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1

Modelling and spatial discrimination of small mammal assemblages: an example from western Sichuan (China)  

PubMed Central

We investigate the relationship between landscape heterogeneity and the spatial distribution of small mammals in two areas of Western Sichuan, China. Given a large diversity of species trapped within a large number of habitats, we first classified small mammal assemblages and then modelled the habitat of each in the space of quantitative environmental descriptors. Our original two step “classify then model” procedure is appropriate for the frequently encountered study scenario: trapping data collected in remote areas with sampling guided by expert field knowledge. In the classification step, we defined assemblages by grouping sites of similar species composition and relative densities using an expert-class-merging procedure which reduced redundancy in the habitat factor used within a multinomial logistic regression predicting species trapping probabilities. Assemblages were thus defined as mixtures of small mammal frequency distributions in discrete groups of sampled sites. In the modelling step, assemblages’ habitats and environments of the two sampled areas were discriminated in the space of remotely sensed environmental descriptors. First, we compared the discrimination of assemblage/study areas by linear and non-linear forms of Discriminant Analysis (Linear Discriminant Analysis versus Mixture Discriminant Analysis) and of Multiple Regression (Generalized Linear Models versus Multiple Adaptive Regression Splines). The “best” predictive modelling technique was then used to quantify the contribution of each environmental variable in discriminations of assemblages and areas. Mixtures of Gaussians provided a more efficient model of assemblage coverage in environmental space than a single Gaussian cluster model. However, non-linearity in assemblage response to environmental gradients was consistently predicted with lower deviance and misclassification error by Multiple Adaptive Regression Splines. The two study areas were mainly discriminated along vegetation indices. However, although the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) could discriminate forested from non-forested habitats, its power to discriminate assemblages in Maerkang, where a greater diversity of forest habitat was observed, was seen to be limited, and in this case NDVI was outperformed by the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). Our analyses highlight previously unobserved differences between the environments and small mammal communities of two fringe areas of the Tibetan plateau and suggests that a biogeograph-ical approach is required to elucidate ecological processes in small mammal communities and to reduce extrapolation uncertainty in distribution mapping. PMID:20161274

Vaniscotte, Amélie; Pleydell, David; Raoul, Francis; Quéré, Jean Pierre; Jiamin, Qiu; Wang, Qian; Tiaoying, Li; Bernard, Nadine; Coeurdassier, Michael; Delattre, Pierre; Takahashi, Kenichi; Weidmann, Jean-Christophe; Giraudoux, Patrick

2009-01-01

2

Sichuan Earthquake in China  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sichuan earthquake in China occurred on May 12, 2008, along faults within the mountains, but near and almost parallel the mountain front, northwest of the city of Chengdu. This major quake caused immediate and severe damage to many villages and cities in the area. Aftershocks pose a continuing danger, but another continuing hazard is the widespread occurrence of landslides that have formed new natural dams and consequently new lakes. These lakes are submerging roads and flooding previously developed lands. But an even greater concern is the possible rapid release of water as the lakes eventually overflow the new dams. The dams are generally composed of disintegrated rock debris that may easily erode, leading to greater release of water, which may then cause faster erosion and an even greater release of water. This possible 'positive feedback' between increasing erosion and increasing water release could result in catastrophic debris flows and/or flooding. The danger is well known to the Chinese earthquake response teams, which have been building spillways over some of the new natural dams.

This ASTER image, acquired on June 1, 2008, shows two of the new large landslide dams and lakes upstream from the town of Chi-Kua-Kan at 32o12'N latitude and 104o50'E longitude. Vegetation is green, water is blue, and soil is grayish brown in this enhanced color view. New landslides appear bright off-white. The northern (top) lake is upstream from the southern lake. Close inspection shows a series of much smaller lakes in an elongated 'S' pattern along the original stream path. Note especially the large landslides that created the dams. Some other landslides in this area, such as the large one in the northeast corner of the image, occur only on the mountain slopes, so do not block streams, and do not form lakes.

2008-01-01

3

[Canopy interception of sub-alpine dark coniferous communities in western Sichuan, China].  

PubMed

Based on field measurements of throughfall and stemflow in combination with climatic data collected from the meteorological station adjacent to the studied sub-alpine dark coniferous forest in Wolong, Sichuan Province, canopy interception of sub-alpine dark coniferous forests was analyzed and modeled at both stand scale and catchment scale. The results showed that monthly interception rate of Fargesia nitida, Bashania fangiana--Abies faxoniana old-growth ranged from 33% Grass to 72%, with the average of 48%. In growing season, there was a linear or powerful or exponential relationship between rainfall and interception an. a negative exponential relationship between rainfall and interception rate. The mean maximum canopy interception by the vegetation in the catchment of in.44 km was 1.74 ment and the significant differences among the five communities occurred in the following sequence: Moss-Fargesia nitida, Bashan afanglana-A. faxoniana stand > Grass-F. nitida, B. fangiana-A. faxoniana stand > Moss-Rhododendron spp.-A. faxoniana stand > Grass-Rh. spp.-A. faxoniana stand > Rh. spp. shrub. In addition, a close linear relationship existed between leaf area index (LAI) and maximum canopy interception. The simulated value of canopy interception rate, maximum canopy interception rate and addition interception rate of the vegetation in the catchment were 39%, 25% and 14%, respectively. Simulation of the canopy interception model was better at the overall growing season scale, that the mean relative error was 9%-14%. PMID:18260438

Lü, Yu-liang; Liu, Shi-rong; Sun, Peng-sen; Liu, Xing-liang; Zhang, Rui-pu

2007-11-01

4

Tree ring-based temperature reconstruction over the past 186 years for the Miyaluo Natural Reserve, western Sichuan Province of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mountain range of western Sichuan Province of China runs roughly north to south defining the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, where high-resolution climate records are essential for understanding regional climatic phenomena. Unfortunately, instrumental records in this region are too short in duration to confidently gauge the long-term variability of climate change. This paper presented a temperature reconstruction for the western Sichuan Province based on a tree ring width chronology developed from a tree line site (4,150 m) of the Faxon fir (Abies faxoniana) at the Miyaluo Natural Reserve. This reconstruction, spanning the years from 1824 to 2009, could account for 46.7 % of the actual variance of annual mean temperature during the calibration period from 1950 to 2002. The reconstruction could be essentially divided into two distinct subperiods: a relatively cold and stable period in the late nineteenth century and a relatively warm and unstable period in the twentieth century. Years 2001 and 1911 were the warmest (6.32 °C) and coldest (4.87 °C) years in the reconstruction, respectively, while 1960s (5.77 °C) and 1980s (5.08 °C) were the warmest and coldest ten consecutive years within the past 186 years. Close coupling observed with other temperature proxies (tree rings, ice cores, and glaciers) from surrounding areas emphasized the high degree of confidence in our reconstruction.

Li, Zong Shan; Liu, Guo Hua; Gong, Li; Wang, Meng; Wang, Xiao Chun

2014-06-01

5

[Effects of snow pack on soil nitrogen transformation enzyme activities in a subalpine Abies faxioniana forest of western Sichuan, China].  

PubMed

This study characterized the dynamics of the activities of urease, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase in both soil organic layer and mineral soil layer under three depths of snow pack (deep snowpack, moderate snowpack and shallow snowpack) over the three critical periods (snow formed period, snow stable period, and snow melt period) in the subalpine Abies faxoniana forest of western Sichuan in the winter of 2012 and 2013. Throughout the winter, soil temperature under deep snowpack increased by 46.2% and 26.2%, respectively in comparison with moderate snowpack and shallow snowpack. In general, the three nitrogen-related soil enzyme activities under shallow snowpack were 0.8 to 3.9 times of those under deep snowpack during the winter. In the beginning and thawing periods of seasonal snow pack, shallow snowpack significantly increased the activities of urease, nitrate and nitrite reductase enzyme in both soil organic layer and mineral soil layer. Although the activities of the studied enzymes in soil organic layer and mineral soil layer were observed to be higher than those under deep- and moderate snowpacks in deep winter, no significant difference was found under the three snow packs. Meanwhile, the effects of snowpack on the activities of the measured enzymes were related with season, soil layer and enzyme type. Significant variations of the activities of nitrogen-related enzymes were found in three critical periods over the winter, and the three measured soil enzymes were significantly higher in organic layer than in mineral layer. In addition, the activities of the three measured soil enzymes were closely related with temperature and moisture in soils. In conclusion, the decrease of snow pack induced by winter warming might increase the activities of soil enzymes related with nitrogen transformation and further stimulate the process of wintertime nitrogen transformation in soils of the subalpine forest. PMID:25129927

Xiong, Li; Xu, Zhen-Feng; Wu, Fu-Zhong; Yang, Wan-Qin; Yin, Rui; Li, Zhi-Ping; Gou, Xiao-Lin; Tang, Shi-Shan

2014-05-01

6

Boulder from 2008 Great Sichuan Earthquake in China  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The May 12, 2008, Great Sichuan Earthquake, also called the Wenchuan Earthquake, occurred at 14:28 local time, in Sichuan Province, China. The earthquake magnitudes were Mw = 7.9 (USGS), Ms = 8.0 (Chinese Earthquake Administration). The epicenter was 80 km west-northwest of Chengdu, the capital city...

7

Damage from 2008 Great Sichuan Earthquake in China  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The May 12, 2008, Great Sichuan Earthquake, also called the Wenchuan Earthquake, occurred at 14:28 local time, in Sichuan Province, China. The earthquake magnitudes were Mw = 7.9 (USGS), Ms = 8.0 (Chinese Earthquake Administration). The epicenter was 80 km west-northwest of Chengdu, the capital city...

8

Road Damage from 2008 Great Sichuan Earthquake in China  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The May 12, 2008, Great Sichuan Earthquake, also called the Wenchuan Earthquake, occurred at 14:28 local time, in Sichuan Province, China. The earthquake magnitudes were Mw = 7.9 (USGS), Ms = 8.0 (Chinese Earthquake Administration). The epicenter was 80 km west-northwest of Chengdu, the capital city...

9

Study on the Effect of Source-Contacting Gas Accumulations upon Abnormal Pressures in Western Sichuan Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The migration and accumulation of typical source-contacting gas, also called basin-centered gas, follow the piston principle that it generates superpressures essentially. In the tight sand reservoir, the formation water cannot exchange sufficiently, which maintains higher pressure in gas reservoirs compared with conventional reservoirs during tectonic uplift or subsidences. The western Sichuan depression is one of the earliest basins in China

Jinchuan ZHANG; Lifang LIU; Xuan TANG; Xiaowei SONG; Shengling JIANG; Bo XU; Ruikang BIAN

2008-01-01

10

High anemia prevalence in western China.  

PubMed

We assessed the prevalence of anemia among schoolchildren in western China as determined by seven cross-sectional surveys involving 12,768 children aged 8-12 years. Subjects were selected randomly from 283 primary schools in 41 economically disadvantaged counties of Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi and Sichuan Provinces. Data were collected through questionnaires and hemoglobin levels were measured. The anemia prevalence was 34% using the WHO hemoglobin cutoff of < 120 g/l. Boarding students and girls were more likely to be anemic. The prevalence of anemia in schoolchildren was high. Iron deficiency is a significant nutrition issue in China. PMID:22299447

Luo, Renfu; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Shi, Yaojiang; Miller, Grant; Rozelle, Scott; Yu, Elaine; Martorell, Reynaldo

2011-09-01

11

Characterization of vegetative insecticidal protein vip genes of Bacillus thuringiensis from Sichuan Basin in China.  

PubMed

Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip), the second generation of insecticides, are produced during the vegetative growth stage of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). To perform a systematic study of vip genes in Bt strains from different ecological regions of Sichuan Basin, 1,789 soil samples were collected from this basin, which is situated in the western region of China. The basin has a complicated geomorphology and contains mountains, forests, highlands, hursts, and plains. A total of 2,134 Bt strains have been screened from the 1,789 soil samples. According to the results, three vip-type genes were found in this basin, namely the vip1, vip2, and vip3-type genes. Strains containing vip3-type genes were the most abundant in our collection (67.4%), followed by vip2-type genes (14.6%) and vip1-type genes (8.1%). The three types of vip genes were distributed in most of the regions, but E Mei Mountain and the Ba Lang Mountains only contained vip3 genes in environments with high elevation, low temperature, insufficient oxygen, and abundant snow. Moreover, five novel vip3 genes were found, and these Vip proteins were toxic for Chilo suppressalis. All the results mentioned above suggest that Sichuan Basin is a rich resource for vip genes. PMID:20963416

Yu, Xiumei; Zheng, Aiping; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Shiquan; Wang, Lingxia; Deng, Qiming; Li, Shuangcheng; Liu, Huainian; Li, Ping

2011-03-01

12

Taeniasis/cysticercosis in a Tibetan population in Sichuan Province, China.  

PubMed

The results of a preliminary survey of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Yajiang County, Ganze Tibetan Prefecture in southwest Sichuan Province, China, indicated a very high prevalence of taeniasis (22.5%), with Taenia saginata as the dominant species. There was also a significant occurrence of late-onset epilepsy (8.5% prevalence and 16.4% seropositive for Taenia solium antibodies) attributable in large part to probable neurocysticercosis caused by T. solium. The poor sanitation and hygiene in this Tibetan community likely contributed to a high risk of human cysticercosis despite a low level of T. solium taeniasis (actually no T. solium carriers were detected amongst the 21 proven Taenia carriers). In addition, three taeniasis cases were confirmed by DNA genotyping as Taenia asiatica, which is the first report of this tapeworm in Tibetans, the first report for Sichuan Province and only the third report for mainland China. PMID:17166477

Li, Tiaoying; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira; Chen, Xingwang; Qiu, Dongchuan; Qiu, Jiamin; Sato, Marcello O; Wandra, Toni; Bradshaw, Helen; Li, Li; Yang, Yun; Wang, Qian

2006-12-01

13

The Wenchuan Earthquake (May 12, 2008), Sichuan Province, China, and resulting geohazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

On Monday, May 12, 2008, a devastating mega-earthquake of magnitude 8.0 struck the Wenchuan area, northwestern Sichuan Province,\\u000a China. The focal mechanism of the earthquake was successive massive rock fracturing 15 km in depth at Yingxiu. Seismic analysis\\u000a confirms that the major shock occurred on the Beichuan–Yingxiu Fault and that aftershocks rapidly extended in a straight northeast–southeast\\u000a direction along the Longmenshan

Peng Cui; Xiao-Qing Chen; Ying-Yan Zhu; Feng-Huan Su; Fang-Qiang Wei; Yong-Shun Han; Hong-Jiang Liu; Jian-Qi Zhuang

2011-01-01

14

Crustal structures in the area of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake from seismologic and gravimetric data  

E-print Network

.9 the Wenchuan earthquake on the western margin of the Sichuan Basin is arguably the largest intracontinental earthquake in western China ever recorded by instruments. InSAR data and field observations (Stone, 2008; XuCrustal structures in the area of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake from seismologic and gravimetric data

Demouchy, Sylvie

15

Preliminary investigation of some large landslides triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan Province, China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The M s 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake or "Great Sichuan Earthquake" occurred at 14:28 p.m. local time on 12 May 2008 in Sichuan Province, China. Damage by earthquake-induced landslides was an important part of the total earthquake damage. This report presents preliminary observations on the Hongyan Resort slide located southwest of the main epicenter, shallow mountain surface failures in Xuankou village of Yingxiu Town, the Jiufengchun slide near Longmenshan Town, the Hongsong Hydro-power Station slide near Hongbai Town, the Xiaojiaqiao slide in Chaping Town, two landslides in Beichuan County-town which destroyed a large part of the town, and the Donghekou and Shibangou slides in Qingchuan County which formed the second biggest landslide lake formed in this earthquake. The influences of seismic, topographic, geologic, and hydro-geologic conditions are discussed. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.

Wang, F.; Cheng, Q.; Highland, L.; Miyajima, M.; Wang, H.; Yan, C.

2009-01-01

16

Passion: Burning in the West--An Investigation on College Students' Volunteer Teaching in Western China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author investigates college students' volunteer teaching in Western China. A series of investigations were conducted in Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, and Xinjiang. The results showed that teaching by volunteer college students played a positive role in the development of local education…

Zhen, Li

2008-01-01

17

Linked sequence stratigraphy and tectonics in the Sichuan continental foreland basin, Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation, southwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intracontinental subduction of the South China Block below the North China Block in the Late Triassic resulted in formation of the transpressional Sichuan foreland basin on the South China Block. The Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation was deposited in this basin and consists of an eastward-tapering wedge of predominantly continental siliciclastic sedimentary rocks that are up to 3.5 km thick in the western foredeep depocenter and thin onto the forebulge and into backbulge depocenters. Five facies associations (A-E) make up the Xujiahe Formation and these are interpreted, respectively, as alluvial fan, transverse and longitudinal braided river, meandering river, overbank or shallow lacustrine, and deltaic deposits. This study establishes a sequence stratigraphic framework for the Xujiahe Formation which is subdivided into four sequences (SQ1, 2, 3 and 4). Sequence boundaries are recognized on the basis of facies-tract dislocations and associated fluvial rejuvenation and incision, and systems tracts are identified based on their constituent facies associations and changes in architectural style and sediment body geometries. Typical sequences consist of early to late transgressive systems tract deposits related to a progressive increase in accommodation and represented by Facies Associations A, B and C that grade upwards into Facies Association D. Regionally extensive and vertically stacked coal seams define maximum accommodation and are overlain by early highstand systems tract deposits represented by Facies Associations D, E and C. Late highstand systems tract deposits are rare because of erosion below sequence boundaries. Sequence development in the Xujiahe Formation is attributed to active and quiescent phases of thrust-loading events and is closely related to the tectonic evolution of the basin. The Sichuan Basin experienced three periods of thrust loading and lithospheric flexure (SQ1, lower SQ2 and SQ3), two periods of stress relaxation and basin widening (upper SQ 2 and SQ3) and one phase of isostatic rebound (SQ4). Paleogeographic reconstruction of the Sichuan Basin in the Late Triassic indicates that the Longmen Mountains to the west, consisting of metamorphic, sedimentary and pre-Neoproterozoic basement granitoid rocks, was the major source of sediment to the foredeep depocenter. Subordinate sediment sources were the Xuefeng Mountains to the east to backbulge depocenters, and the Micang Mountains to the northwest during the late history of the basin. This study has demonstrated the viability of sequence stratigraphic analysis in continental successions in a foreland basin, and the influence of thrust loading on sequence development.

Li, Yingjiao; Shao, Longyi; Eriksson, Kenneth A.; Tong, Xin; Gao, Caixia; Chen, Zhongshu

2014-07-01

18

An aberrant species of Nipponocercyon from Sichuan, China (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Sphaeridiinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract A detailed examination of specimens of Cryptopleurum sichuanicum Ryndevich, 2005 from high altitudes of Sichuan Province, China, revealed that the species belongs in the genus Nipponocercyon Satô, 1963 previously endemic to Japan. The species is here transferred in Nipponocercyon, and Nipponocercyon sichuanicus (Ryndevich, 2005), comb. n. is redescribed and compared with Nipponocercyon shibatai Satô, 1963. The male genitalia of Nipponocercyon sichuanicus is described for the first time. An adapted diagnosis of Nipponocercyon is provided, and reasons for the inclusion of Nipponocercyon sichuanicus into Nipponocercyon and the general distribution of the genus are discussed. PMID:22936864

Fiká?ek, Martin; Ryndevich, Sergey; Jia, Fenglong

2012-01-01

19

Correlation Analysis of the Rural Finance Development and Rural Economic Growth - A Case of Sichuan Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on relevant research on rural finance development and rural economic growth by some Chinese scholars, taking Sichuan Province of China as an example, index of rural financial scale (deposit scale Y1 and credit scale Y2), index of rural financial support to agriculture (agricultural loan scale Y3, loan size of township enterprises Y4), index of rural economic development level (total

Chenzhong Lu

2009-01-01

20

Distribution of the crustal magnetic field in Sichuan-Yunnan region, southwest China.  

PubMed

Based on the new and higher degree geomagnetic model NGDC-720-V3, we have investigated the spatial distribution, the altitude decay characteristics of the crustal magnetic anomaly, the contributions from different wavelength bands to the anomaly, and the relationship among the anomaly, the geological structure, and the geophysical field in Sichuan-Yunnan region of China. It is noted that the most outstanding feature in this area is the strong positive magnetic anomaly in Sichuan Basin, a geologically stable block. Contrasting with this feature, a strong negative anomaly can be seen nearby in Longmen Mountain block, an active block. This contradiction implies a possible relationship between the magnetic field and the geological activity. Completely different feature in magnetic field distribution is seen in the central Yunnan block, another active region, where positive and negative anomalies distribute alternatively, showing a complex magnetic anomaly map. Some fault belts, such as the Longmen Mountain fault, Lijiang-Xiaojinhe fault, and the Red River fault, are the transitional zones of strong and weak or negative and positive anomalies. The corresponding relationship between the magnetic anomaly and the geophysical fields was confirmed. PMID:25243232

Bai, Chunhua; Kang, Guofa; Gao, Guoming

2014-01-01

21

Distribution of the Crustal Magnetic Field in Sichuan-Yunnan Region, Southwest China  

PubMed Central

Based on the new and higher degree geomagnetic model NGDC-720-V3, we have investigated the spatial distribution, the altitude decay characteristics of the crustal magnetic anomaly, the contributions from different wavelength bands to the anomaly, and the relationship among the anomaly, the geological structure, and the geophysical field in Sichuan-Yunnan region of China. It is noted that the most outstanding feature in this area is the strong positive magnetic anomaly in Sichuan Basin, a geologically stable block. Contrasting with this feature, a strong negative anomaly can be seen nearby in Longmen Mountain block, an active block. This contradiction implies a possible relationship between the magnetic field and the geological activity. Completely different feature in magnetic field distribution is seen in the central Yunnan block, another active region, where positive and negative anomalies distribute alternatively, showing a complex magnetic anomaly map. Some fault belts, such as the Longmen Mountain fault, Lijiang-Xiaojinhe fault, and the Red River fault, are the transitional zones of strong and weak or negative and positive anomalies. The corresponding relationship between the magnetic anomaly and the geophysical fields was confirmed. PMID:25243232

Bai, Chunhua; Kang, Guofa; Gao, Guoming

2014-01-01

22

Re-emerging schistosomiasis in hilly and mountainous areas of Sichuan, China.  

PubMed Central

Despite great strides in schistosomiasis control over the past several decades in Sichuan Province, China the disease has re-emerged in areas where it was previously controlled. We reviewed historical records and found that schistosomiasis had re-emerged in eight counties by the end of 2004 - seven of 21 counties with transmission control and one of 25 with transmission interruption as reported in 2001 were confirmed to have local disease transmission. The average "return time" (from control to re-emergence) was about eight years. The onset of re-emergence was commonly signalled by the occurrence of acute infections. Our survey results suggest that environmental and sociopolitical factors play an important role in re-emergence. The main challenge would be to consolidate and maintain effective control in the longer term until "real" eradication is achieved. This would be possible only by the formulation of a sustainable surveillance and control system. PMID:16501732

Liang, Song; Yang, Changhong; Zhong, Bo; Qiu, Dongchuan

2006-01-01

23

A data-based model to locate mass movements triggered by seismic events in Sichuan, China.  

PubMed

Earthquakes affect the entire world and have catastrophic consequences. On May 12, 2008, an earthquake of magnitude 7.9 on the Richter scale occurred in the Wenchuan area of Sichuan province in China. This event, together with subsequent aftershocks, caused many avalanches, landslides, debris flows, collapses, and quake lakes and induced numerous unstable slopes. This work proposes a methodology that uses a data mining approach and geographic information systems to predict these mass movements based on their association with the main and aftershock epicenters, geologic faults, riverbeds, and topography. A dataset comprising 3,883 mass movements is analyzed, and some models to predict the location of these mass movements are developed. These predictive models could be used by the Chinese authorities as an important tool for identifying risk areas and rescuing survivors during similar events in the future. PMID:24085622

de Souza, Fabio Teodoro

2014-01-01

24

Geophysical Measurements Associated with the Ms8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake in Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Ms8.0 earthquake occurred in Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province, China on May 12, 2008. Although the Wenchuan earthquake occurred in a well-known active seismic zone due to the tectonic contact between the Sichuan basin and the eastern Tibetan plateau, it is not expected that such a big event happened in the Longmenshan fault, which is much more inactive than the surrounding faults (e.g., the Xianshuihe fault) according to GPS measurements. Although earthquake prediction is a highly controversial issue, scientists are continuing to find valuable precursors of earthquakes, e.g., seismicity changes play an important role in intermediate-term study and have been tested for a long period of time, intermediate-term and short-term electromagnetic changes associated with earthquakes have been reported widely and have been also tested by various research groups. Thus, whether or not there is any precursory change associated with the big Wenchuan earthquake is an interesting topic to geophysical community and deserves further study. In this study, some results of the geophysical measurements associated with the Wenchuan earthquake will be reported. First, the seismicity changes prior to the Wenchuan earthquake will be investigated by applying the Region-Time-Length (RTL) method to the earthquake catalog in China. This paper will discuss the characteristics of the temporal variations of the RTL parameters at the epicenter of the Wenchuan earthquake and the spatial distribution of seismic quiescence in the investigated region. Next, this paper will analyze the resistivity data recorded by the geoelectric network around the epicenter and discuss the characteristics of resistivity background changes. Then, the resistivity data recorded by PS100, which is a kind of controlled source geoelectric instrument, will be analyzed and the short-term resistivity variations will be investigated. Finally, this paper will discuss the characteristics of electric and magnetic field associated with the aftershocks of the Wenchuan earthquake using the data recorded by the temporary magnetotelluric measurement after the mainshock.

Huang, Q.

2008-12-01

25

Genetic Structure of Qiangic Populations Residing in the Western Sichuan Corridor  

PubMed Central

The Qiangic languages in western Sichuan (WSC) are believed to be the oldest branch of the Sino-Tibetan linguistic family, and therefore, all Sino-Tibetan populations might have originated in WSC. However, very few genetic investigations have been done on Qiangic populations and no genetic evidences for the origin of Sino-Tibetan populations have been provided. By using the informative Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers, we analyzed the genetic structure of Qiangic populations. Our results revealed a predominantly Northern Asian-specific component in Qiangic populations, especially in maternal lineages. The Qiangic populations are an admixture of the northward migrations of East Asian initial settlers with Y chromosome haplogroup D (D1-M15 and the later originated D3a-P47) in the late Paleolithic age, and the southward Di-Qiang people with dominant haplogroup O3a2c1*-M134 and O3a2c1a-M117 in the Neolithic Age. PMID:25090432

Wang, Chuan-Chao; Wang, Ling-Xiang; Shrestha, Rukesh; Zhang, Manfei; Huang, Xiu-Yuan; Hu, Kang; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

2014-01-01

26

Holocene paleoearthquake activity along the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake ruptures of the Beichuan and Pengguan faults, eastern Sichuan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The May 12, 2009 MW 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake was the largest natural disaster in eastern Sichuan, China. The length of the earthquake rupture nearly 300 km comprises the Beichuan and Pengguan faults along the frontal foothills. Excavation along the Beichuan fault has characterized three large earthquake events since 5920-5730 cal yr BP, suggesting recurrence intervals in the order of 2960-2865

W. Chen; Y. Ran; X. Xu

2009-01-01

27

Bouguer gravity anomaly and isostasy at western Sichuan Basin revealed by new gravity surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

dense relative gravity and Global Positioning System observation network with 302 stations was measured in the western Sichuan Basin (SB) to study gravity and isostasy. Bouguer Gravity Anomalies are negative in the study area, and change gradually from about -110 mGal (10- 5m s- 2) in the southeast to -220 mGal in the northwest. The new data reveal that the Moho beneath the western SB changes gradually from 39.5 km in the southeast to 43.7 km in the northwest and is inclined slightly to the northwest beneath the Chengdu Plain. The isostatic crustal thickness calculated by Airy isostatic theory varies between 39.5 and 42.0 km. The Longquan Shan (LQS) marks a clear boundary in the state of isostastic compensation in the study area. The Moho depth is almost identical to the Airy isostatic crustal thickness east of the LQS, where the crust is in isostatic balance. However, on the Chengdu Plain west of the LQS, differences between the Moho depth and Airy isostatic crustal thickness became larger from east to west, where the crust is out of isostatic balance. This indicates that the load of the Longmen Shan (LMS) on the west part of the crust of SB is mainly borne by the crust beneath the Chengdu Plain, and does little influence the crust east of the LQS. As a result we deduce that the LQS fault zone is a deeply rooted high angle fault zone that was broken by the load of the LMS.

Fu, Guangyu; Gao, Shanghua; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Zhang, Guoqing; Zhu, Yiqing; Yang, Guangliang

2014-04-01

28

Study on 3-D velocity structure of crust and upper mantle in Sichuan-yunnan region, China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Based on the first arrival P and S data of 4 625 regional earthquakes recorded at 174 stations dispersed in the Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces, the 3-D velocity structure of crust and upper mantle in the region is determined, incorporating with previous deep geophysical data. In the upper crust, a positive anomaly velocity zone exists in the Sichuan basin, whereas a negative anomaly velocity zone exists in the western Sichuan plateau. The boundary between the positive and negative anomaly zones is the Longmenshan fault zone. The images of lower crust and upper mantle in the Longmenshan fault, Xianshuihe fault, Honghe fault and others appear the characteristic of tectonic boundary, indicating that the faults litely penetrate the Moho discontinuity. The negative velocity anomalies at the depth of 50 km in the Tengchong volcanic area and the Panxi tectonic zone appear to be associated with the temperature and composition variations in the upper mantle. The overall features of the crustal and the upper mantle structures in the Sichuan-Yunnan region are the lower average velocity in both crust and uppermost mantle, the large crustal thickness variations, and the existence of high conductivity layer in the crust or/and upper mantle, and higher geothermal value. All these features are closely related to the collision between the Indian and the Asian plates. The crustal velocity in the Sichuan-Yunnan rhombic block generally shows normal.value or positive anomaly, while the negative anomaly exists in the area along the large strike-slip faults as the block boundary. It is conducive to the crustal block side-pressing out along the faults. In the major seismic zones, the seismicity is relative to the negative anomaly velocity. Most strong earthquakes occurred in the upper-mid crust with positive anomaly or normal velocity, where the negative anomaly zone generally exists below.

Wang, C.; Mooney, W.D.; Wang, X.; Wu, J.; Lou, H.; Wang, F.

2002-01-01

29

Posttraumatic stress disorder among earthquake survivors of the Wenchuan area (Sichuan, China)  

PubMed Central

Background On May 12, 2008, an earthquake with a power of 8.0 M on the Richter scale occurred in the Wenchuan County of Sichuan Province in southwest China, which was unprecedented in magnitude and aftermath. Approximately 70,000 people were killed and nearly 20,000 went missing. The earthquake caused a wide number of mental and physical health outcomes among survivors, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was one of the most commonly studied. Methods We conducted a systematic overview to assess research achievements about PTSD in the past 6 years after the Wenchuan earthquake, including symptoms and risk factors about PTSD among Wenchuan earthquake survivors, as well as research developments in genetics, molecular biology, and treatment of PTSD. Results The large body of research conducted after the Wenchuan earthquake suggests that the burden of PTSD among persons with high exposure was substantial. Adolescents and adults were among the most studied populations with high prevalence rates. Phytotherapy with Chinese herbs as well as acupuncture were rarely studied as of yet, although published data indicated promising therapy effects. Genome-wide microarray technologies are widely used in experimental mice and rat models to study PTSD mechanisms as well as in patients suffering from PTSD and other psychosomatic disorders to search for novel biomarkers and to monitor the effectiveness of treatment interventions. Conclusion Using genomic and transcriptomic technologies, our future research will focus on the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicine to find potential interventions and effective treatments of PTSD. PMID:25511735

Hong, Chunlan; Cao, Jingming; Efferth, Thomas

2014-01-01

30

Investigations of Satellite Data for Ionospheric Disturbances Associated with Sichuan, China Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the presented paper we have statistically analyzed the ionospheric parameters to search for variations in the vicinity of large earthquake prior to event using the DEMETER (Detection of Electromagnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions) satellite data. Because as the evidences have shown that the phenomenon of ionospheric disturbances associated with large earthquakes are considered to be most promising tools for earthquake studies. We have observed these variations in the ionospheric parameters before the Sichuan, China (30.98N, 103.36E) earthquake which was occurred on May 12, 2008 with the magnitude of M = 7.9. The variations in the ionospheric parameters like ion density, electron density and electron temperature have been recorded from different onboard instruments (i.e. ISL, IAP) mounted on the DEMETER satellite. The anomalous deviations in the ion density, electron density and electron temperature have been found by the statistical results. It was concluded that variations in these parameters are due to anomalous change in atmospheric electric field during the earthquake preparation process. Keywords: Earthquake Precursors, Ionospheric Perturbations, DEMETER Satellite.

Shrivastava, Rahul; Gwal, Ashok Kumar; Sondhiya, Deepak Kumar

31

Heavy metal contamination in soil alongside mountain railway in Sichuan, China.  

PubMed

Heavy metal concentration in soil was investigated at three sites with different topography (cut slope, flat and embankment) within the vicinity of Chengdu-Kunming railway in Sichuan, China. Surface soil was sampled at certain distances from the track at each site and was analyzed for Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cd by atomic absorption spectrometry. Cu, Cd and Zn concentrations in some soil exceeded the thresholds for non-polluted soil following the soil quality standard set by the State Environmental Protection Agency of China. Compared to local background values, the highest enrichment factor values of Cu, Mn, Zn and Cd were 2.7, 3.4, 3.7 and 7.7, respectively, indicating a moderate or significant enrichment of these metals in soil closest to the railway. Pb showed little accumulation with the EF values generally nearer 1 at the chosen sites. Topography profile was found to influence metal levels and distribution in soil alongside railway. At the cut slope site, Mn, Zn, Cd showed the highest concentrations and the smallest dispersion distance of 2 m, while Cu showed further dispersion distance of 25 m due to a main Cu emission source, the head-over traction cable, being located higher than any other metal emission source (wheels and tracks). Heavy metal concentrations decreased conversely as compared to distance from the track, peak values occurring at locations closest to the tracks, whilst embankment site soil Cd concentrations peaked at distances of 25 m. Significant correlation was found amongst Mn, Cu, Zn and Cd, which indicates that these metals have the same anthropogenic origin there. Organic matter content had no significant correlation to the elements Mn, Cu and Zn, which implies relatively high mobility to those metals. PMID:18553150

Liu, Hao; Chen, Li-Ping; Ai, Ying-Wei; Yang, Xia; Yu, Yan-Hua; Zuo, Yuan-Bin; Fu, Guo-Yong

2009-05-01

32

Characteristics and genesis of the Feixianguan Formation oolitic shoal reservoir, Puguang gas field, Sichuan Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lower Triassic Feixianguan Formation at the well-known Puguang gasfield in the northeastern Sichuan Basin of southwest China produces a representative oolitic reservoir, which has been the biggest marine-sourced gasfield so far in China (discovered in 2003 with proven gas reserves greater than 350×108 m3). This study combines core, thin section, and scanning electron microscopy observations, and geochemical analysis (C, O, and Sr isotopes) in order to investigate the basic characteristics and formation mechanisms of the reservoir. Observations indicate that platform margin oolitic dolomites are the most important reservoir rocks. Porosity is dominated by intergranular and intragranular solution, and moldic pore. The dolomites are characterized by medium porosity and permeability, averaging at approximately 9% and 29.7 mD, respectively. 87Sr/86Sr (0.707536-0.707934) and ?13CPDB (1.8‰-3.5‰) isotopic values indicate that the dolomitization fluid is predominantly concentrated seawater by evaporation, and the main mechanism for the oolitic dolomite formation is seepage reflux at an early stage of eodiagenesis. Both sedimentation and diagenesis (e.g., dolomitization and dissolution) have led to the formation of high-quality rocks to different degrees. Dolomite formation may have little contribution, karst may have had both positive and negative influences, and burial dissolution-TSR (thermochemical sulfate reduction) may not impact widely. The preservation of primary intergranular pores and dissolution by meteoric or mixed waters at the early stage of eogenesis are the main influences. This study may assist oil and gas exploration activities in the Puguang area and in other areas with dolomitic reservoirs.

Chen, Peiyuan; Tan, Xiucheng; Yang, Huiting; Tang, Ming; Jiang, Yiwei; Jin, Xiuju; Yu, Yang

2014-06-01

33

Teaching American Literature in China: Panel Discussion at Sichuan University (Chegdu, China, April 1988).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to be of interest to anyone concerned with the study of American literature in China or anyone contemplating teaching there, this paper is an edited version of the taped transcript of a panel discussion among five Fulbright professors of American literature and American studies i China. The paper begins with brief, focused introductory…

Beidler, Peter G., Ed.

34

Semen quality evaluation in a cohort of 28213 adult males from Sichuan area of south-west China.  

PubMed

The trends in semen quality are conflicting. Although many previous surveys on semen quality indicated a decline, the trends in semen quality in Sichuan area of south-west China are not clear. We analysed the semen parameters in a cohort of 28,213 adult males close to general population in Sichuan between July 2007 and June 2012, and investigated the changes on semen quality. The semen parameters including pH, volume, concentration, motility, morphology were measured according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance was used to examine the statistical differences of semen quality between groups. We found that the medians (5th and 95th percentiles) were 2.4 ml (1.0-5.0) for semen volume, 62.0 × 10(6) ml(-1) (15.0-142.0) for semen concentration, 39% (18-60%) for sperm progressive motility and 10.5% (1.0-34.5%) for normal morphology. In these 5 years, sperm concentration and the percentage of sperm normal morphology were decreased from 66.0 × 10(6 ) ml(-1) to 49.0 × 10(6) ml(-1) and from 13.5% to 4.5%, respectively; among different reproductive history groups, sperm concentration and the percentage of sperm normal morphology were also decreased in these 5 years. And the incidence of azoospermia was increasing. These may imply that there is a decline in semen quality of adult males in Sichuan area. PMID:24079334

Jiang, M; Chen, X; Yue, H; Xu, W; Lin, L; Wu, Y; Liu, B

2014-10-01

35

Western China energy development and west to east energy transfer: Application of the Western China Sustainable Energy Development Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is striving for coordinated regional economic development and to solve the energy shortage in eastern China through a western China development plan with one focus being energy development and west to east energy transfer. This paper describes Western China Sustainable Energy Development Model (WSED) to evaluate various energy development scenarios for western China. The model includes a Western China

Wenying Chen; Hualin Li; Zongxin Wu

2010-01-01

36

Limited and Localized Outbreak of Newly Emergent Type 2 Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus in Sichuan, China  

PubMed Central

From August 2011 to February 2012, an outbreak caused by type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) occurred in Aba County, Sichuan, China. During the outbreak, four type 2 VDPVs (?0.6% nucleotide divergence in the VP1 region relative to the Sabin 2 strain) were isolated from 3 patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and one close contact. In addition, a type 2 pre-VDPV (0.3% to 0.5% divergence from Sabin 2) that was genetically related to these type 2 VDPVs was isolated from another AFP patient. These 4 patients were all unimmunized children 0.7 to 1.1 years old. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that the 4 VDPV isolates differed from Sabin 2 by 0.7% to 1.2% in nucleotides in the VP1 region and shared 5 nucleotide substitutions with the pre-VDPV. All 5 isolates were closely related, and all were S2/S3/S2/S3 recombinants sharing common recombination crossover sites. Although the two major determinants of attenuation and temperature sensitivity phenotype of Sabin 2 (A481 in the 5? untranslated region and Ile143 in the VP1 protein) had reverted in all 5 isolates, one VDPV (strain CHN16017) still retained the temperature sensitivity phenotype. Phylogenetic analysis of the third coding position of the complete P1 coding region suggested that the cVDPVs circulated locally for about 7 months following the initiating oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) dose. Our findings reinforce the point that cVDPVs can emerge and spread in isolated communities with immunity gaps and highlight the emergence risks of type 2 cVDPVs accompanying the trivalent OPV used. To solve this issue, it is recommended that type 2 OPV be removed from the trivalent OPV or that inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) be used instead. PMID:24850620

Yan, Dongmei; Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Shuangli; Chen, Na; Li, Xiaolei; Wang, Dongyan; Ma, Xiaozhen; Zhu, Hui; Tong, Wenbin

2014-01-01

37

Nitrogen isotope chemostratigraphy across the Permian-Triassic boundary at Chaotian, Sichuan, South China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen isotopic compositions of upper Permian to lowermost Triassic rocks were analyzed at Chaotian in northern Sichuan, South China, in order to clarify changes in the oceanic nitrogen cycle around the Permian-Triassic boundary (P-TB) including the entire Changhsingian (Late Late Permian) prior to the extinction. The analyzed ca. 40 m thick interval across the P-TB at Chaotian consists of three stratigraphic units: the upper Wujiaping Formation, the Dalong Formation, and the lowermost Feixianguan Formation, in ascending order. The upper Wujiaping Formation, ca. 10 m thick, is mainly composed of dark gray limestone with diverse shallow-marine fossils such as calcareous algae and brachiopods, deposited on the shallow shelf. In contrast, the overlying Dalong Formation, ca. 25 m thick, is mainly composed of thinly bedded black mudstone and siliceous mudstone containing abundant radiolarians, deposited on the relatively deep slope/basin. Absence of bioturbation, substantially high total organic carbon contents (up to 15%), and abundant occurrence of pyrite framboids in the main part of the Dalong Formation indicate deposition under anoxic condition. The lowermost Feixianguan Formation, ca. 5 m thick, is composed of thinly bedded gray marl and micritic limestone with minor fossils such as ammonoids and conodonts, deposited on the relatively shallow slope. ?15NTN values are in positive values around +1 to +2‰ in the upper Wujiaping Formation implying denitrification and/or anammox in the ocean. ?15NTN values gradually decrease to -1‰ in the lower Dalong Formation and are consistently low (around 0‰) in the middle Dalong to lowermost Feixianguan Formation. No clear ?15NTN shift is recognized across the extinction horizon. The consistently low ?15NTN values suggest the enhanced nitrogen fixation in the ocean during the Changhsingian at Chaotian. Composite profiles based on previous and the present studies demonstrate the substantial ?15N variation on a global scale in the late Permian to earliest Triassic; a systematic ?15N difference by low and high latitudes is particularly clarified. Although the enhanced nitrogen fixation throughout the Changhsingian at Chaotian was likely a regional event in northwestern South China, the composite ?15N profiles imply that the sea area in which fixed nitrogen is depleted has gradually developed worldwide in the Changhsingian, possibly acting as a prolonged stress to shallow-marine biota.

Saitoh, Masafumi; Ueno, Yuichiro; Nishizawa, Manabu; Isozaki, Yukio; Takai, Ken; Yao, Jianxin; Ji, Zhansheng

2014-10-01

38

Problems of Ecological Environment in Western China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Western China is vast, expansive, sparsely populated, and economically underdeveloped, but it plays an important role in economic and social development in China. While the west is a crucial base of power resources, it is also rich in fauna and flora resources and the major habitat for China's many rare wildlife species. Therefore, protecting its…

Wenjuan, Zhang; Jixi, Gao

2004-01-01

39

Assessment on Redox Conditions and Organic Burial of Siliciferous Sediments at the Latest Permian Dalong Formation in Shangsi, Sichuan, South China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The redox sensitive elements, molybdenum (Mo) and uranium (U), in marine sediments from the latest Permian Dalong Formation at the Shangsi Section, Northeast Sichuan, South China, were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine their response to a range of redox conditions, and to estimate the organic carbon burial rate. On the basis of the correlation between

Zhou Lian; Zhang Haiqiang; Wang Jin; Huang Junhua; Xie Xinong

2008-01-01

40

Characteristics and origins of carbonaceous aerosol in the Sichuan Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sichuan Basin is a low visibility area in southwest China, where the hilly and basin topography, plus humid and stagnant weather, lead to unique pollution patterns. To identify the characteristics and sources of carbonaceous aerosols, one-year record of 24-h PM2.5 samples were analyzed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) content following the thermal/optical transmission protocol at three cities (Chengdu (CD), Neijiang (NJ), and Chongqing (CQ)) in the region during May 2012 to April 2013. The annual average concentrations were 19.0 ± 13.3 ?g OC m-3 and 4.6 ± 2.6 ?g EC m-3 in CD, 18.3 ± 8.4 ?g OC m-3 and 4.1 ± 1.8 ?g EC m-3 in NJ, and 15.2 ± 8.4 ?g OC m-3 and 4.0 ± 1.6 ?g EC m-3 in CQ, respectively. Organic matter (1.6OC) plus EC contributed about 40% of PM2.5 mass and displayed weak regional uniformity. Relatively high ratios of OC to EC were observed in the region with 4.3 for CD, 4.6 for NJ, and 3.8 for CQ, respectively. OC and EC pollution in the region exhibited interesting season-dependent characteristics with the lowest concentrations and OC/EC ratios in summer, but higher levels in other seasons. Higher OC/EC ratios in spring and autumn resulted from biomass burning, and in winter were from the enhanced secondary organic aerosol formation under favorable conditions. The exceptionally high OC and EC levels in May and October, mostly notable in CD, resulted from the burning of agricultural residues during harvest period. The high K+ concentrations and the high Kexcess/EC ratios implied the persistent influence of biomass burning throughout the year. Using a novel technique combing the EC tracer method and potassium mass balance in the aerosols, a K/EC ratio of 1.22 was used to retrieve the OC from biomass burning and the estimated contributions were 30.8%, 28.3%, and 21.9% in CD, NJ, and CQ, respectively, while secondary OC contributions to OC were 26.7%, 24.6%, and 25.7% in CD, NJ, and CQ, respectively.

Chen, Yuan; Xie, Shaodong; Luo, Bin; Zhai, Chongzhi

2014-09-01

41

6.6 earthquake, Sichuan, China, based on the inverted and synthetic slip models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that quantitative estimation of slip distributions on fault plane is one of the most important issues for earthquake source inversion related to the fault rupture process. The characteristics of slip distribution on the main fault play a fundamental role to control strong ground motion pattern. A large amount of works have also suggested that variable slip models inverted from longer period ground motion recordings are relevant for the prediction of higher frequency ground motions. Zhang et al. (Chin J Geophys 56:1412-1417, 2013) and Wang et al. (Chin J Geophys 56:1408-1411, 2013) published their source inversions for the fault rupturing process soon after the April 20, 2013 Lushan earthquake in Sichuan, China. In this study, first, we synthesize two forward source slip models: the value of maximum slip, fault dimension, size, and dimension of major asperities, and corner wave number obtained from Wang's model is adopted to constrain the generation of k -2 model and crack model. Next, both inverted and synthetic slip models are employed to simulate the ground motions for the Lushan earthquake based on the stochastic finite-fault method. In addition, for a comparison purpose, a stochastic slip model and another k -2 model ( k -2 model II) with 2 times value of corner wave number of the original k -2 model ( k -2 model I) are also employed for simulation for Lushan event. The simulated results characterized by Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) show that the source slip models based on the inverted and synthetic slip distributions could capture many basic features associated with the ground motion patterns. Moreover, the simulated MMI distributions reflect the rupture directivity effect and the influence of the shallow velocity structure well. On the other hand, the simulated MMI by stochastic slip model and k -2 model II is apparently higher than observed intensity. By contrast, our simulation results show that the higher frequency ground motion is sensitive to the degree of slip roughness; therefore, we suggest that, for realistic ground-motion simulations due to future earthquake, it is imperative to properly estimate the slip roughness distribution.

Shen, Wenhao; Zhong, Qiu; Shi, Baoping

2014-08-01

42

Hydrochemistry of the hot springs in western Sichuan province related to the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake.  

PubMed

Hydrogeochemistry of 32 hot springs in the western Sichuan Province after the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake was investigated by analyzing the concentrations of cation and anion and the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen. The water samples of the hot springs were collected four times from June 2008 to April 2010. Hydrogeochemical data indicated the water samples can be classified into 9 chemical types. Values of ? D and ?(18)O indicated that the spring waters were mainly derived from meteoric precipitation and affected by water-rock interaction and mixture of deep fluids. Concentrations of K(+)and SO4(-) of the samples from the Kangding district exhibited evident increases before the Wenchuan earthquake, indicating more supplement of deep fluids under the increase of tectonic stress. The chemical and isotopic variations of the water samples from the area closer to the epicenter area can be attributed to variation of regional stress field when the aftershock activities became weak. PMID:24892106

Chen, Zhi; Du, Jianguo; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Yi, Li; Liu, Lei; Xie, Chao; Cui, Yueju; Li, Ying

2014-01-01

43

Hydrochemistry of the Hot Springs in Western Sichuan Province Related to the Wenchuan MS 8.0 Earthquake  

PubMed Central

Hydrogeochemistry of 32 hot springs in the western Sichuan Province after the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake was investigated by analyzing the concentrations of cation and anion and the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen. The water samples of the hot springs were collected four times from June 2008 to April 2010. Hydrogeochemical data indicated the water samples can be classified into 9 chemical types. Values of ?D and ?18O indicated that the spring waters were mainly derived from meteoric precipitation and affected by water-rock interaction and mixture of deep fluids. Concentrations of K+and SO4? of the samples from the Kangding district exhibited evident increases before the Wenchuan earthquake, indicating more supplement of deep fluids under the increase of tectonic stress. The chemical and isotopic variations of the water samples from the area closer to the epicenter area can be attributed to variation of regional stress field when the aftershock activities became weak. PMID:24892106

Chen, Zhi; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Yi, Li; Liu, Lei; Xie, Chao; Cui, Yueju; Li, Ying

2014-01-01

44

Investigation of soil erosion on terraced fields near Yanting, Sichuan Province, China, using caesium-137  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the agricultural land in the Central Hills area of the Sichuan Basin is at risk from soil erosion by water. An investigation of rates and patterns of soil erosion on agricultural land near Yanting was undertaken using the caesium-137 technique. Erosion of the upper parts of sloping fields was found to be severe, with rates of the order

T. A. QUINE; D. E. WALLING

45

Historical pattern and behavior of earthquake ruptures along the eastern boundary of the Sichuan-Yunnan faulted-block, southwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eastern boundary of the Sichuan-Yunnan faulted-block in southwestern China, which contains four major fault zones named Xianshuihe, Anninghe, Zemuhe, and Xiaojiang, behaves as a huge left-lateral strike-slip active fault system, where the most frequent seismicity in continental China occurs. To uncover the history of earthquake ruptures of this fault system, we developed an empirical relation between rupture extent and

Xue-Ze Wen; Sheng-Li Ma; Xi-Wei Xu; Yong-Nian He

2008-01-01

46

Evaluation of high-risk Human papillomaviruses type distribution in cervical cancer in Sichuan province of China  

PubMed Central

Background Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus is an important factor associated with cervical cancer, and the distribution of HPV types varies greatly worldwide. Determination of type-specific HPV prevalence constitutes an important step towards the development of vaccines for the prevention of cervical cancer. Methods The human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in 190 cervical cancer specimens taken from the Sichuan province, the most populous province of Southwest China, were detected by a combination of MY09/11 consensus primers PCR (MY09/11 PCR), type-specific primers one-step PCR (One-step TS PCR) and E6/E7 gene type-specific primers nested PCR (Nested TS PCR). The prevalence and distribution of HPV in patients with cervical cancer, especially for HPV types 16, 18, 52, 58 and 59, suspected to be most common in certain parts of China, was investigated. Results The HPV infection rates detected by MY09/11 PCR, One-step TS PCR and Nested TS PCR were 159 (83.7%), 145 (76.3%) and 172 (90.5%), respectively. The overall HPV prevalence was 93.2% (177/190). The positive specimens for HPV16, 18, 52, 58 and 59 detected by One-step TS-PCR were 111 (58.4%), 14 (7.4%), 6 (3.2%), 13 (6.8%) and 4 (2.1%), respectively. By Nested TS-PCR analysis, the detection rates of HPV16, 52, 58 and 59 were increased to 140 (73.7%), 30 (15.8%), 37 (19.5%) and 25 (13.2%), while only 4 (2.1%) additional specimens were found to be infected with HPV18. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that, besides HPV 16, which was found to be the most prevalent type, HPV types 58, 52 and 59 are more prevalent than HPV18 in women with cervical cancer in the Sichuan area of China. PMID:18644159

Wu, En-qi; Zhang, Guo-nan; Yu, Xiang-hui; Ren, Yuan; Fan, Ying; Wu, Yong-ge; Kong, Wei; Zha, Xiao

2008-01-01

47

The Seismicity in Sichuan Province of China before and after the Wenchuan Earthquake of May 12, 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The double-difference earthquake location algorithm was applied to the relocation of earthquakes occurred in Sichuan Province, China during the period from 2000 to 2008. The relocated seismicity of the region and different seismic belts of Sichuan Province using seismic data from 2000 to 2008 was compared with seismicity pattern imaged by using data from 1992 to 1999 the authors published in 2005. The result indicated that major conclusion can be confirmed by using the new data. The both of relocated results by using data from 1992 to 1999 and from 2000 to 2008 respectively imaged a close correlation between the relocated epicenters and tectonic structure of major fault systems expressed at the surface. The new focal depths confirmed that most earthquakes in this region occur at seismogenic layer depths of 20-30 km. The relocated seismicity of different seismic belts of this region still confirmed the images of epicenters and focal depths we mentioned before obtained by using data from 1992 to 1999. The authors discussed relationship between the seismicity pattern and the Wenchuan earthquake of May 12, 2008.

Yang, Zhixian; Chen, Yuntai

2014-05-01

48

Contamination level of T-2 and HT-2 toxin in cereal crops from Aba area in Sichuan Province, China.  

PubMed

The contamination level of T-2 and HT-2 toxin in cereal crops from Aba area in Sichuan Province of China was investigated by rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The results revealed the high incidence of T-2 and HT-2 toxin and relatively low contamination level in the samples. The incidence of HT-2 toxin was 49.74% and its average level was 3.746 ?g/kg. The incidence of toxin was 11.64% and the average level was 0.565 ?g/kg. The maximum of T-2 and HT-2 toxin concentration was 3.332 and 34.510 ?g/kg, respectively. In addition, contaminated samples not only included homegrown products, but included external purchased rice and flour, which may be attributed to bad storage environment and sanitary conditions. PMID:22120697

Wang, XiaoChun; Liu, XiaoDuan; Liu, JiuChen; Wang, Guang; Wan, KuiYuan

2012-03-01

49

Chemical and genetic study of Ligularia duciformis and related species in Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces of China.  

PubMed

The chemical constituents of the root extracts and the evolutionarily neutral DNA base sequences were studied for 28 samples of Ligularia duciformis, L. kongkalingensis, and L. nelumbifolia collected in Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces of China. The samples could be classified into four chemotypes (1-4). Sesquiterpenoids having eremophilane and oplopane skeletons were isolated from two (Chemotype?1) and three (Chemotype?2) samples, respectively. Two new oplopane derivatives were isolated and their structures were determined. In 18 samples, phenylpropenoids were the major components (Chemotype?3). In five samples, neither phenylpropenoids nor sesquiterpenoids were found (Chemotype?4). Despite this large chemical variety, no correlation was found between the chemotype and the morphological criteria of species identification. The analysis of the evolutionarily neutral DNA regions also indicated that the samples were not separated into distinct clades and that introgression was extensive. PMID:22492496

Nagano, Hajime; Hanai, Ryo; Yamada, Hiroka; Matsushima, Mika; Miura, Yui; Hoya, Takanori; Ozawa, Masaaki; Fujiwara, Miho; Kodama, Hikari; Torihata, Atsushi; Onuki, Hiroyuki; Nezu, Yoko; Kawai, Satoru; Yamazaki, Mizue; Hirota, Hiroshi; Saito, Yoshinori; Tori, Motoo; Ohsaki, Ayumi; Gong, Xun; Kuroda, Chiaki

2012-04-01

50

Organ dose evaluation for multi-slice spiral CT scans based on China Sichuan chest anthropomorphic phantom measurements.  

PubMed

The authors measured organ radiation doses during multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) chest scans using a China Sichuan anthropomorphic phantom (CDP-1C). Chest CT images from live volunteers based on automatic tube current modulation (ATCM) techniques were similar to those obtained using the CDP-1C phantom, indicating that the phantom accurately modelled the anatomic structure and X-ray absorbance of the human torso. Indeed, attenuation values differed by <5%. Organ radiation doses were measured using thermoluminescence dosemeters in the CDP-1C. With increased noise index, the CT dose index, the dose-length product and the average organ dose all decreased. Thus, the CDP-1C phantom can also assess dose levels during CT examinations in Chinese patients. The noise index (based on ATCM techniques) should be set to 8.5 or higher to reduce X-ray exposure while maintaining appropriate resolution for diagnosis. PMID:22039271

Peng, Gang; Zeng, Yongming; Luo, Tianyou; Zhao, Feng; Peng, Shengkun; You, Renqiang; Tan, Hua; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Jie

2012-07-01

51

A Community Velocity Model (CVM) for the Sichuan basin and Longmen Shan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new three-dimensional velocity model of the crust and upper mantle for the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, developed using the concept of a Community Velocity Model (CVM) (Magistrale et al., 2000; Süss and Shaw, 2003). The model extends from 27.5°-34.5°N and 100°-110°E, and describes the velocity structure of the Sichuan basin and surrounding fold-and-thrust belt systems (including the Longmen Shan, Micang Shan, Daba Shan, Eastern Sichuan and Kangdian), as well as the Kunlun and Xianshuihe-Anninghe strike fault systems in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. The model consists of 3D surfaces representing major geologic unit contacts and faults, and is parameterized with velocity-depth curves (Boore and Joyner, 1997) calibrated using sonic logs from wells. The model incorporates data from 1166 oil wells, industry isopach maps, surface geological maps and digital elevation models. The model was developed in the program GoCAD, a geological computer-aided design application (Mallet, 1992). The geological surfaces were modeled based on industry isopach maps for various units augmented by stratigraphic picks in oil and gas wells and regional seismic reflection profiles. These surfaces include base Quaternary, Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic, and Paleozoic horizons. These surface are locally cut by major faults, which are compatible with the locations and displacements of major faults systems in the Sichuan Community Fault Model (CFM) (Hubbard et al., 2012). The velocity profiles for each layer are calibrated with high-resolution sonic log as well as stacking velocities from seismic reflection profiles and vertical seismic profiles. This upper crustal model extends down to ~10-15 km depth, and is embedded into a regional tomographic model (Xu and Song, 2010). The Sichuan basin is an atypical basin in terms of its velocity structure. The rocks exposed at the surface are primarily Mesozoic in age, with limited patch of Cenozoic rocks in the southwestern part of the basin. As a consequence, the velocities (Vp) in the basin are generally fast. They range from about 3000 to ~7500 m/s, exhibiting increasing velocities with age and depth. We divide the rock in the Sichuan basin and Longmen Shan region into five basic types: (1) Cenozoic alluvium; (2) Mesozoic sedimentary and metamorphic rocks; (3) Paleozoic sedimentary and metamorphic rocks; (4) Proterozoic sedimentary and metamorphic rocks and (5) granite. Cenozoic alluvium is thin (0~500 m) and limited primarily to the southwestern basin. Mesozoic sedimentary rocks are thick (2600-9800 m) and widely exposed at the surface and in boreholes in the basin. Their velocities vary from about 3000-6000 m/s. Paleozoic sedimentary and metamorphic rocks are also common, exposed primarily in the Longmen Shan and in regions to the north, east, and south of the basin. These units vary in thickness from 400-4100 m, and have velocities from about 5000-7000 m/s. Proterozoic sedimentary and metamorphic rocks crop out in narrow regions around the boundary of the basin, but are disturbed within the basin. Two exploration wells penetrate the base of Sinian, giving a velocity of about 6500-7500 m/s. The model will serve as a basic community resource for strong ground motion prediction and seismic hazard assessments in the densely populated Sichuan basin.

Wang, M.; Hubbard, J.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Jia, D.

2012-12-01

52

Evaluation of an educational intervention on villagers' knowledge, attitude and behaviour regarding transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in Sichuan province, China.  

PubMed

Health education is an important component of efforts to control schistosomiasis. In China, while education programmes have been implemented intensively, few articles in recent years in either the Chinese or English literature report randomised, controlled interventions of the impacts on knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. Thus, we designed and carried out a cluster-randomised controlled education intervention trial that targeted 706 adults from rural areas in 28 villages in Sichuan, China. We evaluated the effects of the intervention on five endpoints: (1) schistosomiasis knowledge, (2) attitudes towards infection testing and treatment, (3) use of personal protective equipment (PPE), (4) reducing defecation in the field, and (5) reducing dermal contact with potentially contaminated water sources. The results indicated that people in both the intervention and control groups showed improvement in knowledge, attitudes and reduction in field-defecation in the follow-up surveys. However, there was little evidence that suggested statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding any endpoint. Participation in intervention classes was associated with age, gender, occupation and education level. Our study suggests short-term health education interventions may not be effective in improving schistosomiasis knowledge or in the adoption of health-protective behaviours. This might be partially due to the spontaneous learning process of people subject to repeated surveys and other disease control activities. Considering the difficulties of occupation-associated behaviour change and knowledge reinforcement in general, longer-term education programmes should be considered in the future. PMID:23711611

Wang, Shuo; Carlton, Elizabeth J; Chen, Lin; Liu, Yang; Spear, Robert C

2013-09-01

53

Prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in Beichuan County, Sichuan, China and phylogenetic evidence for an undescribed Leishmania sp. in China based on 7SL RNA  

PubMed Central

Background Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease, which is still endemic in the west and northwest area of China. Canines are the major reservoirs of Leishmania, the etiological agent of human visceral leishmaniasis. Phlebotomus chinensis is the main transmission vector of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). Methods In this study, rK39 dip-stick, ELISA and PCR methods were used to investigate the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Beichuan County, Sichuan Province, China. Results Among the 86 dogs which were included in the study, 13 dogs were positive using the dip-stick test (15.12%), while 8 dogs were positive using ELISA (9.30%) and 19 dogs were positive for PCR (22.03%). In total, 32 dogs were positive for one or more tests (37.21%). Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis based on the partial 7SL RNA fragment provided evidence that an undescribed Leishmania species, which is clearly a causative agent of CanL and human visceral leishmaniasis, does exist in China. This result is consistent with our previous study. Conclusions Our work confirmed that canine leishmaniasis is still prevalent in Beichuan County. Further control is urgently needed, as canine leishmaniasis is of great public health importance. The phylogenetic analysis based on 7SL RNA segment provides evidence for the existence of an undescribed Leishmania sp. in China. PMID:22515334

2012-01-01

54

Information Technology Brings Better Life to Western China  

E-print Network

Information Technology Brings Better Life to Western China Information Technology has begun, China launched a national development strategy in its impov- erished western regions to boost economic and enhance education. In 2000, China launched the national Western Development Strategy to boost economic

Narasayya, Vivek

55

A quasi-experimental study on a community-based behaviour change programme among injecting drug users in Sichuan, China.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to explore an effective model of comprehensive intervention on HIV/AIDS among injecting drug users (IDUs) in communities located in urban areas and to evaluate its feasibility in Sichuan Province, China. A quasi-experimental study was designed so that various intervention measures were conducted in the intervention city but not in the control city. A Behaviour Surveillance Survey was introduced to evaluate intervention exposure and the effect of behaviour change. In the intervention city, services received by IDUs increased over time (P < 0.001). Awareness of HIV increased from 34.2% in 2003 to 58.3% in 2004, and to 67.4% in 2005 (P < 0.001). The proportion of IDUs surveyed who shared a needle the last time they injected drugs decreased from 17.1% in 2003 to 7.0% in 2005, and in terms of the past month from 42.4% in 2003 to 18.4% in 2005 (P < 0.001). Data from a multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that comprehensive intervention was a protective factor for behaviour change (odds ratio [OR] =0.561; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.424-0.741). A well-designed and organized comprehensive intervention programme will effectively change the high-risk behaviour among IDUs in these communities. A more comprehensive, expanded and integrated response is needed when conducting an HIV/AIDS prevention programme. PMID:19182061

Zhou, J-S; Zhang, K-L; Zhang, L-L; Kang, J-X; Zhang, J-X; Lai, W-H; Liu, L; Liu, G; Zeng, Y-L

2009-02-01

56

Description of a new species of Heligmosomoides (Nematoda: Heligmosomidae) parasitic in Microtus limnophius (Rodentia: Cricetidae) from Rangtang, Sichuan, China.  

PubMed

Heligmosomoides craigi n. sp. (Nematoda: Heligmosomoidea) is described from Microtus limnophilus Büchner, 1889 (Rodentia: Cricetidae) from Rangtang, Sichuan, China. It is related to H. protobullosus Asakawa, 1987 and H. longispiculum Tokobaev & Erkulov, 1966 both parasites of Microtus spp. from Japan and USSR, respectively by the following features: a ratio of spicule length/body length of more than 45% and rays 9 shorter than rays 10. The new species is differentiated by rays 8 being closed to rays 6 and 19-22 cuticular ridges versus 14 in H. protobullosus (synlophe not described in H. longispiculum). H. longicirratus (Schulz, 1954) also a parasite of Microtus sp. from the USSR is the most closely related species based on the number of cuticular ridges (20) and the ratio of spicule length/body length (48% versus 50%). There are no illustrations of this species and the female has not been described; for that reason, it is not possible to compare it accurately with our specimens. PMID:20387734

Massoni, J; Durette-Desset, M C; Quéré, J P; Audebert, F

2010-03-01

57

Evaluation Criteria for Implementation of a Sustainable Sanitation and Wastewater Treatment System at Jiuzhaigou National Park, Sichuan Province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The administration of Jiuzhaigou National Park in Sichuan Province, China, is in the process of considering a range of upgrades to their sanitation and wastewater treatment systems. Their case history involves an ongoing series of engineering design flaws and management failures. The administration of the Park identified sustainability, environmental protection, and education goals for their sanitation and wastewater treatment system. To meet the goal of sustainability, environmental and economic concerns of the Park’s administration had to be balanced with socio-cultural needs. An advanced reconnaissance method was developed that identified reasons for previous failures, conducted stakeholder analysis and interviews, determined evaluation criteria, and introduced innovative alternatives with records of successful global implementations. This evaluation also helped the Park to better define their goals . To prevent future failures, the administration of the Park must commit to a balanced and thorough evaluation process for selection of a final alternative and institute effective long-term management and monitoring of systems. In addition, to meet goals and achieve energy efficient, cost-effective use of resources, the Park must shift their thinking from one of waste disposal to resource recovery. The method and criteria developed for this case study provides a framework to aid in the successful implementation of sanitation projects in both underdeveloped and developed areas of the world, incorporating socio-cultural values and resource recovery for a complex group of stakeholders.

Gaulke, Linda S.; Weiyang, Xiao; Scanlon, Andrew; Henck, Amanda; Hinckley, Tom

2010-01-01

58

Evaluation criteria for implementation of a sustainable sanitation and wastewater treatment system at Jiuzhaigou National Park, Sichuan Province, China.  

PubMed

The administration of Jiuzhaigou National Park in Sichuan Province, China, is in the process of considering a range of upgrades to their sanitation and wastewater treatment systems. Their case history involves an ongoing series of engineering design flaws and management failures. The administration of the Park identified sustainability, environmental protection, and education goals for their sanitation and wastewater treatment system. To meet the goal of sustainability, environmental and economic concerns of the Park's administration had to be balanced with socio-cultural needs. An advanced reconnaissance method was developed that identified reasons for previous failures, conducted stakeholder analysis and interviews, determined evaluation criteria, and introduced innovative alternatives with records of successful global implementations. This evaluation also helped the Park to better define their goals. To prevent future failures, the administration of the Park must commit to a balanced and thorough evaluation process for selection of a final alternative and institute effective long-term management and monitoring of systems. In addition, to meet goals and achieve energy efficient, cost-effective use of resources, the Park must shift their thinking from one of waste disposal to resource recovery. The method and criteria developed for this case study provides a framework to aid in the successful implementation of sanitation projects in both underdeveloped and developed areas of the world, incorporating socio-cultural values and resource recovery for a complex group of stakeholders. PMID:19924471

Gaulke, Linda S; Weiyang, Xiao; Scanlon, Andrew; Henck, Amanda; Hinckley, Tom

2010-01-01

59

Distribution and features of landslides induced by the 2008 Wengchuan Earthquake, Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2008 Sichuan earthquake with a magnitude of Mw 7.9 induced numerous mass movements around the fault surface ruptures of which maximum separations we observed were 3.6 m vertical and 1.5 m horizontal (right lateral). The affected area was mountainous areas with elevations from 1000 m to 4500 m on the west of the Sichuan Basin. The NE-trending Longmenshan fault zone runs along the boundary between the mountains on the west and the Sichuan basin (He and Tsukuda, 2003), of which Yinghsiuwan-Beichuan fault was the main fault that generated the 2008 earthquake (Xu, 2008). The basement rocks of the mountainous areas range from Precambrian to Cretaceous in age. They are basaltic rocks, granite, phyllite, dolostone, limestone, alternating beds of sandstone and shale, etc. There were several types of landslides ranging from small, shallow rockslide, rockfall, debris slide, deep rockslide, and debris flows. Shallow rockslide, rock fall, and debris slide were most common and occurred on convex slopes or ridge tops. When we approached the epicentral area, first appearing landslides were of this type and the most conspicuous was a failure of isolated ridge-tops, where earthquake shaking would be amplified. As for rock types, slopes of granitic rocks, hornfels, and carbonate rocks failed in wide areas to the most. They are generally hard and their fragments apparently collided and repelled to each other and detached from the slopes. Alternating beds of sandstone and mudstone failed on many slopes near the fault ruptures, including Yinghsiuwan near the epicenter. Many rockfalls occurred on cliffs, which had taluses on their feet. The fallen rocks tumbled down and mostly stopped within the talus surfaces, which is quite reasonable because taluses generally develop by this kind of processes. Many rockslides occurred on slopes of carbonate rocks, in which dolostone or dolomitic limestone prevails. Deep-seated rockslide occurred on outfacing slopes and shallow rockslide and rockfall occurred on infacing slopes. Infacing slopes generally are steeper than outfacing slopes and hence surface rocks on infacing slopes tend to be loosened by gravity. Detachment surfaces of carbonate rocks are generally not smooth surfaces but are rough surfaces with dimple-like depressions, which are made by dissolution of these rocks. This feature is one of the most important causes to induce landslide in carbonate rocks. Many gravitational deformations were observed on phyllite slopes. Landslides on the west of Beichuan city is probably of weathered phyllite, which had been preceded by gravitational deformation beforehand. Taochishan landslide in Beichuan occurred on probable outfacing slope of phyllite. The Formosat II images on Google earth indicated that this landslide was also preceded by gravitational deformation, which appeared as spur-crossing depressions with upslope-convex traces on plan. Satellite images indicated that some landslides had long lobate forms, suggesting that they were flow. One of them was Shechadientsu landslide 34 km northeast of Dujiangyan, occurring across the probable earthquake fault rupture. It was 1.5 km long with a maximum width of 250 m and an apparent friction angle of 22°. The top of this landslide area was a steep cliff of Precambrian granite, which failed to go down a small valley. The volume of the slope failure was estimated much less than the volume of the deposit. The small valley had sporadic patches of bedrock consisting of alternating beds of sandstone and mudstone of Triassic in age. The bedrock was covered by bluish grey, clayey, water-saturated debris, which was not disturbed and in turn covered by water-saturated brownish debris with rubbles. The landslide deposits had wrinkles on the surface and streaks of same color rock fragments. In addition, cross section near the distal part had clearly defined reverse grading, in which larger rubbles with a maximum diameter of 5 m concentrated at the surface part. These characteristics strongly suggest that valley-fill sediments mobilized by the earthquake and flowed down

Chigira, M.; Xiyong, W.; Inokuchi, T.; Gonghui, W.

2009-04-01

60

Suitability of IS6110-RFLP and MIRU-VNTR for Differentiating Spoligotyped Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates from Sichuan in China  

PubMed Central

Genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) vary with the geographic origin of the patients and can affect tuberculosis (TB) transmission. This study was aimed to further differentiate spoligotype-defined clusters of drug-resistant MTBC clinical isolates split in Beijing (n = 190) versus non-Beijing isolates (n = 84) from Sichuan region, the second high-burden province in China, by IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs. Among 274 spoligotyped isolates, the clustering ratio of Beijing family was 5.3% by 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs versus 2.1% by IS6110-RFLP, while none of the non-Beijing isolates were clustered by 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs versus 9.5% by IS6110-RFLP. Hence, neither the 24-locus MIRU-VNTR was sufficient enough to fully discriminate the Beijing family, nor the IS6110-RFLP for the non-Beijing isolates. A region adjusted scheme combining 12 highly discriminatory VNTR loci with IS6110-RFLP was a better alternative for typing Beijing strains in Sichuan than 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs alone. IS6110-RFLP was for the first time introduced to systematically genotype MTBC in Sichuan and we conclude that the region-adjusted scheme of 12 highly discriminative VNTRs might be a suitable alternative to 24-locus MIRU-VNTR scheme for non-Beijing strains, while the clusters of the Beijing isolates should be further subtyped using IS6110-RFLP for optimal discrimination. PMID:24724099

Zheng, Chao; Zhao, Yuding; Zhu, Guoqiang; Li, Song; Sun, Honghu; Feng, Qin; Luo, Mei; Wu, Fanzi; Li, Xuefeng; Hill, Véronique; Rastogi, Nalin; Sun, Qun

2014-01-01

61

Effects of terracing and agroforestry on soil and water loss in hilly areas of the Sichuan Basin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil erosion in hilly areas of the Sichuan Basin is a serious concern over sustainable crop production and sound ecosystem.\\u000a A 3-year experiment was conducted using the method of runoff plots to examine the effects of terracing and agroforestry in\\u000a farmland systems on soil and water conservation of slope fields in the hilly areas in Jianyang County, Sichuan Province, Southwestern

J. H. Zhang; Z. A. Su; G. C. Liu

2008-01-01

62

Altitudinal distribution of evergreen broad-leaved trees and their leaf-size pattern on a humid subtropical mountain, Mt. Emei, Sichuan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altitudinal distribution of evergreen broad-leaved trees and changes in their leaf sizes were studied on a humid subtropical mountain, Mt. Emei (3099 m a.s.l., 29°34.5' N, 103°21.5' E), Sichuan, China. Among the total woody flora of ca. 540 species, evergreen broad-leaved trees account for 88 species in 39 genera and 23 families, corresponding to the northern limit of subtropical evergreen broad-leaved trees. The number of evergreen broad-leaved

Cindy Q. Tang; Masahiko Ohsawa

1999-01-01

63

Paleogeothermal record of the Emeishan mantle plume: evidences from borehole Ro data in the Sichuan basin, SW China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Emeishan basalt province located in the southwest of China is widely accepted to be a result of the eruption of a mantle plume at the time of middle-late Permian. If it was a mantle plume, the ambient sedimentary rocks must be heated up during the development of the mantle plume and this thermal effect must be recorded by some geothermometers in the country rocks. The vitrinite reflectance (Ro) data as a maximum paleotemperature recorder from boreholes in Sichuan basin was employed to expose the thermal regime related to the proposed Emeishan mantle plume. The Ro profiles from boreholes which drilled close to the Emeishan basalts shows a ';dog-leg' (break) style at the unconformity between the middle and the upper Permian, and the Ro profiles in the lower subsection (pre-middle Permian) shows a significantly higher slopes (gradients) than those in the upper subsection. In contrast, those Ro profiles from boreholes far away from the center of the basalt province have no break at the uncomformity. Based on the chemical kinetic model of Ro, the paleo-temperature gradients for the upper and the lower subsections in different boreholes, as well as the erosion at the unconformity between the middle and the upper Permian, were reconstructed to reveal the variations of the temperature gradients and erosion thickness with geological time and space. Both the thermal regime and the erosion thickness together with their spatial variation (structure) provide strong geothermal evidence for the existence of the Emeishan mantle plume in the middle-late Permian.

Hu, S.

2013-12-01

64

Study on Auto-Classification and Integration of Multi-Source Data with RS and GIS in Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

western parts of the country, and chose RS integrated GIS as the main tool to accomplish the task to learn the real ecological conditions of the West. Thus the problems about how to make best use of RS and GIS to deal with the great amount of data collected with them have to be resolved first. And the paper tries to do some study on the topic. geographic information system (GIS) and other related techniques, the paper studies the methodology and related technology of application of RS and GIS in the area with high altitude and complex terrain. With a case study of the Western Sichuan Province, China, the paper gives a detailed discussion on how to apply and integrate the techniques to the research of dynamic of vegetation. (1)New methods how to integrate multi-source data, including dynamic visualized 3D model of (2)Some auto-classification and integration results of the vegetation in the Western Sichuan techniques, the paper brings up a new method of application of RS and GIS to the research of the Western China, and achieves important results. But there are still some problems that have to be solved in the future and we can't do well now because of time and other factors, such as more application of 3D model in geo-analysis fields, construction of the visualized analyzing system and so on. Key words: data integration,auto-classification,three dimension(3D) model of landscape,visualized analyzing system,the Western China.

Lei, Liqing; Sun, Jiulin; Zhang, Jie

65

Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China  

PubMed Central

Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected) in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19–42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) within the normal range (18.5 ? BMI < 25), 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas), while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ?30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs) the women’s overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%), was low in carbohydrates (49.6%), and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%). Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI) fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%), fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%), protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%), vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%), Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%), Fe (56.3% vs. 48%), Ca (55.1% vs. 41%) and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%). The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80%) than in urban (65.1%) areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both urban and rural women. The prevalence of underweight before conception and an insufficient supply of important micronutrients were more pronounced in rural areas. Therefore, attention must be given to the nutritional status, especially of rural women before, or at the latest, during pregnancy. PMID:23912325

Gao, Haoyue; Stiller, Caroline K.; Scherbaum, Veronika; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Wang, Qi; Hormann, Elizabeth; Bellows, Anne C.

2013-01-01

66

Dietary intake and food habits of pregnant women residing in urban and rural areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China.  

PubMed

Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected) in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19-42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) within the normal range (18.5 ? BMI < 25), 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas), while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ?30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs) the women's overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%), was low in carbohydrates (49.6%), and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%). Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI) fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%), fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%), protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%), vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%), Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%), Fe (56.3% vs. 48%), Ca (55.1% vs. 41%) and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%). The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80%) than in urban (65.1%) areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both urban and rural women. The prevalence of underweight before conception and an insufficient supply of important micronutrients were more pronounced in rural areas. Therefore, attention must be given to the nutritional status, especially of rural women before, or at the latest, during pregnancy. PMID:23912325

Gao, Haoyue; Stiller, Caroline K; Scherbaum, Veronika; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Wang, Qi; Hormann, Elizabeth; Bellows, Anne C

2013-08-01

67

Permian to Late Triassic evolution of the Longmen Shan Foreland Basin (Western Sichuan): Model results from both the lithospheric extension and flexure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lithosphere was extended during the Permian-Middle Triassic in the Yangtze Craton where the Sichuan Basin located, and then bent due to thrusting of the Longmen Shan orogen, leading to formation of the Longmen Shan Foreland Basin (Western Sichuan) during the Late Triassic Indosinian orogeny. The lateral variation of the lithospheric strength resulted by former differential extension would inevitably influence the subsequent evolution of the foreland basin. In order to investigate this, both extensional and flexural models were applied in modeling Permian-Late Triassic basin evolution. A 2D kinematic extensional model was initially developed along a profile crossing the Yangtze Craton to simulate the lithospheric thermal evolution during the Permian-Middle Triassic. Based on the thermal results, the thermal-rheological structure, as well as the effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere (Te), was then determined. Extension model show that the stretching factors decrease gradually from Songpan-Ganzi to the Sichuan Basin, leading to variable thermal-rheological structure and increased Te from west to east. Taking into account of the Te variation, a flexural model was finally constructed to investigate the evolution of the Longmen Shan Foreland Basin during the Late Triassic spanning the time period c. 227-206 Ma. Three episodes were divided according to the corresponding tectonostratigraphic units. By matching the stratigraphic observations, three phase advance distances eastward of the Longmen Shan along the Qingchuan-Maowen Fault turned out to be 18, 22, and 18 km. It implied a slow and similar thrust advance rate of 3.6 (c.227-222 Ma), 2.2 (c.222-212 Ma), and 3 mm/yr (c.212-206 Ma), respectively.

He, Lijuan

2014-10-01

68

Seismicity changes prior to the Ms8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Region-Time-Length (RTL) method was adopted in analyzing the characteristics of the seismicity changes prior to the M s8.0 Wenchuan earthquake occurred on May 12, 2008. After the pre-analyses (completeness analysis and aftershock declustering) of the earthquake catalog in China, the RTL parameters in the investigated region were calculated. The temporal variations of the RTL parameters at the epicenter of the M s8.0 Wenchuan earthquake showed that a seismic quiescence anomaly appeared during 2006-2007. The close investigation indicated that the above quiescence anomaly is unlikely an artifact due to the selections of the model parameters. The investigation of the spatial distribution of seismic quiescence also showed that the quiescence anomaly appeared around the epicenter of the mainshock during 2006-2007, consistent with the results obtained from the temporal variations of the RTL parameters. The above characteristics of the seismicity changes may give better understanding of the seismogenic process of the Wenchuan earthquake.

Huang, Qinghua

2008-12-01

69

Phylogenetic analysis of canine parvovirus isolates from sichuan and gansu provinces of china in 2011.  

PubMed

Canine parvovirus causes serious disease in dogs. Study of the genetic variation in emerging CPV strains is important for disease control strategy. The antigenic property of CPV is connected with specific amino acid changes, mainly in the capsid protein VP2. This study was carried out to characterize VP2 gene of CPV viruses from two provinces of China in 2011. The complete VP2 genes of the CPV-positive samples were amplified and sequenced. Genetic analysis based on the VP2 genes of CPV was conducted. All of the isolates screened and sequenced in this study were typed as CPV-2a except GS-K11 strain, which was typed as CPV-2b. Sequence comparison showed nucleotide identities of 98.8-100% among CPV strains, whereas the Aa similarities were 99.6-100%. Compared with the reference strains, there are three distinctive amino acid changes at VP2 gene residue 267, 324 and 440 of the strains isolated in this study. Of the 27 strains, fourteen (51.85%) had the 267 (Phe-Tyr) and 440 (Thr-Ala) substitution, all the 27 (100%) had 324 (Tyr-Ile) substitution. Phylogenetically, all of the strains isolated in this study formed a major monophyletic cluster together with one South Korean isolate, two Thailand isolates and four Chinese former isolates. PMID:23506473

Xu, J; Guo, H-C; Wei, Y-Q; Shu, L; Wang, J; Li, J-S; Cao, S-Z; Sun, S-Q

2015-02-01

70

The distribution and status of Sichuan Grey Jay ( Perisoreus internigrans )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The Sichuan Grey Jay is one of the least known endemic bird species in China, distributed in Gansu, Sichuan, Qinghai and Tibet in west China. The species inhabits the mountain spruce-fir conifer forest, at the altitude between 2 900 m to 3 800 m. Males are slightly larger than females. 31.3 % (n=19) of the individuals were found to

Sun Yue-Hua; Jia Chen-Xi; Fang Yun

2001-01-01

71

Risk analysis of spring low temperature and overcast rainy and its application in the rice production in Sichuan basin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The daily observations of 90 stations in Sichuan basin, between mid-March and early-May, were collected, and Selected the days of that daily average temperature below 12?? , the total days of that daily average temperature continuous below 12 ?? for 3-days or more, effective accumulated temperature, precipitation, rainy days, the total days of that continuous precipitation for 3 days or

Jinjian Li; Mingtian Wang; Chao You; Wenzhuo Pan

2011-01-01

72

Spatial patterns of the congenital heart disease prevalence among 0- to 14-year-old children in Sichuan Basin, P. R China, from 2004 to 2009  

PubMed Central

Background Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common type of major birth defects in Sichuan, the most populous province in China. The detailed etiology of CHD is unknown but some environmental factors are suspected as the cause of this disease. However, the geographical variations in CHD prevalence would be highly valuable in providing a clue on the role of the environment in CHD etiology. Here, we investigate the spatial patterns and geographic differences in CHD prevalence among 0- to 14-year-old children, discuss the possible environmental risk factors that might be associated with CHD prevalence in Sichuan Basin from 2004 to 2009. Methods The hierarchical Bayesian model was used to estimate CHD prevalence at the township level. Spatial autocorrelation statistics were performed, and a hot-spot analysis with different distance thresholds was used to identify the spatial pattern of CHD prevalence. Distribution and clustering maps were drawn using geographic information system tools. Results CHD prevalence was significantly clustered in Sichuan Basin in different spatial scale. Typical hot/cold clusters were identified, and possible CHD causes were discussed. The association between selected hypothetical environmental factors of maternal exposure and CHD prevalence was evaluated. Conclusions The largest hot-spot clustering phenomena and the CHD prevalence clustering trend among 0- to 14-year-old children in the study area showed a plausibly close similarity with those observed in the Tuojiang River Basin. The high ecological risk of heavy metal(Cd, As, and Pb)sediments in the middle and lower streams of the Tuojiang River watershed and ammonia–nitrogen pollution may have contribution to the high prevalence of CHD in this area. PMID:24924350

2014-01-01

73

Controls on the PGE distribution of Permian Emeishan alkaline and peralkaline volcanic rocks in Longzhoushan, Sichuan Province, SW China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ~ 260-Ma Emeishan large igneous province in SW China and northern Vietnam contains low-Ti tholeiitic basalts, high-Ti alkaline basalts and minor peralkaline volcanic rocks. The flood basalts in Longzhoushan, Sichuan Province, SW China, comprise four units, each of which has volcanic breccia at the base. From the base upward, rocks of Units 1 and 2 are high-Ti basalts with relatively high MgO (7.6-11.0 wt.%), TiO 2 (1.7-4.5 wt.%) and Ti/Y ratios (420-790). Unit 3 is composed of tephrites with lower MgO (0.87-6.2 wt.%), TiO 2 (0.96-2.14 wt.%) and Ti/Y ratios (190-530), whereas Unit 4 consists of basaltic andesites with moderate MgO (3.5-4.8 wt.%), TiO 2 (2.2-3.1 wt.%) and Ti/Y ratios (383-606). The high-Ti basalts may have been derived from an OIB-like mantle source and the basaltic andesites were probably generated by crustal contamination and fractionation of high-Ti basaltic magmas. The tephrites show high Nb/Y (1.2 to 2.7) and Th/Y (0.31 to 0.55) ratios, variable Zr/Hf ratios (40 to 49) and relatively low ?Nd( t) (- 0.7 to + 0.28) values, suggesting an asthenospheric mantle contribution modified by carbonate-rich fluids. The high-Ti basalts contain relatively high and variable PGE and their Cu/Pd ratios are relatively constant (compared to the tephrites) and vary from 8,500 to 86,000. We attribute such relative constancy of the Cu/Pd ratios to the presence of residual sulphide in the source of the high-Ti rocks and subsequent crystallization from S-undersaturated melts. The basaltic andesites have relatively high and constant Cu/Pd ratios (130,000-370,492) and the lowest PGE contents (average 0.12 ppb for Pd, 0.20 ppb for Pt), suggesting an earlier removal of sulfide due to crustal contamination before emplacement. The tephrites have PGE abundances (0.057 to 1.89 ppb for Pt and 0.11 to 2.10 ppb for Pd) higher than those for basaltic andesites, however, the Cu/Pd ratios (33,300 to 429,000) of the rocks are more variable than those for the basaltic andesites, suggesting that the tephrites may have undergone both S-saturated fractionation during emplacement of the magmas and weak removal of sulfides from the source magmas. Early fractionation of chromite together with removal of laurite and/or Os-Ir-Ru alloys from the parental magmas may be responsible for the negative Ru anomalies of the tephrites, high-Ti basalts and basaltic andesites.

Qi, Liang; Wang, Christina Yan; Zhou, Mei-Fu

2008-12-01

74

Rapid sea-level change in the Late Guadalupian (Permian) on the Tethyan side of South China: litho- and biostratigraphy of the Chaotian section in Sichuan.  

PubMed

The Capitanian (Late Guadalupian) Maokou Formation at Chaotian in northern Sichuan, South China, is composed mainly of shallow marine shelf carbonates deposited on the Tethyan side of South China. By detailed field mapping and scientific drilling, we newly found out unique fossil assemblages and a sharp lithologic change in the upper part of the Maokou Formation. The main part of the Maokou Formation (over 130 m thick) is composed of algal packstone with Wordian-Capitanian large-tested fusulines, rugose corals and other sessile benthos, whereas the Uppermost Member (13 m thick) is composed of black limy mudstone/chert with Capitanian offshore biota (ammonoids, radiolarians, and conodonts). The topmost Capitanian conodont zones are missing; however, the Maokou Formation is disconformably overlain by 260+/-4 Ma volcanic ash (Wangpo bed) and the Early Lopingian Wujiaping Formation with plant-bearing coaly mudstone and shallow marine carbonates (packstone). The newly identified facies change indicates that northern Sichuan has experienced rapid sea-level changes in the late Guadalupian, i.e., first a transgression in the mid-Capitanian and then a regression across the Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary. As the end-Guadalupian is characterized by a global regression, such a volatile sea-level fluctuation, in particular the sea-level rise, is unique to the Tethyan side of South China. The newly recognized relatively deep-water late Guadalupian sequence adds new paleo-environmental information and further provides a paleotectonic interpretation of the low-latitude eastern Tethyan margin immediately before the end-Guadalupian mass extinction. PMID:18941307

Isozaki, Yukio; Yao, Jianxin; Ji, Zhangshen; Saitoh, Masafumi; Kobayashi, Noritada; Sakai, Harutaka

2008-01-01

75

Diagenesis of clay minerals and K-bentonites in Late Permian/Early Triassic sediments of the Sichuan Basin (Chaotian section, Central China)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed clay mineralogical analyses were carried out on Late Permian/Early Triassic carbonate sediments exposed on the Chaotian section (Sichuan Basin, Central China). The clay assemblages are dominantly composed of illite in platform carbonates and clay seams, and illite-smectite mixed-layers (I/S) in tuff layers (K-bentonites) intercalated in the carbonate succession. Detrital and authigenic volcanogenic clay minerals have been partially replaced through illitisation processes during burial, raising questions about diagenetic effects. The precise determination of I/S occurring in K-bentonites shows that the sediments reached a temperature of about 180 °C, which is consistent with (1) previous estimates based on fluid-inclusion homogenisation temperature analysis, (2) the burial depth of the sedimentary series deduced from the post-Palaeozoic geological history of the Sichuan Basin and (3) the new data (Tmax) obtained on organic matter indicating the transition between oil and gas windows. The Wangpo Bed, located close to the Guadalupian-Lopingian Boundary, is interpreted either as a volcanic acidic tuff or as a clastic horizon. This controversial origin probably results from mixed volcanogenic and detrital influences. The Wangpo Bed is therefore interpreted as a reworked bentonite as revealed by the occurrence of I/S similar to those found in tuff layers, together with preserved detrital kaolinite.

Deconinck, J. F.; Crasquin, S.; Bruneau, L.; Pellenard, P.; Baudin, F.; Feng, Q.

2014-02-01

76

An Outbreak of Type ? Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus in Sichuan Province, China: Emergence and Circulation in an Under-Immunized Population  

PubMed Central

Background During August 2011–February 2012, an outbreak of type ? circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPVs) occurred in Sichuan Province, China. Methods A field investigation of the outbreak was conducted to characterize outbreak isolates and to guide emergency response. Sequence analysis of poliovirus capsid protein VP1 was performed to determine the viral propagation, and a coverage survey was carried out for risk assessment. Results One clinical compatible polio case and three VDPV cases were determined in Ngawa County, Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province. Case patients were unimmunized children, 0.8–1 years old. Genetic sequencing showed that the isolates diverged from the VP1 region of the type ? Sabin strain by 5–12 nucleotides (nt) and shared the same 5 nt VP1 substitutions, which indicate single lineage of cVDPVs. Of the 7 acute flaccid paralysis cases (all>6 months) reported in Ngawa Prefecture in 2011, 4 (57.1%) cases (including 2 polio cases) did not receive oral attenuated poliovirus vaccine. Supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) were conducted in February–May, 2012, and the strain has not been isolated since. Conclusion High coverage of routine immunization should be maintained among children until WPV transmission is globally eradicated. Risk assessments should be conducted regularly to pinpoint high risk areas or subpopulations, with SIAs developed if necessary. PMID:25503964

Fan, Chun-Xiang; Liu, Qing-Lian; Hao, Li-Xin; Liu, Yu; Zheng, Jing-Shan; Qin, Zhi-Ying; Xia, Wei; Zhang, Shi-Yue; Yin, Zun-Dong; Jing, Qiong; Zhang, Yan-Xia; Huang, Rong-Na; Yang, Ru-Pei; Tong, Wen-Bin; Qi, Qi; Guan, Xu-Jing; Jing, Yu-Lin; Ma, Qian-Li; Wang, Jin; Ma, Xiao-Zhen; Chen, Na; Zheng, Hong-Ru; Li, Yin-Qiao; Ma, Chao; Su, Qi-Ru; Reilly, Kathleen H.; Luo, Hui-Ming; Wu, Xian-Ping; Wen, Ning; Yang, Wei-Zhong

2014-01-01

77

Female social dynamics in a provisioned free-ranging band of the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in the Qinling Mountains, China.  

PubMed

Little information is available on the social dynamics of the Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana). Here, we provide 5-year observational data on a provisioned free-ranging band in the Qinling Mountains, central China, from October 2001 to December 2005. The results of this study suggested that females place a high priority on maintaining long-term relationships with other female in their one-male units (OMUs). Females had more social interactions with unit members than with nonunit individuals. They showed relatively high rates of affiliation with their unit females, intermediate levels with the resident males, and low levels with individuals outside the unit. Females had few interactions with other resident males. Social interactions, especially affiliative interactions, were more symmetrical between focal females and their unit females than between focal females and the resident males. Thus female social interactions appeared to resemble those of other female-bonded primate societies. On the other hand, female transfers occurred sometimes. We recorded 11 cases of female immigration and 5 cases of female disappearance, 1 case of female intraband shift, and 2 cases of "merging of OMUs," which suggested that unit females might be loose-knit in this species. We discussed influencing factors on female Sichuan snub-nosed monkey social dynamics, by comparing them with those of Hamadryas and gelada baboons that also have multilevel societies. PMID:18615543

Zhang, Peng; Watanabe, Kunio; Li, Baoguo

2008-11-01

78

Origin of marine sour natural gas and gas-filling model for the Wolonghe Gas Field, Sichuan Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical and isotopic composition of natural gases from the Wolonghe Gas Field, Sichuan Basin, Southwest China, was investigated to assess the potential gas sources and reconstruct the gas-filling history of the reservoirs. All natural gases in this field are dominated by gaseous hydrocarbons (C1-C3) with varied amounts of non-hydrocarbon components (CO2, H2S and N2). The H2S content varies with reservoir intervals. It ranges from zero to 1.84% with an average of 0.37% in the Carboniferous reservoir, from 0.05% to 0.76% with an average of 0.30% in the Permian reservoir, and from 1.09% to 18.83% with an average of 5.39% in the Lower Triassic reservoir. The gas dryness coefficient (C1/C1-3) ranges from 0.97 to 1.0 with an average of 0.99. The carbon isotopic compositions of methane and its homologues in the Wolonghe Gas Field vary widely, with ?13C1 ? ?13C2 < ?13C3 in the Carboniferous and Permian gas reservoirs, and ?13C1 < ?13C2 < ?13C3 in the Lower Triassic Jialingjiang Formation gas reservoirs. The ?D1 values range from -140‰ to -100‰, with an average of -124.5‰. The ?34SH2S values in the field extend from 5.7‰ to 31.0‰, with ?34SH2S values in the Lower Triassic Jialingjiang Formation reservoirs being much higher than those in the Carboniferous and Permian reservoirs. The sour natural gases in the field originated from cracking of oil and were sourced from the marine sapropelic organic matter at high maturity levels. The natural gases underwent alteration by thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). Although the limited extent TSR occurred in the Carboniferous and Permian gas reservoirs, the TSR alteration is likely to have caused the high gas dryness and the 13C enrichment of CH4. The present low content of H2S in the Carboniferous and Permian gases would be related to the loss of H2S dissolved in water under the reconstruction of these gas reservoirs. In contrast, the high H2S in the Jialingjiang Formation gases is determined by both the favorable TSR conditions in the Lower Triassic reservoirs and the favorable preservation conditions provided by the Lower-Middle Triassic gypsum. The Wolonghe natural gas system is characterized by multi-pay zones, multi-source supply and multi-type layers. The gas generated from Silurian source rocks migrated into the Carboniferous reservoir through faults and fractures and was trapped beneath the Permian Liangshan Formation shale, whereas the natural gas in the Permian and Lower Triassic Jialingjiang Formation was generated and preserved in its own formations with the overlying gypsum acting as a cap rock.

Liu, Quanyou; Jin, Zhijun; Li, Jian; Hu, Anping; Bi, Changchun

2012-09-01

79

Development stages of hazardous mountain lakes and simulation of their outbursts (Central Caucasus, Russia; Sichuan mountain region, China).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of mountain lakes studies is related to the increasing threat of natural disasters, associated with lake outbursts and debris flows formation, because of population growth on exposed areas. The outburst hazard has not been sufficiently researched, there is a lack of data because of the lakes inaccessibility and remote sensing data is usually not detailed enough. The main scientific topics include assessment of outburst possibility and further simulation of possible outbursts scenarios. There are two types of mountain lakes: glacial (cirque, cirque-moraine, barrier-moraine, glacial-barrier, etc.) lakes and barrier (landslide, rockfall, debris flow, etc.) lakes. The first type was studied in the Central Caucasus (Russia), and the second type - in the Sichuan mountain region (China). The group of scientists, including authors, has been monitoring glacial lakes in the Mnt. Elbrus area for more than ten years. The unique data were collected, including detailed hydrological characteristics of more than ten lakes (water level dynamics, temperature, morphometrical characteristics, water balance components, etc.). Outbursts of at least three glacial lakes were observed. Hydrological characteristics of landslide Tangjiashan Lake were collected with Chinese colleagues during field studies in 2010 and 2011 years. Analysis of the collected data was used to understand the outburst mechanisms, formation factors, dam breaking factors, development stages of mountain lakes. Statistical methods of analysis in this case can be applied with some limitations because of the lack of sufficient monitoring objects, and therefore the results has been verified by experts. All types of possible outbursts mechanisms were divided by the authors into five groups: geomorphologic (caused by changes in lake dams), seismic, or geodynamic (caused by seiches, waves from rockfalls, landslides), glacial (caused by breaks in impounding glaciers, ice floating and melting), water-balance (caused by changes in lakes water balance) and anthropogenic. Three development stages of mountain lakes were identified: 1) constant changes of lake hollows and rapid volume growth; 2) stable state, moderate changes; 3) outburst or overflow because of some external factors or gradual shallowing and disappearing. According to the type of outbursts mechanisms and stage of development, the authors assessed the risk of outburst and chose methods, models and scenarios for simulation. Analysis of the data (weighted estimation, graphoanalytical methods, etc.) showed that glacial lakes outburst possibility is influenced by (in order of importance): 1) water volume, 2) position of lake related to parent glacier, 3) characteristics of dam, 4) conditions of lake banks, 5) high water heat reserve and presence of ice lenses in dam. Barrier lakes outburst possibility is influenced by: 1) lake depth, 2) shape of lake hollow and coastline, 3) characteristics of dam, 4) conditions of lake banks. The most essential external factors are landslides, rockfalls, meteorological and seismic conditions. The most dangerous lakes in research areas were allocated, for them outbursts scenarios have been developed, depending on studied characteristics. These scenarios were simulated using the River and FLO-2D models. At the final stage, zoning of mountain valleys depending on the level of risk was conducted, which is the basis for further risk mitigation.

Kidyaeva, Vera; Krylenko, Inna; Chernomorets, Sergey; Petrakov, Dmitry

2013-04-01

80

A study on the heavy-rain-producing mesoscale convective system associated with diurnal variation of radiation and topography in the eastern slope of the western Sichuan plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 24-25 July 2010, a Plateau Vortex system forming to the north of Tibetan Plateau dramatically changed its moving direction to westward after several days of eastward movement. Observational analysis showed that, during its westward movement, a low-level southeasterly or easterly wind developed over the Sichuan basin. The large-scale forcing became favorable for the convection development. The low-level warm advection was more favorable for convection development than the differential vorticity advection. The daytime scattered convections were organized into a mesoscale convective system (MCS) after sunset, which produced extremely heavy rainfall in the eastern slope of the Western Sichuan Plateau. The observational evidences and numerical simulations have indicated that the topographically induced dynamical lifting over the lower topography and the convergence caused by the topographical blocking provided strong support for the convection initiation. The cold outflows caused by surface evaporative cooling of rain steered the MCS to move away from its original place, while the convergence between the cold outflows and the environmental southeasterly flow apparently helped the maintenance of the MCS. The intensification of the low-level flow, which was associated with the diurnal variation of radiative forcing, contributed to the organization and intensification of the MCS. The results of sensitivity experiments further confirmed the impact of topography in the convection initiation, and the influences of cold outflows caused by surface evaporative cooling of rain on the movement and maintenance of the MCS. The effects of the diurnal variation of radiative forcing on the organization of the MCS are also well represented in the model results.

Zhao, Yuchun

2014-11-01

81

Consumer preferences for western-style convenience foods in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand for western-style convenience foods is growing around the world, especially in the People's Republic of China, a likely result of the modernization of food consumption patterns. Proper targeting of consumers who exhibit preferences for western foods will be essential to companies wishing to successfully enter the Chinese market. Data from a 2002 survey of consumers in Beijing is

Thomas I. WAHLb

82

Late Jurassic salamandroid from western Liaoning, China  

PubMed Central

A Jurassic salamander, Beiyanerpeton jianpingensis (gen. et sp. nov.), from a recently found site in western Liaoning Province, China is the earliest known record of Salamandroidea. As a Late Jurassic record of the group, it extends the range of the clade by ~40 Ma. The Late Jurassic taxon is neotenic and represented by exceptionally preserved specimens, including fully articulated cranial and postcranial skeletons and bony gill structures close to the cheek region. The fossil beds, consisting of dark-brown volcanic ash shales of the Upper Jurassic Tiaojishan (Lanqi) Formation (Oxfordian), underlie trachyandesite rocks that have yielded a SHRIMP zircon U-Pb date of 157 ± 3 Ma. The fossiliferous beds are substantially older than the Jehol Group, including the Yixian Formation (40Ar/39Ar dates of 122–129 Ma), but slightly younger than the Middle Jurassic Daohugou horizon (40Ar/39Ar date of 164 ± 4 Ma). The early fossil taxon shares with extant salamandroids derived character states, including: separated nasals lacking a midline contact, angular fused to the prearticular in the lower jaw, and double-headed ribs on the presacral vertebrae. In contrast to extant salamandroids, however, the salamander shows a discrete and tooth-bearing palatine, and unequivocally nonpedicellate and monocuspid marginal teeth in large and presumably mature individuals. The finding provides insights into the evolution of key characters of salamanders, and also provides direct evidence supporting the hypothesis that the split between Cryptobranchoidea and Salamandroidea had taken placed before the Late Jurassic Oxfordian time. In this aspect, both paleontological and molecular data now come to agree. PMID:22411790

Gao, Ke-Qin; Shubin, Neil H.

2012-01-01

83

Late Jurassic salamandroid from western Liaoning, China.  

PubMed

A Jurassic salamander, Beiyanerpeton jianpingensis (gen. et sp. nov.), from a recently found site in western Liaoning Province, China is the earliest known record of Salamandroidea. As a Late Jurassic record of the group, it extends the range of the clade by ~40 Ma. The Late Jurassic taxon is neotenic and represented by exceptionally preserved specimens, including fully articulated cranial and postcranial skeletons and bony gill structures close to the cheek region. The fossil beds, consisting of dark-brown volcanic ash shales of the Upper Jurassic Tiaojishan (Lanqi) Formation (Oxfordian), underlie trachyandesite rocks that have yielded a SHRIMP zircon U-Pb date of 157 ± 3 Ma. The fossiliferous beds are substantially older than the Jehol Group, including the Yixian Formation ((40)Ar/(39)Ar dates of 122-129 Ma), but slightly younger than the Middle Jurassic Daohugou horizon ((40)Ar/(39)Ar date of 164 ± 4 Ma). The early fossil taxon shares with extant salamandroids derived character states, including: separated nasals lacking a midline contact, angular fused to the prearticular in the lower jaw, and double-headed ribs on the presacral vertebrae. In contrast to extant salamandroids, however, the salamander shows a discrete and tooth-bearing palatine, and unequivocally nonpedicellate and monocuspid marginal teeth in large and presumably mature individuals. The finding provides insights into the evolution of key characters of salamanders, and also provides direct evidence supporting the hypothesis that the split between Cryptobranchoidea and Salamandroidea had taken placed before the Late Jurassic Oxfordian time. In this aspect, both paleontological and molecular data now come to agree. PMID:22411790

Gao, Ke-Qin; Shubin, Neil H

2012-04-10

84

Comparative study of bacterial status from conjunctival sac of the elder Qiang minority and Han people with dry eye in Sichuan, China  

PubMed Central

AIM To compare the status of bacteria in the conjunctival sac from the elder Qiang minority and Han people with dry eyes in Sichuan, China. METHODS Total of 54 elder Qiang people with dry eyes (108 eyes) were examined by cluster sampling. In the similar habitation region of Han people, 80 (160 dry eyes) Han people were analyzed as the control group. The bacteria was separated from the inferior palpebral conjunctiva, then inoculated on blood plate for 48 hours and identified. RESULTS Totally 24 strains of bacteria were cultured in either Qiang minority or Han c populations with 3 strains of them existed in both ethnic groups. The commonest bacteria in conjunctival sac in two ethnic groups were non-pathogenic bacterium. The composition of Corynebacterium in Han people (54.1%) was significantly higher than that in Qiang minority (27.4%) (?2=11.6721, P=0.0006). The percentage of Sphingomonas Paucimobilis in Qiang people was higher than that in Han people (?2=18.6442, P=0.0000). However, there was no significant difference between Qiang minority and Han people either in bacterial positive rate in conjunctival sac, or the composition of bacteria species and strains, or the composition of staphylococcus epidemids between two ethnic populations. CONCLUSION There was no significant difference of bacterial positive rate in conjunctival sac from the elder of Qiang minority and Han people with dry eye, but the species of bacteria were different. PMID:22773985

Zhang, Yue; Liu, Zhi-Rong; Chen, Hui; Dong, Wan-Jiang; Fan, Ying-Chuan; Yu, Hua; Wang, Guang-Jin; Li, Yu-Chan; Cao, Kui

2012-01-01

85

Assessing the scalar moment of moderate earthquake and the effect of lateral heterogeneity on normal modes-An example from the 2013/04/20 Lushan earthquake, Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Medium-frequency normal modes in the frequency range of 2.0-6.0 mHz excited by moderate earthquakes (6.0 < Mw < 7.0) are weak seismic signals and seldom concerned in academic study. We show that the validity of predicted M0 (scalar seismic moment) for a complex moderate earthquake can be effectively assessed by a systematic comparison of observed and synthetic medium-frequency spheroidal modes, and the effect of lateral heterogeneity on normal-mode amplitudes can also be well assessed in the comparison. For a complex moderate earthquake, the differences between predicted M0 derived from different inversion methods are significant, in some cases as large as factors of 1.56-3.18. In this study we focus on the Lushan earthquake, a moderate thrust event on 20 April 2013 in the Western Sichuan, China. Five reported M0 for the earthquake differ significantly from 0.4 × 1019 to 1.06 × 1019 N m, up to about 2.5 times difference. To assess the validity of reported M0, we compare observed with synthetic modes corresponding to five centroid moment tensor solutions at 17 stations, which located within epicental distances of 5-30° and distributed in a wide range of source-receiver azimuths. Synthetic modes corresponding to moment tensor solutions derived from long-period waveforms show good agreement to observations. However, synthetics corresponding to moment tensor solutions derived from body waves display significant deviations of amplitudes from observations. We show underestimate of M0 is the main cause for such a large deviation. Another important result obtained from the comparison is that lateral heterogeneity has very little effects on the amplitudes of spherical modes at frequencies below 6.0 mHz. This observational result is inconsistent with previous theoretical result of lateral structure perturbations to normal modes.

Hu, Xiao Gang; Jiang, Ying; Sun, He Ping

2014-07-01

86

[Dynamics of regional ecological frangibility under natural hazard stress: a case study in Qingping Town of Sichuan Province, Southwest China].  

PubMed

By using the aerial remote sensing images after May 12, 2008 (the date of catastrophic Wenchuan Earthquake) and the unmanned aircraft vehicle remote sensing images after August 13, 2010 (the date of extraordinary debris flow), and in combining with the land use map (1:10000), topographic map (1:50000), and collected field investigation data of Qingping Town, Mianzhu City of Sichuan Province in 2006, this paper analyzed and evaluated the ecological frangibility of the Town. In the Town, the slightly, lightly, moderately, heavily, and extremely fragile ecological zones after the extraordinary debris flow occupied 1.9%, 7.9%, 18.7%, 23.0%, and 48.5%, respectively, with the area of heavily and extremely fragile ecological zones accounting for 71.5% of the total, being 238.45 km2, i. e., the ecological environment was overall very fragile. Under the impact of the two natural hazards, the ecological frangibility degree of the Town increased obviously. As compared with that before the Earthquake, the area of heavily and extremely fragile ecological zones after the Earthquake increased by 12.4%, and the area of extremely fragile ecological zone was 1.67 times larger. The dynamic evolution of the ecological frangibility of the Town was mainly manifested in the conversion of heavily fragile ecological zone into extremely fragile ecological zone. Complex terrain was the key factor of the ecological frangibility of the Town. PMID:22489499

Liu, Bin-Tao; Tao, He-Ping; Liu, Shao-Quan; Yu, Hui; Kong, Bo

2012-01-01

87

Reinfection studies of canine echinococcosis and role of dogs in transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis in Tibetan communities, Sichuan, China.  

PubMed

In the eastern Tibetan plateau both human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by infection with Echincoccus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively are highly endemic. The domestic dog plays a key role in zoonotic transmission in this region. Our primary objective was to investigate the role of domestic dogs in maintaining transmission of E. multilocularis in Shiqu county, Sichuan. A cohort of 281 dogs was followed up over one year after a single treatment with praziquantel followed by re-infection surveillance at 2, 5 and 12 months post-treatment. Faecal samples were tested by an Echinococcus genus-specific coproantigen ELISA and two species-specific copro-PCR tests. Total Echinococcus coproantigen prevalence in Shiqu at baseline was 21% and 9·6% after 2 months. E. multilocularis copro-PCR was positive in 11·2% of dogs before treatment (vs 3·6% with E. granulosus copro-DNA), 2·9% at 2 months post-treatment, and 0% at 5 month and 12 months. The results suggest that dogs may have the potential to maintain E. multilocularis transmission within local pastoral communities, and thus dog dosing could be an effective strategy to reduce transmission of E. multilocularis as well as E. granulosus in these co-endemic Tibetan communities. PMID:23985352

Moss, J E; Chen, X; Li, T; Qiu, J; Wang, Q; Giraudoux, P; Ito, A; Torgerson, P R; Craig, P S

2013-11-01

88

Effectiveness of a smart phone app on improving immunization of children in rural Sichuan Province, China: study protocol for a paired cluster randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Although good progress has been achieved in expanding immunization of children in China, disparities exist across different provinces. Information gaps both from the service supply and demand sides hinder timely vaccination of children in rural areas. The rapid development of mobile health technology (mHealth) provides unprecedented opportunities for improving health services and reaching underserved populations. However, there is a lack of literature that rigorously evaluates the impact of mHealth interventions on immunization coverage as well as the usability and feasibility of smart phone applications (apps). This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a smart phone-based app (Expanded Program on Immunization app, or EPI app) on improving the coverage of children’s immunization. Methods/Design This cluster randomized trial will take place in Xuanhan County, Sichuan Province, China. Functionalities of the app include the following: to make appointments automatically, record and update children’s immunization information, generate a list of children who missed their vaccination appointments, and send health education information to village doctors. After pairing, 36 villages will be randomly allocated to the intervention arm (n?=?18) and control arm (n?=?18). The village doctors in the intervention arm will use the app while the village doctors in the control arm will record and manage immunization in the usual way in their catchment areas. A household survey will be used at baseline and at endline (8 months of implementation). The primary outcome is full-dose coverage and the secondary outcome is immunization coverage of the five vaccines that are included in the national Expanded Program on Immunization program as well as Hib vaccine, Rotavirus vaccine and Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Multidimensional evaluation of the app will also be conducted to assess usability and feasibility. Discussion This study is the first to evaluate the effectiveness of a smart phone app for child immunization in rural China. This study will contribute to the knowledge about the usability and feasibility of a smart phone app for managing immunization in rural China and to similar populations in different settings. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trials Registry (ChiCTR): ChiCTR-TRC-13003960 PMID:24645829

2014-01-01

89

AMS investigation in the Pingluoba and Qiongxi anticlines, Sichuan, China: Implications for deformation mechanism of the Qiongxi structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stratigraphic attitude is one of the most important field data for structural geology research. However, it is difficult to measure directly sometimes, especially in weak deformed sediments with low dip angle. Pingluoba anticline, mainly consisting of medium-high dip angle strata, is located on the Longmen Shan fold-and-thrust belt front. Qiongxi anticline is located in the southwestern Sichuan Basin, and it is mainly composed of sub-horizontal to low dip angle strata. An investigation of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in 78 sites has been carried out in these two folds. Stepwise demagnetization of three orthogonal isothermal remanent magnetizations suggests that hematite is the main magnetic carrier mineral in the Qiongxi anticline, meanwhile, hematite and magnetite are both existing in the Pingluoba anticline. It reveals three types of magnetic fabrics: sedimentary magnetic fabric, initial deformation magnetic fabric and pencil structure magnetic fabric, which indicate weak deformation. Throughout AMS theoretical analysis and example test in the Pingluoba anticline, magnetic fabric is a suitable technique to confirm the stratigraphic attitude in weak compressional deformed sediments. For the sedimentary magnetic fabric, initial deformation magnetic fabric and one atypical initial deformation magnetic fabric developed in the weak deformed tectonic superposition region, dip direction of bedding plane = pitch direction of K3+(or -) 180°, and dip angle of bedding plane = 90°-pitch angle of K3. 38 stratigraphic attitudes with low dip angle in the Qiongxi anticline have been rectified by magnetic fabric results. Qiongxi structure is a weak tectonic superposition deformation anticline. The deformation mechanism of Qiongxi structure may contain two stages: NW-SE compression stage started from the latest Cretaceous-early Cenozoic and nearly E-W shortening stage in the Late Cenozoic.

Luo, Liang; Qi, Jiafu; Zhang, Mingzheng

2014-06-01

90

Buddhist Education in Sichuan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is devoted to Buddhist education in Sichuan Province with a focus on Venerable Longlian's temple. It deals with the historical development of Chinese Buddhist education and makes statistic analysis of the available data. Venerable Longlian established the Sichuan Buddhist Institute for Nuns in the 1980s. It was the first modern school…

Long, Darui

2002-01-01

91

Epipaleolithic\\/early Neolithic settlements at Qinghai Lake, western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transitions from terminal Pleistocene Upper Paleolithic foraging to Holocene Neolithic farming and pastoralist economic orientations in the northern Tibetan Plateau are examined from the perspective of Epipaleolithic sites located near Qinghai Lake, Qinghai Province, western China. Jiangxigou 2 is an artifact-rich, multicomponent midden site with the main period of occupation dating ca. 9000–5000 cal yr BP, containing abundant flaked stone

David Rhode; Zhang Haiying; David B. Madsen; Gao Xing; P. Jeffrey Brantingham; Ma Haizhou; John W. Olsen

2007-01-01

92

Geochemistry of Neoproterozoic mafic intrusions in the Panzhihua district (Sichuan Province, SW China): Implications for subduction-related metasomatism in the upper mantle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metasomatism above subduction zones is an important process that produces heterogeneous mantle and thus a diversity of igneous rocks. In the Panzhihua district, on the western margin of the Yangtze Block (SW China), two Neoproterozoic mafic intrusions, one olivine gabbro and one hornblende gabbro, have identical ages of 746±10 and 738±23Ma. Both of the gabbros are tholeiitic in composition and

Jun-Hong Zhao; Mei-Fu Zhou

2007-01-01

93

Retrospective Cohort Analysis of Chest Injury Characteristics and Concurrent Injuries in Patients Admitted to Hospital in the Wenchuan and Lushan Earthquakes in Sichuan, China  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to compare retrospectively the characteristics of chest injuries and frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients after earthquakes of different seismic intensity. Methods We compared the cause, type, and body location of chest injuries as well as the frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients admitted to our hospital after the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China. We explored possible relationships between seismic intensity and the causes and types of injuries, and we assessed the ability of the Injury Severity Score, New Injury Severity Score, and Chest Injury Index to predict respiratory failure in chest injury patients. Results The incidence of chest injuries was 9.9% in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake and 22.2% in the less intensive Lushan earthquake. The most frequent cause of chest injuries in both earthquakes was being accidentally struck. Injuries due to falls were less prevalent in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake, while injuries due to burial were more prevalent. The distribution of types of chest injury did not vary significantly between the two earthquakes, with rib fractures and pulmonary contusions the most frequent types. Spinal and head injuries concurrent with chest injuries were more prevalent in the less violent Lushan earthquake. All three trauma scoring systems showed poor ability to predict respiratory failure in patients with earthquake-related chest injuries. Conclusions Previous studies may have underestimated the incidence of chest injury in violent earthquakes. The distributions of types of chest injury did not differ between these two earthquakes of different seismic intensity. Earthquake severity and interval between rescue and treatment may influence the prevalence and types of injuries that co-occur with the chest injury. Trauma evaluation scores on their own are inadequate predictors of respiratory failure in patients with earthquake-related chest injuries. PMID:24816485

Yuan, Yong; Zhao, Yong-Fan

2014-01-01

94

Strong ground motion simulation for the Mw6.6 Lushan Earthquake, Sichuan, China, base on the inverted and synthetic slip models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As we know, the estimation of slip distributions on the fault surface is one of the most important issues for the source inversion of earthquake fault rupturing process. The characteristics of slip distribution on the mainfault play an important role to control strong ground motion pattern. Wang et al., and Zhang et al., published the fast inversion for the rupturing process soon after the 20 April 2013 Lushan, Ya'an earthquake in Sichuan, China. A large amount of works has suggested that variable slip models derived from longer-period ground motion recording are relevant for the prediction of higher-frequency ground motions. The k square model and crack model are well known to describe the slip distribution on the rupture surface. In this study, first we synthesize two forward models: the value of maximum slip, fault dimension, corner wave number derived from Wang model is used to constrain the production of k square model; also, the value of maximum slip, the dimension of asperities from Wang model is used to produce the crack model. Calculation shows that the value of corner wave number of these two synthetic slip models and the inverted models are much the same, and these four slip models are then used to simulate the ground motions for the Lushan earthquake base on the stochastic finite-fault method. Furthermore, a stochastic slip model is also employed for the simulation of strong ground motion for the Lushan event. The simulated results characterized by PGA and PGV show that the source models base on the inverted and synthetic slip distributions could capture most of the basic features of the ground motion. Moreover, the simulated MMI distributions reflect the obvious rupture directivity effect and the influence of the shallow velocity structure well. While the simulation of stochastic slip model is apparently higher than observed MMI. In addition, our simulation result shows that the higher-frequency ground is strongly sensitive to the degree of slip roughness, therefore, we suggest that, for a realistic ground motion simulations due to future earthquake, it is imperative to properly estimate the slip roughness distribution.

Shen, W.; Zhong, Q.; Shi, B.

2013-12-01

95

Detecting One-Hundred-Year Environmental Changes in Western China Using Seven-Year Repeat Photography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to its diverse, wondrous plants and unique topography, Western China has drawn great attention from explorers and naturalists from the Western World. Among them, Ernest Henry Wilson (1876 –1930), known as ‘Chinese’ Wilson, travelled to Western China five times from 1899 to 1918. He took more than 1,000 photos during his travels. These valuable photos illustrated the natural and

Huai Chen; Kaipu Yin; Haiyan Wang; Shenxian Zhong; Ning Wu; Fusun Shi; Dan Zhu; Qiuan Zhu; Weifeng Wang; Zhihai Ma; Xiuqin Fang; Weizhong Li; Pengxiang Zhao; Changhui Peng; Guy J.-P. Schumann

2011-01-01

96

Stress changes from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and increased hazard in the Sichuan basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On 12 May 2008, the devastating magnitude 7.9 (Wenchuan) earthquake struck the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau, collapsing buildings and killing thousands in major cities aligned along the western Sichuan basin in China. After such a large-magnitude earthquake, rearrangement of stresses in the crust commonly leads to subsequent damaging earthquakes. The mainshock of the 12 May earthquake ruptured with as much as 9 m of slip along the boundary between the Longmen Shan and Sichuan basin, and demonstrated the complex strike-slip and thrust motion that characterizes the region. The Sichuan basin and surroundings are also crossed by other active strike-slip and thrust faults. Here we present calculations of the coseismic stress changes that resulted from the 12 May event using models of those faults, and show that many indicate significant stress increases. Rapid mapping of such stress changes can help to locate fault sections with relatively higher odds of producing large aftershocks. ??2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Parsons, T.; Ji, C.; Kirby, E.

2008-01-01

97

Widespread co-endemicity of human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis on the eastern Tibetan Plateau, northwest Sichuan/southeast Qinghai, China  

PubMed Central

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) or hydatid disease is known to be cosmopolitan in its global distribution, while alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a much rarer though more pathogenic hepatic parasitic disease restricted to the northern hemisphere. Both forms of human echinococcosis are known to occur on the Tibetan Plateau, but the epidemiological characteristics remain poorly understood. In our current study, abdominal ultrasound screening programs for echinococcosis were conducted in thirty-one Tibetan townships in Ganze and Aba Tibetan Autonomous Prefectures of northwest Sichuan Province during 2001-2008. Hospital records (1992-2006) in a major regional treatment centre for echinococcosis in Sichuan Province were also reviewed. Of 10,186 local residents examined by portable ultrasound scan, 645 (6.3%) were diagnosed with echinococcosis: a prevalence of 3.2% for CE, 3.1% for AE and 0.04% for dual infection (both CE and AE). Human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis in pastoral areas was highly co-endemic, in comparison to much lower prevalences in semi-pastoral or farming regions. The high ultrasound prevalence in these co-endemic areas in northwest Sichuan Province was also reflected in the hospital study, and hospital records furthermore indicated another possible highly co-endemic focus in Guoluo Prefecture of Qinghai Province, located at the border of northwest Sichuan. These chronic cestode zoonoses constitute an unparalleled major public health problem for pastoral Tibetan communities, and pose great difficulties for adequate treatment access and effective transmission control in such remote regions. PMID:19941830

Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Zhen, Ren; Qiu, Jiamin; Qiu, Dongchuan; Xiao, Ning; Ito, Akira; Wang, Hu; Giraudoux, Patrick; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Craig, Philip S

2010-01-01

98

Nutrient Release from Weathering of Purplish Rocks in the Sichuan Basin, China 1 1 Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2003CB415202) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 40571093 and 49601009)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purplish soils having high fertility with mineral nutrients inherited from the parent rock are widely distributed in the hills along the Yangtze River, especially in the Sichuan Basin. Pot and field weathering experiments were conducted to mimic rock weathering and nutrient release processes in order to better understand soil fertility and nutrient compensation. Three types of purplish rock formations formed

Bo ZHU; Tao WANG; Xiang YOU; Mei-Rong GAO

2008-01-01

99

GIS-based analysis of 1933 Diexi Landslides and dam breach on the Min River, Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to complex tectonic and geomorphologic factors, the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas, are particularly prone to landslides. Rivers have deeply cut into bedrock, forming narrow valleys that are especially prone to landslide damming. Numerous landslide damming and subsequent dam breaching events are recorded from the region in historical documents and the geosciece literature; these include events at the Dadu River (1786), Diexi (1933), Tanggudong (1967), Yigong (2000), and Tangjiashan (2008). We report the results of a GIS-based analysis of earthquake-generated landslide dams at Diexi. The Diexi Earthquake (M=7.5) occurred on August 25, 1933 and induced a series of giant landslides along the Min River, some of which blocked the river and formed three large landslide lakes. The landslide dam located furthest downstream breached on October 9, 1933, 45 days after the earthquake. The outburst flood resulted in huge damage to the downstream area killing 2,423 people, one of the most serious landslide-related disasters in China during the 20th Century. In the present work, GIS analysis is applied to the Diexi Landslides, based on a review of historical documents and previous studies, data collected during field work, and remote sensing and SRTM-3 digital terrain data. We attempted to determine the precise locations of the 1933 landslides and measured dam height, cross-section area, and volume of the damming landslides. Due to the lack of topographic data before the 1933 earthquake, data of the landslide lakes, including maximum water elevation and total impounded volume can only be estimated. Using credible water levels and inferred submerged topography we calculate an outburst volume for the 1933 event. Moreover, cross-sections are made for both the damming area and the Min River downstream in order to make a general assessment of the damage due to the subsequent flood. Maximum flood discharge is estimated by regression equations. The two remaining lakes on the Min River have experienced a slight water level decrease after over 80 years of outlet erosion. Despite this, these two lakes are considered to be safe.

Ling, Song; Evans, Stephen G.

2014-05-01

100

Impacts of climate change on the distribution of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Shennongjia area, China.  

PubMed

Understanding the effects of climate change on primate ranging patterns is crucial for conservation planning. Rhinopithecus roxellana is an endangered primate species distributed in mountainous forests at the elevation of 1500-3500?m a.s.l. in China. Our study site, the Shennongjia National Nature Reserve, represents the eastern-most distribution of this species. This area has experienced significant habitat loss and fragmentation because of human population growth, increased farming and logging, and climate change. To estimate how changes in temperature and rainfall will affect the presumed future distribution of this species, we examined eco-geographic factors including bioclimate, habitat (vegetation type, landcover, etc.), topography, and human impact (human population, gross domestic product, etc.), and provide suggestions for management and conservation. We used a maximum entropy approach to predict the location and distribution of habitats suitable for R. roxellana in the present, 2020, 2050, and 2080 based on 33 environmental parameters, three general circulation models, three emissions scenarios, and two dispersal hypotheses. According to the ensemble modeling, we found range reductions of almost 30% by 2020, 70% by 2050, and over 80% by 2080. Although no obvious differences were found in distribution change based on full and zero dispersal assumptions, our results revealed range reductions in response to elevational, latitudinal, and longitudinal gradients, with the monkeys forced to migrate to higher elevations over time. Bioclimte factors, such as temperature, precipitation, evapo-transpiration, and aridity condition, were dominant contributors to range shifting. As habitat loss due to human influence and climate change is likely to be even more severe in the future, we considered three conservation hot-spots in the Shennongjia area and recommended: (i) securing existing reserves and establishing new reserves, (ii) re-designing management systems to include the Shenongjia reserve and the surrounding reserves and highlighting ecosystem protection at higher elevations, and (iii) using finer-scale research to guide the conservation planning and education in order to enhance protection and awareness in the local community. National and provincial conservation policies should integrate projections of climate change in making effective conservation strategies. Am. J. Primatol. 77:135-151, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25224271

Luo, Zhenhua; Zhou, Surong; Yu, Wendi; Yu, Huiliang; Yang, Jingyuan; Tian, Yanhong; Zhao, Mian; Wu, Hua

2015-02-01

101

Excavating the Nation: Archaeology and Control of the Past and Present in Republican Sichuan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation considers whether or not archaeology was an effective tool for nation-building elites in Republican China (1912-1949), by looking at the discipline's fortunes in the off-center locale of Sichuan province. Through consideration of the multiplicity of agents and motives involved in archaeological enterprise in Republican Sichuan,…

Kyong-McClain, Jeffrey

2009-01-01

102

The Post-seismic Slip of the 1973 M7.6 earthquake on the Luhuo Segment of the Xianshuihe Fault Zone, Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An M=7.6 earthquake ruptured the Luhuo segment of the Xianshuihe fault zone on Feb. 6, 1973. Since then, several across-fault (across the 1973 rupture) deformation observation systems have been set up one after another at the site of Xialatuo, Luhuo county, Sichuan province, China. Among them are a system of short baselines and short leveling, a set of creep-meters, an artificial construction, and some near-fault to far-fault GPS geodetic stations. By using data from the observation of these systems, this paper studies the characteristic of the post-seismic slip/deformation and their temporal-spatial variations for the Luhuo segment of the Xianshuihe fault zone, and builds a tectonic-dynamic model to explain the characteristic features. Our study mainly shows that, (1) in the first five years following the 1973 earthquake, the earthquake fault at Xialatuo behaved as an open one that the post-seismic slip showed mainly as aseismic left-lateral slip (creeping) at an average rate of 10.27mm/a along with slight tensional creeping. Since 1979, however, the rate of the post-seismic left-lateral creep has been slowing down gradually from 5.3mm/a to 2.27mm/a, and the process of the rate slowing down is the type of logarithmic function, suggesting that during the period since 1979 the fault plane, that ruptured in the 1973 earthquake, has been tending to re-couple and re-lock gradually with some strain having rebuilt-up. (2) Since 1999 the rate of relative left-lateral displacement/deformation at the fault far-fields on both sides of the fault segment is estimated to be 10mm/a, much greater than the near-fault (40m to 144m across the fault) left-lateral creep rates of 0.66 mm/a to 2.52mm/a in the same stage. Also, such significant differences of the near- to far-fault displacement/deformation rates occur along an about 2×30-km-wide zone centered along the fault segment of Luhuo, indicating the width of the seismogenic fault zone associated with the stress/strain build-up and release during major earthquake cycles here. (3) Combining with information of tectonic-dynamic background and deep crustal structure, the authors try to explain the mechanism of the post-seismic fault slip/deformation and its spatial-temporal variation for the studied fault segment. Key points of the explanation are as follows: Starting from the 5th year after the 1973 earthquake, the fault plane in the brittle upper crust, which was once used to be open in the earlier post-seismic stage, has been tending to re-couple and re-lock as a result of gradual increasing slip/friction resistance on the fault plane. In the deeper crust, however, the continuous ductile relative motion between the both sides of the fault keeps dragging the brittle upper crust to produce elastic displacement/deformation. (4) It can be estimated that the studied fault segment will entirely "re-lock", enter the stage of inter-seismic locking, and re-build up stress/strain for the next major event in the next 15 to 25 years.

Fang, D.; Xue-Ze, W.

2012-04-01

103

A Comparative Study of Child Temperament and Parenting in Beijing, China and the Western United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to examine comparable dimensions and linkages between child temperament and parenting styles with samples from Beijing, China and the western United States. Participants included 404 mothers and fathers from Beijing, China and 325 mothers and fathers from the western United States. Both mothers and fathers…

Porter, Christian L.; Hart, Craig H.; Yang, Chongming; Robinson, Clyde C.; Olsen, Susanne Frost; Zeng, Qing; Olsen, Joseph A.; Jin, Shenghua

2005-01-01

104

Human Resource Development Issues in the Implementation of the Western China Development Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper systematically illustrates the value and role of human resource development in the implementation of the Western China development strategy. It analyzes in details some current human resource issues constraining the implementation of the Western China development strategy and those on the sustainable development process of economic…

Xiao, Mingzheng

2007-01-01

105

On Financial Support System for Compulsory Education in China's Western Minority Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

China's Western Development is a policy adopted to boost its less developed Western regions, that is, a systematic project and a longterm and arduous task. The development of compulsory education in China's minority areas is the key to it. This paper attempts to use the beneficial experience of developing compulsory education support system of…

Jinyu, Qi

2008-01-01

106

Developing a new perspective to study the health of survivors of Sichuan earthquakes in China: a study on the effect of post-earthquake rescue policies on survivors’ health-related quality of life  

PubMed Central

Background Sichuan is a province in China with an extensive history of earthquakes. Recent earthquakes, including the Lushan earthquake in 2013, have resulted in thousands of people losing their homes and their families. However, there is a research gap on the efficiency of government support policies. Therefore, this study develops a new perspective to study the health of earthquake survivors, based on the effect of post-earthquake rescue policies on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of survivors of the Sichuan earthquake. Methods This study uses data from a survey conducted in five hard-hit counties (Wenchuan, Qingchuan, Mianzhu, Lushan, and Dujiangyan) in Sichuan in 2013. A total of 2,000 questionnaires were distributed, and 1,672 were returned; the response rate was 83.6%. Results Results of the rescue policies scale and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) scale passed the reliability test. The confirmatory factor analysis model showed that the physical component summary (PCS) directly affected the mental component summary (MCS). The results of structural equation model regarding the effects of rescue policies on HRQOL showed that the path coefficients of six policies (education, orphans, employment, poverty, legal, and social rescue policies) to the PCS of survivors were all positive and passed the test of significance. Finally, although only the path coefficient of the educational rescue policy to the MCS of survivors was positive and passed the test of significance, the other five policies affected the MCS indirectly through the PCS. Conclusions The general HRQOL of survivors is not ideal; the survivors showed a low satisfaction with the post-earthquake rescue policies. Further, the six post-earthquake rescue policies significantly improved the HRQOL of survivors and directly affected the promotion of the PCS of survivors. Aside from the educational rescue policy, all other policies affected the MCS indirectly through the PCS. This finding indicates relatively large differences in the effects of different post-earthquake rescue policies on the HRQOL of survivors. PMID:24168028

2013-01-01

107

A random forest approach for predicting the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis intermediate host Ochotona spp. presence in relation to landscape characteristics in western China.  

PubMed

Understanding distribution patterns of hosts implicated in the transmission of zoonotic disease remains a key goal of parasitology. Here, random forests are employed to model spatial patterns of the presence of the plateau pika (Ochotona spp.) small mammal intermediate host for the parasitic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis which is responsible for a significant burden of human zoonoses in western China. Landsat ETM+ satellite imagery and digital elevation model data were utilized to generate quantified measures of environmental characteristics across a study area in Sichuan Province, China. Land cover maps were generated identifying the distribution of specific land cover types, with landscape metrics employed to describe the spatial organisation of land cover patches. Random forests were used to model spatial patterns of Ochotona spp. presence, enabling the relative importance of the environmental characteristics in relation to Ochotona spp. presence to be ranked. An index of habitat aggregation was identified as the most important variable in influencing Ochotona spp. presence, with area of degraded grassland the most important land cover class variable. 71% of the variance in Ochotona spp. presence was explained, with a 90.98% accuracy rate as determined by 'out-of-bag' error assessment. Identification of the environmental characteristics influencing Ochotona spp. presence enables us to better understand distribution patterns of hosts implicated in the transmission of Em. The predictive mapping of this Em host enables the identification of human populations at increased risk of infection, enabling preventative strategies to be adopted. PMID:25386042

Marston, Christopher G; Danson, F Mark; Armitage, Richard P; Giraudoux, Patrick; Pleydell, David R J; Wang, Qian; Qui, Jiamin; Craig, Philip S

2014-12-01

108

Detecting One-Hundred-Year Environmental Changes in Western China Using Seven-Year Repeat Photography  

PubMed Central

Due to its diverse, wondrous plants and unique topography, Western China has drawn great attention from explorers and naturalists from the Western World. Among them, Ernest Henry Wilson (1876 –1930), known as ‘Chinese’ Wilson, travelled to Western China five times from 1899 to 1918. He took more than 1,000 photos during his travels. These valuable photos illustrated the natural and social environment of Western China a century ago. Since 1997, we had collected E.H. Wilson's old pictures, and then since 2004, along the expedition route of E.H. Wilson, we took 7 years to repeat photographing 250 of these old pictures. Comparing Wilson's photos with ours, we found an obvious warming trend over the 100 years, not only in specific areas but throughout the entire Western China. Such warming trend manifested in phenology changes, community shifts and melting snow in alpine mountains. In this study, we also noted remarkable vegetation changes. Out of 62 picture pairs were related to vegetation change, 39 indicated vegetation has changed to the better condition, 17 for degraded vegetation and six for no obvious change. Also in these photos at a century interval, we found not only rapid urbanization in Western China, but also the disappearance of traditional cultures. Through such comparisons, we should not only be amazed about the significant environmental changes through time in Western China, but also consider its implications for protecting environment while meeting the economic development beyond such changes. PMID:21966397

Chen, Huai; Yin, Kaipu; Wang, Haiyan; Zhong, Shenxian; Wu, Ning; Shi, Fusun; Zhu, Dan; Zhu, Qiuan; Wang, Weifeng; Ma, Zhihai; Fang, Xiuqin; Li, Weizhong; Zhao, Pengxiang; Peng, Changhui

2011-01-01

109

Effects of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants on surface ozone concentrations over Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

to a lack of industrialization in Western China, surface air there was, until recently, believed to be relatively unpolluted. However, recent measurements and modeling studies have found high levels of ozone (O3) there. Based on the state-of-the-science global chemical transport model MOZART-4, we identify the origin, pathway, and mechanism of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants to Western China in 2000. MOZART-4 generally simulates well the observed surface O3 over inland areas of China. Simulations find surface ozone concentrations over Western China on average to be about 10 ppbv higher than Eastern China. Using sensitivity studies, we find that anthropogenic emissions from all Eurasian regions except China contribute 10-15 ppbv surface O3 over Western China, superimposed upon a 35-40 ppbv natural background. Transport from European anthropogenic sources to Northwestern China results in 2-6 ppbv O3 enhancements in spring and summer. Indian anthropogenic sources strongly influence O3 over the Tibetan Plateau during the summer monsoon. Transport of O3 originating from emissions in the Middle East occasionally reach Western China and increase surface ozone there by about 1-4 ppbv. These influences are of similar magnitude as trans-Pacific and transatlantic transport of O3 and its precursors, indicating the significance of trans-Eurasian ozone transport in hemispheric transport of air pollution. Our study further indicates that mitigation of anthropogenic emissions from Europe, the Indian subcontinent, and the Middle East could benefit public health and agricultural productivity in Western China.

Li, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Emmons, Louisa K.; Walters, Stacy; Horowitz, Larry W.; Tao, Shu

2014-11-01

110

Epidemiological features of allergic rhinitis in four major cities in Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Allergic rhinitis (AR), with an increasing uptrend of the prevalence in many developed and developing countries, is a global\\u000a health problem that affects people of all ages and ethnic groups. However, data on the prevalence of self-reported AR in western\\u000a China are rare. This study investigated the epidemiological features of self-reported AR in western China. In the cross-sectional,\\u000a population-based study,

Ji Shen; Xia Ke; Suling Hong; Qing Zeng; Chuanyu Liang; Tongying Li; Anzhou Tang

2011-01-01

111

OFF-GRID RENEWABLE ENERGY OPTIONS FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION IN WESTERN CHINA  

E-print Network

OFF-GRID RENEWABLE ENERGY OPTIONS FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION IN WESTERN CHINA by the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy of University of Delaware Sponsored by National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Ministry of Agriculture People's Republic of China June 2001 #12;i OFF-GRID RENEWABLE ENERGY

Delaware, University of

112

Landslide-dammed lake at Tangjiashan, Sichuan province, China (triggered by the Wenchuan Earthquake, May 12, 2008): Risk assessment, mitigation strategy, and lessons learned  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Landslides and rock avalanches triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake produced 257 landslide dams, mainly situated along the eastern boundary of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where rivers descend approximately 3,000 m into the Sichuan Basin. The largest of these dams blocked the Tongkou River (a tributary of the Fujiang River) at Tangjiashan. The blockage, consisting of 2. 04 ?? 10 7 m 3 of landslide debris, impounded a lake with a projected maximum volume of 3. 15 ?? 10 8 m 3, potentially inundating 8. 92 km 2 of terrain. Its creation during the rainy season and the possibility of an uncontrolled release posed a serious, impending threat to at least 1. 3 million people downstream that could add substantially to the total of 69,200 individuals directly killed by the earthquake. Risk assessment of the blockage indicated that it was unlikely to collapse suddenly, and that eventual overtopping could be mitigated by notching the structure in order to create an engineered breach and achieve safe drainage of the lake. In addition to the installation of monitoring and warning instrumentation, for emergency planning we estimated several outburst scenarios equivalent to 20, 25, 33, and 50% of the dam failing suddenly, creating, respectively, 3. 35, 3. 84, 4. 22, and 4. 65 km 2 of flooded area, and overbank water depths of 4. 6, 5. 1, 5. 7, and 6. 2 m, respectively, in Mianyang, the second largest city in Sichuan Province, 48 km downstream from the blockage. Based on these scenarios, recommendations and plans for excavating a sluiceway, draining the lake, and downstream evacuation were proposed and later were implemented successfully, with the blockage breached by overtopping on June 10, less than a month after dam emplacement. The peak discharge of the release only slightly exceeded the flood of record at Mianyang City. No lives were lost, and significant property damage was avoided. Post-breaching evaluation reveals how future similar mitigation can be improved. Although initial breach erosion was slow, later erosion was judged uncontrollably rapid; increased slope of the engineered channel and adoption of a compound, trapezoid-triangular cross-section can be considered, as can other measures to control the rate of breach incision. Evacuees from Mianyang City spent an unnecessarily long time (12 days) in temporary settlements; more precise risk management planning can reduce this time in the future. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Cui, P.; Dang, C.; Zhuang, J.; You, Y.; Chen, X.; Scott, K.M.

2012-01-01

113

CEO background and the adoption of Western-style human resource practices in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops and tests an institutional explanation of how chief executive officer (CEO) characteristics affect the adoption of Western-style human resource (HR) practices in China's transitional economy. It was predicted that: (1) CEO exposure to HR ideology would positively relate to firm adoption of Western-style HR practices, and (2) CEO embeddedness in the Chinese institutional environment would negatively relate

Katherine A. Frear; Yang Cao; Wei Zhao

2012-01-01

114

Evidence for a Tang-Song Dynasty great earthquake along the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt prior to the 2008 M w  7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitude (M\\u000a w) 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake occurred on 12 May 2008 in the Longmen Shan region of China, the transition zone between the Tibetan\\u000a Plateau and the Sichuan Basin, resulting in widespread damage throughout central and western China. The steep, high-relief\\u000a eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau has undergone rapid Cenozoic uplift and denudation accompanied by folding and thrusting,

Aiming Lin; Zhikun Ren; Dong Jia; Yosuke Miyairi

2010-01-01

115

The UK medical response to the Sichuan earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAt 14:48 on 12 May 2008 an earthquake of magnitude 8.0 struck the Wenchuan area of Sichuan province, China. A decision to offer\\/receive UK medical assistance was agreed at a Sino\\/British political level and a medical team was despatched to the earthquake area.MethodsThis study describes the team's experience during the immediate aftermath of the earthquake and the following 18 months,

A D Redmond; J Li

2010-01-01

116

Home Language and Educational Attainments of Ethnic Minorities in Western China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses effects of home language usage on minority student educational attainment in western China. Using survey data, the author finds that non-Chinese-speaking minority students are at a disadvantage in the transition to senior secondary schools. However, their transition to junior secondary schools is even more complicated. Rural…

Hong, Yanbi

2010-01-01

117

Reducing high maternal mortality rates in western China: a novel approach.  

PubMed

Among the Millennium Development Goals, maternal mortality reduction has proven especially difficult to achieve. Unlike many countries, China is on track to meeting these goals on a national level, through a programme of institutionalizing deliveries. Nonetheless, in rural, disadvantaged, and ethnically diverse areas of western China, maternal mortality rates remain high. To reduce maternal mortality in western China, we developed and implemented a three-level approach as part of a collaboration between a regional university, a non-profit organization, and local health authorities. Through formative research, we identified seven barriers to hospital delivery in a rural Tibetan county of Qinghai Province: (1) difficulty in travel to hospitals; (2) hospitals lack accommodation for accompanying families; (3) the cost of hospital delivery; (4) language and cultural barriers; (5) little confidence in western medicine; (6) discrepancy in views of childbirth; and (7) few trained community birth attendants. We implemented a three-level intervention: (a) an innovative Tibetan birth centre, (b) a community midwife programme, and (c) peer education of women. The programme appears to be reaching a broad cross-section of rural women. Multilevel, locally-tailored approaches may be essential to reduce maternal mortality in rural areas of western China and other countries with substantial regional, socioeconomic, and ethnic diversity. PMID:25555773

Gyaltsen Gongque Jianzan, Kunchok; Gyal Li Xianjia, Lhusham; Gipson, Jessica D; Kyi Cai Rangji, Tsering; Pebley, Anne R

2014-11-01

118

Anthropometric study of the upper lip of 1500 healthy children in Chengdu, Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to measure and analyse morphological data about the upper lips of healthy children in Chengdu, Western China. The characteristics and patterns of growth and development of the upper lip may be helpful in guiding the treatment of cleft lip. A total of 1500 healthy children aged between 2 and 12 were divided into 11

Lu-ying Zhu; Tian Meng; Bing Shi; Dian-zhi Deng

2008-01-01

119

Male spike strobiles with Gnetum affinity from the Early Cretaceous in western Liaoning, Northeast China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fossil with Gnetum affinity was found in the Jianshangou Member (Barremian Age) of the Yixian Formation (Lower Cretaceous Epoch) of the Jehol Group in western Liaoning, northeastern China. The single fossil specimen is represented by both elongate-cylindrical male spike strobiles which borne within a nodal bract of cauliflorous branch. The spike strobiles have apparent nodes, invisible internodes, and numerous

Shuang-Xing GUO; Jin-Geng SHA; Li-Zeng BIAN; Yin-Long QIU

2009-01-01

120

Fern ecological implications from the Lower Jurassic in Western Hubei, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lower Jurassic Hsiangchi Formation in western Hubei, China is well known for its abundant and diverse fossil ferns, including Marattiaceae, Osmundaceae, Matoniaceae, Dipteridaceae and Dicksoniaceae. Through recent collections and investigation of the fossil plants in this area, an autochthonous\\/hypoautochthonous fern community has been recognised from the upper part of the Hsiangchi Formation in Zigui, Hubei. This community is dominated

Yongdong Wang

2002-01-01

121

Symbiotic efficiency and phylogeny of the rhizobia isolated from Leucaena leucocephala in arid-hot river valley area in Panxi, Sichuan, China.  

PubMed

In search of effective nitrogen-fixing strains for inoculating Leucaena leucocephala, we assessed the symbiotic efficiency of 41 rhizobial isolates from root nodules of L. leucocephala growing in the arid-hot river valley area in Panxi, China. The genetic diversity of the isolates was studied by analyzing the housekeeping genes 16S rRNA and recA, and the symbiotic genes nifH and nodC. In the nodulation and symbiotic efficiency assay, only 11 of the 41 isolates promoted the growth of L. leucocephala while the majority of the isolates were ineffective in symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Furthermore, one fourth of the isolates had a growth slowing effect on the host. According to the 16S rRNA and recA gene analyses, most of the isolates were Ensifer spp. The remaining isolates were assigned to Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium and Bradyrhizobium. The sequence analyses indicated that the L. leucocephala rhizobia had undergone gene recombination. In contrast to the promiscuity observed as a wide species distribution of the isolates, the results implied that L. leucocephala is preferentially nodulated by strains that share common symbiosis genes. The symbiotic efficiency was not connected to chromosomal background of the symbionts and isolates carrying a similar nifH or nodC showed totally different nitrogen fixation efficiency. PMID:22767181

Xu, Kai Wei; Penttinen, Petri; Chen, Yuan Xue; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaoping

2013-01-01

122

Foods eaten by the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Shennongjia National Nature Reserve, China, in relation to nutritional chemistry.  

PubMed

The diet of Rhinopithecus roxellana is characterized by lichens, which are available year-round and an uncommon food source for nonhuman primates, supplemented by seasonal plant foods. We present the first study of foods eaten by R. roxellana in relation to nutritional chemistry in Shennongjia National Nature Reserve, Hubei Province, China. We analyzed the nutrients (crude protein, crude fat, and water soluble carbohydrate [WSC]) and feeding deterrents (crude fiber, condensed tannin [CT], and total phenolic [TP]) of 111 parts from 53 plant species and of 6 lichen species. Results showed that lichens were a good choice for R. roxellana living in habitats with limited and seasonally available plant foods. They contained higher concentrations of WSC than foliage, fat concentrations equivalent to those in plant parts (except fruits/seeds), and lower concentrations of fiber than mature leaves, flowers, and fruits. Although lichens were lower in protein than plant parts (except fruits), the monkeys could likely meet their protein requirement by eating seasonal plant foods rich in protein, including foliage, flowers, buds, and seeds. The monkeys were not observed to select foliage higher in protein, but appeared to select mature leaves higher in WSC and lower in fiber. Fruits were a good source of WSC and fat, and seeds were a good source of fat. Neither CT nor TP content showed negative effects on the selection of mature leaves or lichens. PMID:23589133

Liu, Xuecong; Stanford, Craig B; Yang, Jingyuan; Yao, Hui; Li, Yiming

2013-08-01

123

A petrological investigation of the bi-modal gabbro-syenite Baima igneous complex, Sichuan, China: implications for the genesis of Fe-Ti-V-oxide ore deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of orthomagmatic Fe-Ti oxide deposits from the Late Permian Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) of SW China is debated and has important petrologic and economic implications. The Baima igneous complex (BIC) is one of the largest Fe-Ti oxide deposits of the ELIP and is composed of a cumulate layered gabbroic portion, a thick Fe-Ti oxide ore zone and an isotropic peralkaline quartz syenite. The gabbro is composed of various proportions of olivine, plagioclase, clinopyroxene and interstitial titanomagnetite with minor apatite and sulphide minerals. Unlike many other ore-bearing layered intrusions (e.g. Bushveld, Stillwater), the oxide deposit is located in the lower third rather than the upper portions. This study attempts to experimentally constrain the origin and formation of the BIC by using a starting material (i.e. high-Ti Emeishan basalt) similar to the estimated parental magma composition of the gabbro-syenite complex. An anhydrous basaltic rock powder equal to high-Ti Emeishan rocks in the area was loaded into platinum envelopes and suspended in a 1-atm vertical-quenching furnace. The experiments proceeded at temperatures between 1310°C to 1100°C. They were quenched in water after each run. The run products were crafted into polished sections and individual phases were analyzed by EPMA. The experimental results show that the liquidus temperature is ~1310°C whereas the solidus temperature is estimated to be ~1100°C and the melting interval is ~210°C. The crystallization sequence is: titanomagnetite, plagioclase (An65), and pyroxene (Wo43-47En32-45Fs11-23). The residual liquid composition, represented by the quenched glass, evolves from lower SiO2 (SiO2 = ~45 wt%) values to higher SiO2 values (SiO2 = ~60 wt%) with corresponding decrease in Ti, Fe, Mg, Ca and increase of Na and K. The most evolved glass composition is strikingly similar to the enclaves within the Baima syenitic unit. Thus, the liquidus mineral is iron-titanium oxide which is consistent with the observation of basal oxide-ore formation. The low pressure results of this study indicate that early crystallization of Fe-Ti oxides will occur assuming a geologically reasonable starting material and the residual liquid is becoming more silicic. The direct implication is that the oxide deposits and spatially associated granitic rocks formed together by crystallization of a basaltic parental magma. Furthermore, external parameters (i.e. CO2-fluid fluxing) or silicate immiscibility are not necessarily required to form the oxide-ore deposits within evolved gabbroic intrusions.

Hsia, T. W.; Shellnutt, J. G.; Liu, T.; Iizuka, Y.

2013-12-01

124

Left-Behind Children in Rural Primary Schools: The Case of Sichuan Province  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During China's economic transformation, much of the rural population migrated to urban areas in search of employment opportunities. "Left-behind children" are the product of this phenomenon and need significant attention. Our study adopted elementary school students in Sichuan province as the subjects. After carefully studying their academic…

Liang, Wenyan; Hou, Longlong; Chen, Wentao

2008-01-01

125

Human resource management and the performance of Western firms in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines the relationship between human resource management and organizational performance in sixty-two manufacturing Chinese-Western joint ventures and wholly owned subsidiaries located in different parts of the People's Republic of China. A positive relation was found between firm performance and the extent to which firms used a 'high-performance' HRM system as well as the degree to which they engaged

Ingmar Björkman; Fan Xiucheng

2002-01-01

126

Western Political Science Theories and the Development of Political Theories in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article outlines the recent development of Chinese political studies spawned by the transformation of Chinese politics\\u000a in the post-Mao era, with its focus mainly on contributions from the Chinese scholarship. After a close examination of the\\u000a applicability of the western theories on the transforming politics in China, it reviews the indigenous methodologies, the\\u000a theorizations on the Chinese Communist Party,

Guangbin Yang; Miao Li

2009-01-01

127

Observed degree-day factors and their spatial variation on glaciers in western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree-day factor (DDF) is an important parameter for the degree-day model, which is a widely used method for ice- and snowmelt computation. Spatial variations of the DDF greatly affect the accuracy of snow- and ice-melt modelling. This study analyzes the spatial variability of DDFs obtained from observed glaciers in different regions of western China. The results clearly show that

Yong Zhang; Shiyin Liu; Yongjian Ding

2006-01-01

128

Acid Rain and Below-Cloud Scavenging in South-Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major urban areas in south-western China exhibit unique air pollutionproblems due to increasing use of high sulphur-content fuels in an environmentof unfavourable topography and climate. Ambient levels of sulphur dioxideexceed the air quality objectives, and this gas is the major precursor of acidrain. Cloudwater chemistry studies are reported for urban, suburban andcountryside locations, during the period 1985–1989. Although cloudwateracidity was

PETER A. TANNER; HENG-CHI LEI; MEI-YUAN HUANG; ZHI-LAI SHEN

1997-01-01

129

Effects of Trans-Eurasian Transport of Air Pollutants on Surface1 Ozone Concentrations over Western China2  

E-print Network

and agricultural49 productivity in Western China.50 Key Words: ozone, trans-Eurasian transport, source million (China Statistical Yearbook, 2013) whose health are potentially affected by O3.62 High surface O3 can also reduce agricultural production [Avnery et al., 2011a; Mauzerall and63 Wang, 2001; Shindell et

Mauzerall, Denise

130

Regional seismic discrimination in central Asia with emphasis on western China  

SciTech Connect

In support of an anticipated Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the authors have started to evaluate regional seismic event discrimination capabilities for central Asia, emphasizing western China. The authors have measured noise and seismic phase amplitudes of over 250 earthquakes and 18 underground nuclear explosions recorded at the broadband, digital station WMQ in western China and over 100 earthquakes and 5 nuclear explosions at station AAK in Kyrgyzstan. The explosions are from the Kazakh Test Site (KTS) and Lop Nor, China. The earthquakes are mostly from northwest China. They have also evaluated a single suspected chemical explosion. Event magnitudes (m{sub b}) range between 2.5 and 6.5 and maximum event-station distance is about 1,700 km. Using these measurements the authors formed phase, spectral, cross-spectral, short-period/long-period, and long-period ratios to test many possible event discriminants. All ratios were corrected for distance effects before forming ratio-versus-magnitude discrimination plots. The authors found that all five classes of these discriminants are useful for separating earthquakes from explosions in central Asia, provided the right combinations of frequency bands and phases are selected. Results are described.

Hartse, H.E.; Taylor, S.R.; Phillips, W.S.; Randall, G.E.

1996-09-01

131

The Goshen College-China Exchange: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview is presented of the experiences of American students from Goshen College (Indiana) who participated in an exchange program at Sichuan Teachers College in China. The locale of Sichuan College is described, and the philosophy of Goshen's Study-Service Trimester is outlined. Articles relate the students' perceptions of China, the…

Showalter, Stuart W., Ed.

132

Thaumasite formation in a tunnel of Bapanxia Dam in Western China  

SciTech Connect

A site investigation and sampling was carried out on a sulfate-attacked concrete structure in Bapanxia Hydraulic Power Plant in Western China. The concrete had been exposed to ground water containing substantial concentrations of salts (SO{sub 4} {sup 2-}, CO{sub 3} {sup 2-} and Cl{sup -}) for about 6 years and was analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), laser-Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. It is shown that a white mushy mixture consisting of thaumasite, ettringite, gypsum and calcite is present in the residual concrete. This paper reports the first instance of the thaumasite form of sulfate attack of concrete in China.

Ma Baoguo [Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, (China); Gao Xiaojian [Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, (China)]. E-mail: xjgao2002@yahoo.com.cn; Byars, Ewan A. [CMRU, Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Zhou Qizhi [Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

2006-04-15

133

Comparison of China-US Engineering Ethics Educations in Sino-Western Philosophies of Technology.  

PubMed

Ethics education has become essential in modern engineering. Ethics education in engineering has been increasingly implemented worldwide. It can improve ethical behaviors in technology and engineering design under the guidance of the philosophy of technology. Hence, this study aims to compare China-US engineering ethics education in Sino-Western philosophies of technology by using literature studies, online surveys, observational researches, textual analyses, and comparative methods. In my original theoretical framework and model of input and output for education, six primary variables emerge in the pedagogy: disciplinary statuses, educational goals, instructional contents, didactic models, teaching methods, and edificatory effects. I focus on the similarities and differences of engineering ethics educations between China and the US in Chinese and Western philosophies of technology. In the field of engineering, the US tends toward applied ethics training, whereas China inclines toward practical moral education. The US is the leader, particularly in the amount of money invested and engineering results. China has quickened its pace, focusing specifically on engineering labor input and output. Engineering ethics is a multiplayer game effected at various levels among (a) lower level technicians and engineers, engineering associations, and stockholders; (b) middle ranking engineering ethics education, the ministry of education, the academy of engineering, and the philosophy of technology; and (c) top national and international technological policies. I propose that professional engineering ethics education can play many important roles in reforming engineering social responsibility by international cooperation in societies that are becoming increasingly reliant on engineered devices and systems. Significantly, my proposals contribute to improving engineering ethics education and better-solving engineering ethics issues, thereby maximizing engineering sustainability. PMID:25481713

Cao, Gui Hong

2014-12-01

134

King Ata Tag Mountain Range, western China as seen by STS-66 Atlantis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The northwest-southeast trending, snow-covered, linear mountain range is the King Ata Tag Mountain, located in extreme western most China. Highest peaks are just over 20,100 feet above sea level. The town or village of Muji is located in the largest river valley that is south of this range of mountains. This area includes part of the country of Tajikistan. The center point of the photo is approximately 39.30 degrees north and 74.30 degrees easth.

1994-01-01

135

Origin of ancient potash evaporites: clues from the modem nonmarine qaidam basin of Western china.  

PubMed

Modern potash salt deposits and associated brines of the Qaidam Basin, western China, demonstrate that some anomalous marine evaporites may have formed from nonmarine brines instead of seawater. Qaidam Basin brines are derived from meteoric river inflow mixed with small amounts of CaCl spring inflow similar in composition to many saline formation waters and hydrothermal brines. Evaporation of springenriched inflow yields a predicted mineral sequence including carnallite, bischofite, and tachyhydrite that is identical to several anomalous marine evaporites. Other mixtures of river and spring inflow produce the salt assemblage expected from evaporation of seawater. PMID:17838808

Lowenstein, T K; Spencer, R J; Pengxi, Z

1989-09-01

136

Geochemistry and geodynamic implications of the Triassic bimodal magmatism from Western Kunlun Orogen, northwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Western Kunlun Orogen occupies a key tectonic position at the junction between the Tarim block and the Tethyan domain. However, the late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic, especially the middle to late Triassic tectonic evolution history of the Western Kunlun Orogen remains controversial. This study reports SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages and geochemical as well as Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data for middle to late Triassic Taer pluton in Western Kunlun Orogen, Northwest China. The Taer pluton shows a strong bimodal distribution of compositions, with the felsic rocks dominant and the mafic rocks subordinate. Zircon U-Pb dating reveals that the coexisting mafic and felsic rocks are coeval, both emplacing in a period between 234 and 225 Ma. Most of the studied rocks are potassium rich and can be classified into high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic series. They are also strongly enriched in LREE, LILE and depleted in HFSE with strong negative Ti and Nb anomalies, and characterized by enriched Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic signatures. Detailed geochemical and isotopic studies indicate that the Taer pluton was emplaced in a post-collisional extensional setting, with the mafic rocks derived from partial melting of the enriched continental lithospheric mantle in the spinel facies field, and the felsic rocks formed by anatexis of newly underplated basaltic rocks. The existence of middle to late Triassic post-collisional magmas in Western Kunlun region suggests that the final closure of Paleo-Tethys and the initial collision between the Western Kunlun and the Qiangtang terranes may have happened before ~234 Ma, most probably in late Permian, rather than in late Triassic or early Jurassic. In assistance with other geological evidences, such as the presence of early Triassic to late Triassic/early Jurassic S-type magmatism, terrestrial molasse depositions, regional unconformities, and strong deformation, we propose that the Western Kunlun Orogen may have undergone a long post-collisional intracontinental process from early Triassic to late Triassic/early Jurassic.

Liao, Shiyong; Jiang, Yaohui; Zhou, Qin; Yang, Wanzhi; Jin, Guodong; Zhao, Peng

2012-03-01

137

2008 Landslide Near Hongyan Resort, China  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The May 12, 2008, Great Sichuan Earthquake, also called the Wenchuan Earthquake, occurred at 14:28 local time, in Sichuan Province, China. The earthquake magnitudes were Mw = 7.9 (USGS), Ms = 8.0 (Chinese Earthquake Administration). The epicenter was 80 km west-northwest of Chengdu, the capital city...

138

3-D lithospheric structure beneath western North China Craton from Rayleigh-wave tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used 2-year broadband seismographs of China Earthquake Networks Center and 6-month of Peking University to establish the 3-D wave velocity structure beneath the western North China Craton (NCC). We firstly extracted the Rayleigh-wave velocities for period of 20 s to 125 s (frequency of 0.008 Hz to 0.05 Hz) with a newly developed tomography method, two-plane-wave method (Forsyth & Li, 2005). This new method adjusts traditional single plane-wave basis and uses two plane waves to fit teleseismic surface-wave field, getting more realistic results. As Rayleigh wave velocity is most sensitive to shear wave velocity variation, we got the 3-D shear wave velocity structure for the depth of 0~200 km. The results indicate that the Ordos Craton, which has been stable since Archor is obviously high-velocity-anomaly for over 200 km depth. While the Central part of NCC, including the Shanxi Rift, has obviously low-velocity-anomaly from Moho to 200 km. We interpret this enormous velocity changes as an evidence for the apart geologic processes of the eastern and western parts of NCC. The reactivation since Mesozoic of NCC may have caused upwelling of upper mantle right beneath Shanxi Rift.

Li, D.; Zhou, S.

2012-12-01

139

azimuthal anisotropy underneath western North China Craton from surface wave tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Azimuthal anisotropic velocity structure beneath the western North China Craton (NCC) has been extracted using Rayleigh wave data from 69 broad-band seismographs of China Earthquake Networks Center and 23 of Peking University. We get the surface wave structure for period of 20s to 125s of Rayleigh wave. Surface wave velocity in a slight anisotropic media can be expressed as following: v_1=v_0+asin?+bcos? Where v_0 is the isotropic velocity and ? is the back azimuth. The primary results indicate that the Ordos Craton, which has been stable since Archean is obviously high-velocity-anomaly for over 200 km depth. While the Central part of NCC, including the Shanxi Rift, has obvious low-velocity-anomaly going down to 200 km. We interpret this enormous velocity changes as an evidence for the apart geologic processes of the eastern and western parts of NCC. The reactivation since Mesozoic of NCC may have caused upwelling of upper mantle right beneath Shanxi Rift.

Li, D.; Liu, Y.; Zhou, S.

2013-12-01

140

Sequence analysis of cytb gene in Echinococcus granulosus from Western China.  

PubMed

Echinococcus granulosus is the causative agent of cystic echinococcosis with medical and veterinary importance in China. Our main objective was to discuss the genotypes and genetic diversity of E. granulosus present in domestic animals and humans in western China. A total of 45 hydatid cyst samples were collected from sheep, humans, and a yak and subjected to an analysis of the sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene. The amplified PCR product for all samples was a 1,068 bp band. The phylogenetic analysis showed that all 45 samples were identified as E. granulosus (genotype G1). Ten haplotypes were detected among the samples, with the main haplotype being H1. The haplotype diversity was 0.626, while the nucleotide diversity was 0.001. These results suggested that genetic diversity was low among our samples collected from the west of China based on cytb gene analysis. These findings may provide more information on molecular characteristics of E. granulosus from this Chinese region. PMID:24850967

Zhong, Xiuqin; Wang, Ning; Hu, Dandan; Wang, Jiahai; Liu, Tianyu; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

2014-04-01

141

Sequence Analysis of cytb Gene in Echinococcus granulosus from Western China  

PubMed Central

Echinococcus granulosus is the causative agent of cystic echinococcosis with medical and veterinary importance in China. Our main objective was to discuss the genotypes and genetic diversity of E. granulosus present in domestic animals and humans in western China. A total of 45 hydatid cyst samples were collected from sheep, humans, and a yak and subjected to an analysis of the sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene. The amplified PCR product for all samples was a 1,068 bp band. The phylogenetic analysis showed that all 45 samples were identified as E. granulosus (genotype G1). Ten haplotypes were detected among the samples, with the main haplotype being H1. The haplotype diversity was 0.626, while the nucleotide diversity was 0.001. These results suggested that genetic diversity was low among our samples collected from the west of China based on cytb gene analysis. These findings may provide more information on molecular characteristics of E. granulosus from this Chinese region. PMID:24850967

Zhong, Xiuqin; Wang, Ning; Hu, Dandan; Wang, Jiahai; Liu, Tianyu; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong

2014-01-01

142

Comparative Water Law and Management: The Yellow River Basin In Western China and the State of Kansas In the Western United States  

E-print Network

@BCL@A8059DC2.DOC (DO NOT DELETE) 8/17/2009 7:50 AM 428 COMPARATIVE WATER LAW AND MANAGEMENT: THE YELLOW RIVER BASIN IN WESTERN CHINA AND THE STATE OF KANSAS IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES Burke W. Griggs Counsel, Division of Water Resources... Kansas Department of Agriculture John C. Peck Professor of Law, University of Kansas School of Law Special Counsel, Foulston Siefkin, LLP Xue Yunpeng Deputy Division Chief / Senior Engineer Department of Water Resources Management and Regulation Yellow...

Griggs, Burke W.; Peck, John C.; Yupeng, Xue

2009-01-01

143

Attitudes to traditional Chinese medicine amongst Western trained doctors in the People’s Republic of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyses the attitudes of Western trained doctors to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in Shenyang, Northern China. Research methodology involved a series of structured interviews as well as developing a questionnaire. Two hundred and fifty questionnaires were distributed in four centres, 177 were returned. Ninety-eight percent of respondents had some theoretical and practical TCM training; the older doctors having

K. Harmsworth; G. T. Lewith

2001-01-01

144

Glacial erosion, deep exhumation and the development of high topography along the Kongur detachment, Pamir Mountains, Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Pamir mountains of western China, in the footwall of the Kongur detachment, the correlation of the high peaks Kongur Shan (7719 m) and Muztagh Ata (7546m), large glaciers, exhumation of mid-crustal rocks and rapid cooling suggests the development of a system in which (1) erosion effectively removes material, driving advection of increasingly hotter, weaker rock, forming the gneiss

L. Schoenbohm; J. Chen; E. Sobel; R. Thiede; M. Strecker

2006-01-01

145

Tree-Ring Based May-July Temperature Reconstruction Since AD 1630 on the Western Loess Plateau, China  

PubMed Central

Tree-ring samples from Chinese Pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) collected at Mt. Shimen on the western Loess Plateau, China, were used to reconstruct the mean May–July temperature during AD 1630–2011. The regression model explained 48% of the adjusted variance in the instrumentally observed mean May–July temperature. The reconstruction revealed significant temperature variations at interannual to decadal scales. Cool periods observed in the reconstruction coincided with reduced solar activities. The reconstructed temperature matched well with two other tree-ring based temperature reconstructions conducted on the northern slope of the Qinling Mountains (on the southern margin of the Loess Plateau of China) for both annual and decadal scales. In addition, this study agreed well with several series derived from different proxies. This reconstruction improves upon the sparse network of high-resolution paleoclimatic records for the western Loess Plateau, China. PMID:24690885

Song, Huiming; Liu, Yu; Li, Qiang; Gao, Na; Ma, Yongyong; Zhang, Yanhua

2014-01-01

146

OH in zoned amphiboles of eclogite from the western Tianshan, NW-China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemically-zoned amphibole porphyroblast grains in an eclogite (sample ws24-7) from the western Tianshan (NW-China) have been\\u000a analyzed by electron microprobe (EMP), micro Fourier-transform infrared (micro-FTIR) and micro-Raman spectroscopy in the OH-stretching\\u000a region. The EMP data reveal zoned amphibole compositions clustering around two predominant compositions: a glaucophane end-member\\u000a (\\u000a B\\u000a Na2\\u000a C\\u000a M2+\\u000a 3 M3+\\u000a 2\\u000a \\u000a T\\u000a Si8(OH)2) in the cores, whereas

Wen Su; Ming Zhang; Simon A. T. Redfern; Jun Gao; Reiner Klemd

2009-01-01

147

Mosquitoes of Western Yunnan Province, China: Seasonal Abundance, Diversity, and Arbovirus Associations  

PubMed Central

Objective The western borderland between Yunnan Province, China, and Myanmar is characterized by a climate that facilitates year-round production of mosquitoes. Numerous mosquito-transmitted viruses, including Japanese encephalitis virus circulate in this area. This project was to describe seasonal patterns in mosquito species abundance and arbovirus activity in the mosquito populations. Methods Mosquitoes were collected in Mangshi and Ruili cities of Dehong Prefecture near the border of China and Burma in Yunnan Province, the Peoples Republic of China in 2010. We monitored mosquito species abundance for a 12-month period using ultraviolet light, carbon dioxide baited CDC light and gravid traps; and tested the captured mosquitoes for the presence of virus to evaluate mosquito-virus associations in rural/agricultural settings in the area. Results A total of 43 species of mosquitoes from seven genera were collected, including 15 Culex species, 15 Anopheles spp., four Aedes spp., three Armigeres spp., one Mimomyia spp., two Uranotaenia spp. and three Mansonia spp.. Species richness and diversity varied between Mangshi and Ruili. Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles sinensis and Anopheles peditaeniatus were the most abundant species in both sampling sites. Ultraviolet light traps collected more specimens than CDC light traps baited with dry ice, though both collected the same variety of mosquito species. The CDC gravid trap was the most effective trap for capture of Culex quinquefasciatus, a species underrepresented in light trap collections. A total of 26 virus strains were isolated, which included 13 strains of Japanese encephalitis virus, four strains of Getah virus, one strain of Oya virus, one strain from the orbivirus genus, and seven strains of Culex pipien pallens densovirus. Conclusions The present study illustrates the value of monitoring mosquito populations and mosquito-transmitted viruses year-round in areas where the climate supports year-round adult mosquito activity. PMID:24146951

Yang, Wei-Hong; Feng, Yun; Nasci, Roger S.; Yang, Jie; Liu, Yong-Hua; Dong, Chao-Liang; Li, Shi; Zhang, Bao-Sen; Yin, Zheng-Liu; Wang, Pi-Yu; Fu, Shi-Hong; Li, Ming-Hua; Liu, Fen; Zhang, Juan; Sun, Jie; Li, Can-Wei; Gao, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Hong; Wang, Huan-Yu; Petersen, Lyle R.; Liang, Guo-Dong

2013-01-01

148

Satellite observations of the small-scale cyclonic eddies in the western South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution ocean color observation offers an opportunity to investigate the oceanic small-scale processes. In this study, The Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) daily 300 m data are used to study small-scale processes in the western South China Sea. It is indicated that the cyclonic eddies with horizontal scales of the order of 10 km are frequently observed during upwelling season of each year over 2004-2009. These small-scale eddies are generated in the vicinity of the southern front of the cold tongue, and then propagate eastward with a speed of approximately 12 cm s-1. This propagation speed is consistent with the velocity of the western boundary current. As a result, the small-scale eddies keep rotating high levels of the phytoplankton away from the coastal areas, resulting in the accumulation of phytoplankton in the interior of the eddies. The generation of the small-scale eddies may be associated with strengthening of the relative movement between the rotation speed of the anticylconic mesoscale eddies and the offshore transport. With the increases of the normalized rotation speed of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies relative to the offshore transport, the offshore current become meander under the impacts of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies. The meandered cold tongue and instability front may stimulate the generation of the small-scale eddies. Unidirectional uniform wind along cold tongue may also contribute to the formation of the small-scale eddies.

Liu, F.; Tang, S.; Chen, C.

2014-09-01

149

Satellite observations of the small-scale cyclonic eddies in the western South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution ocean color observations offer an opportunity to investigate the oceanic small-scale processes. In this study, the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) daily 300 m data were used to study small-scale processes in the western South China Sea. It is indicated that the cyclonic eddies with horizontal scales of 10 km are frequently observed during the upwelling season of each year over the 2004-2009 period. These small-scale eddies were generated in the vicinity of the southern front of the cold tongue, and then propagated eastward with a speed of approximately 12 cm s-1. This propagation speed was consistent with the velocity of the western boundary current. As a result, the small-scale eddies kept the high levels of phytoplankton rotating away from the coastal areas, resulting in the accumulation of phytoplankton in the interior of the eddies. The generation of the small-scale eddies may be associated with strengthening of the relative movement between the rotation speed of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies and the offshore transport. With the increases of the normalized rotation speed of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies relative to the offshore transport, the offshore current became a meander under the impacts of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies. The meandered cold tongue and instability front may stimulate the generation of the small-scale eddies. Unidirectional uniform wind along the cold tongue may also contribute to the formation of the small-scale eddies.

Liu, F.; Tang, S.; Chen, C.

2015-01-01

150

Mantle transition zone structure beneath India and Western China from migration of PP and SS precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the seismic structure of the upper-mantle and mantle transition zone beneath India and Western China using PP and SS underside reflections off seismic discontinuities, which arrive as precursors to the PP and SS arrival. We use high-resolution array seismic techniques to identify precursory energy and to map lateral variations of discontinuity depths. We find deep reflections off the 410 km discontinuity (P410P and S410S) beneath Tibet, Western China and India at depths of 410-440 km and elevated underside reflections of the 410 km discontinuity at 370-390 km depth beneath the Tien Shan region and Eastern Himalayas. These reflections likely correspond to the olivine to wadsleyite phase transition. The 410 km discontinuity appears to deepen in Central and Northern Tibet. We also find reflections off the 660 km discontinuity beneath Northern China at depths between 660 and 700 km (P660P and S660S) which could be attributed to the mineral transformation of ringwoodite to magnesiowuestite and perovskite. These observations could be consistent with the presence of cold material in the middle and lower part of the mantle transition zone in this region. We also find a deeper reflector between 700 and 740 km depth beneath Tibet which cannot be explained by a depressed 660 km discontinuity. This structure could, however, be explained by the segregation of oceanic crust and the formation of a neutrally buoyant garnet-rich layer beneath the mantle transition zone, due to subduction of oceanic crust of the Tethys Ocean. For several combinations of sources and receivers we do not detect arrivals of P660P and S660S although similar combinations of sources and receivers give well-developed P660P and S660S arrivals. Our thermodynamic modelling of seismic structure for a range of compositions and mantle geotherms shows that non-observations of P660P and S660S arrivals could be caused by the dependence of underside reflection coefficients on the incidence angle of the incoming seismic waves. Apart from reflections off the 410 and 660 km discontinuities, we observe intermittent reflectors at 300 and 520 km depth. The discontinuity structure of the study region likely reflects lateral thermal and chemical variations in the upper-mantle and mantle transition zone connected to past and present subduction and mantle convection processes.

Lessing, Stephan; Thomas, Christine; Rost, Sebastian; Cobden, Laura; Dobson, David P.

2014-04-01

151

Kinematic Coseismic Slip Model for the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan-Beichuan Mw 7.9 Earthquake in Sichuan, China from Joint Inversion of ALOS, Envisat and Teleseismic Data*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mw 7.9 earthquake struck Sichuan province on 12 May 2008 causing catastrophic damage over a large area including the county seats of Wenchuan and Beichuan. We use pixel-offset analysis of amplitude images for ALOS PALSAR and Envisat ASAR coseismic pairs to map the major surface ruptures. The largest amount of displacement (2--8 m of oblique right-lateral slip) occurred along the Beichuan fault and an extension to the north for a total distance of about 215 km. A second major rupture occurred on the Hanwang fault (a section of the Pengguan fault), beneath an anticline in the Sichuan basin about 10 km to the SE of the Beichuan fault, with nearly pure thrust slip. A third short, but intense, rupture strikes NW through the town of Xiaoyudong and transfers slip to another thrust about 5 km SE of the main rupture that ruptured only about 6 km parallel to the Beichuan fault. This small, probably shallow, block moved at least 5 m in the ALOS line of sight. Kinematic slip models for the earthquake have been estimated using a joint inversion of teleseismic data with the six ascending-track PALSAR and three descending-track ASAR strip-map interferograms. The models show that the rupture initiated with a small, 3-second pulse of emergent displacement followed by 15 seconds of moderate moment release with nearly pure thrust motion. More rapid moment release then started about 20 km from the hypocenter at shallower depths near the SW end of the major surface ruptures on the Beichuan fault. Another major patch of slip, coherent with the pixel-offset and InSAR analysis, is identified 130 km away from the epicenter, near the town of Beichuan. While the southern part of the rupture had primarily thrust motion, slip rotated to right-lateral as the rupture propagated the NE. *Part of this research was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Fielding, E. J.; Sladen, A.; Li, Z.; Ryder, I.; Bürgmann, R.; Avouac, J.

2008-12-01

152

Remains of Holocene giant pandas from Jiangdong Mountain (Yunnan, China) and their relevance to the evolution of quaternary environments in south-western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two subfossil partial skeletons of male giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) were recovered, along with remains of 16 other mammalian species, from a natural sinkhole on Jiangdong Mountain (south-western Yunnan, China). The panda and other mammalian bones from the sinkhole's upper chamber yielded tightly clustered accelerator mass spectrometry corrected radiocarbon ages of 8470–8250 yr BP, and the panda remains from the lower chamber

Nina G. Jablonski; Ji Xueping; Liu Hong; Li Zheng; Lawrence J. Flynn; Li Zhicai

2011-01-01

153

Shelf Clinoforms and Suspended Sediments at the Northern and Western Margin of the South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment plumes and shelf clinoforms can be traced almost continuously from the Yangtse until the Mekong Delta as a unique morphodynamics feature of the northern and western marginal parts of the South China Sea. Major sediment plumes originate at the mouths of large rivers, namely the Yangtse, Pearl, Red and Mekong Rivers and extend several hundred kilometers in downdrift direction which is governed mainly by the monsoonal system with the prevailing winter-monsoon winds from NE. Outside the zone of influence of these large rivers we find numerous small mountainous rivers between the Yangtse and Pearl Rivers in SE China and between the Red and Mekong Rivers in central Vietnam providing high amounts of detrital sediments as well. Age control provides clear evidence that the shelf clinoforms developed after 8200 calendar years BP together with a re-organization of the coastal zone and the onset of major modern river deltas after the last phase of accelerated sea-level rise in the Early Holocene, 9000 - 8200 calendar years BP. For the last century 210-Pb activity profiles reveal complex sedimentary processes with event deposition and frequent erosion and re-deposition with average accumulation rates up to 1.5 cm/yr. Suspended sediment contents (SSC) were measured on the Vietnam Shelf. Key regions like the Gulf of Tonkin and the Mekong delta show a strong monsoonal signal as well as a strong tidal signal in the inter-monsoonal period by significant areas of SSCs greater than 25 ?l/l even in the inter-monsoonal season. Suspended sediments exhibit distinct seasonal variability while the deposits of shelf clinoforms reflect the average long-term accumulation patterns of terrigenous sediments sometimes winnowed by marine sedimentation and/or masked by bioturbation.

Stattegger, K.; Unverricht, D.; Szczucinski, W.; Liu, Z.; Heinrich, C.; Nguyen, T. C.; Lahajnar, N.

2013-12-01

154

Psychological Distress among Adolescents in Chengdu, Sichuan at 1 Month after the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake  

PubMed Central

A devastating earthquake occurred on May 12, 2008 in Sichuan, China. This study investigated the prevalence and factors in association with psychological problems among secondary school students living in Chengdu (90 km away from the disaster epicenter) in June 2008. In a cross-sectional survey, 3,324 secondary students self-administered a structured questionnaire in classroom setting. Validated scales were used in this study. Among all respondents, 22.3% reported post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); 22.6% were probable depression cases; 10.6% reported suicidal ideation; and 14.1% would like to receive psychological counseling. No gender differences were found. While social/emotional support from teachers or peers (OR from 0.40 to 0.78) and exposure to positive news reports (OR from 0.59 to 0.62) were found protective, prior experience of severe mental distress (OR from 1.60 to 2.68) and corporal punishment (OR from 1.31 to 1.58), worry about future aftershocks (OR from 1.64 to 3.11), absence from school when it was not closed (OR from 1.38 to 1.48), exposures to scary or sorrowful disaster media coverage (OR from 1.39 to 2.07), post-disaster visits to affected sites (OR from 1.51 to 1.59), separation from parents (OR?=?1.61), etc., were risk factors predictive of some of the aforementioned psychological problems. Negative mental health impacts were prevalent among the respondents. Teachers, parents, and the mass media are all important in maintaining good mental health among adolescents that are indirectly affected by the severe earthquake. The results have important implications for earthquake preparedness and relief work in the future. PMID:20405226

Yu, Xiaonan; Zhang, Jianxin; Mak, Winnie W. S.; Choi, Kai Chow; Lui, Wacy W. S.; Zhang, Jianxin; Chan, Emily Y. Y.

2010-01-01

155

Construction of the first Cut-off Wall by a Low Headroom Trench Cutter inside a Dam Tunnel in China Herstellung der ersten Dichtwand mit einer Spezialschlitzwandfräse in einem Dammtunnel in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Sichuan province the 240 MW Yeleh hydroelectric plant is constructed by Sichuan Nanya River Basin Hydraulic Power Development Co. Ltd and China Gezhou Ba Water & Power Group Co. Ltd. The specialist contractor Foundation Engineering Company of China Water Resource and Hydropower was awarded the foundation treatment at the right bank, including construction of a concrete cut-off wall inside

Wolfgang G. Brunner; Arthur Bi; William Chang; Dunfeng Zong

156

Asset specificity, culture, experience, firm Size and entry mode strategy: Taiwanese manufacturing firms in China, South-East Asia and Western Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the entry mode and ownership strategies in China, South-East Asia and Western Europe made by manufacturing firms in Taiwan. The results find that when the larger, high R&D and high advertising intensive Taiwanese manufacturing firms invest in China, South-East Asia and Western Europe, they would be likely to choose the greenfield-WFOE entry. On the other hand, when

Ming-Tien Tsai; Yung-Ming Cheng

2004-01-01

157

Tree-ring hydrologic reconstructions for the Heihe River watershed, western China since AD 1430.  

PubMed

Based on the tree-ring-width analysis, the total precipitation from previous July to current June of the Qilian Mountains from 1634 to 2000 AD and the average runoff from previous September to current June in the middle section of the Heihe River from 1430 to 2007 have been reconstructed. This allowed detailed examination of the hydrologic history of the watershed of the Heihe River in western China. Precipitation, runoff and groundwater level were found to be significantly correlated with each other on the decadal scale. The three curves display quite synchronous trends of natural variation before AD 1940 to present before the onset of man-made disturbances. A remarkable period is AD 1925-1940 when the precipitation is low in the upper section, the runoff decreases in the middle section, and the groundwater level declines in the downstream section. After 1940, the groundwater level shows a lag effect, which may be a result of high water consumption in the middle and downstream sections. All three tree-ring based hydrologic indices commonly display the most significant periodicities around 80 (78-82), 50 (49-58) and 2 year. These cycles correspond to large-scale oscillation found in the climate system and appear mainly related to ocean-atmosphere interaction. PMID:20206961

Liu, Yu; Sun, Junyan; Song, Huiming; Cai, Qiufang; Bao, Guang; Li, Xuxiang

2010-05-01

158

Land salinization classification method using Landsat TM in western Jilin Province of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the study of land salinization classification, researchers are most concerned about the distribution, area and degree of salinization. Traditional classification methods of land salinization only manually extract the sample data from the study area, which cannot obtain the classification results for large area. With the development of remote sensing technology, remote sensing data is often used to extract and analyze the information of saline-alkali soil. At present, most classification methods of land salinization utilize the spectral information of remote sensing data based on supervised classification or unsupervised classification, which still have some errors in the classification results. Combining the sample data with Landsat TM images, the Western Jilin Province of China was selected as the study area in this paper. Through analyzing the relationship between the spectral characteristics and the content of soil salinity of the sample data extracted from different types of saline-alkali land, a land salinization classification method using the decision tree was proposed. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method can supply more accurate classification information of land salinization, and further effectively monitor soil salinization changes for the study area.

Fu, Haoyang; Gu, Lingjia; Ren, Ruizhi; Sun, Jian

2014-10-01

159

Mineralogical characteristics of the superlarge Quaternary bauxite deposits in Jingxi and Debao counties, western Guangxi, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent decades, more than 0.5 billion tons of ores scattered in the Quaternary laterite in western Guangxi, China have been explored. The ores were derived from a bauxite horizon in Permian via physical break-up and re-sediment process. Utilizing various test methods, i.e., XRD, DTA, TG/DTG, SEM/EDS and EPMA, the mineralogical characteristics of the Quaternary bauxite ores in Jingxi and Debao counties were investigated. XRD was used together with TG/DTG to obtain relatively accurate ore mineral abundance. Diaspore is the major phase, whereas hematite, kaolinite, anatase, chamosite, gibbsite, goethite, illite and rutile are minor. Diaspore is characterized by a small particle size, low degrees of crystallinity and complex chemical composition. Both gibbsite and goethite have a varied particle size, and goethite crystals contain high Al substitution and Si. It is clarified that diaspore, chamosite and anatase were formed in a mildly reduced and alkaline depositional environment in Permian, while gibbsite, hematite, goethite and part kaolinite were precipitated from Al3+-, Si4+- and Fe3+-enriched solutions within an Quaternary oxidized environment. The ions Al3+, Si4+ and Fe3+ are mostly released from chamosite in its dissolution process. The different physicochemical conditions between the Permian depositional and the Quaternary weathering periods resulted in a complex mineral assemblage in the Quaternary bauxite.

Liu, Xuefei; Wang, Qingfei; Zhang, Qizuan; Feng, Yuewen; Cai, Shuhui

2012-06-01

160

Fluctuations and movements of the Kuksai Glacier, western China, derived from Landsat image sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nine Landsat thematic mapper/enhanced thematic mapper (TM/ETM)+ images from 1998 to 2010 were analyzed to detect variations in the Kuksai Glacier of Mt. Muztagh Ata, western China. The velocities of glacial movement were quantified using the normalized cross-correlation (NCC) method. The surface debris cover of the glacier makes automated glacier outline mapping difficult, but provides useful features for monitoring glacier movement with the NCC method. Six displacement maps of the Kuksai Glacier, with an accuracy of 7 m, were derived from the band 3 of Landsat images. The NCC method is proven to be very effective in monitoring the activity of debris-covered glaciers. The results indicate that the velocity of the Kuksai Glacier is high in the upper portion and decreases downstream. For most of the years studied, the variability in the glacier movements in the middle and upper parts of the glacier, especially at 9 to 16 km upstream from the glacier terminal, is much larger than that in the downstream part. This study demonstrates that glacial movements can be routinely monitored using Landsat images, providing an input to and an opportunity for the detailed study of glacier dynamics.

Yang, Huaining; Yan, Shiyong; Liu, Guang; Ruan, Zhixing

2014-01-01

161

Cyclic precipitation variation on the western Loess Plateau of China during the past four centuries  

PubMed Central

Precipitation variation on the Loess Plateau (LP) of China is not only important for rain-fed agriculture in this environmentally sensitive region, but also critical for the water and life securities over the whole Yellow River basin. Here we reconstruct high resolution precipitation variation on the western LP during the past 370 years by using two replicated, annually-laminated stalagmites. Spatial analysis suggests that the reconstruction can be also representative for the whole LP region. The precipitation variations show a significant quasi-50 year periodicity during the last 370 years, and have an important role in determining the runoff of the middle Yellow River. The main factor controlling the decadal scale variations and long-term trend in precipitation over this region is southerly water vapour transport associated with the Asian summer monsoon. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation is also an important influence on precipitation variation in this region, as it can affect the East Asian summer monsoon and the West Pacific Subtropical High. PMID:25223372

Tan, Liangcheng; An, Zhisheng; Huh, Chih-An; Cai, Yanjun; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Shiau, Liang-Jian; Yan, Libin; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence

2014-01-01

162

A Sea-Surface Radiation Data Set for Climate Applications in the Tropical Western Pacific and South China Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sea-surface shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes have been retrieved from the radiances measured by Japan's Geostationary Meteorological Satellite 5. The surface radiation data set covers the domain 40S-40N and 90E-170W. The temporal resolution is 1 day, and the spatial resolution is 0.5 deg x 0.5 deg latitude-longitude. The retrieved surface radiation have been validated with the radiometric measurements at the Atmospheric Radiation Measuring (ARM) site on Manus island in the equatorial western Pacific for a period of 15 months. It has also been validated with the measurements at the radiation site on Dungsha island in the South China Sea during the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) Intensive Observing Period (May and June 1998). The data set is used to study the effect of El Nino and East Asian Summer monsoon on the heating of the ocean in the tropical western Pacific and the South China Sea. Interannual variations of clouds associated with El Nino and the East Asian Summer monsoon have a large impact on the radiative heating of the ocean. It has been found that the magnitude of the interannual variation of the seasonal mean surface radiative heating exceeds 40 W/sq m over large areas. Together with the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) shortwave fluxes at top of the atmosphere and the radiative transfer calculations of clear-sky fluxes, this surface radiation data set is also used to study the impact of clouds on the solar heating of the atmosphere. It is found that clouds enhance the atmospheric solar heating by approx. 20 W/sq m in the tropical western Pacific and the South China Sea. This result is important for evaluating the accuracy of solar flux calculations in clear and cloudy atmospheres.

Chou, Ming-Dah; Chan, Pui-King; Yan, Michael M.-H.

2000-01-01

163

Equity in use of maternal health services in Western Rural China: a survey from Shaanxi province  

PubMed Central

Background The 20th century was marked by a significant improvement in worldwide human health and access to healthcare. However, these improvements were not completely or uniformly distributed among, or even within, nations. This study was designed to assess the use of maternal health services by pregnant women in China, with a focus on the inequity related to family income level. Methods Two population-based cross-sectional surveys were carried out in the Zhenan and Lantian counties in March 2007 and from December 2008 to March 2009. A total of 2562 women completed the questionnaires, including 948 who were pregnant in 2006 and 1614 from 2008–2009. The concentration index (CI) was calculated and used to analyze the parameters of maternal health care in the two counties surveyed. Results The responses in both 2006 and 2008–2009 indicated a bias towards higher (rich) economic statuses for the use of maternal and child health services. The CI of ‘delivery at health facility’ was 0.0206 (95% confidence interval between 0.0114 and 0.0299) for 2006 and 0.0053 (95% confidence interval between 0.0015 and 0.0091) for 2008, which represented a statistically significant inequity for women of lower (poor) economic statuses. Similar CI was observed in ‘receiving antenatal care within 12?weeks’ for 2006 (CI2006 =?0.0956, 95% confidence interval between 0.0516 and 0.1396). The CIs of ‘postnatal visit’ and ‘postnatal visit >3-times’ was positive (except for 2006), indicating that the poor used postnatal care less than the non-poor. In 2008, poor women had C-sections more often than non-poor women (CI2008 =??0.0629, 95% confidence interval between-0.1165 and ?0.0093), but such a difference was not observed in 2006. Conclusions In 2006 and 2008, the use of maternal health services in western rural China was significantly unequal between pregnant women of poor and non-poor economic statuses. Financial support that enables poorer pregnant women to use health services will be beneficial. Utilization of maternal healthcare services can be improved if out-of-pocket expenses can be minimized. PMID:24708641

2014-01-01

164

The climate change for Jehol Biota and its revolution in early Cretaceous in Western Liaoning, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jehol Biota is known by us as the biological assemblage of eosestheria, Ephemeropsis trisetalis and Lycoptera at the beginning. And then we found more fossils at near time such as Sinosauropteryx, Confuciusornis, Cathayornis, Callobatrachus sanyanensis, Archaefructaceae and other fossils in Western Liaoning, China. With the finding of those fossils, we become to think about what is the environment of this area in that time, what led to the development of such livings? In early Cretaceous, there are a lot of basins in North of Liaoning which were with plain layer in side, a lot of Lakes and volcano campaign frequently. We built up a section located in Sihetun of Liaoning with the layer is volcano-lake face. Date of the bottom is Aptian period. From TEX86 dates, we can know that the Paleatemperature is from? (the samples from the bottom is on testing and will be known soon, ), 17°C (Lake surface temperature, in the middle layer), and then 22°C(Lake surface temperature, on the top of the layer). The climate was changed from the seasonal arid or semi-arid into a warm and humid climate. With his kind of changing of the environment, the lives of Jehol Biota can survive, evolve and multiple in those basins. The movement of the volcano took the nutrients from the earth which made a flourishing many plants and plankton. This is the power of the evolution of plants. The early angiosperm came out in this time in this area which is called as Archaefructaceae. In the same time, the direction-sense, mass death of the birds and the macrofaunas showed that the exploration of the volcanoes made a lot of animals die and then be covered very quickly. In such an area where death and living was fast, there must be a quickly evolution. And it led to the formation and preservation of a large number of fossils. we found the same fossils out of the basin but later on date which showed the climate transferred to hot and dry later, and the livings in the basin were strong enough so that they could moved out of the basin at the last time. Section Map of Jehol Biota in North of Lliaoning, China LST by TEX86 in Jehol Biota layer Lake surface temperature using calibration of Powers et al., 2010, Organic Geochemistry

Wang, M.; Weijers, J.; Wang, C.; 973 Project; Igcp555

2010-12-01

165

New Mesozoic paleomagnetic results from the northeastern Sichuan basin and their implication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of a paleomagnetic study undertaken on samples from Lower Triassic and Lower Cretaceous sediments within the northeastern Sichuan Basin, China, in an area close to the Daba Mountains. Stepwise thermal demagnetization was used to isolate the characteristic higher temperature component (HTC) for these samples. These HTC (T1: D = 53.7°, I = 21.6°, ?95 = 6.5°; K1: D = 28.9°, I = 25.7°, ?95 = 6.6°) passed both fold and reversal tests, and indicate that these sediments have undergone sequential clockwise rotations relative to the Sichuan basin. These detected tectonic rotations were probably caused by the obstruction of the Hannan massif during Mesozoic thrusting within the southern Daba Mountains. The northeastern Sichuan Basin and the central Yangtze Fold Belt formed part of a continuous belt of basins (the northern Yangtze Basin), and acted as a coherent tectonic domain during the Early-Middle Jurassic. The Daba Mountains and the central Yangtze Fold Belt subsequently underwent rapid uplift and cooling around the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. This suggests that tectonic rotations within both the central Yangtze Fold Belt and the Daba Mountains were very probably caused by intra-continental deformation over a long period of time rather than a single tectonic event.

Wang, Bin; Zhang, Guowei; Yang, Zhenyu

2013-11-01

166

Geology and timing of mineralization at the Cangshang gold deposit, north-western Jiaodong Peninsula, China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cangshang gold deposit of the northwestern Jiaodong Peninsula contains reserves of greater than 50 tonnes (t) and is developed by the largest open pit gold mine in China. This deposit is a Jiaojia-style (i.e. disseminated-and-veinlet) deposit. It is controlled by the San-Cang fault zone, which trends ???040?? and dips 40-75??SE at the mine site. The main (no. 1) orebody lies between a hanging wall of Precambrian metamorphic rocks (mainly amphibolite) of the Fenzishan Group and a footwall composed of the Mesozoic Linglong granitoid. The ore zone is mainly composed of pyritized, sericitized and silicified granitoid, which has undergone variable degrees of cataclasis. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zircon indicates that the protolith of the hanging wall amphibolite was formed at 2530 ?? 17 Ma and underwent metamorphism at 1852 ?? 37 Ma. The footwall granodiorite has been dated at 166 ?? 4 Ma, whereas zircons from the ore zone yield a younger age of 154 ?? 5 Ma. Cathodoluminescence images of zircons from the granodiorite and ore zone show oscillatory zonation indicative of an igneous origin for both and the ages of these zircons, therefore, are all interpreted to be representative of magmatic crystallization. Dating of sericite by 40Ar-39Ar has been used to directly determine the timing of formation of the Cangshang deposit, providing the first time absolute age on formation of the Jiaojia-style gold deposits. The well-defined age of 121.3 ?? 0.2 Ma provides the precise timing of gold mineralization at the Cangshang deposit. This age is consistent with those of Linglong-style (vein type) gold mineralization, also from the north-western Jiaodong Peninsula, at between 126 and 120 Ma. Therefore, our work indicates that both styles of gold deposits in the Jiaodong Peninsula were formed during the same mineralization event.

Zhang, X.; Cawood, P.A.; Wilde, S.A.; Liu, R.; Song, H.; Li, W.; Snee, L.W.

2003-01-01

167

Anurans from the Lower Cretaceous Jehol Group of Western Liaoning, China  

PubMed Central

Background To date, the Lower Cretaceous Jehol Group of western Liaoning, China has yielded five monotypic genera of anurans, including Liaobatrachus grabaui, Callobatrachus sanyanensis, Mesophryne beipiaoensis, Dalianbatrachus mengi, and Yizhoubatrachus macilentus. However, the validity and distinctness of these taxa have been questioned. Methodology/Principal Finding We provide a comprehensive analysis of the Jehol frogs that includes a re-examination of the published taxa as well as an examination of a number of new specimens that have been collected over the past 10 years. The results show that the five previously named taxa can be referred to three species of one genus–Liaobatrachus grabaui, L. beipiaoensis comb. nov. and L. macilentus comb. nov.. The diagnosis of Liaobatrachus is revised, and a new diagnosis is provided for each species of this genus. We also establish Liaobatrachus zhaoi sp. nov., on the basis of a dozen well-preserved specimens from a new locality. This taxon is distinguished by a unique combination of characteristics, including relatively long hind limbs, a rounded rather than triangular acetabulum, and a gradually-tapering cultriform process of the parasphenoid. In addition, an unnamed frog from a higher horizon, which has narrow sacral diapophyses and particularly long legs, is different from Liaobatrachus and represents another form of anuran in the Jehol Biota. Conclusion/Significance Comparisons with other Mesozoic and extant anurans and the primary phylogenetic analysis both suggest that Liaobatrachus is a member of the anuran crown-group and forms a polytomy with leiopelmatids (Ascaphus and Leiopelma) and the remaining crown-group anurans (Lalagobatrachia). PMID:23922783

Dong, Liping; Ro?ek, Zbyn?k; Wang, Yuan; Jones, Marc E H.

2013-01-01

168

Continuous measurement of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in suburban and remote areas of western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge on atmospheric abundance of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is important in assessing the severity of photochemical pollution, and for understanding chemical transformation of reactive odd nitrogen and its impact on the budget of tropospheric ozone (O 3). In summer 2006, continuous measurements of PAN were made using an automatic GC-ECD analyzer with an on-line calibrator at a suburban site of Lanzhou (LZ) and a remote site of Mt. Waliguan (WLG) in western China, with concurrent measurements of O 3, total reactive nitrogen (NO y) and carbon monoxide (CO). At LZ, several photochemical episodes were observed during the study, and the average mixing ratio of PAN (plus or minus standard deviation) was 0.76 (±0.89) ppbv with the maximum value of 9.13 ppbv, compared to an average value of 0.44 (±0.16) ppbv at remote WLG. The PAN mixing ratios in LZ exhibited strong diurnal variations with a maximum at noon, while enhanced concentrations of PAN were observed in the evening and a minimum in the afternoon at WLG. The daily O 3 and PAN concentration maxima showed a strong correlation ( r2 = 0.91) in LZ, with a regression slope (PAN/O 3) of 0.091 ppbv ppbv -1. At WLG, six well-identified pollution plumes (lasting 2-8 h) were observed with elevated concentrations of PAN (and other trace gases), and analysis of backward particle release simulation shows that the high-PAN events at WLG were mostly associated with the transport of air masses that had passed over LZ.

Zhang, J. M.; Wang, T.; Ding, A. J.; Zhou, X. H.; Xue, L. K.; Poon, C. N.; Wu, W. S.; Gao, J.; Zuo, H. C.; Chen, J. M.; Zhang, X. C.; Fan, S. J.

169

The effects of tectonic uplift, landslides, and debris-flow erosion driven by the Wenchuan (Ms 8.0) earthquake on the geomorphic growth of Longmen Mountain,Sichuan,China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longmen Mountain is a linear, asymmetric border mountain between the Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin. The plateau margin is the steepest topographic gradient in all edges of the modern plateau. On May 12, 2008, the Wenchuan (Ms 8.0) earthquake took place in the middle and northern sections of Longmen Mountain, and on April 20, 2013, the Lushan (Ms 7.0) earthquake occurred in the southern section of Longmen Mountain. The tectonic uplift resulting from the Wenchuan 8.0 earthquake changed the slope gradient instantly and caused massive landslides and debris flows. As a consequence, the geomorphology and the river system were modified. Therefore, the role of strong earthquake events in the geomorphic evolution of Longmen Mountain and its surface processes has become a topic of scientific concern. But the effects of tectonic uplift, landslides, and debris-flow erosion driven by the Wenchuan (Ms 8.0) earthquake on the geomorphic growth of Longmen Mountain are a current subject of debate. Many uncertainties need to be taken into account to estimate the relationship between the total landslide volume and the net growth of the Longmen Shan in the Wenchuan earthquake. In this research, tectonic uplift, landslides, and debris-flow in Hongchun Gully, which is located at the earthquake epicenter, has been studied. The aim of this study is to understand how the mass wasting triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake affected the growth of the Longmen Shan. Field data, aerial photographs, and digital elevation data are used to conduct quantitative analyses of the tectonic uplift driven by the Wenchuan earthquake and of landslide and debris-flow erosion processes, along with their effects on the geomorphic growth of Longmen Mountain. The preliminary insights obtained are the following: (1) Hongchun Gully is located at the earthquake epicenter in alpine valleys. The seismogenic fault was the Beichuan Fault, which cuts through the gully. (2) The Wenchuan earthquake triggered coseismic landslides of 380.01 × 104 m3, which was three times the volume before the earthquake. (3) The volume of debris flow resulting from heavy rainfall on August 13 and 18, 2010, after the earthquake was 70.5 × 104 m3, which meant that 20% of the volume of coseismic landslides after the earthquake was changed into debris flows because of heavy rainfall. (4) Hongchun Gully debris flow discharged 48.5 × 104 m3 of solid materials into the Minjiang River (the main river), leading to a narrowed watercourse, elevated riverbed, and increased riverbed gradient. (5) The conversion ratio between the sediment input into watercourses and the coseismic landslide sediments was about 13%. The conversion ratio between the sediment input into the watercourse and the debris-flow sediment was 70%. (6) The volume of coseismic landslides in Hongchun Gully (380.01 × 104 m3) was less than the volume of coseismic uplift (667 × 104 m3). Only about 57% of the uplift volume was converted into landslide volume, indicating a greater volume of tectonic uplift compared to the volume of landslides resulting from Wenchuan earthquake, which was characterized by thrust and strike-slip motions. This has caused new uplift and the geomorphic growth of the Longmen Mountain.

Li, Y.; Zhou, R.; Zhao, G.; Li, H.; Su, D.; Ding, H.; Yan, Z.; Yan, L.; Yun, K.; Ma, C.

2013-12-01

170

A music therapy educator and undergraduate students’ perceptions of their music project's relevance for Sichuan earthquake survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the earthquake in Sichuan, China, in May 2008, which killed approximately 70,000 people, a music therapy educator led three teams, totalling 41 music therapy students, who provided music performances and activities to survivors and relief workers for three 30-day periods from June–August 2008. This constructivist research examines the educator's and five music therapy student volunteers’ perceptions of their music

Tian Gao; Clare OCallaghan; Lucanne Magill; Sisi Lin; Junhan Zhang; Jingwen Zhang; Jiaao Yu; Xiaomeng Shi

2012-01-01

171

Origin of back-arc basins and effects of western Pacific subduction systems on eastern China geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assuming that subduction initiation is a consequence of lateral compositional buoyancy contrast within the lithosphere [1], and recognizing that subduction initiation within normal oceanic lithosphere is unlikely [1], we can assert that passive continental margins that are locations of the largest compositional buoyancy contrast within the lithosphere are the loci of future subduction zones [1]. We hypothesize that western Pacific back-arc basins were developed as and evolved from rifting at passive continental margins in response to initiation and continuation of subduction zones. This hypothesis can be tested by demonstrating that intra-oceanic island arcs must have basement of continental origin. The geology of the Islands of Japan supports this. The highly depleted forearc peridotites (sub-continental lithosphere material) from Tonga and Mariana offer independent lines of evidence for the hypothesis [1]. The origin and evolution of the Okinawa Trough (back-arc basin) and Ryukyu Arc/Trench systems represents the modern example of subduction initiation and back-arc basin formation along a (Chinese) continental margin. The observation why back-arc basins exit behind some subduction zones (e.g., western Pacific) but not others (e.g., in South America) depends on how the overlying plate responds to subduction, slab-rollback and trench retreat. In the western Pacific, trench retreat towards east results in the development of extension in the upper Eurasian plate and formation of back-arc basins. In the case of South America, where no back-arc basins form because trench retreat related extension is focused at the 'weakest' South Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It is thus conceptually correct that the South Atlantic is equivalent to a huge 'back-arc basin' although its origin may be different. Given the negative Clayperon slope of the Perovskite-ringwoodite phase transition at the 660 km mantle seismic discontinuity (660-D), slab penetration across the 660-D is difficult and trench retreat in the western Pacific readily result in the horizontal stagnation of the Pacific plate in the transition zone beneath eastern Asian continent [2]. Dehydration of this slab supplies water, which rises and results in 'basal hydration weakening' of the eastern China lithosphere and its thinning by converting it into weak material of asthenospheric property [3]. We note the proposal that multiple subduction zones with more water (i.e., subduction of the South China Block beneath the North China Craton, NCC; subduction of the Siberian/Mongolian block beneath the NCC) all contribute to the lithosphere thinning beneath the NCC [4]. However, 'South China-NCC' and 'Siberian/Mongolian-NCC' represent two collisional tectonics involving no trench retreat, causing no transition-zone slab stagnation, supplying no water, and thus contributing little to lithosphere thinning beneath the NCC. Furthermore, lithosphere thinning happened to the entire eastern China, not just limited to the NCC, emphasizing the effects of the western Pacific subduction system on eastern China geology. References: [1] Niu et al., 2003, Journal of Petrology, 44, 851-866. [2] Kárason & van der Hilst, R., 2000, Geophysical Monograph, 121, 277-288. [3] Niu, 2005, Geological Journal of China Universities, 11, 9-46. [4] Windley et al., 2010, American Journal of Science, 310, 1250-1293.

Niu, Y.

2013-12-01

172

Thoughts on "Two Exemptions and One Subsidy" (TEOS) in China's Western Region  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The policy of "two exemptions and one subsidy" (TEOS), which is a "popular sentiment" project, has brought life to the western region's rural education and light to impoverished families. In addition to launching the battle for the "two basics" in the western region, the overall popularization of distance education for rural schools in the western

Xiangyang, Tian

2008-01-01

173

Tectonic evolution and hydrocarbon accumulation in the Yabulai Basin, western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yabulai petroliferous basin is located at the north of Hexi Corridor, western China, striking NEE and covering an area of 1.5×104 km2. It is bounded on the south by Beidashan Mountain to the Chaoshui Basin, on the east by Bayanwulashan Mountain to the Bayanhaote Basin, and on the northwest by Yabulai Mountain to the Yingen-Ejinaqi Basin. It is a Meso-cenozoic compressive depression residual basin. In view of regional geotectonics, the Yabulai basin sits in the middle-southern transition belt of Arershan massif in North China Craton. Driven by Indosinian movement at the late Triassic, two near EW normal faults were developed under the regional extensional stress along the northern fringe of Beidashan Mountain and the southern fringe of Yabulai Mountain front in the Arershan massif, forming the embryonic form of the Yabulai rift lake basin. Since Yanshan period, the Yabulai basin evolved in two major stages: Jurassic rift lake basin and Cretaceous rift lake basin. During early Yanshan period, EW striking Yabulai tensional rift was formed. Its major controlling fault was Beidashan normal fault, and the depocenter was at the south of this basin. During middle Yanshan period, collision orogenesis led to sharp uplift at the north of this basin where the middle-lower Jurassic formations were intensely eroded. During late Yanshan period, the Alashan massif and its northern area covered in an extensional tectonic environment, and EW striking normal faults were generated at the Yabulai Mountain front. Such faults moved violently and subsided quickly to form a new EW striking extensional rift basin with the depocenter at the south of Yabulai Mountain. During Himalayan period, the Alashan massif remained at a SN horizontal compressional tectonic environment; under the compressional and strike slip actions, a NW striking and south dipping thrusting nappe structure was formed in the south of the Yabulai basin, which broke the Beidashan normal fault to provide the echelon fault system and finally present the current structural framework of "east uplift and west depression, south faulted and north overlapping". The Yabulai basin presented as a strike-slip pull-apart basin in Mesozoic and a compressional thrusting depression basin in Cenozoic. Particularly, the Mesozoic tectonic units were distributed at a big included angle with the long axis of the basin, while the Cenozoic tectonic units were developed in a basically consistent direction with the long axis. The sags are segmented. Major subsiding sags are located in the south, where Mesozoic Jurassic-Cretaceous systems are developed, with the thickest sedimentary rocks up to 5300m. Jurassic is the best developed system in this basin. Middle Jurassic provides the principal hydrocarbon-bearing assemblage in this basin, with Xinhe Fm. and Qingtujing Fm. dark mudstone and coal as the source rocks, Xinhe Fm. and Qingtujing Fm. sandstones as the reservoir formation, and Xinhe Fm. mudstones as the cap rocks. However, the early burial and late uplifting damaged the structural framework of the basin, thus leading to the early violent compaction and tightness of Jurassic sandstone reservoir and late hydrocarbon maturity. So, tectonic development period was unmatched to hydrocarbon expulsion period of source rocks. The hydrocarbons generated were mainly accumulated near the source rocks and entrapped in reservoir. Tight oil should be the major exploration target, which has been proved by recent practices.

Zheng, Min; Wu, Xiaozhi

2014-05-01

174

China in the Eyes of Western Travelers as Represented in Travel Blogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Travel blogs provide a new way of understanding consumers' perceptions on destination and its associated products. The purpose of this study was to examine international tourists' destination image of China as represented in travel blog discourse. Data were obtained from blog entries relating to trips to China posted on three dominant travel blog websites. Content analysis facilitated by Atlas.ti 6.0

Xu Li; Youcheng Wang

2011-01-01

175

Co-seismic ruptures of the 12 May 2008, Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan: East-west crustal shortening on oblique, parallel thrusts along the eastern edge of Tibet  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Ms 8.0, Wenchuan earthquake, which devastated the mountainous western rim of the Sichuan basin in central China, produced a surface rupture over 200??km-long with oblique thrust/dextral slip and maximum scarp heights of ~ 10??m. It thus ranks as one of the world's largest continental mega-thrust events in the last 150??yrs. Field investigation shows clear surface breaks along two of the main branches of the NE-trending Longmen Shan thrust fault system. The principal rupture, on the NW-dipping Beichuan fault, displays nearly equal amounts of thrust and right-lateral slip. Basin-ward of this rupture, another continuous surface break is observed for over 70??km on the parallel, more shallowly NW-dipping Pengguan fault. Slip on this latter fault was pure thrusting, with a maximum scarp height of ~ 3.5??m. This is one of the very few reported instances of crustal-scale co-seismic slip partitioning on parallel thrusts. This out-of-sequence event, with distributed surface breaks on crustal mega-thrusts, highlights regional, ~ EW-directed, present day crustal shortening oblique to the Longmen Shan margin of Tibet. The long rupture and large offsets with strong horizontal shortening that characterize the Wenchuan earthquake herald a re-evaluation of tectonic models anticipating little or no active shortening of the upper crust along this edge of the plateau, and require a re-assessment of seismic hazard along potentially under-rated active faults across the densely populated western Sichuan basin and mountains. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Liu-Zeng, J.; Zhang, Z.; Wen, L.; Tapponnier, P.; Sun, J.; Xing, X.; Hu, G.; Xu, Q.; Zeng, L.; Ding, L.; Ji, C.; Hudnut, K.W.; van der Woerd, J.

2009-01-01

176

Prevalence of diarrhea among children less than 36 months of age in rural Western china in 2001 and 2005.  

PubMed

We collected for rural western China data for 14,658 children less than 36 months of age in 2001 and for 14,112 children in 2005. A generalized estimated equation log-binomial model was used to identify the determinants of childhood diarrhea. In 2005, prevalence of diarrhea was approximately 7.4%, which compared with that for 2001, had decreased by 8.7%. The generalized estimated equation analysis showed that region affected the prevalence of childhood diarrhea significantly. Age was negatively associated with childhood diarrhea. Although childhood upper respiratory infections increased the risk of diarrhea, the risk could be decreased by use of vitamin A in the previous year. In addition, children of Han ethnicity or those living in one-child families had a lower risk of diarrhea in 2001, but underweight children had a higher risk in 2005. These findings may have some implications for formulating policies of childhood diarrhea prevention and control in rural western China. PMID:25223941

Gao, Wenlong; Liu, Xiaoning; Yan, Hong

2014-12-01

177

Seroprevalence of Chlamydia psittaci infection in market-sold adult chickens, ducks and pigeons in north-western China.  

PubMed

Chlamydia psittaci, the agent of psittacosis in humans, infects a wide range of avian species. To assess the risk of psittacosis posed by domestic birds in the urban environment, the prevalence of C. psittaci antibodies in 413 chickens (Gallus domesticus; 305 caged and 108 free-range), 334 ducks (Anas spp.; 111 caged and 223 free-range) and 312 pigeons (Columba livia) in Lanzhou, north-western China, was detected using the indirect haemagglutination assay. The specific antibodies were found in sera of 55 (13.32?%) chickens, 130 (38.92?%) ducks and 97 (31.09?%) pigeons. Statistical analysis showed that the seroprevalence of C. psittaci infection in chickens was significantly lower than that in ducks and pigeons (P<0.05). The C. psittaci seroprevalence in caged and free-range chickens was 7.54?% and 29.63?%, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The C. psittaci seroprevalence in caged and free-range ducks was 26.13?% and 45.29?%, respectively (P<0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating the presence of C. psittaci infection in market-sold chickens, ducks and pigeons in north-western China. Close contact with these birds is associated with a risk of zoonotic transmission of C. psittaci. Public education should be implemented to reduce the risk of avian to human transmission of such a pathogenic agent. PMID:23699067

Cong, W; Huang, S Y; Zhang, X Y; Zhou, D H; Xu, M J; Zhao, Q; Song, H Q; Zhu, X Q; Qian, A D

2013-08-01

178

Applying Western Organization Development in China: Lessons from a Case of Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore a successful case of a Chinese state-owned enterprise (SOE) as it applied western organization development (OD) approaches. Specifically, this study seeks to answer two questions: How has western organization development and change (OD/C) been applied in one Chinese SOE? and What lessons can be…

Wang, Jia

2010-01-01

179

WESTERN  

E-print Network

utilized as native hay, especially when harvested in overflow or run in sites that collect additional moisture. Erosion control/reclamation: Western wheatgrass is well suited for stabilization of disturbed soils because of its strong spreading rhizomes. It should not be planted with aggressive introduced grasses, but is very compatible with slower developing natives such as bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata), thickspike wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus ssp. lanceolatus), streambank wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus ssp. psammophilus), and needlegrass species (Achnatherum spp., Hesperostipa spp., Nassella spp., Stipa spp., and Ptilagrostis spp.). Its relatively good drought tolerance combined with strong rhizomatous root systems and adaptation to a variety of soils makes this species ideal for reclamation in areas receiving 12 to 20 inches annual precipitation. Its low growth form, vigorous sod, and low maintenance requirements make it ideal for ground cover purposes. This grass can be used in urban areas where irrigation water is limited to provide ground cover and to stabilize ditch banks, dikes, and roadsides.

Pascopyrum Smithii (rydb; A. Löve

180

Are western community psychiatric models suitable for China? An examination of cultural and socio-economic foundations of western community psychiatry models using assertive community treatment as an example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western community psychiatry models, such as Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) and Case Management, are well-studied and considered to be effective and cost-effective; in particular, ACT is perceived as a gold standard for community treatment of severe and persistently mentally ill patients. With China's recent rapid economic reform and attendant cultural and healthcare system changes, it is timely to examine the

Samuel F. Law

2008-01-01

181

Prevalence and Trend of Major Transfusion-Transmissible Infections among Blood Donors in Western China, 2005 through 2010  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) in blood donations is important for evaluating blood safety and potential risks to the population. This study investigated the prevalence of TTIs among blood donors in Western China and suggested measures for policy-makers. Methods The screening results of 66,311 donations between 2005 and 2010 from a central blood center in Western China were analyzed. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and syphilis infections were expressed in percentages for the entire study group as well as groups by demographic characteristics and donation frequency, with differences analyzed using Fisher's exact or Chi-square test. Logistic regression was performed to identify the influencing factors of the detected results. Results 1,769 (2.67%, 95% CI 2.55–2.79%) of the donated blood had serological evidence of infection with at least one pathogen and 44 (0.07%, 95% CI 0.05–0.09%) showed evidence of multiple infections. The seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV, and syphilis infections was 0.87% (95% CI 0.80–0.94%), 0.86% (95% CI 0.79–0.93%), 0.31% (95% CI 0.26–0.35%), and 0.70% (95% CI 0.64–0.76%) respectively. Trend analysis for the prevalence of TTIs showed a significant increase from 2.44% to 3.71% (?2?=?100.72, p?=?0.00) over this 6-year period. The positive rates for TTIs varied along demographic lines. The top three risk factors in test-positive donors were identified as age, education level and donation frequency. The older age group and lower educated group were linked to a higher prevalence of TTIs. A decreasing prevalence was associated with an increasing frequency of blood donations (?2?=?562.78, p?=?0.00). Conclusions Hepatitis B and C were found most, and often in conjunction with syphilis. These were the primary threats to blood safety. The high positivity rate and the increasing prevalence of TTIs among blood donors in Western China call for further actions. PMID:24714490

Song, Yan; Bian, Ying; Petzold, Max; Ung, Carolina Oi Lam

2014-01-01

182

Study and Service in China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description is given of the ten-week Goshen College Study-Service Trimester experiment at Sichuan Teachers College in China. Goshen College emphasizes international education and has a requirement in this area for all of its graduates. The trimester exchange program was developed to promote international education and world peace and prepare…

Beechy, Atlee; Beechy, Winifred

183

An Exploratory Study of the Application of Modern Distance Learning Resources for Rural Elementary and Middle Schools in Western China: The Case of Three Cities in Gansu Province  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a specially adapted questionnaire, research was carried out to explore how resources in modern distance learning were being applied in rural elementary and middle schools in Western China, in order to enhance the usefulness of the allocated resources. One particular distance learning project was used as the subject of the study, and…

Yang, Gaixue; Yu, Shuyu

2010-01-01

184

Identification of a novel HIV Type 1 circulating recombinant form (CRF65_cpx) composed of CRF01_AE and subtypes B and C in Western Yunnan, China.  

PubMed

A novel HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF) designated CRF65_cpx was recently characterized from three epidemiologically unlinked individuals infected through heterosexual contact in western Yunnan province of China. This is the first complex mosaic HIV-1 CRF, consisting of contributions from three or more different subtypes, identified in China. An additional full-length genome sequence with identical recombinant breakpoints was found among a previously reported recombinant strain from a man who had sex with a man in Anhui province of East Central China. The breakpoint analysis of the recombinants showed a complex genome organization composed of parental subtypes B' (Thailand variant of subtype B), C, and CRF01_AE, with 13 recombination breakpoints observed in almost all structure genes of HIV-1. The generation of complex recombinant forms is likely due to cocirculation of multiple lineages of HIV-1 strains in high-risk populations in western Yunnan. PMID:24279591

Feng, Yi; Wei, Huamian; Hsi, Jenny; Xing, Hui; He, Xiang; Liao, Lingjie; Ma, Yanling; Ning, Chuanyi; Wang, Nidan; Takebe, Yutaka; Shao, Yiming

2014-06-01

185

Interannual variability of the eastward current in the western South China Sea associated with the summer Asian monsoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

interannual variability of the eastward current in the western South China Sea (SCS) during the summer of 1993-2012 is examined with satellite altimeter data and Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model output. It is found that the meridional location of the eastward current displays apparent interannual variability. The core of the eastward current shifts between 10.7°N and 17.6°N with a standard deviation of 1.6°. Results from Sverdrup theory and ROMS experiments demonstrate a close dynamic linkage between the north-south migration of the eastward current and the SCS summer monsoon anomaly on the interannual time scale. When the summer monsoon has southwesterly (northeasterly) anomaly, the eastward current moves southward (northward). With the southward (northward) shift of the eastward current, the summer cold filament in the SCS moves southward (northward) as well.

Chen, Changlin; Wang, Guihua

2014-09-01

186

Mesozoic-Cenozoic basins of Western China as example of partitioned retro-arc foreland basin system  

SciTech Connect

Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary basins of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, western China, occupy a retro-arc foreland position with respect to the southern Eurasian convergent continental margin. Yet these basins differ in many ways from retro-arc foreland basins in other parts of the world. In North America, for instance, the Cretaceous Rocky Mountain foreland basin overlies basement that has been an integral part of cratonal North America since the Precambrian. The region had a long early Paleozoic history as a divergent continental margin and was later modified by relatively modest continental growth through accretionary tectonics. Once established in the Mesozoic, the Rocky Mountain foreland basin was a structurally simple, large, integrated basin, with the exception of the Laramide time-space segment of the foreland system. In contrast, the Mesozoic-Cenozoic foreland basins of Xinjiang are markedly partitioned, reflecting the process and architecture of major tectonic accretion from the Paleozoic through the collision of India in the Tertiary. The stage was set for a partitioned Mesozoic foreland with the Paleozoic suturing of the Siberia and Tarim cratons and intervening terranes. Although the margins of these blocks were deformed and uplifted during collision, their interiors persisted as depocenters into the foreland basin phase during the Mesozoic. The foreland basins of western China apparently represent poorly documented end members in the spectrum of retro-arc foreland basins. The Chinese examples occur in a region characterized by extreme continental growth through tectonic accretion. Reactivation of structural trends inherited from pre-foreland history were key factors in segmentation of the foreland.

Graham, S.A.; Zuchang, X.; Carroll, A.; McKnight, C.

1988-01-01

187

China's fuel gas sector: History, current status, and future prospects Chi-Jen Yang a,c,*, Yipei Zhou b  

E-print Network

China's fuel gas sector: History, current status, and future prospects Chi-Jen Yang a,c,*, Yipei Sichuan University, Chengdu, China c Nicholas School of the Environment, Box 90338, Duke University petroleum gas China a b s t r a c t China has a unique urban pipeline network of three types of fuel gases

Jackson, Robert B.

188

The Protestant medical missions to China: the introduction of Western medicine with vaccination.  

PubMed

Modern medicine in China began with the arrival of Anglo-American Protestant missionaries in the early 19th century. Conditions were vastly different from the times of the Jesuits in Peking during the 17th and 18th centuries, when the priests enjoyed the endorsement of the Court and high officials. Faced with hostile and xenophobic officialdom and populace, surgeons of the British East India Company in collaboration with missionaries took the initiative. In 1805 Dr Alexander Pearson (1780-1874) introduced smallpox vaccination in Macao and Canton. Reverend Dr Robert Morrison (1782-1834) of the London Missionary Society with another East India Company Surgeon, Dr John Livingstone (1829) opened a dispensary for the poor in Macao in 1820. These pioneers paved the way for later Anglo-American medical missionaries who revolutionized medical practice in China. PMID:24585751

Fu, Louis

2013-05-01

189

Hydrogen, oxygen, helium and strontium isotopic constraints on the formation of oilfield waters in the western Qaidam Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surveys and exploration for oil and gas have revealed many oil-field brines in the Tertiary strata of the western Qaidam Basin, China. The source and formation of these brines are unclear. Brine samples collected from petroleum wells in the oilfield area were analyzed for their general chemical composition and for hydrogen, oxygen, strontium and helium isotopes in order to trace their origin, formation, and resource distribution. Results show that the concentrations of resources such as K, B, Sr, Br and Li are unusually enriched in oil-field brines and have excellent potential for development and utilization in future. The geology, H, O, Sr and He isotopic composition, the chemical composition, and the geophysical measurements all show that the tertiary oil-field brines predominantly originated from the deep mixture of formation water and magmatic residual fluids in the western Qaidam Basin. The tectonic geology, intense and frequent magmatic-hydrothermal activity as well as high 3He/ 4He ratio indicate that the magmatic fluids possibly originate from the upper mantle-derived magmatic fluids. Thus, according to our interpretation of the formation and evolution of the oilfield brine, this source is adequate for the volume and composition to be explored and utilized latterly.

Tan, Hongbing; Rao, Wenbo; Ma, Haizhou; Chen, Jiansheng; Li, Tingwei

2011-01-01

190

Block rotation: Tectonic response of the Sichuan basin to the southeastward growth of the Tibetan Plateau along the Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

field and seismic data show that the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau is tectonically and seismically active. This activity is due to the southeastward extrusion of the Chuandian fragment, a large crustal block rotating clockwise around the northeastern syntaxis of the Himalayas. The eastern boundary fault of this fragment is defined by the left-lateral Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault, which abruptly truncates the Sichuan basin of the Yangtze block. Our paper presents evidence indicating that the Sichuan basin experienced right-lateral shear along its margin, including the Longmen Shan fault belt, as shown by the presence of a large number of interference deformation features, including S-shaped and Z-shaped folds and faults, aligned in an en echelon pattern. This study hypothesizes that the Sichuan basin experienced counterclockwise rotation, dragged by the left-lateral movement along the Xianshuihe fault, and it is this rotation that was the underlying cause of the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan Ms 7.9 earthquake. During the rotation, the Sichuan basin decoupled along a subhorizontal decollement fault zone that developed along Triassic gypsum- and coal-bearing rocks, at a mean depth of ~5000 m, below which the Paleozoic rocks experienced much more intense deformation than the overlying Mesozoic rocks, suggesting that the lower part of the basin experienced a larger-scale rotation relative to the uppermost part of the basin. Based on thermal data from the western margin of the Sichuan basin and from along the Xianshuihe fault, the counterclockwise bending/rotation of the Sichuan basin initiated in late Cenozoic time (~13 Ma).

Wang, Erchie; Meng, Kai; Su, Zhe; Meng, Qingren; Chu, Jean J.; Chen, Zhiliang; Wang, Gang; Shi, Xuhua.; Liang, Xinquan

2014-05-01

191

New male pelecinid wasps (Hymenoptera: Pelecinidae) from the Yixian Formation of western Liaoning (China)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new genera and species Abropelecinus annulatus gen. et sp. nov. and Azygopelecinus clavatus gen. et sp. nov., placed in the subfamily Iscopininae of the family Pelecinidae, are described and illustrated. Sinopecinus viriosus Zhang, Rasnitsyn & Zhang, 2002 are re-described. All these male specimens were collected from the Yixian Formation of Beipiao City, Liaoning Province, northeastern China. A key to the male species of the subfamily Iscopininae is given. In addition, sexual dimorphism in Pelecinidae and the paleoclimate of the Yixian Formation are briefly discussed.

Feng, Hua; Shih, Chungkun; Ren, Dong; Liu, Chenxi

2010-12-01

192

Rifting of the north-western South China Sea Basin from MCS images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have reprocessed about 2250 km of multichannel seismic reflection data collected during cruise Sonne 49 across the NW South China Sea. We present images across four regional lines that cross the outer continental shelf and slope, and extend into the deep-water basin. The seismic images are of high quality and show the crustal structure from clear base-of-the-crust reflections to continuous top-of-basement reflections and a well imaged syn-rift and post rift stratigraphy and intrusive magmatic layering. In addition, fault reflections in the basement are also common. The crystalline basement and sediment strata display a series of structures that change laterally from the continental shelf to the deep-water basin and that have been used to define a continental domain, an abrupt continent to ocean transition and an oceanic domain. Existing wide-angle data coincident with our lines support our interpretation. The style of continental extension, the structures defining the continent to ocean transition, and the distribution of oceanic crust in the basin has been used to propose a tectonic model of the formation of the NW South China Sea continental margin. The data document the three-dimensional temporal evolution of the interplay between rifting processes and seafloor spreading leading to the current structural configuration.

Ranero, Cesar R.; Cameselle, Alejandra L.; Franke, Dieter; Barckhausen, Udo

2014-05-01

193

Pseudohampsonella: A New Genus of Limacodidae (Lepidoptera: Zygaenoidea) from China, and Three New Species  

PubMed Central

A new genus, Pseudohampsonella gen. n. (type-species: Pseudohampsonella erlanga Solovyev & Saldaitis), and three new species, Pseudohampsonella erlanga sp. n. Solovyev & Saldaitis (from Sichuan Province, China), Pseudohampsonella hoenei sp. n. Solovyev & Saldaitis (Yunnan Province, China), and Pseudohampsonella argenta sp. n. Solovyev & Saldaitis (Yunnan Province, China) are described. The taxonomic position of the genus is discussed. PMID:25373193

Solovyev, Alexey V.; Saldaitis, Aidas

2014-01-01

194

New records of tardigrades from China, with zoogeographical remarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tardigrades are small (0.05-1.20 mm), hygrophilous micrometazoans. This paper reports on 18 species of tardigrades found in Sichuan, Yunnan, and Xizang Provinces in China, primarily in lichens and mosses. Eight species are new records for China: Echiniscus nepalensis Dastych, E. reticulatus Murray, E. spiniger Richters, Isohypsibius sattleri (Richters), Diphascon (D.) pingue (Marcus), Diphascon (A.) prorsirostre Thulin, Mesocrista spitsbergensis (Richters), and

CLARK W. BEASLEY; UKASZ KACZMAREK; UKASZ MICHALCZYK

195

Does residing in urban or rural areas affect the incidence of polypharmacy among older adults in western China?  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to explore the differences among older adults who are rural or urban residents with respects to their socioeconomic position, chronic health conditions and medication use. This cross-sectional study included 887 community-dwelling older adults (?60 years) from western China. Trained interviewers collected data from all of the study subjects through face-to-face interviews. Polypharmacy was defined as the concomitant use of five or more medications. A total of 717 participants were included in the study analyses. Compared with their urban counterparts, the older adults in rural China were more likely to have more chronic health conditions, and a lower education level, annual income and insurance coverage rate. In addition, the rural inhabitants were less likely to use medications (58.7% vs. 75.7%, p<0.001). The intensity of medication use (the mean number of drugs) was 1.7 for rural residents and 2.3 for urban residents (p<0.001). The prevalence of polypharmacy was significantly lower in rural residents than urban residents (11.5% vs. 17.5%, p=0.021). Urban residence (odds ratios (OR) 1.89, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.03-3.48), number of chronic conditions (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.16-3.30), diabetes (OR 4.14, 95% CI 2.33-7.37), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.25-3.51) were positively associated with polypharmacy, whereas good self-rated health (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.16-0.65) was negatively associated with polypharmacy. In conclusion, urban residence is independently associated with polypharmacy in Chinese elders regardless of chronic health conditions and socioeconomic status. PMID:25440757

Yang, Ming; Lu, Jing; Hao, Qiukui; Luo, Li; Dong, Birong

2015-01-01

196

Assessing the regional ecological security: methodology and a case study for the western Jilin Province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecological security can be investigated in both broad sense and narrow sense. Because of the wide area and regional discrepancy in influencing factors and ecological background, the investigation on regional environment hasn't been done systematically. Assessment on regional security in fragile region is important content of sustainable development. The western Jilin Province lines in the semi-arid agro-pastoral interweaving belt (APIB),within which agriculture and animal husbandry interplay or frequently alternate with each other. Study on the regional ecological security of this region offer the scientific support for protecting the regional environment and sustainability. This article set up the Pressure-State-Response model according to the interaction between human and environmental system, and assessed the ecological safety degree in the western part of Jilin Province in year 2000, using compound model and Grid method based on GIS and RS. The Ecological Security Index (ESI) was calculated by multilayer synthesis with liner weighting function method, which divided the area into the following five different conditions: highly damaged, moderately damaged, early stages of damage, relative safely, and safety, regarding change of environmental key point as the threshold value that varied under the stress of human activity. The results show that eco-environment in study area is at medial level. The early stage of damage and relative safely level occupies the largest area proportion accounting for 68.61%. Furthermore, the condition in the eastern part is better than that of the western part and the most serious degradation is found in the middle part of the study area. When talking about the ten counties in the region, highly damaged area accounts for a very small percentage. The county that has the widest area of relatively secured area is Qian'an, and that of the smallest is Da'an. The areas of highly damaged area in Tongyu, Zhenlai and Da'an have exceeded 10% and they become the region requiring urgent treatment. Regarding average security condition, sequence of the regions from the best to the worest is as follows: Qian'an, Qianguo, Zhenglai, Songyuan City, Changling, Baicheng City, Fuyu, Taonan, Da'an and Tongyu. In this study we also analysis the relationship between ESI and landuse change from 1980 to 2000 in order to find an improving method from landscape. The studying shows that decreasing of grassland is most import factor influencing the condition of the western Jilin province.

Li, Xiaoyan; Xue, Linfu; Wang, Xikui

2008-10-01

197

Bilateral transtibial amputation with concomitant thoracolumbar vertebral collapse in a Sichuan earthquake survivor  

PubMed Central

The devastating earthquake in Sichuan, China on 12 May 2008 left thousands of survivors requiring medical care and intensive rehabilitation. In view of this great demand, the Chinese Speaking Orthopaedic Society established the "Stand Tall" project to provide voluntary services to aid amputee victims in achieving total rehabilitation and social integration. This case report highlights the multidisciplinary rehabilitation of a girl who suffered thoracolumbar vertebral collapse and underwent bilateral transtibial amputation. The rehabilitation team was involved in all stages of the care process from the pre-operative phase, through amputation, into prosthetic training, and during her life thereafter. Despite this catastrophic event, early rehabilitation and specially designed bilateral prostheses allowed her a high level of functional ability. The joint efforts of the multidisciplinary team and the advancement of new technology have revolutionized the care process for amputees. PMID:20630054

2010-01-01

198

The public health system response to the 2008 Sichuan province earthquake: a literature review and interviews.  

PubMed

This paper describes and analyses the public health system response to the deadly earthquake in Sichuan province, China, in May 2008. Drawing on an experiential learning project consisting of a literature review and field research, including a series of interviews with medical and public health professionals, policy-makers and first responders, a conceptual framework was developed to describe the response. This approach emphasises the pre-existing preparedness level of the medical and public health systems, as well as social, economic and geo-political factors that had an impact on mitigation efforts. This framework was used to conduct post-disaster analyses addressing major response issues and examining methods employed during the public health response to the disaster. This framework could be used to describe and analyse the emergency response to other disasters. PMID:25196335

Lin, Leesa; Ashkenazi, Isaac; Dorn, Barry C; Savoia, Elena

2014-10-01

199

Nd-Sr-Pb isotopic constraints on metal and fluid sources in W-Sb-Au mineralization at Woxi and Liaojiaping (Western Hunan, China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents Nd-Sr-Pb isotope data on scheelite, inclusion fluids and residues of gangue quartz, and sulfides from the W-Sb-Au ore deposits at Woxi and Liaojiaping (LJP) in the Xuefeng Uplift Belt (XUB), Western Hunan, China. Sm and Nd concentrations in scheelite from Woxi are much lower than in scheelite from LJP and can be distinguished by their high 147Sm\\/144Nd

Bo Peng; Robert Frei

2004-01-01

200

Serological and molecular evidence for natural infection of Bactrian camels with multiple subgenotypes of bovine viral diarrhea virus in Western China.  

PubMed

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infects both domestic and wild animals, causing substantial economic losses. In order to investigate possible infection in Bactrian camels in Western China, a total of 56 blood samples were collected from clinically healthy Bactrian camels and tested for BVDV antigens and antibodies using antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization test. The antigen-positive samples (n=17) were further tested for viral nucleic acids by species-specific real-time RT-PCR assays, which showed presence of BVDV-1, but not BVDV-2 nor atypical bovine pestivirus, in the camel samples. Twelve non-cytopathogenic viruses were isolated and genetically typed by sequencing of the 5'untranslated region (5'UTR) and N(pro) coding sequences. Phylogenetic analysis divided the isolates into six known subgenotypes: BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, BVDV-1c, BVDV-1m, BVDV-1o, BVDV-1p and a putative subgenotype, BVDV-1q. This study provides, for the first time, serological and molecular evidence for natural infection of Bactrian camels in Western China with highly divergent BVDV-1 strains. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the possible roles of Bactrian camels in the epidemiology of BVD in Western China. PMID:23313538

Gao, Shandian; Luo, Jihuai; Du, Junzheng; Lang, Yifei; Cong, Guozheng; Shao, Junjun; Lin, Tong; Zhao, Furong; Belák, Sándor; Liu, Lihong; Chang, Huiyun; Yin, Hong

2013-04-12

201

Age and duration of eclogite-facies metamorphism, North Qaidam HP/UHP terrane, Western China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Amphibolite-facies para-and orthogneisses near Dulan, at the southeast end of the North Qaidam terrane, enclose minor eclogite and peridotite which record ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphism associated with the Early Paleozoic continental collision of the Qilian and Qaidam microplates. Field relations and coesite inclusions in zircons from paragneiss suggest that felsic, mafic, and ultramafic rocks all experienced UHP metamorphism and a common amphibolite-facies retrogression. SHRIMP-RG U-Pb and REE analyses of zircons from four eclogites yield weighted mean ages of 449 to 422 Ma, and REE patterns (flat HREE, no Eu anomaly) and inclusions of garnet, omphacite, and rutile indicate these ages record eclogite-facies metamorphism. The coherent field relations of these samples, and the similar range of individual ages in each sample suggests that the ???25 m.y. age range reflects the duration of eclogite-facies conditions in the studied samples. Analyses from zircon cores in one sample yield scattered 433 to 474 Ma ages, reflecting partial overlap on rims, and constrain the minimum age of eclogite protolith crystallization. Inclusions of Th + REE-rich epidote, and zircon REE patterns are consistent with prograde metamorphic growth. In the Lu??liang Shan, approximately 350 km northwest in the North Qaidam terrane, ages interpreted to record eclogite-facies metamorphism of eclogite and garnet peridotite are as old as 495 Ma and as young as 414 Ma, which suggests that processes responsible for extended high-pressure residence are not restricted to the Dulan region. Evidence of prolonged eclogite-facies metamorphism in HP/UHP localities in the Northeast Greenland eclogite province, the Western Gneiss Region of Norway, and the western Alps suggests that long eclogite-facies residence may be globally significant in continental subduction/collision zones.

Mattinson, C.G.; Wooden, J.L.; Liou, J.G.; Bird, D.K.; Wu, C.L.

2006-01-01

202

Historical trends of concentrations, source contributions and toxicities for PAHs in dated sediment cores from five lakes in western China.  

PubMed

In this work, sixteen U.S. EPA priority PAH compounds in the dated sediment cores were detected from five lakes in western China. In most lakes, the concentrations of the total PAHs (?PAHs) increased from the deep layers to the surface sediments. Two source categories, i.e. vehicular emission and biomass & domestic coal combustion were identified by Unmix, a factor analysis receptor model to explore the source contributions of PAHs in the dated sediments. The source apportionment results showed that biomass & domestic coal combustion contributed larger proportion of PAHs in the five lakes. The toxicities of PAHs in the dated sediments, assessed by BaP equivalent (BaPE) values showed that the BaPE increased gradually from the deep layers to the surface sediments in most lakes. For the first effort, the contribution of each source to BaPE was apportioned by Unmix-BaPE method, and the result indicated that the vehicular emission posed the highest toxic risk. The percentage contribution of vehicular emission for PAHs and BaPE also increased from the deep layers to the surface sediments, while biomass & domestic coal combustion exhibited the opposite tendency. PMID:24176699

Xu, Jian; Guo, Jian-Yang; Liu, Gui-Rong; Shi, Guo-Liang; Guo, Chang-Sheng; Zhang, Yuan; Feng, Yin-Chang

2014-02-01

203

Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in pre-weaned calves in Shaanxi Province, north-western China.  

PubMed

Cryptosporidium, a worldwide protozoan parasite, is one of the most common causes of diarrhoea in humans and animals. The aim of the present study was to determine Cryptosporidium species/genotypes in pre-weaned calves in Shaanxi Province using PCR and sequencing based on the small subunit rRNA gene. A total of 258 faecal samples were collected from pre-weaned calves in 19 different farms from six areas in Shaanxi Province, north-western China. Cryptosporidium infection was detected in 14 of 19 farms (73.7?%), with a total prevalence of 20.2?% (52/258). Both dairy and Qinchuan (beef) cattle were found with Cryptosporidium infection. Three Cryptosporidium species, namely Cryptosporidium bovis (n?=?26), Cryptosporidium andersoni (n?=?14) and Cryptosporidium ryanae (n?=?12), were detected in pre-weaned calves in Shaanxi Province, with C. bovis (in 12 farms) identified as the most common species on cattle farms. Two additional and previously unknown C. ryanae genotypes, CRTypes III and IV, were observed in the present study. However, the zoonotic species, Cryptosporidium parvum, was not detected in this study, which suggested a low zoonotic potential in Cryptosporidium-infected pre-weaned calves in this province. PMID:25385243

Qi, M Z; Fang, Y Q; Wang, X T; Zhang, L X; Wang, R J; Du, S Z; Guo, Y X; Jia, Y Q; Yao, L; Liu, Q D; Zhao, G H

2015-01-01

204

Paragneiss zircon geochronology and trace element geochemistry, North Qaidam HP/UHP terrane, western China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the southeastern part of the North Qaidam terrane, near Dulan, paragneiss hosts minor peridotite and UHP eclogite. Zircon geochronology and trace element geochemistry of three paragneiss samples (located within a ???3 km transect) indicates that eclogite-facies metamorphism resulted in variable degrees of zircon growth and recrystallization in the three samples. Inherited zircon core age groups at 1.8 and 2.5 Ga suggest that the protoliths of these rocks may have received sediments from the Yangtze or North China cratons. Mineral inclusions, depletion in HREE, and absence of negative Eu anomalies indicate that zircon U-Pb ages of 431 ?? 5 Ma and 426 ?? 4 Ma reflect eclogite-facies zircon growth in two of the samples. Ti-in-zircon thermometry results are tightly grouped at ???660 and ???600 ??C, respectively. Inclusions of metamorphic minerals, scarcity of inherited cores, and lack of isotopic or trace element inheritance demonstrate that significant new metamorphic zircon growth must have occurred. In contrast, zircon in the third sample is dominated by inherited grains, and rims show isotopic and trace element inheritance, suggesting solid-state recrystallization of detrital zircon with only minor new growth. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

Mattinson, C.G.; Wooden, J.L.; Zhang, J.X.; Bird, D.K.

2009-01-01

205

Knowledge of Thrombolytic Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke among Community Residents in Western Urban China  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Thrombolytic therapy rate for acute ischemic stroke remains low, and improving public awareness of thrombolytic therapy may be helpful to reduce delay and increase chances of thrombolytic therapy. Our purpose was to survey the level of knowledge about thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke among community residents in Yuzhong district, Chongqing, China. Methods In 2011, a population-based face-to-face interview survey was conducted in Yuzhong district, Chongqing. A total of 1500 potential participants aged ?18 years old were selected using a multi-stage sampling method. Results A total of 1101 participants completed the survey. Only 23.3% (95% CI?=?20.8 to 25.8) were aware of thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke, of whom 59.9% (95% CI?=?53.9 to 65.9) knew the time window. Awareness of thrombolytic therapy was higher among young people, those with higher levels of education and household income, those with health insurance, and those who knew all 5 stroke warning signs, while awareness of the time window was higher among those aged 75 years or older. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that awareness of thrombolytic therapy was independently associated with age, education level, health insurance and knowledge of stroke warning signs (P<0.05). Conclusions In this population-based survey the community residents have poor awareness of thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke. PMID:25222126

Yang, Juan; Zheng, Min; Chen, Shuqun; Ou, Shu; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Ni; Cao, Yingying; Wang, Jian

2014-01-01

206

Teaching in China: An Outside Look In  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a Canadian International Development Agency funded project working with rural teachers in central China, recent graduates Lebans and Radigan spent a month teaching in Chinese schools. The primary purpose of the project is to work with members of the Sichuan Provincial Teacher Training Centre and rural teachers from Wenchuan County…

Lebans, Tanya; Radigan, Margie

2007-01-01

207

GRACE, GLDAS and measured groundwater data products show water storage loss in Western Jilin, China.  

PubMed

Water storage depletion is a worsening hydrological problem that limits agricultural production in especially arid/semi-arid regions across the globe. Quantifying water storage dynamics is critical for developing water resources management strategies that are sustainable and protective of the environment. This study uses GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment), GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) and measured groundwater data products to quantify water storage in Western Jilin (a proxy for semi-arid wetland ecosystems) for the period from January 2002 to December 2009. Uncertainty/bias analysis shows that the data products have an average error <10% (p < 0.05). Comparisons of the storage variables show favorable agreements at various temporal cycles, with R(2) = 0.92 and RMSE = 7.43 mm at the average seasonal cycle. There is a narrowing soil moisture storage change, a widening groundwater storage loss, and an overall storage depletion of 0.85 mm/month in the region. There is possible soil-pore collapse, and land subsidence due to storage depletion in the study area. Invariably, storage depletion in this semi-arid region could have negative implications for agriculture, valuable/fragile wetland ecosystems and people's livelihoods. For sustainable restoration and preservation of wetland ecosystems in the region, it is critical to develop water resources management strategies that limit groundwater extraction rate to that of recharge rate. PMID:22508123

Moiwo, Juana Paul; Lu, Wenxi; Tao, Fulu

2012-01-01

208

Multiple climate indices of the Cenozoic sedimentary sequence in the western Tarim Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tarim Basin is one of the largest closed basins in the word, and is a typical region that was affected directly by the retreat of the Tethyan Realm and the stepwise uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. In the western part, over 3000 m of Cenozoic sedimentary sequences, consisting of marine deposits in the lower, continental clay and fine sand in the middle, and molasse in the upper part, record the evolution of the eastern edge of the Tethyan Realm, the Asian aridification, and the deformation of the Pamir. In this work, we reported the high-resolution multi-proxy indices of the complete Cenozoic Ulukeqiati section from the westernmost of the Tarim Basin. Our results show: 1) variations in grain size, magnetic susceptibility and the ultrafine component, and magnetic susceptibility can be used as proxies for dynamics of transport medium, continental aridity, and temperature, respectively; 2) the long-term increase in mean size reflected an overall strengthen in potential energy to the transporting medium arised from tectonic activity and/or climate change, the long-term decrease in magnetic susceptibility and the ultrafine component proportion revealed an enhanced continental aridity, whilst, the long-term decrease in redness suggested a stepwise cooing process of the area during the Cenozoic; 3) comparison of the high resolution records with the geological events recorded in the same sedimentary sequence suggested that the retreat of the Tethyan Realm, the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, and the Cenozoic global cooling played the leading roles in driving the Cenozoic Asian aridification.

Wang, Xin; Sun, Donghuai; Chen, Fahu; Wang, Fei; Li, Baofeng; Wu, Sheng; Zhang, Yuebao; Li, Zaijun

2013-04-01

209

Glacial \\- Interglacial variability in Paleoceanographic Particle Fluxes in the South China Sea and the western Pacific Ocean during the Late Quaternary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time series records of 230Thex0\\-normalized fluxes of carbonate, biogenic opal, and organic carbon in cores SO\\-31KL, MD972148, MD972142, and MD972143 were reconstructed to examine environmental responses to glacial\\-interglacial climatic changes in the South China Sea and the western Pacific Ocean. The glacial biogenic productivity was generally higher in the South China Sea compared to that of Holocene levels. This higher productivity particularly prominent during the oxygen isotopic stage 2. As Asia winter monsoon develooped more, the primary productivity would have increased during glacial periods because of increasing in mixing or upwelling, changes in the oceanic circulation pattern, or increased nutrient supply from terrigenous sources. In addition, several prominent peaks of biogenic opal, carbonate, and TOC fluxes were observed and corresponded to rapid cooler climate change events occurred very close to Younger Dryas, Heinrich event 1, 2, 3, and 4 in the North Atlantic. Observations from the 230Thex0\\-normalized terrigenous flux and content of 232Th showed that the South China Sea experienced dramatic paleoceanographic changes and coincided with glacial\\-interglacial sea level fluctuations. During glacial times, vast shelf areas in both the northern and especially the southern South China Sea emerged and lead to an increased terrigenous input into the basin up to fivefold. In contrast, MD972143 core, retrieved from the western Philippine Sea, revealed insignificant glacial\\-interglacial changes on sediment rain rates of both 230Thex0\\-normalized biogenic opal flux and organic carbon flux over the last 200 kyrs except during two periods, around 31\\~40 kyr ago and 57\\~59 kyr ago. Moreover, the magnitude of the records was much smaller than those observed in the South China Sea up to tenfold. However, content of carbonate and carbonate rain rates of core MD972143 clearly reflect the glacial-interglacial alternations. The better carbonate preservation was observed at boundaries of oxygen isotopic stages 1/2 (Termination I) and 5/6 (Termination II).

Yu, E.

2001-12-01

210

Academic Libraries in Sichuan Province: An American Librarian's Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an exchange program between academic libraries in Sichuan Province and Washington State University, and discusses the Chinese approach to academic librarianship in the areas of management and personnel, access and circulation, automation, reference services, collection development and censorship, and library facilities. (CLB)

Nofsinger, Mary M.

1988-01-01

211

Crustal flow in western Yunnan, China, and along the Mogok belt, Myanmar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mode of deformation along the eastern boundary of the northward moving Indian block during the Cenozoic is still controversial. Models considered are: (i) southward lateral extrusion of a single crustal block bounded by the right lateral Sagaing fault in Myanmar and the left-lateral Aialo-Shan shear zone (ASSZ) in Yunnan; (ii) southward lateral extrusion of at least two different crustal blocks between the right-lateral S(W)-striking Gaoligong Shan shear zone (GSSZ), the NW-trending Chong Shan shear zone (CSSZ), and the ASSZ. We present a radically different new model: the GSSZ and CSSZ constitute a folded sub-horizontal detachment separating the brittle upper crust from the middle-lower crust represented by the Mogok igneous and metamorphic belt. The kinematics of flow along the detachment was dominantly top-to-S. Folding of the detachment was coeval with and followed top-to-S flow. In the brittle crust, ~E-W shortening is expressed by a fold-thrust belt, and in the ductile crust by L>S tectonites. The deformation pattern is preliminary interpreted as reflecting gravitationally driven flow of upper crustal material from Tibet towards SE-Asia, reminiscent to what is observed by GPS geodesy today. New Mogok-belt granitoid U-Pb zircon dates span the Early to Late Cretaceous (peaks at ~125; 115; 90, and 65 Ma) and tie the Mogok belt to the Gangdese arc of the Lhasa block. New Tertiary magmatic and metamorphic U-Pb zircon dates are 40-30 Ma, similar to magmatism observed across SE-Asia and similar to the monazite age of dikes that we interpret as pre-tectonic along CSSZ [1]. Published and new 40Ar/39Ar dates show that rapid cooling, that we relate to onset of high-strain deformation along the shear zones, started at 20-15 Ma [2, 3]. Fission-track and (U-Th)/He thermochronology indicates that its activity continued at least to 6-3 Ma. References: [1] Akciz, S., Burchfiel, B. C., Crowley, J. L., Jiyun, Y., and Liangzhong, C. (2008): Geometry, kinematics, and regional significance of the Chong Shan shear zone, Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis, Yunnan, China: Geosphere, Febr. 2008, v. 4, p. 292-314. [2] Lin, T.-H., Lo, S.-L., Hsu, F.-J., Yeh, M.-W., Lee, T.-Y., Ji, J.-Q., Wang, Y.-Z., and Liu, D. (2009): 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Jiali and Gaoligong shear zones: Implications for crustal deformation around the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis: Journal of Asian Earth Science, v. 34, p. 674-685. [3] Zhang, B., Zhang, J, Zhong, D., Yang, L., Yue, Y., and Yan, S. (2012): Polystage deformation of the Gaoligong metamorphic zone: Structures, 40Ar/39Ar mica ages, and tectonic implications: Journal of Structural Geology v. 37, p. 1-18.

Sonntag, Benita-Lisette; Min, Myo; Enkelmann, Eva; Kornfeld, Daniela; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Pfänder, Jörg; Jonckheere, Raymond; Dunkl, István

2013-04-01

212

Provenance of sediments from Mesozoic basins in western Shandong: Implications for the evolution of the eastern North China Block  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dates and in situ Hf isotope analyses of detrital zircons from the Mesozoic basins in western Shandong, China, with the aim to constrain the depositional ages and provenances of the Mesozoic strata as well as the Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the eastern North China Block (NCB). The Mesozoic strata in western Shandong, from bottom to top, include the Fenghuangshan, Fangzi, Santai and Wennan formations. Most of the analyzed zircon grains exhibit oscillatory growth zoning and have relatively high Th/U ratios (generally 0.2-3.4), suggesting a magmatic origin. Zircons from the Fenghuangshan Formation in the Zhoucun Basin yield six main age populations (2489, 1854, 331, 305, 282, and 247 Ma). Zircons from the Fangzi Formation in the Zhoucun and Mengyin basins yield eight main age populations (2494, 1844, 927, 465, 323, 273, 223, and 159 Ma) and ten main age populations (2498, 1847, 932, 808, 540, 431, 315, 282, 227, and 175 Ma), respectively, whereas zircons from the Santai Formation in the Zhoucun and Mengyin basins yield nine main age populations (2519, 1845, 433, 325, 271, 237, 192, 161, and 146 Ma) and six main age populations (2464, 1845, 853, 277, 191, and 150 Ma), respectively. Five main age populations (2558, 1330, 609, 181, and 136 Ma) are detected for zircons from the Wennan Formation in the Pingyi Basin. Based on the youngest age, together with the contact relationships among formations, we propose that the Fenghuangshan Formation formed in the Early-Middle Triassic, the Fangzi Formation in the Middle-Late Jurassic, the Santai Formation after the Late Jurassic, and the Wennan Formation after the Early Cretaceous. These results, together with previously published data, indicate that: (1) the sediments of the Fenghuangshan Formation were sourced from the Precambrian basement and from late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic igneous rocks in the northern part of the NCB; (2) the sediments of the Fangzi and Santai formations were sourced from the Precambrian basement, late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic igneous rocks in the northern part of the NCB, and the Sulu terrane, as well as from Middle-Late Jurassic igneous rocks in the southeastern part of the NCB; and (3) the Wennan Formation was sourced from the Tongshi intrusive complex, the Sulu terrane, and minor Precambrian basement and Early Cretaceous igneous rocks. The evolution of detrital provenance indicates that in the Early-Middle Triassic, the northern part of the NCB was higher than its interior; during the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, the eastern NCB was uplifted, resulting in a period of non-deposition; and an important transition from a compressional to an extensional tectonic regime occurred during the Middle-Late Jurassic. The presence of Neoproterozoic and Triassic detrital zircons in the Fangzi Formation sourced from the Sulu terrane suggests that large-scale sinistral strike-slip movement along the Tan-Lu Fault Zone did not occur after the Middle Jurassic (ca. 175 Ma).

Yang, De-Bin; Xu, Wen-Liang; Xu, Yi-Gang; Pei, Fu-Ping; Wang, Feng

2013-10-01

213

Magmatic process recorded in plagioclase at the Baogutu reduced porphyry Cu deposit, western Junggar, NW-China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the fact that porphyry Cu deposits contain large amounts of Cu in one or more small stocks, few studies have discussed evidence for significant magma recharge in porphyry Cu deposits. A systematic elemental and Sr isotopic study of plagioclase crystals from mineralized diorite and granodiorite porphyry constrains the processes of crystallization and magma recharge at the Baogutu reduced porphyry copper deposit, western Junggar, NW-China. Large compositional changes in An (12-24 mol%) are observed along with strong positive correlations between An and FeO. Significant resorption textures are also preserved in plagioclase crystals as well as repeated oscillatory zoning in An and FeO, and complex Sr isotope variations. Three types of crystals with different core-to-rim Sr isotope variations are recognized. Type I crystals have core-to-rim increases in (87Sr/86Sr)i that could be explained by diffusion. For example, Sr isotope variations recorded in BCK2-1-2 crystal could be generated by diffusion with simulated maximum crystal residence times of 100-500 years with the proximate value of ˜300 years. Type II crystals with different variation trends in (87Sr/86Sr)i on opposite sides of the core could be produced either by multi-stage crystallization or by analytical uncertainty. Whereas, type III crystals with complex core-to-rim variations in (87Sr/86Sr)i, may record repeated magma recharge events. All these results suggest repeated recharging of the magma chamber by hotter, more mafic and less radiogenic Sr isotope melts. Therefore, more mafic melt injection recorded in plagioclase profiles may provide significant metal contributions to the magma chamber, which ultimately results in Cu mineralization at the Baogutu reduced porphyry copper deposit.

Cao, MingJian; Qin, KeZhang; Li, GuangMing; Yang, YueHeng; Evans, Noreen J.; Zhang, Rui; Jin, LuYing

2014-03-01

214

Spatial analysis of schizotypal personality traits in Chinese male youths: evidence from a GIS-based analysis of Sichuan  

PubMed Central

Background Schizotypal personality traits are associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, stating that schizotypal traits may represent a “prodrome” or other developmental precursor of schizophrenia. Genetic and environmental factors both play importanxt roles in the development of schizotypal traits. Different levels of schizotypal traits across regions may be indicative of similar differences in the incidence of schizophrenia. Aim The present study identifying where in a given region, schizotypal personality traits are more or less level of schizotypal personality scores in Chinese male youth of Sichuan province. Not only for research purposes but also for the evaluation of new draft and allocation policy initiatives intended to aid recruitment of mental health employees. Methods Data from the Psychological Selection Systems for Chinese Recruits, a mental health screening system used in China, collected in 2011 (67,558 copies) were used to map spatial distribution of schizotypal personality traits using geostatistics and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Correlation analyses were conducted to explore the effects of years of education and illiterate rate on schizotypal personality traits. Results Maps for three schizotypal personality clinical scales (dissociative, Dit; neurotic, Net and sensitive, Set) showed similar geographical trends. The highest T scores were distributed mainly in the eastern and northern counties of Sichuan, with scores decreasing successively from east to west, with the eastern counties generally showing higher scores. Correlation analysis showed that t-scores of Set were negatively correlated with years of education, whereas t-scores of Net were negatively correlated with illiteracy rate. Conclusions Schizotypal personality traits in male youth showed specific geographical trends in Sichuan province, providing some evidence that kriging based on GIS can be used to geographically localize genetic and environmental factors associated with schizotypal personality traits. This approach could be used to help allocate public health resources to specific areas and could also have personnel selection applications. PMID:24423022

2014-01-01

215

The China Connection: Western Institutions Meet Chinese Students and Alumni on the Country's Most Popular Social Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As one of the top U.S. choices for international students, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has a solid reputation in China and a history of educating Chinese students that goes back more than a century. But the university did not realize until last June that its nickname in China is the "Cornfield Ivy" and that Chinese…

Ramspott, Becca

2013-01-01

216

The Merging of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine in China: Old Ideas Cross Culturally Communicated through New Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cross-cultural communication between China and the West, instigated in 1979 by the establishment of an open-door policy in China, has led to the merging of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with the medical practices of the West. The result of these medical exchanges is a blending of medical practices that proves to be more effective in the…

Schnell, James A.

217

Metamorphic evolution of garnet amphibolite in the western Dabieshan eclogite belt, Central China: Evidence from petrography and phase equilibria modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western Dabieshan terrane in central China involves numerous blocks of garnet amphibolite and eclogite enclosed in felsic gneiss and schist. Two representative garnet amphibolite samples SHS22 and BSW05 were selected for detailed study. They are composed of garnet, hornblendic amphibole, sodic plagioclase, epidote, quartz, biotite and/or muscovite, and small amounts of rutile, sphene and ilmenite. A few phengite flakes are found as inclusions in garnet in sample SHS22. Garnet varies in grain size and rim composition. The coarse-grained garnet porphyroblasts are mostly anhedral and exhibit compositional zoning with increasing pyrope and decreasing or constant grossular content from core to rim. Pseudosections calculated in the system NCKMnFMASHO suggest that this garnet zoning reflects prograde P-T paths of early-stage eclogite facies from 1.9 GPa at 490 °C to 2.3 GPa at 555 °C for sample SHS26 and from 1.8 GPa at 450 °C to 2.2 GPa at 540 °C for sample BSW05. The peak P-T conditions are constrained by the garnet rim compositions with the maximum pyrope (Xprp) and minimum grossular (Xgrs) contents. The Si contents in phengite from sample SHS22 were modeled to yield pressure conditions similar to that constrained by garnet. The other garnet rim compositions with decreasing Xprp and increasing Xgrs contents were modeled in P-M (H2O) pseudosections to reflect different degrees of the modification of eclogite facies to amphibolite facies in fluid-unsaturated conditions, indicating decreasing pressures from 0.7 to 0.5 GPa and increasing water contents from 3.6 to 5.2 mol.% at T = 575 °C for sample SHS22, and decreasing pressures from 0.8 to 0.55 GPa and increasing water contents from 3.5 to 4.7 mol.% at T = 530 °C for sample BSW05, respectively. The garnet rims with minimum Xprp and maximum Xgrs were predicted to be close to an equilibrium state with the matrix minerals involving hornblendic amphibole, plagioclase, epidote, biotite and quartz. The constituting assemblage was closely saturated with water. As it is hard to evaluate if the relevant minerals are in equilibrium or not in the garnet amphibolite with multi-generation assemblages, the conventional thermobarometers are not very useful for estimating the P-T conditions for this type of rock.

Lou, Yuxing; Wei, Chunjing; Liu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Cong; Tian, Zuolin; Wang, Wei

2013-02-01

218

Self-Management Behavior in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Western Urban China  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the current status of diabetic self-management behavior and the factors influencing this behavior in Chengdu, a typical city in western China. Methods We performed stratified sampling in 6 urban districts of Chengdu. We used questionnaires concerning self-management knowledge, self-management beliefs, self-management efficacy, social support, and self-management behavior to investigate patients with T2DM from August to November 2011. All of the data were analyzed using the SPSS 17.0 statistical package. Results We enrolled a total of 364 patients in the present study. The median score of self-management behavior was 111.00, the interquartile range was 100.00–119.00, and the index score was 77.77. Self-management was described as “good” in 46%, “fair” in 45%, and “poor” in 6% of patients. A multiple-factor analysis identified age (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20–0.91; P?=?0.026), education in “foot care” (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.18–0.99; P?=?0.048), self-management knowledge (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.80–0.92; P<0.001), self-management belief (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.87–0.97; P?=?0.002), self-efficacy (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90–0.96; P<0.001), and social support (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.41–0.94; P?=?0.023) as positive factors. Negative factors included diabetes duration (5–9 years: OR, 14.82; 95% CI, 1.64–133.73; P?=?0.016; and ?10 years: OR, 10.28; 95% CI, 1.06–99.79; P?=?0.045) and hospitalization experience (OR, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.64–5.36; P<0.001). Conclusion We observed good self-management behavior in patients with T2DM in Chengdu. When self-management education is provided, age, education, knowledge, belief, self-efficacy, and social support should be considered to offer more appropriate intervention and to improve patients' behavior. PMID:24743326

Huang, Mingjun; Zhao, Rui; Li, Sheyu; Jiang, Xiaolian

2014-01-01

219

A modified genetic model for the Huangshandong magmatic sulfide deposit in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, Xinjiang, western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Huangshandong Ni-Cu deposit is the largest magmatic sulfide deposit discovered to date in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt in northern Xinjiang, western China. The host intrusion is a 274-Ma composite mafic-ultramafic intrusion consisting of four separate intrusive units: a large layered gabbroic sequence (phase I), a sheet-like ultramafic body (phase II), a dyke-like gabbronorite body (phase III), and an irregular ultramafic unit (phase IV). Important sulfide mineralization is present in the last three intrusive units, predominantly as disseminated and net-textured sulfides (pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite). The Huangshandong mafic-ultramafic intrusive rocks are characterized by arc-like geochemical signatures such as low Ca content in olivine and negative Nb-Ta anomalies in whole rocks. This, together with a post-subduction setting for the East Tianshan in the Permian, suggests that the source mantle was modified previously by slab-derived fluids in the Carboniferous. The mantle-derived magma was ponded in a staging chamber in the lower part of the newly formed arc crust. The first batch of magma to arrive at Huangshandong was most fractionated and depleted in Ni, crystallizing Fe-rich and Ni-depleted olivine (Fo67, <300 ppm Ni). The second batch of magma was more primitive, crystallizing more primitive olivine (Fo81-84). The third batch of magma was also highly fractionated and depleted in Ni, crystallizing Fe-rich and Ni-depleted olivine (Fo72, ~600 ppm Ni). The final batch of magma became more primitive again, crystallizing the most primitive olivine (Fo81-86). The occurrence of rounded sulfide inclusions in olivine primocrysts in the Huangshandong ultramafic rocks indicates that immiscible sulfide liquid droplets were present during olivine crystallization. The Ni tenors of disseminated sulfide ores in the gabbronorite dyke vary mainly between 5 and 8 wt%, which are too high to have been produced by the parental magma of the dyke. The Ni, Cu, and platinum-group elements (PGE) tenors of disseminated sulfide ores in the dyke (phase III) and the ultramafic sheet (phase II) are remarkably similar. These observations, together with the sequence of magma emplacement, suggest that the sulfide liquids entrapped in the magma of the dyke formed at depth by a previous pulse of more primitive magma. The estimated parental magma for the most primitive lherzolites in the Huangshandong intrusion contains 10 wt% MgO. Modeling shows that sulfide saturation in the parental magma of the Huangshandong lherzolites could have resulted from fractional crystallization. Significant PGE depletions relative to Ni and Cu in the disseminated sulfide ores of the Huangshandong deposit may be due to sulfide retention in the source mantle.

Mao, Ya-Jing; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Li, Chusi; Tang, Dong-Mei

2015-01-01

220

How much does heat content of the western tropical Pacific Ocean modulate the South China Sea summer monsoon onset in the last four decades?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

role of the western tropical Pacific Ocean heat content in the South China Sea summer monsoon (SCSSM) onset is investigated in the present paper, by using atmospheric data from NCEP and ocean subsurface temperature data from Japan Meteorology Agency. It is showed from the result that the heat content (HC) of the upper 400 m layer in the western tropical Pacific (WTP), especially in the region of (130°E-150°E, 0°N-14°N) in the last four decades, is a good predictive indicator for the SCSSM onset. Positive (negative) HC anomalies can induce a strong (weak) convection over the WTP, leading to stronger (weaker) Walker circulation and weaker (stronger) western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) in the boreal spring. Consequently, the anomalous westerly (easterly) in the tropical Indian Ocean is favorable (unfavorable) for the airflow into the SCS and for an early (late) WNPSH retreat from the SCS and hence for an early (late) SCSSM onset. It is elucidated that the long-term trend of SCSSM onset changes its sign around 1993/94 from decline to rise, which is responding and attributed to the WTP HC trend. During the period of 1971-1993, the WTP HC shows a significant decrease trend. In particular, a significant decline trend is observed in the HC difference between the WTP and western tropical Indian Ocean, which causes an easterly trend in the SCS and strengthened WNPSH trend, leading to a late onset trend of SCSSM. The situation is reverse after 1993/94.

Feng, Junqiao; Hu, Dunxin

2014-07-01

221

Effects of Natural Disasters on Conservation Policies: The Case of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China  

E-print Network

Earthquake, China Andre´s Vin~a, Xiaodong Chen, William J. McConnell, Wei Liu, Weihua Xu, Zhiyun Ouyang the impacts of a devastating earthquake on forest recovery and avoided forest loss estimated to have been% of the forests in Wenchuan County, Sichuan province, China were imme- diately affected by the 2008 earthquake

222

China and Korea  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... article title:  Dust Obscures Liaoning Province, China     View Larger Image ... acquired 16 days apart, covers the Liaoning region of China and parts of northern and western Korea. They contrast a relatively clear ...

2013-04-16

223

From enriched to depleted mantle: Evidence from Cretaceous lamprophyres and Paleogene basaltic rocks in eastern and central Guangxi Province, western Cathaysia block of South China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of Eastern China underwent significant lithospheric thinning during Phanerozoic time. Compared to the wealth of detailed research on the destruction of the North China Craton since the Mesozoic, the lithospheric evolution of South China (including the Yangtze Craton and the Cathaysia block) is still unclear. In particular, studies of the western part of the Cathaysia block, which connects the Yangtze Craton in the west to the eastern Cathaysia block in the east, are sparse. The study of the mantle-derived magmatic rocks from the western Cathaysia block can provide a better understanding of the continental evolution of South China, and of greater East Asia. Elemental and SrNd isotopic compositions of the Cretaceous (89 Ma) lamprophyres and Paleogene (51-28 Ma) basaltic rocks in eastern and central Guangxi Province, western Cathaysia block, were analyzed to reveal the nature of their mantle sources. The Cretaceous lamprophyres are ultrapotassic, strongly enriched in LILE-LREE and depleted in HFSEs (e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti), and have high (87Sr/86Sr)i and negative ?Nd (t) values. They probably were derived from low-degree partial melting of an EM2-type garnet-facies (> 80 km) subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM), followed by the fractionation of olivine and clinopyroxene. The modeled SCLM, mainly a phlogopite-bearing harzburgite, represents a refractory mantle that was metasomatically enriched by subduction, prior to the Pacific subduction during Mesozoic. The Paleogene basaltic rocks are enriched in alkalis, LILEs and LREE but positive NbTa anomalies, and are similar to alkali oceanic-island basalts. These basaltic rocks have DM-type SrNd isotopic signatures, with low (87Sr/86Sr)i and high ?Nd (t). They probably were derived from the low-degree partial melting of fertile (asthenospheric) mantle in spinel- to spinel-garnet-facies lherzolite (< 80 km). The differences imply that the source region was transformed from EM2 in Cretaceous time to DM-mantle in Paleogene time, and that lithospheric replacement occurred over Cretaceous-Paleogene time. It was driven by the two-sided dynamics around the Cathaysia block, with Pacific subduction in the east and the Eurasian-Indian plate collision in the west. The complex subduction dynamics led to complex asthenospheric convection, a regional lithospheric extension beneath the Cathaysia block, and the removal or modification of the ancient SCLM.

Li, Xi-Yao; Zheng, Jian-Ping; Ma, Qiang; Xiong, Qing; Griffin, W. L.; Lu, Jiang-Gu

2014-01-01

224

China.  

PubMed

China's census, scheduled for July 1, 1981, will be preceded by a pilot census at the end of the next month. According to Mr. Y.C. Yu, Statistician in the Demographic and Social Statistics Branch of the UN, the pretest will be held in Wu Xi, a resort area of about 1.6 million persons about a 2-hour train ride west of Shanghai. Mr. Yu and Mr. Varon Kannisto will be UN observers of the pilot census. The method of enumeration will be similar to that used in the 1953 and 1964 censuses, said Mr. Yu. Each head of household will report to an enumeration station to provide information on the characteristics of household members. The questionnaire will contain about 13 items, which will be asked of 100% of the population. The 5 million enumerators will be teachers, accountants, and others, generally residents of the local area in which they will act as enumerators. Census data will be processed by computers in each of the 29 provinces and autonomous regions. The UNFPA is providing computers, data entry and ancillary equipment, software and supplies, advisory services, and training in census methods and data processing. The computers supplied by IBM will be the 4300 series; a model 4341 will be installed at the State Statistical Bureau in Beijing and 15 model 4331s will go to individual provinces. Results of earlier censuses were processed manually and with the abacus. UNFPA also plans to provide support for the analysis of census data and for their dissemination to appropriate organizations and departments in China. PMID:12278426

1980-05-01

225

Extreme Exhumation Within the Sichuan Basin - Late Cenozoic Erosion, Sedimentation and Tectonics at the Eastern Margin of the Tibetan Plateau Based on Apatite Fission Track Thermochronology.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tibetan Plateau represents the most impressive geomorphic expression of the effects of continental collision on the Earth's surface. Despite being the focus of much research over the last decades, there are still numerous outstanding questions regarding the mechanisms and timing of plateau formation, and regional lithospheric structure. The eastern margin of the plateau is a particularly key location for the assessment of these issues. This margin, commonly referred to as the Longmenshan, presents a formidable topographic front, yet appears not to have experienced significant shortening since the Triassic, and is not accompanied by major Cenozoic thrusting and associated foreland basin deposits within the adjacent Sichuan Basin. The means by which such extreme relief is produced and maintained are therefore somewhat enigmatic. Previous studies have suggested that focused late Cenozoic exhumation took place along the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, but in this study, we demonstrate that significant exhumation also took place within the adjacent Sichuan Basin. Using new apatite fission track thermochronological data and compilations of vitrinite reflectance data, we place constraints on the magnitude and timing of Cenozoic exhumation, and of post-exhumation deformation, adjacent to the eastern Tibetan Plateau. We calculate that between 2 and 4 km of sedimentary basin fill was removed during the late Tertiary across the entire Sichuan Basin. This event is marked by a widespread regional unconformity between Cretaceous to Eocene fine-grained clastic rocks and late Neogene conglomerate within the western Sichuan Basin. Determination of the location of the base of the apatite partial annealing zone allows us to establish exhumation patterns across the Tibetan Plateau margin and into the Sichuan Basin. Field observations, heavy minerals and clast compositional analyses of late Neogene sediments within the basin also permit us to constrain the timing of the latest deformational phase along the margin, and allow us to reconstruct major drainage pattern reorganization that has taken place between the late Neogene and Recent. Clearly, the rapid removal of such large quantities of material from the Sichuan Basin has important implications for the surrounding lithosphere, and for our understanding of the tectonic and sedimentary history of this margin of the Tibetan Plateau. We close by speculating on the erosional mechanisms involved in such large-scale basin evacuation.

Richardson, N.; Densmore, A. L.; Seward, D.; Yong, L.

2005-12-01

226

Source of surface ozone and reactive nitrogen speciation at Mount Waliguan in western China: New insights from the 2006 summer study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), and total and speciated reactive nitrogen compounds (NOy, NO, NO2, PAN, HNO3, and particulate ? were measured at Mount Waliguan (WLG; 36.28°N, 100.90°E, 3816 m above sea level (asl)) in the summer of 2006 to further understand the sources of ozone and reactive nitrogen and to investigate the partitioning of reactive nitrogen over the remote Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The mean mixing ratios of O3, CO, NOy, and daytime NO were 59 ppbv, 149 ppbv, 1.44 ppbv, and 71 pptv, respectively, which (except for NOy) were higher than those measured from a previous campaign in summer 2003, which is consistent with more frequent transport of anthropogenic pollution from central and eastern China in the measurement period of 2006 (55%) than that of 2003 (25%). The abnormally high values of NOy observed in 2003 were suspected to be due to the positive interference from ammonia (NH3) to the particular catalytic converter used in that study. Varied diurnal patterns were observed for the various NOy components. The ozone production efficiencies (?O3/?NOz), which were estimated from the slope of the O3-NOz scatterplot, were 7.7-11.3 for the polluted plumes from central and eastern China. The speciation of reactive nitrogen was investigated for the first time in the remote free troposphere in western China. PAN and particulate ? were the most abundant reactive nitrogen species at WLG, with average proportions of 32% and 31%, followed by NOx (24%) and HNO3 (20%). The relatively large contribution of particulate ? to NOy was due to the presence of high concentrations of NH3 and crustal particles, which favor the formation of particulate nitrate. An analysis of backward trajectories for the recent 10 years revealed that air masses from central and eastern China dominated the airflow at WLG in summer, suggesting strong impact of anthropogenic forcing on the surface ozone and other trace constituents on the Plateau.

Xue, L. K.; Wang, T.; Zhang, J. M.; Zhang, X. C.; Deliger, null; Poon, C. N.; Ding, A. J.; Zhou, X. H.; Wu, W. S.; Tang, J.; Zhang, Q. Z.; Wang, W. X.

2011-04-01

227

Abiogenic Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of methane at the Baogutu reduced porphyry copper deposit, western Junggar, NW-China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane is widely developed in hydrothermal fluids from reduced porphyry copper deposits, but its origin remains enigmatic. The occurrence of methane in fluid inclusions at the Late Carboniferous Baogutu reduced porphyry copper deposit in western Junggar, Xinjiang, NW-China, presents an excellent opportunity to address this problem. A systematic study including fluid inclusion Laser-Raman and CO2-CH4 carbon isotope analyses, igneous and hydrothermal mineral H-O isotope analyses, and in situ major, trace element and Sr isotopic analyses of hydrothermal epidote was conducted to constrain the origin of CH4 and CH4-rich fluids. The ?2H and ?18O of water in equilibrium with igneous biotite ranges from -65.0‰ to -66.0‰ and +7.2‰ to +7.4‰, respectively, indicating notable degassing of probably supercritical fluids in the magma chamber. The wide range of ?2H (-58.0‰ to -107.0‰, n = 23) for water within quartz suggests the existence of significant hydrothermal fluid boiling. Water-rock interaction is the most likely mechanism leading to the wide range of ?18O values for water in vein quartz with water/rock ratios (wt.% in O) of 0.15 to 0.75 and 0.13 to 0.46 for a closed and open system, respectively. Detailed Laser-Raman analyses indicate CO2 in apatite included in granodiorite porphyry phenocrystic biotite that records the carbon species of the early stage magmatic stage, whereas later hydrothermal fluids containing CH4 with trace or without CO2 are found in inclusions of vein quartz. We propose that CH4 is probably transformed from CO2 by Fischer-Tropsch type reactions at 500 °C, assumed from CO2-CH4 C isotope equilibrium. The (87Sr/86Sr)i of hydrothermal epidote yields values of 0.70369-0.70404, consistent with that reported for the whole rocks. The ?13CCH4 (-28.6‰ to -22.6‰) and ?2HCH4 (-108.0‰ to -59.5‰) are characteristic of abiogenic methane. The measured ?13CCO2 shows a slightly depleted 13C (-13.5‰ to -7.2‰) relative to upper mantle (-6‰), probably due to the combined effects of minor (less than 0.5%) sedimentary organic matter contamination in the mantle and carbon isotope fractionation occurring during late degassing. Combining the results indicates that CO2 likely originated from the upper mantle with trace addition of sedimentary organic matter. During the uplift or emplacement of the granitoids, significant degassing caused the depletion of 13C and 2H. As the granitoids cooled, notable hydrothermal fluid boiling and water-rock interaction produced the depletion of 2H and 18O, respectively, and the magmatic CO2 was reduced to CH4 by Fischer-Tropsch type reactions that probably occurred during Ca-Na and potassic hydrothermal alteration.

Cao, MingJian; Qin, KeZhang; Li, GuangMing; Evans, Noreen J.; Jin, LuYing

2014-09-01

228

Current State of Library and Information Science in China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the training programs in library and information science at the secondary and higher educational levels that have developed in China in response to the recognition of the importance of scientific and technical information. The newly established department of library and information science at Sichuan University is described, including…

Hu, Wendy Lin

1990-01-01

229

The Impact of Changes of the Internal Agricultural Structure in Sichuan Province on Farmers’ Income  

Microsoft Academic Search

After introducing the status quo of farmers’ net income and gross out value of agriculture of Sichuan Province, and the changes of agricultural output structure, the regression analysis was conducted on the impact of the changes in agricultural structure on the farmers’ net income per capita on strengthens of the data from Sichuan statistical yearbook and by the way of

Rui-fang Gao; Xian-wei Jia

2010-01-01

230

Ridge subduction and crustal growth in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from Late Carboniferous adakites and high-Mg diorites in the western Junggar region, northern Xinjiang (west China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is a natural laboratory for the study of accretionary tectonics and crustal growth owing to its massive generation of juvenile crust in the Paleozoic. There is a debate, however, on the mechanism of this growth. In the Baogutu area of the western Junggar region, northern Xinjiang (west China), diorite–granodiorite porphyry plutons and dikes are

Gongjian Tang; Qiang Wang; Derek A. Wyman; Zheng-Xiang Li; Zhen-Hua Zhao; Xiao-Hui Jia; Zi-Qi Jiang

2010-01-01

231

Intron polymorphism (EPIC-PCR) reveals phylogeographic structure of Zacco platypus in China: a possible target for aquaculture development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims at a phylogeographic description of Zacco platypus from southeast China, in order to detect subdivisions within the nominal species. Two main basins were sampled: the Chang Jiang (Yangstze River) in central and east China (Hunan and Sichuan provinces) and the Xi Jiang, the more southern main tributary of the Zhu Jiang (Pearl River, Guangxi province). A

P Berrebi; E Boissin; F Fang; G Cattaneo-Berrebi

2005-01-01

232

The influences of surface water-overflowing disturbance on the fluctuations of Tamarix ramosissima community in Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this study is to examine the fluctuation characteristics of Tamarix ramosissima community from the year of 2007–2008 in desert riparian forest under human surface water-overflowing disturbance in the lower reaches of Tarim River, China. In this paper, community structure, species diversity and dominant species were chosen as the indicators which could reflect the characteristics of community

Yanrui Chen; Linke Yin; Xu Bai

2010-01-01

233

Intraspecific genetic variation and phylogenetic analysis of Dirofilaria immitis samples from Western China using complete ND1 and 16S rDNA gene sequences.  

PubMed

Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm) is the causative agent of an important zoonotic disease that is spread by mosquitoes. In this study, molecular and phylogenetic characterization of D. immitis were performed based on complete ND1 and 16S rDNA gene sequences, which provided the foundation for more advanced molecular diagnosis, prevention, and control of heartworm diseases. The mutation rate and evolutionary divergence in adult heartworm samples from seven dogs in western China were analyzed to obtain information on genetic diversity and variability. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using both maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayes methods based on the complete gene sequences. The results suggest that D. immitis formed an independent monophyletic group in which the 16S rDNA gene has mutated more rapidly than has ND1. PMID:24639299

Liu, Tianyu; Liang, Yinan; Zhong, Xiuqin; Wang, Ning; Hu, Dandan; Zhou, Xuan; Gu, Xiaobin; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

2014-06-01

234

Concentration, distribution and variation of polar organic aerosol tracers in Ya'an, a middle-sized city in western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 ?m) and TSP (total suspended particulates) aerosol samples were collected in Ya'an, a middle-sized city with extensive wood resources in Southwestern China, to characterize the contribution of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) to the regional troposphere, the composition of the organic tracers as well as factors affecting their concentrations. A total of 34 samples were gathered on the Campus of Sichuan Agricultural University (SAU, urban site, in the city zone of Ya'an), while 49 samples were collected at Baima Spring Scenic Area (BSSA, forest site, situated about 30 km to the northeast of SAU) during June to July, 2010. Using GC/MS analysis with prior trimethylsilylation, organic tracers including isoprene oxidation products (2-methyltetrols, C5-alkene triols and 2-methylglyceric acid), ?-/?-pinene oxidation products (norpinic acid, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, 3-hydroxy-4,4-dimethylglutaric acid, and 3-methyl-1,2,3- butanetricarboxylic acid), a sesquiterpene oxidation product (?-caryophyllinic acid), sugars (glucose and fructose), sugar alcohols (arabitol, mannitol, erythritol, sorbitol and xylitol), anhydrosugars (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan) and malic acid were determined. The factors that could potentially affect the SOA tracer concentrations, i.e. trace gases (SO2, NOx, O3, NH3), aerosol acidity and meteorological parameters, were monitored. The results showed that the concentrations of total isoprene oxidation products were 72 and 82 ng/m3 at the two sampling locations, with 29 ± 18, 37 ± 9, 6 ± 2 ng/m3 at SAU and 57 ± 34, 33 ± 33, 4 ± 2 ng/m3 at BSSA for 2-methyltetrols, C5-alkene triols and 2-methylglyceric acid respectively. Compared with the concentrations of isoprene oxidation products, those of ?-/?-pinene oxidation products and ?-caryophyllinic acid were much lower, being 6 ± 33 and 0.5 ± 1.9 ng/m3 at SAU, and 9 ± 14 and 1.0 ± 1.2 ng/m3 at BSSA, respectively. The unique composition of isoprene oxidation products, particularly, the high concentrations of the C5-alkene triols and their relative abundances comparable to those of the 2-methyltetrols, are possibly due to the fact that they are formed through acid-catalyzed reactions of C5-epoxydiols on weak acidic aerosols. Moreover, sugars and sugar alcohols were measured in important fractions at the two study areas, with the median concentrations of 309.7 and 465.7 ng/m3 at SAU and BSSA, respectively. The high abundances of sugar and sugar alcohols in the study area are explained by the robust metabolism of microorganism in the fertile soil under the warm and moist climate as well as vigorous physiological activities of vegetations in the exuberant subtropical areas. The detected organic tracers accounted in total for 1.5-1.8% of organic carbon (OC) in the study atmosphere, and about 15-21% of the OC could in total be apportioned to biogenic aerosol sources and source processes.

Li, Li; Dai, Dongjue; Deng, Shihuai; Feng, Jialiang; Zhao, Min; Wu, Jun; Liu, Lu; Yang, Xiaohui; Wu, Sishi; Qi, Hui; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Wang, Yingjun; Zhang, Yanzong

2013-02-01

235

Early Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the Xing-Meng Orogenic Belt: Constraints from detrital zircon geochronology of western Erguna-Xing'an Block, North China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better constrain the Early Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the western part of the Erguna-Xing'an Block, detrital zircon U-Pb dating was applied on the Ordovician to Devonian sedimentary strata along the southeast part of the China-Mongolia border. Most of the zircons from five sedimentary samples display fine-scale oscillatory growth zoning and Th/U ratios higher than 0.1, indicating a magmatic origin. All five Ordovician-Devonian samples display the similar age distribution patterns with age groups at ?440 Ma, ?510 Ma, ?800 Ma, ?950 Ma, and few Meso- to Paleo-Proterozoic and Neoarchean grains. This age distribution pattern is similar to those from adjacent blocks in the southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Considering previous tectonic studies, we propose bidirectional provenances from the Erguna-Xing'an Block and Baolidao Arc. Consequently, a new model was proposed to highlight the Early Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the western Erguna-Xing'an Block, which constrains two main Early Paleozoic tectonic events of the Xing-Meng Orogenic Belt: (a) pre-Late Cambrian collision between Erguna-Kerulen Block and Arigin Sum-Xilinhot-Xing'an Block; (b) the Early Paleozoic subduction of Paleo-Asian Ocean and pre-Late Devonian collision between Erguna-Xing'an Block and Songliao-Hunshandake Block.

Zhao, Pan; Fang, Junqin; Xu, Bei; Chen, Yan; Faure, Michel

2014-12-01

236

Western high-performance HR practices in China: a comparison among public-owned, private and foreign-invested enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study is a comparison of the status of high-performance human resource (HR) practices and organizational goal priorities (economic and humanistic) in Chinese domestic-owned (public-owned and private-owned) and foreign-invested enterprises. This study also investigates the relationship between organization goal priorities and the adoption of high-performance HR practices. The study sample included 167 different organizations in China. The results indicate

Xiaoyun Wang; Nealia Sue Bruning; Siqing Peng

2007-01-01

237

The Permian Huangshanxi Cu–Ni deposit in western China: intrusive–extrusive association, ore genesis, and exploration implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Permian Huangshanxi Cu–Ni deposit is the second largest magmatic sulfide deposit discovered to date in a major Ni–Cu province\\u000a related to protracted basaltic magmatism in eastern Xinjiang, China. It is hosted by a small mafic–ultramafic intrusion comprised\\u000a predominantly of lherzolites, olivine websterites, gabbronorites, and gabbros. The Huangshanxi intrusion is coeval with Permian\\u000a basalts of tholeiitic and alkaline affinities in

Mingjie Zhang; Chusi Li; Piaoer Fu; Peiqing Hu; Edward M. Ripley

2011-01-01

238

REE composition of primary and altered feldspar from the mineralized alteration zone of alkaline intrusive rocks, western Yunnan Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yao'an gold deposit is situated northwest of Kunming in Yunnan Province, China, is associated spatially with Yao'an alkaline intrusion. The Yao'an gold mineralization may be divided into two ore stages: the stage I (sulfide stage) fine-grained pyrite-chalcopyrite-galena stringer veins and the stage II (oxide plus sulfide) tectonic breccias and banded ore. The stage I ores occur in the zones

Xianwu Bi; D. H Cornell; Ruizhong Hu

2002-01-01

239

Theileriosis of sheep and goats in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Theileriosis is an important disease of sheep and goats in West China. Its main distribution includes Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia,\\u000a Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi and Sichuan. The epidemic period is from late March to July with April–May being the peak months.\\u000a This is the perid of most intensive tick attack byHaemaphysalis qinghaiensis (772–9924%) during the year. It has been proved that the

Jianxun Luo; Hong Yin

1997-01-01

240

A 14?000-year record of paleoenvironmental change in the western basin of China's third largest lake, Lake Taihu  

Microsoft Academic Search

The longest vertical profile from the western basin of Taihu Lake ever taken was nearly 4 m (396 cm) in length and represented a time period of over 14?000 years. The core was analyzed for the following proxies, magnetic susceptibility, organic carbon isotope, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, total pigments, saturated hydrocarbons, carbon 14, thermolytic hydrogen (the hydrogen index, HI)

Wenchuan Qu; Bin Xue; M. D. Dickman; Sumin Wang; Chengxin Fan; Ruijin Wu; Pingzhong Zhang; Jianfa Chen; Yanhong Wu

2000-01-01

241

Factors associated with acceptability of circumcision among male drug users in western China: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

This study is aimed to investigate whether male circumcision (MC) is feasible among IDUs in China. 1304 drug users who attended methadone maintenance therapy clinics in Guangxi, Chongqing and Xinjiang were selected for participation by using convenience sampling, and completed a self-administered questionnaire. The factors associated with the acceptability of MC were examined via multiple logistic regression models. 45.2% (589/1304) of the participants reported an acceptance of MC. Many of the participants who were initially not willing to accept MC (715/1304) had changed their mind when they were informed that MC would reduce the risk of HIV and STDs (43.4%; 310/715), that MC is associated with few surgery-related complications (23.1%; 165/715), that the surgical procedure could be arranged free of charge (20.1%, 144/715). In the multivariate analysis, higher acceptability of MC was associated with knowledge of the hazards of phimosis (OR=2.22), the presence of phimosis (OR=14.87), and knowledge that MC can prevent AIDS and STDs (OR=1.49); while lower acceptability was associated with residing in Chongqing province (OR=0.41) and an educational level of junior (OR=0.64) and senior high (OR=0.63) school. The MC policy targeting IDUs in China should take into account these factors associated with MC acceptability. PMID:23970769

Huang, J; Jiang, J; Abdullah, A S; Yang, X; Wei, B; Deng, W; Qin, B; Upur, H; Zhong, C; Wang, Q; Wang, Q; Ruan, Y; Zou, Y; Ye, L; Xie, P; Wei, F; Xu, N; Liang, H

2013-07-01

242

[Near infrared spectrum analysis and meaning of the soil in 512 earthquake surface rupture zone in Pingtong, Sichuan].  

PubMed

Through modern near infrared spectrum, the authors analyzed the yellow soil from the rupture zone located in Ping- tong town,Pingwu, Sichuan province. By rapid identification of the characteristic of peak absorption of mineral particles, the result shows that the soil samples mainly composed of calcite, dolomite, muscovite, sericite, illite, smectite; talc, tremolite, actinolite, chlorite, etc. And the mineral compositions of the soil is basically the same with the yellow soil in Sichuan region. By analyzing and comparing it was revealed that part of mineral compositions of the soil are in accordance with the characteristics of the rock mineral compositions below the rupture zone, indicating that part of the minerals of the soil's evolution is closely related to the rock compositions in this area; and the compositions of the clay mineral in the rupture zone is similar to the Ma Lan loess in the north of China, so it is presumed that the clay minerals in these two kinds of soil have the same genetic type. The characteristic of the mineral composition of the soil is in accordance with evolution characteristics of the rocks which is bellow the rupture zone, also it was demonstrated that the results of soil minerals near-infrared analysis can effectively analyze the mineral particles in the soil and indicate the pedogenic environment. Therefore, the result shows the feasibility of adopting modern near-infrared spectrum for rapid analysis of mineral particles of the soil and research of geology. Meanwhile, the results can be the foundation of this region's soil mineral analysis, and also provide new ideas and methods for the future research of soil minerals and the earthquake rupture zone. PMID:25508716

Yi, Ze-bang; Cao, Jian-jin; Luo, Song-ying; Wang, Zheng-yang; Liao, Yi-peng

2014-08-01

243

Predatory Ground Beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Gaoligong Mountain Region of Western Yunnan Province, China: the Tribe Cyclosomini  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 1998 and 2007, the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) was the lead institution in a multi-national, multi-disciplinary biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region (GLGS) in the Yunnan province of China. The project surveyed the species diversity of both higher plants and bryophytes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and selected groups of arachnids and insects. The GLGS of China is one of the most biodiverse areas in all of Asia, yet it is also very poorly sampled and in great threat from increasing human activities in the region. CAS's biodiversity inventory project there has increased the number of carabid species known from just 50 to more than 550 species, an eleven-fold increase. The task that remains is to identify all of those 500 additional species and describe any that are new to science. This project is part of that larger biodiversity survey. Our objective was to identify and/or describe carabid beetles of the tribe Cyclosomini represented by nearly a hundred specimens collected in the GLSG. Among those specimens, six morphospecies were identified - one belonging to the genus Cyclosomus Latreille 1829, and the other five belonging to the genus Tetragonoderus Dejean 1829. Following this initial identification process, a list of known distributions of taxa in both genera was assembled to determine which described species to consider for comparative work. Original descriptions were then located for candidate species with known distributions in or near the GLGS; and these are being used now in morphological comparison of specimens. Type specimens for each of the candidate species have been requested from various academic institutions, and morphological comparisons with these types are underway. Morphological characteristics being examined include body proportions and overall shape, color of appendages, color and shape of pronotum, elytral color patterns, and shape and internal structure of male genitalia.

Cueva-Dabkoski, M.; Kavanaugh, D.

2013-12-01

244

Continental ultra-deep drilling locating research status and progress in the Jinchuan Ni-Cu ore-concentrated area,Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abstract is the initial achievements of "Continental ultra-deep drilling locating pre-study in the Jinchuan nickel-copper ore-concentrated area,Western China". 1 Some scientific problems faced by Jinchuan scientific drilling 1.1 Tectonic research of plates convergent margins Jinchuan ore-concentrated area locate in intersection of the south China plate, the north China plate, the tarim plate and convergent orogenic belts. Carrying out deep drilling could obtain informations such as deep material composition, fluid composition, rock fabric, structural features of the special region,etc.Then we can discuss tectonic evolution of the area between the plates. 1.2 Metallogenic theory research Ore-forming material source and extension of the deep rock situation are the key of resolving and verifying metallogenic theory. Carrying out scientific drilling research which will make some issues, that reasons of the huge amount of metal accumulation, formation mechanism of Cu-Ni-PGE sulfide deposits, relationships of metals accumulation process and the crust-mantle interaction and geological background, in particular, fluid role in this process, be resolved. And we could research mantle-derived magmatism and mineralization. 1.3 Perfect Jinchuan metallogenic model Jinchuan deposit is typical for the world's "formation of large deposit in a small intrusion". That establishing the metallogenic model is predominant in international field of mafic-ultramafic magmatic sulfide deposits. Scientific deep drilling could obtain informations which will enrich the theory system. 2 New achievements of continental ultra-deep drilling locating pre-study (1) Previous studies shown that Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic strata,to south of Ore-bearing rock, are monoclines, but this research reveals that which are incomplete complex anticlines, which controlled and destructed by several major regional faults. And there are several ductile shear zones in Sinian strata that increased complexity of regional structure,deformation and metamorphism. These findings have a significant impact on studies of regional diagenesis, mineralization,magmation and tectonic evolution. (2) Systematic sampling analysis revealed that the formation of copper-rich,,PGE-rich ore bodies related to the latest magma (Su et al.,2010). The magma mineralization concentrated in the midwestern portion of No.1 ore body, this part was probably the location of the occurrence of magma channel. It's worthy of exploring at depth with other factors. (3)The application of controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric sounding shown that spatial distribution of electromagnetic geological bodies of the mining area over 3200m under the surface.

Yan, H.; Tang, Z.; Yang, J.

2010-12-01

245

[Dendroclimatic potentials for the tree rings of Huangshan pine (Pinus taiwanensis ) at Xiaolinhai in the western Dabie Mountains, China].  

PubMed

By using the dendrochronology research methods, this paper developed the 1915-2011 tree ring-width standard chronology of the Huangshan pine (Pinus taiwanesis) at the north slope of western Dabie Mountains in the junction of Hubei, Henan and Anhui provinces. High mean sensitivity (MS) indicated that there was conspicuous high-frequency climate signals and high first-order autocorrelation (AC) showed there were significant lag-effects of tree previous growth. The higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and expressed population signal (EPS) indicated that the trees had high levels of common climate signals. Correlations between the tree ring-width standard chronology and climatic factors (1959-2011) revealed the significant influences of temperature, precipitation and relative humidity on the tree width growth of Huangshan pine by the end of growing season (September and October). Significant positive correlations were found between the tree-ring indices and the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) of current September and October. In conclusion, the combination of water and heat of September and October is the major effect factor for the growth of Huangshan pine in western Dabie Mountains. PMID:25345032

Peng, Jian-Feng; Li, Guo-Dong; Li, Ling-Ling

2014-07-01

246

Review of the millipede genus Epanerchodus Attems, 1901 in continental China, with descriptions of new species (Diplopoda: Polydesmidae).  

PubMed

Four new species of Epanerchodus are described from mainland China: E. jaegeri sp. nov. and E. martensi sp. nov., both sympatric and even partly syntopic in Shaanxi, E. schawalleri sp. nov., from Sichuan, and E. yunnanensis sp. nov., from Yunnan. In addition, E. koreanus Verhoeff, 1937 is formally new to the fauna of China due to fresh samples from Jilin. A key is presented to all 14 unquestioned species of Epanerchodus currently known from mainland China. PMID:24870082

Golovatch, S I

2014-01-01

247

Phylogeography of the ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) in China.  

PubMed

The ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) are widely distributed in China. We used mitochondrial DNA control-region data to investigate the origin and past demographic changes in 139 ring-necked pheasants (P. colchicus) sampled from the species' distribution range. A total of 1078 nucleotides from the control region of mitochondrial DNA were sequenced, and 88 polymorphic positions defined 102 haplotypes. High level of genetic diversity was detected in all populations studied which could be associated with the wide ecological distributions and niche variation. Phylogenetic analyses of all haplotypes identified five major clades. The haplotypes of Gray-rumped Pheasants existed in the three clades: A (western clade), B (eastern clade) and C (Sichuan Basin clade). Two haplotypes of Kirghiz Pheasants were in the clade B, and the rest haplotype of Kirghiz Pheasants formed the clade D. Only one haplotype from White-winged Pheasants made up clade E. The results of AMOVA showed a low gene flow (Nm=0.44) and significant genetic differentiation (Fst=0.31, P<0.001) among all populations. Based on the divergence time, we speculate that the divergence of the ring-necked pheasant occurring in the late Pleistocene may have resulted from three events: (1) the uplift of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, (2) the existence of Qinling Mountains and Liupan Mountains, (3) the isolation of Sichuan Basin. Demographic population expansion was strongly confirmed by the non-significant mismatch distribution analysis. The described subspecies of the ring-necked pheasant could not be supported by the phylogeographical structuring. PMID:19328240

Qu, Jiangyong; Liu, Naifa; Bao, Xinkang; Wang, Xiaoli

2009-07-01

248

Lithospheric electrical structure of South China imaged by magnetotelluric data and its tectonic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The region of South China mainly consists of the Yangtze block in the northwest, the Cathaysia block in the southeast and the Jiangnan orogen in between these two major Precambrian continental blocks. The Yangtze block borders the North China Craton in the north and the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau in the west. The Cathaysia block adjoins the Pacific tectonic domain in the east. The study of tectonics in this region is of great significance given its important role in understanding the formation of the Asia continent. Under the auspices of SinoProbe Project, new magnetotelluric (MT) data were collected along a ?1200 km long profile starting from central Sichuan Basin near Suining, extending southeastward, passing through the Yangtze Block, Jiangnan Orogen, and terminating within the western Cathaysia Block near Ganzhou. Based on data analysis results, 2D inversions were conducted on the dataset. Resulting model shows that the lithospheric electrical structure of South China is generally resistive which is consistent with the basic feature of stable Precambrian tectonic setting. The resistive western Yangtze block represents the stable, Archean aged cratonic region of the Yangtze basement. While the electrically conductive eastern Yangtze block is characterized by lithospheric shearing of the strike-slip fault system and extensional process that is probably caused by slab roll-back of a flatly subducted plate. The Jiangshao fault performs as a northwestward dipping conductive layer, which indicates the lithospheric underthrusting of Cathaysia block beneath Yangtze block with its frontal edge reaching the area of Jishou in the upper mantle. To the west of Jiangshao fault, eastern flank of the Xuefengshan Mountain marks the overthrusting frontier of the Yangtze block, as well as its southeastern boundary. To the east of Jiangshao fault, the northwestern boundary of the Cathaysia block displays the pattern of wedging tectonics, which is characterized by a conductive layer wedging into the Cathaysia lithosphere at the depth range of Moho.

Zhang, Letian; Jin, Sheng; Wei, Wenbo; Ye, Gaofeng; Jing, Jianen; Dong, Hao; Xie, Chengliang

2015-02-01

249

Terrestriality and tree stratum use in a group of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys.  

PubMed

Morphological characters allow the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) to use multiple tree levels, but very few studies have quantified the terrestriality and tree stratum use of the species. I investigated the terrestriality and tree stratum use in a group of the monkeys from July 2003 to September 2004 (except February) in the Qianjiaping area of Shennongjia Nature Reserve, China. I collected data on the vertical position of individual monkeys in forest in relation to behavior types, diet, age/sex classes, vegetation types, tree height, and distribution of predators. The monkeys were much more arboreal than they were thought to be. They spent 97.1% of their time in trees (n=21,234 records) and 2.9% on the ground, and mainly used the middle (74.4%) and upper strata (17.4%). The monkeys displayed all behavioral types except searching in the middle and upper strata. The percentage of use of a stratum (except the low stratum) varied among months, and there was a difference in the percentage of use of a stratum among age/sex classes and between vegetation types. Approximately 94.2% of trees used by the monkeys were >6 m tall. They mainly fed on lichens, young leaves, mature leaves, flowers, fruits or seeds, and buds in the middle and upper strata, bark in the low and middle strata and herbs on the ground. Wolf (Canis lupus), leopard (Panthera pardus), and golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) are predators threatening the survival of individual monkeys in the study site. The results suggested that the seasonal vertical distribution of food items eaten in forest, predators, and vegetation types had important effects on the terrestriality and tree stratum use of the monkeys. PMID:17265009

Li, Yiming

2007-07-01

250

Two new species of the genus Epuraea Erichson, 1843 from China (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae, Epuraeinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two new species belonging to the consobrina-group of the subgenus Micruria Reitter, 1875 (genus Epuraea Erichson, 1843), Epuraea (Micruria) lanuginosa sp. n. and Epuraea (Micruria) pulliginis sp. n., found in Sichuan Province, China, are described. Pictures and details of structures important for diagnostics of the new species, including external characters and genitalia are given. PMID:25349510

Zhao, Mengjiao; Huang, Min; Yang, Xingke; Kirejtshuk, Alexander G.

2014-01-01

251

A new species of Schrankia Hübner, 1825 from China (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Hypenodinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of the genus Schrankia Hübner, 1825, S. pelicano sp. n. is described from Sichuan, China. A diagnostic comparison is made with Schrankia taenialis (Hübner, [1809]) and Schrankia separatalis (Herz, 1904); illustrations of the male holotype and its genitalia are provided. A checklist of the genus with synonyms is given. PMID:23378796

Pekarsky, Oleg

2012-01-01

252

Rural Drinking Water Quality Health Risk in Rain City District of Ya'an, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to unsafe rural drinking water quality which is the core problem of rural drinking water safety and evaluate the risk of rural drinking water quality among the Rain City District of Ya'an, Sichuan Province, China population. The study calculated the carcinogenic risk (R) and non-carcinogenic risk (hazard index, HI) by applying

Ni Fu-quan; Liu Guo-dong; Deng Yu; Fu Cheng-wei

2010-01-01

253

Sustainable management of river oases along the Tarim River in North-Western China under conditions of climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tarim River Basin, located in Xinjiang, NW China, is the largest endorheic river basin of China and one of the largest in whole Central Asia. Due to the extremely arid climate with an annual precipitation of less than 100 mm, the water supply along the Aksu and Tarim River solely depends on river water. This applies for anthropogenic activities (e.g. agriculture) as well as for the natural ecosystems so that both compete for water. The on-going increase of water consumption by agriculture and other human activities in this region has been enhancing the competition for water between human needs and nature. Against this background, 11 German and 6 Chinese universities and research institutes formed the consortium SuMaRiO (www.sumario.de), which aims at gaining a holistic picture of the availability of water resources in the Tarim River Basin and the impacts on anthropogenic activities and natural ecosystems caused by the water distribution within the Tarim River Basin. The discharge of the Aksu River, which is the major tributary to the Tarim, has been increasing over the past 6 decades due to enhanced glacier melt. Alone from 1989 to 2011, the area under agriculture more than doubled. Thereby, cotton became the major crop and there was a shift from small-scale farming to large-scale intensive farming. The major natural ecosystems along the Aksu and Tarim River are riparian ecosystems: Riparian (Tugai) forests, shrub vegetation, reed beds, and other grassland. Within the SuMaRiO Cluster the focus was laid on the Tugai forests, with Populus euphratica as dominant tree, because the most productive and species-rich natural ecosystems can be found among those forests. On sites with groundwater distance of less than 7.5 m the annual increments correlated with river runoffs of the previous year. But, the further downstream along the Tarim River, the more the natural river dynamics ceased, which impacts on the recruitment of Populus euphratica. Household surveys revealed that there is a considerable willingness to pay for conservation of those riparian forests with the mitigation of dust and sandstorms considered as the most important ecosystem service. This interdisciplinary project will result in a decision support tool (DST), build on the participation of regional stakeholders and models based on results and field experiments. This DST finally shall assist stakeholders in balancing the water competition acknowledging the major external effects of any water allocation.

Rumbaur, C.; Thevs, N.; Disse, M.; Ahlheim, M.; Brieden, A.; Cyffka, B.; Doluschitz, R.; Duethmann, D.; Feike, T.; Frör, O.; Gärtner, P.; Halik, Ü.; Hill, J.; Hinnenthal, M.; Keilholz, P.; Kleinschmit, B.; Krysanova, V.; Kuba, M.; Mader, S.; Menz, C.; Othmanli, H.; Pelz, S.; Schroeder, M.; Siew, T. F.; Stender, V.; Stahr, K.; Thomas, F. M.; Welp, M.; Wortmann, M.; Zhao, X.; Chen, X.; Jiang, T.; Zhao, C.; Zhang, X.; Luo, J.; Yimit, H.; Yu, R.

2014-10-01

254

Inventory of the carabid beetle fauna of the Gaoligong Mountains, western Yunnan Province, China: species of the tribe Zabrini (Coleoptera, Carabidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract A ten-year multidisciplinary, multi-national and multi-institutional biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region of western Yunnan Province, China generated more than 35,000 specimens of the beetle (Coleoptera) family Carabidae. In this report, first of a planned series, we focus on diversity in tribe Zabrini. Our study of just over 1300 specimens of zabrine carabids from the project, all in genus Amara Bonelli, found a total of 13 species, all previously described, to occur in the study area, with none of them strictly endemic. We present a key for identification of adults of these species, as well as nomenclatural data, diagnoses, illustrations of dorsal habitus and male genitalia, and information about geographical, altitudinal and habitat distributions within the study area and overall geographical distribution for each species. Distributions of the species within the study area are compared, and broader geographical range patterns are characterized. We also discuss a possible role of the Gaoligong Shan region as one source area for the present-day fauna of the Himalaya and southern edge of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau. PMID:24899831

Kavanaugh, David H.; Hieke, Fritz; Liang, Hongbin; Dong, Dazhi

2014-01-01

255

Geochronological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic characteristics of Cretaceous monzonitic plutons in western Zhejiang Province, Southeast China: New insights into the petrogenesis of intermediate rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present comprehensive petrological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data for the Matou and Dalai plutons in western Zhejiang Province, Southeast China, with the aim of constraining the petrogenesis of monzonites and to offer new insights into the deep processes of interaction between crustal- and mantle-derived magmas beneath SE China. The Matou pluton comprises quartz monzonite, whereas the Dalai pluton consists of quartz monzodiorite. Zircon U-Pb ages obtained by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry show that both plutons were emplaced at 99-101 Ma. Rocks of both plutons are intermediate to silicic, metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, subalkaline, and K-rich in composition. Samples of the plutons are enriched in large ion lithophile (e.g., Rb, K, and Pb) and light rare earth elements, depleted in high-field strength elements (e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti), and have small negative or no Eu anomalies. In addition, the rocks have high Mg# values (up to 53.9), high zircon ?Hf(t) values (up to - 1.4), and low Nb/U and Ta/U ratios. Geochemical evidence suggests that both depleted asthenospheric and metasomatically enriched mantle components were involved in the formation of these monzonitic rocks. The presence of inherited zircons with Palaeoproterozoic ages and zircons with unusually low ?Hf(t) values (- 12.9) in the Matou quartz monzonites indicates that ancient crustal materials were also involved in their petrogenesis. In combination with the presence of abundant mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) with spheroidal to ellipsoidal-ovoidal shapes and xenocrysts within the more diffused enclaves, and the results of trace element modelling, we suggest that the Matou quartz monzonites were generated by mixing between mantle-derived mafic magmas and crustally derived silicic magmas. The Dalai pluton is relatively homogeneous and contains fewer MMEs than the Matou pluton. Zircons from the Dalai pluton show no inherited components, indicating that crustal materials have played a limited role in the petrogenesis of the quartz monzodiorites. The Dalai quartz monzodiorites have lower SiO2 contents, higher Mg# values, and considerably higher and variable Cr, Co, and Ni concentrations than the Matou quartz monzonites. Zircon Hf isotopic compositions of the Dalai pluton are relatively homogeneous (?Hf(t) = - 5.2 to - 3.2). The combined petrological, geochemical, and isotopic features indicate that the Dalai monzodiorites were generated by olivine- and pyroxene-dominated fractional crystallisation from basaltic magmas, which were in turn produced by mixing between melts from depleted asthenosphere and subduction-enriched mantle. Our interpretation implies that Late Mesozoic monzonitic rocks in Southeast China require a significant input of mantle melts, and some may have been generated solely by fractionation of basaltic magmas. This petrogenetic model may be applicable to other monzonitic rocks in Southeast China, and to similar tectonic settings and sites of monzonitic magma generation worldwide.

Liu, Liang; Qiu, Jian-Sheng; Zhao, Jiao-Long; Yang, Ze-Li

2014-05-01

256

Surface sediments in the marsh-sandy land transitional area: sandification in the western Songnen Plain, China.  

PubMed

The development of sandification process was studied, by monitoring the changes of sediment characteristics, at marsh-sandy land intersections in China's Songnen region. A series of sediment collection plates were deployed in the region; after one year, sediments in these plates were analyzed for changes of mass and chemical characteristics. The sediment flux and the sand content of the sediments decreased with the increasing longitudinal distance between the sampling site and the centre line of a sand dune. The mean sediment flux was 29 ± 14 kg m(-2) yr(-1) and 0.6 ± 0.3 kg m(-2) yr(-1) in the sandy land and marsh, respectively. Strong, positive correlations were found between the concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, P, Fe, Ti, V and Zr, all of which were also negatively correlated with the sand content. The concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, P, Fe, Ti, V and Zr in the marsh sediment samples were all significantly greater than the corresponding concentrations of the sandy land (p<0.001). Sand content and Ti, V and Zr concentrations all proved to be valid indicators of sandification intensity, and they showed that the marsh could be divided into three distinct zones. Sand expansion extended about 88 m into the marsh. The mean sand content in the sediments of the sandy land was 91% and then 64% in the marsh, which in turn was higher than that of marshes outside the influence of sandification, suggesting that the marsh in the marsh-sandy land transitional area has already undergone extensive sandification in the past. The study results provide information on the wetland's function of indicating and buffering the sandification process. PMID:24932717

Yu, Xiaofei; Grace, Michael; Zou, Yuanchun; Yu, Xuefeng; Lu, Xianguo; Wang, Guoping

2014-01-01

257

Surface Sediments in the Marsh-Sandy Land Transitional Area: Sandification in the Western Songnen Plain, China  

PubMed Central

The development of sandification process was studied, by monitoring the changes of sediment characteristics, at marsh-sandy land intersections in China's Songnen region. A series of sediment collection plates were deployed in the region; after one year, sediments in these plates were analyzed for changes of mass and chemical characteristics. The sediment flux and the sand content of the sediments decreased with the increasing longitudinal distance between the sampling site and the centre line of a sand dune. The mean sediment flux was 29±14 kg m?2 yr?1 and 0.6±0.3 kg m?2 yr?1 in the sandy land and marsh, respectively. Strong, positive correlations were found between the concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, P, Fe, Ti, V and Zr, all of which were also negatively correlated with the sand content. The concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, P, Fe, Ti, V and Zr in the marsh sediment samples were all significantly greater than the corresponding concentrations of the sandy land (p<0.001). Sand content and Ti, V and Zr concentrations all proved to be valid indicators of sandification intensity, and they showed that the marsh could be divided into three distinct zones. Sand expansion extended about 88 m into the marsh. The mean sand content in the sediments of the sandy land was 91% and then 64% in the marsh, which in turn was higher than that of marshes outside the influence of sandification, suggesting that the marsh in the marsh-sandy land transitional area has already undergone extensive sandification in the past. The study results provide information on the wetland's function of indicating and buffering the sandification process. PMID:24932717

Yu, Xiaofei; Grace, Michael; Zou, Yuanchun; Yu, Xuefeng; Lu, Xianguo; Wang, Guoping

2014-01-01

258

Sources and photochemistry of volatile organic compounds in the remote atmosphere of western China: results from the Mt. Waliguan Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemistry of the natural atmosphere and the influence by long-range transport of air pollution are key issues in the atmospheric sciences. Here we present two intensive field measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in late spring and summer of 2003 at Mt. Waliguan (WLG, 36.28° N, 100.90° E, 3816 m a.s.l.), a baseline station in the northeast part of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Most VOC species exhibited higher concentrations in late spring than in summer. A typical diurnal variation was observed with higher nighttime levels, in contrast to results from other mountainous sites. Five different air masses were identified from backward trajectory analysis showing distinct VOC speciation. Air masses originating from the central Eurasian continent contained the lowest VOC levels compared to the others that were impacted by anthropogenic emissions from China and the Indian subcontinent. A photochemical box model based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (version 3.2) and constrained by a full suite of measurements was developed to probe the photochemistry of atmosphere at WLG. Our results show net ozone production from in situ photochemistry during both late spring and summer. Oxidation of nitric oxide (NO) by the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) dominates the ozone production relative to the oxidation by the organic peroxy radicals (RO2), and the ozone is primarily destroyed by photolysis and reactions with the HOx (HOx = OH + HO2) radicals. Ozone photolysis is the predominant primary source of radicals (ROx = OH + HO2 + RO2), followed by the photolysis of secondary oxygenated VOCs and hydrogen peroxides. The radical losses are governed by the self and cross reactions among the radicals. Overall, the findings of the present study provide insights into the background chemistry and the impacts of pollution transport on the pristine atmosphere over the Eurasian continent.

Xue, L. K.; Wang, T.; Guo, H.; Blake, D. R.; Tang, J.; Zhang, X. C.; Saunders, S. M.; Wang, W. X.

2013-09-01

259

Attribution of satellite-observed vegetation trends in a hyper-arid region of the Heihe River basin, Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial vegetation dynamics are closely influenced by both climate and by both climate and by land use and/or land cover change (LULCC) caused by human activities. Both can change over time in a monotonic way and it can be difficult to separate the effects of climate change from LULCC on vegetation. Here we attempt to attribute trends in the fractional green vegetation cover to climate variability and to human activity in Ejina Region, a hyper-arid landlocked region in northwest China. This region is dominated by extensive deserts with relatively small areas of irrigation located along the major water courses as is typical throughout much of Central Asia. Variations of fractional vegetation cover from 2000 to 2012 were determined using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index data with 250 m spatial resolution over 16-day intervals. We found that the fractional vegetation cover in this hyper-arid region is very low but that the mean growing season vegetation cover has increased from 3.4% in 2000 to 4.5% in 2012. The largest contribution to the overall greening was due to changes in green vegetation cover of the extensive desert areas with a smaller contribution due to changes in the area of irrigated land. Comprehensive analysis with different precipitation data sources found that the greening of the desert was associated with increases in regional precipitation. We further report that the area of land irrigated each year can be predicted using the runoff gauged 1 year earlier. Taken together, water availability both from precipitation in the desert and runoff inflow for the irrigation agricultural lands can explain at least 52% of the total variance in regional vegetation cover from 2000 to 2010. The results demonstrate that it is possible to separate the satellite-observed changes in green vegetation cover into components due to climate and human modifications. Such results inform management on the implications for water allocation between oases in the middle and lower reaches and for water management in the Ejina oasis.

Wang, Y.; Roderick, M. L.; Shen, Y.; Sun, F.

2014-09-01

260

Mineralogical study of sediment-hosted gold deposits in the Yangshan ore field, Western Qinling Orogen, Central China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yangshan gold ore field is located in the southern subzone of the Western Qinling Orogen. Mineralization is confined by the east-west-striking Anchanghe thrust fault zone. These subparallel faults constitute a branch of the regional Mianlue structural zone, crosscutting Middle Devonian carbonaceous carbonate and clastic rock sequences, an ore-bearing unit locally named the Sanhekou Formation. The metasedimentary clastic and carbonate rocks containing fine-grained sulfides are the main host rocks of the deposit, with minor mineralization occurring as coarse-grained pyrite-quartz veinlets in black shale and as dissemination in some plagiogranite dykes. Electron microprobe (EMPA) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses show that arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite are the major hosts for gold with tens of ppm up to weight percent levels of Au, and the Au contents in arsenopyrite are one order of magnitude higher than those in pyrite. A negative correlation of As and S in arsenian pyrite is consistent with the substitution of As for S in the mineral. Both arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite in the Yangshan ore field show chemical zonations with middle parts (mantle) enriched in As and Au relative to cores and the outermost rims, reflecting the chemical evolution of ore-forming fluids. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis failed to identify any nanoparticle of native gold even in the highest Au parts of arsenopyrite. This observation combined with the relatively homogenous distribution of Au, a positive correlation of As and Au, and Au/As ratios below the solubility limit of gold in arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite, suggests that invisible gold is likely present as structurally bound Au+1 in sulfides, although our work cannot exclude the existence of Au nanoparticles in arsenian pyrite as identified in American Carlin-type gold deposits. Submicron native gold may be much more easily found in arsenian pyrite than in arsenopyrite, because the later has larger capacity of enrichment of Au+1 than the former due to the substitution of As for S. The mechanism for nanoparticle formation is likely exsolution of native gold from metastable arsenian pyrite caused by later hydrothermal event, which was recorded by the outermost As-, Au-poor overgrowths both in arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite in the Yangshan gold ore field.

Liang, Jinlong; Sun, Weidong; Zhu, Sanyuan; Li, He; Liu, Yulong; Zhai, Wei

2014-05-01

261

Size distribution and estimated optical properties of carbonate, water soluble organic carbon, and sulfate in aerosols at a remote high altitude site in western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements at the GAW station in western China reveal the levels and size distributions of chemical components in aerosols. The results indicate similarly high levels of three components, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), Ca2++CO3=, and NH4++SO4=. Both WSOC and SO4= show a dominant accumulation mode, with a geometric mean mode diameter Dg of 0.41 and 0.34 µm and geometric standard deviation ?sgof 0.31 and 0.33, respectively. This mode makes up >70% of the total mass of both species. In comparison, Ca2+and CO3= show a prominent coarse mode with Dg of 2.98 and 1.76 µm and ?sg of 0.29 and 0.22, respectively, that accounts for >60% of the mass. Based on these characteristics, estimates of the volume scatter coefficient ?, direct back scatter coefficient ??, and mass scattering efficiency ? for each component were made, assuming external mixing and optical and growth characteristics of corresponding pure chemical compounds. The results show that NH4++SO4= has the largest ?, ??, and ? (median 1760×10-8 m-1, 79×10-8 m-1 sr-1, and 6.9 m² g-1, respectively). It is followed by WSOC with 1470×10-8 m-1, 30×10-8 m-1 sr-1, and 5.3 m² g-1 for ?, ??, and ?, respectively. Ca2++CO3= has only about 10% of the ? and ? values but 20% of the ?? of NH4++SO4= respectively. For both NH4++SO4= and WSOC, the mass scattering efficiency ? is inversely related to their Dg between the size range of 0.2-0.45 µm.

Li, Shao-Meng; Tang, Jie; Xue, Husheng; Toom-Sauntry, Desiree

2000-04-01

262

Application of the Geo-Anomaly Unit Concept in Quantitative Delineation and Assessment of Gold Ore Targets in Western Shandong Uplift Terrain, Eastern China  

SciTech Connect

A number of large and giant ore deposits have been discovered within the relatively small areas of lithospheric structure anomalies, including various boundary zones of tectonic plates. The regions have become the well-known intercontinental ore-forming belts, such as the circum-Pacific gold-copper, copper-molybdenum, and tungsten-tin metallogenic belts. These belts are typical geological anomalous areas. An investigation into the hydrothermal ore deposits in different regions in the former Soviet Union illustrated that the geologic structures of ore fields of almost all major commercial deposits have distinct features compared with the neighboring areas. These areas with distinct features are defined as geo-anomalies. A geo-anomaly refers to such a geologic body or a combination of bodies that their composition, texture-structure, and genesis are significantly different from those of their surroundings. A geo-anomaly unit (GU) is an area containing distinct features that can be delineated with integrated ore-forming information using computer techniques on the basis of the geo-anomaly concept. Herein, the GU concept is illustrated by a case study of delineating the gold ore targets in the western Shandong uplift terrain, eastern China. It includes: (1) analyses of gold ore-forming factors; (2) compilation of normalized regional geochemical map and extraction of geochemical anomalies; (3) compilation of gravitational and aeromagnetic tectonic skeleton map and extraction of gravitational and aeromagnetic anomalies; (4) extraction of circular and linear anomalies from remote-sensing Landsat TM images; (5) establishment of a geo-anomaly conceptual model associated with known gold mineralization; (6) establishment of gold ore-forming favorability by computing techniques; and (7) delineation and assessment of ore-forming units. The units with high favorability are suggested as ore targets.

Chen Yongqing, E-mail: ydonglai@mail.cgs.gov.cn; Zhao Pengda; Chen Jianguo; Liu Jiping [China University of Geosciences, Institute of Mathematical Geology and Remote Sensing Geology (China)

2001-03-15

263

Comparative analysis of land use/cover change trajectories and their driving forces in two small watersheds in the western Loess Plateau of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To prevent soil loss and achieve better ecological environments, soil conservation measures have been taken during the past decades in the western Loess Plateau of China. In this paper, a case study was taken in Luoyu valley and Lver valley, two sub-watersheds of Xihe watershed and comparison was carried out between them. The main object of this study is to monitor land use/cover changes in the two similar small watersheds utilizing SPOT5 imageries by object-oriented human-computer interactive classification method, further develop the method of spatio-temporal analysis of land use/cover change by using pattern metrics of change trajectories and relative land use suitability index (R) in smaller watersheds, and make comparisons between the two similar small watersheds, taking water and soil conservation measures into consideration. Results show that combining GIS and RS, this method can be perfectly applied to make comparisons between different small watersheds with similar geographical backgrounds. And land use/cover spatiotemporal dynamic change characteristics can be preferably expressed by pattern metrics of change trajectories and R values based on topographical data. Different emphases have been laid according to their own geological backgrounds in the two watersheds and human activities have different effects on the landscapes of the two watersheds. The main change pattern is from slope farmland to terrace (322, the largest in Luoyu valley) or to economic fruit forest (344, the largest in Lver valley). R value of every slope grade in both of the two watersheds drops with the rising of slope degree on the whole and it shows that there is still much to do for people in the two watersheds in consideration that all the R values are still lower than 0.7.

Wang, Dongchuan; Gong, Jianhua; Chen, Liding; Zhang, Lihui; Song, Yiquan; Yue, Yujuan

2013-04-01

264

Recent strengthening of correlations between tree-ring ?13C and ?18O in mesic western China: Implications to climatic reconstruction and physiological responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined the temporal relationships between stable isotopes of carbon (?13C) and oxygen (?18O) from annual tree-ring cellulose of Abies georgei on the moist Batang-Litang plateau, western China. Climatic response analysis reveals that tree-ring ?13C contains a strong moisture signal, and that ?13C was especially influenced by relative humidity and precipitation in May through August during the period 1960-2005. In addition, tree-ring ?13C and temperature in May to August are positively correlated because of the high-elevation tree growth sites. Drought is also recorded in tree-ring ?13C, reflecting the integrated influences of temperature and moisture on stomatal regulation and photosynthesis. Generally, correlations between ?13C and ?18O remained positive, but not significant, in most of the investigated period, and this correlation switched to highly significant from 1969 onwards. Changes in the ?13C-?18O relationship reflect changes in water stress on carbon isotopic discrimination, suggesting an increase in stomatal control of photosynthesis in recent decades, which is consistent with the overall drying trend in the region. Spatial correlation maps confirm that during the past century the response of tree-ring ?13C to temperature and precipitation differs before and after 1969. Using previously reported ?18O results and new ?13C results on the same samples, we determined that the climatic signal recorded in tree-ring ?18O is more stable than that of ?13C. Analysis of temporal changes in the ?13C-?18O correlations indicates that dominant processes and the controlling factors on tree-ring ?13C potentially shift over the long term under temporal fluctuations of dry-wet spells, especially under recent global warming, and stomatal control of photosynthesis may adjust to region-wide changes in climate in this region where water stress on forest was formerly minor.

Liu, Xiaohong; An, Wenling; Leavitt, Steven W.; Wang, Wenzhi; Xu, Guobao; Zeng, Xiaomin; Qin, Dahe

2014-02-01

265

Polyphase exhumation in the western Qinling Mountains, China: Rapid Early Cretaceous cooling along a lithospheric-scale tear fault and pulsed Cenozoic uplift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western sector of the Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt plays a key role in both Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous "Yanshanian" intracontinental tectonics and Cenozoic lateral escape triggered by India-Asia collision. The Taibai granite in the northern Qinling Mountains is located at the westernmost tip of a Yanshanian granite belt. It consists of multiple intrusions, constrained by new Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous U-Pb zircon ages (156 ± 3 Ma and 124 ± 1 Ma). Applying various geochronometers (40Ar/39Ar on hornblende, biotite and K-feldspar, apatite fission-track, apatite [U-Th-Sm]/He) along a vertical profile of the Taibai Mountain refines the cooling and exhumation history. The new age constraints record the prolonged pre-Cenozoic intracontinental deformation as well as the cooling history mostly related to India-Asia collision. We detected rapid cooling for the Taibai granite from ca. 800 to 100 °C during Early Cretaceous (ca. 123 to 100 Ma) followed by a period of slow cooling from ca. 100 Ma to ca. 25 Ma, and pulsed exhumation of the low-relief Cretaceous peneplain during Cenozoic times. We interpret the Early Cretaceous rapid cooling and exhumation as a result from activity along the southern sinistral lithospheric scale tear fault of the recently postulated intracontinental subduction of the Archean/Palaeoproterozoic North China Block beneath the Alashan Block. A Late Oligocene to Early Miocene cooling phase might be triggered either by the lateral motion during India-Asia collision and/or the Pacific subduction zone. Late Miocene intensified cooling is ascribed to uplift of the Tibetan Plateau.

Heberer, Bianca; Anzenbacher, Thomas; Neubauer, Franz; Genser, Johann; Dong, Yunpeng; Dunkl, István

2014-03-01

266

Decision Support System for Drinking Water Safety in Rural Area in Ya'an of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In consideration of the drinking water safety in rural areas in the western mountainous regions of Sichuan Province, the author adopts the module technique to integrate the GIS with the specialized application function to develop a drinking water safety spatial analysis system. The system provides the Ya'an's seven counties with each kind of function the daily management of drinking water

Ni Fu-quan; Liu Guodong; Ye Jian; Yang Shang-chuan; Zheng cai-xia

2009-01-01

267

Simulating Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Sichuan Grassland Net Primary Productivity Using the CASA Model and In Situ Observations  

PubMed Central

Net primary productivity (NPP) is an important indicator for grassland resource management and sustainable development. In this paper, the NPP of Sichuan grasslands was estimated by the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model. The results were validated with in situ data. The overall precision reached 70%; alpine meadow had the highest precision at greater than 75%, among the three types of grasslands validated. The spatial and temporal variations of Sichuan grasslands were analyzed. The absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (APAR), light use efficiency (?), and NPP of Sichuan grasslands peaked in August, which was a vigorous growth period during 2011. High values of APAR existed in the southwest regions in altitudes from 2000?m to 4000?m. Light use efficiency (?) varied in the different types of grasslands. The Sichuan grassland NPP was mainly distributed in the region of 3000–5000?m altitude. The NPP of alpine meadow accounted for 50% of the total NPP of Sichuan grasslands. PMID:25250396

Tang, Chuanjiang; Fu, Xinyu; Jiang, Dong; Zhang, Xinyue; Zhou, Su

2014-01-01

268

Non-Beijing Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in China? †  

PubMed Central

In a 2-year prospective study of tuberculosis (TB) patients in China, the prevalences of non-Beijing strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis varied between Shandong Province (20.6%), Shanghai (27.6%), and Sichuan Province (45.9%) (P < 0.005). These differences may be due to factors such as human migration, transmission, or diversification and adaptation of the mycobacteria to different hosts. PMID:21068281

Li, Xia; Xu, Peng; Shen, Xin; Qi, Lihong; DeRiemer, Kathryn; Mei, Jian; Gao, Qian

2011-01-01

269

Geological characteristics and resource potential of shale gas in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

With Sichuan Basin as focus, this paper introduces the depositional environment, geochemical and reservoir characteristics, gas concentration and prospective resource potential of three different types of shale in China: marine shale, marine-terrigenous shale and terrigenous shale. Marine shale features high organic abundance (TOC: 1.0%–5.5%), high-over maturity (Ro: 2%–5%), rich accumulation of shale gas (gas concentration: 1.17–6.02 m3\\/t) and mainly continental

Caineng Zou; Dazhong Dong; Shejiao Wang; Jianzhong Li; Xinjing Li; Yuman Wang; Denghua Li; Keming Cheng

2010-01-01

270

China Today IAS 2123.001  

E-print Network

China Today IAS 2123.001 Kevin Carrico Tuesdays & Thursdays 10:30 am -11:45 am Approved for Non-Western culture credit Everyone knows that China today is a "rising superpower," but the real story of China's modern history is considerably more complex. This course looks beyond the headlines to rediscover China

Oklahoma, University of

271

Using Parent and Teacher Voices in the Creation of a Western-Based Early Childhood English-Language Program in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current English-language research and educational program was driven by an initiative to create a more interactive, theme-based bilingual language education model for preschools in Chengdu, China. During a 2-week teacher education program centered at the Experimental Kindergarten of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Chengdu, China, a team of…

Shimpi, Priya M.; Paik, Jae H.; Wanerman, Todd; Johnson, Rebecca; Li, Hui; Duh, Shinchieh

2015-01-01

272

[Potential distribution areas of alien invasive plant Flaveria bidentis (Asteraceae) in China].  

PubMed

Flaveria bidentis (Asteraceae), a potential exotic invasive weed to agro-ecosystem and rangeland ecosystem, has recently invaded Tianjin City and Hebei Province (Hengshui and Langfang) in North China, and is spreading further. Based on its current geographical distribution in the world, the potential distribution areas of this weed in China were predicted by using CLIMEX software, aimed to assess the potential risks of this invasive weed. Following provinces in China could be the potential areas being invaded by F. bidentis, i. e., Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Hainan, Fujian, Taiwan, Jiangxi, Hunan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Chongqing, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangsu, and Shanghai, among which, Guangdong, Guangxi, Taiwan, Hainan, Fujian, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Chongqing, and part of Xizang would be at high risk. PMID:20077693

Bai, Yi-Zhen; Cao, Xiang-Feng; Chen, Chen; Hu, Bai-Shi; Liu, Feng-Quan

2009-10-01

273

The Formation of the Patterns of Desert Shrub Communities on the Western Ordos Plateau, China: The Roles of Seed Dispersal and Sand Burial  

PubMed Central

The western Ordos Plateau is a key area of shrub diversity and a National Nature Reserve of endangered shrub species in north-west China. Desert expansion is becoming the most important threat to these endangered species. However, little is known about the effects of sand burial on the dynamics of the shrub community. This study aims to investigate how the shrubs as a community and as different individual shrubs respond to the disturbances caused by the desert expansion. The approach used by this study is to separate the seed-dispersal strategy from the sand-burial forces that are involved in structuring the shrub communities at different disturbance stages. Four communities for different disturbance stages were surveyed by using 50×50 m plots. The individual shrubs were classified into coloniser and successor groups at the seed-dispersal stage and strong and weak sand-burial tolerance groups at the sand-expansion stage. We employed spatial point pattern analysis with null models for each community to examine the seed-dispersal strategy and sand-burial forces affecting community distribution patterns. At the seed-dispersal stage, the interactions between the colonisers and the successors showed significant positive correlation at a scale of 0–1 m and significant negative correlation at a scale of 2 m; significant negative correlations between the groups with strong and weak sand-burial tolerance in the early stage of sand expansion at scales of 3–6 m, and significant positive correlation in the later stage of sand expansion at a scale of 13 m, were found. Seed-dispersal strategy is a reasonable mechanism to explain the shrub community pattern formation in the earlier stages, whereas sand burial is the primary reason for the disappearance of shrubs with weak sand-burial tolerance, this irreversible disturbance causes homogenisation of the community structure and produces aging populations of shrub species. This has an important influence on the succession direction of desert shrub communities. PMID:23922877

Wang, Yange; Yang, Xiaohui; Shi, Zhongjie

2013-01-01

274

Groundwater Dynamics under Water Saving Irrigation and Implications for Sustainable Water Management in an Oasis: Tarim River Basin of Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is essential for life. Specifically in the oases of inland arid basins, water is a critically limited resource, essential for the development of socio-economy and sustainability of eco-environmental systems. Due to the unique hydrological regime present in arid oases, a moderate groundwater table is the goal of sustainable water management. A shallow water table induces serious secondary salinization and collapse of agriculture, while a deep water table causes deterioration of natural vegetation. From the hydrological perspective, the exchange flux between unsaturated vadose zone and groundwater reservoir is a critical link to understand regional water table dynamics. This flux is substantially influenced by anthropogenic activities. In Tarim River Basin of western China, where agriculture consumes over 90% of available water resources, the exchange flux is influenced strongly by irrigation. Recently, mulched drip irrigation, a very advanced water-saving irrigation method, has been widely applied in the Tarim River Basin, which greatly impacted the exchange flux and thus the regional groundwater dynamics. Capitalizing on recent progress in evaporation measurement techniques, we can now close the water balance and directly quantify the exchange flux at the field scale, thus gain a better understanding of regional groundwater dynamics. In this study, comprehensive observations of water balance components in an irrigated cropland were implemented in 2011 and 2012 in a typical oasis within Tarim River Basin. The water balance analysis showed that the exchange flux and groundwater dynamics were significantly altered by the application of water-saving irrigation. The exchange flux is mostly downward (310.5 mm yr-1), especially during drip irrigation period and spring flush period, while the upward flux is trivial (-16.1 mm yr-1) due to the moderate groundwater table depth (annual average depth 2.9 m). Traditional secondary salinization caused by intense phreatic evaporation (fed by upward exchange flux) is alleviated. However, a new form of secondary salinization may be introduced unwittingly if there is lack of water for periodic flushing, especially when brackish water is used in the irrigation. Furthermore, the water saved via drip irrigation has been used in further growth of irrigated lands instead of supporting ecological system. This would lead to increasing risk of eco-environmental degradation and calls for improved governance schemes. The insights gained from this study can be potentially applied to other arid inland areas (e.g., central Asia, sub-Saharan Africa) which face similar water shortages and human development problems.

Zhang, Z.; Hu, H.; Tian, F.; Yao, X.; Sivapalan, M.

2014-02-01

275

Characteristics and genesis of mineral deposits in East Ujimqin Banner, western segment of the Great Xing'an Mountains, NE China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The East Ujimqin Banner, located in the western segment of the Great Xing'an Mountains, NE China, has undergone a long and multi-stage tectonic evolution, which has resulted in significant Fe-Ag-Pb-Zn-Au-Cu-Mo deposits. There are two main types of mineralization: vein and skarn types. The Jilinbaolige and Aerhada vein deposits, and the Chagan Obo and Chaobuleng skarn-type deposits are four typical deposits in this area. The vein deposits mainly occur as veins with hydrothermal alteration in fractures within pre-mineralization clastic rocks and felsic volcanic rocks. The skarn-type deposits always show a temporal and spatial relationship with Mesozoic granite intruded into Paleozoic limestone. The sulfur isotope data from the sulfides in these four deposits have a very narrow range (+1‰ to +8‰), suggesting that most were derived from magma. The 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios range from 17.949 to 18.529, 15.370 to 15.691 and 37.653 to 38.460 respectively, indicating that the metals derive mainly from the mantle source. In the diagrams 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb, the points of lead isotope of the sulfide ores are very near or coincide to the K-feldspar, indicating that the ore-forming materials sources have the genetic relationship. It seems that there are four key factors controlling the mineralization styles in this district: the tectonic setting, magmatic activity, wall rocks, and structures. The superposition of multi-stage tectonism from a Mesozoic extensional setting on a Paleozoic subduction setting provided a remobilization and enrichment mechanism for the ore-forming elements. The magmatic activities were sources of metals and fluids, and drove them to the mineralization sites. The wall rocks are key factors for mineralization styles. When metal-bearing fluid flows into clastic rocks and felsic volcanic rocks, the mineralization is mainly vein type, and mineralization in limestone is mainly skarn type. NE- and NW-trending extensional faults may have provided the channels for the movement of metal-bearing fluids and depositional space for metals.

Zhang, Wanyi; Nie, Fengjun; Liu, Shuwen; Zuo, Liyan; Yao, Xiaofeng; Jia, Delong; Liu, Jiangtao

2015-01-01

276

Overweight and Obesity among Low-Income Muslim Uyghur Women in Far Western China: Correlations of Body Mass Index with Blood Lipids and Implications in Preventive Public Health  

PubMed Central

Background The pandemic of obesity is a global public health concern. Most studies on obesity are skewed toward high-income and urban settings and few covers low-income populations. This study focused on the prevalence of overweight and obesity and their correlations with blood lipids/metabolites/enzymes (bio-indicators) in a rural community typical of low-income in remote western China. Methods This study was performed in a Muslim ethnic Uyghur rural community in Kashi Prefecture of Xinjiang, about 4,407 km (2,739 miles) away from Beijing. Body mass index (BMI) and major blood bio-indicators (25 total items) were measured and demographic information was collected from 1,733 eligible healthy women aged 21 to 71 yrs, of whom 1,452 had complete data for analysis. More than 92% of the women lived on US$1.00/day or less. According to the Chinese criteria, overweight and obesity were defined as BMI at 24 to <28 kg/m2 and at ?28 kg/m2, respectively. Results The average BMI among these low-income women was 24.0±4.0 (95% CI, 17.5–33.7) kg/m2. The prevalence of obesity and overweight was high at 15.1% and 28.9%, respectively. Among 25 bio-indicators, BMI correlated positively with the levels of 11 bio-indicators including triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TCHOL), glucose (GLU), and uric acid (UA); but negatively with the levels of 5 bio-indicators including high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A/B (APO A/B). Conclusions This is the first investigation reporting overweight and obesity being common in low-income Muslim Uyghur women, whose BMI correlates with several important blood bio-indicators which are risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. These findings may help make preventive public health policies in Uyghur communities. To prevent diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in low-income settings, we therefore propose a cost-effective, two-step strategy first to screen for obesity and then to screen persons with obesity for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24587304

Cong, Li; Zhan, Jin Qiong; Yang, Lan; Zhang, Wei; Li, Shu Gang; Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Hong Yan; Ma, Zhi Ping; Hao, Xiao Ling; Simayi, Dilixia; Tao, Lin; Zhao, Jin; Amanguli, A.; Mohemaiti, Meiliguli; Jing, Ming Xia; Wang, Wei; Saimaiti, Abudukeyoumu; Zou, Xiao Guang; Gu, Yan; Li, Li

2014-01-01

277

Environmental effects of the recent emission changes in China: implications for particulate matter pollution and soil acidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Driven by a rapid increase of energy consumption and emerging pollution control policies, air pollutant emissions have changed dramatically in China during 2005-2010. This study developed a multi-pollutant emission inventory, and used the community multi-scale air quality (CMAQ) modeling system to evaluate the impact of the emission changes on particulate matter pollution and soil acidification. During 2005-2010, the emissions of SO2, PM10 and PM2.5 decreased by 14.9%, 15.1% and 11.7%, respectively. In contrast, the emissions of NOX, NMVOC and NH3 increased by 33.8%, 21.0% and 10.4%, respectively. The emission trends differed notably in different regions. Driven by emission changes, PM2.5 concentrations decreased by 2-17 ?g m-3 in most of the North China Plain, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta, while increasing by 4.5-16 ?g m-3 in most of the Sichuan Basin and Eastern Hubei. The changes of PM2.5 emissions led to the decline of primary PM2.5 concentrations in most of Eastern China. As an effect solely of emission changes, nitrate concentrations increased across most of China; sulfate concentrations decreased in most of Eastern China, with the largest reduction in the North China Plain, while they increased in the Sichuan Basin and parts of the Pearl River Delta and Eastern Hubei. The concentrations of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA) and the extinction coefficient increased in most of China, especially in the Sichuan Basin and Eastern Hubei, implying that the NOX and NH3 emissions should be reduced simultaneously in China. Combining the acidification effects of S and N, the exceedance of critical loads decreased across the country, but increased in the Sichuan Basin, the Pearl River Delta and Eastern Hubei, where the soil acidification was the most serious. Different control policies need to be implemented in different regions.

Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Dong, Xinyi; Wang, Jiandong; Duan, Lei; Fu, Xiao; Hao, Jiming; Fu, Joshua

2013-06-01

278

Does Haemaphysalis bispinosa (Acari: Ixodidae) really occur in China?  

PubMed

Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann has been considered to exist in China, especially in the southern part of the country. However, H. bispinosa referred to in many Chinese research papers may in fact be H. longicornis, which is widely distributed in most regions of China. In order to clarify the occurrence of H. bispinosa, Haemaphysalis ticks collected from 18 of 23 provinces of China (Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Guangxi, Gansu, Yunnan, Xinjiang, Anhui, Zhejiang, Shannxi, Guizhou, Sichuan, Shanxi, Shandong, Ningxia, Fujian, Qinghai and Jiangxi) were examined based on morphological and molecular characteristics. We found no evidence of H. bispinosa being present in China. Our results indicate that all of the so called "H. bispinosa" ticks reported in China are in fact H. longicornis. PMID:25304739

Chen, Ze; Li, Youquan; Ren, Qiaoyun; Liu, Zhijie; Luo, Jin; Li, Kai; Guan, Guiquan; Yang, Jifei; Han, Xueqing; Liu, Guangyuan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

2015-02-01

279

Neoproterozoic chromite-bearing high-Mg diorites in the western part of the Jiangnan orogen, southern China: Geochemistry, petrogenesis and tectonic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-Mg diorites were discovered in the southern part of the ca. 830 Ma Dongma Pluton, northern Guangxi Province of southern China. The diorites (SiO2 = 59-65 wt%) are characterized by high MgO (6.7-8.9 wt%) contents and Mg-number [Mg# = 100 × Mg/(Mg + Fe)] (69-73), in contrary to the associated medium-Mg (MgO = 3.4-3.8 wt%, Mg# = 59-63) granodiorites in the Dongma main body and the low-Mg (MgO = 1.4-1.9 wt%, Mg# = 46-51) granodiorites in the Bendong Pluton to the north. Moreover, the high-Mg diorites show surprisingly high Cr (595-640 ppm) and Ni (171-194 ppm) concentrations, which are beyond the ranges of most coeval mafic rocks in the study area. Correspondingly, chromite crystals were separated from the high-Mg diorites and some of the medium-Mg granodiorites, and they show high Cr# [100 × Cr/(Cr + Al)] (average of 75), but low Mg# (0.34-2.51) and low Fe3 +. The decoupling of Cr# and Mg# and the existence of quartz + apatite mineral inclusion in chromites suggest Mg-Fe exchange that may be facilitated by the disequilibrium resulted from magma mixing. The high-Mg diorites show low La/Yb (6.8-8.5) and Sr/Y (2.1-3.1) ratios, significant negative anomalies of Nb and Ti and positive anomaly of Pb, resembling the Setouchi high-Mg andesites, despite of their relatively low Sr (71-100 ppm). All of the studied diorites and granodiorites show enriched Nd isotope compositions, with ?Nd(t) values (- 3.2 to - 5.9) a bit higher than some of the associated mafic rocks. Some of the high-Mg diorites show whole-rock ?Hf(t) (- 6.0 to - 6.2) coupled with Nd isotopes, similar to the associated mafic-ultramafic rocks in northern Guangxi, suggesting the metasomatism by melts of subducting sediments in the mantle source. Whereas, others show decoupled Nd-Hf isotopes that are similar to the medium- and low-Mg granodiorites [?Hf(t) = - 1.8 to + 0.05], probably indicating the late magma mixing with granitic magmas at a crustal level for the dioritic magmas. We propose a two-stage model for the petrogenesis of the high-Mg diorites: 1) the mantle source was firstly metasomatized by melts from partial melting of subducting terrigenous sediments to form the enriched Nd-Hf isotopic characteristics; and then 2) the mantle-derived high-Mg mafic melts mixed with the crust-derived low-Mg granitic melts to form the high-Mg diorites and medium-Mg granodiorites. The occurrence of high-Mg diorites implies the existence of Neoproterozoic subduction-related metasomatism in the western part of the Jiangnan orogen.

Chen, Xin; Wang, Di; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Gao, Jian-Feng; Shu, Xu-Jie; Zhou, Jin-Cheng; Qi, Liang

2014-07-01

280

Crust/mantle interaction during the construction of an extensional magmatic dome: Middle to Late Jurassic plutonic complex from western Liaoning, North China Craton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differentiating magmatic doming and low-angle normal faulting remains critical for fully understanding the thermal, mechanical and chemical evolution of continental landmasses under extension. This zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical study documents two Middle to Late Jurassic batholiths (Lüshan and Haitangshan) from the Yiwulüshan range of western Liaoning, North China Craton. They consist of a variety of lithologies including gabbro, diorite, granodiorite, monzogranite, together with microgranular magmatic enclaves (MME) and mafic dykes. Synthesizing petrologic, elemental, whole-rock Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopic data leads to the characterization of multiple mafic and felsic end-members and their concomitant interaction in building the magmatic dome. A subduction-related metasomatized lithospheric mantle source is fingerprinted by the gabbroic to dioritic rocks with enriched large ion lithophile elements, depleted high field strength elements and heterogeneous isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70541 to 0.70577, ?Nd(t) = - 1.78 to - 5.54 and zircon ?Hf(t) = - 6.0 to 8.1). One felsic magma end-member of ancient mafic lower crustal parentage is discernable from adakitic granites with high Sr/Y and evolved isotopic composition (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70533 to 0.70792, ?Nd(t) = - 18.8 to - 21.7, zircon ?Hf(t) = - 18.5 to - 28.8), whereas another felsic magma end-member of newly underplated crustal heritage manifests itself from some monzogranites with non-adakitic elemental affinity and juvenile isotopic composition (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70429 to 0.70587, ?Nd(t) = - 4.47 to - 5.87, zircon ?Hf(t) = 4.3 to 1.3). Hybridization processes between mantle-derived mafic magma and ancient crustal-derived felsic magma result in the formation of MME-bearing granodiorites with intermediate isotopic signatures (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70491 to 0.70499, ?Nd(t) = - 15.3 to - 15.8, zircon ?Hf(t) = - 12.7 to - 17.4). Subsequent fractional crystallization of the hybridized magmas endows the differentiated monzogranites with low Sr/Y and highly evolved isotopes (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70496 to 0.70605, ?Nd(t) = - 16.0 to - 18.7, zircon ?Hf(t) = - 14.3 to - 21.5). Apart from distinguishing Middle-Late Jurassic extensional magmatic doming from Early Cretaceous detachment faulting, this complex mafic-felsic magma association encapsulates a multi-level crust/mantle interaction leading to lithospheric thinning and concomitant crustal architectural reorganization in the Yanshan belt during the Late Mesozoic. Near-synchronization of a two-stage extensional pattern in the Yanshan belt and even across NE continental Asia accords well with gravitational collapse and convective removal of lithospheric mantle within an evolved post-collisional to within-plate extensional regime.

Zhang, Xiaohui; Yuan, Lingling; Wilde, Simon A.

2014-09-01

281

Atmospheric wet deposition of sulfur and nitrogen in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China.  

PubMed

In the last two decades, remarkable ecological changes have been observed in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR). Some of these changes might be related to excessive deposition of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N), but the relationship has not been quantified due to lack of monitoring data, particularly S and N deposition data. In this study, we investigated the concentrations, fluxes, and sources of S and N wet deposition in JNNR from April 2010 to May 2011. The results show that SO4(2-), NO3(-), and NH4(+) concentrations in the wet deposition were 39.4-170.5, 6.2-34.8, and 0.2-61.2?eqL(-1), with annual Volume-Weighted Mean (VWM) concentrations of 70.5, 12.7, and 13.4?eqL(-1), respectively. Annual wet deposition fluxes of SO4(2-), NO3(-), and NH4(+) were 8.06, 1.29, and 1.39kgS(N)ha(-1), respectively, accounting for about 90% of annual atmospheric inputs of these species at the monitoring site. The results of Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis show that fossil fuel combustion, agriculture, and aged sea salt contributed to 99% and 83% of annual wet deposition fluxes of SO4(2-) and NO3(-), respectively. Agriculture alone contributed to 89% of annual wet deposition flux of NH4(+). Although wet deposition in JNNR was polluted by anthropogenic acids, the acidity was largely neutralized by the Ca(2+) from crust and 81% of wet deposition samples had a pH higher than 6.00. However, acid rain mainly caused by SO4(2-) continued to occur in the wet season, when ambient alkaline dust concentration was lower. Since anthropogenic emissions have elevated S and N deposition and caused acid rain in JNNR, further studies are needed to better quantify the regional sources and ecological effects of S and N deposition for JNNR. PMID:25525712

Qiao, Xue; Xiao, Weiyang; Jaffe, Daniel; Kota, Sri Harsha; Ying, Qi; Tang, Ya

2015-04-01

282

A method for quickly extracting seismogeological hazards in Yingxiu, Sichuan Province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for seismogeological hazards extraction using high resolution remote sensing was proposed in the research taken the epicenter of Wenchuan earthquake-Yingxiu town as the study area. In which, making imagery was built according to the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) to remove interfering factors. Then, the masked imagery was diced into several small parts to reduce the large imageries' inconsistency and they were used as the sources to be classified. After that, the vector conversion was performed on the classified images to mapping geological hazards. Finally, other interfering factors such as bare lands, lands covered by few vegetation and buildings on the top altitude were removed manually. For it can extract geological hazards in a short time, it is of great importance for the decision-makers and rescuers to know the damaged degree in the disaster area, especially within 72 hours after the earthquake. Therefore, it will play an important role in decision making, site rescue and hazards response planning.

Wang, Qinjun; Chen, Yu; Bi, Jiantao; Lin, Qizhong

2014-11-01

283

Infertility caused by male partners with genetic defects in Sichuan Province of China.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to detect chromosomal aberrations and azoospermia factor (AZF) microdeletions in male patients with reproductive problems and to summarize related clinical features to provide reliable information for evaluating prenatal and preimplantation diagnoses. A large cohort of 5083 men with various phenotypes of male infertility was analyzed via G-banding karyotyping, and Origin 8.0 was used to analyze the prevalence of abnormalities. Additionally, patients with azoospermia, oligozoospermia, and oligoasthenozoospermia were analyzed using multiplex polymerase chain reaction to detect microdeletion in the AZF. We identified 387 patients with abnormal karyotypes, and the ratio was 7.61%. Among them were 175 patients with Klinefelter's syndrome, which was the most common numerical chromosomal abnormality and accounted for 45.22% of all chromosomal aberrations. The frequencies of increased satellites, balanced translocations, and Robertsonian translocations were 6.47, 7.00, and 3.62%, respectively. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction performed in 810 cases with azoospermia, oligozoospermia, and oligoasthenozoospermia found a ratio of AZF microdeletions of 4.94%. The finding suggests that chromosomal abnormalities and AZF deletion are main factors that result in male infertility. Detecting these common genetic variations is necessary in infertile men seeking assisted reproductive technology. PMID:24390997

Quan, Q; Li, T J; Ding, X P; Wei, J; Li, L X; Fu, L

2013-01-01

284

Groundwater pollution of post-mined phosphate rock in Tuojiang watershed (Sichuan, China)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphate rock is the source of phosphorus used to make phosphatic fertilizers, essential for growing the food needed by humans in the world today and in the future. The erosion and eluviation on exposed phosphrite layer and overburden in the phosphate rock areas result in the releasing of fluoride and phosphorus and groundwater polluting. Meanwhile, the waste water and untreated mineral waste residue in the beneficiation and mining operations are also main source of pollution. The un-restored post-mined phosphate rock areas in Tuojiang watershed is large scale. The investigation of the amounts of pollutants releasing from mined lands and transporting by runoffs was conducted. The releasing and transporting amounts of pollutants were calculated according to the results of column leaching studies and acreages of exposed phosphrite layers and overburdens. In conclusion, phosphorus mining activity is an important non-point source of groundwater contamination of Tuojiang watershed.Study about the management and engineering measurement can be carried out according to the non-point source: agriculture, Pollution, Phosphorous mine and chemical plant. The study can provide the practical consultation and help making the decision about the management and treatment of groundwater resource in Tuojiang watershed. Keywords: Tuojiang watershed; Groundwater pollution; Losing process; Fluorine; Phosphorus

changwen, ye

2014-05-01

285

Ordovician reef-hosted Jiaodingshan Mn-Co deposit and Dawashan Mn deposit, Sichuan Province, China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Jiaodingshan Mn-Co and Dawashan Mn deposits are located in the approximately 2-m thick Daduhe unit of the Wufengian strata of Late Ordovician (Ashgill) age. Paleogeographic reconstruction places the deposits at the time of their formation in a gulf between Chengdu submarine rise and the Kangdian continent. The Jiaodingshan and Dawashan deposits occur in algal-reef facies, the former in an atoll-like structure and the latter in a pinnacle reef. Ores are mainly composed of rhodochrosite, kutnahorite, hausmannite, braunite, manganosite, and bementite. Dark red, yellowish-pink, brown, green-gray, and black ores are massive, banded, laminated, spheroidal, and cryptalgal (oncolite, stromatolite, algal filaments) boundstones. Blue, green, and red algal fossils show in situ growth positions. Samples of high-grade Jiaodingshan and Dawashan ores assay as much as 66.7% MnO. Jiaodingshan Mn carbonate ores have mean contents of Ba, Co, and Pb somewhat higher than in Dawashan ores. Cobalt is widely distributed and strongly enriched in all rock types as compared to its crustal mean content. Cobalt is correlated with Cu, Ni, and MgO in both deposits and additionally with Ba and Zn in the Dawashan deposit. The ?13C(PDB) values of Mn carbonate ores (-7.8 to -16.3‰) indicate contributions of carbon from both seawater bicarbonate and the bacterial degradation of organic matter, the latter being 33% to 68%, assuming about -24‰ for the ?13C(PDB) of the organic matter. Host limestones derived carbon predominantly from seawater bicarbonate ?1313C(PDB) of +0.2 to -7‰). NW-trending fault zones controlled development of lithofacies, whereas NE-trending fault zones provided pathways for movement of fluids. The source of Co, Ni, and Cu was mainly from weathering of mafic and ultramafic rocks on the Kangdian continent, whereas contemporaneous volcanic eruptions were of secondary importance. The reefs were likely mineralized during early diagenesis under shallow burial. The reefs were highly porous and acted as the locus for metasomatic replacement by Mn that combined with CO2 produced during oxidation of organic matter in the zone of sulfate reduction and seawater bicarbonate. That metasomatic replacement formed the rhodochrosite ores.

Fan, Delian; Hein, James R.; Ye, Jie

1999-01-01

286

Primary rock magnetism for the Wenchuan earthquake fault zone at Jiulong outcrop, Sichuan Province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Primary rock magnetism analysis was performed on samples from the Jiulong outcrop across the Anxian-Guanxian fault of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake rupture zone. The protolith of hanging wall of this outcrop is the upper Triassic sediments, which formed the fault breccia and gouge by repeated large earthquakes. The footwall of this outcrop contains Jurassic grayish-green and dark-purple sandstones. The average magnetic susceptibility value of the gouge is slightly less than that of potential protolith. Based on the primary rock magnetism, the main magnetic carriers are Fe-sulfides for the gouge, magnetite for the fault breccia, and magnetite and hematite for the Jurassic grayish-green and dark-purple sandstones. Possibly during or after repeated large earthquakes (just like the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake), it transformed the magnetic mineral from magnetite to Fe-sulfides by low thermal decomposition processes along the Anxian-Guanxian earthquake fault, which induces the slightly less average magnetic susceptibility values of the gouge than that of potential protolith. If this magnetic mineral changed only because of repeated large earthquake process, the heating by low velocity seismic slip friction and seismic fluid could possibly have been less than 300 °C. If this magnetic mineral of the Anxian-Guanxian earthquake fault is only induced after repeated large earthquakes, the earth surface process acts an important role for the magnetic mineral change. More other further studies should be done to verify the primary magnetic mineral phase change and discriminate the time of this magnetic mineral variation.

Liu, Dongliang; Li, Haibing; Lee, Teh-Quei; Chou, Yu-Min; Song, Sheng-Rong; Sun, Zhiming; Chevalier, Marie-Luce; Si, Jialiang

2014-04-01

287

Eco-geochemical Assessment of Agroecosystems: Cd in the Chengdu Economical Region, Sichuan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cadmium (Cd) in the Chengdu Economic Region was studied as an example of eco-geochemical assessment on agroecosystems. Dry and wet atmospheric deposition samples, chemical fertilizers, irrigation water, and plants were collected. The concentrations of Cd and other elements in these samples were analyzed and the fluxes of input and output of the agroecosystem were calculated. The results indicated that

Zhongfang YANG; Qingye HOU; Tao YU; Jiawei CHEN; Xueqi XIA; Yong HUANG; Kuo LI

2008-01-01

288

Geochemistry of the Emeishan flood basalts at Yangliuping, Sichuan, SW China: implications for sulfide segregation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A well-developed, 1,000 m thick basaltic sequence in the Yangliuping region, northern part of the Emeishan basalt province, includes the Lower and Middle Units of tholeiitic basalts and an Upper Unit of both tholeiites and subalkalic basalts. The basalts contain 42-55 wt% SiO2 and 4.1-8.3 wt% MgO. Most of these lavas have Gd/Yb > 2.0, Zr/Nb < 12, and ?Nd(260 Ma) values from +2.5 to +4.7. The platinum-group elements (PGE) are very mildly depleted in most of the basalts which contain 8-19 ppb Pt and 7-27 ppb Pd. However, a significant proportion of the Middle Unit basalts are strongly depleted in PGE with some samples having concentrations lower than detection limits. They have extremely high Zr/Nb ratios (up to 14.5) and low ?Nd(260 Ma) values (+3.21 to +0.65), features of extensive lower crustal contamination. Some samples in this unit have high Ni/Pd (3,965-61,198) and low Pd/Cr (410,000-3,930,000) ratios, indicating sulfide segregation and PGE depletion prior to eruption. The primary magmas were S-undersaturated and derived from partial melting at variable depths in the upper mantle. The early and late stage magmas, as represented by the Lower and Upper Units, underwent AFC processes which induced mild S-saturation and PGE depletion in some of the basalts, whereas the magmas represented by the Middle Unit experienced more extensive crustal contamination resulting in stronger S-saturation and in most cases significant PGE depletion.

Song, Xie-Yan; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Keays, Reid R.; Cao, Zhi-Min; Sun, Min; Qi, Liang

2006-07-01

289

Pottery Production and Social Complexity of the Bronze Age Cultures on the Chengdu Plain, Sichuan, China  

E-print Network

Yichang Site at Lujiahe: Archaeological Excavation Report ofYichang Site at Lujiahe: Archaeological Excavation Report ofreport on the excavation at the Renfang locus of the Jinsha site) In Archaeological

Lin, Kuei-chen

2013-01-01

290

SCOPE CHINA SCOPE CHINA  

E-print Network

SCOPE CHINA SCOPE CHINA 92030006 86-351-7010700 86-351-7010700 E-mail: scope #12;SCOPE-ZHONGYU ENvirONmENtal FOrUm 2012 October 11-14, 2012 Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, China Chair of Environmental Development Dr. Shu Sun, Academician, President of SCOPE CAST China Former Vice President

Wang, Wei Hua

291

A randomised controlled pilot study: the effectiveness of narrative exposure therapy with adult survivors of the Sichuan earthquake  

PubMed Central

Background Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a common psychological reaction after large-scale natural disasters. Given the number of people involved and shortage of resources in any major disaster, brief, pragmatic and easily trainable interventions are needed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET) as a short-term treatment for PTSD using Chinese earthquake survivors. Methods A randomized waiting-list control pilot study was conducted between December 2009 and March 2010, at the site of the Sichuan earthquake in Beichuan County, China. Adult participants with newly diagnosed Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were randomly allocated to Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET) or a Waiting-List (WL) condition. The latter received NET treatment after a two-week waiting period. To compare the effectiveness of NET in traumatised earthquake survivors, both groups were assessed on PTSD symptoms, general mental health, anxiety and depression, social support, coping style and posttraumatic change before and after treatment and two months post treatment. Results Adult participants (n=22) were randomly allocated to receive NET (n=11) or WL (n=11). Twenty two participants (11 in NET group, 11 in WL) were included in the analysis of primary outcomes. Compared with WL, NET showed significant reductions in PTSD symptoms, anxiety and depression, general mental stress and increased posttraumatic growth. The WL group later showed similar improvements after treatment. These changes remained stable for a two-month follow-up. Measures of social support and coping showed no stable effects. Conclusions NET is effective in treating post-earthquake traumatic symptoms in adult Chinese earthquake survivors. The findings help advance current knowledge in the management of PTSD after natural disasters and inform future research. Larger sample sizes are needed to extend the present findings. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-12002473 PMID:23363689

2013-01-01

292

A source-to-sink perspective on the mobilization, transport, and burial of organic carbon following the 2008 Sichuan earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mobilization and fluvial transport of organic carbon is one of the most important geochemical legacies of landslides triggered by extreme events such as major floods or earthquakes. While there is some information about the quantity of carbon carried by rivers under varying flow regimes, and even in the aftermath of single large events, there is little source-to-sink information about the transfer of this carbon through river systems into depositional centers, and about the geochemical transformations following deposition. These processes may be distinct in the aftermath of extreme events because of the association of organic carbon transport with high clastic sediment loads. In this study, we use the legacy of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake in Sichuan, China, to explore the mobilization, transport, and ultimate fate of organic carbon associated with co-seismic and post-seismic landslides. We focus on Zipingpu Reservoir, which serves as a trap for material carried by the Min Jiang river that drains the epicentral region most dramatically affected by landslides. We use revised landslide and biomass maps to quantify total organic carbon mobilized from hillslopes within the reservoir catchment area. We have collected sediment cores from the reservoir itself, and together with estimates of sedimentation rates constrained by short-lived radionuclide abundances, we construct a budget for the carbon transport into the reservoir based on analyses of sediment solid phase organic C concentrations and isotope ratios. Post-depositional diagenetic alteration is quantified using pore water profiles, including DIC concentration, carbon isotope compositions, and the isotopic composition of methane collected both in-situ from pore waters, and associated with actively bubbling methane seeps.

West, A.; Li, G.; Hammond, D. E.; Jin, Z.

2012-12-01

293

3D thermal structure of the continental lithosphere beneath China and adjacent regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the Crust2.0 model and the topography data of Chinese continent and its adjacent regions, a three-dimensional finite element model is constructed in terms of the spherical coordinate system. In our numerical model, the average annual ground temperature from 195 meteorological stations and temperature of upper mantle derived from the seismic velocities are adopted as the top and bottom boundary conditions, respectively. The observed thermal conductivity and heat production from P wave velocity based on empirical formula are employed in our numerical model as well. The comparison between the calculated and observed surface heat flow proved that our results are reliable. The temperature beneath the Precambrian cratons is lower than that of other areas for 100-300 °C also. The typical temperature rang at the Moho is estimated to be 800-1000 °C beneath the Tibetan plateau and 500-700 °C beneath the Precambrian cratons (such as Indian plate, Sichuan basin, South China, North China and Tarim), respectively. The thermal state in the eastern part of Sino-Korean craton at the depth deeper than 60 km indicates that it was destructed. The thermal structure in center of Tibetan plateau (especially beneath Qiangtang area) supports the proposed flow of lower crustal or upper mantle material to the east. Generally, the distribution of volcanoes in Chinese continent is consistent with the high temperature areas in the crust or upper mantle. There are many obvious thermal transition zones across the orogenic belts. The thermal transition zone between eastern and western parts in the crust of Chinese continent is consistent with the north-south seismic zone.

Sun, Yujun; Dong, Shuwen; Zhang, Huai; Li, Han; Shi, Yaolin

2013-01-01

294

Longitudinal study of rural health workforce in five counties in China: research design and baseline description  

PubMed Central

Background The village doctors have served rural residents for many decades in China, and their role in rural health system has been highly praised in the world; unfortunately, less attention has been paid to the health workforce during the ambitious healthcare reform in recent years. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study to explore the current situation and track the future evolution of the rural healthcare workforce. Methods The self-administered structured Village Clinic Questionnaire and Village Doctor Questionnaire, which were modified from the official questionnaires of the Ministry of Health, were constructed after three focus groups, in-depth interviews in Hebei Province, and a pilot survey in Sichuan Province. Using a stratified multistage cluster sampling process, we gathered baseline data for a longitudinal survey of village doctors, village clinics from Changshu County, Liyang County, Yongchuan District, Mianzhu County, and Jingning County in China in 2011. Well-trained interviewers and strict procedures were employed to ensure the quality of this survey. Descriptive and correlation analyses were performed with Stata 12.0. Results After four months of surveying, 1,982 Village Doctor Questionnaires were collected, and the response rate was 88.1%. There were 1,507 (76.0%) male and 475 (24.0%) female doctors, with an average age of 51.3 years. The majority of village doctors (58.5%) practiced both western medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine, and 91.2% of the doctors received their education below college level. Their practice methods were not correlated with education level (P = 0.43), but closely related to the way they obtained their highest degree (that is, prior to starting work or as on-the-job training) (P < 0.01). The mean income of the village doctors was 1,817 (95% CI 1,733 to 1,900) RMB per month in 2011; only 757 (41.3%) doctors had pensions, and the self-reported expected pension was 1,965 RMB per month. Conclusions Village doctors in rural China are facing critical challenges, including aging, gender imbalance, low education, and a lack of social protection. This study may be beneficial for making better policies for the development of the health workforce and China’s healthcare reform. PMID:23642224

2013-01-01

295

[Facial proportions of the young with the beautiful faces of Sichuan descent].  

PubMed

In this study, eighteen indexes of facial proportions were established in 72 youngsters with beautiful faces of Sichuan descent, who haven't been done operation on and orthodontics in our country. The results indicated that there were not most sexual difference of the facial proportions between male and female in most indexes, and also were not national difference of facial proportions between Chinese and Japanese. It also showed some progresses in clinical practice. PMID:11480031

Zhao, B; Li, L; Bai, Y

1997-05-01

296

LGM lake records from China and an analysis of climate dynamics using a modelling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake-geological studies in China have reported that there were much higher lake levels and much fresher water than today at the last glacial maximum (LGM) in western China. A compilation of lake data in this study showed LGM conditions much drier than today in eastern China but somewhat wetter in western China. These E–W differential patterns of climate conditions were

G. Yu; Bin Xue; Jian Liu; Xing Chen

2003-01-01

297

Sediment dispersal system in the Taiwan-South China Sea collision zone along a convergent margin: A comparison with the Papua New Guinea collision zone of the western Solomon Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through a large-scale examination of the morpho-sedimentary features on sea floors in the Taiwan-Luzon convergent margin, we determined the main sediment dispersal system which stretches from 23°N to 20°N and displays as an aligned linear sediment pathway, consisting of the Penghu Canyon, the deep-sea Penghu Channel and northern Manila Trench. The seafloor of South China Sea north of 21°N are underlain by a triangle-shaped collision marine basin, resulting from oblique collision between the Luzon Arc and Chinese margin, and are mainly occupied by two juxtaposed slopes, the South China Sea and Kaoping Slopes, and a southward tilting basin axis located along the Penghu Canyon. Two major tributary canyons of the Formosa and Kaoping and small channels and gullies on both slopes join into the axial Penghu Canyon and form a dendritic canyon drainage system in this collision marine basin. The canyon drainage system is characteristic of lateral sediment supply from flank slopes and axial sediment transport down-canyon following the tilting basin axis. The significance of the collision marine basin in term of source to sink is that sediments derived from nearby orogen and continental margins are transported to and accumulated in the collision basin, serving as a temporary sediment sink and major marine transport route along the basin axis. The comparison of the Taiwan-South China Sea collision zone with the Papua New Guinea collision zone of the western Solomon Sea reveals remarkable similarities in tectonic settings and sedimentary processes that have resulted in similar sediment dispersal systems consisting of (1) a canyon drainage network mainly in the collision basin and (2) a longitudinal sediment transport system comprising a linear connection of submarine canyon, deep-sea channel and oceanic trench beyond the collision marine basin.

Hsiung, Kan-Hsi; Yu, Ho-Shing

2013-01-01

298

Globalization of Education in China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under traditional Confucianism, China's school system became authoritarian, rigid, and undemocratic. In recent decades, China had one national curriculum and one unified set of textbooks. Now, text publication is more varied, curriculum planning and writing is becoming more democratic, and Western ideas are incorporated to spur economic…

An, Shuhua

2000-01-01

299

Childhood in Premodern China  

E-print Network

. There exist a number of reminiscences written or dictated by Chinese for the Western reading public. One of the earliest of these is Yan Phou Lee's When I Was a Boy in China (Boston, 1887). Many of these autobiographies are memorable, even searing.... Taitou, Shantung Province (New York, 1945), relates at absorbing length his childhood experi- ences as a member of a north China peasant family. One also may mention Ida 72 THE PREM0DERT1 WORLD Pruitt's A China Childhood (San Francisco, 1978...

Dardess, John W.

1991-03-01

300

Impact of micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on birth weight, duration of gestation, and perinatal mortality in rural western China: double blind cluster randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the impact of antenatal supplementation with multiple micronutrients or iron and folic acid compared with folic acid alone on birth weight, duration of gestation, and maternal haemoglobin concentration in the third trimester.Design Cluster randomised double blind controlled trial.Setting Two rural counties in north west China.Participants 5828 pregnant women and 4697 live births.Interventions Villages were randomised for all

Lingxia Zeng; Yue Cheng; Shaonong Dang; Hong Yan; Michael J Dibley; Suying Chang; Lingzhi Kong

2008-01-01

301

The Great Sichuan Earthquake of May 12, 2008 (Mw7.9) - An Unpredictable Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The great Sichuan earthquake (Mw7.9, Ms8.0) occurred on the Longmenshan Rupture Zone (LRZ) triplet of parallel faults, the boundary fault rupture zone that separates the eastern Tibetan Plateau from the Sichuan Basin. No really scientific, successful prediction was made for this event in terms of place or size, or time (even on long-time scale) with an acceptable precision. That is, the 2008 event was an unpredicted earthquake, a failure of prediction. The 2008 Sichuan earthquake, with a fault rupture length L about 270 km and displacements up to 9-12 m, produced relief changes and landslides, massive damages, and 69,000+ deaths. On the other hand, the Tibet region is known for large/great earthquake occurrences (e.g. in 1920, 1976 and 2001). In view of these, we analyzed different studies if the 2008 earthquake was actually predictable or unpredictable. We found in these researches that: (1) no great earthquake from the same magnitude order on the same fault is known to us, both in historical and paleoearthquake data to have occurred at the place of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, until the occurrence of the earthquake, (2) only one earthquake close to Sichuan earthquake is known: the Aug. 25, 1933 Diexi earthquake (M=7.3, NEIC), but this event has ruptured a different fault, related or connected with the Min Jiang fault (Cheng et al. 1994), (3) the great 2001 Kun Lun earthquake Mw8.1, L=450 km, generated no coseismic Coulomb stress transfer as to trigger the nucleation of the 2008 earthquake on the actual fault rupture, (4) a detailed study (Papadimitriou et al., 2004) of Coulomb stress transfer from large earthquakes on the Xianshuihe show clearly no forecast of the possible place of a large or great earthquake along the LRZ or its segments of the Sichuan earthquake, (5) low dip-slip rate of, about 1-2 mm/year for LRZ, and the displacements from the source process (Ji, 2008; Nisimura and Yagi, 2008) suggest a mean repeat time for such an earthquake class longer than at least 1000 years or more, and (6) our long time observations and rationale led us to the fact that it is fundamental for conceiving the predictability of phenomena and patterns in nature when they provide the existence of their repeatability in space and time, more or less regularly, or irregularly. Under this view the 2008 Sichuan earthquake was an unpredictable earthquake, relative to place and size, and time. The predictability of this earthquake, after its occurrence can, on the other hand, be discussed at the philosophical level. Future paleoseismological researches should constrain the LRZ repeat-times for M8 earthquakes.

Purcaru, G.

2008-12-01

302

Followers of Confucianism or a New Generation? Learning Culture of Mainland Chinese: In Pursuit of Western-Based Business Education Away from Mainland China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mainland Chinese learning culture has evolved due to the rapid changes in the economic, political, cultural and demographic demands. The changing characteristics of the Chinese students' learning behavioral styles and preferences, as well as the challenges faced in pursuit of Western-based education, are discussed with suggested…

Rajaram, Kumaran

2013-01-01

303

Mitochondrial genome of the Sichuan field mouse (Apodemus latronum).  

PubMed

Abstract Wood mice of the genus Apodemus are the most common small rodents in fields and broad-leaf forests in the temperate zone. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Apodemus latronum. It was endemic species to China, which mainly inhabited at the high land of the eastern Tibetan Plateau. The complete mitochondrial genome sequences of A. latronum was estimated to be 16,288 bases. Its organization and order were similar to that of typical vertebrate and other rodents' mitochondrial genomes, which consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 control region. Most protein-coding genes used ATG as the initiation codon. However, ND1, ND2 and ND5 began with ATA, whereas ND3 initiated with ATT. The termination codon also showed some degree of variation, and three types of stop codons were observed. The mitogenome sequence of A. latronum could provide helpful data to study the phylogeny of Apodemus. PMID:24963761

Yue, Hao; Liu, Shaoying; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Xiuyue; Fan, Zhenxin

2014-06-25

304

Carbon uptake and change in net primary productivity of oasis-desert ecosystem in arid western China with remote sensing technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arid and semi-arid ecosystems exhibit a spatially complex biogeophysical structure. According to arid western special climate-vegetation\\u000a characters, the fractional cover of photosynthetic vegetation (PV), non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV), bare soil and water\\u000a are unmixed, using the remote sensing spectral mixture analysis. We try the method to unmix the canopy funation structure\\u000a of arid land cover in order to avoid the differentiation

Jie Zhang; Xiaoling Pan; Zhiqiang Gao; Qingdong Shi; Guanghui Lv

2006-01-01

305

Genetic Diversity in Primula obconica (Primulaceae) from Central and South?west China as Revealed by ISSR Markers  

PubMed Central

Genetic diversity was investigated in 60 individuals of Primula obconica from four natural populations (from Hubei, central China, and Sichuan, south?west China) and from cultivated material. Inter?simple sequence repeat (ISSR) techniques produced 249 polymorphic bands and identified 60 ISSR genotypes. Based on Shannon’s index and Nei’s genetic diversity, the genetic diversity detected in all natural populations of P. obconica was much higher than that in the cultivated plants, and that in the three Dalaoling (Hubei) populations was higher than that in the Wawushan (Sichuan) population. UPGMA cluster analysis showed that there was no distinct genetic differentiation between populations from the Mt Dalaoling area and the Mt Wawushan area. This study provides a population?level genetic profile of P. obconica, which was previously poorly known but which is important for Primula breeding and cultivation. PMID:12547685

NAN, PENG; SHI, SUHUA; PENG, SHAOLIN; TIAN, CHUNJIE; ZHONG, YANG

2003-01-01

306

Family Structure, Marital Fertility and Premarital Sex among Married and Never-Married Women in Contemporary China  

E-print Network

in China, research still shows that family structure in China is relatively stable compared to western countries. This dissertation investigates the effects of family structure on fertility in contemporary China. This dissertation had two main objectives...

He, Lei 1984-

2012-11-20

307

Geodynamical Evolution and Tectonic Framework of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we show that the tectonic framework of mainland China consists of "three latitudinal strips", namely, Tianshan-Yinshan-Yanshan, Qinling-Dabie, and Nanling; "two longitudinal strips" namely, Daxing'anling Taihangshan Wulingshan, Helanshan-Longmenshan; and "two triangles", Songpan-Ganzi, and Chaidamu. The geodynamic evolution of China can be considered in five-stages, which can be summarised as a kind of "teeterboard-like" process. The evolutionary process is that in the Palaeozoic era, the China mainland had lower elevation in the west and higher in the east, with OrdosSichuan as an axis. After the Mesozoic era, because the blocks of Qiangtang, Gangdese, and India collided and sutured with the Tarim block. During this time closure of the Tethys ocean occurred, and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau formed. In the Cenozoic subduction of the Pacific plate northwestwards under the Philippine Sea began, and the Philippine Sea block converged towards the Eurasian plate. This was associated with extension and thinning of the crust in East China, which resulted in the uplift of the land in the west and subsidence in the east of China. Finally, we point out that research on the geodynamic evolution of the terranes is of practical significance in prospecting for mineral deposits and hydrocarbon resources.

LIU, Guangding

308

Constraining the 2008 Wenchuan, China Earthquake Rupture Model Using SAR Interferometry Data and an Angular Dislocation Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The May 12, 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake struck Sichuan, China and claimed ~70000 human lives. Seismological data show that the great earthquake has both thrust and dextral motions on the NE-trending Longmen Shan fault zone (USGS, 2008). Seismological data offered the quickest solution of the fault rupture within a few days of the earthquake (Ji, 2008; Parsons et al., 2008;

J. Sun; Z. Shen; X. Xu; Y. Wan; M. Wang; W. Gan

2008-01-01

309

Distribution of landslides adjacent to the northern side of the Yarlu Tsangpo Grand Canyon in Tibet, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results of recent studies on distribution and category of landslides in one section of the Sichuan–Tibet\\u000a Highway, adjacent to the northern side of the Yarlu Tsangpo Grand Canyon, Tibet, Southwestern China. In the tectonic setting\\u000a predominated by compression and strike-slipping, active faults are dominant and result in the genesis of the great alpine\\u000a relief together with fluvial

Yanjun Shang; Hyeong-Dong Park; Zhifa Yang; Jie Yang

2005-01-01

310

Taxonomic study of the genus Halolaguna Gozmány (Lepidoptera, Lecithoceridae) from China, with descriptions of two new species  

PubMed Central

Abstract The genus Halolaguna Gozmány, 1978 is studied in China. Two new species, Halolaguna flabellata sp. n. from Guangxi and Halolaguna discoidea sp. n. from Chongqing, Guangxi and Sichuan are described. The female of Halolaguna guizhouensis Wu, 2012 is reported for the first time. Photographs of adults and genitalia are provided. A checklist of all known Halolaguna species is included, along with a key to the Chinese species. PMID:25589871

Teng, Kaijian; Liu, Shurong; Wang, Shuxia

2014-01-01

311

Impacts of the North India Ocean SST on the extremely cold winters of 2011 and 2012 in the region of Da Hinggan Mountains and its western areas in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the winter temperatures, averaged from the records of 11 observatories in the Da Hinggan Mountains and its western areas in China (DHM-WA), identified 11 extremely cold (? - 1.5 °C) and 13 extremely warm winters (? + 1.5 °C) during the past 60 years (1951-2010). The winters of 2011 and 2012 are another two extremely cold events. Aimed at exploring the climate causes, a comprehensive investigation is carried out on variations of some major atmospheric circulation components. Additionally, opposite circulation regimes are verified by examining the mean 500-hPa circulation patterns and sea level pressure (SLP) corresponding to 14 warm and 18 cold sea surface temperature (SST) phases over the North India Ocean (NIO) during the period of 1951-2010. Composite of an extremely cold winter usually includes a large and strong Siberian High, a deep East Asian trough to the west, an small and weak western Pacific Subtropical High to the east, a large North Polar vortex and a weakened westerly stream over Eurasia continent accompanied by a strong meridional winds from the polar region to lower latitude. Moreover, it has been found that a favorable circulation condition associated with the extremely cold winters to DHM-WA is mainly controlled by the SST over NIO in the previous warm season (June-September); This is primarily related to changes in the intensity of the Walker and Anti-Walker circulations, which subsequently influence the major circulation components and result in an extremely cold winter in DHM-WA.

Gao, Tao; Han, Jingwei; Gao, Lian; Yan, Wei

2014-08-01

312

Interpersonal psychotherapy versus treatment as usual for PTSD and depression among Sichuan earthquake survivors: a randomized clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Without effective treatment, PTSD and depression can cause persistent disability in disaster-affected populations. Methods Our objective was to test the efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) delivered by trained local personnel compared with treatment as usual (TAU) for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) among adults affected by the Sichuan 2008 earthquake. A small randomized controlled trial of IPT?+?TAU versus TAU alone was delivered by local mental health personnel in Shifang, China. Between July 2011 and January 2012, 49 adults???18 years with PTSD, MDD or both were enrolled and randomized to 12 weekly sessions of IPT?+?TAU (27) or TAU (22) alone x 12 weeks. IPT was then offered to the TAU group. Unblinded follow up assessments were conducted at three and six months. IPT was a 12 session, weekly one hour treatment delivered by local personnel who were trained and supervised in IPT. TAU was continuation of prescribed psychotropic medication (if applicable) and crisis counseling, as needed. Main Outcome(s) and Measures (s): Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) PTSD diagnosis; Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) for MDD diagnosis. Secondary measures included PTSD/depression symptoms, interpersonal conflict/anger, social support, self-efficacy and functioning. Results Using an intent-to-treat analysis, 22 IPT?+?TAU and 19 TAU participants were compared at three months post-baseline. A significantly greater reduction of PTSD and MDD diagnoses was found in the IPT group (51.9%, 30.1%, respectively) versus the TAU group (3.4%, 3.4%, respectively). Despite the small sample, the estimates for time-by-condition analyses of target outcomes (2.37 for PTSD (p?=?.018) and 1.91 for MDD (p?=?.056)) indicate the improvement was better in the IPT?+?TAU condition versus the TAU group. Treatment gains were maintained at 6 months for the IPT group. A similar treatment response was observed in the TAU group upon receipt of IPT. Conclusions This initial study shows that IPT is a promising treatment for reducing PTSD and depression, the two major mental health disorders affecting populations surviving natural disaster, using a design that builds local mental health care capacity. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.Gov number, NCT01624935. PMID:25254070

2014-01-01

313

Schistosomiasis transmission and control in China.  

PubMed

In the last 60 years, great progress has been made in controlling and preventing schistosomiasis in China. However, due to the ecosystem changes caused by the construction of the Three Gorges Dams and the South-north Water Conversion Project, the effects of climate change, the scarcity of a highly sensitive surveillance and response system, schistosomiasis is still considered as a major public health problem and is listed among the top infectious diseases in the country prioritized for control and elimination. Based on the epidemiological pattern of schistosomiasis and ecological characteristics of the vector snail, endemic areas of schistosomiasis in China were categorized into three types: (i) plain region with waterway networks, (ii) mountainous and hilly regions, and (iii) marshland and lake regions. China aims to reach the criteria of transmission control threshold of less than 1% in the lake and marshland provinces and reach transmission interruption threshold in hilly provinces of Sichuan and Yunnan by the end of 2015. The purpose of this article is to use the deterministic model proposed in our earlier study in (Chen et al., 2010) to simulate the schistosomiasis infection data from other lake and marshland provinces, including Hunan, Jiangxi and Anhui. Our simulations demonstrate that the model can reasonably mimic the schistosomiasis infection data from these lake and marshland provinces. Thus, similar control and prevention measures can be designed and proposed for these provinces. We will also try to use the model to simulate the schistosomiasis infection data from Sichuan and Yunnan provinces in the mountainous and hilly regions where cattle farming is not as popular and important as in the lake and marshland provinces and find out that different control and prevention strategies are required. PMID:25559046

Zou, Lan; Ruan, Shigui

2015-03-01

314

Family planning legislation and policy in China.  

PubMed

This article summarizes China's general state of family planning (FP) legislation and FP policy. Article 25 of the Chinese Constitution and Article 12 of the Marriage Law require that F¿ must be promoted by the State. There was only one national law on FP: "Measures for Management of FP of the Floating Population," which was established on December 26, 1991. The text of this law was reported in "China Population Today," Number 1, February, 1992. This law authorized provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities under central government control to establish their own FP regulations according to the conditions of their regions. The first province with regulations was Guangdong in 1980, followed by Qinghai, Shaanxi, and Ningxia in 1986. Sichuan regulations were published in 1987, followed by Guizhou, Hubei, Liaoning, Fujian, Shandong, Jilin, and Anhui in 1988. In 1989, the following states published regulations: Guangxi, Tianjin, Hebei, Hainan, and Zhejiang. The remaining 11 provinces and autonomous regions passed regulations in 1990 and 1991 to complete the total 28 administrative units for provinces with FP regulations. Only Tibet and Xianjiang do not have regulations. Regulations promote deferred marriage and deferred childbearing, fewer and healthier births, the practice of one couple and one child, and birth spacing for those suffering with only one child; genetic defects were to be prevented. Minorities, in general, ascribed to the following conditions: 1) one-child family, unless difficulties would arise as a result. This provision applied to Beijing, Tianjin, and Shanghai municipalities and Jiangsu and Sichuan provinces. Allowing a second birth for families with only daughters was allowed in 18 provinces and regions. 2) Two-child families were allowed in Ningxia, Yunnan, Qinghai, guangdong, and Hainan provinces. 3) Ethnic populations (8% or 90 million in 1990) have special policies, which are more lenient than policies governing the Han majority. The exception was Zhuang nationality, which has the same policy as the Han. FP policy in China is not unified as a "one-child policy." PMID:12286963

1992-10-01

315

Drug addiction in China.  

PubMed

Drug addiction in China began with the importation of Indian opium by the British in the 16th century and brought severe social and health problems. While drug abuse abated following the establishment of People's Republic of China, modernization and Westernization in the 1980s led to the reemergence of this problem. Drug abuse in China became epidemic, facilitating the spread of HIV/AIDS. The Chinese government has made great efforts to address these problems, focusing both on treatments of drug addiction and on harm-reduction programs. Although the new trends of drug addiction in China pose great public health challenges, these government interventions are likely to successfully stem the problem of drug abuse in the future. PMID:18991965

Lu, Lin; Wang, Xi

2008-10-01

316

Impact of micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on birth weight, duration of gestation, and perinatal mortality in rural western China: double blind cluster randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the impact of antenatal supplementation with multiple micronutrients or iron and folic acid compared with folic acid alone on birth weight, duration of gestation, and maternal haemoglobin concentration in the third trimester. Design Cluster randomised double blind controlled trial. Setting Two rural counties in north west China. Participants 5828 pregnant women and 4697 live births. Interventions Villages were randomised for all pregnant women to take either daily folic acid (control), iron with folic acid, or multiple micronutrients with a recommended allowance of 15 vitamins and minerals. Main outcome measures Birth weight, length, and head circumference measured within 72 hours after delivery. Neonatal survival assessed at the six week follow-up visit. Results Birth weight was 42 g (95% confidence interval 7 to 78 g) higher in the multiple micronutrients group compared with the folic acid group. Duration of gestation was 0.23 weeks (0.10 to 0.36 weeks) longer in the iron-folic acid group and 0.19 weeks (0.06 to 0.32 weeks) longer in the multiple micronutrients group. Iron-folic acid was associated with a significantly reduced risk of early preterm delivery (<34 weeks) (relative risk 0.50, 0.27 to 0.94, P=0.031). There was a significant increase in haemoglobin concentration in both iron-folic acid (5.0 g/l, 2.0 to 8.0 g/l, P=0.001) and multiple micronutrients (6.9 g/l, 4.1 to 9.6 g/l, P<0.001) groups compared with folic acid alone. In post hoc analyses there were no significant differences for perinatal mortality, but iron-folic acid was associated with a significantly reduced early neonatal mortality by 54% (relative risk 0.46, 0.21 to 0.98). Conclusion In rural populations in China antenatal supplementation with iron-folic acid was associated with longer gestation and a reduction in early neonatal mortality compared with folic acid. Multiple micronutrients were associated with modestly increased birth weight compared with folic acid, but, despite this weight gain, there was no significant reduction in early neonatal mortality. Pregnant women in developing countries need sufficient doses of iron in nutrient supplements to maximise reductions in neonatal mortality. Trial registration ISRCTN08850194. PMID:18996930

2008-01-01

317

A brief statistical analysis of stomatology papers published in international journals by researchers from the mainland of China  

PubMed Central

This paper has briefly analyzed the publication status of Chinese stomatology papers in 2009 with statistics from Journal Citation Reports® provided by Thomson Scientific. Only those papers with the first author coming from the mainland of China were included for calculations. We have found a significant increase in the number of SCIE-indexed papers, most of which were published by six dental institutions in China. Among all Chinese medical institutions, West China School of Stomatology Sichuan University is the first dental institution to enter the top-20 list with the most publications, and it also ranks the 9th in the number of outstanding articles. West China School of Stomatology Sichuan University and the Forth Military Medical University are the only two dental institutions in China which have published SCIE-indexed papers over a hundred. The former has published the most SCIE-indexed stomatology papers, while the latter has the highest average impact factor. As the laboratories and funds in China have close connections with various dental hospitals, the pratice of translational medicine in dentistry is fast and fluent. PMID:21449209

Zhang, Yu-hua; Pan, Yun-tao; Hong, Xiao

2011-01-01

318

Chemical compositions and reconstructed light extinction coefficients of particulate matter in a mega-city in the western Yangtze River Delta, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient particulate matter was collected in a megacity, Nanjing in western YRD during the spring and summer periods. Chemical compositions of fine PM including organic carbon, elemental carbon, elements and water soluble ions were analyzed. The light extinction coefficients were reconstructed following the IMPROVE formula. Organic matter was the most abundant composition in PM2.5 (20-25% of total mass), followed by the inorganic ions. During the spring time, geological materials contributed 25% of the total PM2.5. Estimated light extinction coefficient ranged from 133 to 560 Mm-1 with the deciview haze index value of 26-40 dv, indicating strong light extinction by PM and subsequently low visibility in the city. Reconstructed ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, organic matter and light absorption carbon in fine PM contributed significantly (37 ± 10, 16 ± 6, 15 ± 4 and 10 ± 3%, respectively) to the total light extinction of PM, while soil (5-7%) and sea salt fractions (2-4%) in fine PM and coarse PM (6-11%) had relatively minor influences. The results of backward air trajectory showed that the site was strongly influenced by the air from the eastern (39%) and southeastern (29%) areas during the sampling period. Air plumes from the Southeastern had both high PM mass pollution and large light extinction, while the air mass originating from the Northwestern resulted in high PM mass loading but relatively lower light extinction.

Shen, Guofeng; Xue, Miao; Yuan, Siyu; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Qiuyue; Li, Bing; Wu, Haisuo; Ding, Aijun

2014-02-01

319

Medical Education in Peoples's Republic of China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The three types of physicians trained in the People's Republic of China (practitioners in Chinese medicine, traditional Mongolian medicine, and western-style medicine) and the design of the medical schools and programs are discussed. (MSE)

Cooper, John A. D.; Yingang, Lin

1987-01-01

320

[How to launch the activity of propaganda month of family planning in Sichuan province].  

PubMed

In mid-July to the end of August 1982, the Sichuan Provincial Party Committee and the Sichuan Provincial People's Government launched a 1-time family planning propaganda month in all of its cities and villages. The purpose was to promote and to carry out consistently and thoroughly the "Going a Step Further in Family Planning Work Directive" of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party and the State Council. Through the propaganda efforts, cadres and masses of Sichuan became familiar with the Party's family planning policy and the basis for population theory, thereby benefitting the nation, its people and future generations. In addition, people sensed the urgency, glory, and responsibility of population control. Based on incomplete data, during the month of propaganda, there were 174,182 new applications for 1 Child Certificates, which was 94.82% of the certificates applied for in the 1st half of 1982; 419,696 cases of contraceptive use, or 43.32% of those using them in the 1st 6 months of the year; 247,808 cases of those taking remedial measures, or 35.62% of those doing so in the 1st half of the year. The 1 child rate rose from a June 1982 figure of 68.21% to 68.71%; the multiple child rate dropped from 8.24% to 8%. The projected birthrate for 1982 is 16-17/1000. The success of the propaganda month was attained through: 1) organized responsibility, clearly defined goals and complete preparations that existed at all provincial Party and provincial Governmental levels; 2) the propaganda effort that was a priority of all governmental leaders, who utilized every propaganda tool available; At every level, propaganda sessions of every kind were convened, the entire propaganda machine was mobilized, and propaganda was brought into the home and to individuals; 3) propaganda, experience, and implementation that were all utilized simultaneously; and 4) the organization and administration of propaganda work that was systematized. PMID:12312939

Wan, C; Tan, S S

1983-01-29

321

Innovation and Development of Foreign Language Teaching in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Foreign language teaching has been playing a dominant role in China's curriculum reform, especially in the present globalization of Chinese society and economy. However, the insufficient research into foreign language teaching and blindly adopting western theory demand China learn from its own experience and also develop western foreign language…

Zhang, Zheng-dong

2006-01-01

322

Continental vertical growth in the transitional zone between South Tianshan and Tarim, western Xinjiang, NW China: Insight from the Permian Halajun A1-type granitic magmatism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South Tianshan Collisional Belt (STCB) and northern margin of the Tarim Block (NTB) are key areas for understanding the prolonged tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The Halajun region in Xinjiang province, NW China is located within the tectonic transition zone between STCB and Tarim Blocks. Several granitic intrusions and one mafic-ultramafic complex (Piqiang complex) are exposed in this region. Zircon U-Pb dating, whole-rock major oxide, trace element and Nd isotopic data are presented for the Huoshibulake, Tamu, Kezi'ertuo and Halajun II granitic intrusions in this area. New LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age for Kezi'ertuo intrusion, coupled with previously published SHIRMP U-Pb ages for Huoshibulake and Halajun II intrusions and Piqiang complex, reveals that all the igneous rocks in the Halajun region are coeval (~ 275 Ma). Geochemically, the four granitic intrusions show high contents of SiO2, K2O and total alkalis and possess trace element patterns characterized by Rb, Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf enrichment and significantly negative Ba, Sr, P, Eu and Ti anomalies. These features strongly favor an A1-type affinity for the Halajun granitic intrusions. Among the four intrusions, the Kezi'ertuo, Tamu and Halajun II intrusions possess positive to slightly negative ?Nd(t) values ranging from - 0.9 to + 0.6, whereas the Huoshibulake intrusion displays less depleted ?Nd(t) values of - 2.6 to - 2.9. Our new elemental and isotopic data suggest that the four granitic intrusions were generated by the partial melting of a common Neoproterozoic gabbroic source, probably as a result of the ~ 275 Ma underplating of the asthenosphere mantle-derived magmas. The variable involvement of the mantle components accounts for the range of ?Nd(t) values. After the generation of the parental magma, alkali feldspar, arfvedsonite, biotite, Fe-Ti oxides and zircon seem to have fractionated prior to the final emplacement of the granitic magmas. In combination with the regional geological history, we propose that the ~ 275 Ma A1-type granitic magmatism in the Halajun region and other areas of the NTB provides a good proxy record for the vertical continental crustal growth in the southern margin of the CAOB during the Permian. Our study, in combination with other geological evidence, indicates that these A1-type felsic and OIB-like mafic-ultramafic rocks, with ages from ~ 282 Ma to ~ 275 Ma, in the southern margin of the CAOB are parts of the Permian Tarim large igneous province and could be genetically related to the Tarim mantle plume.

Huang, He; Zhang, Zhaochong; Kusky, Timothy; Santosh, M.; Zhang, Shu; Zhang, Dongyang; Liu, Junlai; Zhao, Zhidan

2012-12-01

323

The millipede genus Riukiaria Attems, 1938 in continental China, with descriptions of new species (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae).  

PubMed

Fresh collections of Diplopoda from China contain five new species of the large, East Asian, warm temperate to subtropical genus Riukiaria: R. martensi sp. nov., from Shaanxi Province, as well as R. belousovi sp. nov., R. kabaki sp. nov., R. korolevi sp. nov. and R. davidiani sp. nov. from Sichuan Province. A key is given to all eight Riukiaria species currently known to occur in mainland China, including R. tianmu (Tanabe, Ishii & Yin, 1996), comb. nov. ex Sinoria Tanabe, Ishii & Yin, 1996, the latter genus a new junior subjective synonym of Riukiaria, syn. nov. PMID:24870160

Golovatch, S I

2014-01-01

324

[Raman spectra study of thermal transformation of nephrite cat's eye from Sichuan province].  

PubMed

Raman spectrum and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to study the process andproduct of thermal transformation of nephrite cat's eye from Sichuan province. The results indicate that upon being heated till 900 degrees C, tremolite in the nephrite cat's eye is dehydrated completely and the appearance of a new characteristic band near 671 cm(-1) indicates the form of a new product. At 1 000 degrees C, the intensity of band near 1014 cm(-1) rises obviously, and the weak bands near 573 cm(-1) and 934 cm(-1) present. Up to 1100 degrees C, the band near 1033 cm(-1) appears. All these evidences show that the final thermal transformation product is identified as Ca-Mg pyroxene which is similar to diopside both in structure and in composition. This conclusion is confirmed by XRD. PMID:16499055

Lu, Bao-qi; Xia, Yi-ben; Qi, Li-jian; You, Jing-lin

2005-11-01

325

Zircon SHRIMP dating of sodium alkaline rocks from Maomaogou area of Huili County in Panxi, SW China and its geological implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkali-feldspar syenites from the Maomaogou area of Huili County in Panxi of Sichuan Province, SW China are sodium alkaline\\u000a rocks, the minerals of which are mainly composed of calcic ferroaugite, ferroamphibole and biotite. Most of the zircons (>80%)\\u000a selected for SHRIMP U-Pb dating are magmatic compound zircons and they have relict inner cores and growing outer shells. The\\u000a age of

Hongying Liu; Bin Xia; Yuquan Zhang

2004-01-01

326

Studies of Natural Products on Treating Neurological Disorders in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is well known for its long history of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which has endured for thousands of years. The use of TCM requires complex recipes and formulae derived from historical and anecdotal evidence of Chinese medicinal practitioners. Although western drugs were brought into China over a hundred years ago, TCM is still widely used in China based on

Hai Yan Zhang; Xi Can Tang

2008-01-01

327

Experimental Labour—Offshoring Clinical Trials to China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The State Food and Drug Administration of China has reported a dramatic increase in multicentre, multinational clinical trials over the past several years. This is in keeping with a growing trend towards the off-shore outsourcing of clinical trials from North America and Western Europe to 'nontraditional locations' such as Eastern Europe, China, and India. Within China, the post-socialist reform of

Melinda Cooper

2008-01-01

328

China Textile in Global Value Chain Jean RUFFIER  

E-print Network

1 China Textile in Global Value Chain Jean RUFFIER CNRS searcher, CEFC, Centre d'Etudes Français, local governments, traders and westerns companies. China's industrial take-off surprised economists, but it now lasted for twenty years with the industrial growth rate still higher than 10%. China has changed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

329

Co-seismic and Cumulative Offsets of the Recent Earthquakes along the Karakax Left-lateral Strike-slip Fault in Western Tibet, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 400 km-long Karakax left-lateral strike-slip fault is the westernmost segment of the Altyn Tagh fault. It separates northwestern Tibet to the south from the Tarim basin to the north. The western section of the Karakax fault exhibits clear co-seismic surface ruptures of past large earthquakes. Geomorphic offset measurements from the field and high-resolution Ikonos images along 1.5 km across the Sanshiliyingfang fan and along 55 km of the fault, range from 3 to 28 m, with distinct clusters at 6 × 2(3), 14 × 2, 19 × 2 and 24 × 3 m. The cluster of the smallest offsets around 6 m (full range from 3 to 10 m) distributed over a minimum length of 55 km, is attributed to the last largest surface rupturing event that testifies of the occurrence of a magnitude Mw 7.4-7.6 earthquake along the Karakax fault. We interpret the other offset clusters as the possible repetition of similarly sized events thus favoring a characteristic slip model for the Karakax fault. In a 3 m-deep trench dug across the active trace of the fault we can identify the main rupture strands of the last and penultimate events. The penultimate event horizon, a silty-sand layer, has been radiocarbon dated at 975-1020 A.D. (AMS 14C age). Estimating that the most recent event occurred in the last century (or 200 yrs at most), it may be related to the historical events of 1902 or 1882 located south of Pishan and Hotan. It is proposed that large Mw 7.4-7.6 events with co-seismic slip of about 6 m rupture the Karakax fault with a return time of about 900 years implying an average slip-rate of about 6-7 mm/yr during the late Holocene. These results suggest that the Karakax fault is the largest left-lateral strike-slip fault at the rim of northwestern Tibet accommodating eastward movement of Tibet due to the India-Eurasia collision.

Li, H.; Van der Woerd, J.; Sun, Z.; Pan, J.; Tapponnier, P.; Liu, D.; Si, J.; Chevalier, M.; Zhang, W.

2013-12-01

330

Dysfunction and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Fracture Victims 50 Months after the Sichuan Earthquake  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a rehabilitation intervention on physical dysfunction (PDF) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in fracture victims 50 months after the Sichuan earthquake of 2008 and to identify risk factors for PTSD. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study. Four hundred and fifty-nine earthquake-related fracture victims from Mianzhu city, Sichuan Province who did not qualify for disability pension participated. Two hundred and forty-five subjects received regular rehabilitation and 214 did not. Muscle strength, joint range of motion (ROM),sensory function, and sit-to-stand balance capacity were evaluated to assess PDF. The PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) was administered to screen for PTSD. An ordinary least square regression was used to predict PTSD, and a logistic regression was used to predict PDF. In addition a Least Angle Regression (LARS) was carried out for PTSD to study the effects of rehabilitation and PDF at the same time. Results Unadjusted and adjusted group differences in physical dysfunction (p<0.01) and PTSD prevalence (p<0.05) were significant in favor of the rehabilitation group. In addition, being female, average or above family income, having witnessed death and fearfulness were found risk factors for PTSD symptoms 50 months after the earthquake. Both PDF and rehabilitation were selected predictors by LARS demonstrating opposite effects. Conclusion PDF and PTSD were significantly reduced by the rehabilitation intervention. Future medical intervention strategies should consider rehabilitation in order to assist survivors in dealing with both physical and psychological effects of natural disaster. PMID:24204861

Ni, Jun; Reinhardt, Jan D.; Zhang, Xia; Xiao, Mingyue; Li, Ling; Jin, Hong; Zeng, Xianmin; Li, Jianan

2013-01-01

331

Territorial Competition in China and the West  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chien S.-S. and Gordon I. Territorial competition in China and the West, Regional Studies. In modern western societies, and most other economies to which it has spread, territorial economic competition is associated with a combination of competitive electoral politics and private land-ownership. In mainland China, however, a very strong form of this competition has emerged without either of these supports.

Shiuh-Shen Chien; Ian Gordon

2008-01-01

332

Characteristics of the regional meteorological drought events in Southwest China during 1960-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An objective identification technique for regional extreme events (OITREE) and the daily compositedrought index (CI) at 101 stations in Southwest China (including Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, and Chongqing) are used to detect regional meteorological drought events between 1960 and 2010. Values of the parameters of the OITREE method are determined. A total of 87 drought events are identified, including 9 extreme events. The 2009-2010 drought is the most serious in Southwest China during the past 50 years. The regional meteorological drought events during 1960-2010 generally last for 10-80 days, with the longest being 231 days. Droughts are more common from November to next April, and less common in the remaining months. Droughts occur more often and with greater intensity in Yunnan and southern Sichuan than in other parts of Southwest China. Strong (extreme and severe) regional meteorological drought events can be divided into five types. The southern type has occurred most frequently, and Yunnan is the area most frequently stricken by extreme and severe drought events. The regional meteorological drought events in Southwest China have increased in both frequency and intensity over the study period, and the main reason appears to be a significant decrease in precipitation over this region, but a simultaneous increase in temperature also contributes.

Li, Yunjie; Ren, Fumin; Li, Yiping; Wang, Pengling; Yan, Hongming

2014-06-01

333

Western Skink  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Western skink (Plestiodon skiltonianus) is a relatively common and widespread lizard in Southern California. It is more secretive and prefers more grassy habitat than the Western fence lizard or the side-blotched lizard, yet USGS and National Park Service biologists are finding signs of genetic ...

2010-09-17

334

Genetic relationship between the Emeishan plume and the bauxite deposits in Western Guangxi, China: Constraints from U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopes of the detrital zircons in bauxite ores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation processes and alumina sources of the large and super-large bauxite deposits that have developed in West Guangxi in the Yangtze Block have been debated for a long time. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dates, combined with in situ Hf isotopic data of the detrital zircons from Permian bauxite ores in the Western Guangxi province, China, provide new constraints on the genesis of the bauxites in West Guangxi. U-Pb dating ages of the detrital zircons cluster around 256 Ma and 261 Ma; this is consistent with the emplacement age of the Emeishan plume. Thus, it has been determined that the detrital zircons come from magmatic rocks related to the Emeishan plume and that the Emeishan plume has significant control on the formation of bauxites. In addition, this work presents new evidence for the evolution of the Emeishan plume. Most of the ?Hf(T) values of the zircons around 256 Ma and 261 Ma are negative, varying widely from -1.3 to -16.1. This data indicates the melting of Yangtze Block basement rocks and the mixing of magmas generated both from the mantle and from the crust occurred at the periphery of the plume in the main phase of Emeishan LIP magmatism. This study verified that the plume-induced uplift exposed carbonates, as well as the mafic and felsic rocks generated by the Emeishan plume to long periods of intense weathering under humid tropical conditions. The weathering remnants of the high-alumina magmatic rocks and carbonates were deposited on, or transported to, the paleokarst surface and converted to bauxites.

Deng, Jun; Wang, Qingfei; Yang, Shujuan; Liu, Xuefei; Zhang, Qizuan; Yang, Liqiang; Yang, Yueheng

2010-03-01

335

Platinum-group element geochemistry of the Zhuqing Fe-Ti-V oxide ore-bearing mafic intrusions in western Yangtze Block, SW China: control of platinum-group elements by magnetite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Platinum-group element (PGE) geochemistry combined with elemental geochemistry and magnetite compositions are reported for the Mesoproterozoic Zhuqing Fe-Ti-V oxide ore-bearing mafic intrusions in the western Yangtze Block, SW China. All the Zhuqing gabbros display extremely low concentrations of chalcophile elements and PGEs. The oxide-rich gabbros contain relatively higher contents of Cr, Ni, Ir, Ru, Rh, and lower contents of Pt and Pd than the oxide-poor gabbros. The abundances of whole-rock concentrations of Ni, Ir, Ru, and Rh correlate well with V contents in the Zhuqing gabbros, implying that the distributions of these elements are controlled by magnetite. The fractionation between Ir-Ru-Rh and Pt-Pd in the Zhuqing gabbros is mainly attributed to fractional crystallization of chromite and magnetite, whereas Ru anomalies are mainly due to variable degrees of compatibility of PGE in magnetite. The order of relative incompatibility of PGEs is calculated to be Pd < Pt < Rh < Ir < Ru. The very low PGE contents and Cu/Zr ratios and high Cu/Pd ratios suggest initially S-saturated magma parents that were highly depleted in PGE, which mainly formed due to low degrees of partial melting leaving sulfides concentrating PGEs behind in the mantle. Moreover, the low MgO, Ni, Ir and Ru contents and high Cu/Ni and Pd/Ir ratios for the gabbros suggest a highly evolved parental magma. Fe-Ti oxides fractionally crystallized from the highly evolved magma and subsequently settled in the lower sections of the magma chamber, where they concentrated and formed Fe-Ti-V oxide ore layers at the base of the lower and upper cycles. Multiple episodes of magma replenishment in the magma chamber may have been involved in the formation of the Zhuqing intrusions.

Fan, Hong-Peng; Zhu, Wei-Guang; Zhong, Hong; Bai, Zhong-Jie; He, De-Feng; Ye, Xian-Tao; Chen, Cai-Jie; Cao, Chong-Yong

2014-06-01

336

Analysis on traffic accessibility of worst-hit areas in Sichuan by the May 12th Wenchuan Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accessibility of regional traffic in the worst-hit areas of Sichuan should be viewed with some concern. The difficulty of disaster relief work in May 12th Earthquake had showed unsubstantial traffic condition of the disaster area. Approach of weighted average travel time is adopted in this paper to calculate accessibility of 3 main traffic manners, i.e. highway, railway and aviation, and

Shen Xing-ju; Su Chun-jiang; Yang Zhong-xian

2009-01-01

337

A brief statistical analysis of stomatology papers published in international journals by researchers from the mainland of China--based on Thomson Reuters' journal citation reports for 2009.  

PubMed

This paper has briefly analyzed the publication status of Chinese stomatology papers in 2009 with statistics from Journal Citation Reports provided by Thomson Scientific. Only those papers with the first author coming from the mainland of China were included for calculations. We have found a significant increase in the number of SCIE-indexed papers, most of which were published by six dental institutions in China. Among all Chinese medical institutions, West China School of Stomatology Sichuan University is the first dental institution to enter the top-20 list with the most publications, and it also ranks the 9th in the number of outstanding articles. West China School of Stomatology Sichuan University and the Forth Military Medical University are the only two dental institutions in China which have published SCIE-indexed papers over a hundred. The former has published the most SCIE-indexed stomatology papers, while the latter has the highest average impact factor. As the laboratories and funds in China have close connections with various dental hospitals, the pratice of translational medicine in dentistry is fast and fluent. PMID:21449209

Zhang, Yu-Hua; Pan, Yun-Tao; Hong, Xiao

2011-01-01

338

Corporate Social Responsibility in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current understandings of corporate social responsibility practices and attitudes have been mainly driven by 'western-centric' data and philosophical approaches. China is undergoing a vast economic boom, and research attention is turning to the practices and attitudes of Chinese firms in regard to corporate social responsibility. The current paper used a qualitative multi-case method to examine CSR motivations, policies, and practices

Michael Ewing; Lydia Windisch

339

Sun, 26 Oct 2003 11:24:38 -0800 (PST) Sichuan -Four (si) Rivers (chuan)  

E-print Network

and it deserves few words and many pictures. The Yangtse, China's largest river, starts its way in the snow mountains, north of eastern Tibet, and does a long way across China until it empties its waters moving clouds, the amazing stream, the roar of the waters that crescendoed as we came closer and closer

Beimel, Amos

340

China's battle to save the environment.  

PubMed

By the year 2000 a Great Green Wall of forests may be crossing the country from northwest to northeast, a total of 53 million hectares of green protection from encroaching deserts and erosion, stretching through 12 provinces to increase the nation's forest cover, which now stands at a mere 12.7% of China's territory. Soils have been degraded to a critical level only within the past 150 years. At present, about one-sixth of the total land is affected by erosion. In 1988 more than 11 million hectares of farmland, one-tenth of the total sown acreage, suffered from severe drought. Another 7.5 million hectares of crops were flooded, and grain output has been dropping steadily. China is now importing more than 1 billion tons of food staples to feed its population. In all big cities including the capital Beijing, sulphur dioxide and dust levels in the atmosphere surpass the norm set by the State. The most seriously polluted city in China is Benxi, situated in Liaoning Province, which contains some 420 factories. Shanghai has become a preview of what is in store for many Chinese cities unless urgent anti-pollution measures are designed and implemented. Much of the city's municipal and industrial wastes are simply flushed untreated into rivers and shallow coastal waters. Some 34 billion tons of municipal and industrial wastes are flushed into China's rivers and streams every year. A highly lauded forest farm in Sichuan Province credits afforestation with increased precipitation in the dry season, reduced soil erosion, and a halt to the flooding of some 10 rivers in the region. Many of China's 32,000 species of higher plants are endangered; and similarly, many of the nation's 2200 species of birds and animals, like the giant panda, are threatened with extinction. The country's gigantic population remains the key problem as well as the key to its solution. PMID:12291351

Nash, N

1989-01-01

341

Timescale of emplacement of the Panzhihua gabbroic layered intrusion recorded in giant plagioclase at Sichuan Province, SW China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Giant plagioclase crystals carried into the Panzhihua gabbroic layered intrusion from a deeper magma chamber can help constrain the timescales of emplacement of the Panzhihua intrusion in the Emeishan large igneous province (LIP). In this study, we present the petrographic textures and chemical compositions of giant plagioclase and fine-grained gabbro samples along a ~ 50 m horizontal outcrop of the low zone of the Panzhihua deposit. The giant plagioclase gabbro (GPG) dykes mostly intrude into the fine-grained gabbros without significant contact. Both types of gabbros have the similar bulk-rock major and trace element compositions. However, the mineral composition shows that most of the plagioclase megacrysts contain less An than the plagioclase in fine-grained gabbro samples. In situ analyses of Sr isotopes from core-to-rim transects of plagioclase megacrysts are constant, indicating that there are no recycled crystals. The textural characteristics of samples combined with petrological modeling using MELTS suggest that the plagioclase megacrysts should crystallize and grow in a deeper magma chamber. Textual studies of the GPG indicate that these plagioclase megacrysts mostly plot as straight lines on a classic crystal size distribution (CSD) diagram. For a plagioclase growth range of 10- 11-10- 10 mm/s, the plagioclase should have a growth time of 530-8118 years. In a 100 km3 magma chamber releasing thermal energy at a rate of 1000 MW, the Panzhihua intrusion should reach 50% crystallization after ~ 2400 years. The growth time recorded by the megacrysts in the GPG and numerical modeling may indicate that the emplacement and crystallization of the Panzhihua intrusion may have taken place in thousands of years. In the Emeishan LIP, therefore the combination of large volumes of Fe-rich magma flux and efficient metal precipitation led to the formation of a giant Fe-Ti-V oxide deposit in a short period.

Cheng, Lilu; Zeng, Ling; Ren, Zhongyuan; Wang, Yu; Luo, Zhaohua

2014-09-01

342

Attitudes of Young People in China to Family Formation. A Study in Urban and Rural Areas in Beijing and Sichuan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The attitudes of young Chinese people toward family formation are examined giving insights to the varying attitudes of young men and women according to rural or urban setting, educational levels, types of employment, economic status, and proximity to centers of economic and social development. Information is also provided on population policies…

Zhang, Zhi Yi

343

Maize rhizosphere in Sichuan, China, hosts plant growth promoting Burkholderia cepacia with phosphate solubilizing and antifungal abilities.  

PubMed

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria promote plant growth by direct and indirect mechanisms. We isolated twelve bacterial strains showing different degrees of phosphate solubilizing activity from maize rhizosphere. Four isolates solubilized over 300 ?g mL?¹ phosphate from insoluble Ca?(PO?)?, with isolate SCAUK0330 solubilizing over 450 ?g mL?¹. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis SCAUK0330 was identified as Burkholderia cepacia. SCAUK0330 grew at 10-40 °C and pH 4.0-10.0, tolerated up to 5% NaCl, and showed antagonism against nine pathogenic fungi. SCAUK0330 promoted the growth of both healthy and Helminthosporium maydis infected maize plants, indicating that the isolate was a good candidate to be applied as a biofertilizer and a biocontrol agent under a wide range of environmental conditions.The expression of a single SCAUK0330 gene gave E. coli a pH decrease linked ability to solubilize phosphate. The nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequences of this phosphate solubilization linked gene showed high degree of sequence identity with B. cepacia E37gabY. The production of gluconic acid is considered as the principle mechanism for phosphate solubilization. In agreement with the proposed periplasmic location of the gluconic acid production, the predicted signal peptide and transmembrane regions implied that GabY is membrane bound. PMID:23932330

Zhao, Ke; Penttinen, Petri; Zhang, Xiaoping; Ao, Xiaoling; Liu, Maoke; Yu, Xiumei; Chen, Qiang

2014-01-20

344

Controlling processes in a CaCO 3 precipitating stream in Huanglong Natural Scenic District, Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Huanglong Scenic District is well known for its unusual and diversified landforms such as travertine pools, travertine falls and travertine flows. These landforms, resulting from high-altitude surface cold-water CaCO 3 precipitation, were chosen by UNESCO in 1994 as an entry in The World's Nature Heritage. Huanglong is a pristine region where there are limited human activities. Water analyses and thin section (glass slide) precipitation experiments were conducted to determine the aqueous processes controlling CaCO 3 precipitation and travertine landform formation. Results from the travertine flow indicate that the concentrations of HCO 3-, Ca +2, and H + decrease regularly along the flow paths. Chemical equilibrium modeling results demonstrate the importance of CO 2 out-gassing and CaCO 3 precipitation processes. CO 2 out-gassing and CaCO 3 precipitation increase with increasing flow velocities. In the pool area, varying hydrodynamics are the primary factors which determine the extent of processes such as advection and diffusion, and hence also control CaCO 3 precipitation and CO 2 out-gassing. When the pool water circulation is very slow, the pH of water flowing over the travertine dams increases significantly (approximately 0.15 pH units) downstream. When the circulation is relatively fast, the pH of stream water initially decreases followed by an increase of approximately 0.21 pH units as it flows past the travertine pool dams. In both cases, the pH rise is caused by sudden changes in the hydrodynamics of the pools, despite the different initial flow conditions. Pool development is a consequence of spatial variations in pH which provide different conditions for CaCO 3 precipitation inside the travertine dam, where less precipitation or even dissolution occurs, compared to conditions at the top and downstream side of the dams. Precipitation experiments demonstrate that the top and downstream side of travertine dams are the locations of the most active precipitation, particularly for pools having faster circulation. Precipitation experiments also reveal that vaterite, a rare polymorph of CaCO 3, co-precipitates with calcite in milky opalescent water near the upstream input portion of the pool groups. Thin sections covered by algae at the bottom of pools have 40% less CaCO 3 precipitation than those not covered by algae. SEM photographs of the surface of natural travertine deposits show that biofilms with diatom minimize CaCO 3 precipitation and that diatom-adhered calcite surfaces show signs of etching, suggesting that calcite dissolution may be aided by diatoms.

Lu, G.; Zheng, C.; Donahoe, R. J.; Berry Lyons, W.

2000-04-01

345

A GIS-based statistical model for rapid landslide susceptibility mapping in the Beichuan-Pingwu area, Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, with a magnitude of Mw 8.0, induced numerous landslides. Remote sensing planes were sent out to take high resolution aerial photographs, from which the geologic hazards could be instantly interpreted. However, aerial images covering all of the study area could not be obtained in a short time because of the limitations of the planes and the influence of weather conditions. This studyestablishes a statistical model based on the landslide interpretation results of one photographic strip inside the Beichuan-Pingwu area. It has strong applicability and can be applied to other places without such data. Finally, we produced a landslide susceptibility map, which providesscientific support for the instant evaluation of disaster information and post-disaster reconstruction.

Chen, Y.; Wang, Q. J.

2014-03-01

346

[Investigation of the spatial variability of nitrogen and phosphorus in purple soils in Jiangjing City, Sichuan, China].  

PubMed

In this paper, the spatial distribution pattern of the total nitrogen, available nitrogen, available phosphorus and total phosphorus in surface purple soil (0-20 cm) with a city region were analyzed by applying geostatistics combined with GIS. The spatial distribution pattern of the four soil nutrient parameters were quantitatively described with semivariogram and the soil nutrient content distribution pattern was constructed by using Ordinary Kriging and lognormal Kriging optimal interpolation. The results indicated that total nitrogen, available nitrogen showed a normal distribution, the others with a lognormal distribution; the analyst of semivariogram indicated that the total nitrogen showed the pure nugget effect with the nugget of 0.2, others were correlated in a given spatial range (50 m) with mild spatial relativity, the nugget-to-sill ratio was from 25% to 75%. Preliminary analysis was made for the spatial variability of the soil nutrients by using the group map of the soil nutrients with Ordinary Kriging. These results could be useful for further application in precision fertilization and for evaluation of non point polluting of agricultural lands. PMID:15330440

Zhu, Yi-ling; Liu, Hong-bin; Jiang, Xi-liu

2004-01-01

347

Genetic diversity and population structure of a Sichuan sika deer (Cervus sichuanicus) population in Tiebu Nature Reserve based on microsatellite variation.  

PubMed

Cervus sichuanicus is a species of sika deer (Cervus nippon Group). To date, research has mainly focused on quantity surveying and behavior studies, with genetic information on this species currently deficient. To provide scientific evidence to assist in the protection of this species, we collected Sichuan sika deer fecal samples from the Sichuan Tiebu Nature Reserve (TNR) and extracted DNA from those samples. Microsatellite loci of bovine were used for PCR amplification. After GeneScan, the genotype data were used to analyze the genetic diversity and population structure of the Sichuan sika deer in TNR. Results showed that the average expected heterozygosity of the Sichuan sika deer population in TNR was 0.562, equivalent to the average expected heterozygosity of endangered animals, such as Procapra przewalskii. Furthermore, 8 of 9 microsatellite loci significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and two groups existed within the Sichuan sika deer TNR population. This genetic structure may be caused by a group of Manchurian sika deer (Cervus hortulorum) released in TNR. PMID:25465089

He, Ya; Wang, Zheng-Huan; Wang, Xiao-Ming

2014-11-01

348

76 FR 76944 - Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Ltd. (``Shanghai Zhongyou TIPO''), Sichuan YNJ Industries Co., Ltd. (``Sichuan YNJ''), SteelFORCE Far East Ltd...Shanghai Zhongyou Tipo, Shanghai Zhongyou TIPO, Sichuan YNJ, SteelFORCE, Tianjin Baolai,...

2011-12-09

349

The thermochemical structure of the lithosphere and upper mantle beneath south China: Results from multiobservable probabilistic inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

study the thermal and compositional structure of south China by jointly inverting Rayleigh wave dispersion data, geoid height, topography, and surface heat flow with a probabilistic (Bayesian) Monte Carlo method. We find that the lithosphere is thin (85-150 km) beneath the South China Fold system and thickens over the Yangtze Craton to maximum thicknesses of up to 250 km beneath the Sichuan Basin. Our inversion predicts that the lithospheric mantle beneath the South China Fold system and Yangtze Craton is highly fertile (Mg# ~88-90), in agreement with independent geochemical signatures from East China mantle xenoliths. Such fertile compositions, together with the relatively thin lithospheric thickness in the area, point toward a widespread metasomatism/refertilization event. We suggest, as others have, that a flat-subduction episode and subsequent slab removal may have triggered both the delamination of the lowermost part of the subcontinental lithosphere and the generation of asthenospheric melts that metasomatized (refertilized) the remaining lithospheric mantle. Inconsistencies among geophysical observations and anomalously fertile compositions for the Sichuan Basin indicate that this region may be currently affected by small-scale convection or delamination processes. Alternatively, the anomalous observations may be associated with an eastward push of Tibetan lithosphere beneath the Yangtze Craton.

Shan, B.; Afonso, J. C.; Yang, Y.; Grose, C. J.; Zheng, Y.; Xiong, X.; Zhou, L.

2014-11-01

350

Nationalities of China Province of China  

E-print Network

Outline Nationalities of China Province of China Language of China #12;Nationalities of China 56 of China A province is an administrative division of China. 33 province level divisions. 22 Provinces 4-level cities in China direct- controlled by the central government Beijing Tianjin Shanghai Chongqing #12

Li, Xiang

351

Segmentation and millennium recurrence interval of morphogenic earthquakes of the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt, central China (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnitude (Mw) 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake occurred on 12 May 2008 in the Longmen Shan region of China, the transition zone between the Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin, rupturing ~285-300 km segment along the active fault zone of the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt (LSTB), which resulted in widespread damage throughout central and western China. Although many studies undertaken since the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake have made substantial progress in terms of understanding the co-seismic ground deformation features along the major active faults of the southwestern and central segments of the LSTB, and the current activity, only a few studies have examined northeast- and southwest-most segments and the paleoseismicity along the 500-km-long LSTB. The structural features, therefore, including its slip sense and paleoseismicity, are still unclear due to a lack of geologic data. In this study, based on the geological structures, tectonic landforms, slip sense and paleoseismic data, co-seismic surface deformation features of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, the active fault zone of the LSTB can be divided into four segments: Qingchuan, (the northeast-most), Beichuan (northeast-central), Dujiangyan (southwest-central) and Lingguan (the southwest-most). The northeast-most Qingchuan segment is dominated by right-lateral strike-slip with a little thrust component. The slip rate of this segment is estimated to be ca.4-8 mm/yr with an average rate of 6 mm/yr. In contrast, the central Beichuan and Dujiangyan segments are dominated by folding and thrusting with a little right-lateral and left-lateral displacement component, respectively. The vertical slip rate of these two segments is estimated to be ca.1-3 mm/yr with an average amount of 2 mm/yr. While the southwest-most Lingguan segment is dominated by folding and thrusting with a distinct left-lateral displacement component. Recently, the Mw 6.6 Ya-An earthquake occurred on 20 April 2013, which ruptured ~60 km along this segment. Field investigation, paleoseismic and archaeological evidence, and radiocarbon dating results reveal that at least four large morphogenic earthquakes including the 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquakes occurred in the Sichuan region during the late Tang-Song (AD 800-1000), Han (206 BC to AD 220), and late Shang-Chunqiu (1200-800 BC) dynasties, comparable with the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in its seismic intensity, suggesting an average millennium recurrence interval for Wenchuan-magnitude (M = ˜8) earthquakes in the late Holocene within the LSTB. This finding is in contrast with previous estimates of 2,000-10,000 years for the recurrence interval of morphogenic earthquakes within the LSTB, as obtained from long-term slip rates based on the Global Positioning System and geological data, thereby necessitating substantial modifications to existing seismic-hazard models for the densely populated region at the eastern marginal zone of the Tibetan Plateau. Our results confirm that the present-day shortening strain upon the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau is mostly released by seismic thrusting and folding with strike-slip partitioning along the active faults within the LSTB. References Lin et al., 2009, Tectonophysics, 471, 203-215; 2) Lin et al., 2010, J. Seismol., 14, 615-628; 3) Lin et al., 2010, Tectonophysics, 491, 21-34; 4) Lin, A., 2011, Geology, 39, 547-550; 5) Lin et al., 2012. Tectonophysics, 522-523, 243-252; 6) Lin et al., 2013, Tectonophysics, submitted.

Lin, A.

2013-12-01

352

Compounds from Sichuan and Melegueta peppers activate, covalently and non-covalently, TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Oily extracts of Sichuan and Melegueta peppers evoke pungent sensations mediated by different alkylamides [mainly hydroxy-?-sanshool (?-SOH)] and hydroxyarylalkanones (6-shogaol and 6-paradol). We assessed how transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), two chemosensory ion channels, participate in these pungent sensations. Experimental approach: The structure–activity relationships of these molecules on TRPA1 and TRPV1 was measured by testing natural and synthetic analogues using calcium and voltage imaging on dissociated dorsal root ganglia neurons and human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing the wild-type channels or specific cysteine mutants using glutathione trapping as a model to probe TRPA1 activation. In addition, using Trpv1 knockout mice, the compounds' aversive responses were measured in a taste brief-access test. Key results: For TRPA1 activation, the cis C6 double bond in the polyenic chain of ?-SOH was critical, whereas no structural specificity was required for activation of TRPV1. Both 6-shogaol and 6-paradol were found to activate TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels, whereas linalool, an abundant terpene in Sichuan pepper, activated TRPA1 but not TRPV1 channels. Alkylamides and 6-shogaol act on TRPA1 by covalent bonding whereas none of these compounds activated TRPV1 through such interactions. Finally, TRPV1 mutant mice retained sensitivity to 6-shogaol but were not responsive to ?-SOH. Conclusions and implications: The pungent nature of components of Sichuan and Melegueta peppers was mediated via interactions with TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels and may explain the aversive properties of these compounds. PMID:19594761

Riera, CE; Menozzi-Smarrito, C; Affolter, M; Michlig, S; Munari, C; Robert, F; Vogel, H; Simon, SA; le Coutre, J

2009-01-01

353

Ground-Motion Simulations of the 2008 Ms8.0 Wenchuan, China, Earthquake Using Empirical Green's Function Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On May 12, 2008, a huge earthquake with magnitude Ms8.0 occurred in the Wenhuan, Sichuan Province of China. This event was the most devastating earthquake in the mainland of China since the 1976 M7.8 Tangshan earthquake. It resulted in tremendous losses of life and property. There were about 90,000 persons killed. Due to occur in the mountainous area, this great earthquake and the following thousands aftershocks also caused many other geological disasters, such as landslide, mud-rock flow and “quake lakes” which formed by landslide-induced reservoirs. This earthquake occurred along the Longmenshan fault, as the result of motion on a northeast striking reverse fault or thrust fault on the northwestern margin of the Sichuan Basin. The earthquake's epicenter and focal-mechanism are consistent with it having occurred as the result of movement on the Longmenshan fault or a tectonically related fault. The earthquake reflects tectonic stresses resulting from the convergence of crustal material slowly moving from the high Tibetan Plateau, to the west, against strong crust underlying the Sichuan Basin and southeastern China. In this study, we simulate the near-field strong ground motions of this great event based on the empirical Green’s function method (EGF). Referring to the published inversion source models, at first, we assume that there are three asperities on the rupture area and choose three different small events as the EGFs. Then, we identify the parameters of the source model using a genetic algorithm (GA). We calculate the synthetic waveforms based on the obtained source model and compare with the observed records. Our result shows that for most of the synthetic waveforms agree very well with the observed ones. The result proves the validity and the stability of the method. Finally, we forward the near-field strong ground motions near the source region and try to explain the damage distribution caused by the great earthquake.

Zhang, W.; Zhang, Y.; Yao, X.

2010-12-01

354

Co-seismic thrusting slip and shortening structures produced by the 2008 M?? 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnitude (Mw) 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake occurred on 12 May 2008 in the Longmen Shan region, the transition zone between the Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin, China, resulting in extensive damage throughout central and western China. Official estimates of casualties released by the Chinese Government as of 31 August 2008 include 69,197 confirmed deaths, 374,176 injured, and 18,209 missing persons. To understand the seismic faulting mechanism and surface deformation features associated with the earthquake, including rupture length and slip distribution, our survey group traveled to the epicentral area 2 days after the earthquake and undertook 10 days of fieldwork, collecting primary data related to rupture structures and slip distribution. Based on this preliminary survey, we carried out additional detailed fieldwork on the co-seismic surface rupture over the past 3 months. Here we report the main results of our field investigations and discuss the co-seismic rupturing mechanism, including its implications for seismotectonics in the eastern marginal zone of the Tibetan Plateau. Field data reveal that the Wenchuan earthquake produced a 285-km-long surface rupture zone along the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt upon the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, with a dominantly thrusting slip accompanied by a right-lateral component in the northern segment of the rupture zone, and a left-lateral component in the southernmost segment. The co- seismic ruptures mainly occurred along the pre-existing Yingxiu-Beichuan, Guanxian-Anxian, and Qingchuan faults, which are the main faults of the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt. The displacements measured in the field are approximately 0.5-5 m in the vertical, generally 1-3 m, accompanied by an average left-lateral component of <2 m in the 60-km-long southernmost segment of the rupture zone, and an average right-lateral component of <1 m in the 100-km-long central-northern segment. The rupture length and maximum displacement are the largest among intracontinental thrust-type earthquakes reported to date. Our results document and confirm that i) the Wenchuan earthquake occurred on the pre-existing active faults of the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt, which controlled the spatial distribution of co-seismic surface rupture and displacement and the rupture processes of the earthquake; ii) the long rupture length and large thrusting slip resulted from compressive stress associated with eastward extrusion of the Tibet Plateau as it accommodates the ongoing penetration of the Indian Plate into the Eurasian Plate; and iii) present-day shortening strain upon the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau is mostly released by seismic slip along thrust faults within the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt.

Lin, A.; Ren, Z.; Jia, D.; Wu, X.

2008-12-01

355

Chinese haze versus Western smog: lessons learned  

PubMed Central

Air pollution in many Chinese cities has been so severe in recent years that a special terminology, the “Chinese haze”, was created to describe China’s air quality problem. Historically, the problem of Chinese haze has developed several decades after Western high-income countries have significantly improved their air quality from the smog-laden days in the early- and mid-20th century. Hence it is important to provide a global and historical perspective to help China combat the current air pollution problems. In this regard, this article addresses the followings specific questions: (I) What is the Chinese haze in comparison with the sulfurous (London-type) smog and the photochemical (Los Angeles-type) smog? (II) How does Chinese haze fit into the current trend of global air pollution transition? (III) What are the major mitigation measures that have improved air quality in Western countries? and (IV) What specific recommendations for China can be derived from lessons and experiences from Western countries? PMID:25694813

2015-01-01

356

Chinese Deja Vu: Parallels Between The Urban Popular Cultures Of Republican and Post Mao China  

E-print Network

Army’s (PLA) most-beloved model soldier, Lei Feng. His cool factor is such that his likeness is appearing not only on tee shirts sported by dancers in Beijing and Shanghai nightclubs, but it is also appearing on Chinese skateboards and in urban... was evident in the enthusiasm with which China’s intellectuals embraced Western education models and the western concepts of nationalism and individualism. Western educational models appealed to China’s intellectuals due to its emphasis on the study...

Snowden, Lisa Renee

2009-04-24

357

Lake records and LGM climate in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese lake status database has provided systematic geological records of much higher lake level and fresher water than today\\u000a at the LGM from western China. This wet condition was significant contrast with very dry conditions in eastern China. Together\\u000a with lake studies from Eurasian continents, there was a wet-condition belt from the Mediterranean and the Middle East, Central\\u000a Asia to

Ge Yu; Bin Xue; Sumin Wang; Jian Liu

2000-01-01

358

Experience from the 300 MWe CFB Demontration Plant in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will describe the background and current status of the 300MWe CFB Demonstration Project located at the Baima Power Plant in Sichuan Province. This project was the first 300MWe class CFB in China and the first project built under the Transfer of Technology from Alstom. The plant entered commercial operation in early 2006. The fuel is a high-ash anthracite which has presented significant challenges in terms of higher-than-expected ash content and top size. While this fuel has been problematic for the adjacent suspension-fired boilers, performance in the CFB boiler has been excellent, with low carbon content in the ash, low turndown and low emissions. Key boiler performance parameters will be described along with a comparison of design and actual performance and the operational experience will be addressed. Finally, the paper will describe Alstom's process for scaling the CFB technology from 300MWe to 600MWe, and our supercritical CFB design.

Gauvillé, P.; Semedard, J.-C.; Darling, S.

359

Organochlorine pesticide residues in surface water from Sichuan Basin to Aba Prefecture profile, east of the Tibetan Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) found in rivers from the Sichuan Basin to Aba Prefecture profile were analyzed to assess possible health risks to adults and children who use the river as a source of drinking water. OCP concentrations in surface water ranged between 22.29-274.28 ng·L-1. Compared with other published data around the world, OCP levels in this study were moderate. Among all OCPs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the predominant compounds. Higher concentrations of OCPs were attributed close to the agricultural fields of the Sichuan Basin, current OCPs inputs, and long-range atmospheric transport from abroad. Various spatial patterns of OCPs in the profile might be affected by the usage and physicochemical properties of the pesticides, in addition to the adjacent geographical environment. The health risk assessment indicated that most OCPs had little impact on human health according to the acceptable risk level for carcinogens (10-6) recommended by the US EPA. However, carcinogenic effects caused by heptachlor, Aldrin, HCB, and ?-HCH might occur in drinking water. The risk of negative impacts caused by OCPs is much higher for children than for adults.

Liu, Hongxia; Hu, Ying; Qi, Shihua; Xing, Xinli; Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Dan; Qu, Chengkai

2014-09-01

360

Chemical and genetic similarity and diversity of Ligularia anoleuca and L. fischeri collected in the Hengduan Mountains of China.  

PubMed

The sesquiterpenoid composition in the root and the DNA sequences of evolutionarily neutral regions were studied in Ligularia anoleuca and Ligularia fischeri (Asteraceae) collected in the Sichuan Province of China. LC-MS analysis showed that L. anoleuca populations from different localities had different chemical compositions. However, the isolated compounds were similar to each other, indicating that the differences in chemical composition were not large. The DNA analysis suggested that the two species were indistinguishable. Seventeen furanoeremophilanes and an eremophilane acetal were isolated. PMID:24725977

Shimizu, Anna; Suzuki, Yurika; Hanai, Ryo; Okamoto, Yasuko; Tori, Motoo; Gong, Xun; Kuroda, Chiaki

2014-06-01

361

The feasibility of concentrated rural settlement in a context of post-disaster reconstruction: a study of China.  

PubMed

There is growing appreciation of the use of concentrated rural settlement as an effective means of implementing infrastructure projects and helping to achieve sustainable development in rural areas. This occurs in China through the exchange of rural residential land for urban construction. However, this policy has not been effective under normal circumstances (called development-driven conditions) as frequently farmers are reluctant to accept such an exchange. By contrast, in a time of disaster, such as after the 2008 earthquake in Sichuan Province, China, rural victims have accepted this policy of rural residential land exchange. Employing game theory, this paper identifies the reasons for the different outcomes and it contends that the implementation of concentrated rural settlement practice under disaster-induced conditions is more effective than its introduction under development-driven conditions. The results of the analysis indicate that, in China, concentrated rural settlement is feasible in a context of post-disaster reconstruction. PMID:24325241

Peng, Yi; Shen, Liyin; Zhang, Xiaoling; Ochoa, J Jorge

2014-01-01

362

Poisoning by Wholesale: A Reminiscence of China Life by Albert Farley Heard  

E-print Network

bring radical changes to China and in its trade with the Western world. Shortly thereafter the American Civil War would bring the end of many of the primary American trading firms in China because of the lack and Company, 1858­1862: American Merchants in China, Harvard East Asian Monographs, Vol 37 (1971) was about

Gray, Robert M.

363

Pet Dogs Benefit Owners' Health: A "Natural Experiment" in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports results from a "natural experiment" taking place in China on the impact of dogs on owners' health. Previous Western research has reported modest health benefits, but results have remained controversial. In China pets were banned in urban areas until 1992. Since then dog ownership has grown quite rapidly in the major cities,…

Headey, Bruce; Na, Fu; Zheng, Richard

2008-01-01

364

What China Inc. Can Learn from American Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From afar, the boom in China's higher education system seems to be one more indication of its ceaseless rise overall. Potentially it is the most significant sign, since a China that could rival the existing American and Western-democratic dominance of the world's research and educational establishment might enjoy many other advantages as well.…

Fallows, James

2012-01-01

365

Are the elderly more vulnerable to psychological impact of natural disaster? A population-based survey of adult survivors of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The association between ages and psychological impact of natural disasters has not been well characterized. A population-based study was conducted 15 months after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake to assess whether elderly survivors were more likely to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and general psychiatric morbidity. METHODS: A population-based survey of 327 survivors (152 elders, 175 younger adults) was conducted

Zhaobao Jia; Wenhua Tian; Weizhi Liu; Yang Cao; Jin Yan; Zhisheng Shun

2010-01-01

366

Is China \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past few years, observers increasingly have pointed to China as a source of downward pressure on global prices. This paper evaluates the theoretical and empirical evidence bearing on the question of whether China's buoyant export growth has led to significant changes in the inflation performance of its trading partners. This evidence suggests that the impact of Chinese exports

Steven B. Kamin; Mario Marazzi; John W. Schindler

2004-01-01

367

Petroleum geology of Giant oil and gas fields in Turpan Basin Xinjiang China  

SciTech Connect

Turpan Basin is the smallest and the last development basin in three big basins of Xinjiang autonomous region, P.R. China. Since April, 1989, the Shanshan oilfield was discovered, the Oinling, Wenjisang, Midang, Baka, Qiudong and North Putaogou fields were discovered. In 1994, the crude oil productivity of Turpan Basin was a Million tons, with an estimated output of 3 million tons per year by 1995; obviously a key oil productive base in the west basins of China, Tarim, Jungar, Chaidam, Hexi, Erduos and Sichuan Basins. The Turpan Basin is an intermontane basin in a eugeosyncline foldbelt of the north Tianshan Mountains. The oil and gas was produced from the payzone of the Xishanyao, Sanjianfang and Qiketai Formatiosn of the Middle Jurassic series. The geochemical characteristics of the crude oil and gas indicate they derive from the Middle to Lower Jurassic coal series, in which contains the best oil-prone source rocks in the basin.

Boliang, Hu; Jiajing, Yang, [Lanzhou, Gansu (China)

1995-08-01

368

Dementia care in rural China  

PubMed Central

Dementia is a major cause of disability and has immense cost implications for the individual suffering from the condition, family caregivers and society. Given the high prevalence of dementia in China with its enormous and rapidly expanding population of elderly adults, it is necessary to develop and test approaches to the care for patients with this disorder. The need is especially great in rural China where access to mental healthcare is limited, with the task made more complex by social and economic reforms over the last 30 years that have transformed the Chinese family support system, family values and health delivery systems. Evidence-based collaborative care models for dementia, depression and other chronic diseases that have been developed in some Western countries serve as a basis for discussion of innovative approaches in the management of dementia in rural China, with particular focus on its implementation in the primary care system. PMID:24427180

2013-01-01

369

China's Churn  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

China's Churn, a 20-page article from the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, examines China's changing economy, or its churn, which is defined as "creative destruction." Filled with photographs, this easy-to-read piece thoughtfully illustrates China's changing economy with case studies of several Chinese cities including Guiyang, Wenzhou, and Shanghai. The paper also offers exhibits in which charts and graphs show some of the changes, including The Changing Face of Rural Employment, The Exodus of Urban Workers from State-Owned Enterprises, and Bounty of Market Reform. Be forewarned, although this document is only 20 pages long, it's a whopping 3226K.

370

IDENTIFYING THE ERRORS IN MONITORING GLACIER CHANGES BY MULTI SOURCES DATA USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUES IN MT. NAIMONA'NYI REGION IN THE WESTERN HIMALAYAS ON THE TIBETAN PLATEAU IN CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper compares the results of two alternative methods for studying glacier variations in Mt. Naimona'Nyi in the western Himalayas on Tibet. This paper describes a grid method for studying multi-temporal glacier variations from space. By combining glacier spatial data from various satellite images or maps at sequential times, the grid method allows us to detect both dynamic variation and

Q. H. Yea; A. Stein

371

China Business Development  

E-print Network

China Business Development Postgraduate Programme #12;Programme: China Business Development with China: Intercultural Management 3 1 Daily life and business behaviour explained from a cultural perspective Chinese strategic thinking China's political constellation and its impact on business life Human

Einmahl, Uwe

372

Sedimentary record of Late Triassic transpressional tectonics of the Longmenshan thrust belt, SW China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sedimentary data from field and borehole investigations allow reconstruction of the southwesterly variations of proximal sedimentary processes along the Longmenshan thrust belt during Late Triassic and Early Jurassic times and relating them to the development of a transpression basin. Conglomerates, which are the early indicators of the tectonic activity and orogeny appear for the first time in the second member of the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation and crop out only in the northern segment of the Longmenshan thrust belt. They are also present in the central segment in the fourth member of the Xujiahe Formation. In contrast the Early Jurassic Baitianba conglomerates were deposited all along the front of the Longmenshan thrust belt. The contact between the Upper Triassic and Lower Jurassic units is an angular unconformity and or a disconformity in the northern and central segments of the Longmenshan thrust belt, but becomes conformable to the southwest, along the strike. The isopach maps of different stratigraphic units show the along-strike shift of the depocenters with time, the result of southwestward propagating contraction and deformation of the Longmenshan thrust belt. In conjunction with the regional structural analysis and paleocurrent reconstructions, the southwesterly variations of sedimentary processes demonstrate an along-strike kinematic change of tectonic process in the western Sichuan basin from the northeast to the southwest. These data indicates that a transpressional deformation occurred along the Longmenshan thrust belt during the Late Triassic, and was synchronous with the development of the western Sichuan basin, which behaved as a transpressional foreland basin.

Deng, Bin; Liu, Shugen; Jansa, Luba; Cao, Junxing; Cheng, Yang; Li, Zhiwu; Liu, Shun

2012-04-01

373

Democracy and International Higher Education in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is substantial evidence that supports the theory that higher education and democracy are highly correlated. Throughout modern history, students have been at the forefront of democratic movements, including the 1989 pro-democracy uprising in China. Since then, and despite the increased availability of Western-style education within and…

Onsman, Andrys; Cameron, Jackie

2014-01-01

374

Rheumatic Diseases in China  

PubMed Central

Introduction Epidemiological studies of rheumatic diseases have been conducted during the past 20 years in China. The aim of this study was to clarify prevalence rates of common rheumatic diseases in China. Methods Relevant reports of population-based surveys conducted from 1980 to 2006 were retrieved. Studies using the World Health Organization-International League of Associations for Rheumatology COPCORD (Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases) protocol and those that did not employ this protocol but were published in recognized journals were identified and analyzed. Results Thirty-eight surveys including 241,169 adults from 25 provinces/cities were pooled for analysis. The prevalence of rheumatic complaints ranged from 11.6% to 46.4%, varying by locality, study protocol and age of the people surveyed. Prevalence of symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) varied from 5.1% to 20.8%, with common sites of involvement being the lumbar spine, knee joint and cervical spine. Compared with rates of radiographic and symptomatic knee OA in the USA, elderly men in Beijing exhibited similar prevalence rates and elderly women exhibited a higher prevalence. The prevalence of hip OA and hand OA was much lower in Chinese than in Caucasian populations, but both kinds of OA were more common in coal miners. The prevalence of ankylosing spondylitis ranged from 0.2% to 0.54% among Han ethnic Chinese and were lower among mixed ethnic populations. The prevalence of psoriatic arthritis ranged from 0.01% to 0.1%, and that of reactive arthritis was 0.02%; undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy was identified in 0.64% to 1.2% of the individuals included in the surveys. The prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) ranged from 0.2% to 0.93%, with the highest rate being reported from a Taiwan urban area. In mainland China there were no significant differences in prevalence of RA between the northern and southern parts of China, or between different ethnic groups. The prevalence of hyperuricemia increased after the 1980s. The prevalence of gout was found to have increased in recent decades from 0.15% to 1.98%, apart from in the Taiwan aborigines, among whom the highest prevalence rate of 11.7% was recorded. The prevalence of primary Sjögren's syndrome in Beijing was 0.77% by the Copenhagen criteria and 0.33% by the San Diego criteria. The prevalence of soft tissue rheumatism was 2.5% to 5.7%. Fibromyalgia was seldom observed in China. Conclusion Rheumatic diseases are common in China. The prevalence of rheumatic complaints varied with the locality surveyed. The prevalence of OA is comparable with that in Western countries but varies in terms of joint involvement. The prevalence of ankylosing spondylitis is similar to that in Caucasians. Except in Taiwan, the prevalence of RA in China is lower than that in developed countries. The prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout increased after the 1980s, but it remains lower than that in developed countries. More studies are required to evaluate prevalence rates among minority groups in the west and northwest parts of China, and further study is needed to address fibromyalgia in China. PMID:18237382

Zeng, Qing Yu; Chen, Ren; Darmawan, John; Xiao, Zheng Yu; Chen, Su Biao; Wigley, Richard; Le Chen, Shun; Zhang, Nai Zheng

2008-01-01

375

Integration of traditional Chinese medicine with Western medicine--Right or wrong?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of a dualistic medical system in most Asian, African and Latin American countries results from specific historical events. In China, traditional medicine and Western medicine exist side by side during the last century. Though Chinese medicine suffered from discrimination which retarded its development for several decades, under the protection and encouragement of New China's policy, it develops steadily

Cai Jingfeng

1988-01-01

376

Barriers to and Facilitators of Research Utilization: A Survey of Registered Nurses in China  

PubMed Central

Aims This survey aims to describe the perception of barriers to and facilitators of research utilization by registered nurses in Sichuan province, China, and to explore the factors influencing the perceptions of the barriers to and facilitators of research utilization. Methods A cross sectional survey design and a double cluster sampling method were adopted. A total of 590 registered nurses from 3 tertiary level hospitals in Sichuan province, China, were recruited in a period from September 2006 to January 2007. A modified BARRUERS Scale and a Facilitators Scale were used. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, rank transformation test, and multiple linear regression. Results Barriers related to the setting subscale were more influential than barriers related to other subscales. The lack of authority was ranked as the top greatest barrier (15.7%), followed by the lack of time (13.4%) and language barrier (15.0%). Additional barriers identified were the reluctance of patients to research utilization, the lack of funding, and the lack of legal protection. The top three greatest facilitators were enhancing managerial support (36.9%), advancing education to increase knowledge base (21.1%), and increasing time for reviewing and implementing (17.5%), while cooperation of patients to research utilization, establishing a panel to evaluate researches, and funding were listed as additional facilitators. Hospital, educational background, research experience, and knowledge on evidence-based nursing were the factors influencing perceptions of the barriers and facilitators. Conclusions Nurses in China are facing a number of significant barriers in research utilization. Enhancing managerial support might be the most promising facilitator, given Chinese traditional culture and existing health care system. Hospital, educational background, research experience and knowledge on evidence-based nursing should be taken into account to promote research utilization. The BARRIERS Scale should consider funding and involvement of patients in research utilization. PMID:24312380

Wang, Li-Ping; Jiang, Xiao-Lian; Wang, Lei; Wang, Guo-Rong; Bai, Yang-Jing

2013-01-01

377

Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from pigs from different localities in China by PCR-RFLP  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasma gondii is a widely prevalent protozoan parasite that causes serious toxoplasmosis in humans and animals. The present study aimed to determine the genetic diversity of T. gondii isolates from pigs in Jiangxi, Sichuan, Guangdong Provinces and Chongqing Municipality in China using multilocous polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technology. Methods A total of 38 DNA samples were extracted from hilar lymph nodes of pigs with suspected toxoplasmosis, and were detected for the presence of T. gondii by semi-nested PCR of B1 gene. The positive DNA samples were typed at 11 genetic markers, including 10 nuclear loci, namely, SAG1, 5?-SAG2 and 3?-SAG2, alternative SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and an apicoplast locus Apico. Results Twenty-five of the 38 DNA samples were T. gondii B1 gene positive. Complete genotyping data for all loci could be obtained for 17 of the 25 samples. Two genotypes were revealed (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotypes #9 and #3). Sixteen samples belong to genotype #9 which is the major lineage in mainland China and one sample belongs to genotype #3 which is Type II variant. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of genetic typing of T. gondii isolates from pigs in Jiangxi, Sichuan Province and Chongqing Municipality, and the first report of ToxoDB #3?T. gondii from pigs in China. These results have implications for the prevention and control of foodborne toxoplasmosis in humans. PMID:23919620

2013-01-01

378

China: current trends in pharmaceutical drug discovery.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutical discovery and development is expensive and highly risky, even for multinational corporations. As a developing country with limited financial resources, China has been seeking the most cost-effective means to reach the same level of innovation and productivity as Western countries in the pharmaceutical industry sector. After more than 50 years of building up talent and experience, the time for China to become a powerhouse in pharmaceutical innovation is finally approaching. Returnee scientists to China are one of the reasons for the wave of new discovery and commercialization occurring within the country. The consolidation of local Chinese pharmaceutical companies and foreign investment is also providing an agreeable environment for the evolution of a new generation of biotechnology. The opportunity for pharmaceutical innovation is also being expedited by the entry of multinational companies into the Chinese pharmaceutical market, and by the outsourcing of research from these companies to China. PMID:18379963

Luo, Ying

2008-04-01

379

Modeling long-term hillslope denudation due to large earthquakes: Example from the Wenchuan 2008 earthquake, Longmen Shan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most moderate to large earthquakes in high-relief terrain trigger landslides. Much research has focused on identifying hazards associated with hillslopes that are potentially seismically unstable. Recently, there has been greater recognition in the role of seismically-induced landsliding in drainage basin-to-orogen scale denudation, particularly over geologic timescales. The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in the Longmen Shan Mountains in western Sichuan Province, China, provided unprecedented opportunity to collect geophysical and geomorphological data sets related to earthquake-driven landsliding. Based on landslide inventories, some suggest that this single event resulted in the displacement of hillslope mass equal or greater than that of the cosesimic displacement. The magnitude and availability of data for the Wenchuan earthquake make it an ideal testing ground for new mechanistic models related to earthquake-driven landsliding and landscape evolution. We develop and apply a mechanistic slope stability model that allows for estimates of the volume hillslope mass removal during an earthquake at the regional scale. In our model, slope performance and landslide potential during seismic accelerations are determined using the Newmark sliding block model. In Newmark analysis, surface displacement occurs when a critical or yield ground acceleration exceeds to the shear strength of the material. Site specific characteristics, such as local slope and rock-type, provide the basis to estimate static slope stability conditions and a given peak ground acceleration (PGA) scenario is used to model potential slope failures. Predicted spatial distributions, statistical characteristics and net volume of landslide mass were generally similar to measured inventories of coseismic landsliding. To extend the coseismic mass-wasting model to geological time-scales, we applied a simple stochastic model of earthquake nucleation and empirical PGA attenuation equations to simulate hillslope volume loss due to coseismic landsliding over multiple seismic cycles at the orogen scale for timescales spanning 10^4-10^6 yrs. Predicated on the assumption that sediment generated in each earthquake is full excavated before the next event, results for each model scenario were converted into an annualized sediment yield and hillslope erosion rates were determined. When compared to estimates of long-term erosion and exhumation rates determined from cosmogenic radionuclide concentrations and low-temperature thermochronometry ages, modeled rates of coseismic hillslope erosion comprise a significant amount of the total erosional budget for all temporal scales considered. These results suggest that the earthquake cycle is an important factor in dictating the pace of hillslope erosion in high-relief tectonically active, mountain belts.

Gallen, S. F.; Clark, M. K.

2013-12-01

380

Anticounterfeit holograms in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chinese holography industry has been given an enormous boost by the energetic sales and technology transfer of several western businesses. It is a fast growing industry which can keep up with domestic demand for anti-counterfeit embossed holograms because product counterfeiting is so rife internally. Tax papers, stamps, plastic cards, identification cards, and many packaged goods are authenticated with embossed holograms. Up to now, about 1,000 kinds of products in China have used holograms to protect themselves. Anti-counterfeit holograms with secret codes have also been used. After dependence on imports, China is rapidly developing its own sources of equipment, holographic materials, and embossing substrates. The quality of this equipment and materials is improving. The new Chinese Holography Association, a national industry association aiming to develop the application of holograms and to promote cooperation between organizations, was established in 1993. The CHA has requested affiliation to the International Hologram Manufacturers Association, a move which should improve the communication between the Chinese industry and the rest of the world industry.

Hsu, Dahsiung; Zhou, Jing; Pei, Wen; Li, Qiang; Huang, Xuhuai; Cao, Yulin

1995-02-01

381

Why Chinese People Play Western Classical Music: Transcultural Roots of Music Philosophy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the complex relationship between Confucian values and music education in East Asia, particularly its history in China. How does one account for the present "cultural fever" of Western classical music that has infected more than 100 million Chinese practitioners? It is proposed that Western classical music finds transcultural…

Huang, Hao

2012-01-01

382

Organic Carbon Storage in China's Urban Areas  

PubMed Central

China has been experiencing rapid urbanization in parallel with its economic boom over the past three decades. To date, the organic carbon storage in China's urban areas has not been quantified. Here, using data compiled from literature review and statistical yearbooks, we estimated that total carbon storage in China's urban areas was 577±60 Tg C (1 Tg ?=?1012 g) in 2006. Soil was the largest contributor to total carbon storage (56%), followed by buildings (36%), and vegetation (7%), while carbon storage in humans was relatively small (1%). The carbon density in China's urban areas was 17.1±1.8 kg C m?2, about two times the national average of all lands. The most sensitive variable in estimating urban carbon storage was urban area. Examining urban carbon storages over a wide range of spatial extents in China and in the United States, we found a strong linear relationship between total urban carbon storage and total urban area, with a specific urban carbon storage of 16 Tg C for every 1,000 km2 urban area. This value might be useful for estimating urban carbon storage at regional to global scales. Our results also showed that the fraction of carbon storage in urban green spaces was still much lower in China relative to western countries, suggesting a great potential to mitigate climate change through urban greening and green spaces management in China. PMID:23991014

Zhao, Shuqing; Zhu, Chao; Zhou, Decheng; Huang, Dian; Werner, Jeremy

2013-01-01

383

Ancient China  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This excellent interactive site, produced by the British Museum, contains a wealth of information about ancient China. Explorers can follow any of five links that cover major sections of the website, including Crafts and Artisans, Geography, and Tombs and Ancestors. Each section contains historical information in the topical area and Story, Explore and Challenge links. The Challenge links are especially useful for classroom activities.

384

Contemporary China Studies  

E-print Network

Contemporary China Studies Postgraduate #12;Programme: Contemporary China Studies Postgraduate1 Chinese - Level 2 5 2 · Basic vocabulary & grammar Dealing with China: 3 1 Intercultural management · China's political constellation and its impact on business life · Human resources issues for China

Einmahl, Uwe

385

SCIENCE CHINA Mathematics  

E-print Network

SCIENCE CHINA Mathematics . ARTICLES . doi: 10.1007/s11425-014-4832-0 c Science China Press Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China; 2School of Mathematics and Statistics, Hefei Normal University, Hefei 230601, China Email: zwh@mail.ustc.edu.cn, dengjs

Deng, Jiansong

386

Escaping the resource curse in China.  

PubMed

Many societies face an income gap between rich regions with access to advanced technology and regions that are rich in natural resources but poorer in technology. This "resource curse" can lead to a Kuznets trap, in which economic inequalities between the rich and the poor increase during the process of socioeconomic development. This can also lead to depletion of natural resources, environmental degradation, social instability, and declining socioeconomic development. These problems will jeopardize China's achievements if the current path continues to be pursued without intervention by the government to solve the problems. To mitigate the socioeconomic development gap between western and eastern China, the government implemented its Western Development Program in 2000. However, recent data suggest that this program has instead worsened the resource curse. Because each region has its own unique strengths and weaknesses, China must escape the resource curse by accounting for this difference; in western China, this can be done by improving education, promoting high-tech industry, adjusting its economic strategy to balance regional development, and seeking more sustainable approaches to socioeconomic development. PMID:24973055

Cao, Shixiong; Li, Shurong; Ma, Hua; Sun, Yutong

2015-02-01

387

Microgranular enclaves in island-arc andesites: A possible link between known epithermal Au and potential porphyry Cu-Au deposits in the Tulasu ore cluster, western Tianshan, Xinjiang, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The successful exploration for porphyry copper deposit in western Tianshan, Xinjiang, faces great challenge. Tulasu basin is an important epithermal gold ore cluster in western Tianshan, which was formed in a southwest-Pacific-type island-arc setting during the late Paleozoic by the southward subduction of the North Tianshan ocean beneath the Yili plate. Porphyry Cu-Au deposits are possibly to be found at depth or adjacent to these epithermal gold deposits. Some sulfide-mineralized microgranular enclaves of monzonite porphyry and microdiorite were found in andesites of the Tawuerbieke gold district, Tulasu basin. The enclaves are randomly distributed, with generally round or subangular shape and commonly clearly defined within their host andesite, and have a chilled surrounding margin of andesite. The monzonite porphyry enclaves (MPE) exhibit porphyritic texture with the phenocrysts of plagioclase and K-feldspar. The microdiorite enclaves (MDE) are mainly composed of plagioclase and hornblende with an aplitic texture and massive structure. The host andesites show porphyritic texture, with the phenocrysts major of plagioclase, minor of hornblende and clinopyroxene. The groundmass consists of short-column plagioclase and minor clinopyroxene with a hyalopilitic texture. Zircon grains from a MPE sample yield a weighted 206Pb/238U age of 356.2 ± 4.3 Ma (n = 13, MSWD = 1.11), which is effectively coincident with the 360.5 ± 3.4 Ma (n = 20, MSWD = 0.61) of an andesite sample within analytical error, indicating that they were coeval. In addition, the MPE, MDE and the andesite samples share similar normalized incompatible element and rare earth element patterns that are characterized by a pronounced enrichment of large ion lithophile elements and a deficit of high field strength elements. Moreover, the samples show similar Nd isotope compositions to the contemporary andesites and basaltic andesites. Detailed petrology, geochronology and geochemistry studies suggest that these enclaves were captured from an underlying body during the eruption of island-arc magma. Thus, unmapped cognate porphyry intrusions associated with Cu-Au mineralization may exist under the andesite strata. This evidence in combination with the low- and high-sulfidation epithermal gold deposits, acidic hydrothermal alterations, and copper mineralization evidence, suggests that a porphyry-epithermal Cu-Au metallogenic system might occur in the Tulasu basin of western Tianshan, and that the Tawuerbieke district should be an important target for porphyry Cu-Au exploration.

Zhao, Xiaobo; Xue, Chunji; Symons, David T. A.; Zhang, Zhaochong; Wang, Honggang

2014-05-01

388

SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy  

E-print Network

SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy © Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; 2 College of Water Conservancy & Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China; 3 Civil & Computational Engineering Centre, School

Martin, Ralph R.

389

China (CNSA) views of the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China's lunar objectives have widely attracted the world's attention since China National Space Administration (CNSA) chief Luan Enjie in October 2000 officially affirmed the nation plans to carry out lunar exploration. The success of the Shenzhou-3 mission last April, which indicates that China is on the eve to become the third nation to attain an independent ability to launch humans into space, coupled with Chinese president Jiang Zemin's announcement issued immediately after the launch of SZ-3 that China will develop its own space station, further prompted the mass media in the West to ponder whether "the next footsteps on the Moon will be Chinese." Although China's lunar intention is well publicized, no detail about the project has yet been unveiled in the Western space media because China's space program has been notoriously cloaked in state-imposed secrecy, while the available information is basically unreported by Western observers mainly due to the cultural and language barriers. Based on original research of both the unpublished documents as well as reports in China's space media and professional journals, this paper attempts to piece together the available material gathered from China, providing some insight into China's Moon project, and analyzing the Chinese activities in pursuit of their lunar dream in perspective of space policy. Motivations China's presence on the Moon, in the Chinese leadership's view, could help aggrandize China's international prestige and consolidate the cohesion of the Chinese nation. Lunar exploration, the science community consents, not only helps acquire knowledge about the Moon, but also deepen the understanding of the Earth. A lunar project is believed to be able to accelerate the development of launching and navigating technologies, preparing for future deep space exploration. The emergence of the return to the Moon movement in the world, and the presumption that NASA has plans to return to the Moon, as evidenced by prominent Chinese space scientists' remarks, are also the driving forces for China's determination to reach the Moon. Preliminary Studies Although China did not begin preliminary studies for lunar exploration seriously until the early 1990s, approximately the same time when the human spaceflight Project 921 started, lunar studies have been carried out in the nation for a few decades. The Advancement of Selenology, completed in 1977 by a team led by Ouyang Ziyuan at the CAS Institute of Geochemistry in Guiyang, is probably the most important work on the subject published in China. Under the direction of the Project 863 Experts Committee, a team of scientists led by Ouyang Ziyuan and Zhu Guibo of China Aerospace Industry Corporation in 1993 began to study the feasibility and necessity of lunar exploration by China. Based on a comprehensive survey of the nation's space technology and infrastructures, the feasibility study completed in 1995 believed it was possible to orbit a lunar satellite by 2000. In April 1997, CAS members Yang Jiachi, Wang Daheng and Chen Fangyun issued the "Proposal for Development of Our Nation's Lunar Exploration Technology" as part of the Project 863. The research and development of robotic rovers for lunar exploration began the following year. In May 2000 and January 2001, Tsinghua University organized two symposia on lunar exploration technology. The third lunar conference was held in March 2001 at Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (BUAA) to discuss China's lunar exploration and human spaceflight in the 21st century. A feasibility study for China's lunar adventure was unveiled at the conference for the first time. Objectives and Scenarios The primary objective of the first stage of lunar exploration, according to the feasibility study, will be a comprehensive survey of the lunar surface through remote sensing. Based on this survey, areas for soft landings will be selected. Lunar rovers will further explore these areas to identify an ideal site for the construction of a lunar base. To achieve this goal, a fi

He, S.

390

[Spectrum measurement and analysis of snow cover/melt in Miyaluo district in northwest of Sichuan province].  

PubMed

Mountainous ice sheet and snow cover play an important role in water balance in many area, and the measurement of it in large area is mainly depending on remote sensing. In order to retrieve the storage volume of snow cover in an area with remote sensing, knowing the spectral feature is prerequisite. In the present paper, the Miyaluo district in northwest of Sichuan province was selected as the study area, twenty four measurement points were laid in study area, and the ASD FieldSpec Pro III was selected as the spectral measurement instrument to collect the reflectance spectra of the snow on 21-22, January 2007. Then, the spectrum feature of the snow in the study area was analyzed. The result indicates that 1026, 1256, 1493 and 1990 nm are the characteristic absorption valleys, the snow reflectance on the surface has some relation with the snow depth, and also the snow reflectance varies with the depth in the study area. PMID:21800601

Jian, Ji; Jiang, Hong; Jiang, Zi-shan

2011-05-01

391

Major histocompatibility complex and mate choice in the polygynous primate: the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana).  

PubMed

The highly polymorphic genes within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) not only play a major role in immunity resistance, but also seem to provide hints for mate choice in some animal populations. In the present study we investigated MHC-related mate choice in a small natural population (group size 40-55 individuals) of a polygynous primate, the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana). We found that there was no evidence either for MHC-disassortative mating, or for females to mate with males based on MHC heterozygosity or specific alleles. Nevertheless, of the 11 alleles identified, we found that the frequencies of 2 alleles, Rhro-DRB2 (P < 0.01) and Rhro-DRB5 (P < 0.05) were higher in offspring than in their parents. These findings suggest that MHC-DRB in this population of R. roxellana is unlikely to be associated with mating preferences. Limited female opportunities for mate choice are likely due, in part, to the harem breeding structure present in R. roxellana, and the relatively small number of resident adult males in our study band (N = 4-6). In addition, we suggest that differences in the frequency of particular alleles across generations may be linked to parasite resistance in a fluctuating environment; however, confirmation of this finding requires further study. PMID:24382257

Yang, Banghe; Ren, Baoping; Xiang, Zuofu; Yang, Jingyuan; Yao, Hui; Garber, Paul A; Li, Ming

2014-11-01

392

Logistics Management in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China, as the bright spot in the international economic development, has being joined into the global market. The sustained\\u000a economic growth in China is the driving force to the rapid development of logistics. In this chapter we first present a general\\u000a overview of China’s logistics developments. Summarizing the current development of China’s logistics industry, we can say\\u000a that the market

Gengzhong Feng; Gang Yu; Wei Jiang

393

Issue Specific Explanations of China-ASEAN Relationship: Applying the Realist and Constructivist Assumptions  

E-print Network

19 percent of global GDP in 2005 (Saunders 2008, 129). China is an economic engine fueling East Asian economy, especially after the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis. In the wake of the Financial Crisis, China as well as South Korea, and Japan... India, Japan, Australia) 2007 The 2nd Western Pacific Naval Symposium Multilateral Sea Exercise Annual joint exercise (Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training, Cobra Gold military exercise) 2007 The 2nd Western Pacific Naval Symposium...

Li, Wei-hsieh

2010-12-29

394

Outsourcing CO2 within China  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have shown that the high standard of living enjoyed by people in the richest countries often comes at the expense of CO2 emissions produced with technologies of low efficiency in less affluent, developing countries. Less apparent is that this relationship between developed and developing can exist within a single country’s borders, with rich regions consuming and exporting high-value goods and services that depend upon production of low-cost and emission-intensive goods and services from poorer regions in the same country. As the world’s largest emitter of CO2, China is a prominent and important example, struggling to balance rapid economic growth and environmental sustainability across provinces that are in very different stages of development. In this study, we track CO2 emissions embodied in products traded among Chinese provinces and internationally. We find that 57% of China’s emissions are related to goods that are consumed outside of the province where they are produced. For instance, up to 80% of the emissions related to goods consumed in the highly developed coastal provinces are imported from less developed provinces in central and western China where many low–value-added but high–carbon-intensive goods are produced. Without policy attention to this sort of interprovincial carbon leakage, the less developed provinces will struggle to meet their emissions intensity targets, whereas the more developed provinces might achieve their own targets by further outsourcing. Consumption-based accounting of emissions can thus inform effective and equitable climate policy within China. PMID:23754377

Feng, Kuishuang; Davis, Steven J.; Sun, Laixiang; Li, Xin; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Hubacek, Klaus

2013-01-01

395

Understanding China`s nuclear non-proliferation policy  

SciTech Connect

China`s nuclear-export activities appear to contradict its official non-proliferation policy. Scrutiny of China`s nuclear exports and non- proliferation commitments indicate an adherence to strict `letter-of-the-law` obligations. Yet, China`s commitment to the norms and values of the non- proliferation regime is controversial. The difference between China`s legal obligations and the international norms of acceptable export behavior is a function of the ambiguity inherent in international treaties and agreements. Stephen Meyer`s motivational hypothesis is used to evaluate China`s nuclear-export decision-making process. China`s motivational profile created by the combination of 16 incentives and disincentives on one hand, and international and domestic conditions on the other. Two case studies are used to illustrate that this profile is not static. As environmental conditions and China`s national priorities change, so does China`s motivational profile. In the past, U. S. attempts to alter China`s nuclear-export activities were successful when the targeted changes were congruent with China`s national priorities. For the United States to influence China`s future nuclear-export activities, it must first understand China`s national priorities and determine the corresponding export motivations that influence China`s decision-making process. The United States should then work to change conditions, which would shift the balance of incentives and disincentives, thereby changing the outcome of China`s cost