systems are derived. The five layer-slip systems correspond to five reservoir-cover systems, as the incompetent beds correspond to cover beds and the competent beds to reservoir beds. In comparison with the Middle and Lower Yangtze plates, the physicomechanical parameters, lithologic composition and structural characteristics are basically similar to the Upper Yangtze plate. This comparison offers some insight into the oil and gas reservoir-cover systems in the region.

  20. Streptococcus suis sequence type 7 outbreak, Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Changyun; Zhu, Xiaoping; Jing, Huaiqi; Du, Huamao; Segura, Mariela; Zheng, Han; Kan, Biao; Wang, Lili; Bai, Xuemei; Zhou, Yongyun; Cui, Zhigang; Zhang, Shouying; Jin, Dong; Sun, Na; Luo, Xia; Zhang, Ji; Gong, Zhaolong; Wang, Xin; Wang, Lei; Sun, Hui; Li, Zhenjun; Sun, Qiangzheng; Liu, Honglu; Dong, Boqing; Ke, Changwen; Yuan, Hui; Wang, Hua; Tian, Kecheng; Wang, Yu; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Xu, Jianguo

    2006-08-01

    An outbreak of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 emerged in the summer of 2005 in Sichuan Province, and sporadic infections occurred in 4 additional provinces of China. In total, 99 S. suis strains were isolated and analyzed in this study: 88 isolates from human patients and 11 from diseased pigs. We defined 98 of 99 isolates as pulse type I by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of SmaI-digested chromosomal DNA. Furthermore, multilocus sequence typing classified 97 of 98 members of the pulse type I in the same sequence type (ST), ST-7. Isolates of ST-7 were more toxic to peripheral blood mononuclear cells than ST-1 strains. S. suis ST-7, the causative agent, was a single-locus variant of ST-1 with increased virulence. These findings strongly suggest that ST-7 is an emerging, highly virulent S. suis clone that caused the largest S. suis outbreak ever described. PMID:16965698

  1. Assessment of Paleozoic shale gas resources in the Sichuan Basin of China, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 23.9 trillion cubic feet of technically recoverable shale gas resources in Paleozoic formations in the Sichuan Basin of China.

  2. One new species of the genus Nigrimacula Shi, Bian & Zhou, 2016 (Orthoptera: Meconematinae) from Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Jian; Shi, Fu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The paper describels one new species, i.e. Nigrimacula sichuanensis Wang & Shi, sp. nov. from Sichuan, China, and provides photographs of morphological characters. The type material is deposited in the Museum of Hebei University. PMID:27395697

  3. Cretaceous combined structure in eastern Sichuan Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Liu, S.

    2009-12-01

    Eastern Sichuan Basin is confined by two thin-skinned fold-thrust belt, NW-trending Southern Daba Shan (Shan=Mountain) (SDB) in the northeast and NNE- or NE-trending Western XueFeng Shan (WXF) in the southeast, which constitute two convergent salients convex to the inner basin respectively. Although many factors can lead to the formation of fold-thrust belt salients, the eastern Sichuan salients would be attributed to the combined structure (firstly nominated by Chinese geologist, Li Siguang), which means the interaction of two structural belts in the same period. By field surveying and geological map interpreting, we found that WXF deformation began in Late Jurassic along the eastern side of structral belt, where the synclines cored by Upper-Middle Jurassic rock. The initial time of SDB deformation remains poorly determined, however our palaeocurrent data of Lower Cretaceous rock in adjecent foreland basin indicate the provenance from northeast or east. Hence we considered the two fold-thrust belt started interactive in Late Jurassic and mainly combined during Cretaceous. In Early Cretaceous, the front belt of WXF salient arrived near KaiXian where NEE-trending arc-shape folds converged with the NWW-trending arc-shape folds of SDB.The two salients shaped like an westward "open mouth", east of which EW-trending folds of two structural belts juxtaposed. Particularly in the middle belt of WXF (FengJie - WuFeng) the earlier NEE-trending folds were refolded by later NNE-trending folds. We interpret the NEE-trending folds as the front belt of earlier (maybe Late Jurassic) WXF salient. When the two combined fold belts propagated westward together, the original NNE-trending front belt of WXF constrained by the front belt of SDB and formed the curved fold trend lines convex to NNW. Then as WXF deformation continued but SDB gradually terminated, the consequent NNE-trending folds could not be curved and would superpose on the earlier NEE-trending folds.In Late Cretaceous

  4. Probabilistic Analysis of Earthquake-Led Water Contamination: A Case of Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yan; Li, Lin; Benjamin Zhan, F.; Zhuang, Yanhua

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate seismic-led point source and non-point source water pollution, under the seismic hazard of 10 % probability of exceedance in 50 years, and with the minimum value of the water quality standard in Sichuan, China. The soil conservation service curve number method of calculating the runoff depth in the single rainfall event combined with the seismic damage index were applied to estimate the potential degree of non-point source water pollution. To estimate the potential impact of point source water pollution, a comprehensive water pollution evaluation framework is constructed using a combination of Water Quality Index and Seismic Damage Index methods. The four key findings of this paper are: (1) The water catchment that has the highest factory concentration does not have the highest risk of non-point source water contamination induced by the outbreak of potential earthquake. (2) The water catchment that has the highest numbers of cumulative water pollutants types are typically located in the south western parts of Sichuan where the main river basins in the regions flow through. (3) The most common pollutants in sample factories studied is COD and NH3-N which are found in all catchments. The least common pollutant is pathogen—found present in W1 catchment which has the best rating in the water quality index. (4) Using water quality index as a standardization parameter, parallel comparisons is made among the 16 water catchments. Only catchment W1 reaches level II water quality status which has the rating of moderately polluted in events of earthquake induced water contamination. All other areas suffer from severe water contamination with multiple pollution sources. The results from the data model are significant to urban planning commissions and businesses to strategically choose their factory locations in order to minimize potential hazardous impact during the outbreak of earthquake.

  5. Probabilistic Analysis of Earthquake-Led Water Contamination: A Case of Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yan; Li, Lin; Benjamin Zhan, F.; Zhuang, Yanhua

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate seismic-led point source and non-point source water pollution, under the seismic hazard of 10 % probability of exceedance in 50 years, and with the minimum value of the water quality standard in Sichuan, China. The soil conservation service curve number method of calculating the runoff depth in the single rainfall event combined with the seismic damage index were applied to estimate the potential degree of non-point source water pollution. To estimate the potential impact of point source water pollution, a comprehensive water pollution evaluation framework is constructed using a combination of Water Quality Index and Seismic Damage Index methods. The four key findings of this paper are: (1) The water catchment that has the highest factory concentration does not have the highest risk of non-point source water contamination induced by the outbreak of potential earthquake. (2) The water catchment that has the highest numbers of cumulative water pollutants types are typically located in the south western parts of Sichuan where the main river basins in the regions flow through. (3) The most common pollutants in sample factories studied is COD and NH3-N which are found in all catchments. The least common pollutant is pathogen—found present in W1 catchment which has the best rating in the water quality index. (4) Using water quality index as a standardization parameter, parallel comparisons is made among the 16 water catchments. Only catchment W1 reaches level II water quality status which has the rating of moderately polluted in events of earthquake induced water contamination. All other areas suffer from severe water contamination with multiple pollution sources. The results from the data model are significant to urban planning commissions and businesses to strategically choose their factory locations in order to minimize potential hazardous impact during the outbreak of earthquake.

  6. Passion: Burning in the West--An Investigation on College Students' Volunteer Teaching in Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhen, Li

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates college students' volunteer teaching in Western China. A series of investigations were conducted in Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, and Xinjiang. The results showed that teaching by volunteer college students played a positive role in the development of local education…

  7. Epidemiology of human hookworm infections among adult villagers in Hejiang and Santai Counties, Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Changhua, L; Xiaorong, Z; Dongchuan, Q; Shuhua, X; Hotez, P J; Defu, Z; Hulian, Z; Mingden, L; Hainan, R; Bing, Z; Haichou, X; Hawdon, J; Zheng, F

    1999-10-15

    Hookworm infection as well as other intestinal nematodiases are endemic to Sichuan Province in China. In order to research the prevalence and intensity of these infections we visited two villages in Hejiang County (southern Sichuan Province) and Santai County (northwestern Sichuan Province) between July and October of 1997. Fecal examinations were performed on adult villagers over the age of 15 years (currently children under this age are dewormed annually with anthelmintic drugs). Among 310 residents of Lugao Village (Hejiang County), 87, 63 and 60% were infected with hookworm, Ascaris or Trichuris, respectively. The prevalence of hookworm determined to rise linearly with age (r = 0.97). High intensity infections with hookworm still occur in this region as 22% of the residents have over 3000 eggs per gram (PEG) of feces as determined by quantitative egg counts. The majority of these individuals harbored mixed infection with Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale, although the former predominated when adult hookworms were collected from 30 village residents treated with pyrantel pamoate. In contrast, among the 334 Xinjian villagers examined (Santai County) the majority harbored predominantly light hookworm infections--66.1% of the residents has less than 400 EPG by quantitative fecal examination and only 3.7% exhibited greater than 3000 EPG. Again, N. americanus was the predominant hookworm seen after worm expulsion. We have round that despite economic development which is occurring in some parts of China, significant hookworm infections and clinical hookworm anemia still exist in areas of Sichuan Province. In Hejiang County we found that the intensity of hookworm infection has actually risen within the last 10 years. Hookworm is a medical problem among the elderly in Sichuan. PMID:10546842

  8. [Emergy evaluation and dynamic measurement analysis of agro-ecosystems in Sichuan Province of Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Cong; Du, Shou-Hu

    2012-03-01

    Agro-ecosystem is the most basic system for human beings survival, while the analysis of the structure and function of the system is the key to solve the problems of agro-ecological environment. In this paper, emergy theory and related economic measurement methods including data envelopment analysis, cointegration test, and error correction model were applied to quantitatively analyze the operation dynamics, environmental loading, operation efficiency, and input-output relation of the agro-ecosystems in Sichuan Province and its 21 cities in 1997-2009. In the study period, Sichuan Province was in the transition period from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. The agricultural mechanization level of the Province improved constantly, resources utilization efficiency enhanced continually, overall structural dominant degree was better, but the over-reliance on economic emergy input caused the sustainability of the system weakened gradually. The development status of the agro-ecosystems in the Province varied among regions. Chengdu Plain and Western Sichuan Highland were either in overexploited or in underutilized, while the hilly areas were full of vitality and development potential, tended to be the important areas for the future development of Sichuan agriculture. Generally, the operation efficiency of the agro-ecosystems in the Province was relatively low, with the situation differed in different regions due to the lower technical efficiency or improper scale. There was a long-term equilibrium between the economic emergy indices and output emergy, but the short-term emergy input didn't reach the ideal output. PMID:22720632

  9. Provenance and tectonic-paleogeographic evolution: Constraints from detrital zircon U-Pb ages of Late Triassic-Early Jurassic deposits in the northern Sichuan basin, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Tongbin; Cheng, Nanfei; Song, Maoshuang

    2016-09-01

    U-Pb ages of 290 new detrital zircons from five Late Triassic-Early Jurassic sandstone samples in the northern Sichuan basin, along with other geological data, are used to constrain the sediment provenance and evaluate tectonic-paleogeographic evolution for the adjacent orogens through/from which these sediments were potentially derived. The Upper Triassic depocenter was located at the front of the Longmen Shan belt, and sediments in the western, southern and eastern Sichuan basin shared the southern North China block (NCB) and Qinling belt with the eastern Songpan-Ganzi terrane of Middle-Upper Triassic via the Longmen Shan belt, whereas the northern part of the basin was fed by dominant South Qinling belt (SQB) and northern Yangtze block and possibly subordinate southern NCB. Also, the youngest population in the northern Sichuan basin has a slightly younger age peak (∼235 Ma) than those (∼270 Ma) in other parts of the basin. During the Early Jurassic, the depocenter was still at the front of the Longmen Shan belt but only northern regions (e.g., SQB and northern Yangtze block) fed the basin. The northern Sichuan basin received less sediments from the southern NCB and more from the SQB and northern Yangtze block during the Early Jurassic than during the Late Triassic. The middle Mesoproterozoic detrital zircons, which likely originated from the North Qinling belt and northern Yangtze block where rocks with these zircons may be unexposed, occur more widely in the Lower Jurassic than in the Upper Triassic. These facts suggest that from the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, it was increasingly difficult for sediments to transport from the NCB into the northern Sichuan basin and the provenance transferred progressively from the southern NCB to both the SQB and northern Yangtze block, implying the continuous South China block-NCB collision during that time.

  10. Preliminary investigation of some large landslides triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan Province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, F.; Cheng, Q.; Highland, L.; Miyajima, M.; Wang, Hongfang; Yan, C.

    2009-01-01

    The M s 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake or "Great Sichuan Earthquake" occurred at 14:28 p.m. local time on 12 May 2008 in Sichuan Province, China. Damage by earthquake-induced landslides was an important part of the total earthquake damage. This report presents preliminary observations on the Hongyan Resort slide located southwest of the main epicenter, shallow mountain surface failures in Xuankou village of Yingxiu Town, the Jiufengchun slide near Longmenshan Town, the Hongsong Hydro-power Station slide near Hongbai Town, the Xiaojiaqiao slide in Chaping Town, two landslides in Beichuan County-town which destroyed a large part of the town, and the Donghekou and Shibangou slides in Qingchuan County which formed the second biggest landslide lake formed in this earthquake. The influences of seismic, topographic, geologic, and hydro-geologic conditions are discussed. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Natural and artificial radionuclide measurements and radioactivity assessment of soil samples in eastern Sichuan province (China).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhonghai; He, Jun; Du, Yu; He, Yang; Li, Zhiqian; Chen, Zhihua; Yang, Chaowen

    2012-07-01

    The activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides were measured in the eastern region of Sichuan province (China). One hundred and ninety-three soil samples from this region were collected and analysed by high-purity germanium gamma spectrometry. The measured results show that the average radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in the soil samples are 26, 49, 440 and 6 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The calculated average radium equivalent activity is 130 Bq kg(-1), which is less than the recommended limit of 370 Bq kg(-1). The absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose are 60 nGy h(-1) and 74 µSv, respectively. This is the first time the absorbed dose rate in the east region of Sichuan has been mapped. Overall, the environmental radiation background is greater in the southern part of the area studied than in the northern. PMID:22128351

  12. Euxinia prior to end-Permian main extinction at Xiaojiaba section, Sichuan Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, H.; Algeo, T. J.; Chen, D.; Yu, H.

    2013-12-01

    Redox conditions in the global ocean prior to, during, and following the end-Permian mass extinction at 252.28 Ma remain contentious. Previous studies in western Australia, South China, and East Greenland have shown that photic-zone euxinia was present at least intermittently from the early Changhsingian through the Dienerian1-3. Here we report a study of organic carbon isotopes, pyrite sulfur isotopes, TOC, pyritic sulfur content, REE, and major and trace elements from the Upper Permian Xiaojiaba section in the Chaotian district of Guangyuan City, Sichuan Province, China. During the Permian-Triassic transition, this section was located on the northwestern margin of the South China Block, facing the Paleo-Tethys Ocean. Our results indicate that suboxic conditions prevailed during the Wuchiapingian and suboxic to anoxic conditions with several pulses of euxinia during the Changhsingian. δ13Corg values are mostly -28‰ to -26‰ but show three positive excursions (to -22‰) prior to the end-Permian mass extinction horizon. These positive excursions are associated with higher Spy concentrations (to ~1%). δ34Spy values are variable (from -41‰ to +5‰) but show a sharp negative excursion in the late Changhsingian (to -43.4‰) that coincided with the most positive δ13Corg values. This horizon is also associated with increases in Eu/Eu*, Baxs, ∑REE, Si, and redox-sensitive metals such as V. These patterns reflect linkage of the C and S cycles during the latest Permian, possibly in response to redox controls. The observed positive excursions in δ13Corg may be due to organic inputs from green sulfur bacteria, which exhibit a smaller photosynthetic fractionation (-12.5‰4) than eukaryotic algae. The pronounced negative excursion of δ34Spy corresponds to a sulfate-sulfide S isotope fractionation of about -60‰, suggesting a large flux of syngenetic framboidal pyrite, which would be indicative of euxinic water-column conditions. We infer that the euxinia prior

  13. Three dimensional surface displacement of the Sichuan earthquake (Mw 7.9, China) from Synthetic Aperture Radar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Michele, Marcello; Raucoules, Daniel; de Sigoyer, Julia; Pubellier, Manuel; Lasserre, Cecile; Pathier, Erwan; Klinger, Yann; van der Woerd, Jerome; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    The Sichuan earthquake, Mw 7.9, struck the Longmen Shan range front, in the western Sichuan province, China, on 12 May 2008. It severely affected an area where little historical seismicity and little or no significant active shortening were reported before the earthquake (e.g. Gu et al., 1989; Chen et al., 1994; Gan et al., 2007). The Longmen Shan thrust system bounds the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau and is considered as a transpressive zone since Triassic time that was reactivated during the India-Asia collision (e.g., Tapponnier and Molnar, 1977, Chen and Wilson 1996; Arne et al., 1997, Godard et al., 2009). However, contrasting geological evidences of sparse thrusting and marked dextral strike-slip faulting during the Quaternary along with high topography (Burchfiel et al., 1995; Densmore et al., 2007) have led to models of dynamically driven and sustained topography (Royden et al., 1997) limiting the role of earthquakes in relief building and leaving the mechanism of long term strain distribution in this area as an open question. Here we combine C and L band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) offsets data from ascending and descending paths to retrieve the three dimensional surface displacement distribution all along the earthquake ruptures of the Sichuan earthquake. For the first time on this earthquake we present near field 3D co-seismic surface displacement, which is an important datum for constraining modelled fault geometry at depth. Our results complement other Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and field analyses in indicating that crustal shortening is one of the main drivers for topography building in the Longmen Shan (Liu-Zeng, 2009; Shen et al., 2009; Hubbard and Shaw, 2009). Moreover, our results put into evidence a small but significant amount of displacement in the range front that we interpret as due to slip at depth on a blind structure. We verify this hypothesis by inverting the data against a simple elastic dislocation model

  14. Linked sequence stratigraphy and tectonics in the Sichuan continental foreland basin, Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation, southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingjiao; Shao, Longyi; Eriksson, Kenneth A.; Tong, Xin; Gao, Caixia; Chen, Zhongshu

    2014-07-01

    Intracontinental subduction of the South China Block below the North China Block in the Late Triassic resulted in formation of the transpressional Sichuan foreland basin on the South China Block. The Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation was deposited in this basin and consists of an eastward-tapering wedge of predominantly continental siliciclastic sedimentary rocks that are up to 3.5 km thick in the western foredeep depocenter and thin onto the forebulge and into backbulge depocenters. Five facies associations (A-E) make up the Xujiahe Formation and these are interpreted, respectively, as alluvial fan, transverse and longitudinal braided river, meandering river, overbank or shallow lacustrine, and deltaic deposits. This study establishes a sequence stratigraphic framework for the Xujiahe Formation which is subdivided into four sequences (SQ1, 2, 3 and 4). Sequence boundaries are recognized on the basis of facies-tract dislocations and associated fluvial rejuvenation and incision, and systems tracts are identified based on their constituent facies associations and changes in architectural style and sediment body geometries. Typical sequences consist of early to late transgressive systems tract deposits related to a progressive increase in accommodation and represented by Facies Associations A, B and C that grade upwards into Facies Association D. Regionally extensive and vertically stacked coal seams define maximum accommodation and are overlain by early highstand systems tract deposits represented by Facies Associations D, E and C. Late highstand systems tract deposits are rare because of erosion below sequence boundaries. Sequence development in the Xujiahe Formation is attributed to active and quiescent phases of thrust-loading events and is closely related to the tectonic evolution of the basin. The Sichuan Basin experienced three periods of thrust loading and lithospheric flexure (SQ1, lower SQ2 and SQ3), two periods of stress relaxation and basin widening (upper

  15. Molecular Epidemiology of Porcine Cytomegalovirus (PCMV) in Sichuan Province, China: 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhiwen; Zhou, Yuancheng

    2013-01-01

    Porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) is an immunosuppressive virus that mainly inhibits the immune function of the macrophage and T-cell lymphatic systems, and has caused huge economic losses to the porcine breeding industry. Molecular epidemiological investigation of PCMV is important for prevention and treatment, and this study is the first such investigation in Sichuan Province, Southwest China. A PCMV positive infection rate of 84.4% (865/1025) confirmed that PCMV is widely distributed in Sichuan Province. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the PCMV glycoprotein B gene (gB) nucleotide and amino acid sequences from 24 novel Sichuan isolates and 18 other PCMV gB sequences from Genbank. PCMV does not appear to have evolved into different serotypes, and two distinct sequence groups were identified (A and B). However, whether PCMV from this region has evolved into different genotypes requires further research. Analysis of the amino acid sequences confirmed the conservation of gB, but amino acid substitutions in the major epitope region have caused antigenic drift, which may have altered the immunogenicity of PCMV. PMID:23762243

  16. Salt-related tectonics in the eastern Sichuan Basin, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Zhidong; Yin, Jifeng; Yuan, Miao; Zhai, Xiufen

    2015-04-01

    Sichuan Basin is located in the northwest of Upper Yangtze platform of South China, and East Sichuan is situated between Huaying Mountain fault and Qiyue Mountain fault. The surface Jura type folds are very famous with barrier parallel folds, but the cause of folds formation have not been completely understood. Stratigraphic units are composed of thick competent flexural layers separately by relatively thin incompetent ductile layers that can act as detachments.Multiple detachment layers are developed in the eastern Sichuan and result in distinct structural domains. In addition to the basal, Triassic and Silurian system detachment layers, we recognize a regionally extensive salt layer in the Middle and Lower Cambrian. The recognition of salt layer is by the synthetical studies of outcrop, drilling well, and chaotic seismic reflection configuration. The Middle and Lower Cambrian salt forms a tectonic domain boundary that can be observed by seismic reflection profile in subsurface. The stratigraphic intervals above and below the salt develop characteristic salt-related tectonics. And the folds formation is by flow in and flow out of salt movement of the Middle and Lower Cambrian and flexural slip and grouding of the overlying units. Above the salt, the thrust fault-related folds were generated by the contractional action from southeast to northwest, including the fault-bend fold, fault-propagation fold, and thrust wedge fold, and so on. Below the salt, the broad anticlines were formed due to the basal detachment. Hydrocarbon traps are formed above and below the salt, and they are potential gas exploration domains in the eastern Sichuan Basin.

  17. Molecular epidemiology of Porcine torovirus (PToV) in Sichuan Province, China: 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Porcine torovirus (PToV) is a member of the genus Torovirus which is responsible for gastrointestinal disease in both human beings and animals with particular prevalence in youth. Torovirus infections are generally asymptomatic, however, their presence may worsen disease consequences in concurrent infections with other enteric pathogens. Methods A total of 872 diarrheic fecal samples from pigs of different ages were collected from 12 districts of Sichuan Province in the southwest of China. RT-PCR was done with PToV S gene specific primers to detect the presence of PToV positive samples. M gene specific primers were used with the PToV positive samples and the genes were sequenced. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the M gene nucleotide sequences from the 19 selected novel Sichuan strains and 21 PToV and BToV M gene sequences from GenBank. Results A total of 331 (37.96%, 331/872) samples were found to be positive for PToV and the highest prevalence was observed in piglets aged from 1 to 3 weeks old. Through phylogenetic inference the 40 PToV M gene containing sequences were placed into two genotypes (I & II). The 19 novel Sichuan strains of genotype I showed strong correlations to two Korean gene sequences (GU-07-56-11 and GU-07-56-22). Amino-acid sequence analysis of the 40 PToV M gene strains revealed that the M gene protein was highly conserved. Conclusions This study uncovered the presence of PToV in Sichuan Province, and demonstrated the need for continuous surveillance PToV of epidemiology. PMID:24903213

  18. Three-dimensional seismic velocity structure in the Sichuan basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Maomao; Hubbard, Judith; Plesch, Andreas; Shaw, John H.; Wang, Lining

    2016-02-01

    We present a new three-dimensional velocity model of the crust in the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. The model describes the velocity structure of the Sichuan basin and surrounding thrust belts. The model consists of 3-D surfaces representing major geologic unit contacts and faults and is parameterized with Vp velocity-depth functions calibrated using sonic logs. The model incorporates data from 1166 oil wells, industry isopach maps, geological maps, and a digital elevation model. The geological surfaces were modeled based on structure contour maps for various units from oil wells and seismic reflection profiles. These surfaces include base Quaternary, Mesozoic, Paleozoic, and Proterozoic horizons. The horizons locally exhibit major offsets that are compatible with the locations and displacements of important faults systems. This layered, upper crustal 3-D model extends down to 10-15 km depth and illustrates lateral and vertical variations of velocity that reflect the complex evolution of tectonics and sedimentation in the basin. The model also incorporates 3-D descriptions of Vs and density for sediments that are obtained from empirical relationships with Vp using direct measurements of these properties in borehole logs. To illustrate the impact of our basin model on earthquake hazards assessment, we use it to calculate ground motions and compare these with observations for the 2013 Lushan earthquake. The result demonstrates the effects of basin amplification in the western Sichuan basin. The Sichuan CVM model is intended to facilitate fault systems analysis, strong ground motion prediction, and earthquake hazards assessment for the densely populated Sichuan region.

  19. A new species of Triplophysa Rendahl (Cypriniformes, Nemacheilidae) from Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    YAN, Si-Li; SUN, Zhi-Yu; GUO, Yan-Shu

    2015-01-01

    Triplophysa yajiangensis sp. nov. is described from the upper and middle reaches of the Yalong River, Yangtze Basin, Ganzi Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China. This new species can be distinguished from other congeneric species by the following characters: body surface smooth and scaleless; lateral line complete; caudal peduncle compressed and tapered slightly; lower jaw shovel-shaped; head shorter than caudal peduncle; dorsal-fin origin anterior to pelvic-fin origin and closer to tip of snout than to caudal-fin base, last unbranched ray hard; pelvic-fin reaches or exceeds anus; posterior chamber of gas bladder absent; intestine spiral type with 3-5 winding coils. PMID:26452694

  20. A new species of Triplophysa Rendahl (Cypriniformes, Nemacheilidae) from Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Si-Li; Sun, Zhi-Yu; Guo, Yan-Shu

    2015-09-18

    Triplophysa yajiangensis sp. nov. is described from the upper and middle reaches of the Yalong River, Yangtze Basin, Ganzi Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China. This new species can be distinguished from other congeneric species by the following characters: body surface smooth and scaleless; lateral line complete; caudal peduncle compressed and tapered slightly; lower jaw shovel-shaped; head shorter than caudal peduncle; dorsal-fin origin anterior to pelvic-fin origin and closer to tip of snout than to caudal-fin base, last unbranched ray hard; pelvic-fin reaches or exceeds anus; posterior chamber of gas bladder absent; intestine spiral type with 3-5 winding coils. PMID:26452694

  1. Factors associated with drinking alcohol before visiting female sex workers among men in Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl; Luan, Rongsheng; Nelson, Kenrad

    2013-02-01

    Alcohol use in commercial sex is highly prevalent globally and alcohol use in conjunction with sexual activity might increase the probability of risky behaviors. In the current study, we explored individual and contextual factors associated with drinking alcohol before visiting female sex workers (FSWs) among 560 male clients in Sichuan province, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Sichuan province, China. Over one-fifth (21.1 %) of the participants reported always using alcohol before having sex with FSWs. As compared to those who reported not always drinking alcohol before having sex with FSWs, male clients who reported always drinking alcohol before having sex with FSWs had higher income, were more likely to have main sex partners, to drink alcohol daily, to report minor depressive symptoms and were more likely to visit FSWs with friends rather than by themselves. Results from this study highlight the importance of addressing alcohol use among men who pay for sex in China. Future interventions should promote alcohol-related norms in reducing the harms associated with consuming alcohol. PMID:22806054

  2. Genetic Structure of Qiangic Populations Residing in the Western Sichuan Corridor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuan-Chao; Wang, Ling-Xiang; Shrestha, Rukesh; Zhang, Manfei; Huang, Xiu-Yuan; Hu, Kang; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The Qiangic languages in western Sichuan (WSC) are believed to be the oldest branch of the Sino-Tibetan linguistic family, and therefore, all Sino-Tibetan populations might have originated in WSC. However, very few genetic investigations have been done on Qiangic populations and no genetic evidences for the origin of Sino-Tibetan populations have been provided. By using the informative Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers, we analyzed the genetic structure of Qiangic populations. Our results revealed a predominantly Northern Asian-specific component in Qiangic populations, especially in maternal lineages. The Qiangic populations are an admixture of the northward migrations of East Asian initial settlers with Y chromosome haplogroup D (D1-M15 and the later originated D3a-P47) in the late Paleolithic age, and the southward Di-Qiang people with dominant haplogroup O3a2c1*-M134 and O3a2c1a-M117 in the Neolithic Age. PMID:25090432

  3. Genetic structure of Qiangic populations residing in the western Sichuan corridor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan-Chao; Wang, Ling-Xiang; Shrestha, Rukesh; Zhang, Manfei; Huang, Xiu-Yuan; Hu, Kang; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The Qiangic languages in western Sichuan (WSC) are believed to be the oldest branch of the Sino-Tibetan linguistic family, and therefore, all Sino-Tibetan populations might have originated in WSC. However, very few genetic investigations have been done on Qiangic populations and no genetic evidences for the origin of Sino-Tibetan populations have been provided. By using the informative Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers, we analyzed the genetic structure of Qiangic populations. Our results revealed a predominantly Northern Asian-specific component in Qiangic populations, especially in maternal lineages. The Qiangic populations are an admixture of the northward migrations of East Asian initial settlers with Y chromosome haplogroup D (D1-M15 and the later originated D3a-P47) in the late Paleolithic age, and the southward Di-Qiang people with dominant haplogroup O3a2c1*-M134 and O3a2c1a-M117 in the Neolithic Age. PMID:25090432

  4. A qualitative study on commercial sex behaviors among male clients in Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl A.; Liu, Peng; Nelson, Kenrad E.; Wang, Cunlin; Luan, Rongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Males who seek commercial sex have been identified as an important “bridging population” in the transmission of HIV. There is little information on the HIV-related risk perceptions and behaviors among commercial sex male clients (CSMCs) in China. This study reports qualitative findings from six focus groups and 41 in-depth interviews with CSMCs in Sichuan Province, China. Commercial sex visits were described as a group activity and associated with patterns of social-network specific interactions and norms. Primary motivations for visiting female sex workers included peer pressure, stress reduction, and fulfilling a need for an intimate and emotional support. Male clients’ decisions about condom use were influenced by their perceived norms of condom use, susceptibility of HIV infection, and the condom policy and availability in the establishments. Implications of these findings for further research and interventions are discussed. PMID:20390503

  5. Distribution of the Crustal Magnetic Field in Sichuan-Yunnan Region, Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Chunhua; Kang, Guofa; Gao, Guoming

    2014-01-01

    Based on the new and higher degree geomagnetic model NGDC-720-V3, we have investigated the spatial distribution, the altitude decay characteristics of the crustal magnetic anomaly, the contributions from different wavelength bands to the anomaly, and the relationship among the anomaly, the geological structure, and the geophysical field in Sichuan-Yunnan region of China. It is noted that the most outstanding feature in this area is the strong positive magnetic anomaly in Sichuan Basin, a geologically stable block. Contrasting with this feature, a strong negative anomaly can be seen nearby in Longmen Mountain block, an active block. This contradiction implies a possible relationship between the magnetic field and the geological activity. Completely different feature in magnetic field distribution is seen in the central Yunnan block, another active region, where positive and negative anomalies distribute alternatively, showing a complex magnetic anomaly map. Some fault belts, such as the Longmen Mountain fault, Lijiang-Xiaojinhe fault, and the Red River fault, are the transitional zones of strong and weak or negative and positive anomalies. The corresponding relationship between the magnetic anomaly and the geophysical fields was confirmed. PMID:25243232

  6. Changed trends of major causes of visual impairment in Sichuan, China from 1987 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Fan, Ying-Chuan; He, Qi-Hong; Wu, Xiao-Yun; Wei, Min; Eichner, June E.; Farris, Bradley K.; Hildebrand, P. Lloyd; Lei, Chun-Tao; Wu, Shu-Hua; Yang, Jing-Yun

    2014-01-01

    AIM To study the trends of major causes of visual impairment (VI) in adults in Sichuan, China and evaluate the effect of aging on the trends. METHODS We used data from the National Sample Survey on Disabilities (NSSD) in Sichuan province conducted in 1987 and 2006. The age-adjusted prevalence of major causes of VI and the prevalence stratified by age in each cause were calculated and compared. The association between age and each cause of VI was also analyzed. RESULTS Retinal disease increased and became the second leading cause of VI in 2006 while blinding trachoma decreased markedly. Cataract and non-trachomatous corneal diseases were among the leading causes of VI in both years. We found associations between age and causes of VI, with age showing the strongest association with cataract and relatively lower associations with other causes. CONCLUSION In the last two decades, dramatic changes occurred in the major causes of VI with significantly increased retinal disease and decreased blinding trachoma. Aging of the population might be an important factor accounting for the changed trends of VI. Understanding the prevalence of VI, its major causes and trends over time can assist in prioritizing and developing effective interventional strategies and monitoring their impact. PMID:24634880

  7. Metamorphic Study along the Wenchuan Thrust (Longmen Shan, Sichuan, China); a Key to Understand the Two Phases of Thickening of the Eastern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sigoyer, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Longmen Shan mountain belt, represents the eastern margin of Tibetan plateau (Sichuan, China) and culminated over 7000m. Despite very low convergent rate observed across his belt, it is active as attested by the Wenchuan earthquake Mw 7.9 (2008) that rupture and out of sequence thrust in this belt. The formation of this mountain bet results from two orogenic phase, one at the end of Trias (due to the closure of the Paleotethys), and one during Cenozoic time following the Indian Asia collision. This study aims to identify the deformation and metamorphism related to Mesozoic event and those relate to Cenozoic evolution. Structural, microstructural, metamorphic observations, PT estimates (graphitization of carbonaceous material, quantified X-ray images, chlorite-phengite-quartz-water multi-equilibrium and thermodynamic modelling) and U-Pb geochronology are used to describe the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Xuelongbao area in the internal part of the Longmen Shan belt (eastern border of the Tibetan plateau, Sichuan, China). The Xuelongbao granite is dated at 765±7 Ma (in situ U/Pb dating on zircon), indicating that it forms part of the western Neoproterozoic South China block basement. The deformation in the western sedimentary cover above the Xuelongbao massif is intense, with step cleavage, twisted fold axes and CS structures with top to the SE thrusting vergence. Four stages of deformation are described, three of them are related to the Mesozoic wedge thickening, and the last one is due to the Cenozoic deformation. An inverted metamorphic gradient from 470°C, 8 kbar to 620°C, 13 kbar is identified in the cover above the Xuelongbao basement, suggesting a stack of sedimentary slices during the propagation of the Mesozoic accretionary wedge on the South China block margin. This decollement zone has been exhumed during the Cenozoic D4 exhumation of the Xuelongbao basement along the Wenchuan thrust, where greenschist overprint is observed.

  8. Infant Formula Crisis in China: A Cohort Study in Sichuan Province

    PubMed Central

    Binns, Colin W.; Lee, Andy H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT China has become the largest market of infant formula in the world. The consumption of infant formula is widespread across the country. This study investigated the opinions of Chinese mothers on infant formula. A prospective cohort study (n=695) was undertaken in 2011 in Sichuan province of China two years after the melamine scandal. Infant-feeding practices and mothers’ opinions on infant formula-use were documented in detail. A total of 674 mothers (97%) had initiated breastfeeding by discharge. Of the 21 mothers who did not commence breastfeeding, 13 made a decision to exclusively feed their babies with infant formula because of hepatitis B virus infection. Nearly 70% of newborns received infant formula as their first feed, and the prevalence increased to 88% within one month. Having insufficient breastmilk was perceived by the majority (77%) of mothers as the reason behind infant formula feeding. About half (46%) of the mothers agreed with or were ambivalent that infant formula feeding does not reduce their breastmilk production. More than one-third (38%) of women thought that formulafed infants sleep longer at night than those who are breastfed. In addition, this perception was positively associated with the use of formula within one month postpartum (p=0.003). In conclusion, mothers’ opinions appear to influence the use of infant formula in China. There is a need for further education on breastfeeding and infant-feeding options to maintain and improve breastfeeding outcomes in China. PMID:25995728

  9. Infant formula crisis in china: a cohort study in sichuan province.

    PubMed

    Tang, Li; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H

    2015-03-01

    China has become the largest market of infant formula in the world. The consumption of infant formula is widespread across the country. This study investigated the opinions of Chinese mothers on infant formula. A prospective cohort study (n=695) was undertaken in 2011 in Sichuan province of China two years after the melamine scandal. Infant-feeding practices and mothers' opinions on infant formula-use were documented in detail. A total of 674 mothers (97%) had initiated breastfeeding by discharge. Of the 21 mothers who did not commence breastfeeding, 13 made a decision to exclusively feed their babies with infant formula because of hepatitis B virus infection. Nearly 70% of newborns received infant formula as their first feed, and the prevalence increased to 88% within one month. Having insufficient breastmilk was perceived by the majority (77%) of mothers as the reason behind infant formula feeding. About half (46%) of the mothers agreed with or were ambivalent that infant formula feeding does not reduce their breastmilk production. More than one-third (38%) of women thought that formulafed infants sleep longer at night than those who are breastfed. In addition, this perception was positively associated with the use of formula within one month postpartum (p=0.003). In conclusion, mothers' opinions appear to influence the use of infant formula in China. There is a need for further education on breastfeeding and infant-feeding options to maintain and improve breastfeeding outcomes in China. PMID:25995728

  10. Regional location in western China

    SciTech Connect

    Cogbill, A.H.; Steck, L.K.

    1996-10-01

    Accurately locating seismic events in western China using only regional seismic stations is a challenge. Not only is the number of seismic stations available for locating events small, but most stations available to researchers are often over 10{degree} distant. Here the authors describe the relocation, using regional stations, of both nuclear and earthquake sources near the Lop Nor test site in western China. For such relocations, they used the Earthquake Data Reports provided by the US Geological Survey (USGS) for the reported travel times. Such reports provide a listing of all phases reported to the USGS from stations throughout the world, including many stations in the People`s Republic of China. LocSAT was used as the location code. The authors systematically relocated each event int his study several times, using fewer and fewer stations at reach relocation, with the farther stations being eliminated at each step. They found that location accuracy, judged by comparing solutions from few stations to the solution provided using all available stations, remained good typically until fewer than seven stations remained.With a good station distribution, location accuracy remained surprisingly good (within 7 km) using as few as 3 stations. Because these relocations were computed without good station corrections and without source-specific station corrections (that is, path corrections), they believe that such regional locations can be substantially improved, largely using static station corrections and source-specific station corrections, at least in the Lop nor area, where sources have known locations. Elsewhere in China, one must rely upon known locations of regionally-recorded explosions. Locating such sources is clearly one of the major problems to be overcome before one can provide event locations with any assurance from regional stations.

  11. A Landslide Monitoring Network based on Multi-source Spatial Sensors in Li County, Sichuan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, P.

    2014-12-01

    A multi-source spatial sensor network has been established to strengthen the landslide monitoring activities in the mountainous areas in Western China. The focused Xishancun landslide is in Li County in Sichuan Province, located in the upper Minjiang River areas that is thought as very unstable slope areas after the "5.12" Wenchuan Earthquake. This spatial sensor chiefly concentrates on constructing a monitoring network with four hierarchies of observation: (1) space-borne sensors including VHR optical images (P5, IKONOS, WorldView-1,2 and ZY-3) and a series of X-band TerraSAR-X SAR images; (2) aerial observation by a group of UAV scanning schemes with the ground-based controlling platform, the produced the 1:2000 scale DOM mosaic images and the generated high resolution DEM; (3) ground-based sensors involving in-situ sensors such as inclinometers and piezometers with a smart self-forming seamless real-time data communication and terrestrial remote sensing platform of laser scanning and ground-based SAR; and (4) internal investigation from geophysical approaches such as seismological and electromagnetic analyses. This landslide monitoring system based on spatial sensor network is expected to provide solid monitoring data for landslide models and data assimilation for potential landslide hazard prediction and risk assessment.

  12. Diversity and phylogeny of rhizobia associated with Desmodium spp. in Panxi, Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kai Wei; Zou, Lan; Penttinen, Petri; Zeng, Xiangzhong; Liu, Ming; Zhao, Ke; Chen, Cuiping; Chen, Yuan Xue; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2016-02-01

    Thirty-four rhizobial isolates were obtained from root nodules of four wild Desmodium species growing in Panxi, Sichuan, China. According to the combined ARDRA and IGS-RFLP (CACAI) cluster analysis, Rhizobium, Pararhizobium and Mesorhizobium isolates outnumbered Bradyrhizobium isolates. In general, the isolates representing the same species from the same site clustered together. Furthermore, the four Desmodium species were all nodulated by more than one rhizobial species. AFLP and phenotypic analyses showed that the 34 isolates represented at least 32 distinct strains. None of the strains were found from more than one site or host, indicating a high degree of rhizobial diversity in Panxi. In the multilocus sequence analysis, the isolates were assigned to Pararhizobium giardinii, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Mesorhizobium septentrionale, and to undescribed species of the genera Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium and Agrobacterium. PMID:26654528

  13. Re-emerging schistosomiasis in hilly and mountainous areas of Sichuan, China.

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Song; Yang, Changhong; Zhong, Bo; Qiu, Dongchuan

    2006-01-01

    Despite great strides in schistosomiasis control over the past several decades in Sichuan Province, China the disease has re-emerged in areas where it was previously controlled. We reviewed historical records and found that schistosomiasis had re-emerged in eight counties by the end of 2004 - seven of 21 counties with transmission control and one of 25 with transmission interruption as reported in 2001 were confirmed to have local disease transmission. The average "return time" (from control to re-emergence) was about eight years. The onset of re-emergence was commonly signalled by the occurrence of acute infections. Our survey results suggest that environmental and sociopolitical factors play an important role in re-emergence. The main challenge would be to consolidate and maintain effective control in the longer term until "real" eradication is achieved. This would be possible only by the formulation of a sustainable surveillance and control system. PMID:16501732

  14. A data-based model to locate mass movements triggered by seismic events in Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Fabio Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Earthquakes affect the entire world and have catastrophic consequences. On May 12, 2008, an earthquake of magnitude 7.9 on the Richter scale occurred in the Wenchuan area of Sichuan province in China. This event, together with subsequent aftershocks, caused many avalanches, landslides, debris flows, collapses, and quake lakes and induced numerous unstable slopes. This work proposes a methodology that uses a data mining approach and geographic information systems to predict these mass movements based on their association with the main and aftershock epicenters, geologic faults, riverbeds, and topography. A dataset comprising 3,883 mass movements is analyzed, and some models to predict the location of these mass movements are developed. These predictive models could be used by the Chinese authorities as an important tool for identifying risk areas and rescuing survivors during similar events in the future. PMID:24085622

  15. Natural Hazard Public Policy Implications of the May 12, 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake, Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cydzik, K.; Hamilton, D.; Stenner, H. D.; Cattarossi, A.; Shrestha, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    The May 12, 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake in Sichuan Province, China killed almost 90,000 people and affected a population of over 45.5 million throughout western China. Shaking caused the destruction of five million buildings, many of them homes and schools, and damaged 21 million other structures, inflicting devastating impacts to communities. Landslides, a secondary effect of the shaking, caused much of the devastation. Debris flows buried schools and homes, rock falls crushed cars, and rockslides, landslides, and rock avalanches blocked streams and rivers creating massive, unstable landslide dams, which formed “quake lakes” upstream of the blockages. Impassable roads made emergency access slow and extremely difficult. Collapses of buildings and structures large and small took the lives of many. Damage to infrastructure impaired communication, cut off water supplies and electricity, and put authorities on high alert as the integrity of large engineered dams were reviewed. During our field reconnaissance three months after the disaster, evidence of the extent of the tragedy was undeniably apparent. Observing the damage throughout Sichuan reminded us that earthquakes in the United States and throughout the world routinely cause widespread damage and destruction to lives, property, and infrastructure. The focus of this poster is to present observations and findings based on our field reconnaissance regarding the scale of earthquake destruction with respect to slope failures, landslide dams, damage to infrastructure (e.g., schools, engineered dams, buildings, roads, rail lines, and water resources facilities), human habitation within the region, and the mitigation and response effort to this catastrophe. This is presented in the context of the policy measures that could be developed to reduce risks of similar catastrophes. The rapid response of the Chinese government and the mobilization of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army to help the communities affected

  16. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that Japanese encephalitis virus genotype III is still prevalent in swine herds in Sichuan province in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rui; Wang, Qiao; Liu, Hongming; Chai, Chunxia; He, Bo; Huang, Xiaobo; Wen, Yiping; Wen, Xintian; Yan, Qiguai; Ma, Xiaoping; Cao, Sanjie

    2016-06-01

    The genome of JEV strain SC201301, which was isolated from an aborted fetal piglet in 2013 in Sichuan province in China, was completely sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. Sequence alignments showed that the SC201301 strain shared 97-100% sequence identity with other genotype III strains but showed less similarity to genotype I representative JEVs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the SC201301 strain belonged to genotype III and was most closely related to representative strains such as SA14-14-2, HW and SH0601. Our findings suggest that JEV genotype III is still prevalent in swine herds in Sichuan province in China, and thus, there is an urgent need to monitor the infection status of JEV among swine herds in China. PMID:26976139

  17. Ground deformation associated with the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake in China, estimated using a SAR offset-tracking method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Takada, Y.; Furuya, M.; Murakami, M.

    2008-12-01

    Introduction: A catastrophic earthquake struck China"fs Sichuan area on May 12, 2008, with the moment magnitude of 7.9 (USGS). The hypocenter and their aftershocks are distributed along the western edge of the Sichuan Basin, suggesting that this seismic event occurred at the Longmeng Shan fault zone which is constituted of major three active faults (Wenchuan-Maowen, Beichuan, and Pengguan faults). However, it is unclear whether these faults were directly involved in the mainshock rupture. An interferometry SAR (InSAR) analysis generally has a merit that we can detect ground deformation in a vast region with high precision, however, for the Sichuan event, the surface deformation near the fault zone has not been satisfactorily detected from the InSAR analyses due to a low coherency. An offset-tracking method is less precise but more robust for detecting large ground deformation than the interferometric approach. Our purpose is to detect the detail ground deformation immediately near the faults involved in the Sichuan event with applying the offset-tracking method. Analysis Method: We analyzed ALOS/PALSAR images, which have been taken from Path 471 to 476 of ascending track, acquired before and after the mainshock. We processed SAR data from the level-1.0 product, using a software package from Gamma Remote Sensing. For offset-tracking analysis we adopt intensity tracking method which is performed by cross-correlating samples of backscatter intensity of a master SAR image with samples from the corresponding search area of a slave image in order to estimate range and azimuth offset fields. We reduce stereoscopic effects that produce apparent offsets, using SRTM3 DEM data. Results: We have successfully obtained the surface deformation in range (radar look direction) component, while in azimuth (flight direction) no significant deformation can be detected in some orbits due to "gazimuth streaks"h that are errors caused by ionospheric effects. Some concluding remarks are

  18. Molecular investigation of Torque teno sus virus in geographically distinct porcine breeding herds of Sichuan, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV), infecting domestic swine and wild boar, is a non-enveloped virus with a circular, single-stranded DNA genome. which has been classified into the genera Iotatorquevirus (TTSuV1) and Kappatorquevirus (TTSuV2) of the family Anelloviridae. A molecular study was conducted to detect evidence of a phylogenic relationship between these two porcine TTSuV genogroups from the sera of 244 infected pigs located in 21 subordinate prefectures and/or cities of Sichuan. Results Both genogroups of TTSuV were detected in pig sera collected from all 21 regions examined. Of the 244 samples, virus from either genogroup was detected in 203 (83.2%), while 44 animals (18.0%) were co-infected with viruses of both genogroups. Moreover, TTSuV2 (186/244, 76.2%) was more prevalent than TTSuV1 (61/244, 25%). There was statistically significant difference between the prevalence of genogroups 1 infection alone (9.4%, 23/244) and 2 alone (64.8%, 158/244), and between the prevalence of genogroups 2 (76.2%, 186/244) and both genogroups co-infection (18.0%, 44/244). The untranslated region of the swine TTSuV genome was found to be an adequate molecular marker of the virus for detection and surveillance. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that both genogroups 1 and 2 could be further divided into two subtypes, subtype a and b. TTSuV1 subtype b and the two TTSuV2 subtypes are more prevalent in Sichuan Province. Conclusions Our study presents detailed geographical evidence of TTSuV infection in China. PMID:23705989

  19. Active tectonic characteristics of river terraces along the Tianquan River, Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Y. M.; Shyu, J. B. H.; Chang, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Longmenshan fold-and-thrust belt at the western edge of the Sichuan Basin has long been identified as an active tectonic belt. This has been clearly illustrated by the disastrous Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in the recent decade. The two earthquakes, however, have distinctive characters. In the north, the Wenchuan event occurred on major fault zones identified previously. But in the south, the Lushan event was not accompanied by surface ruptures, and the seismogenic structure is still under debate. In order to further understand the neotectonic characteristics of the Lushan earthquake region, we analyzed fluvial terraces, in the hope that such geomorphic features would provide information of active structures of the area. Along the Tianquan River, river terraces are particularly well developed near two cities, Tianquan and Shiyang. Since the terraces appear to be very wide and limited in these two basin-like areas, we suspected that they formed as filled-up lakes. However, after detailed field investigations, we found that underneath these terraces, early Tertiary bedrocks crop out below river sediments that are only several meters thick. This indicates that the Tianquan River has incised into bedrocks. The slope of the terrace surfaces is similar to that of the present-day riverbed, and the river sediments in the terrace outcrops have similar grain size distribution as current riverbed sediments. Therefore, we suggest that the terraces along the Tianquan River are not related to dammed lake, but were produced by tectonic uplift. Combining the age of terrace sediments dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and detailed topography of the terrace surfaces, we aim to establish a model for the formation mechanism of these two terrace groups. We hope the results of this study would provide more information of neotectonic characteristics of the southwestern Sichuan Basin, as well as future earthquake hazards in this densely populated region.

  20. Problems of Ecological Environment in Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenjuan, Zhang; Jixi, Gao

    2004-01-01

    Western China is vast, expansive, sparsely populated, and economically underdeveloped, but it plays an important role in economic and social development in China. While the west is a crucial base of power resources, it is also rich in fauna and flora resources and the major habitat for China's many rare wildlife species. Therefore, protecting its…

  1. Toward sustainable and comprehensive control of schistosomiasis in China: lessons from Sichuan.

    PubMed

    Seto, Edmund Y W; Remais, Justin V; Carlton, Elizabeth J; Wang, Shuo; Liang, Song; Brindley, Paul J; Qiu, Dongchuan; Spear, Robert C; Wang, Long-De; Wang, Tian-Ping; Chen, Hong-Gen; Dong, Xing-Qi; Wang, Li-Ying; Hao, Yang; Bergquist, Robert; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2011-10-01

    Triggered by a fascinating publication in the New England Journal of Medicine detailing China's new multi-pronged strategy to control and eventually interrupt the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum, this PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases Debate critically examines the generalizability and financial costs of the studies presented from the marshlands of the lake region. Edmund Seto from the University of California and colleagues emphasize that the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis varies according to the social-ecological context. They conjecture that the successful intervention packages piloted in the lake region is not fully fit for the hilly and mountainous environments in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces, and hence call for more flexible, setting-specific, and less expensive control strategies. In response, Xiao-Nong Zhou from the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases at the Chinese Center of Disease Control and Prevention and colleagues explain the steps from designing pilot studies to the articulation and implementation of a new national control strategy through a careful process of scaling-up and adaptations. Finally, the two opponents converge. The need for integrated, intersectoral, and setting-specific control measures is stressed, supported by rigorous surveillance and continuous research. Experiences and lessons from China are important for shaping the schistosomiasis elimination agenda. PMID:22039563

  2. Survey of coccidial infection of rabbits in Sichuan Province, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guangwen; Goraya, Mohsan Ullah; Huang, Juhui; Suo, Xun; Huang, Zhijian; Liu, Xianyong

    2016-01-01

    Coccidiosis is a challenging disease of wild and domestic rabbits both, caused by Eimeria and thereby leads enormous economic losses at rabbit farms. The present study carried out to survey the prevalence and intensity of coccidial infection among the rabbits in Sichuan Province, southwest China. A total of 110 faecal samples were collected from 11 farms situated in eight main rabbits rearing administrative regions. Oocysts in faecal samples were purified, sporulated and identified according to morphological features. The overall prevalence of infection was 56.4 % (62/110), with prevalence of 64 % (47/75) for local meat breeds of rabbit and 51.4 % (18/35) for Rex Rabbits (local fur rabbits). Weanling rabbits had the highest prevalence (74 %, 37/50), followed by young rabbits (45 %, 13/29) and the adult rabbits showed the lowest prevalence (42 %, 13/31). Concurrent infection with two to seven Eimeria species was found. In total, 9 species of Eimeria were identified from oocyst-positive samples. E. perforans was the most prevalent specie (42.73 %), followed in order by Eimiera media, E. irresidua, E. magna, and E. intestinalis with prevalences of 35.45, 34.55, 31.82, and 23.64 %, respectively. Results of the present investigation indicated that the prevalence of coccidial infection is high among the rabbit population in southwest China. This study also elucidate about the coccidial infection and emphasis to adopt control strategies in commercial rabbitories. PMID:27386319

  3. Gender and HIV risk behavior among intravenous drug users in Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Choi, Susanne Y P; Cheung, Yuet Wah; Chen, Kanglin

    2006-04-01

    Using data from a community-based study of injection drug users (IDUs) in Sichuan Province in China, this study compared the level of HIV risk behavior (needle sharing and unsafe sex) amongst female and male IDUs, and examined the risk factors separately for these two groups. Five risk factors were examined in the analysis, including a lack of family support, having an IDU primary sex partner, economic pressure, lack of access to a methadone program, and younger age. Regression results showed that male and female IDUs had different risk factors. For male IDUs, younger age and a lack of family support increased their level of HIV risk behavior. For female IDUs, having an IDU primary sex partner and economic pressure were predictive of their HIV risk behavior. Sex differences in risk factors are explained with respect to gender norms surrounding HIV risk behavior in the context of social relations. Female IDUs who were sex workers suffered additional HIV risk due to their powerlessness in negotiating safe sex with male customers. Practical implications of the findings for HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention work in China are discussed. PMID:16185801

  4. Study on 3-D velocity structure of crust and upper mantle in Sichuan-yunnan region, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, C.; Mooney, W.D.; Wang, X.; Wu, J.; Lou, H.; Wang, F.

    2002-01-01

    Based on the first arrival P and S data of 4 625 regional earthquakes recorded at 174 stations dispersed in the Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces, the 3-D velocity structure of crust and upper mantle in the region is determined, incorporating with previous deep geophysical data. In the upper crust, a positive anomaly velocity zone exists in the Sichuan basin, whereas a negative anomaly velocity zone exists in the western Sichuan plateau. The boundary between the positive and negative anomaly zones is the Longmenshan fault zone. The images of lower crust and upper mantle in the Longmenshan fault, Xianshuihe fault, Honghe fault and others appear the characteristic of tectonic boundary, indicating that the faults litely penetrate the Moho discontinuity. The negative velocity anomalies at the depth of 50 km in the Tengchong volcanic area and the Panxi tectonic zone appear to be associated with the temperature and composition variations in the upper mantle. The overall features of the crustal and the upper mantle structures in the Sichuan-Yunnan region are the lower average velocity in both crust and uppermost mantle, the large crustal thickness variations, and the existence of high conductivity layer in the crust or/and upper mantle, and higher geothermal value. All these features are closely related to the collision between the Indian and the Asian plates. The crustal velocity in the Sichuan-Yunnan rhombic block generally shows normal.value or positive anomaly, while the negative anomaly exists in the area along the large strike-slip faults as the block boundary. It is conducive to the crustal block side-pressing out along the faults. In the major seismic zones, the seismicity is relative to the negative anomaly velocity. Most strong earthquakes occurred in the upper-mid crust with positive anomaly or normal velocity, where the negative anomaly zone generally exists below.

  5. Chronic health needs immediately after natural disasters in middle-income countries: the case of the 2008 Sichuan, China earthquake.

    PubMed

    Chan, Emily Y Y; Kim, Jackie

    2011-04-01

    Few studies have focused on chronic health needs immediately after natural disasters in middle-income countries. This study examines chronic medical needs during the acute phase after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in an emergency triage clinic in Sichuan, China. Information on physical, social, and public health preparedness was collected in predesigned templates. Descriptive and Pearson's χ association analyses were conducted. One hundred and eighty-two evacuees were received at the triage site. Of these, 54% required trauma treatment and 77% of evacuated patients who required care had underlying chronic medical conditions. Tetanus immunizations and the possession of chronic health medication were low, particularly among older patients. Chronic health needs constituted a significant proportion of emergency care during the acute phase in the study population. Effective post-disaster assistance requires attention to demographic and epidemiological population profiles. PMID:20679898

  6. Magnetostratigraphy of the Permo-Triassic boundary section at Shangsi (Guangyuan, Sichuan Province, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, Friedrich; Lowrie, William; Huamei, Li; Junda, Wang

    1988-05-01

    Continous marine sedimentation characterizes many Late Permian to Early Triassic sections on the Yangtze terrane in South China. The Permo-Triassic (P/Tr) boundary section at Shangsi (Sichuan Province) consists of limestones intercalated with clays and mudstones which belong to the Wuchiapingian and Changxingian (Upper Permian) and the Griesbachian and Dienerian (Lower Triassic) stages. The P/Tr boundary is formed by a clay horizon with an unusually high iridium concentration. The intensity of natural remanent magnetization is very low with a mean of 0.15 mA m -1. About 40% of the samples contain secondary or unstable magnetization components only, whereas the remaining samples carry a characteristic remanent magnetization thought to reflect the polarity of the geomagnetic field during deposition with sufficient accuracy. Normal and reversed polarity of the characteristic magnetization constitute a pattern of at least six polarity zones, the P/Tr boundary being situated very close to the transition from a reversed to a normal polarity zone. The Shangsi polarity sequence represents part of the Illawarra interval of mixed polarity, the exact beginning of which has still to be determined.

  7. Diversity, bioactivities, and metabolic potentials of endophytic actinomycetes isolated from traditional medicinal plants in Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Peng; Feng, Zhi-Xiang; Tian, Jie-Wei; Lei, Zu-Chao; Wang, Lei; Zeng, Zhi-Gang; Chu, Yi-Wen; Tian, Yong-Qiang

    2015-12-01

    The present study was designed to determine the taxonomic diversity and metabolic activity of the actinomycetes community, including 13 traditional medicinal plants collected in Sichuan province, China, using multiple approaches such as morphological and molecular identification methods, bioactivity assays, and PCR screening for genes involved in antibiotics biosynthesis. 119 endophytic actinomycetes were recovered; 80 representative strains were chosen for 16S rRNA gene partial sequence analyses, with 66 of them being affiliated to genus Streptomyces and the remaining 14 strains being rare actinomycetes. Antimicrobial tests showed that 12 (15%) of the 80 endophytic actinomycetes displayed inhibitory effects against at least one indicator pathogens, which were all assigned to the genus Streptomyces. In addition, 87.5% and 58.8% of the isolates showed anticancer and anti-diabetic activities, respectively. Meanwhile, the anticancer activities of the isolates negatively correlated with their anti-diabetic activities. Based on the results of PCR screening, five genes, PKS-I, PKS-II, NRPS, ANSA, and oxyB, were detected in 55.0%, 58.8%, 90.0%, 18.8% and 8.8% of the 80 actinomycetes, respectively. In conclusion, the PCR screening method employed in the present study was conducive for screening and selection of potential actinomycetes and predicting potential secondary metabolites, which could overcome the limitations of traditional activity screening models. PMID:26721714

  8. The structure and sedimentary sequence of intracratonic rift from Late Sinian to Early Cambrian in the Sichuan Basin, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Zhidong; Zhang, Baomin; Lu, Weihu; Zhai, Xiufen; Jiang, Hua

    2016-04-01

    Sichuan Basin is located in the northwest of Upper Yangtze craton of South China, and there is developed an intracratonic rift from Late Sinian to Early Cambrian in the middle of Sichuan Basin, and the paper systematically discusses the structure and sedimentary sequence of the intracratonic rift based on the fields, drilling and seismic data, and so on. Detailed structural interpretation of 2D and 3D seismic profiles displays the development of two stages of intracratonic rift due to regional extension with the depth of 2000m, and plane distribution of intracratonic rift presents the V-pattern from the northwest to the southeast in the middle of Sichuan Basin with the width from 100km to 20km. The drilling data from the intracratonic rift shows the obvious thinning of Upper Sinian and thickening of Lower Cambrian. And field outcrops situated in the intracratonic rift reveal that the Upper Sinian is mainly composed of siliceous rock, shale and carbonate, with the thickness of less than 100m, but the thickness of Upper Sinian on the platform reaches 1000m by contrast; They also reveals that Lower Cambrian is mainly composed of shale, mudstone, and siltstone with the development of gravity current, and the thickness of Lower Cambrian reaches 2000m. The formation of intracratonic rift may be initiated by pre-existing basement weakness zone and deep mantle dynamics.

  9. Evaluation of air quality in Chengdu, Sichuan Basin, China: are China's air quality standards sufficient yet?

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Jaffe, Daniel; Tang, Ya; Bresnahan, Meaghan; Song, Jie

    2015-05-01

    Air quality evaluation is important in order to inform the public about the risk level of air pollution to human health. To better assess air quality, China released its new national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS-2012) and the new method to classify air quality level (AQL) in 2012. In this study, we examined the performance of China's NAAQS-2012 and AQL classification method through applying them, the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, and the US AQL classification method to evaluate air quality in Chengdu, the largest city in southwestern China. The results show that annual mean concentrations of PM₁₀, PM₂.₅, SO₂, NO₂, and O₃ at the seven urban sites were in the ranges of 138-161, 87-98, 18-32, 54-70, and 42-57 μg/m(3), respectively, and the annual mean concentrations of CO were in the range of 1.09-1.28 mg/m(3). Chengdu is located in one of the four largest regions affected by haze in China, and PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ were the top air pollutants, with annual concentrations over 2 times of their standards in NAAQS-2012 and over 7 times of the WHO guidelines. Annual mean concentrations of the pollutants were much lower at the background site (LYS) than at the urban sites, but the annual mean concentrations of PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ at LYS were 3.5 and 5.7 times of the WHO guidelines, respectively. These suggest that severe air pollution in Chengdu was largely associated with local emissions but also related to regional air pollution. The compliance rates of PM₁₀ , PM₂.₅, SO₂, and O₃ met China's NAAQS-2012 standards four times more frequently than they met the WHO guidelines, as NAAQS-2012 uses the loosest interim target (IT) standards of WHO for these four pollutants. Air pollution in Chengdu was estimated and stated to be less severe using China's classification than using the US classification, as China uses weaker concentration breakpoints and benign descriptions of AQL. Furthermore, China's AQL classification method

  10. Total Vertical Offset for the Beichuan Fault (Longmen Shan, Sichuan, China) Deduced from Metamorphic Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airaghi, L.; de Sigoyer, J.; Vidal, O.; Lanari, P.; Tan, X. B.; Xu, X.; Guillot, S.

    2015-12-01

    The paradox of high topography but low convergence rates in the Longmen Shan mountain belt, at the eastern margin of Tibetan plateau (Sichuan, China) leaded to an underestimation of the seismic hazard prior to the Wenchuan earthquake Mw 7.9 (2008). The rupture affected the crustal Beichuan fault, with both thrusting and dextral slide slip components. This fault is responsible for the exhumation of the basement over Triassic sediments. Several paleoseismological studies have well constrained the Quaternary activity of this fault, and thermochronological data show a rapid exhumation starting from Oligocene. The total offset of the Beichuan fault remains unknown. Samples collected in the hanging wall of the Beichuan fault, yield stable white mica, chlorite, epidote and quartz. Chemical and thermobarometric analyses of metamorphic minerals yield metamorphic peak conditions at 300±50°C and 7-8 kbar. Such P,T conditions suggest burial to 18-20 km depth, and represent the maximum vertical offset of the Beichuan fault. Comparison of results from distant sampled sites along the Beichuan fault reveals the spatial continuity of this offset along the Beichuan fault. The attainment of peak pressure conditions will be dated using in-situ laser ablation 40Ar/39Ar dating of the metamorphic micas. This will help constrain the onset of Beichuan fault activation, which corresponds to the onset of thick skin deformation in the Longmen Shan. [CW1]I deleted all this stuff below because I thought it was too much information for a conference abstract - but you do have space to put it back.

  11. Culturally appropriate nutrition education improves infant feeding and growth in rural Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Guldan, G S; Fan, H C; Ma, X; Ni, Z Z; Xiang, X; Tang, M Z

    2000-05-01

    Chinese studies indicate that the growth of rural infants and children lags behind that of their urban counterparts after 4 mo of age and that the gap is widening. However, the rural areas are home to >85% of China's 300 million children. Clearly, culturally appropriate rural complementary feeding interventions are needed to close the growth and health gaps. After a 1990 survey of infants in rural Sichuan confirmed that poor infant feeding practices rather than inadequate household food resources were responsible for the growth faltering, a year-long community-based pilot nutrition education intervention (n congruent with 250 infants each in Education and Control groups) was undertaken in four townships. The goal was to improve infant growth by improving infant feeding practices. Features of the intervention included the training and mobilizing of village nutrition educators who made monthly growth monitoring and complementary feeding counseling visits to all pregnant women and families with infants born during the intervention in the study villages. After 1 y, the Education group mothers showed significantly higher nutrition knowledge and better reported infant feeding practices than their Control group counterparts. Also, the Education group infants were significantly heavier and longer, but only at 12 mo (weight-for-age -1.17 vs. -1.93; P = 0.004; height-for-age -1.32 vs. -1.96; P = 0.022), had higher breast-feeding rates overall (83% vs. 75%; P = 0.034) and lower anemia rates (22% vs. 32%; P = 0.008) than the Control group infants. We conclude that these methods have potential for adaptation and development to other rural areas in the county, province and nation. PMID:10801920

  12. Limited and localized outbreak of newly emergent type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus in Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dongmei; Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Shuangli; Chen, Na; Li, Xiaolei; Wang, Dongyan; Ma, Xiaozhen; Zhu, Hui; Tong, Wenbin; Xu, Wenbo

    2014-07-01

    From August 2011 to February 2012, an outbreak caused by type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) occurred in Aba County, Sichuan, China. During the outbreak, four type 2 VDPVs (≥0.6% nucleotide divergence in the VP1 region relative to the Sabin 2 strain) were isolated from 3 patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and one close contact. In addition, a type 2 pre-VDPV (0.3% to 0.5% divergence from Sabin 2) that was genetically related to these type 2 VDPVs was isolated from another AFP patient. These 4 patients were all unimmunized children 0.7 to 1.1 years old. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that the 4 VDPV isolates differed from Sabin 2 by 0.7% to 1.2% in nucleotides in the VP1 region and shared 5 nucleotide substitutions with the pre-VDPV. All 5 isolates were closely related, and all were S2/S3/S2/S3 recombinants sharing common recombination crossover sites. Although the two major determinants of attenuation and temperature sensitivity phenotype of Sabin 2 (A481 in the 5' untranslated region and Ile143 in the VP1 protein) had reverted in all 5 isolates, one VDPV (strain CHN16017) still retained the temperature sensitivity phenotype. Phylogenetic analysis of the third coding position of the complete P1 coding region suggested that the cVDPVs circulated locally for about 7 months following the initiating oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) dose. Our findings reinforce the point that cVDPVs can emerge and spread in isolated communities with immunity gaps and highlight the emergence risks of type 2 cVDPVs accompanying the trivalent OPV used. To solve this issue, it is recommended that type 2 OPV be removed from the trivalent OPV or that inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) be used instead. PMID:24850620

  13. An Investigation on Self-Rated Health of Adolescent Students and Influencing Factors From Sichuan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengying; Zhao, Li; Feng, Xianqiong; Hu, Xiuying

    2016-01-01

    To investigate adolescent students' self-rated health status and to identify the influencing factors that affect students' health status. A stratified cluster sampling method and the Self-assessed General Health Questionnaires were used to enroll 503 adolescent students from Sichuan Province, Southwest part of China. Most adolescent students perceived their self-rated health as “Fair” (29.4%), “Good” (52.1%), or “Very Good” (16.3%). Regarding the sleep quality, most of them rated them as “Fair” (24.9%), “Good” (43.1%), or “Very Good” (19.7%), but 59.7% students reported to sleep less than 8 hours a day, even a few reported to sleep less than 6 hours (4.4%) or more than 9 hours (9.7%). A considerable number of students (41.1%) reported that they “Never” or just “Occasionally” participated in appropriate sports or exercises. As to the dietary habit, a significant number of students (15.7%) reported that they “Never” or “Occasionally” have breakfast. Students from different administrative levels of schools (municipal level, county level, and township level) rated differently (P < 0.05) in terms of their self-rated health, Health Behaviors, Sleeping, Dietary behaviors, Safety Awareness, and Drinking and Smoking behaviors. In general, Chinese teenage students perceived their own health status as fairly good. However, attention needs to be paid to health problems of some of the students, such as lack of sleep and exercise and inadequate dietary habits, etc. More concerns need to be addressed to students from different administrative levels of schools, and strategies should be put forward accordingly. PMID:27058576

  14. Nitrogen isotope chemostratigraphy across the Permian-Triassic boundary at Chaotian, Sichuan, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, M.; Ueno, Y.; Nishizawa, M.; Isozaki, Y.; Takai, K.; Yao, J.; Ji, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen isotopic compositions of upper Permian to lowermost Triassic rocks were analyzed at Chaotian, Sichuan, China, to clarify changes in the oceanic N cycle around the Permian-Triassic boundary (P-TB) including the entire Changhsingian (Late Late Permian) prior to the extinction. The analyzed ca. 40 m thick interval across the P-TB at Chaotian consists of three stratigraphic units: the upper Wujiaping Formation, the Dalong Formation, and the lowermost Feixianguan Formation, in ascending order. The upper Wujiaping Formation is composed of dark gray limestone with diverse shallow-marine fossils, such as calcareous algae, deposited on the shallow shelf. In contrast, the overlying Dalong Formation, ca. 25 m thick, is mainly composed of thinly bedded black mudstone and siliceous mudstone containing abundant radiolarians, deposited on the relatively deep slope/basin. Absence of bioturbation, substantially high TOC contents, and abundant occurrence of pyrite framboids in the Dalong Formation indicate deposition under anoxic conditions. The lowermost Feixianguan Formation is composed of thinly bedded gray marl and micritic limestone with minor fossils, deposited on the relatively shallow slope. δ15N values are in positive values around +1 to +2‰ in the upper Wujiaping Formation implying denitrification and/or anammox in the ocean. δ15N values gradually decrease to -1‰ in the lower Dalong Formation and are consistently low (around 0‰) in the middle Dalong to lowermost Feixianguan Formation. No clear δ15N shift is recognized across the extinction horizon. The consistently low δ15N values suggest the enhanced N fixation in the ocean during the Changhsingian at Chaotian. Composite profiles based on previous and the present studies demonstrate the substantial δ15N variation on a global scale in the late Permian to earliest Triassic; a systematic δ15N difference by low and high latitudes is particularly clarified. Although the enhanced N fixation throughout the

  15. Nitrogen isotope chemostratigraphy across the Permian-Triassic boundary at Chaotian, Sichuan, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Masafumi; Ueno, Yuichiro; Nishizawa, Manabu; Isozaki, Yukio; Takai, Ken; Yao, Jianxin; Ji, Zhansheng

    2014-10-01

    Nitrogen isotopic compositions of upper Permian to lowermost Triassic rocks were analyzed at Chaotian in northern Sichuan, South China, in order to clarify changes in the oceanic nitrogen cycle around the Permian-Triassic boundary (P-TB) including the entire Changhsingian (Late Late Permian) prior to the extinction. The analyzed ca. 40 m thick interval across the P-TB at Chaotian consists of three stratigraphic units: the upper Wujiaping Formation, the Dalong Formation, and the lowermost Feixianguan Formation, in ascending order. The upper Wujiaping Formation, ca. 10 m thick, is mainly composed of dark gray limestone with diverse shallow-marine fossils such as calcareous algae and brachiopods, deposited on the shallow shelf. In contrast, the overlying Dalong Formation, ca. 25 m thick, is mainly composed of thinly bedded black mudstone and siliceous mudstone containing abundant radiolarians, deposited on the relatively deep slope/basin. Absence of bioturbation, substantially high total organic carbon contents (up to 15%), and abundant occurrence of pyrite framboids in the main part of the Dalong Formation indicate deposition under anoxic condition. The lowermost Feixianguan Formation, ca. 5 m thick, is composed of thinly bedded gray marl and micritic limestone with minor fossils such as ammonoids and conodonts, deposited on the relatively shallow slope. δ15NTN values are in positive values around +1 to +2‰ in the upper Wujiaping Formation implying denitrification and/or anammox in the ocean. δ15NTN values gradually decrease to -1‰ in the lower Dalong Formation and are consistently low (around 0‰) in the middle Dalong to lowermost Feixianguan Formation. No clear δ15NTN shift is recognized across the extinction horizon. The consistently low δ15NTN values suggest the enhanced nitrogen fixation in the ocean during the Changhsingian at Chaotian. Composite profiles based on previous and the present studies demonstrate the substantial δ15N variation on a global

  16. Implication of fault interaction to seismic hazard assessment in Sichuan-Yunnan provinces of Southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkarlaouni, C.; Papadimitriou, E. E.; Karakostas, V. G.; Wen, Xue–Ze; Jin, Xue–Shen; Kilias, A.; Pan, Hua

    2009-04-01

    Strong seismicity in China and adjacent regions is distributed over specific zones that configure rigid lithospheric subplates often bounded by active faults. Sichuan and Yunnan provinces correspond to a so-called rhombic shaped subplate that experiences the strongest intraplate seismicity in the territory of China. The region exhibits a complicated tectonic regime that consists of various rupture zones and different faulting types with strike slip prevailing, consistent with the regional stress field and geological background. During the 20th century, 35 devastating earthquakes with magnitude Ms≥6.5 occurred nearby densely populated areas causing a majority of casualties and deaths. The fact that Sichuan and Yunnan provinces are densely populated and industrially developed urges the necessity for investigating the occurrence pattern of the region's stronger events through the stress evolutionary model and also identifying the structures that are apt to produce a potential strong seismic event in the future. The tectonic complexity reveals a real challenge for our investigation, since the interaction is sought among different faulting types. Stress transfer seems not to be restricted in a single however segmented fault but also expands over the adjacent faults or conjugate zones often bringing them toward rupture. The characteristic of the tectonic setting is that various long strike slip, normal and some thrust faults exist within the same area, interacting with each other. Such interaction of strong earthquakes has been proved by previous investigation concerning the Xianshuihe fault zone (Papadimitriou et al., 2004) and the stress evolution for the northeast Tibetan Plateau from 1920 till present for a viscoelastic model (Wan et al., 2007). A feature characterizing long fault zones is that they are found segmented and distinct parts of faults rupture each time until they complete a seismic cycle. Although fault surfaces are irregular and ruptures are more

  17. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the porcine kobuvirus VP1 region using infected pigs from Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Porcine kobuvirus (PKoV) is a member of the Kobuvirus genus within the Picornaviridae family. PKoV is distributed worldwide with high prevalence in clinically healthy pigs and those with diarrhea. Methods Fecal and intestinal samples (n = 163) from pig farms in Sichuan Province, China were obtained to determine the presence of PKoV using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. Specific primers were used for the amplification of the gene encoding the PKoV VP1 protein sequence. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to clarify evolutionary relationships with other PKoV strains. Results Approximately 53% (87/163) of pigs tested positive for PKoV. PKoV was widespread in asymptomatic pigs and those with diarrhea. A high prevalence of PKoV was observed in pigs younger than 4 weeks and in pigs with diarrhea. Phylogenetic analysis of 36 PKoV VP1 protein sequences showed that Sichuan PKoV strains formed four distinct clusters. Two pigs with diarrhea were found to be co-infected with multiple PKoV strains. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed diversity within the same host and between different hosts. Significant recombination breakpoints were observed between the CHN/SC/31-A1 and CHN/SC/31-A3 strains in the VP1 region, which were isolated from the same sample. Conclusion PKoV was endemic in Sichuan Province regardless of whether pigs were healthy or suffering from diarrhea. Based on our statistical analyses, we suggest that PKoV was the likely causative agent of high-mortality diarrhea in China from 2010. For the first time, we provide evidence for the co-existence of multiple PKoV strains in one pig, and possible recombination events in the VP1 region. Our findings provide further insights into the molecular properties of PKoV, along with its epidemiology. PMID:24025093

  18. Population Genetic Structure and the Migration of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici Between the Gansu and Sichuan Basin Populations of China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Junmin; Liu, Xiufeng; Li, Yong; Wan, Qiong; Ma, Zhanhong; Luo, Yong

    2016-02-01

    Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is the causal pathogen of interregional epidemics of wheat stripe rust in China via long-distance migration. Gansu Province serves as putative inoculum center providing oversummering inoculum, while Sichuan Basin area serves as a region providing huge amounts of overwintering inoculum. Thus, the relationship between these two regions in population exchange and migration become important in prediction of interregional epidemics. In this study, we compared the population genetic structure and race composition between Gansu and Sichuan Basin populations to infer their migration relationships. A total of 526 isolates, spanning 3 years, were genotyped using eight pairs of amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, and a subset of 98 isolates were inoculated onto 19 Chinese differentials to perform the race analysis. Twenty-three common races and 26 shared genotypes supplied molecular evidence for migration between Gansu and Sichuan Basin populations. Bayesian assignment and principal component analysis revealed that the genetic group assignment of the Sichuan Basin populations (10SB and 11SB) changed in the spring to align with the fall Gansu populations in the prior seasons (09GS and 10GS), which indicated an asymmetric migration from Gansu Province to the Sichuan Basin area. The linkage disequilibrium and the parsimony tree length permutation test revealed a strong annual recombination signal in the Gansu populations and an inconsistent signal in the Sichuan Basin populations. PMID:26506459

  19. Spatio-Temporal Pattern and Socio-Economic Factors of Bacillary Dysentery at County Level in Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yue; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Lei; Lv, Qiang; Yin, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Bacillary dysentery (BD) remains a big public health problem in China. Effective spatio-temporal monitoring of BD incidence is important for successful implementation of control and prevention measures. This study aimed to examine the spatio-temporal pattern of BD and analyze socio-economic factors that may affect BD incidence in Sichuan province, China. Firstly, we used space-time scan statistic to detect the high risk spatio-temporal clusters in each year. Then, bivariate spatial correlation and Bayesian spatio-temporal model were utilized to examine the associations between the socio-economic factors and BD incidence. Spatio-temporal clusters of BD were mainly located in the northern-southern belt of the midwest area of Sichuan province. The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of rural population and the rates of BD incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. The proportion of secondary industry, proportion of tertiary Industry, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons, per capital GDP and the rate of BD incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The best fitting spatio-temporal model showed that medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and per capital GDP were significantly negative related to the risk of BD. PMID:26469274

  20. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose disease in peppers from Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fangling; Tang, Guiting; Zheng, Xiaojuan; Li, Ying; Sun, Xiaofang; Qi, Xiaobo; Zhou, You; Xu, Jing; Chen, Huabao; Chang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Sirong; Gong, Guoshu

    2016-01-01

    The anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is an important disease that primarily causes fruit rot in pepper. Eighty-eight strains representing seven species of Colletotrichum were obtained from rotten pepper fruits in Sichuan Province, China, and characterized according to morphology and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) sequence. Fifty-two strains were chosen for identification by phylogenetic analyses of multi-locus sequences, including the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the β-tubulin (TUB2), actin (ACT), calmodulin (CAL) and GAPDH genes. Based on the combined datasets, the 88 strains were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, C. siamense, C. fructicola, C. truncatum, C. scovillei, and C. brevisporum, and one new species was detected, described as Colletotrichum sichuanensis. Notably, C. siamense and C. scovillei were recorded for the first time as the causes of anthracnose in peppers in China. In addition, with the exception of C. truncatum, this is the first report of all of the other Colletotrichum species studied in pepper from Sichuan. The fungal species were all non-host-specific, as the isolates were able to infect not only Capsicum spp. but also Pyrus pyrifolia in pathogenicity tests. These findings suggest that the fungal species associated with anthracnose in pepper may inoculate other hosts as initial inoculum. PMID:27609555

  1. Spatio-Temporal Pattern and Socio-Economic Factors of Bacillary Dysentery at County Level in Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yue; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Lei; Lv, Qiang; Yin, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Bacillary dysentery (BD) remains a big public health problem in China. Effective spatio-temporal monitoring of BD incidence is important for successful implementation of control and prevention measures. This study aimed to examine the spatio-temporal pattern of BD and analyze socio-economic factors that may affect BD incidence in Sichuan province, China. Firstly, we used space-time scan statistic to detect the high risk spatio-temporal clusters in each year. Then, bivariate spatial correlation and Bayesian spatio-temporal model were utilized to examine the associations between the socio-economic factors and BD incidence. Spatio-temporal clusters of BD were mainly located in the northern-southern belt of the midwest area of Sichuan province. The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of rural population and the rates of BD incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. The proportion of secondary industry, proportion of tertiary Industry, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons, per capital GDP and the rate of BD incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The best fitting spatio-temporal model showed that medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and per capital GDP were significantly negative related to the risk of BD. PMID:26469274

  2. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose disease in peppers from Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangling; Tang, Guiting; Zheng, Xiaojuan; Li, Ying; Sun, Xiaofang; Qi, Xiaobo; Zhou, You; Xu, Jing; Chen, Huabao; Chang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Sirong; Gong, Guoshu

    2016-01-01

    The anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is an important disease that primarily causes fruit rot in pepper. Eighty-eight strains representing seven species of Colletotrichum were obtained from rotten pepper fruits in Sichuan Province, China, and characterized according to morphology and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) sequence. Fifty-two strains were chosen for identification by phylogenetic analyses of multi-locus sequences, including the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the β-tubulin (TUB2), actin (ACT), calmodulin (CAL) and GAPDH genes. Based on the combined datasets, the 88 strains were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, C. siamense, C. fructicola, C. truncatum, C. scovillei, and C. brevisporum, and one new species was detected, described as Colletotrichum sichuanensis. Notably, C. siamense and C. scovillei were recorded for the first time as the causes of anthracnose in peppers in China. In addition, with the exception of C. truncatum, this is the first report of all of the other Colletotrichum species studied in pepper from Sichuan. The fungal species were all non-host-specific, as the isolates were able to infect not only Capsicum spp. but also Pyrus pyrifolia in pathogenicity tests. These findings suggest that the fungal species associated with anthracnose in pepper may inoculate other hosts as initial inoculum. PMID:27609555

  3. Characteristics and origins of carbonaceous aerosol in the Sichuan Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuan; Xie, Shaodong; Luo, Bin; Zhai, Chongzhi

    2014-09-01

    The Sichuan Basin is a low visibility area in southwest China, where the hilly and basin topography, plus humid and stagnant weather, lead to unique pollution patterns. To identify the characteristics and sources of carbonaceous aerosols, one-year record of 24-h PM2.5 samples were analyzed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) content following the thermal/optical transmission protocol at three cities (Chengdu (CD), Neijiang (NJ), and Chongqing (CQ)) in the region during May 2012 to April 2013. The annual average concentrations were 19.0 ± 13.3 μg OC m-3 and 4.6 ± 2.6 μg EC m-3 in CD, 18.3 ± 8.4 μg OC m-3 and 4.1 ± 1.8 μg EC m-3 in NJ, and 15.2 ± 8.4 μg OC m-3 and 4.0 ± 1.6 μg EC m-3 in CQ, respectively. Organic matter (1.6OC) plus EC contributed about 40% of PM2.5 mass and displayed weak regional uniformity. Relatively high ratios of OC to EC were observed in the region with 4.3 for CD, 4.6 for NJ, and 3.8 for CQ, respectively. OC and EC pollution in the region exhibited interesting season-dependent characteristics with the lowest concentrations and OC/EC ratios in summer, but higher levels in other seasons. Higher OC/EC ratios in spring and autumn resulted from biomass burning, and in winter were from the enhanced secondary organic aerosol formation under favorable conditions. The exceptionally high OC and EC levels in May and October, mostly notable in CD, resulted from the burning of agricultural residues during harvest period. The high K+ concentrations and the high Kexcess/EC ratios implied the persistent influence of biomass burning throughout the year. Using a novel technique combing the EC tracer method and potassium mass balance in the aerosols, a K/EC ratio of 1.22 was used to retrieve the OC from biomass burning and the estimated contributions were 30.8%, 28.3%, and 21.9% in CD, NJ, and CQ, respectively, while secondary OC contributions to OC were 26.7%, 24.6%, and 25.7% in CD, NJ, and CQ, respectively.

  4. Two novel Fusarium species that cause canker disease of Sichuan pepper (Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.) in northern China form a novel clade with F. torreyae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canker disease of Sichuan pepper (Zanthoxylum bungeanum) has caused a decline in the production of this economically important spice in northern China over the past twenty-five years. To identify the etiological agent, 38 fungal strains were isolated from symptomatic tissues from trees in five provi...

  5. Emerging Yr26-virulent races of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici are threatening the wheat production in the Sichuan Basin, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici , is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat in the world. The Sichuan Basin is one of the most important regions of wheat production and stripe rust epidemics in China. Stripe rust resistance gene Yr26 (the same gene as Yr24) has bee...

  6. Case 3. "Jiang Tao v. Chengdu Branch, People's People's Bank of China": Opinion by the People's Court in Wuhou District, Chengdu, Sichuan Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education and Society, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the decision of the People's Court in Wuhou District, Chengdu, Sichuan Province on the Jiang Tao v. Chengdu Branch, People's People's Bank of China case. Jiang Tao, the plaintiff, claimed that the defendant Chengdu Branch placed an announcement in the "Chengdu Business Daily" to "recruit tellers for Chengdu Branch" on…

  7. Hydrochemistry of the Hot Springs in Western Sichuan Province Related to the Wenchuan MS 8.0 Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Yi, Li; Liu, Lei; Xie, Chao; Cui, Yueju; Li, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of 32 hot springs in the western Sichuan Province after the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake was investigated by analyzing the concentrations of cation and anion and the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen. The water samples of the hot springs were collected four times from June 2008 to April 2010. Hydrogeochemical data indicated the water samples can be classified into 9 chemical types. Values of δD and δ18O indicated that the spring waters were mainly derived from meteoric precipitation and affected by water-rock interaction and mixture of deep fluids. Concentrations of K+and SO4− of the samples from the Kangding district exhibited evident increases before the Wenchuan earthquake, indicating more supplement of deep fluids under the increase of tectonic stress. The chemical and isotopic variations of the water samples from the area closer to the epicenter area can be attributed to variation of regional stress field when the aftershock activities became weak. PMID:24892106

  8. Hydrochemistry of the hot springs in western Sichuan province related to the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Du, Jianguo; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Yi, Li; Liu, Lei; Xie, Chao; Cui, Yueju; Li, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of 32 hot springs in the western Sichuan Province after the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake was investigated by analyzing the concentrations of cation and anion and the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen. The water samples of the hot springs were collected four times from June 2008 to April 2010. Hydrogeochemical data indicated the water samples can be classified into 9 chemical types. Values of δ D and δ(18)O indicated that the spring waters were mainly derived from meteoric precipitation and affected by water-rock interaction and mixture of deep fluids. Concentrations of K(+)and SO4(-) of the samples from the Kangding district exhibited evident increases before the Wenchuan earthquake, indicating more supplement of deep fluids under the increase of tectonic stress. The chemical and isotopic variations of the water samples from the area closer to the epicenter area can be attributed to variation of regional stress field when the aftershock activities became weak. PMID:24892106

  9. Postconflict Conciliation within One-Male Breeding Units in Sichuan Snub-Nosed Monkeys in the Qinling Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-Tao; Li, Jia-Xuan; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Cheng-Liang; Qi, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Song-Tao; Li, Bao-Guo

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed conflict and postconflict (PC) conciliation between males and females within one-male breeding units in Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in the Qinling Mountains, China. The PC matched-control and time rule methods were used to collect and analyze data recorded from September 2013 to June 2014. The conciliatory tendency among individuals following conflict was 82.07%, and affiliation occurred within a few minutes after the conflict, which was not significantly different between mating and nonmating seasons. The PC conciliation scenarios were different from those reported from captivity. Lumbar hold and grooming were the most common expressions in reconciliation. In addition, bystander affiliation was uniquely found, which may be associated with the more terrestrial locomotion of R. roxellana, compared with other colobines. PMID:26575480

  10. Molecular Characterization and Seroprevalence in Pigs of SC0806, a Cat Que Virus Isolated from Mosquitoes in Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiake; Wang, Jinglin; Wang, Lihua; Fu, Shihong; Li, Minghua; Zhao, Guoyan; Zhu, Wuyang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Simbu serogroup currently consists of a highly diverse group of related arboviruses that infect both humans and economically important livestock species. Cat Que virus (CQV), a Simbu serogroup virus of the genus Orthobunyavirus (family Bunyaviridae), was first isolated in 2004 from mosquitoes during surveillance of arbovirus activity in acute pediatric encephalitis in northern Vietnam. We report here the complete genome sequence of SC0806 isolated from mosquitoes (Culex tritaeniorhynchus) in Sichuan Province, China. Consistent with the genomic organization of Simbu serogroup viruses, the SC0806 genome comprises three RNA segments—a large (L) segment (6928 nucleotides) that encodes the 2261-amino-acid RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, a medium (M) segment (4481 nucleotides) that encodes the 1433-amino-acid polyprotein, and a small (S) segment (984 nucleotides) that encodes a 234-amino-acid nucleocapsid protein and a 95-amino-acid nonstructural protein. The respective lengths of the 5′-untranslated region (UTR) and 3′-UTR of L, M, and S are 56 and 86, 43 and 136, and 44 and 238 nucleotides. Sequence (nucleotide and deduced amino acid) comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that SC0806 was closely related to the reported Vietnam isolate CQV. This is the first time that CQV has been isolated in Sichuan Province, China. Anti-SC0806 immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies were found in pigs reared locally, indicating that CQV has formed a natural cycle in the local area. Surveillance of the distribution and pathogenicity of SC0806 should be strengthened. PMID:26186514

  11. CRF07_BC Strain Dominates the HIV-1 Epidemic in Injection Drug Users in Liangshan Prefecture of Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Wei, Daying; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Li, Tianyi; Gui, Tao; Wood, Charles; Liu, Yongjian; Li, Hanping; Bao, Zuoyi; Liu, Siyang; Wang, Xiaolin; Li, Jingyun

    2015-05-01

    The Liangshan prefecture in Sichuan province is an area in China severely affected by the HIV epidemic, with intravenous drug use (IDU) as the main risk factor. No reports on HIV subtypes prevalent in IDUs in Liangshan prefecture could be found. In this study, we have characterized the genotypes of HIV-1 in the IDU population in Liangshan prefecture and further determined the phylogenetic relationship of the CRF07_BC strains to HIV-1 sequences from the other regions of China, including Xinjiang and Yunnan provinces, to explore the pattern and possible diffusion pathway of HIV-1 in these regions. HIV-1-seropositive drug-naive IDUs identified in Liangshan prefecture, Sichuan province were enrolled in 2009. Full-length gag and pol genes were amplified by reverse transcription and nested PCR and then sequenced. All of the sequences were subtyped. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods. Divergence times were estimated using a Bayesian molecular clock approach. CRF07_BC was found to be the predominant strain in IDUs in Liangshan prefecture (95.5%). The CRF07_BC strains from Liangshan prefecture were found to be intermixed with those from Yunnan province in phylogenetic trees. The CRF07_BC sequences from Xinjiang province can be grouped into several clusters, suggesting that the expansion of the CRF07_BC epidemic in Xinjiang province was the result of a local epidemic driven by multiple independent introductions in the late 1990s. Only low-level drug-resistant viruses were found in the IDU population. CRF07_BC strains from Liangshan prefecture were more similar to those from Yunnan province than those from Xinjiang province. This finding will contribute to our understanding of the distribution, the evolution, and the potential source of CRF07_BC founder strains, and will also provide useful information for the development of strategies to prevent transmission. PMID:25560398

  12. CRF07_BC Strain Dominates the HIV-1 Epidemic in Injection Drug Users in Liangshan Prefecture of Sichuan, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Wei, Daying; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Li, Tianyi; Gui, Tao; Wood, Charles; Liu, Yongjian; Li, Hanping; Bao, Zuoyi; Liu, Siyang; Wang, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Liangshan prefecture in Sichuan province is an area in China severely affected by the HIV epidemic, with intravenous drug use (IDU) as the main risk factor. No reports on HIV subtypes prevalent in IDUs in Liangshan prefecture could be found. In this study, we have characterized the genotypes of HIV-1 in the IDU population in Liangshan prefecture and further determined the phylogenetic relationship of the CRF07_BC strains to HIV-1 sequences from the other regions of China, including Xinjiang and Yunnan provinces, to explore the pattern and possible diffusion pathway of HIV-1 in these regions. HIV-1-seropositive drug-naive IDUs identified in Liangshan prefecture, Sichuan province were enrolled in 2009. Full-length gag and pol genes were amplified by reverse transcription and nested PCR and then sequenced. All of the sequences were subtyped. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods. Divergence times were estimated using a Bayesian molecular clock approach. CRF07_BC was found to be the predominant strain in IDUs in Liangshan prefecture (95.5%). The CRF07_BC strains from Liangshan prefecture were found to be intermixed with those from Yunnan province in phylogenetic trees. The CRF07_BC sequences from Xinjiang province can be grouped into several clusters, suggesting that the expansion of the CRF07_BC epidemic in Xinjiang province was the result of a local epidemic driven by multiple independent introductions in the late 1990s. Only low-level drug-resistant viruses were found in the IDU population. CRF07_BC strains from Liangshan prefecture were more similar to those from Yunnan province than those from Xinjiang province. This finding will contribute to our understanding of the distribution, the evolution, and the potential source of CRF07_BC founder strains, and will also provide useful information for the development of strategies to prevent transmission. PMID:25560398

  13. Remagnetization of lower Silurian black shale and insights into shale gas in the Sichuan Basin, south China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Jia, Dong; Yin, Hongwei; Liu, Mancang; Xie, Wuren; Wei, Guoqi; Li, Yongxiang

    2016-02-01

    The organic-rich lower Silurian shale of the Longmaxi Formation in the Sichuan Basin is the most important target for shale-gas exploration in China. Most Paleozoic rocks of the Sichuan Basin have experienced extraordinarily pervasive remagnetizations. To test a hypothesized connection between hydrocarbon generation and remagnetization and contribute to shale-gas exploration in the region, we undertook an integrated magnetic, geochemical, and petrographic study of 160 specimens from the shale. The results suggest that the shale contains a reliable remanent magnetization (Dec = 41.4°, Inc = 40.8°, and α95 = 6.8°). The magnetization predates tilting, and the paleopole plots close to the Late Triassic segment of the south China apparent polar wander path. The rock magnetic data and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations confirm that framboidal magnetites carry the bulk of the magnetization, which suggest a Late Triassic chemical remanent magnetization in the shale. 87Sr/86Sr and magnetic analyses indicate that the amount of magnetite was unaffected by fluid alterations around the veins but is strongly covariant with the amount of total organic matter. Moreover, SEM observations reveal possible evidence of the replacement of pyrite framboids by magnetite, probably in the presence of organic acids. These analyses, therefore, suggest that the remagnetization was caused by organic maturation rather than orogenic fluids and that the maturation occurred in the Late Triassic. This timing of organic maturation has been validated by independent modeling studies and provides important constraints on the complex thermal history of the Longmaxi Shale as well as contributing to shale-gas exploration efforts.

  14. Understanding Western Students: Motivations and Benefits for Studying in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Alexander S.; Allison, Jessica; Ma, Jian Hong

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, there has been a rise in the number of Western students who are studying in China. Governments in China, and in other Western nations are expanding relations because China is currently developing world-class higher education institutions (Hennock, 2012). The present study explores motivations, deterrents and benefits of…

  15. Identification of a late Quaternary alluvial-aeolian sedimentary sequence in the Sichuan Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jin-Liang; Ju, Jian-Ting; Chen, Feng; Hu, Zhao-Guo; Zhao, Xiang; Gao, Shao-Peng

    2016-03-01

    The late Quaternary sedimentary sequence in the northwestern part of the Sichuan Basin consists of five lithological units and with increasing depth include the: Chengdu Clay; Brown Clay; Red Clay; Sandy Silt; and basal Muddy Gravel. The genesis, provenance and age of the sediments, as well as the possible presence of hiatuses within this sequence are debated. Measurements of grain-size, magnetic susceptibility, quartz content, quartz δ18O values, element composition, and Sr-Nd isotopic concentrations of samples from a typical sedimentary sequence in the area provides new insights into the genesis and history of the sequence. The new data confirm that the sediments in study site are alluvial-aeolian in origin, with basal alluvial deposits overlain by aeolian deposits. Like the uppermost Chengdu Clay, the underlying Brown Clay and Red Clay are aeolian in origin. In contrast, the Silty Sand, like the basal Muddy Gravel, is an alluvial deposit and not an aeolian deposit as previously thought. Moreover, the succession of the aeolian deposits very likely contains two significant sedimentary hiatuses. Sedimentological analysis demonstrates that the source materials for the aeolian deposits in the northwestern part of the Sichuan Basin and those on the eastern Tibetan Plateau are different. Furthermore, the loess deposits on the eastern Tibetan Plateau are derived from heterogeneous local sources.

  16. Relationship Between Heat Flows and Geological Structures in the Sichuan Basin, P.R. China

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Y.; Yu, H.; Wang, X.

    1995-01-01

    Based on an extensive data collection and analysis, this research has provided reliable representations of the features of the geothermal fields, their heat flow, and relationships with geological structures in the Sichuan Basin. The isotherms below a depth of 1,000 m show high values in the Central Uplift and the Southwest Uplift, and low values in the Northwest and Southeast Depressions. These features probably indicate undulation of crystalline basement and structural depression. At depths greater than 3,000 m, the isotherms tend to become simpler and regionalized. The mean heat flow in the basin is 69.1 mW/m{sup 2}. In the Central Uplift, the Northwest Depression and the East of the basin, heat-flow values range from 58.6 to 71.2 mW/m{sup 2}, with a mean value of 66.1 mWE/m{sup 2}. In the south and southwest, it varies from 76.6 to 100.5 mW/m{sup 2}, with a mean value of 86.2 mW/m{sup 2}. High heat-flow values occur within the uplift of the crystalline basement in the southwest Sichuan, and the heat flow decreases from the south, through the central area, to the northwest.

  17. A new species of Amara (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Zabrini) from Sichuan Province, China, with additional records for other Amara species from the region

    PubMed Central

    Hieke, Fritz; Kavanaugh, David H.; Liang, Hongbin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Amara (Bradytulus) shalulishanica Hieke & Kavanaugh, sp. n. (type locality: Haizishan Yakou, 29.47366°N, 100.21921°E, 4623 m, Shalulishan, Zhuosang Township, Litang County, Sichuan Province, China) is described and diagnosed. Additional records are provided for 16 other Amara species, each of which represents one of five different geographical distribution types, which are discussed. PMID:23378815

  18. Application of Time Series Insar Technique for Deformation Monitoring of Large-Scale Landslides in Mountainous Areas of Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, T.; Lu, P.; Liu, C.; Wan, H.

    2016-06-01

    Western China is very susceptible to landslide hazards. As a result, landslide detection and early warning are of great importance. This work employs the SBAS (Small Baseline Subset) InSAR Technique for detection and monitoring of large-scale landslides that occurred in Li County, Sichuan Province, Western China. The time series INSAR is performed using descending scenes acquired from TerraSAR-X StripMap mode since 2014 to get the spatial distribution of surface displacements of this giant landslide. The time series results identify the distinct deformation zone on the landslide body with a rate of up to 150mm/yr. The deformation acquired by SBAS technique is validated by inclinometers from diverse boreholes of in-situ monitoring. The integration of InSAR time series displacements and ground-based monitoring data helps to provide reliable data support for the forecasting and monitoring of largescale landslide.

  19. Structural characteristic and origin of intra-continental fold belt in the eastern Sichuan basin, South China Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuanxin; He, Dengfa; Sun, Yanpeng; He, Jinyou; Jiang, Zaixing

    2015-11-01

    The fold-and-thrust belt in the eastern Sichuan basin is represented by a series of subparallel chevron anticlines. Under the orogenic tectonic setting within the South China Block in Meso-Cenozoic period and the influence of the multi-layer detachment fault, the deformation of the thrust belt exhibits remarkably layered and large-scale intracontinental thrusting structural characteristics. In this paper, we focus on the structural geometry and deformational mechanisms using the latest two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) seismic reflection data in combination with well and outcrop data. The multi-layer detachment faults, especially the upper gypsum-bearing detachment in the Middle Triassic Jialingjiang Formation and lower detachment with gypsum or shale in the Lower-Middle Cambrian system, directly control the deformational styles of the study area. Interpretation of seismic sections indicates that the fold-and-thrust belt has various deformational styles during folding, including fault-propagation fold, fault-bend fold, and detachment fold with box-fold or pop-up structural geometry. Regional location and structural boundaries play significant roles in controlling the deformational styles, and distinct differences exist among the different anticlines. The Huayingshan anticline located at the front of the thrust belt shows intense structural deformation with northwestward thrusting direction and a relatively weak opposite southeastward thrusting. In addition, the anticlines exhibit structural differences along strike and the fold-and-thrust belt in the northern segment is influenced by the North China Block.

  20. [John Kerr and the introduction of Western medicine into China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zun-Wang

    2003-04-01

    Being a key figure in the process of introduction of western medicine into China in modern age, John Kerr, an American medical missionary, established the Boji Hospital, one of the most influential hospitals with the longest history in modern China. He carried out medical education by setting up a medical school affiliated to the Boji Hospital, which was the first professional western medical school in China. He compiled medical books and periodicals, playing an important role in the systematic understanding of western medicine by the Chinese medical field at that period. He made contribution to the development of western medicine in China for nearly half a century. PMID:12921586

  1. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among adult survivors of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake in China.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cecilia Lai Wan; Wang, Chong-Wen; Qu, Zhiyong; Lu, Ben Qibin; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Ho, Andy Hau Yan; Yuan, Yin; Zhang, Braven Qiang; Wang, Xiying; Zhang, Xiulan

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the estimated prevalence rate of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and associated risk factors among Chinese adult survivors 7 to 8 months after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. The sample was recruited from 2 areas close to the epicenter but of different distances. The estimated rate of PTSD symptoms was 55.6% and 26.4% respectively in the two areas. Loss of a child was a strong predictive factor for PTSD symptoms for the parents. Other predictive factors included female gender, loss of a parent, loss of friends or neighbors, residential house damage or collapse, and proximity to the epicenter. Effective and sustainable mental health services are needed and should be directed particularly to bereaved survivors. PMID:21608035

  2. Tectonic evolution of the western Kunlun orogenic belt, western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhihong, Wang

    2004-11-01

    The western Kunlun orogenic belt in western China evolved through the development of a large subduction-accretionary complex, including flysch sediments and granitic plutons, and by collision of three terranes, namely the North and South Kunlun and Karakorum-Qiangtang blocks from the early Paleozoic to the early Mesozoic. North-dipping subduction of the Paleo-Tethys ocean beneath the Kunlun terranes, which may have commenced in the Cambrian, produced an early Paleozoic Andean-type magmatic arc on the South Kunlun, and a marginal back arc basin, represented by the early Paleozoic Oytag-Kudi ophiolite belt, between the North and South Kunlun. A northward subduction zone consumed the basin and the young, hot upper plate lithosphere was obducted southward onto the South Kunlun following closure of the basin. This resulted in collision of the North and South Kunlun in the early Devonian. Continuous northward subduction of Paleo-Tethys resulted in the development of a Carboniferous-Triassic magmatic arc, and a back arc rifting sequence composed of the Carboniferous to Permian carbonates and clastic sediments on the North and South Kunlun terranes. The Paleo-Tethys ocean finally closed in the late Triassic-early Jurassic, when the Kunlun and Karakorum-Qiangtang blocks were accreted, with the Kara-Kunlun accretionary prism marking their suture zone.

  3. Importance of Reactivation in the Thickening of the Eastern Tibetan Plateau (Longmen Shan, Sichuan, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sigoyer, J.; Robert, A.; Pubellier, M. F.; Deldicque, D.; Li, Y.; Yi, Z.

    2013-12-01

    thickening of the Mesozoic wedge, and the last one is attributed to the Cainozoic thick-skin deformation. The first three stages of deformation are characterized by an inverted metamorphic gradient in the western sedimentary cover from the chlorite zone close to the basement contact to the staurolite zone at 10 km over the basement. The PT conditions of the metamorphic peak in the staurolite zone are estimated at 620×30°C, 8-13 kbar, which corresponds to a depth close to 30 km. The thickening of the cover up to 30 km has been made possible by the stack of sedimentary slices during the propagation of the Songpan Garze accretionary wedge onto the South China margin during the Early Mesozoics. The Cainozoic reactivation involved the exhumation of the basement along the Wenchuan-Maowen thrust. This latter reactivation in turn created a metamorphic overprint under greenschist facies conditions at about 350×50°C 6×2kbar, suggesting an exhumation of the base of the Mesozoic wedge from 15 km depth up to the surface.

  4. Lineage distribution and E2 sequence variation of high-risk human papillomavirus types isolated from patients with cervical cancer in Sichuan province, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haijing; Wu, Enqi; Ma, Lin; Zhang, Guonan; Shi, Yu; Huang, Jianming; Zha, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    To explore the nucleotide sequence variability of the E2 gene in high-risk HPV types in cervical cancer patients from Sichuan province, China, the E2 genes of eight high-risk HPV types were amplified and sequenced. Several novel nucleotide substitutions and deletions were observed. The lineages to which the isolates belonged were determined by phylogenetic analysis, employing the sequence of the representative lineages/sublineages in the coherent classification and nomenclature system as references. This study updates the lineage distribution data on high-risk HPV types in Southwest China and helps broaden understanding of the polymorphism of the E2 gene. PMID:26303138

  5. Permian to Late Triassic evolution of the Longmen Shan Foreland Basin (Western Sichuan): Model results from both the lithospheric extension and flexure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lijuan

    2014-10-01

    The lithosphere was extended during the Permian-Middle Triassic in the Yangtze Craton where the Sichuan Basin located, and then bent due to thrusting of the Longmen Shan orogen, leading to formation of the Longmen Shan Foreland Basin (Western Sichuan) during the Late Triassic Indosinian orogeny. The lateral variation of the lithospheric strength resulted by former differential extension would inevitably influence the subsequent evolution of the foreland basin. In order to investigate this, both extensional and flexural models were applied in modeling Permian-Late Triassic basin evolution. A 2D kinematic extensional model was initially developed along a profile crossing the Yangtze Craton to simulate the lithospheric thermal evolution during the Permian-Middle Triassic. Based on the thermal results, the thermal-rheological structure, as well as the effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere (Te), was then determined. Extension model show that the stretching factors decrease gradually from Songpan-Ganzi to the Sichuan Basin, leading to variable thermal-rheological structure and increased Te from west to east. Taking into account of the Te variation, a flexural model was finally constructed to investigate the evolution of the Longmen Shan Foreland Basin during the Late Triassic spanning the time period c. 227-206 Ma. Three episodes were divided according to the corresponding tectonostratigraphic units. By matching the stratigraphic observations, three phase advance distances eastward of the Longmen Shan along the Qingchuan-Maowen Fault turned out to be 18, 22, and 18 km. It implied a slow and similar thrust advance rate of 3.6 (c.227-222 Ma), 2.2 (c.222-212 Ma), and 3 mm/yr (c.212-206 Ma), respectively.

  6. Generation of isotopically and compositionally distinct water during thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) in carbonate reservoirs: Triassic Feixianguan Formation, Sichuan Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lei; Worden, Richard H.; Cai, Chunfang

    2015-09-01

    Thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR), the reaction of petroleum with anhydrite in reservoirs resulting in the growth of calcite and the accumulation of H2S, has been documented in the Feixianguan Formation dolomite reservoir in the Sichuan Basin, China. Fluid inclusion salinity and homogenization temperature data have shown that TSR results in a decrease in salinity from a pre-TSR value of 25 wt.% down to 5 wt.% as a result of water created as a byproduct of progressive TSR. We have studied the isotopic character of the water that resulted from TSR in the Feixianguan Formation by analyzing the oxygen isotopes of TSR calcite and determining the oxygen isotopes of the water in equilibrium with the TSR calcite at the temperatures determined by aqueous fluid inclusion analysis. We have compared these TSR-waters to water that would have been in equilibrium with the bulk rock, also at the temperatures determined by aqueous fluid inclusion analysis. We have found that the TSR-waters are relatively depleted in oxygen isotopes (by up to 8‰ compared to what would be expected at equilibrium between the bulk rock and water) since this type of water was specifically derived from anhydrite. The generation of relatively large volumes of low salinity, low δ18O water associated with advanced TSR in the Feixianguan Formation has also been reported in the Permian Khuff Formation in Abu Dhabi and from sour Devonian fields in the Western Canada Basin. This suggests that TSR-derived water may be a common phenomenon, the effects of which on mesogenetic secondary porosity and reservoir quality have previously been underappreciated.

  7. Evaluation Criteria for Implementation of a Sustainable Sanitation and Wastewater Treatment System at Jiuzhaigou National Park, Sichuan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaulke, Linda S.; Weiyang, Xiao; Scanlon, Andrew; Henck, Amanda; Hinckley, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The administration of Jiuzhaigou National Park in Sichuan Province, China, is in the process of considering a range of upgrades to their sanitation and wastewater treatment systems. Their case history involves an ongoing series of engineering design flaws and management failures. The administration of the Park identified sustainability, environmental protection, and education goals for their sanitation and wastewater treatment system. To meet the goal of sustainability, environmental and economic concerns of the Park’s administration had to be balanced with socio-cultural needs. An advanced reconnaissance method was developed that identified reasons for previous failures, conducted stakeholder analysis and interviews, determined evaluation criteria, and introduced innovative alternatives with records of successful global implementations. This evaluation also helped the Park to better define their goals . To prevent future failures, the administration of the Park must commit to a balanced and thorough evaluation process for selection of a final alternative and institute effective long-term management and monitoring of systems. In addition, to meet goals and achieve energy efficient, cost-effective use of resources, the Park must shift their thinking from one of waste disposal to resource recovery. The method and criteria developed for this case study provides a framework to aid in the successful implementation of sanitation projects in both underdeveloped and developed areas of the world, incorporating socio-cultural values and resource recovery for a complex group of stakeholders.

  8. Out of the Sichuan Basin: Rapid species diversification of the freshwater crabs in Sinopotamon (Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae) endemic to China.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yongkun; Sun, Yufang; Gao, Wei; Chu, Kelin; Wang, Ruicong; Zhao, Qiang; Sun, Hongying

    2016-07-01

    Sinopotamon Bott, 1967 is the most speciose and widely distributed freshwater crab genus in East Asia. Our extensive sampling includes about 76% of the known Sinopotamon taxa, and nearly covers its entire distribution area. Based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and 16S rRNA, as well as nuclear 28S rRNA and histone H3, we reconstructed the Sinopotamon phylogeny using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. The divergence time was estimated and multiple methods were used to conduct diversification analyses. The ancestral geographic distribution and character state were reconstructed. Three main clades (Clades I, II and III) that roughly correspond to their main geographic distribution ranges were recovered. Our results challenge the current view of the four major species groups based on the morphological differences in the male first gonopod (G1). The most recent common ancestor of Sinopotamon most likely originated from the Sichuan Basin and surrounding mountains (SBSM) and subsequently dispersed throughout central and eastern China. The exceptionally rapid, recent diversification was detected in Clade II. The high incidence of species-level non-monophyly found in Clade II can be explained by recent rapid radiation. Climatic changes, morphological innovations, range expansion and geographical heterogeneity may all contribute to the diversification in Sinopotamon. This study contributes to our knowledge on diversification of freshwater benthic macro-invertebrates in the East Asian inland ecosystem. PMID:27058122

  9. Symbiotic effectiveness and phylogeny of rhizobia isolated from faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in Sichuan hilly areas, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kai Wei; Zou, Lan; Penttinen, Petri; Wang, Ke; Heng, Nan Nan; Zhang, Xiao Ping; Chen, Qiang; Zhao, Ke; Chen, Yuan Xue

    2015-10-01

    A total of 54 rhizobial strains were isolated from faba bean root nodules in 21 counties of Sichuan hilly areas in China, and their symbiotic effectiveness, genetic diversity and phylogeny were assessed. Only six strains increased the shoot dry mass of the host plant significantly (P ≤ 0.05). Based on the cluster analysis of combined 16S rDNA and intergenic spacer region (IGS) PCR-RFLP, the strains were divided into 31 genotypes in 11 groups, indicating a high degree of genetic diversity among the strains. The sequence analysis of three housekeeping genes (atpD, glnII and recA) and 16S rDNA indicated that the strains represented two R. leguminosarum, two Rhizobium spp., R. mesosinicum, Agrobacterium sp. and A. tumefaciens. The strains representing four Rhizobium species were divided into two distinct nodC and nifH genotypes. However, the phylogeny of housekeeping genes and symbiotic genes was not congruent, implying that the strains had been shaped by vertical evolution of the housekeeping genes and lateral evolution of the symbiotic genes. PMID:26242694

  10. A quantitative framework for a multi-group model of Schistosomiasis japonicum transmission dynamics and control in Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Song; Maszle, Don; Spear, Robert C

    2002-05-01

    A quantitative framework is presented for the site-specific characterization of schistosomiasis transmission with the object of developing local control strategies. Central to the framework is a worm-burden model using ordinary differential equations of disease transmission in risk groups defined by residence and occupation. The model incorporates temperature- and precipitation-dependent seasonality of infectious stages, snail population dynamics, and seasonal patterns of human water contact specific to the local agricultural setting. The model's parameters are separated into two main subsets, those associated with the general biology of the parasite and its life cycle in the human and the snail and those associated with directly measurable features of disease status in the local population or relevant aspects of the local environment. In this regard, the model is structured and parameterized to take maximum advantage of data that can be collected in rural China by conventional methods. For example, it includes a statistical model for egg excretion to the environment by each risk group which is based on local population surveys of the prevalence and intensity of infection. The second element of the framework of analysis relates to the strategy for parameter estimation and calibration to local conditions. We propose a Bayesian approach in which parameter estimates are refined over time by methods employing extensive computer simulations. An early analysis of data collected between 1987 and 1989 in endemic villages near Xichang City in southwestern Sichuan provides encouragement that parametric uncertainty can be reduced to levels adequate to explore effective control strategies. PMID:12020900

  11. Co-seismic water level changes in response to multiple large earthquakes at the LGH well in Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Guijuan; Jiang, Changsheng; Han, Libo; Sheng, Shuzhong; Ma, Yuchuan

    2016-06-01

    We examined the water level data at the LGH well in Sichuan, China, from December 2007 to July 2015 and their responses to multiple large earthquakes with seismic energy densities greater than 10- 4 J/m3. Co-seismic water level declines were observed in response to eleven earthquakes out of twelve in the farfield, and co-seismic water level increase was observed in one nearfield case. The water level declines in the farfield showed a linear relation with the common logarithm of the seismic energy densities, whereas the water level increase in the nearfield fell away from this relation, indicating that the farfield responses and the nearfield response were produced by distinct mechanisms. We used the phase shift of tidal responses as a proxy for permeability and found that permeability enhancements were observed both in the farfield and nearfield. The co-seismic water level declines in response to the distant earthquakes could be explained by permeability enhancements caused by the passage of seismic waves through the mobilization of colloidal particles; the co-seismic water level increase in response to the nearfield case could be caused both by the compression of the static stress and by the seismic waves.

  12. Peer norms and consistent condom use with female sex workers among male clients in Sichuan province, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl; Luan, Rongsheng; Nelson, Kenrad

    2010-08-01

    Despite their crucial role in HIV infection and transmission, commercial sex male clients (CSMCs) are rarely studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between peer norms and consistent condom use with female sex workers (FSWs) among CSMCs in Sichuan province, China. Male clients with peers who had paid for sex (n = 562) were recruited by local health workers through snowball sampling. Measures of peer norms included 1) descriptive norms which were evaluated by perceptions of peer's condom attitudes and behaviors with FSWs; 2) injunctive norms which were assessed by the perceived peer approval of using condoms with FSWs; and 3) communication of HIV-related topics with peers. The outcome was consistent condom use with FSWs. Results of multivariate logistic regression models revealed that consistent condom use with FSWs was significantly more likely among male clients who perceived more pro-condom descriptive and injunctive norms among their peer groups. In addition, the pattern of commercial sex visits moderated the relations between peer norms and consistent condom use with FSWs. More peer approval of condom use and more HIV-related communication were significantly associated with consistent condom use among clients who visited FSWs with friends but not among those who visited FSWs alone. The findings suggest that social activities surrounding commercial sex visits may provide an entry point for HIV prevention intervention with men who patronize FSWs and that such efforts should tap into existing dynamics of social interaction to promote pro-condom norms. PMID:20541859

  13. [Spatial patterns of dominant tree species in sub-alpine Betula-Abies forest in West Sichuan of China].

    PubMed

    Miao, Ning; Liu, Shi-Rong; Shi, Zuo-Min; Yu, Hong; Liu, Xing-Liang

    2009-06-01

    Based on the investigation in a 4 hm2 Betula-Abies forest plot in sub-alpine area in West Sichuan of China, and by using point pattern analysis method in terms of O-ring statistics, the spatial patterns of dominant species Betula albo-sinensis and Abies faxoniana in different age classes in study area were analyzed, and the intra- and inter-species associations between these age classes were studied. B. albo-sinensis had a unimodal distribution of its DBH frequency, indicating a declining population, while A. faxoniana had a reverse J-shaped pattern, showing an increasing population. All the big trees of B. albo-sinensis and A. faxoniana were spatially in random at all scales, while the medium age and small trees were spatially clumped at small scales and tended to be randomly or evenly distributed with increasing spatial scale. The maximum aggregation degree decreased with increasing age class. Spatial association mainly occurred at small scales. A. faxoniana generally showed positive intra-specific association, while B. albo-sinensis generally showed negative intra-specific association. For the two populations, big and small trees had no significant spatial association, but middle age trees had negative spatial association. Negative inter-specific associations of the two populations were commonly found in different age classes. The larger the difference of age class, the stronger the negative inter-specific association. PMID:19795631

  14. Research on Meteorological Features of PBL during Heavy Haze Episodes in the City of Chengdu, Sichuan Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, X.; Han, L.

    2014-12-01

    Sichuan basin is one of the areas that have the most serious haze in China. To understand how wind, temperature ,relative humidity and PHLH influence air pollution, WRF was used to simulate the meteorological condition of PBL during two heavy haze episodes in 2013. Combined with the local meteorological data and air pollution data, the analysis shows that cyclone is caused by the terrain of basin often. Air pollutants are limited in the basin and accumulate periodically. The concentration of O3 is significantly correlated with temperature while negatively correlated with relative humidity. There are significant negative correlations between the pollutants concentrations and the height of PBL. During the episode from 2nd to 23th March,the highest daily concentration of PM2.5 was 270ug/m3. The relativity between PM2.5 and O3 is lower than normal because of the dust storm. The correlation coefficients between O3 and temperature and relative humidity are 0.756 and -0.735, respectively. The dominant wind direction is south-west through the PBL. During the episode from 10th to 22nd April, the highest daily concentration of PM2.5 was 158ug/m3. The correlation coefficients between O3 and PM2.5, temperature, and relative humidity are 0.516, 0.825, -797, respectively. The dominant wind direction was south-west through PBL.

  15. Evaluation criteria for implementation of a sustainable sanitation and wastewater treatment system at Jiuzhaigou National Park, Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Gaulke, Linda S; Weiyang, Xiao; Scanlon, Andrew; Henck, Amanda; Hinckley, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The administration of Jiuzhaigou National Park in Sichuan Province, China, is in the process of considering a range of upgrades to their sanitation and wastewater treatment systems. Their case history involves an ongoing series of engineering design flaws and management failures. The administration of the Park identified sustainability, environmental protection, and education goals for their sanitation and wastewater treatment system. To meet the goal of sustainability, environmental and economic concerns of the Park's administration had to be balanced with socio-cultural needs. An advanced reconnaissance method was developed that identified reasons for previous failures, conducted stakeholder analysis and interviews, determined evaluation criteria, and introduced innovative alternatives with records of successful global implementations. This evaluation also helped the Park to better define their goals. To prevent future failures, the administration of the Park must commit to a balanced and thorough evaluation process for selection of a final alternative and institute effective long-term management and monitoring of systems. In addition, to meet goals and achieve energy efficient, cost-effective use of resources, the Park must shift their thinking from one of waste disposal to resource recovery. The method and criteria developed for this case study provides a framework to aid in the successful implementation of sanitation projects in both underdeveloped and developed areas of the world, incorporating socio-cultural values and resource recovery for a complex group of stakeholders. PMID:19924471

  16. Factors Associated with Resilience of Adult Survivors Five Years after the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake in China

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Cuiping; Chow, Meyrick Chum Ming; Jiang, Xiaolian; Li, Sijian; Pang, Samantha Mei Che

    2015-01-01

    Given the paucity of quantitative empirical research on survivors’ resilience and its predictors in the context of long-term recovery after disasters, we examined how resilience predictors differed by gender among adult survivors five years after the Sichuan earthquake. This was a cross-sectional survey study of adult survivors (N = 495; aged 18–60) living in reconstructed communities five years into the recovery process after the Wenchuan earthquake. The instruments we used included assessments of sociodemographic characteristics and earthquake exposure level, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and the Social Support Rating Scale. Support-seeking behaviors emerged as a significant predictor of male survivors’ resilience, while subjective support and marital status were found to be predictors of female survivors’ resilience. Annual household income and chronic disease were predictors for both male and female groups. The findings of this study can be used in devising methods to boost survivors’ resilience by promoting their satisfaction with social support and their ability to obtain effective support. Additionally, the results suggest how to assist survivors who may have relatively poor resilience. PMID:25811775

  17. Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak associated with a contaminated food container in a school in Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, L G; Zhou, X Y; Lan, Z; Li, L; Li, Z; Chen, W; Wang, J Y; Zhang, L J

    2016-01-01

    On 13 June 2013, a fever and diarrhoea outbreak occurred in a boarding school in Sichuan Province. We conducted a field investigation and compared food exposure of 81 case students and 104 control students (years 7 and 8) in order to identify the source of infection. There were 401 cases identified (399 students and two cooks). The attack rates were 23-46% in nursery, primary, and secondary schools, but 0% in the high school. Eighty-five percent of case students, consumed cowpea salad compared to 60% of control students at lunch on 12 June (odds ratio 3·1, 95% confidence interval 1·3-7·8). The cowpeas were stored at room temperature for 3 h in a bucket previously used to store raw ingredients. The bucket was cleaned using water without a disinfectant. There were two buckets of cowpea, one for the high-school students and another for the other students. This Salmonella outbreak was likely caused by the cowpea salad due to cross-contamination via a storage bucket. PMID:26119077

  18. Predicting the incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease in Sichuan province, China using the ARIMA model.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Luan, R S; Yin, F; Zhu, X P; Lü, Q

    2016-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is an infectious disease caused by enteroviruses, which usually occurs in children aged <5 years. In China, the HFMD situation is worsening, with increasing number of cases nationwide. Therefore, monitoring and predicting HFMD incidence are urgently needed to make control measures more effective. In this study, we applied an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model to forecast HFMD incidence in Sichuan province, China. HFMD infection data from January 2010 to June 2014 were used to fit the ARIMA model. The coefficient of determination (R 2), normalized Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) and mean absolute percentage of error (MAPE) were used to evaluate the goodness-of-fit of the constructed models. The fitted ARIMA model was applied to forecast the incidence of HMFD from April to June 2014. The goodness-of-fit test generated the optimum general multiplicative seasonal ARIMA (1,0,1) × (0,1,0)12 model (R 2 = 0·692, MAPE = 15·982, BIC = 5·265), which also showed non-significant autocorrelations in the residuals of the model (P = 0·893). The forecast incidence values of the ARIMA (1,0,1) × (0,1,0)12 model from July to December 2014 were 4103-9987, which were proximate forecasts. The ARIMA model could be applied to forecast HMFD incidence trend and provide support for HMFD prevention and control. Further observations should be carried out continually into the time sequence, and the parameters of the models could be adjusted because HMFD incidence will not be absolutely stationary in the future. PMID:26027606

  19. A 368-year maximum temperature reconstruction based on tree-ring data in the northwestern Sichuan Plateau (NWSP), China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liangjun; Zhang, Yuandong; Li, Zongshan; Guo, Binde; Wang, Xiaochun

    2016-07-01

    We present a reconstruction of July-August mean maximum temperature variability based on a chronology of tree-ring widths over the period AD 1646-2013 in the northern part of the northwestern Sichuan Plateau (NWSP), China. A regression model explains 37.1 % of the variance of July-August mean maximum temperature during the calibration period from 1954 to 2012. Compared with nearby temperature reconstructions and gridded land surface temperature data, our temperature reconstruction had high spatial representativeness. Seven major cold periods were identified (1708-1711, 1765-1769, 1818-1821, 1824-1828, 1832-1836, 1839-1842, and 1869-1877), and three major warm periods occurred in 1655-1668, 1719-1730, and 1858-1859 from this reconstruction. The typical Little Ice Age climate can also be well represented in our reconstruction and clearly ended with climatic amelioration at the late of the 19th century. The 17th and 19th centuries were cold with more extreme cold years, while the 18th and 20th centuries were warm with less extreme cold years. Moreover, the 20th century rapid warming was not obvious in the NWSP mean maximum temperature reconstruction, which implied that mean maximum temperature might play an important and different role in global change as unique temperature indicators. Multi-taper method (MTM) spectral analysis revealed significant periodicities of 170-, 49-114-, 25-32-, 5.7-, 4.6-4.7-, 3.0-3.1-, 2.5-, and 2.1-2.3-year quasi-cycles at a 95 % confidence level in our reconstruction. Overall, the mean maximum temperature variability in the NWSP may be associated with global land-sea atmospheric circulation (e.g., ENSO, PDO, or AMO) as well as solar and volcanic forcing.

  20. Mental Health Problems among Children One-Year after Sichuan Earthquake in China: A Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingxin; Wang, Li; Shi, Zhanbiao; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Kan; Shen, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Background On May 12, 2008, a destructive earthquake registering 8.0 on the Richter scale struck Sichuan Province, southwest China. Beichuan County was the epicenter which was one of the areas nearly completely destroyed by the earthquake. In Beichuan, about 15000 people died and 3000 people were missing. Specially, the earthquake took 1587 students' and 214 teachers' lives from the elementary and middle schools there. The main purpose of the study was to provide a better understanding of mental health problems and associated risk factors among children after earthquake. Method Three hundred and thirty grades 3–5 children completed the questionnaire of disaster –related experience and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children-Alternate Version (TSCC-A). The first survey was carried out six months after the earthquake, and the second one was carried out six months later. The measurements and methodology applied in the two sessions were identical. Results The prevalence rates of the problems at two time-points were 23.3% and 22.7% for anxiety, 14.5% and 16.1% for depression, and 11.2% and 13.4% for PTSD, respectively. Among demographic variables, no significant age difference existed, while it was found that 6 months after the earthquake, symptoms of anxiety, depression and PTSD were significantly more common among students in grades 4 and 5 than those in grade 3, Initial exposure to death, bereavement and extreme fear were significant predictive factors for the occurrence of anxiety, depression and PTSD. Conclusions Findings of this study suggest that posttraumatic mental health problems after natural disaster in children may have reached epidemic proportions and remain high for a long period. Psychologist and social workers should pay more attention to children who experienced more traumatic stresses and provide appropriate mental health interventions. Implications and limitations of these findings were discussed. PMID:21373188

  1. Paleogeothermal record of the Emeishan mantle plume: evidences from borehole Ro data in the Sichuan basin, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Emeishan basalt province located in the southwest of China is widely accepted to be a result of the eruption of a mantle plume at the time of middle-late Permian. If it was a mantle plume, the ambient sedimentary rocks must be heated up during the development of the mantle plume and this thermal effect must be recorded by some geothermometers in the country rocks. The vitrinite reflectance (Ro) data as a maximum paleotemperature recorder from boreholes in Sichuan basin was employed to expose the thermal regime related to the proposed Emeishan mantle plume. The Ro profiles from boreholes which drilled close to the Emeishan basalts shows a ';dog-leg' (break) style at the unconformity between the middle and the upper Permian, and the Ro profiles in the lower subsection (pre-middle Permian) shows a significantly higher slopes (gradients) than those in the upper subsection. In contrast, those Ro profiles from boreholes far away from the center of the basalt province have no break at the uncomformity. Based on the chemical kinetic model of Ro, the paleo-temperature gradients for the upper and the lower subsections in different boreholes, as well as the erosion at the unconformity between the middle and the upper Permian, were reconstructed to reveal the variations of the temperature gradients and erosion thickness with geological time and space. Both the thermal regime and the erosion thickness together with their spatial variation (structure) provide strong geothermal evidence for the existence of the Emeishan mantle plume in the middle-late Permian.

  2. Establishment of Stereo Multi-sensor Network for Giant Landslide Monitoring and its Deploy in Xishan landslide, Sichuan, China.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Lu, P.; WU, H.

    2015-12-01

    Landslide is one of the most destructive natural disasters, which severely affects human lives as well as the safety of personal properties and public infrastructures. Monitoring and predicting landslide movements can keep an adequate safety level for human beings in those situations. This paper indicated a newly developed Stereo Multi-sensor Landslide Monitoring Network (SMSLMN) based on a uniform temporal geo-reference. Actually, early in 2003, SAMOA (Surveillance et Auscultation des Mouvements de Terrain Alpins, French) project was put forwarded as a plan for landslide movements monitoring. However, SAMOA project did not establish a stereo observation network to fully cover the surface and internal part of landslide. SMSLMN integrated various sensors, including space-borne, airborne, in-situ and underground sensors, which can quantitatively monitor the slide-body and obtain portent information of movement in high frequency with high resolution. The whole network has been deployed at the Xishan landslide, Sichuan, P.R.China. According to various characteristic of stereo monitoring sensors, observation capabilities indicators for different sensors were proposed in order to obtain the optimal sensors combination groups and observation strategy. Meanwhile, adaptive networking and reliable data communication methods were developed to apply intelligent observation and sensor data transmission. Some key technologies, such as signal amplification and intelligence extraction technology, data access frequency adaptive adjustment technology, different sensor synchronization control technology were developed to overcome the problems in complex observation environment. The collaboratively observation data have been transferred to the remote data center where is thousands miles away from the giant landslide spot. These data were introduced into the landslide stability analysis model, and some primary conclusion will be achieved at the end of paper.

  3. Regional characterization of Western China-II

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, G.E.; Hartse, H.E.; Phillips, W.S.; Taylor, S.R.

    1996-10-01

    As part of the CTBT Research and Development regional characterization effort, geological, geophysical, and seismic data are being assembled and organized for inclusion in a knowledge base for China. The authors have continued their analysis using data form the station WMQ of the Chinese Digital Seismic Network (CDSN) and the IRIS station AAK. They are also acquiring and analyzing data from stations that are designated as (or near a designated) primary or secondary CTBT monitoring station. Regional seismograms are being analyzed to construct travel time curves, velocity models, attenuation characteristics, and to quantify regional propagation effects such as phase blockages. Using locations from the USGS Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) they have identified Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg phases, constructed travel time curves, and estimated apparent velocities using linear regression. Amplitudes for the seismic phases have been measured using bandpassed waveforms and a series of magnitude relations have been determined for Western China. Studies of path specific propagation efficiency of the seismic phases have mapped blockages and also identified a possible set of observations that can be used to identify intermediate depth (> 100 im) seismic events in the Pamir-Hindu Kush seismic zone. Chinese seismicity catalogs from the USGS and Chinese State Seismological Bureau (SSB) are being used to identify and obtain seismic data (including mine seismicity) and information for lower magnitude events. Clustering analysis has been used to identify seismicity clusters in space with origin times that are distributed during daylight hours which suggest mining operations. These clusters are being investigated with imagery to attempt to identify precise mine locations.

  4. Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haoyue; Stiller, Caroline K.; Scherbaum, Veronika; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Wang, Qi; Hormann, Elizabeth; Bellows, Anne C.

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected) in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19–42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) within the normal range (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25), 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas), while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ≥30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs) the women’s overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%), was low in carbohydrates (49.6%), and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%). Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI) fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%), fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%), protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%), vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%), Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%), Fe (56.3% vs. 48%), Ca (55.1% vs. 41%) and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%). The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80%) than in urban (65.1%) areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both

  5. Internal structure of Longmenshan fault zone at Hongkou outcrop, Sichuan, China, that caused the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togo, Tetsuhiro; Shimamoto, Toshihiko; Ma, Shengli; Wen, Xueze; He, Honglin

    2011-06-01

    This paper reports the internal structures of the Beichuan fault zone of Longmenshan fault system that caused the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, at an outcrop in Hongkou, Sichuan province, China. Present work is a part of comprehensive project of Institute of Geology, China Earthquake Administration, trying to understand deformation processes in Longmenshan fault zones and eventually to reproduce Wenchuan earthquake by modeling based on measured mechanical and transport properties. Outcrop studies could be integrated with those performed on samples recovered from fault zone drilling, during the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling (WFSD) Project, to understand along-fault and depth variation of fault zone properties. The hanging wall side of the fault zone consists of weakly-foliated, clayey fault gouge of about 1 m in width and of several fault breccia zones of 30-40 m in total width. We could not find any pseudotachylite at this outcrop. Displacement during the Wenchuan earthquake is highly localized within the fault gouge layer along narrower slipping-zones of about 10 to 20 mm in width. This is an important constraint for analyzing thermal pressurization, an important dynamic weakening mechanism of faults. Overlapping patterns of striations on slickenside surface suggest that seismic slip at a given time occurred in even narrower zone of a few to several millimeters, so that localization of deformation must have occurred within a slipping zone during coseismic fault motion. Fault breccia zones are bounded by thin black gouge layers containing amorphous carbon. Fault gouge contains illite and chlorite minerals, but not smectite. Clayey fault gouge next to coseismic slipping zone also contains amorphous carbon and small amounts of graphite. The structural observations and mineralogical data obtained from outcrop exposures of the fault zone of the Wenchuan earthquake can be compared with those obtained from the WFSD-1 and WFSD-2 boreholes, which have been

  6. Interferograms of Coseismic Deformation from the May 12, 2008, Sichuan, China, Earthquake obtained by ALOS/PALSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, M.; Enomoto, M.; Fukushima, Y.; Fukahata, Y.

    2008-12-01

    A devastating earthquake hit southern China on May 12, 2008, and claimed more than 80,000 casualties. This event is the first M8 earthquake in history in and around the Sichuan basin. The epicenter is located near the Sichuan basin, and aftershocks are aligned in the NE-SW direction parallel to the Longmen Shan fault zone, which suggests that this active fault zone bounding the basin and mountain ranges is the source of this event. It is important to reveal the fault movement from the viewpoints of future earthquake hazard evaluation and tectonics of collision zone. Japan's Advanced Land Observing Satellite (hereafter ALOS) has been conducting observation of the earth's surface since its launch on Jan. 24, 2006. ALOS is equipped with an L-band synthetic aperture radar, Phased Array L-band SAR (hereafter PALSAR), which is suitable for the observation of heavily vegetated areas. We analyzed ALOS/PALSAR images along 8 paths acquired before and after the mainshock and revealed entire features of coseismic deformation using the Gamma software and hole-filled SRTM DEM by Jarvis et al.(2008). We observe fringes around the Longmen Shan fault zone. In spite of different period and timing of acquisition of SAR images, several fringes can be traced across the interferograms. These continuous fringes can be recognized in an about 100km wide region surrounding the fault zone and regarded as coseismic deformations. We can count 8-9 fringes, i.e. 90-100cm LOS displacements, between the fault zone and Chengdu located about 50km away from the Pengguan fault, southern most trace of the Longmen Shan fault zone. On the other hand, we could not obtain correlation high enough in the source region due to large displacements. This low correlation zone can be traced nearly 240km along the surface faults. It is worth noting that numbers of fringes are almost the same on the both sides of the source region. This pattern suggests right-lateral motion on a steeply dipping fault plane. On the

  7. Liberation or Oppression?--Western TESOL Pedagogies in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Shaofei; Ares, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine power relations in College English teaching in China, focusing on the "symbolic capital" of English as a global language. Framing our discussion with Bourdieu's concept of symbolic capital and a review of literature, we problematize the importation of pedagogies from Western countries to China and argue that…

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of canine parvovirus isolates from Sichuan and Gansu provinces of China in 2011.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Guo, H-C; Wei, Y-Q; Shu, L; Wang, J; Li, J-S; Cao, S-Z; Sun, S-Q

    2015-02-01

    Canine parvovirus causes serious disease in dogs. Study of the genetic variation in emerging CPV strains is important for disease control strategy. The antigenic property of CPV is connected with specific amino acid changes, mainly in the capsid protein VP2. This study was carried out to characterize VP2 gene of CPV viruses from two provinces of China in 2011. The complete VP2 genes of the CPV-positive samples were amplified and sequenced. Genetic analysis based on the VP2 genes of CPV was conducted. All of the isolates screened and sequenced in this study were typed as CPV-2a except GS-K11 strain, which was typed as CPV-2b. Sequence comparison showed nucleotide identities of 98.8-100% among CPV strains, whereas the Aa similarities were 99.6-100%. Compared with the reference strains, there are three distinctive amino acid changes at VP2 gene residue 267, 324 and 440 of the strains isolated in this study. Of the 27 strains, fourteen (51.85%) had the 267 (Phe-Tyr) and 440 (Thr-Ala) substitution, all the 27 (100%) had 324 (Tyr-Ile) substitution. Phylogenetically, all of the strains isolated in this study formed a major monophyletic cluster together with one South Korean isolate, two Thailand isolates and four Chinese former isolates. PMID:23506473

  9. Sequence Variation in the Small-Subunit rRNA Gene of Plasmodium malariae and Prevalence of Isolates with the Variant Sequence in Sichuan, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Zhu, Shenghua; Mizuno, Sahoko; Kimura, Masatsugu; Liu, Peina; Isomura, Shin; Wang, Xingzhen; Kawamoto, Fumihiko

    1998-01-01

    By two PCR-based diagnostic methods, Plasmodium malariae infections have been rediscovered at two foci in the Sichuan province of China, a region where no cases of P. malariae have been officially reported for the last 2 decades. In addition, a variant form of P. malariae which has a deletion of 19 bp and seven substitutions of base pairs in the target sequence of the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene was detected with high frequency. Alignment analysis of Plasmodium sp. SSU rRNA gene sequences revealed that the 5′ region of the variant sequence is identical to that of P. vivax or P. knowlesi and its 3′ region is identical to that of P. malariae. The same sequence variations were also found in P. malariae isolates collected along the Thai-Myanmar border, suggesting a wide distribution of this variant form from southern China to Southeast Asia. PMID:9774600

  10. Research on the Emission Inventory of Major Air Pollutants in 2012 for the Sichuan City Cluster in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, J.; He, Q.

    2014-12-01

    This paper developed a high resolution emission inventory of major pollutants in city cluster of Sichuan Basin, one of the most polluted regions in China. The city cluster included five cities, which were Chengdu, Deyang, Mianyang, Meishan and Ziyang. Pollution source census and field measurements were conducted for the major emission sources such as the industry sources, on-road mobile sources, catering sources and the dust sources. The inventory results showed that in the year of 2012, the emission of SO2、NOX、CO、PM10、PM2.5、VOCs and NH3 in the region were 143.5、251.9、1659.9、299.3、163.5、464.1 and 995kt respectively. Chengdu, the provincial capital city, had the largest emission load of every pollutant among the cities. The industry sources, including power plants, fuel combustion facilities and non-combustion processes were the largest emission sources for SO2、NOX and CO, contributing to 84%, 46.5%, 35% of total SO2, NOX and CO emissions. On-road mobile sources accounted for 46.5%, 33%, 16% of the total NOx, CO, PM2.5 emissions and 28% of the anthropogenic VOCs emission. Dust and industry sources contributed to 42% and 23% of the PM10 emission with the dust sources also as the largest source of PM2.5, contributing to 27%. Anthropogenic and biogenic sources took 75% and 25% of the total VOCs emission while 36% of anthropogenic VOCs emission was owing to solvent use. Livestock contributed to 62% of NH3 emissions, followed by nitrogen fertilizer application whose contribution was 23%. Based on the developed emission inventory and local meteorological data, the regional air quality modeling system WRF-CMAQ was applied to simulate the status of PM2.5 pollution in a regional scale. The results showed that high PM2.5 concentration was distributed over the urban area of Chengdu and Deyang. On-road mobile sources and dust sources were two major contributors to the PM2.5 pollution in Chengdu, both had an contribution ratio of 27%. In Deyang, Mianyang

  11. Genetic processes and environmental significance of Lower Devonian brachiopod shell concentrations in Longmenshan area, Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fengjie; Qu, Xuelin; Du, Lingchun; Dai, Tingyong; Yang, Yuchuan; Li, Junwu; Yang, Chengjin

    2016-01-01

    The distinctive features of the Lower Devonian rocks of the Longmenshan area in southwestern China are brachiopod shell concentrations, especially in the Bailiuping, Ganxi and Xiejiawan Formations, where brachiopod shell concentrations occur widely throughout. Depending on the dominant skeletal elements, six types of shell concentrations can be distinguished: Protochonete, Acrospirifer, Howellella, Orientospirifer, polyspecific shell and polyspecific fragments concentrations. According to the shell features, taphonomic signature, host sediments and their relationships, four genetic models of the various shell concentrations are described in this paper. The genetic processes and distributions along an onshore-offshore area were clarified on the base of taphonomic analysis. Pavements of opportunistic species of Protochonetes are autochthonous assemblages living in quieter, deeper, more offshore waters near the maximum storm wave base. The pavements are the result of reduced sedimentation; the substrate was silty and water-saturated with variable turbidity soupy-mud. Transport by high-energy processes is interpreted as the final formation process of polyspecific fragments concentrations with most extensive scope from intertidal zone to the maximum storm wave base. The Acrospirifer, Howellella, and Orientospirifer concentrations have been stirred by storm wave action and quickly buried after short transport tempestite model. They are most easily preserved around the average storm wave-base. The polyspecific shell concentrations, which include large bivalves are autochthonous assemblages living in shallow and relatively quieter water near shore environments. Autochthonous assemblages of the opportunist Protochonetes bailiupingensis occurring in the Bailiuping Formation of the Longmenshan area not only record of storm events, but are also important features to identify and correlate the Bailiuping Formation in the field.

  12. Active fold-thrust belts in the foreland of eastern Tibet, the Longquan and Xiongpu anticlines in Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jian-Cheng; Chan, Yu-Chang; Lu, Chia-Yu; Chen, Chih-Tung; Chu, Hao-Tsu; Liu, Yuiping; Li, Jianzhong

    2016-04-01

    The 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake ruptured from the Longmenshan fault system, which is the frontal thrust system in eastern Tibet. Further east toward the foreland area in the Sichuan basin, it sits two anticlinal structures, the Longquan and Xiongpu anticlines, which trends sub-parallel to the Longmenshan range with a distance of about 70-100 km to the mountain front. It is widely considered that these two anticlinal features are attributed to propagation of the eastward extrusion of the eastern Tibetan plateau, similar to the stress system the Wenchuan earthquake. In this study, we carried out field investigations on these two active anticlinal structures in order to characterize the bulk deformation of the anticlines. We also conducted fracture analysis and fault-slip data analysis, in an attempt to characterize the fracture developments of the rock and the paleostress states related to the faulting events associated growth of the anticlines. We thus constructed a series of geological cross sections along these two anticlines. Our results show that the Longquan anticline is characterized by pop up structure with a dominant west-vergent thrust (i.e., backthrust) on the western limb. On the other hand to the eastern limb, an east-vergent thrust only well developed in the middle part of the anticline and die out toward the north and the south. For the Xiongpu anticline, it is characterized by a pre-dominant west-vergent backthrust system without developing an east-vergent thrust. A strike-slip fault and a series of N-S-trending pop-up thrusts cut across the Xiongpu anticline indicate a rather complex stress system with two dominant compression directions, NW-SE and E-W, subsequently or alternatively affected the area. Finally, the fracture analysis revealed that 2-3 pre-dominant bedding-perpendicular fracture sets are commonly developed in the massive sandstone layers. Most of them seemingly are of the characteristics of the mode I open joint, without clear

  13. A conduit-related genesis of the Lengshuiqing intrusive assemblage (Sichuan, SW China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munteanu, Marian; Wilson, Allan H.; Yao, Yong; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Chunnett, Gordon; Luo, Yaonan; Mafurutu, Leonard; Phadagi, Rofhiwa

    2010-01-01

    Lengshuiqing is part of the late Proterozoic igneous province from the western margin of the Yangtze craton. The Lengshuiqing area comprises five ultramafic-mafic intrusions, emplaced in the late Proterozoic Yanbian Group. The intrusions from Lengshuiqing contain cumulate ultramafic zones (peridotite + olivine pyroxenite), with cumulus olivine and Cr-spinel, and intercumulus pyroxenes, hornblende, phlogopite and plagioclase. Ni-Cu ore (pyrrhotite + pentlandite + chalcopyrite) is hosted in the ultramafic zones. Olivine-free diorite-quartz diorite ± gabbro and granite zones commonly occur above the ultramafic rocks. The genesis of the intrusions (conduit-related accumulation or differentiation from stagnant magma) was investigated. The amount of sulphides in the intrusions from Lengshuiqing is one order of magnitude bigger than the sulphides that can be dissolved by a volume of mafic magma similar with the volume of the intrusions. Most intrusions from Lengshuiqing have bulk composition (peridotite ± diorite ± granite) more magnesian (MgO = 21-22%; Mg# > 78) than the deduced composition of their parental magma (MgO = 9-11%; Mg# = 64-67). This indicates the accumulation of sulphide and mafic silicates from a volume of magma much bigger than the volume of the intrusions, which can be explained by the fractionation from magma ascending through the intrusions to shallower depths. A continuous supply and vent of magma is consistent with the lack of chilled margins, the melting of the wall rocks and the generation of high-temperature mineral assemblages (K-feldspar, diopside, and sillimanite) in the Yanbian Group. The intrusions from Lengshuiqing are seen as microchambers on conduits draining olivine-, Cr-spinel-, and sulphide-bearing mafic magma from a larger staging chamber.

  14. Spatio-temporal modeling with GIS and remote sensing for schistosomiasis control in Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bing

    Schistosomiasis is a water-borne parasitic disease endemic in tropical and subtropical areas. Its transmission requires certain kind of snail as the intermediate host. Some efforts have been made to mapping snail habitats with remote sensing and schistosomiasis transmission modeling. However, the modeling is limited to isolated residential groups and does not include spatial interaction among those groups. Remotely sensed data are only used in snail habitat classification, not in estimation of snail abundance that is an important parameter in schistosomiasis transmission modeling. This research overcomes the above two problems using innovative geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing technology. A mountainous environment near Xichang, China, is chosen as the test site. Environmental and epidemiological data are stored in a GIS to support modeling. Snail abundance is estimated from land-cover and land-use fractions derived from high spatial resolution IKONOS satellite data. Spatial interaction is determined in consideration of neighborhoods, group areas, relative slopes among groups, and natural barriers. Land-cover and land-use information extracted from 4 m high resolution IKONOS data is used as reference in scaling up to the regional level. The scale-up is done with coarser resolution satellite data including Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), EO-1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Hyperion data all at 30 m resolution. Snail abundance is estimated by regressing snail survey data with land-cover and land-use fractions. An R2 of 0.87 is obtained between the average snail density predicted and that surveyed at the group level. With such a model, a snail density map is generated for all residential groups in the study area. A spatio-temporal model of schistosomiasis transmission is finally built to incorporate the spatial interaction caused by miracidia and cercaria migration. Comparing the model results with and without spatial interaction has revealed a

  15. Spatial patterns of the congenital heart disease prevalence among 0- to 14-year-old children in Sichuan Basin, P. R China, from 2004 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common type of major birth defects in Sichuan, the most populous province in China. The detailed etiology of CHD is unknown but some environmental factors are suspected as the cause of this disease. However, the geographical variations in CHD prevalence would be highly valuable in providing a clue on the role of the environment in CHD etiology. Here, we investigate the spatial patterns and geographic differences in CHD prevalence among 0- to 14-year-old children, discuss the possible environmental risk factors that might be associated with CHD prevalence in Sichuan Basin from 2004 to 2009. Methods The hierarchical Bayesian model was used to estimate CHD prevalence at the township level. Spatial autocorrelation statistics were performed, and a hot-spot analysis with different distance thresholds was used to identify the spatial pattern of CHD prevalence. Distribution and clustering maps were drawn using geographic information system tools. Results CHD prevalence was significantly clustered in Sichuan Basin in different spatial scale. Typical hot/cold clusters were identified, and possible CHD causes were discussed. The association between selected hypothetical environmental factors of maternal exposure and CHD prevalence was evaluated. Conclusions The largest hot-spot clustering phenomena and the CHD prevalence clustering trend among 0- to 14-year-old children in the study area showed a plausibly close similarity with those observed in the Tuojiang River Basin. The high ecological risk of heavy metal(Cd, As, and Pb)sediments in the middle and lower streams of the Tuojiang River watershed and ammonia–nitrogen pollution may have contribution to the high prevalence of CHD in this area. PMID:24924350

  16. Rapid sea-level change in the Late Guadalupian (Permian) on the Tethyan side of South China: litho- and biostratigraphy of the Chaotian section in Sichuan

    PubMed Central

    Isozaki, Yukio; Yao, Jianxin; Ji, Zhangshen; Saitoh, Masafumi; Kobayashi, Noritada; Sakai, Harutaka

    2008-01-01

    The Capitanian (Late Guadalupian) Maokou Formation at Chaotian in northern Sichuan, South China, is composed mainly of shallow marine shelf carbonates deposited on the Tethyan side of South China. By detailed field mapping and scientific drilling, we newly found out unique fossil assemblages and a sharp lithologic change in the upper part of the Maokou Formation. The main part of the Maokou Formation (over 130 m thick) is composed of algal packstone with Wordian-Capitanian large-tested fusulines, rugose corals and other sessile benthos, whereas the Uppermost Member (13 m thick) is composed of black limy mudstone/chert with Capitanian offshore biota (ammonoids, radiolarians, and conodonts). The topmost Capitanian conodont zones are missing; however, the Maokou Formation is disconformably overlain by 260 ± 4 Ma volcanic ash (Wangpo bed) and the Early Lopingian Wujiaping Formation with plant-bearing coaly mudstone and shallow marine carbonates (packstone). The newly identified facies change indicates that northern Sichuan has experienced rapid sea-level changes in the late Guadalupian, i.e., first a transgression in the mid-Capitanian and then a regression across the Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary. As the end-Guadalupian is characterized by a global regression, such a volatile sea-level fluctuation, in particular the sea-level rise, is unique to the Tethyan side of South China. The newly recognized relatively deep-water late Guadalupian sequence adds new paleo-environmental information and further provides a paleotectonic interpretation of the low-latitude eastern Tethyan margin immediately before the end-Guadalupian mass extinction. PMID:18941307

  17. Diagenesis of clay minerals and K-bentonites in Late Permian/Early Triassic sediments of the Sichuan Basin (Chaotian section, Central China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deconinck, J. F.; Crasquin, S.; Bruneau, L.; Pellenard, P.; Baudin, F.; Feng, Q.

    2014-02-01

    Detailed clay mineralogical analyses were carried out on Late Permian/Early Triassic carbonate sediments exposed on the Chaotian section (Sichuan Basin, Central China). The clay assemblages are dominantly composed of illite in platform carbonates and clay seams, and illite-smectite mixed-layers (I/S) in tuff layers (K-bentonites) intercalated in the carbonate succession. Detrital and authigenic volcanogenic clay minerals have been partially replaced through illitisation processes during burial, raising questions about diagenetic effects. The precise determination of I/S occurring in K-bentonites shows that the sediments reached a temperature of about 180 °C, which is consistent with (1) previous estimates based on fluid-inclusion homogenisation temperature analysis, (2) the burial depth of the sedimentary series deduced from the post-Palaeozoic geological history of the Sichuan Basin and (3) the new data (Tmax) obtained on organic matter indicating the transition between oil and gas windows. The Wangpo Bed, located close to the Guadalupian-Lopingian Boundary, is interpreted either as a volcanic acidic tuff or as a clastic horizon. This controversial origin probably results from mixed volcanogenic and detrital influences. The Wangpo Bed is therefore interpreted as a reworked bentonite as revealed by the occurrence of I/S similar to those found in tuff layers, together with preserved detrital kaolinite.

  18. An Outbreak of Type Π Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus in Sichuan Province, China: Emergence and Circulation in an Under-Immunized Population

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Chun-Xiang; Liu, Qing-Lian; Hao, Li-Xin; Liu, Yu; Zheng, Jing-Shan; Qin, Zhi-Ying; Xia, Wei; Zhang, Shi-Yue; Yin, Zun-Dong; Jing, Qiong; Zhang, Yan-Xia; Huang, Rong-Na; Yang, Ru-Pei; Tong, Wen-Bin; Qi, Qi; Guan, Xu-Jing; Jing, Yu-Lin; Ma, Qian-Li; Wang, Jin; Ma, Xiao-Zhen; Chen, Na; Zheng, Hong-Ru; Li, Yin-Qiao; Ma, Chao; Su, Qi-Ru; Reilly, Kathleen H.; Luo, Hui-Ming; Wu, Xian-Ping; Wen, Ning; Yang, Wei-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Background During August 2011–February 2012, an outbreak of type Π circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPVs) occurred in Sichuan Province, China. Methods A field investigation of the outbreak was conducted to characterize outbreak isolates and to guide emergency response. Sequence analysis of poliovirus capsid protein VP1 was performed to determine the viral propagation, and a coverage survey was carried out for risk assessment. Results One clinical compatible polio case and three VDPV cases were determined in Ngawa County, Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province. Case patients were unimmunized children, 0.8–1 years old. Genetic sequencing showed that the isolates diverged from the VP1 region of the type Π Sabin strain by 5–12 nucleotides (nt) and shared the same 5 nt VP1 substitutions, which indicate single lineage of cVDPVs. Of the 7 acute flaccid paralysis cases (all>6 months) reported in Ngawa Prefecture in 2011, 4 (57.1%) cases (including 2 polio cases) did not receive oral attenuated poliovirus vaccine. Supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) were conducted in February–May, 2012, and the strain has not been isolated since. Conclusion High coverage of routine immunization should be maintained among children until WPV transmission is globally eradicated. Risk assessments should be conducted regularly to pinpoint high risk areas or subpopulations, with SIAs developed if necessary. PMID:25503964

  19. Development stages of hazardous mountain lakes and simulation of their outbursts (Central Caucasus, Russia; Sichuan mountain region, China).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidyaeva, Vera; Krylenko, Inna; Chernomorets, Sergey; Petrakov, Dmitry

    2013-04-01

    The importance of mountain lakes studies is related to the increasing threat of natural disasters, associated with lake outbursts and debris flows formation, because of population growth on exposed areas. The outburst hazard has not been sufficiently researched, there is a lack of data because of the lakes inaccessibility and remote sensing data is usually not detailed enough. The main scientific topics include assessment of outburst possibility and further simulation of possible outbursts scenarios. There are two types of mountain lakes: glacial (cirque, cirque-moraine, barrier-moraine, glacial-barrier, etc.) lakes and barrier (landslide, rockfall, debris flow, etc.) lakes. The first type was studied in the Central Caucasus (Russia), and the second type - in the Sichuan mountain region (China). The group of scientists, including authors, has been monitoring glacial lakes in the Mnt. Elbrus area for more than ten years. The unique data were collected, including detailed hydrological characteristics of more than ten lakes (water level dynamics, temperature, morphometrical characteristics, water balance components, etc.). Outbursts of at least three glacial lakes were observed. Hydrological characteristics of landslide Tangjiashan Lake were collected with Chinese colleagues during field studies in 2010 and 2011 years. Analysis of the collected data was used to understand the outburst mechanisms, formation factors, dam breaking factors, development stages of mountain lakes. Statistical methods of analysis in this case can be applied with some limitations because of the lack of sufficient monitoring objects, and therefore the results has been verified by experts. All types of possible outbursts mechanisms were divided by the authors into five groups: geomorphologic (caused by changes in lake dams), seismic, or geodynamic (caused by seiches, waves from rockfalls, landslides), glacial (caused by breaks in impounding glaciers, ice floating and melting), water

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of Elymus (Poaceae) in western China.

    PubMed

    Song, H; Nan, Z B; Tian, P

    2015-01-01

    Elymus L. is often planted in temperate and subtropical regions as forage. Species in the genus have 5 allopolyploid genomes that are found in the grass tribe Triticeae. To determine the phylogenetic relationships in Elymus species from western China, we estimated phylogenetic trees using sequences from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and non-coding chloroplast DNA sequences from 56 accessions (871 samples) of 9 polyploid Elymus species and 42 accessions from GenBank. Tetraploid and hexaploid Elymus species from western China had independent origins, and Elymus species from the same area or neighboring geographic regions were the most closely related. Based on the phylogenetic tree topology, the St- and Y-genomes were not derived from the same donor and Y-genome likely originated from the H-genome of Hordeum species, or they shared the same origin or underwent introgression. The maternal genome of tetraploid and hexaploid Elymus species originated from species of Hordeum or Pseudoroegneria. Additionally, Elymus species in western China began diverging 17-8.5 million years ago, during a period of increased aridification as a consequence of the Messinian salinity crisis. Elymus species adapted to drought and high salinity may have developed based on the environmental conditions during this period. Elymus evolution in western China may have been affected by the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (5 million years ago), when Elymus seeds were dispersed by gravity or wind into a newly heterogeneous habitat, resulting in isolation. PMID:26505371

  1. [Environmental efficiency evaluation under carbon emission constraint in Western China].

    PubMed

    Rong, Jian-bo; Yan, Li-jiao; Huang, Shao-rong; Zhang, Ge

    2015-06-01

    This research used the SBM model based on undesirable outputs to measure the static environmental efficiency of Western China under carbon emission constraint from 2000 to 2012. The researchers also utilized the Malmquist index to further analyze the change tendency of environmental efficiency. Additionally, Tobit regression analysis was used to study the factors relevant to environmental efficiency. Practical solutions to improve environmental quality in Western China were put forward. The study showed that in Western China, environmental efficiency with carbon emission constraint was significantly lower than that without carbon emission constraint, and the difference could be described as an inverse U-shaped curve which increased at first and then decreased. Guang-xi and Inner Mongolia, the two provinces met the effective environmental efficiency levels all the time under carbon emission constraint. However, the five provinces of Guizhou, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia and Xinjiang did not. Furthermore, Ningxia had the lowest level of environmental efficiency, with a score between 0.281-0.386. Although the environmental efficiency of most provinces was currently at an ineffective level, the environmental efficiency quality was gradually improving at an average speed of 6.6%. Excessive CO2 emission and a large amount of energy consumption were the primary factors causing environmental inefficiency in Western China, and energy intensity had the most negative impact on the environmental efficiency. The increase of import and export trade reduced the environmental efficiency significantly in Western China, while the increase of foreign direct investment had a positive effect on its environmental efficiency. PMID:26572038

  2. Morphological and molecular taxonomic analysis of Pseudopoda Jäger, 2000 (Araneae: Sparassidae: Heteropodinae) in Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Peter; Li, Shuqiang; Krehenwinkel, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The genus Pseudopoda Jäger, 2000 is revised from material collected in Sichuan province. A molecular analysis shows the utility of DNA markers to support taxonomic hypotheses in Sparassidae. Two new species are described: Pseudopoda coenobium spec. nov. from Emeishan (male, female) and Pseudopoda wu spec. nov. from Lugu Lake at the border to Yunnan (male, female). The latter species exhibits a unique reduction of the conductor and a strongly developed embolus. The female of Pseudopoda virgata (Fox, 1936) is described for the first time, the male is redescribed, the known range of the geographical distribution is considerably extended to the East (Baoxing and Tienqiang County), the vertical distribution range is extended from 300 m to slightly more than 2000 m. The male of Pseudopoda signata Jäger, 2001 is described for the first time, the female is redescribed, the known distribution range of this species is extended from Muge Cuo Lake over Kangding town to the valleys of Paomashan, Gonggashan and Yanzi. It shows a strong morphological variation, which may be interpreted as developing subspecies status in different valleys. However, according to results from a molecular analysis it is clearly considered intraspecific variability. Three further species are recorded from Sichuan: Pseudopoda emei Zhang et al., 2013, Pseudopoda sp. cf. yunnanensis (Yang & Hu, 2001) and Pseudopoda rivicola Jäger and Vedel, 2007. PMID:26623582

  3. Identification of a Novel CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC Recombinant Form in Men Who Have Sex with Men in Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Wei, Huamian; Xu, Weisi; Yin, Qianqian; Feng, Yi; Liang, Shu; Shao, Yiming; Ma, Liying

    2016-07-01

    A novel second-generation CCR5-tropic HIV-1 recombinant virus (XC2014EU09) was identified here, which was isolated from a HIV-positive man who had sex with men (MSM) in Sichuan, China. Phylogenic analyses showed that XC2014EU09 was composed of two well-established circulating recombinant forms (CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC). Different from the other four reported CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC recombinant forms, three recombinant breakpoints of XC2014EU09 with four fragments were observed in the vpr, env, and nef genes, respectively, as follows: ICRF01_AE (636-5,843 nt), IICRF07_BC (5,844-8,393 nt), IIICRF01_AE (8,394-9,119 nt), and IVCRF07_BC (9,120-9,600 nt). The emergence of CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC recombinant strain indicates the increasing complexity of the HIV-1 epidemic among the MSM group in China. PMID:26943897

  4. Affiliative interactions between one-male units in a band of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) living in the Qinling Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Wada, Kazuo; Li, Baoguo; Watanabe, Kunio

    2015-10-01

    We studied affiliative behaviors that occurred within and between one-male units (OMUs) in a band of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) living in the Qinling Mountains, China for 3 years from 2002 to 2004. During the birth season, females handling infants of other females affiliatively interacted with females in neighboring OMUs as well as with females in their own OMU. After these interactions, affiliative encounters occurred without conflict between the OMUs. In the mating season, females sometimes presented their genitals to males of other OMUs. These interactions may facilitate the maintenance of a higher level social organization, a band. Therefore, the band composed of OMUs and all male group(s) is the basic unit of social structure of this species. Almost all other Asian colobines have OMUs that either maintain distance from each other or engage in territorial defense, so these OMUs would not be expected to form a band. Contrary to these species, the 3 species of Rhinopithecus spp. inhabiting China form a band composed of OMUs, because infants and females may function as a bridge connecting OMUs. PMID:26162774

  5. [The first western style doctor in modern China - Guan Tao].

    PubMed

    Liu, Z

    2000-04-01

    Guan Tao (Guan Yadu, Kuan A - To) is the first western style doctor and the first military western style doctor in the medical history of China. He was from the generations of the business painter in Shi San Hang (Thirteen Factories) of Guangzhou, in which the culture environment exerted a great influence on him. His uncle Guan Qiaochang (Lam Qua) and Guan Lianchang (Tin Qua) were famous business painters of Guangdong in 19th century. Guan Qiaochang set up a workshop in Shi San Hang and had extensive contact with various foreigners from Europe and North America. He followed the western style of the paintings from George Chinney who was a famous painter of England, settled down in Macao for the rest of his life during this period. Under the guidance of Guan Qiaochang, Guan Tao studied western medicine under the instruction of Peter Parker, the first American medical missionary in China, at the Ophthalmic Hospital in Shi San Hang in 1837, Guan Tao became a western style doctor with excellent character, skill and devotion. Chinese people remember his name forever. PMID:11624648

  6. Statistical Evaluation of Efficiency and Possibility of Earthquake Predictions with Gravity Field Variation and its Analytic Signal in Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shi; Jiang, Changsheng; Zhuang, Jiancang

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed at assessing gravity variations as precursors for earthquake prediction in the Tibet (Xizang)-Qinghai-Xinjiang-Sichuan Region, western China. We here take a statistical approach to evaluate efficiency and possibility of earthquake prediction. We used the most recent spatiotemporal gravity field variation datasets of 2002-2008 for the region that were provided by the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONC). The datasets were space sparse and time discrete. In 2007-2010, 13 earthquakes (> M s 6.0) occurred in the region. The observed gravity variations have a statistical correlation with the occurrence of these earthquakes through the Molchan error diagram tests that lead to alarms over a good fraction of space-time. The results show that the prediction efficiency of amplitude of analytic signal of gravity variations is better than seismicity rate model and THD and absolute value of gravity variation, implying that gravity variations before earthquake may include precursory information of future large earthquakes.

  7. Comparative study of bacterial status from conjunctival sac of the elder Qiang minority and Han people with dry eye in Sichuan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Liu, Zhi-Rong; Chen, Hui; Dong, Wan-Jiang; Fan, Ying-Chuan; Yu, Hua; Wang, Guang-Jin; Li, Yu-Chan; Cao, Kui

    2012-01-01

    AIM To compare the status of bacteria in the conjunctival sac from the elder Qiang minority and Han people with dry eyes in Sichuan, China. METHODS Total of 54 elder Qiang people with dry eyes (108 eyes) were examined by cluster sampling. In the similar habitation region of Han people, 80 (160 dry eyes) Han people were analyzed as the control group. The bacteria was separated from the inferior palpebral conjunctiva, then inoculated on blood plate for 48 hours and identified. RESULTS Totally 24 strains of bacteria were cultured in either Qiang minority or Han c populations with 3 strains of them existed in both ethnic groups. The commonest bacteria in conjunctival sac in two ethnic groups were non-pathogenic bacterium. The composition of Corynebacterium in Han people (54.1%) was significantly higher than that in Qiang minority (27.4%) (χ2=11.6721, P=0.0006). The percentage of Sphingomonas Paucimobilis in Qiang people was higher than that in Han people (χ2=18.6442, P=0.0000). However, there was no significant difference between Qiang minority and Han people either in bacterial positive rate in conjunctival sac, or the composition of bacteria species and strains, or the composition of staphylococcus epidemids between two ethnic populations. CONCLUSION There was no significant difference of bacterial positive rate in conjunctival sac from the elder of Qiang minority and Han people with dry eye, but the species of bacteria were different. PMID:22773985

  8. Characterization of mutations in streptomycin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Sichuan, China and the association between Beijing-lineage and dual-mutation in gidB.

    PubMed

    Sun, Honghu; Zhang, Congcong; Xiang, Ling; Pi, Rui; Guo, Zhen; Zheng, Chao; Li, Song; Zhao, Yuding; Tang, Ke; Luo, Mei; Rastogi, Nalin; Li, Yuqing; Sun, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in rpsL, rrs, and gidB are well linked to streptomycin (STR) resistance, some of which are suggested to be potentially associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypic lineages in certain geographic regions. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mutation characteristics of streptomycin resistance and the relationship between the polymorphism of drug-resistant genes and the lineage of M. tuberculosis isolates in Sichuan, China. A total of 227 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates, including 180 STR-resistant and 47 pan-susceptible isolates, were analyzed for presence of mutations in the rpsL, rrs and gidB loci. Mutation K43R in rpsL was strongly associated with high-level streptomycin resistance (P < 0.01), while mutations in rrs and gidB potentially contributed to low-level resistance (P < 0.05). No general association was exhibited between STR resistance and Beijing genotype, however, in STR-resistant strains, Beijing genotype was significantly correlated with high-level STR resistance, as well as the rpsL mutation K43R (P < 0.01), indicating that Beijing genotype has an evolutionary advantage under streptomycin pressure. Notably, in all isolates of Beijing genotype, a dual mutation E92D (a276c) and A205A (a615g) in gidB was detected, suggesting a highly significant association between this dual mutation and Beijing genotype. PMID:26786661

  9. Reinfection studies of canine echinococcosis and role of dogs in transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis in Tibetan communities, Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Moss, J E; Chen, X; Li, T; Qiu, J; Wang, Q; Giraudoux, P; Ito, A; Torgerson, P R; Craig, P S

    2013-11-01

    In the eastern Tibetan plateau both human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by infection with Echincoccus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively are highly endemic. The domestic dog plays a key role in zoonotic transmission in this region. Our primary objective was to investigate the role of domestic dogs in maintaining transmission of E. multilocularis in Shiqu county, Sichuan. A cohort of 281 dogs was followed up over one year after a single treatment with praziquantel followed by re-infection surveillance at 2, 5 and 12 months post-treatment. Faecal samples were tested by an Echinococcus genus-specific coproantigen ELISA and two species-specific copro-PCR tests. Total Echinococcus coproantigen prevalence in Shiqu at baseline was 21% and 9·6% after 2 months. E. multilocularis copro-PCR was positive in 11·2% of dogs before treatment (vs 3·6% with E. granulosus copro-DNA), 2·9% at 2 months post-treatment, and 0% at 5 month and 12 months. The results suggest that dogs may have the potential to maintain E. multilocularis transmission within local pastoral communities, and thus dog dosing could be an effective strategy to reduce transmission of E. multilocularis as well as E. granulosus in these co-endemic Tibetan communities. PMID:23985352

  10. [Dynamics of regional ecological frangibility under natural hazard stress: a case study in Qingping Town of Sichuan Province, Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin-Tao; Tao, He-Ping; Liu, Shao-Quan; Yu, Hui; Kong, Bo

    2012-01-01

    By using the aerial remote sensing images after May 12, 2008 (the date of catastrophic Wenchuan Earthquake) and the unmanned aircraft vehicle remote sensing images after August 13, 2010 (the date of extraordinary debris flow), and in combining with the land use map (1:10000), topographic map (1:50000), and collected field investigation data of Qingping Town, Mianzhu City of Sichuan Province in 2006, this paper analyzed and evaluated the ecological frangibility of the Town. In the Town, the slightly, lightly, moderately, heavily, and extremely fragile ecological zones after the extraordinary debris flow occupied 1.9%, 7.9%, 18.7%, 23.0%, and 48.5%, respectively, with the area of heavily and extremely fragile ecological zones accounting for 71.5% of the total, being 238.45 km2, i. e., the ecological environment was overall very fragile. Under the impact of the two natural hazards, the ecological frangibility degree of the Town increased obviously. As compared with that before the Earthquake, the area of heavily and extremely fragile ecological zones after the Earthquake increased by 12.4%, and the area of extremely fragile ecological zone was 1.67 times larger. The dynamic evolution of the ecological frangibility of the Town was mainly manifested in the conversion of heavily fragile ecological zone into extremely fragile ecological zone. Complex terrain was the key factor of the ecological frangibility of the Town. PMID:22489499

  11. The First Western-Style Hospital in China

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chi-Chao; Liu, Melissa M.; Tsai, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Peter Parker (1804–1888), a Yale University–trained missionary and physician, founded the first Western-style hospital in China, the Ophthalmic Hospital in Canton (now known as Guangzhou), on November 4, 1835. During its first 3 months, Parker treated 1061 patients, of whom 1020 (96.1%) had ocular illnesses. Since then, the Ophthalmic Hospital in Canton has become a comprehensive institution that is affiliated with Sun Yat-sen University and is one of the largest hospitals in China. In 1965, the Department of Ophthalmology, which originally employed only 2 ophthalmologists, expanded to become an ophthalmic hospital. In 1983, it joined the Eye Research Institute and the Office of Prevention of Blindness to form the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center. The center currently employs nearly 800 staff members and provides care to more than 500 000 patients annually. The first Western-style hospital in China has survived and thrived; it is now one of the most prestigious ophthalmic institutes in the world. PMID:21670348

  12. Intestinal disease of scattered mirror carp Cyprinus carpio caused by Thelohanellus kitauei and notes on the morphology and phylogeny of the myxosporean from Sichuan Province, southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Lingtong; Lu, Mingmiao; Quan, Keyan; Li, Wenxiang; Zou, Hong; Wu, Shangong; Wang, Jiangyong; Wang, Guitang

    2016-05-01

    The mass mortality of pond-reared scattered mirror carp, Cyprinus carpio, caused by Thelohanellus kitauei, occurred at fish farms in Sichuan Province, southwest China. Morphological and molecular analyses were supplemented with histological evaluation of infected tissues to better understand the route of infection and the pathological effects of T. kitauei on the fish host. The intestine of the diseased host was full of large cysts of the myxosporean. The cysts range from 2 cm to 3.6 cm in diameter. Histopathology indicated that T. kitaue i first invaded the submucosa of the host intestine and then moved into the mucosa layers with the development of their spores, finally entering into the enteric cavity of the hosts after the disruption of mucosa layers. The pyriform spores of T. kitauei were surrounded by the transparent spore sheath, measuring 25.98 μm±0.95 μm in body length, 8.72 μm±0.51 μm in body width, and 7.86 μm±0.26 μm in body thickness. The single polar capsule was pyriform, measuring 14.73 μm±0.92 μm in length and 6.82 μm±0.45 μm in width, with eight to 10 turns of filament coils winding inside. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 18S small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences indicated that minimal genetic differences were present between T. kitauei samples from South Korea and from China. Close affinity was found between the genus Thelohanellus and Myxobolus. Additionally, two polar capsule nuclei were found at the anterior end of the single polar capsule in spores of T. kitauei stained with hematoxylin and eosin, which suggested the separation of the genus Thelohanellus from Myxobolus.

  13. [Spatial analysis of LAIe of montane evergreen broad-leaved forest in southwest Sichuan, Northwest China, based on image texture].

    PubMed

    Zhao, An-Jiu; Yang, Chang-Qing; Liao, Cheng-Yun

    2014-11-01

    Optical remote sensing is still one of the most attractive choices for obtaining leaf area index (LAI) information, but currently may be derived from remotely sensed data with limited accuracy. Effective leaf area index (LAIe) of montane evergreen broad-leaved forest in southwest Sichuan was inventoried and assessed in 83 sample field plots of 20 m x 20 m using different types of image processing techniques, including simple spectral band, simple spectral band ratios and principal component. Texture information was extracted by gray level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) from different types of processing image. The results showed that there were correlations of different degrees between LAIe and texture parameters, and highly significant correlations were observed between LAIe with the homogeneity of the B1 band, B1/B4 band ratio or principal component PC1. Using texture information of remotely sensed data as auxiliary variables, we developed geostatistics models. Compared with the model based on NDVI auxiliary variable, the accuracy of LAIe were improved, presenting an increase by 5.3% with the homogeneity of the B1 band, 11.0% with the homogeneity B1/B4 band ratio, and 14.5% with the homogeneity principal component PC1, and the statistical errors were also reduced to some extent. The optimal LAIe model of spatial geostatistics was obtained when taking NDVI and homogeneity principal component PC1 as auxiliary variables (R2 = 0.840, RMSE = 0.212). Our results provided a new way to estimate regional spatial distribution of LAI using other auxiliary variables besides the vegetation index. PMID:25898622

  14. Buddhist Education in Sichuan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Darui

    2002-01-01

    This paper is devoted to Buddhist education in Sichuan Province with a focus on Venerable Longlian's temple. It deals with the historical development of Chinese Buddhist education and makes statistic analysis of the available data. Venerable Longlian established the Sichuan Buddhist Institute for Nuns in the 1980s. It was the first modern school…

  15. On Financial Support System for Compulsory Education in China's Western Minority Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jinyu, Qi

    2008-01-01

    China's Western Development is a policy adopted to boost its less developed Western regions, that is, a systematic project and a longterm and arduous task. The development of compulsory education in China's minority areas is the key to it. This paper attempts to use the beneficial experience of developing compulsory education support system of…

  16. A Comparative Study of Child Temperament and Parenting in Beijing, China and the Western United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Christian L.; Hart, Craig H.; Yang, Chongming; Robinson, Clyde C.; Olsen, Susanne Frost; Zeng, Qing; Olsen, Joseph A.; Jin, Shenghua

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine comparable dimensions and linkages between child temperament and parenting styles with samples from Beijing, China and the western United States. Participants included 404 mothers and fathers from Beijing, China and 325 mothers and fathers from the western United States. Both mothers and fathers…

  17. Human Resource Development Issues in the Implementation of the Western China Development Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Mingzheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper systematically illustrates the value and role of human resource development in the implementation of the Western China development strategy. It analyzes in details some current human resource issues constraining the implementation of the Western China development strategy and those on the sustainable development process of economic…

  18. Spatial and temporal variations of the Longxi river channel in Sichuan province after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, B.; Xie, T.; Liu, G.

    2015-12-01

    Biyun Guo1,21College of Marine Science and Technology, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316004,China; 2State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China Abstract: The great Wenchuan earthquake(Ms=8.0) occurred on May 12, 2008 in the southwestern China which triggerednumerous landslides and collapses that providedflows of an abundant unconsolidated material of debris. Landslides and debris flows were very active and caused river channel change over the affected mountain area. River channel changes due to the earthquake.Many potentially dangerous debris filledgullies have yet to be identified. In this paper,we present a study in the Longxi river watershed of the upper Min River located in Dujiangyan, discussingthe unconsolidated deposits and debris flows and their relationship with the riverbed changes. The secondary geological disasters triggered by this earthquake is delineated across the Longxi Rvier basin. Based on remote sensing and image interpretation of two QuickBird panchromatic images and comparison between two DEM data of different time periods, wevalidatedthe data with field survey by a differential GPS and laser rangefinder. Several variables were systematically measured (width, slope, bed level change, sediment size) along an18.22 km stretch of the river for specific sites. We have found from the study that: (1) the significant feature of geological disaster was near the Longxi river, where it had the mostintensity; (2) the longitudinal profile of channel bed was changed; (3) channel changes were associated with the land use and cover change, especially with the forest degradation and reforest, and post-quake reconstruction;(4)the landslide and debris flows caused the morphology changes in the Longxi River watershed, leading to sharp changes of the riverbed profiles and the slope in the upper and lower reaches. Keywords: Earthquake ;landslides; debris flows; channel change; riverbed evolution

  19. Hydrologic modulation of seismicity in western China 1991-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randolph-Flagg, Noah; Day, Jesse; Manga, Michael; Bürgmann, Roland

    2015-04-01

    Hydrologic loading, changes in pore fluid pressures, solid earth tides, and stresses due to thermoelastic expansion have all been proposed to modulate seismicity in a range of tectonic and climatic settings. Seismicity from 1991-2014 (24,892 events) in western China, between 20° and 60° N and between 105° and 70° E, appears to be seasonally modulated with 50% more shallow events in the spring and fall than the summer and winter. We show that this modulation is statistically significant using Schuster tests, analysis of variance tests, and the multifrequential periodogram approach on complete catalogs, a catalog of repeating earthquakes (Schaff and Richards, JGR, 2011), and declustered catalogs. Leveraging the tectonic and climatic heterogeneity in our study region, we compare each of the proposed causes of modulation to observations. We find that the spatial variation of modulation correlates best with spatial variation in hydrologic loading as measured by the GRACE satellites.

  20. [Ecological benefits of planting winter rapeseed in western China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-fang; Sun, Wan-cang; Li, Fang; Kang, Yan-li; Pu, Yuan-yuan; Liu, Hong-xia; Zeng, Chao-wu; Fan, Chong-xiu

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate the ecological benefits of popularizing winter rapeseed planting in western China, a wind tunnel simulation test was conducted with four kinds of farmland surface, i.e., winter rapeseed, winter wheat, wheat stubble, and bare field just after spring sowing, collected from west Gansu in April. The results showed that winter rapeseed surface had a roughness of 4.08 cm and a threshold wind velocity as high as 14 m x s(-1), being more effective in blown sand control than the other three surfaces. Under the same experimental conditions, the wind erosion modulus and sand transportation rate of winter rapeseed surface were only 4.1% and 485% of those of the bare field just after spring sowing, and the losses of soil organic matter, alkali-hydrolyzed N, available P and K, catalase, urease, alkaline phosphatase, invertase, and microbes of winter rapeseed surface due to wind erosion were only 1.4%, 5.1%, 1.6%, 2.7%, 9.7%, 3.6%, 6.3%, 6.7% and 1.5% of those of the bare field, respectively. It was suggested that popularizing winter rapeseed planting in west China could control wind erosion, retain soil water and nutrients, increase multicropping index, and improve economic benefits of farmland. In addition, it could benefit the regional desertification control and ecological environment improvement. PMID:19637605

  1. Geochemistry of Cretaceous granites from Mianning in the Panxi region, Sichuan Province, southwestern China: Implications for their generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Cheng; Huang, Zhilong; Qi, Liang; Fu, Pingqing; Liu, Congqiang; Li, Endong; Guan, Tao

    2007-03-01

    The Cretaceous granites of Mianning, located in the northern Panxi region, were emplaced after collision of the Tibetan Plateau and Yangtze Block. These granites have very high K 2O + Na 2O, Ga, Zr, Nb, Y, REE (except Eu), and very low MgO, CaO, P 2O 5, and Sr contents relative to M-, I- or S-type granites. Based on the chemical discrimination criteria of Whalen et al . [Whalen, J.B., Currie, K.L., Chappell, B.W., 1987. A-type granites: geochemical characteristics, distribution and petrogenesis. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 95, 407-419], most of them are A-type granites. Moreover, the granites plot in the range of post-collision granites and belong to the A2 type. Elevated initial Sr isotopic ratios (>0.72) suggest their derivation dominantly from a crustal source. These features are consistent with granite formation in a post-orogenic setting, such as after subduction or collision between of the Tibetan Plateau and Yangtze Block. In addition, the granites are characterized by low abundances of Ba, Sr, P, Ti, and Eu, positive correlation between Ba and Eu anomalies, and negative correlation between Rb and K/Rb. Plots of Rb vs. Sr suggest that fractional crystallization affected the final compositions of these granites after melting from a dominantly crustal source. From the late Proterozoic to late Mesozoic, the crustal composition, compared to that of the mantle, appears to have increased in the Panxi region. While the mantle component played an important part in the generation of Cretaceous granites in southeastern China, its influence was relatively minor in the Panxi region. Thus, there was a significant difference in mantle evolution between southeastern China and the Panxi region, which led to different metallogenic processes.

  2. Stress changes from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and increased hazard in the Sichuan basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.; Ji, C.; Kirby, E.

    2008-01-01

    On 12 May 2008, the devastating magnitude 7.9 (Wenchuan) earthquake struck the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau, collapsing buildings and killing thousands in major cities aligned along the western Sichuan basin in China. After such a large-magnitude earthquake, rearrangement of stresses in the crust commonly leads to subsequent damaging earthquakes. The mainshock of the 12 May earthquake ruptured with as much as 9 m of slip along the boundary between the Longmen Shan and Sichuan basin, and demonstrated the complex strike-slip and thrust motion that characterizes the region. The Sichuan basin and surroundings are also crossed by other active strike-slip and thrust faults. Here we present calculations of the coseismic stress changes that resulted from the 12 May event using models of those faults, and show that many indicate significant stress increases. Rapid mapping of such stress changes can help to locate fault sections with relatively higher odds of producing large aftershocks. ??2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  3. Three dimensional surface slip partitioning of the Sichuan earthquake from Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Michele, M.; Raucoules, D.; de Sigoyer, J.; Pubellier, M.; Lasserre, C.; Pathier, E.; Klinger, Y.; van der Woerd, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Sichuan earthquake, Mw 7.9, struck the Longmen Shan range front, in the western Sichuan province, China, on 12 May 2008. It severely affected an area where little historical seismicity and little or no significant active shortening were reported before the earthquake (e.g. Gu et al., 1989; Chen et al., 1994; Gan et al., 2007). The Longmen Shan thrust system bounds the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau and is considered as a transpressive zone since Triassic time that was reactivated during the India-Asia collision (e.g., Tapponnier and Molnar, 1977, Chen and Wilson 1996; Arne et al., 1997, Godard et al., 2009). However, contrasting geological evidences of sparse thrusting and marked dextral strike-slip faulting during the Quaternary along with high topography (Burchfiel et al., 1995; Densmore et al., 2007) have led to models of dynamically driven and sustained topography (Royden et al., 1997) limiting the role of earthquakes in relief building and leaving the mechanism of long term strain distribution in this area as an open question. Here we combine C and L band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) offsets data from ascending and descending paths to retrieve the three dimensional surface slips distribution all along the earthquake ruptures of the Sichuan earthquake. We show a quantitative assessment of the amount of co-seismic slip and its partitioning at the surface.

  4. Challenges in analysing ambient noise to characterise seismic slope response in complex site conditions: the case of hillslopes in Qiaozhuang (Sichuan, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Gaudio, Vincenzo; Wasowski, Janusz; Luo, Yonghong; Huang, Runqiu; Wang, Yungsheng

    2015-04-01

    a straightforward interpretation of results. Therefore, further developments in advanced techniques of noise data analysis techniques appear necessary to facilitate the extraction of reliable information on seismic response of slopes in geologically complex conditions. Reference Luo Y., Del Gaudio V., Huang R., Wang Y. & Wasowski J., 2014: Evidence of hillslope directional amplification from accelerometer recordings at Qiaozhuang (Sichuan -- China). Engineering Geology, 183, 193-207, doi: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2014.10.015.

  5. Geochemical characteristics of the Triassic Tethys-turbidites in northwestern Sichuan, China: Implications for provenance and interpretation of the tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, X. X.

    1994-11-01

    The Triassic Tethys graywacke-slate turbidites in the northwestern Sichuan, China have been analysed for major and trace elements and petrographically studied. Compared to Phanerozoic turbidites, the turbidites in this study are quartz-intermediate (average 55%) in composition and are characterized geochemically by their moderate Fe 2O ∗3 + MgO (9.28 ± 2.84%), TiO 2 (0.72 ± 0.17%) contents and Al 2O 3/SiO 2 (0.25 ± 0.10) ratios; moderate abundances of ferromagnesian trace elements ( Co = 15 ± 8 ppm, Cr = 113 ± 72 ppm, Ni = 14 + 9 ppm, Sc = 12 ± 4 ppm, etc.); and moderate contents of incompatible elements, such as Th (11 ± 3 ppm), U (3 ± 0.7 ppm), Zr (170 ± 64 ppm), Hf (4 ± 1 ppm) and total REEs (159 ± 33 ppm). In general, the slates show systematically higher Fe 2O ∗3 + MgO, Sc, Co and Eu/Eu∗, but lower solLa/Sc and Th/Sc than the associated graywackes, suggesting that various provenance components may separate into different grain-size fractions during sedimentary sorting processes, that is, the more mafic materials tended to incorporate into the sedimentary record for the clay-size fraction. Framework modes and geochemical data indicate that the turbidites were mainly derived from a recycled orogenic provenance characterized chiefly by sedimentary-metasedimentary rocks and granite-gneisses, similar to the upper continental crust, but with a variable admixture of continental island arc volcanic components. Flysch deposition took place in a back arc basin situated between an active continental margin (the Kunlun-Qinling fold belt) and a continental island arc (the Yidun island arc). Weathering conditions in the source area significantly influenced the composition and distribution of elements in the sediments. With the elapse of time during sedimentation, the degree of chemical weathering in the provenance became intense while the tectonic activity decreased gradually.

  6. A more accurate relocation of the 2013 M s7.0 Lushan, Sichuan, China, earthquake sequence, and the seismogenic structure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, F.; Wen, X. Z.; Ruan, X.; Zhao, M.; Yi, G. X.

    2015-07-01

    We use a combined earthquake location technique to relocate the M s7.0 Lushan, Sichuan, China, earthquake sequence of April 20, 2013. A stepwise approach, employing three existing location methods (the HYPOINVERSE method, the Minimum 1-D model, and the Double Difference method), is used to improve location precision by iteratively revising the velocity model station corrections, and hypocenter relocations throughout the process. Our stepwise approach has significantly improved the location precision of the Lushan earthquake sequence, yielding hypocenter locations with final errors of 359, 309, and 605 m in the E-W, N-S, and vertical directions, respectively, with average travel time residuals of 0.12 s. Furthermore, we analyzed the seismogenic structure surrounding the Lushan earthquake sequence by combining the results of the relocated hypocenter distribution with new focal mechanism solutions and information from regional geological and geophysical investigations. From our analysis, we conclude that the vast majority of the aftershocks of the Lushan earthquake sequence occurred at depths of 6-9 km, near the front of the southwestern segment of the NE-trending Longmenshan fault zone. Densely aligned hypocenters clearly suggest that the seismogenic structure of the mainshock consists of a set of basal thrust faults dipping to the NW at 40-50°, at a ramp of the deep basal décollement-thrust system at depths of 7-18 km. Focal mechanism solutions suggest that the seismogenic faults have produced almost pure thrusting. At least one SE-dipping back-thrust is also observed within the basement, as indicated by the hypocenter relocations, which points to either a secondary rupture plane during the mainshock or a plane of aftershock slips. A small number of minor events in the Lushan sequence are located at depths of 0-6 km, with a distribution suggesting that the three NE-trending faults with surface traces running through or passing close to the aftershock area are

  7. Coulomb stress evolution over the past 200 years and seismic hazard along the Xianshuihe fault zone of Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhigang; Xu, Jing; Ma, Hongsheng; Zhang, Langping

    2016-02-01

    This study focuses on the M ≥ 6.7 earthquakes that have occurred since 1816 on the Xianshuihe fault zone in southwest China. The interseismic Coulomb stress accumulation and the Coulomb stress changes caused by coseismic dislocation and postseismic viscoelastic relaxation of the previous shocks were computed for different periods on the relevant fault segments. Based on these results, we analyzed the relationship between time-adjacent strong shocks and the Coulomb stress evolution before every earthquake. The analysis suggests that strong earthquakes mostly occurred in the Coulomb stress enhancement region caused by coseismic dislocation and postseismic viscoelastic relaxation of the last earthquake. Considering the Coulomb stress evolution at the fault planes of the epicentral area before earthquakes, we found that the Coulomb stress accumulation caused by the interseismic tectonic loading was dominant for most strong earthquakes. For some other earthquakes the stress changes caused by coseismic dislocation and postseismic viscoelastic relaxation of surrounding earthquakes were very significant, which may be equivalent to the effect of interseismic tectonic loading lasting hundreds of years. Based on the time-dependent probabilistic risk model and the Dieterich (1994) model, we estimate the background seismic activity and the future earthquake probability for different fault segments, using long term seismic activity and strong earthquake recurrence cycles. It is shown that the Bamei, Selaha, and Kangding segments of the Xianshuihe fault zone have high earthquake probability, and are likely to have strong earthquakes. If energy is accumulated up to the year 2050, the magnitude of an event on these three segments could reach Mw 7.2, Mw 7.0, and Mw 7.1 respectively, while if the S7 and S8 cascades rupture, the event on these segments could reach a magnitude of up to Mw 7.2.

  8. Impacts of climate change on the distribution of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Shennongjia area, China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhenhua; Zhou, Surong; Yu, Wendi; Yu, Huiliang; Yang, Jingyuan; Tian, Yanhong; Zhao, Mian; Wu, Hua

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the effects of climate change on primate ranging patterns is crucial for conservation planning. Rhinopithecus roxellana is an endangered primate species distributed in mountainous forests at the elevation of 1500-3500 m a.s.l. in China. Our study site, the Shennongjia National Nature Reserve, represents the eastern-most distribution of this species. This area has experienced significant habitat loss and fragmentation because of human population growth, increased farming and logging, and climate change. To estimate how changes in temperature and rainfall will affect the presumed future distribution of this species, we examined eco-geographic factors including bioclimate, habitat (vegetation type, landcover, etc.), topography, and human impact (human population, gross domestic product, etc.), and provide suggestions for management and conservation. We used a maximum entropy approach to predict the location and distribution of habitats suitable for R. roxellana in the present, 2020, 2050, and 2080 based on 33 environmental parameters, three general circulation models, three emissions scenarios, and two dispersal hypotheses. According to the ensemble modeling, we found range reductions of almost 30% by 2020, 70% by 2050, and over 80% by 2080. Although no obvious differences were found in distribution change based on full and zero dispersal assumptions, our results revealed range reductions in response to elevational, latitudinal, and longitudinal gradients, with the monkeys forced to migrate to higher elevations over time. Bioclimte factors, such as temperature, precipitation, evapo-transpiration, and aridity condition, were dominant contributors to range shifting. As habitat loss due to human influence and climate change is likely to be even more severe in the future, we considered three conservation hot-spots in the Shennongjia area and recommended: (i) securing existing reserves and establishing new reserves, (ii) re-designing management systems to

  9. GIS-based analysis of 1933 Diexi Landslides and dam breach on the Min River, Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Song; Evans, Stephen G.

    2014-05-01

    Due to complex tectonic and geomorphologic factors, the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas, are particularly prone to landslides. Rivers have deeply cut into bedrock, forming narrow valleys that are especially prone to landslide damming. Numerous landslide damming and subsequent dam breaching events are recorded from the region in historical documents and the geosciece literature; these include events at the Dadu River (1786), Diexi (1933), Tanggudong (1967), Yigong (2000), and Tangjiashan (2008). We report the results of a GIS-based analysis of earthquake-generated landslide dams at Diexi. The Diexi Earthquake (M=7.5) occurred on August 25, 1933 and induced a series of giant landslides along the Min River, some of which blocked the river and formed three large landslide lakes. The landslide dam located furthest downstream breached on October 9, 1933, 45 days after the earthquake. The outburst flood resulted in huge damage to the downstream area killing 2,423 people, one of the most serious landslide-related disasters in China during the 20th Century. In the present work, GIS analysis is applied to the Diexi Landslides, based on a review of historical documents and previous studies, data collected during field work, and remote sensing and SRTM-3 digital terrain data. We attempted to determine the precise locations of the 1933 landslides and measured dam height, cross-section area, and volume of the damming landslides. Due to the lack of topographic data before the 1933 earthquake, data of the landslide lakes, including maximum water elevation and total impounded volume can only be estimated. Using credible water levels and inferred submerged topography we calculate an outburst volume for the 1933 event. Moreover, cross-sections are made for both the damming area and the Min River downstream in order to make a general assessment of the damage due to the subsequent flood. Maximum flood discharge is estimated by regression equations. The two remaining lakes on

  10. Local villagers’ perceptions of wolves in Jiuzhaigou County, western China

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Liang

    2015-01-01

    While there have been increasing numbers of reports of human-wolf conflict in China during recent years, little is known about the nature of this conflict. In this study, we used questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to investigate local villagers’ perceptions of wolves in Jiuzhaigou County, western China. We sampled nine villages with more frequent reports of wolf depredation to the local government, but included three villages near alpine pastures in which reports of depredation were less frequent. We sampled 100 residents, a subset of the local population who were more likely to have had experience with wolves. During the preceding three years, most families of the respondents grazed livestock on alpine pastures, and most of them reported that their livestock suffered from depredation by wolves. The mean value of the reported annual livestock loss rates was considerably higher in villages that reported depredation more frequently than in those with less frequent reports of depredation. Most respondents in the more frequently depredated villages perceived an increase in wolf populations, whereas many in the less frequently depredated villages perceived a decrease in wolf populations in their areas. People’s attitudes towards wolves did not differ significantly between these two village categories. The majority of the respondents were negative in their attitude to wolves, despite a prevalent Tibetan culture that favors the protection of wildlife. People’s negative attitude was directly related to the number of livestock owned by their family. Those with a larger number of livestock were more likely to have a negative attitude towards wolves. Factors such as village category, ethnicity, age and education level did not influence people’s attitudes to wolves. We suggest that improved guarding of livestock and provision of monetary support on human resources and infrastructure may mitigate human-wolf conflicts in this region. PMID:26082870

  11. Geology and petroleum resources of basins in western China

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmishek, G.

    1984-11-01

    Western China contains 11 recognized petroliferous or potentially petroliferous basins. Despite their great difference in size, these basins have important common features: (1) their Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary sequences are composed of rocks of essentially terrestrial origin, and (2) they experienced predominantly compressional stress during the late stages of their geologic history. The report is structured on a regional basis. The topics discussed for each basin include the stratigraphic and lithologic composition of the sedimentary cover, the major stages of tectonic development and the present-day structural framework, known oil and gas fields, probable source rocks, reservoir rocks, traps and seals, and potentially important exploration plays. The basins occupy 800,000 km/sup 2/ of land and contain over 4,000,000 km/sup 3/ of prospective sedimentary rocks. The most probable amounts of undiscovered petroleum resources in all these basins are estimated at 19.5 billion barrels of oil and 78 trillion cubic feet of gas. The Tarim, Zhungaer, and Chaidamu basins possess the great majority of these resources. 111 refs., 48 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Excavating the Nation: Archaeology and Control of the Past and Present in Republican Sichuan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyong-McClain, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation considers whether or not archaeology was an effective tool for nation-building elites in Republican China (1912-1949), by looking at the discipline's fortunes in the off-center locale of Sichuan province. Through consideration of the multiplicity of agents and motives involved in archaeological enterprise in Republican Sichuan,…

  13. Evaluation of Rural Primary Health Care in Western China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Manli; Fang, Haiqing; Bishwajit, Ghose; Xiang, Yuanxi; Fu, Hang; Feng, Zhanchun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: China’s Ministry of Health has enacted Rural Primary Health Care Program (2001–2010) (HCP) guidelines to improve the quality of people’s health. However, the program’s success in Western China remains unevaluated. Thus, this study aims to begin to fill that gap by analyzing the provision and utilization of Rural Primary Health Care (RPHC) in Western China. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect secondary data on the socio-economic characteristics, system construction, services use and implementation of RPHC, and the residents’ health status of the sampled areas. Four hundred counties from 31 provinces in China were selected via stratified random sampling, including 171 counties from 12 Western provinces. Twenty-seven analysis indicators, covering system construction, services use and implementation of RPHC were chosen to assess Western China’s primary health quality. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Least Significant Difference (LSD) methods were used to measure the RPHC disparities between Western and Eastern and Central China. Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) was used to rank Western, Eastern and Central internal provinces regarding quality of their RPHC. Results: Of the 27 indicators, 13 (48.15%) were below the standard in Western China. These focused on rural health service system construction, Chinese medicine services, and public health. In the comparison between Western, Central and Eastern China, 12 indicators had statistical significance (p < 0.05), and using LSD to compare between Western and Eastern China, all indicators were statistically significant (p < 0.05), demonstrating regional disparities. Xinjiang Province’s RPHC ranked highest overall, and Yunnan Province ranked the lowest, indicating the internal differences within the 12 Western provinces; and Western provinces’ Ci value was lower than that of Eastern and Central China overall. Conclusion: Western China

  14. Effects of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants on surface ozone concentrations over Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Emmons, Louisa K.; Walters, Stacy; Horowitz, Larry W.; Tao, Shu

    2014-11-01

    Due to a lack of industrialization in Western China, surface air there was, until recently, believed to be relatively unpolluted. However, recent measurements and modeling studies have found high levels of ozone (O3) there. Based on the state-of-the-science global chemical transport model MOZART-4, we identify the origin, pathway, and mechanism of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants to Western China in 2000. MOZART-4 generally simulates well the observed surface O3 over inland areas of China. Simulations find surface ozone concentrations over Western China on average to be about 10 ppbv higher than Eastern China. Using sensitivity studies, we find that anthropogenic emissions from all Eurasian regions except China contribute 10-15 ppbv surface O3 over Western China, superimposed upon a 35-40 ppbv natural background. Transport from European anthropogenic sources to Northwestern China results in 2-6 ppbv O3 enhancements in spring and summer. Indian anthropogenic sources strongly influence O3 over the Tibetan Plateau during the summer monsoon. Transport of O3 originating from emissions in the Middle East occasionally reach Western China and increase surface ozone there by about 1-4 ppbv. These influences are of similar magnitude as trans-Pacific and transatlantic transport of O3 and its precursors, indicating the significance of trans-Eurasian ozone transport in hemispheric transport of air pollution. Our study further indicates that mitigation of anthropogenic emissions from Europe, the Indian subcontinent, and the Middle East could benefit public health and agricultural productivity in Western China.

  15. Cenozoic to active deformation in Western Yunnan (Myanmar China border)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socquet, A.; Pubellier, M.

    2003-04-01

    The northward movement of India induces a right-lateral shear band from the Sunda trench to the easternmost Himalaya, where wrenching between India and Sunda plates, interfere with a clockwise flow of material around the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis. We describe brittle and ductile deformation styles in Western Yunnan and Northern Myanmar, using field data and Landsat 7 imagery for Cenozoic structures as well as GPS and seismicity for active structures to unravel the Neogene to Present evolution. Western Yunnan is crossed by three continental-size ductile shear zones characterized by high mountain belts mainly composed of high-grade metamorphics and mylonitic rocks, and affected by active faulting. The easternmost metamorphic range, the Gaoligong Shan composed of verticalized foliated granites and mylonites is flattened westward and joins the Mogok metamorphic belt in Myanmar. East of the Gaoligong Shan, lie the Chong Shan and the Ailao / Diangcan Shan metamorphic ranges, which presents a vertical shistosity and a left-lateral motion. These three shear zones are separated by sedimentary fold-and-thrust-belts in the East, and , West of the Gaoligong, by Quaternary basins and volcanics. Preliminary results indicate that the Shan Scarp constituted the major strike-slip boundary between Indochina and India during Eocene to Miocene time, and accommodated deformation in right-lateral wrench. At the same time, the Ailao / Diangcan Shan and the Chong Shan zones were sheared left-laterally allowing the displacement toward the SE of Indochina block relative to south China. In the Miocene, ductile deformation migrated north along the Shan Scarp to the Mogok / Ruili metamorphic belt and the Gaoligong belt, dragging the Chong Shan right-laterally and superimposing a late right-lateral ductile deformation on its metamorphic rocks. The present-day relative motion between India and Sundaland, inferred from GPS processing, reaches 35 mm / yr in the Myanmar area. It is classically

  16. A random forest approach for predicting the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis intermediate host Ochotona spp. presence in relation to landscape characteristics in western China

    PubMed Central

    Marston, Christopher G.; Danson, F. Mark; Armitage, Richard P.; Giraudoux, Patrick; Pleydell, David R.J.; Wang, Qian; Qui, Jiamin; Craig, Philip S.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding distribution patterns of hosts implicated in the transmission of zoonotic disease remains a key goal of parasitology. Here, random forests are employed to model spatial patterns of the presence of the plateau pika (Ochotona spp.) small mammal intermediate host for the parasitic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis which is responsible for a significant burden of human zoonoses in western China. Landsat ETM+ satellite imagery and digital elevation model data were utilized to generate quantified measures of environmental characteristics across a study area in Sichuan Province, China. Land cover maps were generated identifying the distribution of specific land cover types, with landscape metrics employed to describe the spatial organisation of land cover patches. Random forests were used to model spatial patterns of Ochotona spp. presence, enabling the relative importance of the environmental characteristics in relation to Ochotona spp. presence to be ranked. An index of habitat aggregation was identified as the most important variable in influencing Ochotona spp. presence, with area of degraded grassland the most important land cover class variable. 71% of the variance in Ochotona spp. presence was explained, with a 90.98% accuracy rate as determined by ‘out-of-bag’ error assessment. Identification of the environmental characteristics influencing Ochotona spp. presence enables us to better understand distribution patterns of hosts implicated in the transmission of Em. The predictive mapping of this Em host enables the identification of human populations at increased risk of infection, enabling preventative strategies to be adopted. PMID:25386042

  17. A random forest approach for predicting the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis intermediate host Ochotona spp. presence in relation to landscape characteristics in western China.

    PubMed

    Marston, Christopher G; Danson, F Mark; Armitage, Richard P; Giraudoux, Patrick; Pleydell, David R J; Wang, Qian; Qui, Jiamin; Craig, Philip S

    2014-12-01

    Understanding distribution patterns of hosts implicated in the transmission of zoonotic disease remains a key goal of parasitology. Here, random forests are employed to model spatial patterns of the presence of the plateau pika (Ochotona spp.) small mammal intermediate host for the parasitic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis which is responsible for a significant burden of human zoonoses in western China. Landsat ETM+ satellite imagery and digital elevation model data were utilized to generate quantified measures of environmental characteristics across a study area in Sichuan Province, China. Land cover maps were generated identifying the distribution of specific land cover types, with landscape metrics employed to describe the spatial organisation of land cover patches. Random forests were used to model spatial patterns of Ochotona spp. presence, enabling the relative importance of the environmental characteristics in relation to Ochotona spp. presence to be ranked. An index of habitat aggregation was identified as the most important variable in influencing Ochotona spp. presence, with area of degraded grassland the most important land cover class variable. 71% of the variance in Ochotona spp. presence was explained, with a 90.98% accuracy rate as determined by 'out-of-bag' error assessment. Identification of the environmental characteristics influencing Ochotona spp. presence enables us to better understand distribution patterns of hosts implicated in the transmission of Em. The predictive mapping of this Em host enables the identification of human populations at increased risk of infection, enabling preventative strategies to be adopted. PMID:25386042

  18. The Post-seismic Slip of the 1973 M7.6 earthquake on the Luhuo Segment of the Xianshuihe Fault Zone, Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, D.; Xue-Ze, W.

    2012-04-01

    An M=7.6 earthquake ruptured the Luhuo segment of the Xianshuihe fault zone on Feb. 6, 1973. Since then, several across-fault (across the 1973 rupture) deformation observation systems have been set up one after another at the site of Xialatuo, Luhuo county, Sichuan province, China. Among them are a system of short baselines and short leveling, a set of creep-meters, an artificial construction, and some near-fault to far-fault GPS geodetic stations. By using data from the observation of these systems, this paper studies the characteristic of the post-seismic slip/deformation and their temporal-spatial variations for the Luhuo segment of the Xianshuihe fault zone, and builds a tectonic-dynamic model to explain the characteristic features. Our study mainly shows that, (1) in the first five years following the 1973 earthquake, the earthquake fault at Xialatuo behaved as an open one that the post-seismic slip showed mainly as aseismic left-lateral slip (creeping) at an average rate of 10.27mm/a along with slight tensional creeping. Since 1979, however, the rate of the post-seismic left-lateral creep has been slowing down gradually from 5.3mm/a to 2.27mm/a, and the process of the rate slowing down is the type of logarithmic function, suggesting that during the period since 1979 the fault plane, that ruptured in the 1973 earthquake, has been tending to re-couple and re-lock gradually with some strain having rebuilt-up. (2) Since 1999 the rate of relative left-lateral displacement/deformation at the fault far-fields on both sides of the fault segment is estimated to be 10mm/a, much greater than the near-fault (40m to 144m across the fault) left-lateral creep rates of 0.66 mm/a to 2.52mm/a in the same stage. Also, such significant differences of the near- to far-fault displacement/deformation rates occur along an about 2×30-km-wide zone centered along the fault segment of Luhuo, indicating the width of the seismogenic fault zone associated with the stress/strain build

  19. Late Cenozoic Deformation in the Western Tarim Basin, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, J. A.; Burbank, D. W.; Chen, J.; Li, T.

    2009-12-01

    The Tian Shan in NW China is one of the most active regions of intracontinental deformation in the world, accommodating a large fraction (~40%) of the shortening from the Indo-Eurasian collision. The western Tarim Basin, situated between the southern Tian Shan and Pamir Mountains, manifests this deformation through a series of east-west trending fault-related folds that have formed during the late Cenozoic. Previous studies in this region have focused on the kinematics, style, and timing of detachment folds related to folding within the foreland basin of the southern Tian Shan. In contrast, this study focuses on the deformation caused by fault-propagation folding resulting from the northward movement of the Pamir. The rates of deformation are calculated using a combination of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages, structural mapping and differential GPS surveys of fault scarps and deformed terrace surfaces crossing active folds. OSL dating provides the time since the sediment was last exposed to daylight, i.e., time since burial. Consequently, OSL is useful for dating the abandonment of terrace surfaces due to tectonic (fold growth) or climatic events. OSL quartz samples were collected from silt lenses within gravel topping the terraces. Most of the quartz OSL signals are weak, thus several grain sizes (silt (4-11 µm, 8-15 µm) and sand (90-125 µm)) were analyzed and different integrations of the shine-down curves were explored to calculate equivalent doses. The implications for different equivalent doses and ages on the calculation of rates of deformation are also addressed.

  20. Developing a new perspective to study the health of survivors of Sichuan earthquakes in China: a study on the effect of post-earthquake rescue policies on survivors’ health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sichuan is a province in China with an extensive history of earthquakes. Recent earthquakes, including the Lushan earthquake in 2013, have resulted in thousands of people losing their homes and their families. However, there is a research gap on the efficiency of government support policies. Therefore, this study develops a new perspective to study the health of earthquake survivors, based on the effect of post-earthquake rescue policies on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of survivors of the Sichuan earthquake. Methods This study uses data from a survey conducted in five hard-hit counties (Wenchuan, Qingchuan, Mianzhu, Lushan, and Dujiangyan) in Sichuan in 2013. A total of 2,000 questionnaires were distributed, and 1,672 were returned; the response rate was 83.6%. Results Results of the rescue policies scale and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) scale passed the reliability test. The confirmatory factor analysis model showed that the physical component summary (PCS) directly affected the mental component summary (MCS). The results of structural equation model regarding the effects of rescue policies on HRQOL showed that the path coefficients of six policies (education, orphans, employment, poverty, legal, and social rescue policies) to the PCS of survivors were all positive and passed the test of significance. Finally, although only the path coefficient of the educational rescue policy to the MCS of survivors was positive and passed the test of significance, the other five policies affected the MCS indirectly through the PCS. Conclusions The general HRQOL of survivors is not ideal; the survivors showed a low satisfaction with the post-earthquake rescue policies. Further, the six post-earthquake rescue policies significantly improved the HRQOL of survivors and directly affected the promotion of the PCS of survivors. Aside from the educational rescue policy, all other policies affected the MCS indirectly through the PCS. This finding

  1. Education Management and Performance after Rural Education Finance Reform: Evidence from Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Mingxing; Murphy, Rachel; Tao, Ran; An, Xuehui

    2009-01-01

    Based on a survey of rural school districts in Western China, this essay explores the effects of fiscal centralisation on the relationship between local governance and school district management, most particularly on how managerial power is distributed in the rural education sector. The essay also examines some of the possible effects that changes…

  2. Factors Associated with the Utilization and Quality of Prenatal Care in Western Rural Regions of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dongxu, Wang; Yuhui, Shi; Stewart, Donald; Chun, Chang; Chaoyang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to identify key features of prenatal care utilization and quality in western regions of China and to determine the factors affecting the quality of prenatal care. Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted. The instrument for the study was a 10-stem respondent-administered, structured…

  3. Reducing high maternal mortality rates in western China: a novel approach.

    PubMed

    Gyaltsen Gongque Jianzan, Kunchok; Gyal Li Xianjia, Lhusham; Gipson, Jessica D; Kyi Cai Rangji, Tsering; Pebley, Anne R

    2014-11-01

    Among the Millennium Development Goals, maternal mortality reduction has proven especially difficult to achieve. Unlike many countries, China is on track to meeting these goals on a national level, through a programme of institutionalizing deliveries. Nonetheless, in rural, disadvantaged, and ethnically diverse areas of western China, maternal mortality rates remain high. To reduce maternal mortality in western China, we developed and implemented a three-level approach as part of a collaboration between a regional university, a non-profit organization, and local health authorities. Through formative research, we identified seven barriers to hospital delivery in a rural Tibetan county of Qinghai Province: (1) difficulty in travel to hospitals; (2) hospitals lack accommodation for accompanying families; (3) the cost of hospital delivery; (4) language and cultural barriers; (5) little confidence in western medicine; (6) discrepancy in views of childbirth; and (7) few trained community birth attendants. We implemented a three-level intervention: (a) an innovative Tibetan birth centre, (b) a community midwife programme, and (c) peer education of women. The programme appears to be reaching a broad cross-section of rural women. Multilevel, locally-tailored approaches may be essential to reduce maternal mortality in rural areas of western China and other countries with substantial regional, socioeconomic, and ethnic diversity. PMID:25555773

  4. Building Empire through Argumentation: Debating Salt and Iron in Western Han China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Xiaoye

    2010-01-01

    The history of American imperialism, as well as China's strong presence on the contemporary global scene, should encourage American scholars of rhetoric to look beyond the nation-state and study other rhetorical traditions such as Chinese practices of argument. A debate during the Western Han dynasty over the country's economic policies…

  5. A Study on the Functions of Western Cultural Non-Verbal Behavior in English Classroom in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Yuehong

    2013-01-01

    In China, English classroom is the main place of English language acquisition. Therefore, how to improve English classroom teaching effectively has become the scholars' concern. This paper reports a study conducted at North China Electric Power University on the functions of western cultural nonverbal behaviors in English classroom in China.…

  6. Landslide-dammed lake at Tangjiashan, Sichuan province, China (triggered by the Wenchuan Earthquake, May 12, 2008): Risk assessment, mitigation strategy, and lessons learned

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cui, P.; Dang, C.; Zhuang, J.; You, Y.; Chen, X.; Scott, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    Landslides and rock avalanches triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake produced 257 landslide dams, mainly situated along the eastern boundary of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where rivers descend approximately 3,000 m into the Sichuan Basin. The largest of these dams blocked the Tongkou River (a tributary of the Fujiang River) at Tangjiashan. The blockage, consisting of 2. 04 ?? 10 7 m 3 of landslide debris, impounded a lake with a projected maximum volume of 3. 15 ?? 10 8 m 3, potentially inundating 8. 92 km 2 of terrain. Its creation during the rainy season and the possibility of an uncontrolled release posed a serious, impending threat to at least 1. 3 million people downstream that could add substantially to the total of 69,200 individuals directly killed by the earthquake. Risk assessment of the blockage indicated that it was unlikely to collapse suddenly, and that eventual overtopping could be mitigated by notching the structure in order to create an engineered breach and achieve safe drainage of the lake. In addition to the installation of monitoring and warning instrumentation, for emergency planning we estimated several outburst scenarios equivalent to 20, 25, 33, and 50% of the dam failing suddenly, creating, respectively, 3. 35, 3. 84, 4. 22, and 4. 65 km 2 of flooded area, and overbank water depths of 4. 6, 5. 1, 5. 7, and 6. 2 m, respectively, in Mianyang, the second largest city in Sichuan Province, 48 km downstream from the blockage. Based on these scenarios, recommendations and plans for excavating a sluiceway, draining the lake, and downstream evacuation were proposed and later were implemented successfully, with the blockage breached by overtopping on June 10, less than a month after dam emplacement. The peak discharge of the release only slightly exceeded the flood of record at Mianyang City. No lives were lost, and significant property damage was avoided. Post-breaching evaluation reveals how future similar mitigation can be improved. Although

  7. Progress of site survey for large solar telescopes in western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu

    2015-08-01

    Excellent sites are necessary for developing and installing ground-based large telescopes. For solar telescopes, it had been unclear whether there exist good candidate sites in the west areas in China, including the Tibetan Plateau and the Pamirs Plateau, before the project of solar site survey for our next-generation large solar telescopes, i.e., the Chinese Giant Solar Telescope (CGST) and the large coronagraph, has been lauched since 2011. Based on the close collaboration among Chinese solar society and the scientists from NSO, HAO and other institutes, we have successfully developed the standard insturments for solar site survey and applied them to more than 50 different sites distributed in Xinjiang, Tibet, Qinghai, Sichuan, Yunnan and Ningxia provinces. We have built two long-term monitoring sites in Tibet and the large Shangri-La to take systematic site data. Clear evidence, including the key parameters of seeing factor, sky brightness and water vapor content, has indicated that a few potential sites in the large Tibetan areas should obtain the excellent astronomical conditions for our purpose to develop CGST and large coronagraph. We'll introduce and discuss the fresh site survey results in our report.

  8. [Disparities of breast cancer burden between China and western countries and its implication].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Minlu

    2015-12-01

    The disease burden of breast cancer in China is growing, and its proportion contributed to the global burden is increasing accordingly. The western countries have achieved reduction of mortality and slow growth of incidence, while the breast cancer incidence and mortality rates have been increasing constantly with lower survival rates in China. The remarkable characteristics of breast cancer burden in China is the disparities of the current status and time trends of incidence, mortality and survival between urban and rural area. The breast cancer disease distributions and time trends in China and the differential from the developed countries are described, which may be benefit to draw the international experience on prevention, early detection, medical care and survival management. Assessment of the existing evidence, elaboration of the prevention, control strategies in consideration of Chinese social-economic and culture situation would be beneficial to rise to the future challenge. PMID:26850664

  9. Rapid growth in nitrogen dioxide pollution over Western China, 2005-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yuanzheng; Lin, Jintai; Song, Chunqiao; Liu, Mengyao; Yan, Yingying; Xu, Yuan; Huang, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Western China has experienced rapid industrialization and urbanization since the implementation of the National Western Development Strategies (the "Go West" movement) in 1999. This transition has affected the spatial and temporal characteristics of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollution. In this study, we analyze the trends and variability of tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) from 2005 to 2013 over Western China, based on a wavelet analysis on monthly mean NO2 data derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements. We focus on the anthropogenic NO2 by subtracting region-specific "background" values dominated by natural sources. After removing the background influences, we find significant anthropogenic NO2 growth over Western China between 2005 and 2013 (8.6 ± 0.9 % yr-1 on average, relative to 2005), with the largest increments (15 % yr-1 or more) over parts of several city clusters. The NO2 pollution in most provincial-level regions rose rapidly from 2005 to 2011 but stabilized or declined afterwards. The NO2 trends were driven mainly by changes in anthropogenic emissions, as confirmed by a nested GEOS-Chem model simulation and a comparison with Chinese official emission statistics. The rate of NO2 growth during 2005-2013 reaches 11.3 ± 1.0 % yr-1 over Northwestern China, exceeding the rates over Southwestern China (5.9 ± 0.6 % yr-1) and the three well-known polluted regions in the east (5.3 ± 0.8 % yr-1 over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, 4.0 ± 0.6 % yr-1 over the Yangtze River Delta, and -3.3 ± 0.3 % yr-1 over the Pearl River Delta). Subsequent socioeconomic analyses suggest that the rapid NO2 growth over Northwestern China is likely related to the fast developing resource- and pollution-intensive industries along with the "Go West" movement as well as relatively weak emission controls. Further efforts should be made to alleviate NOx pollution to achieve sustainable development in Western China.

  10. Rapid growth in nitrogen dioxide pollution over Western China, 2005-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Y.-Z.; Lin, J.-T.; Song, C.; Liu, M.-Y.; Yan, Y.-Y.; Xu, Y.; Huang, B.

    2015-12-01

    Western China has experienced rapid industrialization and urbanization since the implementation of the National Western Development Strategies (the "Go West" movement) in 1999. This transition has affected the spatial and temporal characteristics of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollution. In this study, we analyze the trends and variability of tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) from 2005 to 2013 over Western China, based on a wavelet analysis on monthly mean NO2 data derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements. We focus on the anthropogenic NO2 by subtracting region-specific "background" values dominated by natural sources. We find significant NO2 growth over Western China between 2005 and 2013 (8.6 ± 0.9 % yr-1 on average, relative to 2005), with the largest increments (15 % yr-1 or more) over parts of several city clusters. The NO2 pollution in most provincial regions rose rapidly from 2005 to 2011 but stabilized or declined afterwards. The NO2 trends were driven mainly by changes in anthropogenic emissions, as confirmed by a nested GEOS-Chem model simulation and a comparison with Chinese official emission statistics. The rate of NO2 growth during 2005-2013 reaches 11.3 ± 1.0 % yr-1 over Northwestern China, exceeding the rates over Southwestern China (5.9 ± 0.6 % yr-1) and the three well-known polluted regions in the east (5.3 ± 0.8 % yr-1 over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, 4.0 ± 0.6 % yr-1} over the Yangtze River Delta, and -3.3 ± 0.3 % yr-1 over the Pearl River Delta). Additional socioeconomic analyses suggest that the rapid NO2 growth in Northwestern China is likely related to the fast developing resource- and pollution-intensive industries along with the "Go West" movement as well as relatively weak emission controls. Further efforts should be made to alleviate NOx pollution to achieve sustainable development in Western China.

  11. [Characteristics of soil net nitrogen mineralization in subalpine/alpine forests of west Sichuan, Southwest China during seasonal freeze-thaw period].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Ling; Wu, Fu-Zhong; Yang, Wan-Qin; Shi, Pei-Li; Wang, Ao; Yang, Yu-Lian; Wu, Zhi-Chao

    2012-03-01

    Seasonal freeze-thaw cycle and its change pattern under the scenarios of climate warming might exert strong effects on the soil nitrogen mineralization in alpine forests. In this paper, intact soil cores were collected from the subalpine/alpine forests along an altitudinal gradient in west Sichuan, and an incubation test was conducted to study the soil net nitrogen mineralization rate and the amount of soil mineralized nitrogen in the forests during growth season and seasonal freeze-thaw period under simulated scenarios of global warming. In the test soils, the NH(4+)-N and NO(3-)-N contents both showed a clear tendency of decreased in the period from growth season to the onset stage of freezing, increased at deep freezing stage, and decreased again at the early stage of thawing. The soil net nitrogen mineralization rate and the amount of soil mineralized nitrogen were significantly lower in freeze-thaw period than in growth season, and the soil inorganic nitrogen was obviously immobilized. The soil nitrogen immobilization was stronger at middle altitudes but weaker at high altitudes, as compared with that at low altitudes, possibly due to the variation of soil temperature and its induced different freeze-thaw cycle. During growth period, the soil net nitrogen mineralization rate and the amount of soil mineralized nitrogen showed an obvious increasing trend with the decrease of altitude, and the soil nitrogen mineralization was the strongest at low altitudes, implying that under the scenarios of climate warming, the increase of soil temperature promoted the soil nitrogen mineralization during growth season, and affected the soil nitrogen mineralization rate by increasing the frequency of freeze-thaw cycle and shortening the time period of freeze-thaw. Soil micro-environment could also affect the soil nitrogen mineralization in alpine forest regions. PMID:22720601

  12. Paleozoic plate-tectonic evolution of the Tarim and western Tianshan regions, western China

    SciTech Connect

    Yangshen, S.; Huafu, L.; Dong, J.

    1994-11-01

    The plate-tectonic evolution of the Tarim basin and nearby western Tianshan region during Paleozoic time is reconstructed in an effort to further constrain the tectonic evolution of Central Asia, providing insights into the formation and distribution of oil and gas resources. The Tarim plate developed from continental rifting that progressed during early Paleozoic time into a passive continental margin. The Yili terrane (central Tianshan) broke away from the present eastern part of Tarim and became a microcontinent located somewhere between the Junggar ocean and the southern Tianshan ocean. The southern Tianshan ocean, between the Tarim craton and the Yili terrane, was subducting beneath the Yili terrane from Silurian to Devonian time. During the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous, the Tarim plate collided with the Yili terrane by sinistral accretional docking that resulted in a late Paleozoic deformational episode. Intracontinental shortening (A-type subduction) continued through the Permian with the creation of a magmatic belt. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Paleozoic archipelagic tectonic evolution of Western Junggar, NW China: implications for continental growth of southern Altaids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jien; Xiao, Wenjiao; Han, Chunming; Ma, Chong; Song, Dongfang

    2013-04-01

    The Western Junggar, NW China, a dominant site for continental growth in Southern Altaids, bridges the Circum-Balkhash and Junggar belts and exposes ophiolite, igneous rocks and strata from Cambrian to Carboniferous. Recent updated data on structure, geochronology, geochemisty and paleomagnetism, integrated with previous data, present a newly Paleozoic spatial and temporal framework of Western Junggar. In Cambrian, the Western Junggar begins to birth at the Tangbale area to south, where occurs Ordovician blueschist and top-to-south vergence structures, indicating north-dipping subduction. This event triggers intra-arc extension to generate Ordovician island arc in the Hongguleleng-Xiemisitai area to north and seamount in the Mayile area, middle of Western Junggar. Until Silurian, a southeastward subduction begins in the extended back-arc basin to west of Mayile, occurring blueschist at the Barleik trench and the Nalunsuo magmatic arc, at the rear of which generates Devonian back-arc basin around the Durbut area. Meanwhile, a Silurian Xiemisitai magmatic arc has been developed at the northern part of Western Junggar, along which a northward subduction has emplaced the Tarbahatai ophiolite and generates the Carboniferous Sawur magmatic arc. At the middle part of Western Junggar, the coeval adakite and sanukitic dykes, charnockite, multiple properties of ophiolite and plutons, SSZ-like andesite, dacite and rhyolite and regional structures suggest that there develop double-subduction systems with ridge-trench interaction in Carboniferous. These features suggest that the Western Junggar experiences rollback, intra-oceanic extension and subduction polarity reversal/flip in back-arc basin settings. Furthermore, positive ɛNd(t) values and no huge movements of blocks suggest that the Western Junggar is amalgamated by juvenile elements with different orientations. Therefore, we conclude that the Western Junggar enlarges from an island arc to Paleozoic tectonic regime with

  14. Regional seismic discrimination in central Asia with emphasis on western China

    SciTech Connect

    Hartse, H.E.; Taylor, S.R.; Phillips, W.S.; Randall, G.E.

    1996-09-01

    In support of an anticipated Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the authors have started to evaluate regional seismic event discrimination capabilities for central Asia, emphasizing western China. The authors have measured noise and seismic phase amplitudes of over 250 earthquakes and 18 underground nuclear explosions recorded at the broadband, digital station WMQ in western China and over 100 earthquakes and 5 nuclear explosions at station AAK in Kyrgyzstan. The explosions are from the Kazakh Test Site (KTS) and Lop Nor, China. The earthquakes are mostly from northwest China. They have also evaluated a single suspected chemical explosion. Event magnitudes (m{sub b}) range between 2.5 and 6.5 and maximum event-station distance is about 1,700 km. Using these measurements the authors formed phase, spectral, cross-spectral, short-period/long-period, and long-period ratios to test many possible event discriminants. All ratios were corrected for distance effects before forming ratio-versus-magnitude discrimination plots. The authors found that all five classes of these discriminants are useful for separating earthquakes from explosions in central Asia, provided the right combinations of frequency bands and phases are selected. Results are described.

  15. The English Education in Primary Schools in Minor Ethnic Areas in Western China--Taking Leshan City as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bing, Wang

    2016-01-01

    As we all know, China is a country with many ethnic minorities mainly living in the northeastern and southwestern China. The English education in the primary schools in these areas is an important issue. The article analyzes the status quo of English education in primary schools in minor ethnic areas, taking the Leshan city, a western one as an…

  16. Change as Challenge for Shop-Floor Learning: The Case of Western and Local Manufacturing Companies in South China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jianzhong

    2000-01-01

    Explores the process of workplace learning and problem solving by examining Western and local enterprises in South China. Discusses whether the managerial concepts embedded in Chinese culture help or impede collective learning and concludes that new ways of working and learning are emerging through the interaction of Western and Chinese culture.…

  17. Risk factors for preterm birth: a case-control study in rural area of western China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaosong; Zhou, Min; Chen, Lijun; Hao, Bo; Zhao, Gengli

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality in China, the study is to learn risk factors for preterm birth in rural area of western China. A 1:1 case-control study in which cases included the pregnant women of preterm birth and controls included the matched pregnant women of normal deliver was conducted in 5 counties in western China. Data about the general situation, pregnancy history, reproductive health infection (RTI) symptoms, pregnancy complications, et al were obtained by using questionnaire. The results showed that the risk factors related to preterm birth were including: family income, mother’s age ≥ 35 years old, antennal visiting ≤ 4 times, low education level, preterm birth history, abnormal vaginal discharge, pregnancy complications. The logistic regression analysis showed that only 3 factors of preterm birth were left at the last step, which of antenatal visiting ≤ 4 times, PROM and placenta previa had significant difference. We show that family income, age, antennal visiting, low education level, preterm birth history, abnormal vaginal discharge, pregnancy complications are the risk factors of preterm birth. PMID:26064379

  18. Crust and Upper-mantle Structure in the Western North China Craton from Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, M.; Guo, Z.; Wang, X.; Feng, Y.; Chen, Y. J.

    2014-12-01

    North China Craton (NCC) is separated by the Trans-North China Orogen into two parts: the Eastern NCC and the Western NCC. It has been proposed that the Western NCC has remained stable since the Precambrian. Here receiver function (RF) analysis is used to image the crustal structures along an N-S profile (31N-43N) across the Qinling Orogen from the south, through Ordos Block and Yinshan Orogen to the north. The profile consists of 36 portable broadband stations which were deployed by Peking University during June 2012 to June 2014 and 12 permanent seismic stations of CEA. We selected teleseismic P waveforms from events with magnitudes Mw>5.0 and within the epicentral distances of 35-90 degrees and used the iterative time domain deconvolution method to obtain the RFs. Crustal thickness and the average Poison's ratio are obtained by the use of H-k method while the 410 and 660 discontinuity depths are calculated by using common conversion point stacking method from the RF data. The fine structures from this receiver function study should help us to better understand the nature and evolution of the Western NCC.

  19. Impact of Illness and Medical Expenditure on Household Consumptions: A Survey in Western China

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Kuangnan; Jiang, Yefei; Shia, BenChang; Ma, Shuangge

    2012-01-01

    Background The main goal of this study is to examine the associations between illness conditions and out-of-pocket medical expenditure with other types of household consumptions. In November and December of 2011, a survey was conducted in three cities in western China, namely Lan Zhou, Gui Lin and Xi An, and their surrounding rural areas. Results Information on demographics, income and consumption was collected on 2,899 households. Data analysis suggested that the presence of household members with chronic diseases was not associated with characteristics of households or household heads. The presence of inpatient treatments was significantly associated with the age of household head (p-value 0.03). The level of per capita medical expense was significantly associated with household size, presence of members younger than 18, older than 65, basic health insurance coverage, per capita income, and household head occupation. Adjusting for confounding effects, the presence of chronic diseases was negatively associated with the amount of basic consumption (p-value 0.02) and the percentage of basic consumption (p-value 0.01), but positively associated with the percentage of insurance expense (p-value 0.02). Medical expenditure was positively associated with all other types of consumptions, including basic, education, saving and investment, entertainment, insurance, durable goods, and alcohol/tobacco. It was negatively associated with the percentage of basic consumption, saving and investment, and insurance. Conclusions Early studies conducted in other Asian countries and rural China found negative associations between illness conditions and medical expenditure with other types of consumptions. This study was conducted in three major cities and surrounding areas in western China, which had not been well investigated in published literature. The observed consumption patterns were different from those in early studies, and the negative associations were not observed. This

  20. Is traditional Chinese medicine recommended in Western medicine clinical practice guidelines in China? A systematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jun; Li, Xun; Sun, Jin; Han, Mei; Yang, Guo-Yan; Li, Wen-Yuan; Robinson, Nicola; Lewith, George; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based medicine promotes and relies on the use of evidence in developing clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). The Chinese healthcare system includes both traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine, which are expected to be equally reflected in Chinese CPGs. Objective To evaluate the inclusion of TCM-related information in Western medicine CPGs developed in China and the adoption of high level evidence. Methods All CPGs were identified from the China Guideline Clearinghouse (CGC), which is the main Chinese organisation maintaining the guidelines issued by the Ministry of Health of China, the Chinese Medical Association and the Chinese Medical Doctors’ Association. TCM-related contents were extracted from all the CPGs identified. Extracted information comprised the institution issuing the guideline, date of issue, disease, recommendations relating to TCM, evidence level of the recommended content and references supporting the recommendations. Results A total of 604 CPGs were identified, only a small number of which (74/604; 12%) recommended TCM therapy and only five guidelines (7%) had applied evidence grading. The 74 CPGs involved 13 disease systems according to the International Classification of Diseases 10th edition. TCM was mainly recommended in the treatment part of the guidelines (73/74, 99%), and more than half of the recommendations (43/74, 58%) were related to Chinese herbal medicine (single herbs or herbal treatment based on syndrome differentiation). Conclusions Few Chinese Western medicine CPGs recommend TCM therapies and very few provide evidence grading for the TCM recommendation. We suggest that future guideline development should be based on systematic searches for evidence to support CPG recommendations and involve a multidisciplinary approach including TCM expertise. PMID:26041487

  1. Are climate warming and enhanced atmospheric deposition of sulfur and nitrogen threatening tufa landscapes in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China?

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Du, Jie; Lugli, Stefano; Ren, Jinhai; Xiao, Weiyang; Chen, Pan; Tang, Ya

    2016-08-15

    Massive deposition of calcium carbonate in ambient temperature waters (tufa) can form magnificent tufa landscapes, many of which are designated as protected areas. However, tufa landscapes in many areas are threatened by both local anthropogenic activities and climate change. This study, for the first time, posed the question whether the tufa landscape degradation (characterized by tufa degradation and increased biomass of green algae) in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve of China is partially caused by regional air pollution and climate warming. The results indicate that wet deposition (including rain and snow) polluted by anthropogenic SO2, NOx, and NH3 emissions dissolves exposed tufa and may considerably reduce tufa deposition rate and even cause tufa dissolution within shallow waters. These effects of wet deposition on tufa enhanced as pH of wet deposition decreased from 8.01 to 5.06. Annual Volume Weighted Mean concentration of reactive nitrogen (including NH4(+) and NO3(-)) in wet deposition (26.1μmolL(-1)) was 1.8 times of the corresponding value of runoff (14.8μmolL(-1)) and exceeded China's national standard of total nitrogen in runoff for nature reserves (14.3μmolL(-1)), indicating a direct nitrogen fertilization effect of wet deposition on green algae. As water temperature is the major limiting factor of algal growth in Jiuzhaigou and temperature in the top layer (0-5cm) of runoff (depth<1m, no canopy coverage of trees and shrubs) was significantly higher at the sites with increased biomass of green algae (p<0.05), climate warming in this region would favor algal growth. In sum, this study suggests that climate warming and enhanced sulfur and nitrogen deposition have contributed to the current degradation of tufa landscape in Jiuzhaigou, but in order to quantify the contributions, further studies are needed, as many other anthropogenic and natural processes also influence tufa landscape evolution. PMID:27110983

  2. Thaumasite formation in a tunnel of Bapanxia Dam in Western China

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Baoguo; Gao Xiaojian . E-mail: xjgao2002@yahoo.com.cn; Byars, Ewan A.; Zhou Qizhi

    2006-04-15

    A site investigation and sampling was carried out on a sulfate-attacked concrete structure in Bapanxia Hydraulic Power Plant in Western China. The concrete had been exposed to ground water containing substantial concentrations of salts (SO{sub 4} {sup 2-}, CO{sub 3} {sup 2-} and Cl{sup -}) for about 6 years and was analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), laser-Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. It is shown that a white mushy mixture consisting of thaumasite, ettringite, gypsum and calcite is present in the residual concrete. This paper reports the first instance of the thaumasite form of sulfate attack of concrete in China.

  3. Synthetic seismograms at regional distances for May 1995 earthquake and explosion sources in Western China

    SciTech Connect

    App, F.N.; Bos, R.J.; Kamm, J.R.

    1996-08-01

    Waveforms recorded at several regional seismic stations at varying azimuths form explosion and earthquake sources in western China exhibit marked variation from station to station. We have performed two-dimensional finite difference simulations of these events, using moment tensor sources and simple crustal structure models, to generate synthetic seismograms at these locations. The synthetic seismograms at three locations exhibit behavior that is qualitatively consistent with the data, while computational results at a fourth station differ from the data. We discuss these results, the assumptions of the simulations, and the limitations of this type of modeling in the context of regional seismic propagation.

  4. Comparison of China-US Engineering Ethics Educations in Sino-Western Philosophies of Technology.

    PubMed

    Cao, Gui Hong

    2015-12-01

    Ethics education has become essential in modern engineering. Ethics education in engineering has been increasingly implemented worldwide. It can improve ethical behaviors in technology and engineering design under the guidance of the philosophy of technology. Hence, this study aims to compare China-US engineering ethics education in Sino-Western philosophies of technology by using literature studies, online surveys, observational researches, textual analyses, and comparative methods. In my original theoretical framework and model of input and output for education, six primary variables emerge in the pedagogy: disciplinary statuses, educational goals, instructional contents, didactic models, teaching methods, and edificatory effects. I focus on the similarities and differences of engineering ethics educations between China and the U.S. in Chinese and Western philosophies of technology. In the field of engineering, the U.S. tends toward applied ethics training, whereas China inclines toward practical moral education. The U.S. is the leader, particularly in the amount of money invested and engineering results. China has quickened its pace, focusing specifically on engineering labor input and output. Engineering ethics is a multiplayer game effected at various levels among (a) lower level technicians and engineers, engineering associations, and stockholders; (b) middle ranking engineering ethics education, the ministry of education, the academy of engineering, and the philosophy of technology; and (c) top national and international technological policies. I propose that professional engineering ethics education can play many important roles in reforming engineering social responsibility by international cooperation in societies that are becoming increasingly reliant on engineered devices and systems. Significantly, my proposals contribute to improving engineering ethics education and better-solving engineering ethics issues, thereby maximizing engineering

  5. Plumes and Drips Beneath Northeast China and the Western United States (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grand, S. P.; Tang, Y.; Niu, F.; Obayashi, M.; Chen, Y. J.; Kawakatsu, H.; Ning, J.; Ni, J.

    2013-12-01

    Northeast China and the western United States share common features in their tectonic history. Both regions experienced compressional tectonics and mountain building due to stresses induced by subduction processes on their boundaries. In Northeast China these events occurred in the Mesozoic and in the western United States a little later, up to the early Cenozoic. Subsequently, both regions experienced extension and widespread intraplate magmatism as the boundary conditions changed. We review the results from several seismic investigations for both regions and compare results. The NECESS project was a multi-national collaboration that consisted of the deployment of 140 broadband seismic stations across Northeast China. P and S wave tomography, receiver function analysis, and surface wave dispersion inversions were conducted to image the seismic structure of the upper mantle beneath the region. Fast seismic velocities from 500 to 660 km depth and a depressed 660 km discontinuity were found below the eastern edge of Northeast China. These observations are likely showing the subducting Pacific plate. At 420 latitude a gap in the deep transition zone fast velocities is observed coincident with an uplifted 660 km discontinuity. The shear wave tomography image shows a roughly 200 km diameter slow anomaly that can be traced from just below the gap in high velocities at 660 km depth to the shallow mantle beneath the Changbaishan volcanic field. We propose the gap in the deep slabs is a pathway for return flow upwelling that results in surface volcanism. Such deep upwelling at edges or gaps in deep slabs may be a common feature in subduction environments. In the shallow mantle strong lateral variations in velocity are seen across Northeast China that are associated with Cenozoic volcanic zones. Beneath a portion of the Xing'an mountains at 1160 longitude, a shallow slow anomaly associated with Pleistocene volcanism is adjacent to a high velocity anomaly at depths below 200

  6. [Development of integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine and change of medical policy in China].

    PubMed

    Shin, S S

    1999-01-01

    "Sect of Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine" came into the world four hundred years ago when Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) contacted Western Medicine (WM) at the beginning of the 17th century. It collected historical experiences showing that the cooperation of TCM and WM is more efficient for the cure and prevention of disease than each of them separately. Now the recognition that the cooperation of eastern and western medicine is more efficient to cure disease is spreading widely. This study will help Korean eastern and western medicine to find their directions. First, the concept of "sect of Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine" which was established between the beginning of the 17th century and the middle of the 20th century, and Integration of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine (ITCWM) which was formed after the middle of the 20th century will be discussed. The relationship of "sect of Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine" and ITCWM and political consideration for the establishment of ITCWM will also be discussed. Finally, the current status of ITCWM in China will be discussed. New trends of thought appeared in Chinese medicine, owing to the cultural background of modern China, the development of WM, and the academic background of the intellectual class. "Sect of Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine" and ITCWM are different in historical and social background. However, purpose, foundation of thoughts and logical idea are fundamentally the same. It can be said that "sect of Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine" provided academic mood to open the way for ITCWM and ITCWM is a succession of "sect of Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine". The concept of ITCWM has many ways of explanation. However, it can be said to build up the foundation of new medical area including Chinese special way of medical treatment and new methods of modern medicine, succeeding a legacy of TCM. ITCWM began before the establishment of

  7. TSR versus non-TSR processes and their impact on gas geochemistry and carbon stable isotopes in Carboniferous, Permian and Lower Triassic marine carbonate gas reservoirs in the Eastern Sichuan Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q. Y.; Worden, R. H.; Jin, Z. J.; Liu, W. H.; Li, J.; Gao, B.; Zhang, D. W.; Hu, A. P.; Yang, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Palaeozoic and lowermost Mesozoic marine carbonate reservoirs of the Sichuan Basin in China contain variably sour and very dry gas. The source of the gas in the Carboniferous, Permian and Lower Triassic reservoirs is not known for certain and it has proved difficult to discriminate and differentiate the effects of thermal cracking- and TSR-related processes for these gases. Sixty-three gas samples were collected and analysed for their composition and carbon stable isotope values. The gases are all typically very dry (alkane gases being >97.5% methane), with low (<1%) nitrogen and highly variable H2S and CO2. Carboniferous gas is negligibly sour while the Lower Triassic gas tends to be most sour. The elevated H2S (up to 62%) is due to thermochemical sulphate reduction with the most sour Triassic and Permian reservoirs being deeper than 4800 m. The non-TSR affected Carboniferous gas is a secondary gas that was derived from the cracking of sapropelic kerogen-derived oil and primary gas and is highly mature. Carboniferous (and non-sour Triassic and Permian) gas has unusual carbon isotopes with methane and propane being isotopically heavier than ethane (a reversal of typical low- to moderate-maturity patterns). The gas in the non-sour Triassic and Permian reservoirs has the same geochemical and isotopic characteristics (and therefore the same source) as the Carboniferous gas. TSR in the deepest Triassic reservoirs altered the gas composition reaching 100% dryness in the deepest, most sour reservoirs showing that ethane and propane react faster than methane during TSR. Ethane evolves to heavier carbon isotope values than methane during TSR leading to removal of the reversed alkane gas isotope trend found in the Carboniferous and non-sour Triassic and Permian reservoirs. However, methane was directly involved in TSR as shown by the progressive increase in its carbon isotope ratio as gas souring proceeded. CO2 increased in concentration as gas souring proceeded, but

  8. Pesticide residue determination in vegetables from western China applying gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qin, Guofu; Zou, Keting; Li, Yongbo; Chen, Yan; He, Fengrui; Ding, Guirong

    2016-09-01

    In this study,an effort has been made to evaluate the pesticide residues in vegetables from western China. Fifty-one pesticides, including organophosphorus, organochlorine, carbamate and pyrethroid, were detected in 369 commonly used vegetables by GC-MS. Concentrations of organophosphorus pesticides were detected ranging from 0.0008 to 18.8200 mg/kg, among which organophosphorus pesticide concentrations exceeded their maximum residue levels (MRLs) in five samples. Carbamate and organochlorine pesticides were determined to have concentrations in the range of 0.0012-0.7928 mg/kg. The residual concentrations of carbamate pesticides in six samples and organochlorine pesticides in four samples exceeded their MRLs. The residual concentrations of five pyrethroid pesticides were within the range of 0.0016-6.0827 mg/kg and the pyrethroid residues in two samples exceeded their MRLs. The results revealed that pesticide residues in 70.73% of the vegetables samples were not detected, while in the rest of vegetables there were one or more pesticide residues and some even exceeded their MRLs, which would threaten the health of consumers. Our work provides significant information for the food safety regulations to control the excessive use of some pesticides on those kinds of vegetables from western China. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26864471

  9. azimuthal anisotropy underneath western North China Craton from surface wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.; Liu, Y.; Zhou, S.

    2013-12-01

    Azimuthal anisotropic velocity structure beneath the western North China Craton (NCC) has been extracted using Rayleigh wave data from 69 broad-band seismographs of China Earthquake Networks Center and 23 of Peking University. We get the surface wave structure for period of 20s to 125s of Rayleigh wave. Surface wave velocity in a slight anisotropic media can be expressed as following: v_1=v_0+asinθ+bcosθ Where v_0 is the isotropic velocity and θ is the back azimuth. The primary results indicate that the Ordos Craton, which has been stable since Archean is obviously high-velocity-anomaly for over 200 km depth. While the Central part of NCC, including the Shanxi Rift, has obvious low-velocity-anomaly going down to 200 km. We interpret this enormous velocity changes as an evidence for the apart geologic processes of the eastern and western parts of NCC. The reactivation since Mesozoic of NCC may have caused upwelling of upper mantle right beneath Shanxi Rift.

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and new polybrominated flame retardants in tree bark from western areas of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuxu; Jin, Jun; Lu, Yao; Li, Guangyao; He, Chang; Wang, Ying; Li, Peng; Hu, Jicheng

    2016-06-01

    Tree bark samples were collected from 15 sites across western China in 2013, and the polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) and new polybrominated flame retardant (NBFR) concentrations in the samples were determined. The mean total PBDE concentration was 51.8 ng/g lipid weight, which was 85.2% to 99.4% lower than in Chinese eastern coastal areas and the E-waste recycling areas. The dominant PBDE congener was BDE209, and its mean concentration was 49 ng/g lipid weight. The mean 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-p-xylene, pentabromobenzene, pentabromotoluene, and hexabromobenzene concentrations were 0.61 ng/g, 0.97 ng/g, 0.68 ng/g, and 0.68 ng/g lw, respectively. The PBDE and NBFR concentrations in the air at the sampling sites were estimated from the concentrations in the tree bark samples. The estimated mean total PBDE and total NBFR concentrations in air were 58.5 pg/m(3) and 2.76 pg/m(3) , respectively. The sources of NBFR emissions were found to be different from the sources of PBDE emissions, as no relationship was found between the NBFR and PBDE concentrations, and it appeared that sources of measured hexabromobenzene, pentabromobenzene, and pentabromotoluene in tree bark in western China include industrial activity related to the aluminum industry. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1364-1370. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26492098

  11. Effect of anthropogenic sulphate aerosol in China on the drought in the western-to-central US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Sang-Wook; Park, Rokjin J.; Kim, Minjoong J.; Jeong, Jaein I.; Song, Chang-Keun

    2015-09-01

    In recent decades, droughts have occurred in the western-to-central United States (US), significantly affecting food production, water supplies, ecosystem health, and the propagation of vector-borne diseases. Previous studies have suggested natural sea surface temperature (SST) forcing in the Pacific as the main driver of precipitation deficits in the US. Here, we show that the aerosol forcing in China, which has been known to alter the regional hydrological cycle in East Asia, may also contribute to reducing the precipitation in the western-to-central US through atmospheric teleconnections across the Pacific. Our model experiments show some indications that both the SST forcing and the increase in regional sulphate forcing in China play a similar role in modulating the western-to-central US precipitation, especially its long-term variation. This result indicates that regional air quality regulations in China have important implications for hydrological cycles in East Asia, as well as in the US.

  12. Tectonics and climate of the Tibetan plateau, China, and the western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayem, Katherine E.

    On some fundamental level, changes in the distribution of land and mountains lead to changes in Earth's climate. Relating climate change to tectonic events remains a challenge, however, in part due to a lack of understanding of modern and past climates and the scarcity of climate and tectonic records. This thesis contains studies of climate and tectonics in two geographic areas: the Tibetan plateau and eastern China, and the Maritime Continent and the western Pacific. The Tibetan plateau, the largest high-elevation surface on the earth, formed as a result of the continental collision between India and Asia. The northern boundary of Tibet is marked by the strong lithosphere of the Tarim and Qaidam basins and the North China craton. Using thin viscous sheet calculations, we show that strain rates localize adjacent to a strong region, analogous to the localized strain of the Altyn Tagh fault south of the Tarim basin. If the southern lithosphere of Tibet was thickened during the subduction of Indian oceanic lithosphere, thin viscous sheet calculations show that strain rates increase in northern Tibet soon after continental collision begins. Thus the location of the northern boundary of Tibet may be fixed since the beginning of collision because of the presence of strong lithosphere to the north of Tibet. Seasonality of climate in China is related in part to thermal and mechanical atmospheric processes that are influenced by Tibet's presence. The mid-latitude jet stream generally flows south or north of the plateau. Jet convergence in the lee of the plateau is related to the surface subtropical high pressure center in the western Pacific, which transports moisture into China. Sensible heating of the high surface of the plateau may enhance this circulation. The timing of the jet's springtime shift from south to north of the plateau is related to spring precipitation amounts in China. We use observations of modern climate to discuss how seasonality of China's climate

  13. Origin, Divergence, and Phylogeny of Asexual Epichloë Endophyte in Elymus Species from Western China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hui; Nan, Zhibiao

    2015-01-01

    Asexual Epichloë species are likely derived directly from sexual Epichloë species that then lost their capacity for sexual reproduction or lost sexual reproduction because of interspecific hybridization between distinct lineages of sexual Epichloë and/or asexual Epichloë species. In this study we isolated asexual Epichloë endophytes from Elymus species in western China and sequenced intron-rich regions in the genes encoding β-tubulin (tubB) and translation elongation factor 1-α (tefA). Our results showed that there are no gene copies of tubB and tefA in any of the isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that sequences in this study formed a single clade with asexual Epichloë bromicola from Hordeum brevisubulatum, which implies asexual Epichloë endophytes that are symbionts in a western Chinese Elymus species likely share a common ancestor with asexual E. bromicola from European H. brevisubulatum. In addition, our results revealed that asexual E. bromicola isolates that are symbionts in a western Chinese Elymus species and sexual Epichloë species that are symbionts in a North American Elymus species have a different origin. Further analysis found that Epichloë species likely originated in Eurasia. In addition, the results support the hypothesis that migratory birds or humans might have aided the dispersal of these fungal endophytes to other continents. PMID:25970178

  14. Environmental impact of CO2, Rn, Hg degassing from the rupture zones produced by Wenchuan M s 8.0 earthquake in western Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaocheng; Chen, Zhi; Cui, Yueju

    2016-10-01

    The concentrations and flux of CO2, (222)Radon (Rn), and gaseous elemental mercury (Hg) in soil gas were investigated based on the field measurements in June 2010 at ten sites along the seismic rupture zones produced by the May 12, 2008, Wenchuan M s 8.0 earthquake in order to assess the environmental impact of degassing of CO2, Rn and Hg. Soil gas concentrations of 344 sampling points were obtained. Seventy measurements of CO2, Rn and Hg flux by the static accumulation chamber method were performed. The results of risk assessment of CO2, Rn and Hg concentration in soil gas showed that (1) the concentration of CO2 in the epicenter of Wenchuan M s 8.0 earthquake and north end of seismic ruptures had low risk of asphyxia; (2) the concentrations of Rn in the north segment of seismic ruptures had high levels of radon, Maximum was up to level 4, according to Chinese code (GB 50325-2001); (3) the average geoaccumulation index I geo of soil Hg denoted the lack of soil contamination, and maximum values classified the soil gas as moderately to strongly polluted in the epicenter. The investigation of soil gas CO2, Rn and Hg degassing rate indicated that (1) the CO2 in soil gas was characterized by a mean [Formula: see text] of -20.4 ‰ and by a mean CO2 flux of 88.1 g m(-2) day(-1), which were in the range of the typical values for biologic CO2 degassing. The maximum of soil CO2 flux reached values of 399 g m(-2) day(-1) in the epicenter; (2) the soil Rn had higher exhalation in the north segment of seismic ruptures, the maximum reached value of 1976 m Bq m(-2) s(-1); (3) the soil Hg flux was lower, ranging from -2.5 to 18.7 n g m(-2) h(-1) and increased from south to north. The mean flux over the all profiles was 4.2 n g m(-2) h(-1). The total output of CO2 and Hg degassing estimated along seismic ruptures for a survey area of 18.17 km(2) were approximately 0.57 Mt year(-1) and 688.19 g year(-1). It is recommended that land-use planners should incorporate soil gas and/or gas flux measurements in the environmental assessment of areas of possible risk. A survey of all houses along seismic ruptures is advised as structural measures to prevent the ingress of soil gases, including CO2 and Rn, were needed in some houses. PMID:26486131

  15. Left-Behind Children in Rural Primary Schools: The Case of Sichuan Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Wenyan; Hou, Longlong; Chen, Wentao

    2008-01-01

    During China's economic transformation, much of the rural population migrated to urban areas in search of employment opportunities. "Left-behind children" are the product of this phenomenon and need significant attention. Our study adopted elementary school students in Sichuan province as the subjects. After carefully studying their academic…

  16. Features and variability of the South China Sea western boundary current from 1992 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Qi; Xue, Huijie; Qin, Huiling; Zeng, Xuezhi; Peng, Shiqiu

    2016-04-01

    Different from the traditional definition of the South China Sea western boundary current (SCSWBC), in this paper, only the southwestward and southward currents along the northern and western slopes in the SCS, which are closely associated with the basin-wide wind stress curl, are defined as the SCSWBC, while the flows on the southwestern shelf driven directly by the local wind stress are regarded as part of the shelf circulation. Using a new reanalysis dataset of the SCS in conjunction with the in situ and remote sensing data, the main features and variability of the SCSWBC from 1992 to 2011 were studied. Dictated by the prevailing monsoonal winds and in- and outflows, the SCSWBC in winter extended the full length of the western slope and reached its maximum intensity off the southeast coast of Vietnam, while in summer the main body of the SCSWBC was limited to the northern half of the western slope and merged with the northward coastal current to form the Vietnam Offshore Current (VOC) at about 12° N. Moreover, the respective seasonal patterns of the SCSWBC showed pronounced interannual variations in its structure, including the axis, the width, and the maximum depth. The strength of the SCSWBC, with the transport of -11.8 ± 3.5 Sv in winter and -3.0 ± 1.6 Sv in summer off the central coast of Vietnam, also varied significantly from year to year. It was demonstrated that the monsoonal forcing over the SCS, the interannual variability of which was closely associated with El Niño events, played an important role in modulating the interannual variability of the SCSWBC, whereas the influence from the upper-layer Luzon Strait transport was secondary.

  17. Features and variability of the South China Sea western boundary current from 1992 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Qi; Xue, Huijie; Qin, Huiling; Zeng, Xuezhi; Peng, Shiqiu

    2016-07-01

    Different from the traditional definition of the South China Sea western boundary current (SCSWBC), in this paper, only the southwestward and southward currents along the northern and western slopes in the SCS, which are closely associated with the basin-wide wind stress curl, are defined as the SCSWBC, while the flows on the southwestern shelf driven directly by the local wind stress are regarded as part of the shelf circulation. Using a new reanalysis dataset of the SCS in conjunction with the in situ and remote sensing data, the main features and variability of the SCSWBC from 1992 to 2011 were studied. Dictated by the prevailing monsoonal winds and in- and outflows, the SCSWBC in winter extended the full length of the western slope and reached its maximum intensity off the southeast coast of Vietnam, while in summer the main body of the SCSWBC was limited to the northern half of the western slope and merged with the northward coastal current to form the Vietnam Offshore Current (VOC) at about 12° N. Moreover, the respective seasonal patterns of the SCSWBC showed pronounced interannual variations in its structure, including the axis, the width, and the maximum depth. The strength of the SCSWBC, with the transport of -11.8 ± 3.5 Sv in winter and -3.0 ± 1.6 Sv in summer off the central coast of Vietnam, also varied significantly from year to year. It was demonstrated that the monsoonal forcing over the SCS, the interannual variability of which was closely associated with El Niño events, played an important role in modulating the interannual variability of the SCSWBC, whereas the influence from the upper-layer Luzon Strait transport was secondary.

  18. Care-Seeking Pattern for Diarrhea among Children under 36 Months Old in Rural Western China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wenlong; Dang, Shaonong; Yan, Hong; Wang, Duolao

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the caretakers' care-seeking pattern and its determinants among children under 36 months old with diarrhea in rural western China. Methods The data of 14112 households was collected in 45 counties of 10 provinces of western China from June to August 2005. A generalized estimated equation (GEE) linear model was used to identify the determinants of the care-seeking. Results Village-level and township-level care were sought for childhood diarrhea by 67.02% of the caretakers. GEE model analysis shows that compared with the caretakers of the children delivered at county-level or above hospitals, those of the children delivered at home seldom sought a higher level care (−0.23, 95%CI: −0.45,−0.01, p = 0.040); that the age of the children was negatively associated with seeking a higher level care (12 vs 36 months: 0.35, 95%CI: 0.16,0.55, p<0.001; 24 vs 36 months: 0.26, 95%CI: 0.08,0.44, p = 0.004); that the more danger signs of diarrhea the caretakers recognized, the higher level care they sought for their children with diarrhea (0.04, 95%CI: 0.00,0.07, p = 0.037); that the children with breastfeeding were given a higher level care than those without (0.15, 95%CI: 0.01,0.28, p = 0.035); that the mothers with a higher education sought the higher level care than those with only primary education (0.29, 95%CI: 0.03,0.56, p = 0.032); and that the farther the villages where these caretakers lived were from their townships, the lower level care for their children with diarrhea they sought (−0.09, 95%CI: −0.18,−0.01, p = 0.039). Conclusion Village-level and township-level care were sought for childhood diarrhea by most of the caretakers. Birth settings, the distance from village to township, maternal education, caretakers' awareness of the danger signs of diarrhea, breastfeeding status and age of children affected the care-seeking. These findings may have some implications for the improvement of health care services and

  19. Geology, distribution, and classification of gold deposits in the western Qinling belt, central China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mao, J.; Qiu, Y.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Zhang, Z.; Garwin, S.; Fengshou, R.

    2002-01-01

    Gold deposits of the western Qinling belt occur within the western part of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogen, which is located between the Precambrian North China and Yangtze cratons and east of the Songpan-Ganzi basin. The early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic orogen can be divided into northern, central, and southern zones, separated by the Shangdan and Lixian-Shanyang thrust fault systems. The northern zone consists of an early Paleozoic arc accreted to the North China craton by ca. 450 Ma. The central zone, which contains numerous orogenic gold deposits, is dominated by clastic rocks formed in a late Paleozoic basin between the converging cratonic blocks. The southern zone is characterized by the easternmost exposure of Triassic sedimentary rocks of the Songpan-Ganzi basin. These Early to Late Triassic turbidities, in part calcareous, of the immense Songpan-Ganzi basin also border the western Qinling belt to the west. Carlinlike gold deposits are abundant (1) along a westward extension of the southern zone defined by a window of early Paleozoic clastic rocks extending into the basin, and (2) within the easternmost margin of the basinal rocks to the south of the extension, and in adjacent cover rocks of the Yangtze craton. Triassic and Early Jurassic synkinematic granitoids are widespread across the western Qinling belt, as well as in the Songpan-Ganzi basin. Orogenic lode gold deposits along brittle-ductile shear zones occur within greenschist-facies, highly deformed, Devonian and younger clastic rocks of the central zone. Mainly coarse-grained gold, along with pyrite, pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, and minor base metal sulfides, occur in networks of quartz veinlets, brecciated wall rock, and are dissminated in altered wall rock. Isotopic dates suggest that the deposits formed during the Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic as the leading edge of the Yangtze craton was thrust beneath rocks of the western Qinling belt. Many gold-bearing placers are distributed along the river

  20. Biogeography of Nocardiopsis strains from hypersaline environments of Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces, western China

    PubMed Central

    He, Song-Tao; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Jiang, Hongchen; Yang, Ling-Ling; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Hozzein, Wael N.; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The genus Nocardiopsis is a widespread group within the phylum Actinobacteria and has been isolated from various salty environments worldwide. However, little is known about whether biogeography affects Nocardiopsis distribution in various hypersaline environments. Such information is essential for understanding the ecology of Nocardiopsis. Here we analyzed 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and sodA genes of 78 Nocardiopsis strains isolated from hypersaline environments in Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces of western China. The obtained Nocardiopsis strains were classified into five operational taxonomic units, each comprising location-specific phylo- and genotypes. Statistical analyses showed that spatial distance and environmental factors substantially influenced Nocardiopsis distribution in hypersaline environments: the former had stronger influence at large spatial scales, whereas the latter was more influential at small spatial scales. PMID:26289784

  1. Biogeography of Nocardiopsis strains from hypersaline environments of Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces, western China.

    PubMed

    He, Song-Tao; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Jiang, Hongchen; Yang, Ling-Ling; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Hozzein, Wael N; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The genus Nocardiopsis is a widespread group within the phylum Actinobacteria and has been isolated from various salty environments worldwide. However, little is known about whether biogeography affects Nocardiopsis distribution in various hypersaline environments. Such information is essential for understanding the ecology of Nocardiopsis. Here we analyzed 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and sodA genes of 78 Nocardiopsis strains isolated from hypersaline environments in Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces of western China. The obtained Nocardiopsis strains were classified into five operational taxonomic units, each comprising location-specific phylo- and genotypes. Statistical analyses showed that spatial distance and environmental factors substantially influenced Nocardiopsis distribution in hypersaline environments: the former had stronger influence at large spatial scales, whereas the latter was more influential at small spatial scales. PMID:26289784

  2. MAGNITUDE AND SEISMIC MOMENT SCALES IN WESTERN YUNNAN, PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF CHINA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakun, W.H.; Li, Yizheng; Fischer, F.G.; Jin, Yafu

    1985-01-01

    Seismograms and accelerograms from 77 earthquakes in 1982 to 1984 near the northwest end of the Red River fault in western Yunnan Province, Peoples Republic of China, have been used to calculate seismic moment, M//O, and local magnitude, M//L, using techniques established in California. For 1 1/2 APP 1STH M//L APP 1STH 3 1/2, log M//O equals 16. 97 plus (1. 17 plus or minus 0. 05)M//L, consistent with the log M//O minus M//L relation appropriate for central California. A comparison of these M//L values and the coda duration magnitudes M and S-wave amplitude magnitudes M assigned by the Seismological Bureau of Yunnan Province suggests that M and M values are generally larger than the M//L values.

  3. Suicidal ideation and the prevalence of intimate partner violence against women in rural western China.

    PubMed

    Yanqiu, Gao; Yan, Wang; Lin, An

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the extent of the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and suicidal ideation in a rural county in Western China. A sample of 1,771 women participated in the study. The lifetime prevalence of physical assault, psychological aggression, and sexual coercion was 34%, 68%, and 4%, respectively. The preceding-year prevalence of physical assault and psychological aggression was 8% and 32%, respectively. The prevalence of lifetime suicidal ideation was 15.9%, and 3.3% of the women had suicidal ideation during the preceding week. Physical abuse victims were at more than four times greater risk of having suicidal ideation than those who had not suffered physical assault. PMID:21997463

  4. The Impact of Overseas Training on Curriculum Innovation and Change in English Language Education in Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Daguo; Edwards, Viv

    2013-01-01

    This article assesses the impact of a UK-based professional development programme on curriculum innovation and change in English Language Education (ELE) in Western China. Based on interviews, focus group discussions and observation of a total of 48 English teachers who had participated in an overseas professional development programme influenced…

  5. The use of propagation path corrections to improve regional seismic event location in western China

    SciTech Connect

    Steck, L.K.; Cogbill, A.H.; Velasco, A.A.

    1999-03-01

    In an effort to improve the ability to locate seismic events in western China using only regional data, the authors have developed empirical propagation path corrections (PPCs) and applied such corrections using both traditional location routines as well as a nonlinear grid search method. Thus far, the authors have concentrated on corrections to observed P arrival times for shallow events using travel-time observations available from the USGS EDRs, the ISC catalogs, their own travel-tim picks from regional data, and data from other catalogs. They relocate events with the algorithm of Bratt and Bache (1988) from a region encompassing China. For individual stations having sufficient data, they produce a map of the regional travel-time residuals from all well-located teleseismic events. From these maps, interpolated PPC surfaces have been constructed using both surface fitting under tension and modified Bayesian kriging. The latter method offers the advantage of providing well-behaved interpolants, but requires that the authors have adequate error estimates associated with the travel-time residuals. To improve error estimates for kriging and event location, they separate measurement error from modeling error. The modeling error is defined as the travel-time variance of a particular model as a function of distance, while the measurement error is defined as the picking error associated with each phase. They estimate measurement errors for arrivals from the EDRs based on roundoff or truncation, and use signal-to-noise for the travel-time picks from the waveform data set.

  6. Tree-Ring Based May-July Temperature Reconstruction Since AD 1630 on the Western Loess Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Huiming; Liu, Yu; Li, Qiang; Gao, Na; Ma, Yongyong; Zhang, Yanhua

    2014-01-01

    Tree-ring samples from Chinese Pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) collected at Mt. Shimen on the western Loess Plateau, China, were used to reconstruct the mean May–July temperature during AD 1630–2011. The regression model explained 48% of the adjusted variance in the instrumentally observed mean May–July temperature. The reconstruction revealed significant temperature variations at interannual to decadal scales. Cool periods observed in the reconstruction coincided with reduced solar activities. The reconstructed temperature matched well with two other tree-ring based temperature reconstructions conducted on the northern slope of the Qinling Mountains (on the southern margin of the Loess Plateau of China) for both annual and decadal scales. In addition, this study agreed well with several series derived from different proxies. This reconstruction improves upon the sparse network of high-resolution paleoclimatic records for the western Loess Plateau, China. PMID:24690885

  7. Interannual to decadal variation of spring sea level anomaly in the western South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Fuwen; Fang, Wendong; Pan, Aijun; Cha, Jing; Zhang, Shanwu; Huang, Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Satellite observations of sea level anomalies (SLA) from January 1993 to December 2012 are used to investigate the interannual to decadal changes of the boreal spring high SLA in the western South China Sea (SCS) using the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) method. We find that the SLA variability has two dominant modes. The Sea Level Changing Mode (SLCM) occurs mainly during La Niña years, with high SLA extension from west of Luzon to the eastern coast of Vietnam along the central basin of the SCS, and is likely induced by the increment of the ocean heat content. The Anticyclonic Eddy Mode (AEM) occurs mainly during El Niño years and appears to be triggered by the negative wind curl anomalies within the central SCS. In addition, the spring high SLA in the western SCS experienced a quasi-decadal change during 1993-2012; in other words, the AEM predominated during 1993-1998 and 2002-2005, while the La Niña-related SLCM prevailed during 1999-2001 and 2006-2012. Moreover, we suggest that the accelerated sea level rise in the SCS during 2005-2012 makes the SLCM the leading mode over the past two decades.

  8. Mosquitoes of Western Yunnan Province, China: Seasonal Abundance, Diversity, and Arbovirus Associations

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei-Hong; Feng, Yun; Nasci, Roger S.; Yang, Jie; Liu, Yong-Hua; Dong, Chao-Liang; Li, Shi; Zhang, Bao-Sen; Yin, Zheng-Liu; Wang, Pi-Yu; Fu, Shi-Hong; Li, Ming-Hua; Liu, Fen; Zhang, Juan; Sun, Jie; Li, Can-Wei; Gao, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Hong; Wang, Huan-Yu; Petersen, Lyle R.; Liang, Guo-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Objective The western borderland between Yunnan Province, China, and Myanmar is characterized by a climate that facilitates year-round production of mosquitoes. Numerous mosquito-transmitted viruses, including Japanese encephalitis virus circulate in this area. This project was to describe seasonal patterns in mosquito species abundance and arbovirus activity in the mosquito populations. Methods Mosquitoes were collected in Mangshi and Ruili cities of Dehong Prefecture near the border of China and Burma in Yunnan Province, the Peoples Republic of China in 2010. We monitored mosquito species abundance for a 12-month period using ultraviolet light, carbon dioxide baited CDC light and gravid traps; and tested the captured mosquitoes for the presence of virus to evaluate mosquito-virus associations in rural/agricultural settings in the area. Results A total of 43 species of mosquitoes from seven genera were collected, including 15 Culex species, 15 Anopheles spp., four Aedes spp., three Armigeres spp., one Mimomyia spp., two Uranotaenia spp. and three Mansonia spp.. Species richness and diversity varied between Mangshi and Ruili. Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles sinensis and Anopheles peditaeniatus were the most abundant species in both sampling sites. Ultraviolet light traps collected more specimens than CDC light traps baited with dry ice, though both collected the same variety of mosquito species. The CDC gravid trap was the most effective trap for capture of Culex quinquefasciatus, a species underrepresented in light trap collections. A total of 26 virus strains were isolated, which included 13 strains of Japanese encephalitis virus, four strains of Getah virus, one strain of Oya virus, one strain from the orbivirus genus, and seven strains of Culex pipien pallens densovirus. Conclusions The present study illustrates the value of monitoring mosquito populations and mosquito-transmitted viruses year-round in areas where the climate supports

  9. Mantle transition zone structure beneath India and Western China from migration of PP and SS precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessing, Stephan; Thomas, Christine; Rost, Sebastian; Cobden, Laura; Dobson, David P.

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the seismic structure of the upper-mantle and mantle transition zone beneath India and Western China using PP and SS underside reflections off seismic discontinuities, which arrive as precursors to the PP and SS arrival. We use high-resolution array seismic techniques to identify precursory energy and to map lateral variations of discontinuity depths. We find deep reflections off the 410 km discontinuity (P410P and S410S) beneath Tibet, Western China and India at depths of 410-440 km and elevated underside reflections of the 410 km discontinuity at 370-390 km depth beneath the Tien Shan region and Eastern Himalayas. These reflections likely correspond to the olivine to wadsleyite phase transition. The 410 km discontinuity appears to deepen in Central and Northern Tibet. We also find reflections off the 660 km discontinuity beneath Northern China at depths between 660 and 700 km (P660P and S660S) which could be attributed to the mineral transformation of ringwoodite to magnesiowuestite and perovskite. These observations could be consistent with the presence of cold material in the middle and lower part of the mantle transition zone in this region. We also find a deeper reflector between 700 and 740 km depth beneath Tibet which cannot be explained by a depressed 660 km discontinuity. This structure could, however, be explained by the segregation of oceanic crust and the formation of a neutrally buoyant garnet-rich layer beneath the mantle transition zone, due to subduction of oceanic crust of the Tethys Ocean. For several combinations of sources and receivers we do not detect arrivals of P660P and S660S although similar combinations of sources and receivers give well-developed P660P and S660S arrivals. Our thermodynamic modelling of seismic structure for a range of compositions and mantle geotherms shows that non-observations of P660P and S660S arrivals could be caused by the dependence of underside reflection coefficients on the incidence angle of the

  10. 78 FR 14512 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Fiber from the People's Republic of China, 72 FR 30545 (June 1, 2007) (``Order''). Methodology The... Assessment Rate in Certain Antidumping Proceedings: Final Modification, 77 FR 8101 (February 14, 2012). For... Sichuan Chemical Fiber Corp. and Huvis Sichuan Polyester Fiber Ltd. (``Huvis Sichuan'') are part of...

  11. Uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic Conodont Zonation from Enshi area, western Hubei Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Z.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Z. Q.; Ma, D.; Yan, P.; Zhan, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Permian-Triassic transition witnessed the largest biotic turnover of Earth life during the Phanerozoic history. Ecosystems in sea and on land have also experienced the most protected restoration following the end-Permian mass extinction. These biocrises were also associated with climatic and environmental extremes through the latest Permian to Middle Triassic. In order to uncover the links among these extreme events, we need to establish high-resolution biochronostratigraphy, which offers precise timescales for reconstructing event sequences and probing the possible causes. Of these, conodont biostratigraphy is an operational tool in enhancing stratigraphic resolution. Although their ancestors and phylogeny remain unclear, conodonts are a rapid evolutionary lineage and extremely abundant in the Triassic marine carbonate successions. Here, we present recent study results of the Lower Triassic conodont zonation from the Ganxi and Jianshi areas, western Hubei Province, South China, which were situated on a carbonate ramp at the southern northern margin of the Upper Yangtze Platform. Therein, the uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic successions are well exposed and yield abundant conodonts. A total of nine conodont zones was established: (1) Clarkina yini-Clarkina zhangi Zone, (2) Hindeodus changxingensis Zone, (3) Hindeodus parvus Zone, (4) Isarcicella staeschei Zone, (5) Clarkina planata Zone, (6) Neoclarkina discrete Zone, (7) Neospathodus dieneri Zone, (8) Novispathodus waageni Zone, and (9) Triassospathodus homeri Zone. The Ns. dieneri M1, Ns. dieneri M2 and Ns. dieneri M3 subzones have also been distinguished from the Ns. dieneri Zone. Both Nv. waageni eowaageni subzones and Nv. waageni waageni subzones are also recognizable from the Nv. waageni Zone. The first occurrence of H. parvus marks the Permian-Triassic boundary(PTB), while the first occurrence of Nv. waageni eowaageni defines the Induan-Olenekian boundary. These conodont zones correlate well with

  12. Paleomagnetic constraints on neotectonic deformation in the Kashi depression of the western Tarim Basin, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Baochun; Piper, John D. A.; Zhu, Rixiang

    2009-09-01

    A paleomagnetic study is reported of Eocene to Pliocene formations from the Kashi depression, which aims to constrain the pattern of neotectonic deformation within the western sector of the Tarim Basin in northwest China. With the exception of Pliocene specimens from one locality (East Kulukeqiati) which show large within site-mean variations in declination, most sites from five sampled formations yield well-grouped characteristic remanent magnetizations and positive fold tests and are of probable post-depositional detrital origin. First-order consistency of paleomagnetic results from a range of rock ages and localities demonstrates that only small inter-locational vertical-axis rotation has occurred here and indicates that the Kashi depression is decoupled from the remainder of Tarim to the east and has behaved as a quasi-rigid block which has rotated by 20-30° counterclockwise relative to Eurasia and North China since the late Pliocene. The crustal-scale Talas-Ferghana Fault cuts the Tian Shan and meets the Kashi depression in the region immediately to the northwest of the study region and we find no paleomagnetic evidence for differential rotations to suggest that this fault zone extends southwards across the Kashi depression to link with the North Pamir Thrust Fault (NPTF). Instead, we argue that the southern extension of this zone is a transform-orogen junction with southward motion of the eastern wall accommodated by southward thrusting at the margins of the south Tian Shan and the Tarim Basin. We propose that dextral transpression around the margins of the crustal block incorporating the Kashi depression was responsible for the contrasting amounts of thrusting on the NPTF in the southwest and the South Tian Shan Thrust Fault in the north. Extensive evidence for neotectonism in the bordering zones of this block, as well as some paleomagnetic evidence from low unblocking temperature components, indicates that the deformation produced by block rotation is

  13. Perceived resource support for chronic illnesses among diabetics in north-western China.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Huiqin; Shao, Ya; Fan, Ling; Zhong, Tangshen; Ren, Lu; Wang, Yan

    2016-06-01

    A high level of social support can improve long-term diabetes self-management. Support from a single source has been evaluated. This study aims to analyze support from multiple and multilevel sources for diabetic patients by using the Chronic Illness Resources Survey (CIRS). Factors influencing the utilization of the CIRS were also evaluated. A total of 297 patients with diabetes were investigated using the CIRS and Perceived Diabetes Self-management Scale in Shihezi City, China. Descriptive statistics were used to explain demographic variables and scores of the scales. Factors affecting the utilization of chronic illness resources were determined through univariate analysis and then examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Of the 297 diabetic patients surveyed, 67% failed to reach the standard (more than 3 points) of utilizing chronic illness resources. Moreover, utilization of chronic illness resources was positively moderately correlated with self-management of diabetes (r = 0.75, P < 0.05). According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, age (OR, 3.42; 95%CI, 1.19-9.84) and monthly income (OR, 5.27; 95%CI, 1.86-14.90) were significantly positively associated with the CIRS score. Individuals with high school (OR, 2.61; 95%CI, 1.13-6.05) and college (OR, 3.02; 95%CI, 1.13-8.04) degrees obtained higher scores in the survey than those with elementary school education. Results indicated that utilization of resources and support for chronic illness self-management, particularly personal adjustment and organization, were not ideal among diabetics in the communities of north-western China. Improved utilization of chronic illness resources was conducive for proper diabetes self-management. Furthermore, the level of utilization of chronic illness resources increased with age, literacy level, and monthly income. PMID:27075460

  14. Permafrost conditions over Heihe River Basin in Qilian Mountains of Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, B.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, X.; Peng, X.; Wang, K.; Guo, H.; Zheng, L.; Wang, Q.; Wan, X.; Mu, C.; Wu, J.; Jin, H.; He, R.

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the thermal state of permafrost, a monitoring network with 13 boreholes and 5 automatic weather stations was established over the Upper Reaches of Heihe River Basin in Qilian Mountains of western China from 2011 to 2014. The boreholes were drilled along both east-west transects which is parallel to the Qilian Mountain ridges and the north-south transects. These boreholes with elevation from 3642 m a.s.l. to 4153 m a.s.l., covering different facing-slopes, vegetation cover, land cover, and soil types. Five automatic meteorological stations were established with measurements of soil temperatures within the active layer up to 2 m. In the present study, ground penetrating radar (GPR), mechanical probing and site digging methods were also used to detect active layer thickness (ALT) and permafrost distribution over the Upper Reaches of Heihe River Basin. The results showed that the ground temperature between 18 m and 20 m depth ranged from -1.85 °C to 0.45 °C in this area. There was a significant negative correction between elevation and mean annual ground temperature (MAGT), i.e., MAGT increases -0.65°C for every 100 m. The permafrost thickness varies from nearly 200 m to about 4.3 m. Both the ground temperature and permafrost thickness were significantly influenced by slope aspect, vegetation, surface condition, lithology and groundwater. The ALT was 133 cm with a range of 81~210 cm in eastern tributary and varied from 107 cm at the north-facing slope to 484 cm near the lower limit of permafrost with a mean depth of 271 cm in western tributary. The lower limit of permafrost was found at lowest elevation 3389 m and 3649 m on the north- and south-facing slopes, respectively. The near-zero temperature gradients suggested that recent warming had already penetrated into the ground and influenced the thermal state of permafrost significantly.

  15. Ocean response to typhoon Nuri (2008) in western Pacific and South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jingru; Oey, Lie-Yauw; Chang, Roger; Xu, Fanghua; Huang, Shih-Ming

    2015-05-01

    Typhoon Nuri formed on 18 August 2008 in the western North Pacific east of the Philippines and traversed northwestward over the Kuroshio in the Luzon Strait where it intensified to a category 3 typhoon. The storm weakened as it passed over South China Sea (SCS) and made landfall in Hong Kong as a category 1 typhoon on 22 August. Despite the storm's modest strength, the change in typhoon Nuri's intensity was unique in that it strongly depended on the upper ocean. This study examines the ocean response to typhoon Nuri using the Princeton Ocean Model. An ocean state accounting for the sea-surface temperature (SST) and mesoscale eddy field prior to Nuri was constructed by assimilating satellite SST and altimetry data 12 days before the storm. The simulation then continued without further data assimilation, so that the ocean response to the strong wind can be used to understand processes. It is found that the SST cooling was biased to the right of the storm's track due to inertial currents that rotated in the same sense as the wind vector, as has previously been found in the literature. However, despite the comparable wind speeds while the storm was in western Pacific and SCS, the SST cooling was much more intense in SCS. The reason was because in SCS, the surface layer was thinner, the vorticity field of the Kuroshio was cyclonic, and moreover a combination of larger Coriolis frequency as the storm moved northward and the typhoon's slower translational speed produced a stronger resonance between wind and current, resulting in strong shears and entrainment of cool subsurface waters in the upper ocean.

  16. Geologic Setting of the May 12, 2008, Sichuan Earhquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchfiel, B. C.; Royden, L. H.

    2008-12-01

    The May 12, 2008, Sichuan earthquake was located in the Longmen Shan, mountains that form the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau and border the western side of the Sichuan basin. The region of the Longmen Shan consists of very complex structures that vary greatly along strike. Geologically, the Longmen Shan lie along the western margin of the Yangtze craton and was first deformed in late Triassic-early Jurassic (Indosinian) time when the margin was telescoped by large scale eastward thrusting and development of an adjacent Mesozoic foredeep. These units can be followed from their join with the Qinling Mountains in the north, south into central Yunnan. Although there are suggestions of younger Mesozoic deformation, the next major deformation that can be documented is late Cenozoic (beginning ~12 Ma) with the formation of diverse structures. South of the Sichuan basin folds and thrust faults form a multiply deformed area that involves Precambrian basement rocks and Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks with a modified dome and basin interference pattern. These folds and thrust fault project northward into the southern Sichuan basin where most of them end within the basin, but the Longchuan anticline on the east and several folds on the west continue north; the Longchuan anticline curves west into the middle of the Longmen Shan and the western structures form the eastern margin of the NE-trending Longmen Shan. At this latitude the structures involve only Mesozoic rocks above a decollement that underlies the Chengdu plain, but ramps down to the west beneath Precambrian cored structures that form the core of the Longmen Shan. These basement involved structures have a modified fault propagation fold geometry. Northward, the margin of the Tibetan plateau curves to the west along the N-S trending Min Shan formed by active east-vergent steep thrust faults. These structures may be localized by crustal anisotropy between the Xue Shan plateau and Song Pan Ganze flysch basin. A

  17. Heavy metal contaminant remediation study of western Xiamen Bay sediment, China: laboratory bench scale testing results.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luoping; Feng, Huan; Li, Xiaoxia; Ye, Xin; Jing, Youhai; Ouyang, Tong; Yu, Xingtian; Liang, Rongyuan; Chen, Weiqi

    2009-12-15

    A surface sediment sample (<5cm) was collected from a sewage sludge contaminated site (118 degrees 02.711'E, 24 degrees 32.585'N) within western Xiamen Bay, China, in July 2005 for a sediment decontamination study. A series of laboratory-based experiments under various conditions were performed using chemical complexation reagents (e.g., H2C2O4, EDTA-2Na, etc.) and their combination in order to provide information for sediment remediation technology development. In this study, the results suggest that aeration and agitation of the sediment samples in distilled-deionized water (DDW) have either no or weak (<30%) effect on metal removal, whereas agitation, aeration and rotation of the samples in chemical complexation solutions yield much better metal removal efficiency (up to 90%). A low pH condition (e.g., pH<3) and a low solid to liquid ratio (e.g., S:L=1:50) could increase metal removal efficiency. The experimental results suggest that 0.20 M (NH4)2C2O4+0.025 M EDTA combination with solid:liquid ratio=1:50 and 0.50 M ammonium acetate (NH4Ac)+0.025 M EDTA combination with solid:liquid ratio=1:50 are the most effective methods for metal removal from the contaminated sediments. This research provides additional useful information for sediment metal remediation technology development. PMID:19631459

  18. Environmental effects on parasitic disease transmission exemplified by schistosomiasis in western China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Song; Seto, Edmund Y. W.; Remais, Justin V.; Zhong, Bo; Yang, Changhong; Hubbard, Alan; Davis, George M.; Gu, Xueguang; Qiu, Dongchuan; Spear, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental effects on the transmission of many parasitic diseases are well recognized, but the role of specific factors like climate and agricultural practices in modulating transmission is seldom characterized quantitatively. Based on studies of Schistosoma japonicum transmission in irrigated agricultural environments in western China, a mathematical model was used to quantify environmental impacts on transmission intensity. The model was calibrated by using field data from intervention studies in three villages and simulated to predict the effects of alternative control options. Both the results of these interventions and earlier epidemiological findings confirm the central role of environmental factors, particularly those relating to snail habitat and agricultural and sanitation practices. Moreover, the findings indicate the inadequacy of current niclosamide-praziquantel strategies alone to achieve sustainable interruption of transmission in some endemic areas. More generally, the analysis suggests a village-specific index of transmission potential and how this potential is modulated by time-varying factors, including climatological variables, seasonal water-contact patterns, and irrigation practices. These time-variable factors, a village's internal potential, and its connectedness to its neighbors provide a framework for evaluating the likelihood of sustained schistosomiasis transmission and suggest an approach to quantifying the role of environmental factors for other parasitic diseases. PMID:17438266

  19. Profiling bacterial diversity in a limestone cave of the western Loess Plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yucheng; Tan, Liangcheng; Liu, Wuxing; Wang, Baozhan; Wang, Jianjun; Cai, Yanjun; Lin, Xiangui

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria and archaea sustain subsurface cave ecosystems by dominating primary production and fueling biogeochemical cyclings, despite the permanent darkness and shortage of nutrients. However, the heterogeneity and underlying mechanism of microbial diversity in caves, in particular those well connect to surface environment are largely unexplored. In this study, we examined the bacterial abundance and composition in Jinjia Cave, a small and shallow limestone cave located on the western Loess Plateau of China, by enumerating and pyrosequencing small subunit rRNA genes. The results clearly reveal the contrasting bacterial community compositions in relation to cave habitat types, i.e., rock wall deposit, aquatic sediment, and sinkhole soil, which are differentially connected to the surface environment. The deposits on the cave walls were dominated by putative cave-specific bacterial lineages within the γ-Proteobacteria or Actinobacteria that are routinely found on cave rocks around the world. In addition, sequence identity with known functional groups suggests enrichments of chemolithotrophic bacteria potentially involved in autotrophic C fixation and inorganic N transformation on rock surfaces. By contrast, bacterial communities in aquatic sediments were more closely related to those in the overlying soils. This is consistent with the similarity in elemental composition between the cave sediment and the overlying soil, implicating the influence of mineral chemistry on cave microhabitat and bacterial composition. These findings provide compelling molecular evidence of the bacterial community heterogeneity in an East Asian cave, which might be controlled by both subsurface and surface environments. PMID:25870592

  20. Reversal process of the South China Sea western boundary current in autumn 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhixin; Guo, Jingsong; Guo, Binghuo

    2016-05-01

    Using merged sea level anomaly and absolute geostrophic velocity products from satellite altimetry and Argos drifter data, we analyzed the reversal process of the South China Sea (SCS) western boundary current (SCSwbc) from a summer to winter pattern in 2011 and important oceanic phenomena during this process. Results show that the outbreak time of the northeast monsoon over the southern SCS lagged that over the northern SCS by about 1 month. During the SCS monsoon reversal period, the SCSwbc reversed rapidly into the winter pattern at the Guangdong continental slope in late September. Subsequently, the southward Vietnam coastal boundary current strengthened. However, the northward Natuna Current maintained a summer state until mid-October. Thus, the balance between the southward and northward currents was lost when they met, their junction moved gradually southward. However, a loop current formed southeast of Vietnam because the main stream of the Vietnam Offshore Current (VOC) remained near its original latitude. Meanwhile, the VOC and associated dipole circulation system strengthened. After mid-October, the northward Natuna Current began to weaken, the loop current finally shed, becoming a cool ring. The VOC and its associated dipole sub-basin circulation system also weakened gradually until it disappeared.

  1. Mineralogical characteristics of the superlarge Quaternary bauxite deposits in Jingxi and Debao counties, western Guangxi, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuefei; Wang, Qingfei; Zhang, Qizuan; Feng, Yuewen; Cai, Shuhui

    2012-06-01

    In recent decades, more than 0.5 billion tons of ores scattered in the Quaternary laterite in western Guangxi, China have been explored. The ores were derived from a bauxite horizon in Permian via physical break-up and re-sediment process. Utilizing various test methods, i.e., XRD, DTA, TG/DTG, SEM/EDS and EPMA, the mineralogical characteristics of the Quaternary bauxite ores in Jingxi and Debao counties were investigated. XRD was used together with TG/DTG to obtain relatively accurate ore mineral abundance. Diaspore is the major phase, whereas hematite, kaolinite, anatase, chamosite, gibbsite, goethite, illite and rutile are minor. Diaspore is characterized by a small particle size, low degrees of crystallinity and complex chemical composition. Both gibbsite and goethite have a varied particle size, and goethite crystals contain high Al substitution and Si. It is clarified that diaspore, chamosite and anatase were formed in a mildly reduced and alkaline depositional environment in Permian, while gibbsite, hematite, goethite and part kaolinite were precipitated from Al3+-, Si4+- and Fe3+-enriched solutions within an Quaternary oxidized environment. The ions Al3+, Si4+ and Fe3+ are mostly released from chamosite in its dissolution process. The different physicochemical conditions between the Permian depositional and the Quaternary weathering periods resulted in a complex mineral assemblage in the Quaternary bauxite.

  2. Land salinization classification method using Landsat TM in western Jilin Province of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Haoyang; Gu, Lingjia; Ren, Ruizhi; Sun, Jian

    2014-10-01

    In the study of land salinization classification, researchers are most concerned about the distribution, area and degree of salinization. Traditional classification methods of land salinization only manually extract the sample data from the study area, which cannot obtain the classification results for large area. With the development of remote sensing technology, remote sensing data is often used to extract and analyze the information of saline-alkali soil. At present, most classification methods of land salinization utilize the spectral information of remote sensing data based on supervised classification or unsupervised classification, which still have some errors in the classification results. Combining the sample data with Landsat TM images, the Western Jilin Province of China was selected as the study area in this paper. Through analyzing the relationship between the spectral characteristics and the content of soil salinity of the sample data extracted from different types of saline-alkali land, a land salinization classification method using the decision tree was proposed. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method can supply more accurate classification information of land salinization, and further effectively monitor soil salinization changes for the study area.

  3. Profiling bacterial diversity in a limestone cave of the western Loess Plateau of China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yucheng; Tan, Liangcheng; Liu, Wuxing; Wang, Baozhan; Wang, Jianjun; Cai, Yanjun; Lin, Xiangui

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria and archaea sustain subsurface cave ecosystems by dominating primary production and fueling biogeochemical cyclings, despite the permanent darkness and shortage of nutrients. However, the heterogeneity and underlying mechanism of microbial diversity in caves, in particular those well connect to surface environment are largely unexplored. In this study, we examined the bacterial abundance and composition in Jinjia Cave, a small and shallow limestone cave located on the western Loess Plateau of China, by enumerating and pyrosequencing small subunit rRNA genes. The results clearly reveal the contrasting bacterial community compositions in relation to cave habitat types, i.e., rock wall deposit, aquatic sediment, and sinkhole soil, which are differentially connected to the surface environment. The deposits on the cave walls were dominated by putative cave-specific bacterial lineages within the γ-Proteobacteria or Actinobacteria that are routinely found on cave rocks around the world. In addition, sequence identity with known functional groups suggests enrichments of chemolithotrophic bacteria potentially involved in autotrophic C fixation and inorganic N transformation on rock surfaces. By contrast, bacterial communities in aquatic sediments were more closely related to those in the overlying soils. This is consistent with the similarity in elemental composition between the cave sediment and the overlying soil, implicating the influence of mineral chemistry on cave microhabitat and bacterial composition. These findings provide compelling molecular evidence of the bacterial community heterogeneity in an East Asian cave, which might be controlled by both subsurface and surface environments. PMID:25870592

  4. Cyclic precipitation variation on the western Loess Plateau of China during the past four centuries

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Liangcheng; An, Zhisheng; Huh, Chih-An; Cai, Yanjun; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Shiau, Liang-Jian; Yan, Libin; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation variation on the Loess Plateau (LP) of China is not only important for rain-fed agriculture in this environmentally sensitive region, but also critical for the water and life securities over the whole Yellow River basin. Here we reconstruct high resolution precipitation variation on the western LP during the past 370 years by using two replicated, annually-laminated stalagmites. Spatial analysis suggests that the reconstruction can be also representative for the whole LP region. The precipitation variations show a significant quasi-50 year periodicity during the last 370 years, and have an important role in determining the runoff of the middle Yellow River. The main factor controlling the decadal scale variations and long-term trend in precipitation over this region is southerly water vapour transport associated with the Asian summer monsoon. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation is also an important influence on precipitation variation in this region, as it can affect the East Asian summer monsoon and the West Pacific Subtropical High. PMID:25223372

  5. Social vulnerability of rural households to flood hazards in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D. L.; Li, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Evaluating social vulnerability is a crucial issue in risk and disaster management. In this study, a household social vulnerability index (HSVI) to flood hazards was developed and used to assess the social vulnerability of rural households in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China. Eight key indicators were indentified through interactive discussions with multidisciplinary specialists and local farmers, and their weights were determined using principle component analysis (PCA). The results showed that (1) the ratio of perennial working in other places, hazard-related training and illiteracy ratio (15+) were the most dominant factors to social vulnerability. (2) The numbers of high, moderate and low vulnerable households were 14, 64 and 16, respectively, which accounted for 14.9, 68.1, and 17.0 % of the total interviewed rural households, respectively. (3) The correlation coefficient between household social vulnerability scores and casualties in a storm flood in July 2010 was significant at 0.05 significance level (r = 0.248), which indicated that the selected indicators and their weights were valid. (4) Some mitigation strategies to reduce the household social vulnerability to flood hazards were proposed based on the assessment results. The results provide useful information for rural households and local governments to prepare, mitigate and response to flood hazards.

  6. Reversal process of the South China Sea western boundary current in autumn 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhixin; Guo, Jingsong; Guo, Binghuo

    2015-10-01

    Using merged sea level anomaly and absolute geostrophic velocity products from satellite altimetry and Argos drifter data, we analyzed the reversal process of the South China Sea (SCS) western boundary current (SCSwbc) from a summer to winter pattern in 2011 and important oceanic phenomena during this process. Results show that the outbreak time of the northeast monsoon over the southern SCS lagged that over the northern SCS by about 1 month. During the SCS monsoon reversal period, the SCSwbc reversed rapidly into the winter pattern at the Guangdong continental slope in late September. Subsequently, the southward Vietnam coastal boundary current strengthened. However, the northward Natuna Current maintained a summer state until mid-October. Thus, the balance between the southward and northward currents was lost when they met, their junction moved gradually southward. However, a loop current formed southeast of Vietnam because the main stream of the Vietnam Offshore Current (VOC) remained near its original latitude. Meanwhile, the VOC and associated dipole circulation system strengthened. After mid- October, the northward Natuna Current began to weaken, the loop current finally shed, becoming a cool ring. The VOC and its associated dipole sub-basin circulation system also weakened gradually until it disappeared.

  7. The contribution of dust devils and dusty plumes to the aerosol budget in western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yongxiang; Wang, Kanghong; Liu, Feng; Zhao, Tianliang; Yin, Yan; Duan, Jiapeng; Luan, Zhaopeng

    2016-02-01

    Based on thermodynamic theory and comprehensive analyses of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer Aerosol Index, surface micro-pulse LiDAR, meteorological elements in the atmospheric boundary layer, observations of sporadic dust devil, the diurnal and seasonal changes of dust devil are characterized, the contribution to the aerosol budget from dust devils and dusty plumes is quantitatively analyzed. The results show that: 1) dust devils and dusty plumes show obvious diurnal and seasonal variations with a single-peaked distribution; 2) thermodynamic efficiency can effectively account for the daily variations of dust devils and dusty plumes from morning to early afternoon, seasonal changes of dust devil activity in summer. The future improved thermodynamic efficiency could be applied to their parameterization; 3) dust devils and dusty plumes may contribute more than 53% of annual total dust aerosols over desert regions in western China,but the calculated contributions have uncertainties. It will be helpful to understand the dust devil and dusty plume contributions to global and regional aerosol loading.

  8. Monitoring interannual variability of vegetation in the western Liaohe River Basin, Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fang; Wang, Ping; Qin, Yujun; Li, Yanqing

    2008-10-01

    Because vegetation affect several processes including water balance, absorption and reemission of solar radiation, latent and sensible heat fluxes, and carbon cycle, the variations in the composition and distribution of vegetation represents one of the most main source of systematic change on local, regional, or global scale. To monitor and better assess natural or man-made change in vegetation of the earth is desirable for modeling and predicting interactions between land surface and atmosphere. The temporal evolution of decadal NDVI composition is regarded as an effective time window able to show the natural seasonal variations. This paper investigates vegetation change between 1998 and 2006 in the west Liao River watershed, North China, which is the east fringe of agro-pasture transitional zone in northern China and highly sensitive to global change. Time series of SPOT-VEGETATION Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data are used to detect the vegetation cover change during last 9 years. Results show that the yearly maximum value composite mean NDVI over the study area increased slightly from 0.277 in 1998 to 0.287 in 2006, which indicated the increasing trend of vegetation activity. The annual average NDVI value in whole area was steady. Very slight improved and slight improved area reached 113442.32 km2 and 27987.34 km2, taking up 67.81% and 16.73% of the whole study area respectively. The degraded regions occupied about 15.16%. During 1998-2006, the landscape evolution in the western Liaohe River Basin was characterized by two opposite processes, namely vegetation restoration (returning cropland for farming to grassland and close grazing) and desertification (especially land salinization). The increasing amplitude is larger than the decreasing amplitude on the whole. There was obvious decrease of monthly MNDVI in spring months, while increasing tendency of monthly MNDVI in summer and autumn was found. Results will help to provide valuable

  9. Equity in use of maternal health services in Western Rural China: a survey from Shaanxi province

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The 20th century was marked by a significant improvement in worldwide human health and access to healthcare. However, these improvements were not completely or uniformly distributed among, or even within, nations. This study was designed to assess the use of maternal health services by pregnant women in China, with a focus on the inequity related to family income level. Methods Two population-based cross-sectional surveys were carried out in the Zhenan and Lantian counties in March 2007 and from December 2008 to March 2009. A total of 2562 women completed the questionnaires, including 948 who were pregnant in 2006 and 1614 from 2008–2009. The concentration index (CI) was calculated and used to analyze the parameters of maternal health care in the two counties surveyed. Results The responses in both 2006 and 2008–2009 indicated a bias towards higher (rich) economic statuses for the use of maternal and child health services. The CI of ‘delivery at health facility’ was 0.0206 (95% confidence interval between 0.0114 and 0.0299) for 2006 and 0.0053 (95% confidence interval between 0.0015 and 0.0091) for 2008, which represented a statistically significant inequity for women of lower (poor) economic statuses. Similar CI was observed in ‘receiving antenatal care within 12 weeks’ for 2006 (CI2006 = 0.0956, 95% confidence interval between 0.0516 and 0.1396). The CIs of ‘postnatal visit’ and ‘postnatal visit >3-times’ was positive (except for 2006), indicating that the poor used postnatal care less than the non-poor. In 2008, poor women had C-sections more often than non-poor women (CI2008 = −0.0629, 95% confidence interval between-0.1165 and −0.0093), but such a difference was not observed in 2006. Conclusions In 2006 and 2008, the use of maternal health services in western rural China was significantly unequal between pregnant women of poor and non-poor economic statuses. Financial support that enables poorer pregnant women to use

  10. Anurans from the Lower Cretaceous Jehol Group of Western Liaoning, China

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Liping; Roček, Zbyněk; Wang, Yuan; Jones, Marc E H.

    2013-01-01

    Background To date, the Lower Cretaceous Jehol Group of western Liaoning, China has yielded five monotypic genera of anurans, including Liaobatrachus grabaui, Callobatrachus sanyanensis, Mesophryne beipiaoensis, Dalianbatrachus mengi, and Yizhoubatrachus macilentus. However, the validity and distinctness of these taxa have been questioned. Methodology/Principal Finding We provide a comprehensive analysis of the Jehol frogs that includes a re-examination of the published taxa as well as an examination of a number of new specimens that have been collected over the past 10 years. The results show that the five previously named taxa can be referred to three species of one genus–Liaobatrachus grabaui, L. beipiaoensis comb. nov. and L. macilentus comb. nov.. The diagnosis of Liaobatrachus is revised, and a new diagnosis is provided for each species of this genus. We also establish Liaobatrachus zhaoi sp. nov., on the basis of a dozen well-preserved specimens from a new locality. This taxon is distinguished by a unique combination of characteristics, including relatively long hind limbs, a rounded rather than triangular acetabulum, and a gradually-tapering cultriform process of the parasphenoid. In addition, an unnamed frog from a higher horizon, which has narrow sacral diapophyses and particularly long legs, is different from Liaobatrachus and represents another form of anuran in the Jehol Biota. Conclusion/Significance Comparisons with other Mesozoic and extant anurans and the primary phylogenetic analysis both suggest that Liaobatrachus is a member of the anuran crown-group and forms a polytomy with leiopelmatids (Ascaphus and Leiopelma) and the remaining crown-group anurans (Lalagobatrachia). PMID:23922783