Science.gov

Sample records for western sichuan china

  1. Modelling and spatial discrimination of small mammal assemblages: an example from western Sichuan (China)

    PubMed Central

    Vaniscotte, Amélie; Pleydell, David; Raoul, Francis; Quéré, Jean Pierre; Jiamin, Qiu; Wang, Qian; Tiaoying, Li; Bernard, Nadine; Coeurdassier, Michael; Delattre, Pierre; Takahashi, Kenichi; Weidmann, Jean-Christophe; Giraudoux, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between landscape heterogeneity and the spatial distribution of small mammals in two areas of Western Sichuan, China. Given a large diversity of species trapped within a large number of habitats, we first classified small mammal assemblages and then modelled the habitat of each in the space of quantitative environmental descriptors. Our original two step “classify then model” procedure is appropriate for the frequently encountered study scenario: trapping data collected in remote areas with sampling guided by expert field knowledge. In the classification step, we defined assemblages by grouping sites of similar species composition and relative densities using an expert-class-merging procedure which reduced redundancy in the habitat factor used within a multinomial logistic regression predicting species trapping probabilities. Assemblages were thus defined as mixtures of small mammal frequency distributions in discrete groups of sampled sites. In the modelling step, assemblages’ habitats and environments of the two sampled areas were discriminated in the space of remotely sensed environmental descriptors. First, we compared the discrimination of assemblage/study areas by linear and non-linear forms of Discriminant Analysis (Linear Discriminant Analysis versus Mixture Discriminant Analysis) and of Multiple Regression (Generalized Linear Models versus Multiple Adaptive Regression Splines). The “best” predictive modelling technique was then used to quantify the contribution of each environmental variable in discriminations of assemblages and areas. Mixtures of Gaussians provided a more efficient model of assemblage coverage in environmental space than a single Gaussian cluster model. However, non-linearity in assemblage response to environmental gradients was consistently predicted with lower deviance and misclassification error by Multiple Adaptive Regression Splines. The two study areas were mainly discriminated along vegetation indices. However, although the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) could discriminate forested from non-forested habitats, its power to discriminate assemblages in Maerkang, where a greater diversity of forest habitat was observed, was seen to be limited, and in this case NDVI was outperformed by the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). Our analyses highlight previously unobserved differences between the environments and small mammal communities of two fringe areas of the Tibetan plateau and suggests that a biogeograph-ical approach is required to elucidate ecological processes in small mammal communities and to reduce extrapolation uncertainty in distribution mapping. PMID:20161274

  2. Sichuan Earthquake in China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Sichuan earthquake in China occurred on May 12, 2008, along faults within the mountains, but near and almost parallel the mountain front, northwest of the city of Chengdu. This major quake caused immediate and severe damage to many villages and cities in the area. Aftershocks pose a continuing danger, but another continuing hazard is the widespread occurrence of landslides that have formed new natural dams and consequently new lakes. These lakes are submerging roads and flooding previously developed lands. But an even greater concern is the possible rapid release of water as the lakes eventually overflow the new dams. The dams are generally composed of disintegrated rock debris that may easily erode, leading to greater release of water, which may then cause faster erosion and an even greater release of water. This possible 'positive feedback' between increasing erosion and increasing water release could result in catastrophic debris flows and/or flooding. The danger is well known to the Chinese earthquake response teams, which have been building spillways over some of the new natural dams.

    This ASTER image, acquired on June 1, 2008, shows two of the new large landslide dams and lakes upstream from the town of Chi-Kua-Kan at 32o12'N latitude and 104o50'E longitude. Vegetation is green, water is blue, and soil is grayish brown in this enhanced color view. New landslides appear bright off-white. The northern (top) lake is upstream from the southern lake. Close inspection shows a series of much smaller lakes in an elongated 'S' pattern along the original stream path. Note especially the large landslides that created the dams. Some other landslides in this area, such as the large one in the northeast corner of the image, occur only on the mountain slopes, so do not block streams, and do not form lakes.

  3. The anomalous lithium isotopic signature of Himalayan collisional zone carbonatites in western Sichuan, SW China: Enriched mantle source and petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Shihong; Hou, Zengqian; Su, Aina; Qiu, Lin; Mo, Xuanxue; Hou, Kejun; Zhao, Yue; Hu, Wenjie; Yang, Zhusen

    2015-06-01

    Lithium concentrations and isotopic compositions of 38 carbonatites and associated syenites from the Maoniuping, Lizhuang, and Dalucao in western Sichuan, along with previously published and new Pb-Sr-Nd-C-O isotope data and whole-rock analyses, are used to constrain their mantle source and genesis. Carbonatites and syenites are characterized by extremely varying Li concentrations (0.8-120 ppm) and highly variable Li isotopic compositions (-4.5‰ to +10.8‰). Among them, the majority of the carbonatites and syenites have ?7Li values between +0.2‰ and +5.8‰, which overlap with the reported values for MORB and OIB; 3 carbonatites have higher ?7Li values between +8.7‰ and +10.8‰; 5 carbonatites and 4 syenites have lighter ?7Li values between -4.5‰ and -0.3‰. These highly variable ?7Li compositions could not have been produced by diffusive-driven isotopic fractionation of Li and thus may record the isotopic signature of the late Proterozoic subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). This paper demonstrates the existence of anomalous ?7Li within the late Proterozoic subcontinental lithospheric mantle, suggesting that the ancient SCLM beneath western Sichuan was modified by interaction with fluids derived from the subducted oceanic crust and marine sediments. The modeling curves of fluids derived from a dehydrated slab (ratios: AOC80-SED20 to AOC40-SED60) with a representative mantle composition can account for the majority of lithium compositional variations. Some samples with unusual Pb-Sr-Nd-O isotopic compositions and highly variable ?7Li compositions are affected by significant involvement of marine sediments in their source region, not contaminated by crustal materials. The carbonatites and syenites in western Sichuan were generated by the partial melting of subcontinental lithospheric mantle, which was metasomatized by the Li-rich fluids derived from the subducted oceanic crust and marine sediments. This melting was most likely triggered by a Cenozoic asthenospheric mantle diapir related to Indian-Asian continental collision and post- or late-collisional stress relaxation in the Oligocene.

  4. Development of foreland basins around western Sichuan basin, and implications for mountain building in eastern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Liu, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Sichuan basin is surrounded by the Tibetan Plateau to the west, and the Michang Shan and Daba Shan mountains to the north and northwest. Foreland basins have been developed along the western and northern margins of the Sichuan basin since Triassic, receiving sediments with significant along-strike variations. These sediment records provide useful insights into the history of mountain building around the Sichuan Basin. We have collected exploration well data from western Sichuan Basin. Using backstripping, we reconstructed the basement deformation history, which reflect sedimentary and tectonic loadings related to mountain building. We used a 3-D numerical modeling technique with multi-grid technique to simulate flexural deformation of the Sichuan Basin lithosphere, and to infer tectonic loading and mountain building along western and northern margins of the Sichuan Basin from the late Triassic to the Cenozoic. Our results suggest that the shortening of the Daba Shan and Michuan Shan orogens mainly occurred during the late Jurassic-Cretaceous. During Cenozoic, the tectonic loading mainly occurred along the southwestern margins of the Sichuan Basin, corresponding to the development of the Longmen Shan mountain belt. The tectonic loading of the northern Longmen Shan on the Sichuan Basin has been markedly reduced since the Cenozoic, evidenced by the lack of Cenozoic foreland basin development. This indicates mechanical decoupling between uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin, consistent with the deep down-cutting of the Longmen Shan fault and predominantly strike-slip motion on the fault. The limited Cenozoic foreland basin development in the southwestern margin of the Sichuan Basin is consistent with localized high-angle thrusting of the southern Longmen Shan mountains. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grants 41104046).

  5. Road Damage from 2008 Great Sichuan Earthquake in China

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The May 12, 2008, Great Sichuan Earthquake, also called the Wenchuan Earthquake, occurred at 14:28 local time, in Sichuan Province, China. The earthquake magnitudes were Mw = 7.9 (USGS), Ms = 8.0 (Chinese Earthquake Administration). The epicenter was 80 km west-northwest of Chengdu, the capital city...

  6. Damage from 2008 Great Sichuan Earthquake in China

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The May 12, 2008, Great Sichuan Earthquake, also called the Wenchuan Earthquake, occurred at 14:28 local time, in Sichuan Province, China. The earthquake magnitudes were Mw = 7.9 (USGS), Ms = 8.0 (Chinese Earthquake Administration). The epicenter was 80 km west-northwest of Chengdu, the capital city...

  7. Boulder from 2008 Great Sichuan Earthquake in China

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The May 12, 2008, Great Sichuan Earthquake, also called the Wenchuan Earthquake, occurred at 14:28 local time, in Sichuan Province, China. The earthquake magnitudes were Mw = 7.9 (USGS), Ms = 8.0 (Chinese Earthquake Administration). The epicenter was 80 km west-northwest of Chengdu, the capital city...

  8. Structural and thermal characters of the Longmen Shan (Sichuan, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, A.; Pubellier, M.; de Sigoyer, J.; Vergne, J.; Lahfid, A.; Cattin, R.; Findling, N.; Zhu, J.

    2010-08-01

    The Longmen Shan (Sichuan, China) is characterised by an unusual morphology which results from a Triassic prism tectonics and a more recent Neogene thick-skin thrusting. Among its specific features is the high elevation of the internal zones in continuity with the Songpan Garze fold-and-thrust belt (SG), which is associated with an abrupt 20 km Moho offset between the Sichuan Basin and the Tibetan plateau as revealed by the analysis of teleseismic data acquired by a dense seismic network. The jump in crustal thickness is located at the apex of the Wenchuan shear zone (WSZ) and marks the western boundary of the metamorphosed units of SG characterized by temperatures varying from 590 °C down to 300 °C as commonly observed in mature accretionary wedges. Both the structural style marked by intense shortening in tight kink folds and geophysical data suggest the presence of an horizontal discontinuity at ˜ 15 km depth over a thick crust (˜ 63 km). The Longmen Shan east of the WSZ is characterized by thick-skin detachment which thrusts the internal sedimentary units and the Proterozoic basement over the series of the Sichuan Basin deposited on a thinner crust of ˜ 44 km thick. The major front is the Beichuan Fault Zone (BFZ) which brought the internal zones onto Triassic and Jurassic series with lower temperatures (less than 400 °C). Locally, temperatures of ˜ 425 °C are found just below the klippes. These results are in agreement with an original contact of the SG zone represented by an accretionary wedge of sediments thrusted over the margin of the continental crust of the Yangtze craton in the early stage (Indosinian) of the evolution. The present-day slow E-W component of the convergence, added to the difference in crustal thickness caused the Yangtze crust to indent the Songpan Tibetan crust which was softened by a high thermal regime. As a response the edge of the Tibet crust was inflated to the bottom (up to 70 km), whereas to the top, the crystalline massif were exhumed and pushed the deformation eastward as emerging and blind thrusts. This configuration reflects a moderate shortening of the crust which behaves as a soft thick material abutting the resistant and cold Yangtze crust.

  9. Changing characteristics of wet/dry spells during 1961-2008 in Sichuan province, southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jin; Chen, Xin; Xue, Yan; Lin, Jie; Zhang, Jinchi

    2015-09-01

    Understanding variations in precipitation from a variety of aspects is important for the utilization of water resources. Based on daily precipitation records at 98 meteorological stations in Sichuan province, southwestern China, the spatial and temporal changes in wet/dry spells were investigated by using 14 precipitation indices. The Mann-Kendall trend test is used to detect trends in the index series. Results suggest that the decrease of precipitation in central and eastern Sichuan was significant in terms of decreasing tendencies of wet spell indices. However, the decreasing trend of dry spell indices suggested an increase in precipitation in western Sichuan province. A higher risk of droughts can be expected in autumn and wet spell indices in winter and spring are increasing, implying obvious seasonality and seasonal shifts of change in precipitation within this province. Wet/dry spells with short duration were accounted for a large proportion of spells in Sichuan. The occurrence and fractional contribution of short-duration wet spells were increasing. The same trend was found in dry spells with short and moderate duration in Sichuan

  10. Nitrogen isotope chemostratigraphy across the PermianTriassic boundary at Chaotian, Sichuan, South China

    E-print Network

    Ikegami, Takashi

    Sichuan, South China, in order to clarify changes in the oceanic nitrogen cycle around the PermianNitrogen isotope chemostratigraphy across the Permian­Triassic boundary at Chaotian, Sichuan, South Changhsingian Enhanced nitrogen fixation Anoxia Global d15 N variation across the P­TB a b s t r a c t Nitrogen

  11. Assessment of Paleozoic shale gas resources in the Sichuan Basin of China, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 23.9 trillion cubic feet of technically recoverable shale gas resources in Paleozoic formations in the Sichuan Basin of China.

  12. Outpatient prescription practices in rural township health centers in Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sichuan Province is an agricultural and economically developing province in western China. To understand practices of prescribing medications for outpatients in rural township health centers is important for the development of the rural medical and health services in this province and western China. Methods This is an observational study based on data from the 4th National Health Services Survey of China. A total of 3,059 prescriptions from 30 township health centers in Sichuan Province were collected and analyzed. Seven indicators were employed in the analyses to characterize the prescription practices. They are disease distribution, average cost per encounter, number of medications per encounter, percentage of encounters with antibiotics, percentage of encounters with glucocorticoids, percentage of encounters with combined glucocorticoids and antibiotics, and percentage of encounters with injections. Results The average medication cost per encounter was 16.30 Yuan ($2.59). About 60% of the prescriptions contained Chinese patent medicine (CPM), and almost all prescriptions (98.07%) contained western medicine. 85.18% of the prescriptions contained antibiotics, of which, 24.98% contained two or more types of antibiotics; the percentage of prescriptions with glucocorticoids was 19.99%; the percentage of prescriptions with both glucocorticoids and antibiotics was 16.67%; 51.40% of the prescriptions included injections, of which, 39.90% included two or more injections. Conclusions The findings from this study demonstrated irrational medication uses of antibiotics, glucocorticoids and injections prescribed for outpatients in the rural township health centers in Sichuan Province. The reasons for irrational medication uses are not only solely due to the pursuit of maximizing benefits in the township health centers, but also more likely attributable to the lack of medical knowledge of rational medication uses among rural doctors and the lack of medical devices for disease diagnosis in those township health centers. The policy implication from this study is to enhance professional training in rational medication uses for rural doctors, improve hardware facilities for township health centers, promote health education to rural residents and establish a public reporting system to monitor prescription practices in rural township health centers, etc. PMID:22988946

  13. Temporal and spatial visibility trends in the Sichuan Basin, China, 1973 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuan; Xie, Shaodong

    2012-08-01

    Visibility in the Sichuan Basin of China has long been at low levels due to topographic features and high pollution. This study produced trend maps tracking the spatial patterns and temporal trends of visibility in the Sichuan Basin based on 38 years of daily visibility data. Three major fluctuations in the visibility pattern were found: a period of decreasing visibility from 1973 to 1990, a period in which the visibility pattern remained stable from 1991 to 2000, and a period of the visibility recovery from 2001 to 2010. Data from 12 stations in the Sichuan Basin were further analyzed using cumulative percentiles, ridit analysis and days of visibility > 19 km and < 10 km. Hazy conditions were most prevalent in Chengdu and Chongqing, which had visibility less than 10 km and more than 200 low visibility days per year after 2000. Fengjie, Youyang and Langzhong showed consistent declines in visibility and in the number of days with visibility > 19 km whereas Liangping, Nanchong and Wanyuan experienced relatively small decreases but much variation. Upturn trends were observed in Daxian, Mianyang, Ya'an and Yibin after 1995. Although the specific trends differed among stations, a general trend of reduced visibility was found over Sichuan basin. Median visibilities in 2000s were approximately 4 to 38% lower than those during the 1970s, indicating that more efforts are needed for recovery. This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of long-term visibility patterns in the Sichuan Basin.

  14. Assessing the spatial accessibility of hospital care in Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jay; Liu, Huiran; Wang, Xiuli; Xie, Hongmei; Delamater, Paul L

    2015-01-01

    Regional disparities in geographical access to hospital care are found throughout China. Understanding variations in the spatial accessibility of hospital care has the potential to provide decision support in healthcare planning. This study examines the hospital system in the Sichuan Province in China, which provides healthcare for more than 80 million people. We examine the impacts of accessibility characterisation via the conventional measurement approach by comparing the results to those derived using a floating catchment area approach. Employing a geographical information system based on population and hospital administrative data, we conducted a provincewide study of the spatial accessibility of hospital care in Sichuan Province, China. A shortest-path analysis and the enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method were implemented. Substantial differences between these two approaches were found, including a roughly 15% difference in the total number of under-served areas. Generally, spatial accessibility was higher in the eastern regions of Sichuan. More than 5.5 million people were found to have limited access, with large variations across the province. These results indicate that the official method used by policy makers in China may not capture the true nature of spatial accessibility throughout the region. We recommend that the E2SFCA method be implemented for health services research in China, providing decision makers with more accurate information when setting healthcare policies. PMID:26618324

  15. Preliminary investigation of some large landslides triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan Province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, F.; Cheng, Q.; Highland, L.; Miyajima, M.; Wang, Hongfang; Yan, C.

    2009-01-01

    The M s 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake or "Great Sichuan Earthquake" occurred at 14:28 p.m. local time on 12 May 2008 in Sichuan Province, China. Damage by earthquake-induced landslides was an important part of the total earthquake damage. This report presents preliminary observations on the Hongyan Resort slide located southwest of the main epicenter, shallow mountain surface failures in Xuankou village of Yingxiu Town, the Jiufengchun slide near Longmenshan Town, the Hongsong Hydro-power Station slide near Hongbai Town, the Xiaojiaqiao slide in Chaping Town, two landslides in Beichuan County-town which destroyed a large part of the town, and the Donghekou and Shibangou slides in Qingchuan County which formed the second biggest landslide lake formed in this earthquake. The influences of seismic, topographic, geologic, and hydro-geologic conditions are discussed. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Euxinia prior to end-Permian main extinction at Xiaojiaba section, Sichuan Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, H.; Algeo, T. J.; Chen, D.; Yu, H.

    2013-12-01

    Redox conditions in the global ocean prior to, during, and following the end-Permian mass extinction at 252.28 Ma remain contentious. Previous studies in western Australia, South China, and East Greenland have shown that photic-zone euxinia was present at least intermittently from the early Changhsingian through the Dienerian1-3. Here we report a study of organic carbon isotopes, pyrite sulfur isotopes, TOC, pyritic sulfur content, REE, and major and trace elements from the Upper Permian Xiaojiaba section in the Chaotian district of Guangyuan City, Sichuan Province, China. During the Permian-Triassic transition, this section was located on the northwestern margin of the South China Block, facing the Paleo-Tethys Ocean. Our results indicate that suboxic conditions prevailed during the Wuchiapingian and suboxic to anoxic conditions with several pulses of euxinia during the Changhsingian. ?13Corg values are mostly -28‰ to -26‰ but show three positive excursions (to -22‰) prior to the end-Permian mass extinction horizon. These positive excursions are associated with higher Spy concentrations (to ~1%). ?34Spy values are variable (from -41‰ to +5‰) but show a sharp negative excursion in the late Changhsingian (to -43.4‰) that coincided with the most positive ?13Corg values. This horizon is also associated with increases in Eu/Eu*, Baxs, ?REE, Si, and redox-sensitive metals such as V. These patterns reflect linkage of the C and S cycles during the latest Permian, possibly in response to redox controls. The observed positive excursions in ?13Corg may be due to organic inputs from green sulfur bacteria, which exhibit a smaller photosynthetic fractionation (-12.5‰4) than eukaryotic algae. The pronounced negative excursion of ?34Spy corresponds to a sulfate-sulfide S isotope fractionation of about -60‰, suggesting a large flux of syngenetic framboidal pyrite, which would be indicative of euxinic water-column conditions. We infer that the euxinia prior to the main extinction horizon may have been caused by oceanic oxygen-minimum zone expansion and upward movement of the chemocline5. The coupled increases in Eu/Eu* and Baxs may record hydrothermal influence, possibly accompanied by increased ocean acidity and high seawater temperatures. Collectively, our results document major changes in seawater chemistry during the Changhsingian prior to the main end-Permian crisis.

  17. Linked sequence stratigraphy and tectonics in the Sichuan continental foreland basin, Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation, southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingjiao; Shao, Longyi; Eriksson, Kenneth A.; Tong, Xin; Gao, Caixia; Chen, Zhongshu

    2014-07-01

    Intracontinental subduction of the South China Block below the North China Block in the Late Triassic resulted in formation of the transpressional Sichuan foreland basin on the South China Block. The Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation was deposited in this basin and consists of an eastward-tapering wedge of predominantly continental siliciclastic sedimentary rocks that are up to 3.5 km thick in the western foredeep depocenter and thin onto the forebulge and into backbulge depocenters. Five facies associations (A-E) make up the Xujiahe Formation and these are interpreted, respectively, as alluvial fan, transverse and longitudinal braided river, meandering river, overbank or shallow lacustrine, and deltaic deposits. This study establishes a sequence stratigraphic framework for the Xujiahe Formation which is subdivided into four sequences (SQ1, 2, 3 and 4). Sequence boundaries are recognized on the basis of facies-tract dislocations and associated fluvial rejuvenation and incision, and systems tracts are identified based on their constituent facies associations and changes in architectural style and sediment body geometries. Typical sequences consist of early to late transgressive systems tract deposits related to a progressive increase in accommodation and represented by Facies Associations A, B and C that grade upwards into Facies Association D. Regionally extensive and vertically stacked coal seams define maximum accommodation and are overlain by early highstand systems tract deposits represented by Facies Associations D, E and C. Late highstand systems tract deposits are rare because of erosion below sequence boundaries. Sequence development in the Xujiahe Formation is attributed to active and quiescent phases of thrust-loading events and is closely related to the tectonic evolution of the basin. The Sichuan Basin experienced three periods of thrust loading and lithospheric flexure (SQ1, lower SQ2 and SQ3), two periods of stress relaxation and basin widening (upper SQ 2 and SQ3) and one phase of isostatic rebound (SQ4). Paleogeographic reconstruction of the Sichuan Basin in the Late Triassic indicates that the Longmen Mountains to the west, consisting of metamorphic, sedimentary and pre-Neoproterozoic basement granitoid rocks, was the major source of sediment to the foredeep depocenter. Subordinate sediment sources were the Xuefeng Mountains to the east to backbulge depocenters, and the Micang Mountains to the northwest during the late history of the basin. This study has demonstrated the viability of sequence stratigraphic analysis in continental successions in a foreland basin, and the influence of thrust loading on sequence development.

  18. Characterization of Cry2-Type Genes of Bacillus Thuringiensis Strains From Soilisolated of Sichuan Basin, China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hongxia; Liu, Yao; Zhu, Jun; Peng, Guan; Li, Shuangcheng; Wang, Shiquan; Zheng, Aiping; Liu, Huainian; Li, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Sichuan basin, situated in the west of China, is the fourth biggest basin in China. In order to describe a systematic study of the cry2-type genes resources from Bacillus thuringiensis strains of Sichuan basin, a total of 791 Bacillus thuringiensis strains have been screened from 2650 soil samples in different ecological regions. The method of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to identify the type of cry2 genes. The results showed that 322 Bacillus thuringiensis strains harbored cry2-type genes and four different RFLP patterns were found. The combination of cry2Aa/cry2Ab genes was the most frequent (90.4%), followed by cry2Aa (6.8%) and cry2Ab alone (2.5%), and only one novel type of cry2 gene was cloned from one isolate (JF19-2). The full-length of this novel gene was obtained by the method of thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (Tail-PCR), which was designated as cry2Ag1 (GenBank No. ACH91610) by the Bt Pesticide Crystal Protein Nomenclature Committee. In addition, the result of scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation showed that these strains had erose, spherical, bipyramidal, and square crystal. And the results of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) demonstrated that these strains harbored about one to three major proteins. These strains exhibited a wide range of insecticidal spectrum toxic to Aedes aegypti (Diptera) and Pieris rapae Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera). Particularly, JF19-2 contained cry2Ag gene had the highest insecticidal activity. All these researches mentioned above revealed the diversity and particularity of cry2-type gene resources from Bacillus thuringiensis strains in Sichuan basin. PMID:24031615

  19. Distribution of the Crustal Magnetic Field in Sichuan-Yunnan Region, Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Chunhua; Kang, Guofa; Gao, Guoming

    2014-01-01

    Based on the new and higher degree geomagnetic model NGDC-720-V3, we have investigated the spatial distribution, the altitude decay characteristics of the crustal magnetic anomaly, the contributions from different wavelength bands to the anomaly, and the relationship among the anomaly, the geological structure, and the geophysical field in Sichuan-Yunnan region of China. It is noted that the most outstanding feature in this area is the strong positive magnetic anomaly in Sichuan Basin, a geologically stable block. Contrasting with this feature, a strong negative anomaly can be seen nearby in Longmen Mountain block, an active block. This contradiction implies a possible relationship between the magnetic field and the geological activity. Completely different feature in magnetic field distribution is seen in the central Yunnan block, another active region, where positive and negative anomalies distribute alternatively, showing a complex magnetic anomaly map. Some fault belts, such as the Longmen Mountain fault, Lijiang-Xiaojinhe fault, and the Red River fault, are the transitional zones of strong and weak or negative and positive anomalies. The corresponding relationship between the magnetic anomaly and the geophysical fields was confirmed. PMID:25243232

  20. Infant Formula Crisis in China: A Cohort Study in Sichuan Province

    PubMed Central

    Binns, Colin W.; Lee, Andy H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT China has become the largest market of infant formula in the world. The consumption of infant formula is widespread across the country. This study investigated the opinions of Chinese mothers on infant formula. A prospective cohort study (n=695) was undertaken in 2011 in Sichuan province of China two years after the melamine scandal. Infant-feeding practices and mothers’ opinions on infant formula-use were documented in detail. A total of 674 mothers (97%) had initiated breastfeeding by discharge. Of the 21 mothers who did not commence breastfeeding, 13 made a decision to exclusively feed their babies with infant formula because of hepatitis B virus infection. Nearly 70% of newborns received infant formula as their first feed, and the prevalence increased to 88% within one month. Having insufficient breastmilk was perceived by the majority (77%) of mothers as the reason behind infant formula feeding. About half (46%) of the mothers agreed with or were ambivalent that infant formula feeding does not reduce their breastmilk production. More than one-third (38%) of women thought that formulafed infants sleep longer at night than those who are breastfed. In addition, this perception was positively associated with the use of formula within one month postpartum (p=0.003). In conclusion, mothers’ opinions appear to influence the use of infant formula in China. There is a need for further education on breastfeeding and infant-feeding options to maintain and improve breastfeeding outcomes in China. PMID:25995728

  1. Infant formula crisis in china: a cohort study in sichuan province.

    PubMed

    Tang, Li; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H

    2015-03-01

    China has become the largest market of infant formula in the world. The consumption of infant formula is widespread across the country. This study investigated the opinions of Chinese mothers on infant formula. A prospective cohort study (n=695) was undertaken in 2011 in Sichuan province of China two years after the melamine scandal. Infant-feeding practices and mothers' opinions on infant formula-use were documented in detail. A total of 674 mothers (97%) had initiated breastfeeding by discharge. Of the 21 mothers who did not commence breastfeeding, 13 made a decision to exclusively feed their babies with infant formula because of hepatitis B virus infection. Nearly 70% of newborns received infant formula as their first feed, and the prevalence increased to 88% within one month. Having insufficient breastmilk was perceived by the majority (77%) of mothers as the reason behind infant formula feeding. About half (46%) of the mothers agreed with or were ambivalent that infant formula feeding does not reduce their breastmilk production. More than one-third (38%) of women thought that formulafed infants sleep longer at night than those who are breastfed. In addition, this perception was positively associated with the use of formula within one month postpartum (p=0.003). In conclusion, mothers' opinions appear to influence the use of infant formula in China. There is a need for further education on breastfeeding and infant-feeding options to maintain and improve breastfeeding outcomes in China. PMID:25995728

  2. A data-based model to locate mass movements triggered by seismic events in Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Fabio Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Earthquakes affect the entire world and have catastrophic consequences. On May 12, 2008, an earthquake of magnitude 7.9 on the Richter scale occurred in the Wenchuan area of Sichuan province in China. This event, together with subsequent aftershocks, caused many avalanches, landslides, debris flows, collapses, and quake lakes and induced numerous unstable slopes. This work proposes a methodology that uses a data mining approach and geographic information systems to predict these mass movements based on their association with the main and aftershock epicenters, geologic faults, riverbeds, and topography. A dataset comprising 3,883 mass movements is analyzed, and some models to predict the location of these mass movements are developed. These predictive models could be used by the Chinese authorities as an important tool for identifying risk areas and rescuing survivors during similar events in the future. PMID:24085622

  3. Natural Hazard Public Policy Implications of the May 12, 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake, Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cydzik, K.; Hamilton, D.; Stenner, H. D.; Cattarossi, A.; Shrestha, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    The May 12, 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake in Sichuan Province, China killed almost 90,000 people and affected a population of over 45.5 million throughout western China. Shaking caused the destruction of five million buildings, many of them homes and schools, and damaged 21 million other structures, inflicting devastating impacts to communities. Landslides, a secondary effect of the shaking, caused much of the devastation. Debris flows buried schools and homes, rock falls crushed cars, and rockslides, landslides, and rock avalanches blocked streams and rivers creating massive, unstable landslide dams, which formed “quake lakes” upstream of the blockages. Impassable roads made emergency access slow and extremely difficult. Collapses of buildings and structures large and small took the lives of many. Damage to infrastructure impaired communication, cut off water supplies and electricity, and put authorities on high alert as the integrity of large engineered dams were reviewed. During our field reconnaissance three months after the disaster, evidence of the extent of the tragedy was undeniably apparent. Observing the damage throughout Sichuan reminded us that earthquakes in the United States and throughout the world routinely cause widespread damage and destruction to lives, property, and infrastructure. The focus of this poster is to present observations and findings based on our field reconnaissance regarding the scale of earthquake destruction with respect to slope failures, landslide dams, damage to infrastructure (e.g., schools, engineered dams, buildings, roads, rail lines, and water resources facilities), human habitation within the region, and the mitigation and response effort to this catastrophe. This is presented in the context of the policy measures that could be developed to reduce risks of similar catastrophes. The rapid response of the Chinese government and the mobilization of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army to help the communities affected by the earthquake have allowed survivors to begin rebuilding their lives. However, the long-term impact of the earthquake continues to make headlines. Post-earthquake landslides and debris flows initiated by storm events have continued to impart devastation on the region. Events such as the Wenchuan Earthquake provide unique opportunities for engineers, scientists, and policy makers to collaborate for purposes of exploring the details of natural hazards and developing sound policies to protect lives and property in the future.

  4. Ground deformation associated with the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake in China, estimated using a SAR offset-tracking method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Takada, Y.; Furuya, M.; Murakami, M.

    2008-12-01

    Introduction: A catastrophic earthquake struck China"fs Sichuan area on May 12, 2008, with the moment magnitude of 7.9 (USGS). The hypocenter and their aftershocks are distributed along the western edge of the Sichuan Basin, suggesting that this seismic event occurred at the Longmeng Shan fault zone which is constituted of major three active faults (Wenchuan-Maowen, Beichuan, and Pengguan faults). However, it is unclear whether these faults were directly involved in the mainshock rupture. An interferometry SAR (InSAR) analysis generally has a merit that we can detect ground deformation in a vast region with high precision, however, for the Sichuan event, the surface deformation near the fault zone has not been satisfactorily detected from the InSAR analyses due to a low coherency. An offset-tracking method is less precise but more robust for detecting large ground deformation than the interferometric approach. Our purpose is to detect the detail ground deformation immediately near the faults involved in the Sichuan event with applying the offset-tracking method. Analysis Method: We analyzed ALOS/PALSAR images, which have been taken from Path 471 to 476 of ascending track, acquired before and after the mainshock. We processed SAR data from the level-1.0 product, using a software package from Gamma Remote Sensing. For offset-tracking analysis we adopt intensity tracking method which is performed by cross-correlating samples of backscatter intensity of a master SAR image with samples from the corresponding search area of a slave image in order to estimate range and azimuth offset fields. We reduce stereoscopic effects that produce apparent offsets, using SRTM3 DEM data. Results: We have successfully obtained the surface deformation in range (radar look direction) component, while in azimuth (flight direction) no significant deformation can be detected in some orbits due to "gazimuth streaks"h that are errors caused by ionospheric effects. Some concluding remarks are as follows: On the Beichuan F. and its northeastward extension, a clear boundary of a motion toward and away from the satellite can be recognized just along the fault, which is almost consistent with a right-lateral fault motion. On the other hand, in the southwestern region from the Beichuan city where the three major faults are running almost parallel, two boundaries of motions can be recognized; On the Beichuan F. there are a clear displacement boundary in range component, while on the Pengguan F. a boundary can be identified in azimuth component rather than in range, suggesting that the seismic ruptures proceeded with different fault motions at each fault. For the Wenchuan-Maowen F., no significant displacement boundary can be recognized. Acknowledgments: PALSAR data are provided from Earthquake Working Group and PIXEL (PALSAR Interferometry Consortium to Study our Evolving Land surface) under a cooperative research contract with JAXA. The ownership of PALSAR data belongs to METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) and JAXA.

  5. Genetic Structure of Qiangic Populations Residing in the Western Sichuan Corridor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuan-Chao; Wang, Ling-Xiang; Shrestha, Rukesh; Zhang, Manfei; Huang, Xiu-Yuan; Hu, Kang; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The Qiangic languages in western Sichuan (WSC) are believed to be the oldest branch of the Sino-Tibetan linguistic family, and therefore, all Sino-Tibetan populations might have originated in WSC. However, very few genetic investigations have been done on Qiangic populations and no genetic evidences for the origin of Sino-Tibetan populations have been provided. By using the informative Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers, we analyzed the genetic structure of Qiangic populations. Our results revealed a predominantly Northern Asian-specific component in Qiangic populations, especially in maternal lineages. The Qiangic populations are an admixture of the northward migrations of East Asian initial settlers with Y chromosome haplogroup D (D1-M15 and the later originated D3a-P47) in the late Paleolithic age, and the southward Di-Qiang people with dominant haplogroup O3a2c1*-M134 and O3a2c1a-M117 in the Neolithic Age. PMID:25090432

  6. Molecular investigation of Torque teno sus virus in geographically distinct porcine breeding herds of Sichuan, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV), infecting domestic swine and wild boar, is a non-enveloped virus with a circular, single-stranded DNA genome. which has been classified into the genera Iotatorquevirus (TTSuV1) and Kappatorquevirus (TTSuV2) of the family Anelloviridae. A molecular study was conducted to detect evidence of a phylogenic relationship between these two porcine TTSuV genogroups from the sera of 244 infected pigs located in 21 subordinate prefectures and/or cities of Sichuan. Results Both genogroups of TTSuV were detected in pig sera collected from all 21 regions examined. Of the 244 samples, virus from either genogroup was detected in 203 (83.2%), while 44 animals (18.0%) were co-infected with viruses of both genogroups. Moreover, TTSuV2 (186/244, 76.2%) was more prevalent than TTSuV1 (61/244, 25%). There was statistically significant difference between the prevalence of genogroups 1 infection alone (9.4%, 23/244) and 2 alone (64.8%, 158/244), and between the prevalence of genogroups 2 (76.2%, 186/244) and both genogroups co-infection (18.0%, 44/244). The untranslated region of the swine TTSuV genome was found to be an adequate molecular marker of the virus for detection and surveillance. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that both genogroups 1 and 2 could be further divided into two subtypes, subtype a and b. TTSuV1 subtype b and the two TTSuV2 subtypes are more prevalent in Sichuan Province. Conclusions Our study presents detailed geographical evidence of TTSuV infection in China. PMID:23705989

  7. Molecular Epidemiological Investigation of Thalassemia in the Chengdu Region, Sichuan Province, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xia; Yang, Li-Ye; Yang, Hui-Tian; Liu, Cheng-Gui; Cao, Deng-Cheng; Shen, Wei; Yang, Hui; Zhan, Xiao-Fen; Li, Jian; Xue, Bing-Rong; Lin, Min

    2015-12-01

    Thalassemia is the most common inherited disease in southern China. However, this disorder is usually ignored by the health system in the Sichuan Province due to the lack of epidemiological data. To provide basic epidemiological data for thalassemia screening, genetic counseling, and prenatal diagnosis (PND) in the Chengdu region, a total of 3262 healthy subjects were assessed by complete blood count (CBC), reverse dot-blot gene chip, gap-polymerase chain reaction (gap-PCR), and PCR-DNA sequencing. A frequency of heterozygous thalassemia of 3.43% (112/3262) was found, of which 2.21% (72/3262) patients carried ?-thalassemia (?-thal), 1.19% (39/3262) ?-thalassemia (?-thal) and 0.3% (1/3262) hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (Hb) (HPFH)/??-thalassemia (??-thal). Four types of ?-thal mutations were found, the most prevalent being -?-(SEA) (68.06%), followed by -?(3.7) (rightward deletion, 25.0%), Hb Quong Sze (Hb QS; HBA2: c.377?T?>?C) (4.17%), and -?(4.2) (leftward deletion, 2.78%). The seven ?-thal mutations included: codons 41/42 (-TTCT), HBB: c.126_129delCTTT (13/39, 33.33%); codon 17 (A?>?T), HBB: c.52?A?>?T (11/39, 28.95%); IVS-II-654 (C?>?T), HBB: c.316-197?C?>?T (9/39, 23.68%); -28 (A?>?G), HBB: c.-78?A?>?G (3/39, 7.69%); -29 (A?>?G), HBB: c.-79?A?>?G (1/39, 2.56%); codons 27/28 (+C), HBB: c.84_85insC (1/39, 2.56%), and the rare IVS-II-850 (G?>?T), HBB: c.316-1?G?>?T (1/39, 2.56%). Only one case of the Southeast Asian HPFH deletion was found. This is the first detailed molecular epidemiological survey of thalassemia in the Chengdu region, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China (PRC). PMID:26290351

  8. Study on 3-D velocity structure of crust and upper mantle in Sichuan-yunnan region, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, C.; Mooney, W.D.; Wang, X.; Wu, J.; Lou, H.; Wang, F.

    2002-01-01

    Based on the first arrival P and S data of 4 625 regional earthquakes recorded at 174 stations dispersed in the Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces, the 3-D velocity structure of crust and upper mantle in the region is determined, incorporating with previous deep geophysical data. In the upper crust, a positive anomaly velocity zone exists in the Sichuan basin, whereas a negative anomaly velocity zone exists in the western Sichuan plateau. The boundary between the positive and negative anomaly zones is the Longmenshan fault zone. The images of lower crust and upper mantle in the Longmenshan fault, Xianshuihe fault, Honghe fault and others appear the characteristic of tectonic boundary, indicating that the faults litely penetrate the Moho discontinuity. The negative velocity anomalies at the depth of 50 km in the Tengchong volcanic area and the Panxi tectonic zone appear to be associated with the temperature and composition variations in the upper mantle. The overall features of the crustal and the upper mantle structures in the Sichuan-Yunnan region are the lower average velocity in both crust and uppermost mantle, the large crustal thickness variations, and the existence of high conductivity layer in the crust or/and upper mantle, and higher geothermal value. All these features are closely related to the collision between the Indian and the Asian plates. The crustal velocity in the Sichuan-Yunnan rhombic block generally shows normal.value or positive anomaly, while the negative anomaly exists in the area along the large strike-slip faults as the block boundary. It is conducive to the crustal block side-pressing out along the faults. In the major seismic zones, the seismicity is relative to the negative anomaly velocity. Most strong earthquakes occurred in the upper-mid crust with positive anomaly or normal velocity, where the negative anomaly zone generally exists below.

  9. A study on 3-D velocity structure of crust and upper mantle in Sichuan-Yunan region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chun-Yong; Mooney, W. D.; Wang, Xi-Li; Wu, Jian-Ping; Lou, Hai; Wang, Fei

    2002-01-01

    Based on the first arrival P and S data of 4 625 regional earthquakes recorded at 174 stations dispersed in the Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces, the 3-D velocity structure of crust and upper mantle in the region is determined, incorporating with previous deep geophysical data. In the upper crust, a positive anomaly velocity zone exists in the Sichuan basin, whereas a negative anomaly velocity zone exists in the western Sichuan plateau. The boundary between the positive and negative anomaly zones is the Longmenshan fault zone. The images of lower crust and upper mantle in the Longmenshan fault, Xianshuihe fault, Honghe fault and others show the characteristic of tectonic boundary, indicating that the faults likely penetrate the Moho discontinuity. The negative velocity anomalies at the depth of 50 km in the Tengchong volcanic area and the Panxi tectonic zone appear to be associated with the temperature and composition variations in the upper mantle. The overall features of the crustal and the upper mantle structures in the Sichuan-Yunnan region are the lower average velocity in both crust and uppermost mantle, the large crustal thickness variations, and the existence of high conductivity layer in the crust or/and upper mantle, and higher geothermal value. All these features are closely related to the collision between the India and the Asia plates. The crustal velocity in the Sichuan-Yunnan rhombic block generally shows normal value or positive anomaly, while the negative anomaly exists in the area along the large strike-slip faults as the block boundary. It is conducive to the crustal block side-pressing out along the faults. In the major seismic zones, the seismicity is relative to the negative anomaly velocity. Most strong earthquakes occurred in the upper-mid crust with positive anomaly or normal velocity, where the negative anomaly zone generally exists below.

  10. Implication of fault interaction to seismic hazard assessment in Sichuan-Yunnan provinces of southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkarlaouni, Ch; Papadimitriou, E. E.; Karakostas, V. G.; Wen, Xue-Ze; Jin, Xue-Shen; Kilias, A.; Pan, Hua; Yang, Jia-Liang

    2008-03-01

    Coulomb stress changes associated with the strong earthquakes that occurred since 1904 in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces of China are investigated. The study area comprises the most active seismic fault zones in the Chinese mainland and suffers from both strong and frequent events. The tectonic regime of this rhombic-shaped area is affected by the eastern extrusion of the Tibetan highland due to the collision of Eurasian Plate against the Indian lithospheric block along the Himalayan convergent zone. This movement is accommodated on major strike-slip intraplate fault zones that strike in an E-W direction. The gradual 90° clockwise rotation of the faults in the study area contributes to the complexity of the stress field. The seismic hazard assessment in this region is attempted by calculating the change of the Coulomb Failure Function (? CFF) arising from both the coseismic slip of strong events ( M S?6.5) and the stress built-up by continuous tectonic loading on major regional faults. At every step of the stress evolutionary model an examination of possible triggering of each next strong event is made and the model finally puts in evidence the fault segments that apt to fail in an impending strong event, thus providing future seismic hazard evaluation.

  11. Investigations of Satellite Data for Ionospheric Disturbances Associated with Sichuan, China Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Rahul; Gwal, Ashok Kumar; Sondhiya, Deepak Kumar

    In the presented paper we have statistically analyzed the ionospheric parameters to search for variations in the vicinity of large earthquake prior to event using the DEMETER (Detection of Electromagnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions) satellite data. Because as the evidences have shown that the phenomenon of ionospheric disturbances associated with large earthquakes are considered to be most promising tools for earthquake studies. We have observed these variations in the ionospheric parameters before the Sichuan, China (30.98N, 103.36E) earthquake which was occurred on May 12, 2008 with the magnitude of M = 7.9. The variations in the ionospheric parameters like ion density, electron density and electron temperature have been recorded from different onboard instruments (i.e. ISL, IAP) mounted on the DEMETER satellite. The anomalous deviations in the ion density, electron density and electron temperature have been found by the statistical results. It was concluded that variations in these parameters are due to anomalous change in atmospheric electric field during the earthquake preparation process. Keywords: Earthquake Precursors, Ionospheric Perturbations, DEMETER Satellite.

  12. Chronic health needs immediately after natural disasters in middle-income countries: the case of the 2008 Sichuan, China earthquake.

    PubMed

    Chan, Emily Y Y; Kim, Jackie

    2011-04-01

    Few studies have focused on chronic health needs immediately after natural disasters in middle-income countries. This study examines chronic medical needs during the acute phase after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in an emergency triage clinic in Sichuan, China. Information on physical, social, and public health preparedness was collected in predesigned templates. Descriptive and Pearson's ? association analyses were conducted. One hundred and eighty-two evacuees were received at the triage site. Of these, 54% required trauma treatment and 77% of evacuated patients who required care had underlying chronic medical conditions. Tetanus immunizations and the possession of chronic health medication were low, particularly among older patients. Chronic health needs constituted a significant proportion of emergency care during the acute phase in the study population. Effective post-disaster assistance requires attention to demographic and epidemiological population profiles. PMID:20679898

  13. Characteristics and genesis of the Feixianguan Formation oolitic shoal reservoir, Puguang gas field, Sichuan Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Tan, Xiucheng; Yang, Huiting; Tang, Ming; Jiang, Yiwei; Jin, Xiuju; Yu, Yang

    2015-03-01

    The Lower Triassic Feixianguan Formation at the well-known Puguang gasfield in the northeastern Sichuan Basin of southwest China produces a representative oolitic reservoir, which has been the biggest marine-sourced gasfield so far in China (discovered in 2003 with proven gas reserves greater than 350×108 m3). This study combines core, thin section, and scanning electron microscopy observations, and geochemical analysis (C, O, and Sr isotopes) in order to investigate the basic characteristics and formation mechanisms of the reservoir. Observations indicate that platform margin oolitic dolomites are the most important reservoir rocks. Porosity is dominated by intergranular and intragranular solution, and moldic pore. The dolomites are characterized by medium porosity and permeability, averaging at approximately 9% and 29.7 mD, respectively. 87Sr/86Sr (0.707536-0.707934) and ?13CPDB (1.8‰-3.5‰) isotopic values indicate that the dolomitization fluid is predominantly concentrated seawater by evaporation, and the main mechanism for the oolitic dolomite formation is seepage reflux at an early stage of eodiagenesis. Both sedimentation and diagenesis (e.g., dolomitization and dissolution) have led to the formation of high-quality rocks to different degrees. Dolomite formation may have little contribution, karst may have had both positive and negative influences, and burial dissolution-TSR (thermochemical sulfate reduction) may not impact widely. The preservation of primary intergranular pores and dissolution by meteoric or mixed waters at the early stage of eogenesis are the main influences. This study may assist oil and gas exploration activities in the Puguang area and in other areas with dolomitic reservoirs.

  14. The occurrence of synthetic musks in human breast milk in Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jie; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Naiyuan; Gao, Fudie; Wu, Yongning; Xiang, Jie; Shao, Bing

    2012-05-01

    Human breast milk samples collected from mothers (n=110) who lived in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, southwestern China in 2009 were analyzed to determine the concentrations of 13 musk compounds. Possible relationships between musk concentrations and some personal characteristics were also studied. Only five target analytes were detected in the milk samples analyzed, with median concentration values of 16.5, 11.5, 7.85, <1.5 and <1.4ngg(-1)lipid weight for AHTN (7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene), HHCB (1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[?]-2-benzopyran), HHCB-lactone (1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[?]-2-benzopyran-1-one), OTNE ([1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-2,3,8,8-tetramethylnaphthalen-2yl]ethan-1-one) and musk ketone (4-tert-butyl-2,6-dimethyl-3,5-dinitroacetophenone, MK), respectively. Mothers who reported high use of hand-cleaning agents, body-cleaning agents, shampoo and hair conditioners, hair dyes and hair gels had significantly elevated milk concentrations of HHCB whereas elevated milk concentrations of AHTN were observed among mothers reporting high use of body-cleaning agents, body lotions, shampoos, hair dyes and hair gels. Younger age showed a significantly positive effect on milk concentrations of both HHCB and AHTN whereas BMI after delivery, the number of children nursed and place of residence (urban or rural) had no significant effect. The estimated median daily intakes of synthetic musks for breast-fed infants were considerably lower than the current provisional tolerable daily intake amounts suggested for adults. PMID:22196088

  15. Evaluation of air quality in Chengdu, Sichuan Basin, China: are China's air quality standards sufficient yet?

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Jaffe, Daniel; Tang, Ya; Bresnahan, Meaghan; Song, Jie

    2015-05-01

    Air quality evaluation is important in order to inform the public about the risk level of air pollution to human health. To better assess air quality, China released its new national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS-2012) and the new method to classify air quality level (AQL) in 2012. In this study, we examined the performance of China's NAAQS-2012 and AQL classification method through applying them, the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, and the US AQL classification method to evaluate air quality in Chengdu, the largest city in southwestern China. The results show that annual mean concentrations of PM??, PM?.?, SO?, NO?, and O? at the seven urban sites were in the ranges of 138-161, 87-98, 18-32, 54-70, and 42-57 ?g/m(3), respectively, and the annual mean concentrations of CO were in the range of 1.09-1.28 mg/m(3). Chengdu is located in one of the four largest regions affected by haze in China, and PM?? and PM?.? were the top air pollutants, with annual concentrations over 2 times of their standards in NAAQS-2012 and over 7 times of the WHO guidelines. Annual mean concentrations of the pollutants were much lower at the background site (LYS) than at the urban sites, but the annual mean concentrations of PM?? and PM?.? at LYS were 3.5 and 5.7 times of the WHO guidelines, respectively. These suggest that severe air pollution in Chengdu was largely associated with local emissions but also related to regional air pollution. The compliance rates of PM?? , PM?.?, SO?, and O? met China's NAAQS-2012 standards four times more frequently than they met the WHO guidelines, as NAAQS-2012 uses the loosest interim target (IT) standards of WHO for these four pollutants. Air pollution in Chengdu was estimated and stated to be less severe using China's classification than using the US classification, as China uses weaker concentration breakpoints and benign descriptions of AQL. Furthermore, China's AQL classification method does not capture the cumulative effects of multiple pollutants, and the risk assessment is mainly based on the exposure-response relationship between air pollutant and human health quantified in the North America and West Europe; these can bring some uncertainties into evaluating the risk to human health in China. In summary, although China greatly improved its NAAQS and AQL classification method in 2012, further improvements are still needed. PMID:25877648

  16. Nitrogen isotope chemostratigraphy across the Permian-Triassic boundary at Chaotian, Sichuan, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, M.; Ueno, Y.; Nishizawa, M.; Isozaki, Y.; Takai, K.; Yao, J.; Ji, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen isotopic compositions of upper Permian to lowermost Triassic rocks were analyzed at Chaotian, Sichuan, China, to clarify changes in the oceanic N cycle around the Permian-Triassic boundary (P-TB) including the entire Changhsingian (Late Late Permian) prior to the extinction. The analyzed ca. 40 m thick interval across the P-TB at Chaotian consists of three stratigraphic units: the upper Wujiaping Formation, the Dalong Formation, and the lowermost Feixianguan Formation, in ascending order. The upper Wujiaping Formation is composed of dark gray limestone with diverse shallow-marine fossils, such as calcareous algae, deposited on the shallow shelf. In contrast, the overlying Dalong Formation, ca. 25 m thick, is mainly composed of thinly bedded black mudstone and siliceous mudstone containing abundant radiolarians, deposited on the relatively deep slope/basin. Absence of bioturbation, substantially high TOC contents, and abundant occurrence of pyrite framboids in the Dalong Formation indicate deposition under anoxic conditions. The lowermost Feixianguan Formation is composed of thinly bedded gray marl and micritic limestone with minor fossils, deposited on the relatively shallow slope. ?15N values are in positive values around +1 to +2‰ in the upper Wujiaping Formation implying denitrification and/or anammox in the ocean. ?15N values gradually decrease to -1‰ in the lower Dalong Formation and are consistently low (around 0‰) in the middle Dalong to lowermost Feixianguan Formation. No clear ?15N shift is recognized across the extinction horizon. The consistently low ?15N values suggest the enhanced N fixation in the ocean during the Changhsingian at Chaotian. Composite profiles based on previous and the present studies demonstrate the substantial ?15N variation on a global scale in the late Permian to earliest Triassic; a systematic ?15N difference by low and high latitudes is particularly clarified. Although the enhanced N fixation throughout the Changhsingian at Chaotian was likely a regional event in northwestern South China, the composite ?15N profiles imply that the sea area in which fixed N is depleted has gradually developed worldwide in the Changhsingian, possibly acting as a prolonged stress to the shallow-marine biota.

  17. Nitrogen isotope chemostratigraphy across the Permian-Triassic boundary at Chaotian, Sichuan, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Masafumi; Ueno, Yuichiro; Nishizawa, Manabu; Isozaki, Yukio; Takai, Ken; Yao, Jianxin; Ji, Zhansheng

    2014-10-01

    Nitrogen isotopic compositions of upper Permian to lowermost Triassic rocks were analyzed at Chaotian in northern Sichuan, South China, in order to clarify changes in the oceanic nitrogen cycle around the Permian-Triassic boundary (P-TB) including the entire Changhsingian (Late Late Permian) prior to the extinction. The analyzed ca. 40 m thick interval across the P-TB at Chaotian consists of three stratigraphic units: the upper Wujiaping Formation, the Dalong Formation, and the lowermost Feixianguan Formation, in ascending order. The upper Wujiaping Formation, ca. 10 m thick, is mainly composed of dark gray limestone with diverse shallow-marine fossils such as calcareous algae and brachiopods, deposited on the shallow shelf. In contrast, the overlying Dalong Formation, ca. 25 m thick, is mainly composed of thinly bedded black mudstone and siliceous mudstone containing abundant radiolarians, deposited on the relatively deep slope/basin. Absence of bioturbation, substantially high total organic carbon contents (up to 15%), and abundant occurrence of pyrite framboids in the main part of the Dalong Formation indicate deposition under anoxic condition. The lowermost Feixianguan Formation, ca. 5 m thick, is composed of thinly bedded gray marl and micritic limestone with minor fossils such as ammonoids and conodonts, deposited on the relatively shallow slope. ?15NTN values are in positive values around +1 to +2‰ in the upper Wujiaping Formation implying denitrification and/or anammox in the ocean. ?15NTN values gradually decrease to -1‰ in the lower Dalong Formation and are consistently low (around 0‰) in the middle Dalong to lowermost Feixianguan Formation. No clear ?15NTN shift is recognized across the extinction horizon. The consistently low ?15NTN values suggest the enhanced nitrogen fixation in the ocean during the Changhsingian at Chaotian. Composite profiles based on previous and the present studies demonstrate the substantial ?15N variation on a global scale in the late Permian to earliest Triassic; a systematic ?15N difference by low and high latitudes is particularly clarified. Although the enhanced nitrogen fixation throughout the Changhsingian at Chaotian was likely a regional event in northwestern South China, the composite ?15N profiles imply that the sea area in which fixed nitrogen is depleted has gradually developed worldwide in the Changhsingian, possibly acting as a prolonged stress to shallow-marine biota.

  18. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the porcine kobuvirus VP1 region using infected pigs from Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Porcine kobuvirus (PKoV) is a member of the Kobuvirus genus within the Picornaviridae family. PKoV is distributed worldwide with high prevalence in clinically healthy pigs and those with diarrhea. Methods Fecal and intestinal samples (n?=?163) from pig farms in Sichuan Province, China were obtained to determine the presence of PKoV using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. Specific primers were used for the amplification of the gene encoding the PKoV VP1 protein sequence. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to clarify evolutionary relationships with other PKoV strains. Results Approximately 53% (87/163) of pigs tested positive for PKoV. PKoV was widespread in asymptomatic pigs and those with diarrhea. A high prevalence of PKoV was observed in pigs younger than 4 weeks and in pigs with diarrhea. Phylogenetic analysis of 36 PKoV VP1 protein sequences showed that Sichuan PKoV strains formed four distinct clusters. Two pigs with diarrhea were found to be co-infected with multiple PKoV strains. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed diversity within the same host and between different hosts. Significant recombination breakpoints were observed between the CHN/SC/31-A1 and CHN/SC/31-A3 strains in the VP1 region, which were isolated from the same sample. Conclusion PKoV was endemic in Sichuan Province regardless of whether pigs were healthy or suffering from diarrhea. Based on our statistical analyses, we suggest that PKoV was the likely causative agent of high-mortality diarrhea in China from 2010. For the first time, we provide evidence for the co-existence of multiple PKoV strains in one pig, and possible recombination events in the VP1 region. Our findings provide further insights into the molecular properties of PKoV, along with its epidemiology. PMID:24025093

  19. SRAP analysis of genetic diversity of nine native populations of wild sugarcane, Saccharum spontaneum, from Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Chang, D; Yang, F Y; Yan, J J; Wu, Y Q; Bai, S Q; Liang, X Z; Zhang, Y W; Gan, Y M

    2012-01-01

    Saccharum spontaneum is a wild sugarcane species that is native to and widely distributed in China. It has been extensively used in sugarcane breeding programs, and is being tested for the development of bioenergy cultivars. In order to provide basic information for the exploitation of this species, we analyzed genetic variation among and within native S. spontaneum populations collected from Sichuan, China. Eighty plants from nine native populations were sampled. Twenty-one sequence-related amplified polymorphism primer pairs generated 235 clearly scorable bands, of which 185 were polymorphic (78.7%). Nei's genetic diversity was 0.2801 and Shannon's information index was 0.4155 across the populations. Genetic diversity parameters, G(ST) value (0.2088) and N(m) value (1.8944), showed that the genetic variation within populations was greater than that among populations. In the cluster analysis, one major grouping was formed by populations from Ya'an and another one by populations from Sichuan basin; a population from Baoxing formed a single cluster. In order to fully comprehend the genetic diversity of cold-tolerant local germplasm in this species, germplasm should be collected from the heterogeneous environments along the northern regions of this species' distribution. The germplasm that we collected should be a valuable resource for Saccharum breeding. PMID:22614352

  20. Spatio-Temporal Pattern and Socio-Economic Factors of Bacillary Dysentery at County Level in Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yue; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Lei; Lv, Qiang; Yin, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Bacillary dysentery (BD) remains a big public health problem in China. Effective spatio-temporal monitoring of BD incidence is important for successful implementation of control and prevention measures. This study aimed to examine the spatio-temporal pattern of BD and analyze socio-economic factors that may affect BD incidence in Sichuan province, China. Firstly, we used space-time scan statistic to detect the high risk spatio-temporal clusters in each year. Then, bivariate spatial correlation and Bayesian spatio-temporal model were utilized to examine the associations between the socio-economic factors and BD incidence. Spatio-temporal clusters of BD were mainly located in the northern-southern belt of the midwest area of Sichuan province. The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of rural population and the rates of BD incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. The proportion of secondary industry, proportion of tertiary Industry, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons, per capital GDP and the rate of BD incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The best fitting spatio-temporal model showed that medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and per capital GDP were significantly negative related to the risk of BD. PMID:26469274

  1. Spatio-Temporal Pattern and Socio-Economic Factors of Bacillary Dysentery at County Level in Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yue; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Lei; Lv, Qiang; Yin, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Bacillary dysentery (BD) remains a big public health problem in China. Effective spatio-temporal monitoring of BD incidence is important for successful implementation of control and prevention measures. This study aimed to examine the spatio-temporal pattern of BD and analyze socio-economic factors that may affect BD incidence in Sichuan province, China. Firstly, we used space-time scan statistic to detect the high risk spatio-temporal clusters in each year. Then, bivariate spatial correlation and Bayesian spatio-temporal model were utilized to examine the associations between the socio-economic factors and BD incidence. Spatio-temporal clusters of BD were mainly located in the northern-southern belt of the midwest area of Sichuan province. The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of rural population and the rates of BD incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. The proportion of secondary industry, proportion of tertiary Industry, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons, per capital GDP and the rate of BD incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The best fitting spatio-temporal model showed that medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and per capital GDP were significantly negative related to the risk of BD. PMID:26469274

  2. Hydrochemistry of the Hot Springs in Western Sichuan Province Related to the Wenchuan MS 8.0 Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Yi, Li; Liu, Lei; Xie, Chao; Cui, Yueju; Li, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of 32 hot springs in the western Sichuan Province after the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake was investigated by analyzing the concentrations of cation and anion and the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen. The water samples of the hot springs were collected four times from June 2008 to April 2010. Hydrogeochemical data indicated the water samples can be classified into 9 chemical types. Values of ?D and ?18O indicated that the spring waters were mainly derived from meteoric precipitation and affected by water-rock interaction and mixture of deep fluids. Concentrations of K+and SO4? of the samples from the Kangding district exhibited evident increases before the Wenchuan earthquake, indicating more supplement of deep fluids under the increase of tectonic stress. The chemical and isotopic variations of the water samples from the area closer to the epicenter area can be attributed to variation of regional stress field when the aftershock activities became weak. PMID:24892106

  3. A new species of Amara (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Zabrini) from Sichuan Province, China, with additional records for other Amara species from the region

    PubMed Central

    Hieke, Fritz; Kavanaugh, David H.; Liang, Hongbin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Amara (Bradytulus) shalulishanica Hieke & Kavanaugh, sp. n. (type locality: Haizishan Yakou, 29.47366°N, 100.21921°E, 4623 m, Shalulishan, Zhuosang Township, Litang County, Sichuan Province, China) is described and diagnosed. Additional records are provided for 16 other Amara species, each of which represents one of five different geographical distribution types, which are discussed. PMID:23378815

  4. Regional location in western China

    SciTech Connect

    Cogbill, A.H.; Steck, L.K.

    1996-10-01

    Accurately locating seismic events in western China using only regional seismic stations is a challenge. Not only is the number of seismic stations available for locating events small, but most stations available to researchers are often over 10{degree} distant. Here the authors describe the relocation, using regional stations, of both nuclear and earthquake sources near the Lop Nor test site in western China. For such relocations, they used the Earthquake Data Reports provided by the US Geological Survey (USGS) for the reported travel times. Such reports provide a listing of all phases reported to the USGS from stations throughout the world, including many stations in the People`s Republic of China. LocSAT was used as the location code. The authors systematically relocated each event int his study several times, using fewer and fewer stations at reach relocation, with the farther stations being eliminated at each step. They found that location accuracy, judged by comparing solutions from few stations to the solution provided using all available stations, remained good typically until fewer than seven stations remained.With a good station distribution, location accuracy remained surprisingly good (within 7 km) using as few as 3 stations. Because these relocations were computed without good station corrections and without source-specific station corrections (that is, path corrections), they believe that such regional locations can be substantially improved, largely using static station corrections and source-specific station corrections, at least in the Lop nor area, where sources have known locations. Elsewhere in China, one must rely upon known locations of regionally-recorded explosions. Locating such sources is clearly one of the major problems to be overcome before one can provide event locations with any assurance from regional stations.

  5. Glacial cycles and Palaeolithic adaptive variability on China's Western Loess

    E-print Network

    Research Glacial cycles and Palaeolithic adaptive variability on China's Western Loess Plateau on China's Western Loess Plateau has located 63 Palaeolithic deposits, which together allow the authors cycles and Palaeolithic adaptive variability on China's Western Loess Plateau the way cultural

  6. Problems of Ecological Environment in Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenjuan, Zhang; Jixi, Gao

    2004-01-01

    Western China is vast, expansive, sparsely populated, and economically underdeveloped, but it plays an important role in economic and social development in China. While the west is a crucial base of power resources, it is also rich in fauna and flora resources and the major habitat for China's many rare wildlife species. Therefore, protecting its…

  7. Relationship Between Heat Flows and Geological Structures in the Sichuan Basin, P.R. China

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Y.; Yu, H.; Wang, X.

    1995-01-01

    Based on an extensive data collection and analysis, this research has provided reliable representations of the features of the geothermal fields, their heat flow, and relationships with geological structures in the Sichuan Basin. The isotherms below a depth of 1,000 m show high values in the Central Uplift and the Southwest Uplift, and low values in the Northwest and Southeast Depressions. These features probably indicate undulation of crystalline basement and structural depression. At depths greater than 3,000 m, the isotherms tend to become simpler and regionalized. The mean heat flow in the basin is 69.1 mW/m{sup 2}. In the Central Uplift, the Northwest Depression and the East of the basin, heat-flow values range from 58.6 to 71.2 mW/m{sup 2}, with a mean value of 66.1 mWE/m{sup 2}. In the south and southwest, it varies from 76.6 to 100.5 mW/m{sup 2}, with a mean value of 86.2 mW/m{sup 2}. High heat-flow values occur within the uplift of the crystalline basement in the southwest Sichuan, and the heat flow decreases from the south, through the central area, to the northwest.

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of HCV subgenotypes in patients from Sichuan province in China based on the NS5B region

    PubMed Central

    NIE, BIN; ZHANG, GUANGJIONG; GUO, YONGCAN; LI, QINGFENG; LIU, JINBO; TU, ZHIGUANG

    2015-01-01

    The classification of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes is of clinical importance as it may help to predict drug therapy responses and estimate treatment duration. The classical method of HCV subgenotype classification is whole genome sequencing (WGS). However, the high cost and time-consuming nature of WGS limits its usage in clinical practice. A number of studies have been conducted to confirm whether specific regions of HCV could replace WGS in the classification of HCV subgenotypes. In the present study, we used the HCV database to select HCV sequences from different countries. The neighbor-joining method was used to construct phylogenetic trees based on different regions of HCV (core, E1, E2 and NS5B), to confirm which region could replace WGS in subgenotype classification. Our results indicated that the core, E1 and E2 regions could not be used to classify the HCV subgenotype correctly (core failed to recognize subgenotypes c and a, E1 failed to discriminate between subgenotypes a and b, and E2 failed to identify subgenotypes a and c). The NS5B region provided the correct subgenotype classification. The HCV samples (n=153) collected from patients in Sichuan province, (Southwest China) were sequenced and classified based on the NS5B region. The results indicated that the major subgenotype of HCV in patients from Sichuan was 1b (51.6%, n=79); other subgenotypes included 3b (30.1%, n=46), 3a (7.8%, n=12), 6a (8.5%, n=13), 2a (n=2) and 6n (n=1). The data from our analysis may prove to be helpful in future epidemiological investigations of HCV, and may aid in the prevention and clinical treatment of HCV. PMID:26311523

  9. Lineage distribution and E2 sequence variation of high-risk human papillomavirus types isolated from patients with cervical cancer in Sichuan province, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haijing; Wu, Enqi; Ma, Lin; Zhang, Guonan; Shi, Yu; Huang, Jianming; Zha, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    To explore the nucleotide sequence variability of the E2 gene in high-risk HPV types in cervical cancer patients from Sichuan province, China, the E2 genes of eight high-risk HPV types were amplified and sequenced. Several novel nucleotide substitutions and deletions were observed. The lineages to which the isolates belonged were determined by phylogenetic analysis, employing the sequence of the representative lineages/sublineages in the coherent classification and nomenclature system as references. This study updates the lineage distribution data on high-risk HPV types in Southwest China and helps broaden understanding of the polymorphism of the E2 gene. PMID:26303138

  10. Symbiotic effectiveness and phylogeny of rhizobia isolated from faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in Sichuan hilly areas, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kai Wei; Zou, Lan; Penttinen, Petri; Wang, Ke; Heng, Nan Nan; Zhang, Xiao Ping; Chen, Qiang; Zhao, Ke; Chen, Yuan Xue

    2015-10-01

    A total of 54 rhizobial strains were isolated from faba bean root nodules in 21 counties of Sichuan hilly areas in China, and their symbiotic effectiveness, genetic diversity and phylogeny were assessed. Only six strains increased the shoot dry mass of the host plant significantly (P?0.05). Based on the cluster analysis of combined 16S rDNA and intergenic spacer region (IGS) PCR-RFLP, the strains were divided into 31 genotypes in 11 groups, indicating a high degree of genetic diversity among the strains. The sequence analysis of three housekeeping genes (atpD, glnII and recA) and 16S rDNA indicated that the strains represented two R. leguminosarum, two Rhizobium spp., R. mesosinicum, Agrobacterium sp. and A. tumefaciens. The strains representing four Rhizobium species were divided into two distinct nodC and nifH genotypes. However, the phylogeny of housekeeping genes and symbiotic genes was not congruent, implying that the strains had been shaped by vertical evolution of the housekeeping genes and lateral evolution of the symbiotic genes. PMID:26242694

  11. Observation of elevated fungal tracers due to biomass burning in the Sichuan Basin at Chengdu City, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yihong; Chan, Chuen-yu; Tao, Jun; Lin, Mang; Engling, Guenter; Zhang, Zhisheng; Zhang, Ting; Su, Lin

    2012-08-01

    Fungal material (i.e., spores and fragments) is an important component of atmospheric aerosols. In order to examine the variability of fungal abundance in fine particles (PM(2.5)) during a biomass burning season, an intensive measurement campaign was conducted in the Sichuan Basin at Chengdu, a megacity in southwest China, in spring 2009. The aerosol samples were analyzed for carbonaceous species, including molecular tracers for biomass burning and fungal material, and water soluble ions. The results were interpreted with the help of principle component analysis, fire count maps, and the WRF model. Elevated concentrations of arabitol and mannitol were found with average concentrations of 21.5±16.6 ng m(-3) and 43.9±19.3 ng m(-3), respectively, which were unexpectedly higher than those measured in fine particles in any other study reported previously. Even higher concentrations were observed in cases with simultaneous enhancements in the biomass burning tracers levoglucosan and K(+). In the case of influence by pollution plumes from biomass burning regions, the fungal tracer concentrations reached maximum values of 79.6 ng m(-3) and 121.8 ng m(-3), coinciding with peak levels of levoglucosan and K(+). Statistically significant correlations were found between the simultaneously observed fungal tracers (arabitol and mannitol) and biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan and K(+)), suggesting that these species were emitted by co-located sources, and hence the elevated fungal tracers were likely associated with biomass burning activities. PMID:22664540

  12. Research on Meteorological Features of PBL during Heavy Haze Episodes in the City of Chengdu, Sichuan Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, X.; Han, L.

    2014-12-01

    Sichuan basin is one of the areas that have the most serious haze in China. To understand how wind, temperature ,relative humidity and PHLH influence air pollution, WRF was used to simulate the meteorological condition of PBL during two heavy haze episodes in 2013. Combined with the local meteorological data and air pollution data, the analysis shows that cyclone is caused by the terrain of basin often. Air pollutants are limited in the basin and accumulate periodically. The concentration of O3 is significantly correlated with temperature while negatively correlated with relative humidity. There are significant negative correlations between the pollutants concentrations and the height of PBL. During the episode from 2nd to 23th March?the highest daily concentration of PM2.5 was 270ug/m3. The relativity between PM2.5 and O3 is lower than normal because of the dust storm. The correlation coefficients between O3 and temperature and relative humidity are 0.756 and -0.735, respectively. The dominant wind direction is south-west through the PBL. During the episode from 10th to 22nd April, the highest daily concentration of PM2.5 was 158ug/m3. The correlation coefficients between O3 and PM2.5, temperature, and relative humidity are 0.516, 0.825, -797, respectively. The dominant wind direction was south-west through PBL.

  13. Factors Associated with Resilience of Adult Survivors Five Years after the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake in China

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Cuiping; Chow, Meyrick Chum Ming; Jiang, Xiaolian; Li, Sijian; Pang, Samantha Mei Che

    2015-01-01

    Given the paucity of quantitative empirical research on survivors’ resilience and its predictors in the context of long-term recovery after disasters, we examined how resilience predictors differed by gender among adult survivors five years after the Sichuan earthquake. This was a cross-sectional survey study of adult survivors (N = 495; aged 18–60) living in reconstructed communities five years into the recovery process after the Wenchuan earthquake. The instruments we used included assessments of sociodemographic characteristics and earthquake exposure level, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and the Social Support Rating Scale. Support-seeking behaviors emerged as a significant predictor of male survivors’ resilience, while subjective support and marital status were found to be predictors of female survivors’ resilience. Annual household income and chronic disease were predictors for both male and female groups. The findings of this study can be used in devising methods to boost survivors’ resilience by promoting their satisfaction with social support and their ability to obtain effective support. Additionally, the results suggest how to assist survivors who may have relatively poor resilience. PMID:25811775

  14. Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak associated with a contaminated food container in a school in Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, L G; Zhou, X Y; Lan, Z; Li, L; Li, Z; Chen, W; Wang, J Y; Zhang, L J

    2016-01-01

    On 13 June 2013, a fever and diarrhoea outbreak occurred in a boarding school in Sichuan Province. We conducted a field investigation and compared food exposure of 81 case students and 104 control students (years 7 and 8) in order to identify the source of infection. There were 401 cases identified (399 students and two cooks). The attack rates were 23-46% in nursery, primary, and secondary schools, but 0% in the high school. Eighty-five percent of case students, consumed cowpea salad compared to 60% of control students at lunch on 12 June (odds ratio 3·1, 95% confidence interval 1·3-7·8). The cowpeas were stored at room temperature for 3 h in a bucket previously used to store raw ingredients. The bucket was cleaned using water without a disinfectant. There were two buckets of cowpea, one for the high-school students and another for the other students. This Salmonella outbreak was likely caused by the cowpea salad due to cross-contamination via a storage bucket. PMID:26119077

  15. Generation of isotopically and compositionally distinct water during thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) in carbonate reservoirs: Triassic Feixianguan Formation, Sichuan Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lei; Worden, Richard H.; Cai, Chunfang

    2015-09-01

    Thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR), the reaction of petroleum with anhydrite in reservoirs resulting in the growth of calcite and the accumulation of H2S, has been documented in the Feixianguan Formation dolomite reservoir in the Sichuan Basin, China. Fluid inclusion salinity and homogenization temperature data have shown that TSR results in a decrease in salinity from a pre-TSR value of 25 wt.% down to 5 wt.% as a result of water created as a byproduct of progressive TSR. We have studied the isotopic character of the water that resulted from TSR in the Feixianguan Formation by analyzing the oxygen isotopes of TSR calcite and determining the oxygen isotopes of the water in equilibrium with the TSR calcite at the temperatures determined by aqueous fluid inclusion analysis. We have compared these TSR-waters to water that would have been in equilibrium with the bulk rock, also at the temperatures determined by aqueous fluid inclusion analysis. We have found that the TSR-waters are relatively depleted in oxygen isotopes (by up to 8‰ compared to what would be expected at equilibrium between the bulk rock and water) since this type of water was specifically derived from anhydrite. The generation of relatively large volumes of low salinity, low ?18O water associated with advanced TSR in the Feixianguan Formation has also been reported in the Permian Khuff Formation in Abu Dhabi and from sour Devonian fields in the Western Canada Basin. This suggests that TSR-derived water may be a common phenomenon, the effects of which on mesogenetic secondary porosity and reservoir quality have previously been underappreciated.

  16. Predicting the incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease in Sichuan province, China using the ARIMA model.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Luan, R S; Yin, F; Zhu, X P; Lü, Q

    2016-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is an infectious disease caused by enteroviruses, which usually occurs in children aged <5 years. In China, the HFMD situation is worsening, with increasing number of cases nationwide. Therefore, monitoring and predicting HFMD incidence are urgently needed to make control measures more effective. In this study, we applied an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model to forecast HFMD incidence in Sichuan province, China. HFMD infection data from January 2010 to June 2014 were used to fit the ARIMA model. The coefficient of determination (R 2), normalized Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) and mean absolute percentage of error (MAPE) were used to evaluate the goodness-of-fit of the constructed models. The fitted ARIMA model was applied to forecast the incidence of HMFD from April to June 2014. The goodness-of-fit test generated the optimum general multiplicative seasonal ARIMA (1,0,1) × (0,1,0)12 model (R 2 = 0·692, MAPE = 15·982, BIC = 5·265), which also showed non-significant autocorrelations in the residuals of the model (P = 0·893). The forecast incidence values of the ARIMA (1,0,1) × (0,1,0)12 model from July to December 2014 were 4103-9987, which were proximate forecasts. The ARIMA model could be applied to forecast HMFD incidence trend and provide support for HMFD prevention and control. Further observations should be carried out continually into the time sequence, and the parameters of the models could be adjusted because HMFD incidence will not be absolutely stationary in the future. PMID:26027606

  17. Distribution and features of landslides induced by the 2008 Wengchuan Earthquake, Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigira, M.; Xiyong, W.; Inokuchi, T.; Gonghui, W.

    2009-04-01

    2008 Sichuan earthquake with a magnitude of Mw 7.9 induced numerous mass movements around the fault surface ruptures of which maximum separations we observed were 3.6 m vertical and 1.5 m horizontal (right lateral). The affected area was mountainous areas with elevations from 1000 m to 4500 m on the west of the Sichuan Basin. The NE-trending Longmenshan fault zone runs along the boundary between the mountains on the west and the Sichuan basin (He and Tsukuda, 2003), of which Yinghsiuwan-Beichuan fault was the main fault that generated the 2008 earthquake (Xu, 2008). The basement rocks of the mountainous areas range from Precambrian to Cretaceous in age. They are basaltic rocks, granite, phyllite, dolostone, limestone, alternating beds of sandstone and shale, etc. There were several types of landslides ranging from small, shallow rockslide, rockfall, debris slide, deep rockslide, and debris flows. Shallow rockslide, rock fall, and debris slide were most common and occurred on convex slopes or ridge tops. When we approached the epicentral area, first appearing landslides were of this type and the most conspicuous was a failure of isolated ridge-tops, where earthquake shaking would be amplified. As for rock types, slopes of granitic rocks, hornfels, and carbonate rocks failed in wide areas to the most. They are generally hard and their fragments apparently collided and repelled to each other and detached from the slopes. Alternating beds of sandstone and mudstone failed on many slopes near the fault ruptures, including Yinghsiuwan near the epicenter. Many rockfalls occurred on cliffs, which had taluses on their feet. The fallen rocks tumbled down and mostly stopped within the talus surfaces, which is quite reasonable because taluses generally develop by this kind of processes. Many rockslides occurred on slopes of carbonate rocks, in which dolostone or dolomitic limestone prevails. Deep-seated rockslide occurred on outfacing slopes and shallow rockslide and rockfall occurred on infacing slopes. Infacing slopes generally are steeper than outfacing slopes and hence surface rocks on infacing slopes tend to be loosened by gravity. Detachment surfaces of carbonate rocks are generally not smooth surfaces but are rough surfaces with dimple-like depressions, which are made by dissolution of these rocks. This feature is one of the most important causes to induce landslide in carbonate rocks. Many gravitational deformations were observed on phyllite slopes. Landslides on the west of Beichuan city is probably of weathered phyllite, which had been preceded by gravitational deformation beforehand. Taochishan landslide in Beichuan occurred on probable outfacing slope of phyllite. The Formosat II images on Google earth indicated that this landslide was also preceded by gravitational deformation, which appeared as spur-crossing depressions with upslope-convex traces on plan. Satellite images indicated that some landslides had long lobate forms, suggesting that they were flow. One of them was Shechadientsu landslide 34 km northeast of Dujiangyan, occurring across the probable earthquake fault rupture. It was 1.5 km long with a maximum width of 250 m and an apparent friction angle of 22°. The top of this landslide area was a steep cliff of Precambrian granite, which failed to go down a small valley. The volume of the slope failure was estimated much less than the volume of the deposit. The small valley had sporadic patches of bedrock consisting of alternating beds of sandstone and mudstone of Triassic in age. The bedrock was covered by bluish grey, clayey, water-saturated debris, which was not disturbed and in turn covered by water-saturated brownish debris with rubbles. The landslide deposits had wrinkles on the surface and streaks of same color rock fragments. In addition, cross section near the distal part had clearly defined reverse grading, in which larger rubbles with a maximum diameter of 5 m concentrated at the surface part. These characteristics strongly suggest that valley-fill sediments mobilized by the earthquake and flowed down

  18. Paleogeothermal record of the Emeishan mantle plume: evidences from borehole Ro data in the Sichuan basin, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Emeishan basalt province located in the southwest of China is widely accepted to be a result of the eruption of a mantle plume at the time of middle-late Permian. If it was a mantle plume, the ambient sedimentary rocks must be heated up during the development of the mantle plume and this thermal effect must be recorded by some geothermometers in the country rocks. The vitrinite reflectance (Ro) data as a maximum paleotemperature recorder from boreholes in Sichuan basin was employed to expose the thermal regime related to the proposed Emeishan mantle plume. The Ro profiles from boreholes which drilled close to the Emeishan basalts shows a ';dog-leg' (break) style at the unconformity between the middle and the upper Permian, and the Ro profiles in the lower subsection (pre-middle Permian) shows a significantly higher slopes (gradients) than those in the upper subsection. In contrast, those Ro profiles from boreholes far away from the center of the basalt province have no break at the uncomformity. Based on the chemical kinetic model of Ro, the paleo-temperature gradients for the upper and the lower subsections in different boreholes, as well as the erosion at the unconformity between the middle and the upper Permian, were reconstructed to reveal the variations of the temperature gradients and erosion thickness with geological time and space. Both the thermal regime and the erosion thickness together with their spatial variation (structure) provide strong geothermal evidence for the existence of the Emeishan mantle plume in the middle-late Permian.

  19. Permian to Late Triassic evolution of the Longmen Shan Foreland Basin (Western Sichuan): Model results from both the lithospheric extension and flexure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lijuan

    2014-10-01

    The lithosphere was extended during the Permian-Middle Triassic in the Yangtze Craton where the Sichuan Basin located, and then bent due to thrusting of the Longmen Shan orogen, leading to formation of the Longmen Shan Foreland Basin (Western Sichuan) during the Late Triassic Indosinian orogeny. The lateral variation of the lithospheric strength resulted by former differential extension would inevitably influence the subsequent evolution of the foreland basin. In order to investigate this, both extensional and flexural models were applied in modeling Permian-Late Triassic basin evolution. A 2D kinematic extensional model was initially developed along a profile crossing the Yangtze Craton to simulate the lithospheric thermal evolution during the Permian-Middle Triassic. Based on the thermal results, the thermal-rheological structure, as well as the effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere (Te), was then determined. Extension model show that the stretching factors decrease gradually from Songpan-Ganzi to the Sichuan Basin, leading to variable thermal-rheological structure and increased Te from west to east. Taking into account of the Te variation, a flexural model was finally constructed to investigate the evolution of the Longmen Shan Foreland Basin during the Late Triassic spanning the time period c. 227-206 Ma. Three episodes were divided according to the corresponding tectonostratigraphic units. By matching the stratigraphic observations, three phase advance distances eastward of the Longmen Shan along the Qingchuan-Maowen Fault turned out to be 18, 22, and 18 km. It implied a slow and similar thrust advance rate of 3.6 (c.227-222 Ma), 2.2 (c.222-212 Ma), and 3 mm/yr (c.212-206 Ma), respectively.

  20. Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haoyue; Stiller, Caroline K.; Scherbaum, Veronika; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Wang, Qi; Hormann, Elizabeth; Bellows, Anne C.

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected) in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19–42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) within the normal range (18.5 ? BMI < 25), 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas), while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ?30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs) the women’s overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%), was low in carbohydrates (49.6%), and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%). Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI) fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%), fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%), protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%), vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%), Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%), Fe (56.3% vs. 48%), Ca (55.1% vs. 41%) and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%). The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80%) than in urban (65.1%) areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both urban and rural women. The prevalence of underweight before conception and an insufficient supply of important micronutrients were more pronounced in rural areas. Therefore, attention must be given to the nutritional status, especially of rural women before, or at the latest, during pregnancy. PMID:23912325

  1. Internal structure of Longmenshan fault zone at Hongkou outcrop, Sichuan, China, that caused the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togo, Tetsuhiro; Shimamoto, Toshihiko; Ma, Shengli; Wen, Xueze; He, Honglin

    2011-06-01

    This paper reports the internal structures of the Beichuan fault zone of Longmenshan fault system that caused the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, at an outcrop in Hongkou, Sichuan province, China. Present work is a part of comprehensive project of Institute of Geology, China Earthquake Administration, trying to understand deformation processes in Longmenshan fault zones and eventually to reproduce Wenchuan earthquake by modeling based on measured mechanical and transport properties. Outcrop studies could be integrated with those performed on samples recovered from fault zone drilling, during the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling (WFSD) Project, to understand along-fault and depth variation of fault zone properties. The hanging wall side of the fault zone consists of weakly-foliated, clayey fault gouge of about 1 m in width and of several fault breccia zones of 30-40 m in total width. We could not find any pseudotachylite at this outcrop. Displacement during the Wenchuan earthquake is highly localized within the fault gouge layer along narrower slipping-zones of about 10 to 20 mm in width. This is an important constraint for analyzing thermal pressurization, an important dynamic weakening mechanism of faults. Overlapping patterns of striations on slickenside surface suggest that seismic slip at a given time occurred in even narrower zone of a few to several millimeters, so that localization of deformation must have occurred within a slipping zone during coseismic fault motion. Fault breccia zones are bounded by thin black gouge layers containing amorphous carbon. Fault gouge contains illite and chlorite minerals, but not smectite. Clayey fault gouge next to coseismic slipping zone also contains amorphous carbon and small amounts of graphite. The structural observations and mineralogical data obtained from outcrop exposures of the fault zone of the Wenchuan earthquake can be compared with those obtained from the WFSD-1 and WFSD-2 boreholes, which have been drilled very close to the Hongkou outcrop. The presence of carbon and graphite, observed next to the slipping-zone, may affect the mechanical properties of the fault and also provide useful information about coseismic chemical changes.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of canine parvovirus isolates from Sichuan and Gansu provinces of China in 2011.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Guo, H-C; Wei, Y-Q; Shu, L; Wang, J; Li, J-S; Cao, S-Z; Sun, S-Q

    2015-02-01

    Canine parvovirus causes serious disease in dogs. Study of the genetic variation in emerging CPV strains is important for disease control strategy. The antigenic property of CPV is connected with specific amino acid changes, mainly in the capsid protein VP2. This study was carried out to characterize VP2 gene of CPV viruses from two provinces of China in 2011. The complete VP2 genes of the CPV-positive samples were amplified and sequenced. Genetic analysis based on the VP2 genes of CPV was conducted. All of the isolates screened and sequenced in this study were typed as CPV-2a except GS-K11 strain, which was typed as CPV-2b. Sequence comparison showed nucleotide identities of 98.8-100% among CPV strains, whereas the Aa similarities were 99.6-100%. Compared with the reference strains, there are three distinctive amino acid changes at VP2 gene residue 267, 324 and 440 of the strains isolated in this study. Of the 27 strains, fourteen (51.85%) had the 267 (Phe-Tyr) and 440 (Thr-Ala) substitution, all the 27 (100%) had 324 (Tyr-Ile) substitution. Phylogenetically, all of the strains isolated in this study formed a major monophyletic cluster together with one South Korean isolate, two Thailand isolates and four Chinese former isolates. PMID:23506473

  3. Study on Auto-Classification and Integration of Multi-Source Data with RS and GIS in Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Liqing; Sun, Jiulin; Zhang, Jie

    western parts of the country, and chose RS integrated GIS as the main tool to accomplish the task to learn the real ecological conditions of the West. Thus the problems about how to make best use of RS and GIS to deal with the great amount of data collected with them have to be resolved first. And the paper tries to do some study on the topic. geographic information system (GIS) and other related techniques, the paper studies the methodology and related technology of application of RS and GIS in the area with high altitude and complex terrain. With a case study of the Western Sichuan Province, China, the paper gives a detailed discussion on how to apply and integrate the techniques to the research of dynamic of vegetation. (1)New methods how to integrate multi-source data, including dynamic visualized 3D model of (2)Some auto-classification and integration results of the vegetation in the Western Sichuan techniques, the paper brings up a new method of application of RS and GIS to the research of the Western China, and achieves important results. But there are still some problems that have to be solved in the future and we can't do well now because of time and other factors, such as more application of 3D model in geo-analysis fields, construction of the visualized analyzing system and so on. Key words: data integration,auto-classification,three dimension(3D) model of landscape,visualized analyzing system,the Western China.

  4. Genetic processes and environmental significance of Lower Devonian brachiopod shell concentrations in Longmenshan area, Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fengjie; Qu, Xuelin; Du, Lingchun; Dai, Tingyong; Yang, Yuchuan; Li, Junwu; Yang, Chengjin

    2016-01-01

    The distinctive features of the Lower Devonian rocks of the Longmenshan area in southwestern China are brachiopod shell concentrations, especially in the Bailiuping, Ganxi and Xiejiawan Formations, where brachiopod shell concentrations occur widely throughout. Depending on the dominant skeletal elements, six types of shell concentrations can be distinguished: Protochonete, Acrospirifer, Howellella, Orientospirifer, polyspecific shell and polyspecific fragments concentrations. According to the shell features, taphonomic signature, host sediments and their relationships, four genetic models of the various shell concentrations are described in this paper. The genetic processes and distributions along an onshore-offshore area were clarified on the base of taphonomic analysis. Pavements of opportunistic species of Protochonetes are autochthonous assemblages living in quieter, deeper, more offshore waters near the maximum storm wave base. The pavements are the result of reduced sedimentation; the substrate was silty and water-saturated with variable turbidity soupy-mud. Transport by high-energy processes is interpreted as the final formation process of polyspecific fragments concentrations with most extensive scope from intertidal zone to the maximum storm wave base. The Acrospirifer, Howellella, and Orientospirifer concentrations have been stirred by storm wave action and quickly buried after short transport tempestite model. They are most easily preserved around the average storm wave-base. The polyspecific shell concentrations, which include large bivalves are autochthonous assemblages living in shallow and relatively quieter water near shore environments. Autochthonous assemblages of the opportunist Protochonetes bailiupingensis occurring in the Bailiuping Formation of the Longmenshan area not only record of storm events, but are also important features to identify and correlate the Bailiuping Formation in the field.

  5. Spatio-temporal modeling with GIS and remote sensing for schistosomiasis control in Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bing

    Schistosomiasis is a water-borne parasitic disease endemic in tropical and subtropical areas. Its transmission requires certain kind of snail as the intermediate host. Some efforts have been made to mapping snail habitats with remote sensing and schistosomiasis transmission modeling. However, the modeling is limited to isolated residential groups and does not include spatial interaction among those groups. Remotely sensed data are only used in snail habitat classification, not in estimation of snail abundance that is an important parameter in schistosomiasis transmission modeling. This research overcomes the above two problems using innovative geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing technology. A mountainous environment near Xichang, China, is chosen as the test site. Environmental and epidemiological data are stored in a GIS to support modeling. Snail abundance is estimated from land-cover and land-use fractions derived from high spatial resolution IKONOS satellite data. Spatial interaction is determined in consideration of neighborhoods, group areas, relative slopes among groups, and natural barriers. Land-cover and land-use information extracted from 4 m high resolution IKONOS data is used as reference in scaling up to the regional level. The scale-up is done with coarser resolution satellite data including Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), EO-1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Hyperion data all at 30 m resolution. Snail abundance is estimated by regressing snail survey data with land-cover and land-use fractions. An R2 of 0.87 is obtained between the average snail density predicted and that surveyed at the group level. With such a model, a snail density map is generated for all residential groups in the study area. A spatio-temporal model of schistosomiasis transmission is finally built to incorporate the spatial interaction caused by miracidia and cercaria migration. Comparing the model results with and without spatial interaction has revealed a number of advantages of the spatio-temporal model. Particularly, with the inclusion of spatial interaction, more effective control of schistosomiasis transmission over the whole study area can be achieved.

  6. Rapid sea-level change in the Late Guadalupian (Permian) on the Tethyan side of South China: litho- and biostratigraphy of the Chaotian section in Sichuan

    PubMed Central

    Isozaki, Yukio; Yao, Jianxin; Ji, Zhangshen; Saitoh, Masafumi; Kobayashi, Noritada; Sakai, Harutaka

    2008-01-01

    The Capitanian (Late Guadalupian) Maokou Formation at Chaotian in northern Sichuan, South China, is composed mainly of shallow marine shelf carbonates deposited on the Tethyan side of South China. By detailed field mapping and scientific drilling, we newly found out unique fossil assemblages and a sharp lithologic change in the upper part of the Maokou Formation. The main part of the Maokou Formation (over 130 m thick) is composed of algal packstone with Wordian-Capitanian large-tested fusulines, rugose corals and other sessile benthos, whereas the Uppermost Member (13 m thick) is composed of black limy mudstone/chert with Capitanian offshore biota (ammonoids, radiolarians, and conodonts). The topmost Capitanian conodont zones are missing; however, the Maokou Formation is disconformably overlain by 260 ± 4 Ma volcanic ash (Wangpo bed) and the Early Lopingian Wujiaping Formation with plant-bearing coaly mudstone and shallow marine carbonates (packstone). The newly identified facies change indicates that northern Sichuan has experienced rapid sea-level changes in the late Guadalupian, i.e., first a transgression in the mid-Capitanian and then a regression across the Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary. As the end-Guadalupian is characterized by a global regression, such a volatile sea-level fluctuation, in particular the sea-level rise, is unique to the Tethyan side of South China. The newly recognized relatively deep-water late Guadalupian sequence adds new paleo-environmental information and further provides a paleotectonic interpretation of the low-latitude eastern Tethyan margin immediately before the end-Guadalupian mass extinction. PMID:18941307

  7. Spatio-temporal clustering of hand, foot and mouth disease at the county level in Sichuan province, China, 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Zhao, X; Yin, F; Lv, Q

    2015-03-01

    China has recently experienced a marked increase in the incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Effective spatio-temporal monitoring of HFMD incidence is important for successful implementation of control and prevention measures. This study monitored county-level HFMD reported incidence rates for Sichuan province, China by examining spatio-temporal patterns. County-level data on HFMD daily cases between January 2008 and December 2013 were obtained from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. We first conducted purely temporal and purely spatial descriptive analyses to characterize the distribution patterns of HFMD. Then, the global Moran's I statistic and space-time scan statistic were used to detect the spatial autocorrelation and identify the high-risk clusters in each year, respectively. A total of 212267 HFMD cases were reported in Sichuan province during the study period (annual average incidence 43·65/100000), and the incidence seasonal peak was between April and July. Relatively high incidence rates appeared in the northeastern-southwestern belt. HFMD had positive spatial autocorrelation at the county level with global Moran's I increasing from 0·27 to 0·52 (P < 0·001). Spatio-temporal cluster analysis detected six most-likely clusters and several secondary clusters from 2008 to 2013. The centres of the six most-likely clusters were all located in the provincial capital city Chengdu. Chengdu and its neighbouring cities had always been spatio-temporal clusters, which indicated the need for further intensive space-time surveillance. Allocating more resources to these areas at suitable times might help to reduce HFMD incidence more effectively. PMID:25703402

  8. An Outbreak of Type ? Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus in Sichuan Province, China: Emergence and Circulation in an Under-Immunized Population

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Chun-Xiang; Liu, Qing-Lian; Hao, Li-Xin; Liu, Yu; Zheng, Jing-Shan; Qin, Zhi-Ying; Xia, Wei; Zhang, Shi-Yue; Yin, Zun-Dong; Jing, Qiong; Zhang, Yan-Xia; Huang, Rong-Na; Yang, Ru-Pei; Tong, Wen-Bin; Qi, Qi; Guan, Xu-Jing; Jing, Yu-Lin; Ma, Qian-Li; Wang, Jin; Ma, Xiao-Zhen; Chen, Na; Zheng, Hong-Ru; Li, Yin-Qiao; Ma, Chao; Su, Qi-Ru; Reilly, Kathleen H.; Luo, Hui-Ming; Wu, Xian-Ping; Wen, Ning; Yang, Wei-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Background During August 2011–February 2012, an outbreak of type ? circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPVs) occurred in Sichuan Province, China. Methods A field investigation of the outbreak was conducted to characterize outbreak isolates and to guide emergency response. Sequence analysis of poliovirus capsid protein VP1 was performed to determine the viral propagation, and a coverage survey was carried out for risk assessment. Results One clinical compatible polio case and three VDPV cases were determined in Ngawa County, Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province. Case patients were unimmunized children, 0.8–1 years old. Genetic sequencing showed that the isolates diverged from the VP1 region of the type ? Sabin strain by 5–12 nucleotides (nt) and shared the same 5 nt VP1 substitutions, which indicate single lineage of cVDPVs. Of the 7 acute flaccid paralysis cases (all>6 months) reported in Ngawa Prefecture in 2011, 4 (57.1%) cases (including 2 polio cases) did not receive oral attenuated poliovirus vaccine. Supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) were conducted in February–May, 2012, and the strain has not been isolated since. Conclusion High coverage of routine immunization should be maintained among children until WPV transmission is globally eradicated. Risk assessments should be conducted regularly to pinpoint high risk areas or subpopulations, with SIAs developed if necessary. PMID:25503964

  9. Diagenesis of clay minerals and K-bentonites in Late Permian/Early Triassic sediments of the Sichuan Basin (Chaotian section, Central China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deconinck, J. F.; Crasquin, S.; Bruneau, L.; Pellenard, P.; Baudin, F.; Feng, Q.

    2014-02-01

    Detailed clay mineralogical analyses were carried out on Late Permian/Early Triassic carbonate sediments exposed on the Chaotian section (Sichuan Basin, Central China). The clay assemblages are dominantly composed of illite in platform carbonates and clay seams, and illite-smectite mixed-layers (I/S) in tuff layers (K-bentonites) intercalated in the carbonate succession. Detrital and authigenic volcanogenic clay minerals have been partially replaced through illitisation processes during burial, raising questions about diagenetic effects. The precise determination of I/S occurring in K-bentonites shows that the sediments reached a temperature of about 180 °C, which is consistent with (1) previous estimates based on fluid-inclusion homogenisation temperature analysis, (2) the burial depth of the sedimentary series deduced from the post-Palaeozoic geological history of the Sichuan Basin and (3) the new data (Tmax) obtained on organic matter indicating the transition between oil and gas windows. The Wangpo Bed, located close to the Guadalupian-Lopingian Boundary, is interpreted either as a volcanic acidic tuff or as a clastic horizon. This controversial origin probably results from mixed volcanogenic and detrital influences. The Wangpo Bed is therefore interpreted as a reworked bentonite as revealed by the occurrence of I/S similar to those found in tuff layers, together with preserved detrital kaolinite.

  10. A study on the heavy-rain-producing mesoscale convective system associated with diurnal variation of radiation and topography in the eastern slope of the western Sichuan plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuchun

    2015-04-01

    On 24-25 July 2010, a Plateau Vortex system forming to the north of Tibetan Plateau dramatically changed its moving direction to westward after several days of eastward movement. Observational analysis showed that, during its westward movement, a low-level southeasterly or easterly wind developed over the Sichuan basin. The large-scale forcing became favorable for the convection development. The low-level warm advection was more favorable for convection development than the differential vorticity advection. The daytime scattered convections were organized into a mesoscale convective system (MCS) after sunset, which produced extremely heavy rainfall in the eastern slope of the Western Sichuan Plateau. The observational evidences and numerical simulations have indicated that the topographically induced dynamical lifting over the lower topography and the convergence caused by the topographical blocking provided strong support for the convection initiation. The cold outflows caused by surface evaporative cooling of rain steered the MCS to move away from its original place, while the convergence between the cold outflows and the environmental southeasterly flow apparently helped the maintenance of the MCS. The intensification of the low-level flow, which was associated with the diurnal variation of radiative forcing, contributed to the organization and intensification of the MCS. The results of sensitivity experiments further confirmed the impact of topography in the convection initiation, and the influences of cold outflows caused by surface evaporative cooling of rain on the movement and maintenance of the MCS. The effects of the diurnal variation of radiative forcing on the organization of the MCS are also well represented in the model results.

  11. Development stages of hazardous mountain lakes and simulation of their outbursts (Central Caucasus, Russia; Sichuan mountain region, China).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidyaeva, Vera; Krylenko, Inna; Chernomorets, Sergey; Petrakov, Dmitry

    2013-04-01

    The importance of mountain lakes studies is related to the increasing threat of natural disasters, associated with lake outbursts and debris flows formation, because of population growth on exposed areas. The outburst hazard has not been sufficiently researched, there is a lack of data because of the lakes inaccessibility and remote sensing data is usually not detailed enough. The main scientific topics include assessment of outburst possibility and further simulation of possible outbursts scenarios. There are two types of mountain lakes: glacial (cirque, cirque-moraine, barrier-moraine, glacial-barrier, etc.) lakes and barrier (landslide, rockfall, debris flow, etc.) lakes. The first type was studied in the Central Caucasus (Russia), and the second type - in the Sichuan mountain region (China). The group of scientists, including authors, has been monitoring glacial lakes in the Mnt. Elbrus area for more than ten years. The unique data were collected, including detailed hydrological characteristics of more than ten lakes (water level dynamics, temperature, morphometrical characteristics, water balance components, etc.). Outbursts of at least three glacial lakes were observed. Hydrological characteristics of landslide Tangjiashan Lake were collected with Chinese colleagues during field studies in 2010 and 2011 years. Analysis of the collected data was used to understand the outburst mechanisms, formation factors, dam breaking factors, development stages of mountain lakes. Statistical methods of analysis in this case can be applied with some limitations because of the lack of sufficient monitoring objects, and therefore the results has been verified by experts. All types of possible outbursts mechanisms were divided by the authors into five groups: geomorphologic (caused by changes in lake dams), seismic, or geodynamic (caused by seiches, waves from rockfalls, landslides), glacial (caused by breaks in impounding glaciers, ice floating and melting), water-balance (caused by changes in lakes water balance) and anthropogenic. Three development stages of mountain lakes were identified: 1) constant changes of lake hollows and rapid volume growth; 2) stable state, moderate changes; 3) outburst or overflow because of some external factors or gradual shallowing and disappearing. According to the type of outbursts mechanisms and stage of development, the authors assessed the risk of outburst and chose methods, models and scenarios for simulation. Analysis of the data (weighted estimation, graphoanalytical methods, etc.) showed that glacial lakes outburst possibility is influenced by (in order of importance): 1) water volume, 2) position of lake related to parent glacier, 3) characteristics of dam, 4) conditions of lake banks, 5) high water heat reserve and presence of ice lenses in dam. Barrier lakes outburst possibility is influenced by: 1) lake depth, 2) shape of lake hollow and coastline, 3) characteristics of dam, 4) conditions of lake banks. The most essential external factors are landslides, rockfalls, meteorological and seismic conditions. The most dangerous lakes in research areas were allocated, for them outbursts scenarios have been developed, depending on studied characteristics. These scenarios were simulated using the River and FLO-2D models. At the final stage, zoning of mountain valleys depending on the level of risk was conducted, which is the basis for further risk mitigation.

  12. Near Full-Length Genomic Characterization of a Novel HIV Type 1 CRF07_ BC/01_AE Recombinant in Men Who Have Sex with Men from Sichuan, China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Huamian; Su, Ling; Feng, Yi; He, Xiang; His, Jenny; Liang, Shu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, the men who have sex with men (MSM) population has seen the fastest growing prevalence of HIV transmission in China. In addition, coinfection through sex and intravenous drug use is a major problem in HIV prevention and control. Recent studies have also revealed that three major viral strains (CRF07_BC, CRF01_AE, and subtype B) have been cocirculating among MSM in Sichuan, suggesting a high probability of generating new recombinants. This study reports a near full-length genome of a novel HIV-1 recombinant (MSM0720) between CRF07_BC and CRF01_AE. The analysis of MSM0720 shows that the genome is composed of at least 11 interlaced segments, including six CRF07_BC and five CRF01_AE segments, with CRF07_BC as the backbone; this is different from a previously identified CRF01_AE/07_BC recombinant strain in intravenous drug users from Jiangsu. PMID:23594292

  13. The appearance of an oxygen-depleted condition on the Capitanian disphotic slope/basin in South China: Middle-Upper Permian stratigraphy at Chaotian in northern Sichuan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Masafumi; Isozaki, Yukio; Yao, Jianxin; Ji, Zhansheng; Ueno, Yuichiro; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2013-06-01

    The global environmental changes related to the end-Guadalupian (Permian) extinction have been recently studied in various shallow-marine sections in the world; however, no previous stratigraphic research focused on the sequence deposited in a relatively deep disphotic zone. In order to investigate the environmental changes in the disphotic zone during that interval, lithostratigraphy and secular changes in the sedimentary environment were analyzed for the ca. 150 m thick Guadalupian-Lopingian (Middle-Upper Permian) carbonates at Chaotian in northern Sichuan, South China. The upper Guadalupian Maokou Formation and the Lower Lopingian Wujiaping Formation are mostly composed of bioclastic limestone of a euphotic shelf facies and contain abundant shallow marine fossils, such as algae, corals, and fusulines. The topmost Maokou Formation (ca. 11 m thick) is unique in this section because it is composed of thinly bedded black mudstone/chert of a disphotic slope/basin facies with abundant radiolarians and ammonoids. The stratigraphic changes in litho- and bio-facies suggest a two-stepped transgression in the Capitanian followed by a great regression around the Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary (G-LB). Moreover, the stratigraphic changes in bioturbation, total organic carbon (TOC) content, and occurrence of framboidal pyrite suggest that the redox of the sedimentary environment at Chaotian changed drastically in accordance with newly clarified rapid sea-level fluctuations. In association with the Capitanian sea-level rise, the sedimentary environment shifted from an oxic shelf to an oxygen-depleted slope/basin, and again returned to an oxic shelf during the following great regression. The appearance of the oxygen-depleted condition on the Capitanian disphotic slope/basin in northern Sichuan is particularly important because it occurred clearly before the end-Guadalupian extinction event. It is also noteworthy that the oxygen-depleted seawater appeared for the first time on a continental margin significantly before the well-known P-TB shallow-marine anoxia.

  14. Barcoding Poplars (Populus L.) from Western China

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Huiying; Dong, Miao; Wang, Gaini; He, Xinyu; Zhao, Changming; Mao, Kangshan

    2013-01-01

    Background Populus is an ecologically and economically important genus of trees, but distinguishing between wild species is relatively difficult due to extensive interspecific hybridization and introgression, and the high level of intraspecific morphological variation. The DNA barcoding approach is a potential solution to this problem. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we tested the discrimination power of five chloroplast barcodes and one nuclear barcode (ITS) among 95 trees that represent 21 Populus species from western China. Among all single barcode candidates, the discrimination power is highest for the nuclear ITS, progressively lower for chloroplast barcodes matK (M), trnG-psbK (G) and psbK-psbI (P), and trnH-psbA (H) and rbcL (R); the discrimination efficiency of the nuclear ITS (I) is also higher than any two-, three-, or even the five-locus combination of chloroplast barcodes. Among the five combinations of a single chloroplast barcode plus the nuclear ITS, H+I and P+I differentiated the highest and lowest portion of species, respectively. The highest discrimination rate for the barcodes or barcode combinations examined here is 55.0% (H+I), and usually discrimination failures occurred among species from sympatric or parapatric areas. Conclusions/Significance In this case study, we showed that when discriminating Populus species from western China, the nuclear ITS region represents a more promising barcode than any maternally inherited chloroplast region or combination of chloroplast regions. Meanwhile, combining the ITS region with chloroplast regions may improve the barcoding success rate and assist in detecting recent interspecific hybridizations. Failure to discriminate among several groups of Populus species from sympatric or parapatric areas may have been the result of incomplete lineage sorting, frequent interspecific hybridizations and introgressions. We agree with a previous proposal for constructing a tiered barcoding system in plants, especially for taxonomic groups that have complex evolutionary histories (e.g. Populus). PMID:23977122

  15. Stratigraphy of the Middle-Upper Permian and Lowermost Triassic at Chaotian, Sichuan, China. Record of Late Permian double mass extinction event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isozaki, Y.; Yao, J.; Matsuda, T.; Sakai, H.; Ji, Z.; Shimizu, N.; Kobayashi, N.; Kawahata, H.; Nishi, H.; Takano, M.; Kubo, T.

    Precise stratigraphic analysis of Middle-Upper Permian and Lower Triassic sequence at Chaotian in northern Sichuan, China, identified two remarkable mass extinction horizons, one at the Middle-Upper Permian (Guadalupian-Lopingian; G-L) boundary and the other at the Upper Permian-Lower Triassic (P-T) boundary. Across each of the boundaries, biodiversity declined sharply in fusulinid, rugose coral, brachiopod, ammonite, conodont, and radiolaria. Both boundaries are characterized by two biohorizons, i.e., one marked by major extinction of pre-existing fauna and the other by the first appearance of younger fauna. It is noteworthy that a peculiar rhyo-dacitic tuff bed occurs at each of the extinction horizons. Thus the Late Permian biosphere was strongly affected twice by highly explosive, severe volcanism. Regional correlation of the G-L and P-T boundary tuff beds throughout South China, and partly to Japan, positively suggests a cause-effect link between large-scale explosive volcanism and mass extinction.

  16. Association of polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase genes (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1) with idiopathic azoospermia or oligospermia in Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Da-Ke; Chen, Hong-Han; Ding, Xian-Ping; Zhang, Shao-Hong; Zhang, Jian-Hui

    2015-01-01

    The reported effects of the glutathione S-transferase (GSTs) genes (GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1) on male factor infertility have been inconsistent and even contradictory. Here, we conducted a case-control study to investigate the association between functionally important polymorphisms in GST genes and idiopathic male infertility. The study group consisted of 361 men with idiopathic azoospermia, 118 men with idiopathic oligospermia, and 234 age-matched healthy fertile male controls. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood, and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. There was a significant association between the GSTP1 variant genotype (Ile/Val + Val/Val) with idiopathic infertility risk (odds ratio [OR]: 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-2.11; P = 0.009). Similarly, a higher risk of infertility was noted in individuals carrying a genotype combination of GSTT1-null and GSTP1 (Ile/Val + Val/Val) (OR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.43-3.31; P = 0.0002). These results suggest an increased risk of the GSTP1 variant genotype (Ile/Val + Val/Val) for developing male factor infertility. Our findings also underrate the significance of the effect of GSTM1 and/or GSTT1 (especially the former) in modulating the risk of male infertility in males from Sichuan, Southwest China. PMID:25532576

  17. [Dynamics of regional ecological frangibility under natural hazard stress: a case study in Qingping Town of Sichuan Province, Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin-Tao; Tao, He-Ping; Liu, Shao-Quan; Yu, Hui; Kong, Bo

    2012-01-01

    By using the aerial remote sensing images after May 12, 2008 (the date of catastrophic Wenchuan Earthquake) and the unmanned aircraft vehicle remote sensing images after August 13, 2010 (the date of extraordinary debris flow), and in combining with the land use map (1:10000), topographic map (1:50000), and collected field investigation data of Qingping Town, Mianzhu City of Sichuan Province in 2006, this paper analyzed and evaluated the ecological frangibility of the Town. In the Town, the slightly, lightly, moderately, heavily, and extremely fragile ecological zones after the extraordinary debris flow occupied 1.9%, 7.9%, 18.7%, 23.0%, and 48.5%, respectively, with the area of heavily and extremely fragile ecological zones accounting for 71.5% of the total, being 238.45 km2, i. e., the ecological environment was overall very fragile. Under the impact of the two natural hazards, the ecological frangibility degree of the Town increased obviously. As compared with that before the Earthquake, the area of heavily and extremely fragile ecological zones after the Earthquake increased by 12.4%, and the area of extremely fragile ecological zone was 1.67 times larger. The dynamic evolution of the ecological frangibility of the Town was mainly manifested in the conversion of heavily fragile ecological zone into extremely fragile ecological zone. Complex terrain was the key factor of the ecological frangibility of the Town. PMID:22489499

  18. Buddhist Education in Sichuan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Darui

    2002-01-01

    This paper is devoted to Buddhist education in Sichuan Province with a focus on Venerable Longlian's temple. It deals with the historical development of Chinese Buddhist education and makes statistic analysis of the available data. Venerable Longlian established the Sichuan Buddhist Institute for Nuns in the 1980s. It was the first modern school…

  19. Comparing prevalence of HIV-related behaviors among female injecting drug users (IDU) whose regular sexual partner was or was not IDU in Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces, China.

    PubMed

    Lau, Joseph T F; Gu, Jing; Zhang, Linglin; Cheng, Feng; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Jianxin; Wang, Ning; Lan, Yajia

    2009-07-01

    Injecting drug users made up a high percentage of HIV cases in China; partners of IDU are hence, at very high risk of HIV transmission. The goal of this study is to compare characteristics and prevalence of injecting drug use and sex-related risk behaviors among female IDU who were or were not having a regular sex partner (RSP) with concordant IDU status. Data were obtained from all female IDU respondents (n=1414) surveyed in the behavioral surveillance surveys as conducted during 2003 through 2006 in Sichuan and Yunnan, China. The findings from this research reveal that about half of the female IDU respondents belonged to the concordant group (50.4%). As compared to members of the discordant group, such concordant respondents were significantly more likely to have practiced different types of studied syringe sharing behaviors (adjusted odds ratios AOR=1.34-2.23, p<0.05), to have served as female sex workers in the last month (AOR=1.24, p<0.05), or to have used some particular types of HIV-related prevention services (AOR=1.36-1.60, p<0.05) but were less likely to be always using new needles for drug injection in the last month (AOR=0.54, p<0.05) or to have used a condom in the last episode of sex with their RSP (AOR=0.64, p<0.01). The findings suggest that concordant IDU status is very common among RSP of IDU. The risk for HIV transmission between concordant RSP seems to be very high and the prevention services seem unable to alleviate the risk. Specific programs targeting concordant IDU couples are greatly warranted. PMID:20024748

  20. AMS investigation in the Pingluoba and Qiongxi anticlines, Sichuan, China: Implications for deformation mechanism of the Qiongxi structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Liang; Qi, Jiafu; Zhang, Mingzheng

    2014-06-01

    Stratigraphic attitude is one of the most important field data for structural geology research. However, it is difficult to measure directly sometimes, especially in weak deformed sediments with low dip angle. Pingluoba anticline, mainly consisting of medium-high dip angle strata, is located on the Longmen Shan fold-and-thrust belt front. Qiongxi anticline is located in the southwestern Sichuan Basin, and it is mainly composed of sub-horizontal to low dip angle strata. An investigation of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in 78 sites has been carried out in these two folds. Stepwise demagnetization of three orthogonal isothermal remanent magnetizations suggests that hematite is the main magnetic carrier mineral in the Qiongxi anticline, meanwhile, hematite and magnetite are both existing in the Pingluoba anticline. It reveals three types of magnetic fabrics: sedimentary magnetic fabric, initial deformation magnetic fabric and pencil structure magnetic fabric, which indicate weak deformation. Throughout AMS theoretical analysis and example test in the Pingluoba anticline, magnetic fabric is a suitable technique to confirm the stratigraphic attitude in weak compressional deformed sediments. For the sedimentary magnetic fabric, initial deformation magnetic fabric and one atypical initial deformation magnetic fabric developed in the weak deformed tectonic superposition region, dip direction of bedding plane = pitch direction of K3+(or -) 180°, and dip angle of bedding plane = 90°-pitch angle of K3. 38 stratigraphic attitudes with low dip angle in the Qiongxi anticline have been rectified by magnetic fabric results. Qiongxi structure is a weak tectonic superposition deformation anticline. The deformation mechanism of Qiongxi structure may contain two stages: NW-SE compression stage started from the latest Cretaceous-early Cenozoic and nearly E-W shortening stage in the Late Cenozoic.

  1. Effectiveness of a smart phone app on improving immunization of children in rural Sichuan Province, China: study protocol for a paired cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although good progress has been achieved in expanding immunization of children in China, disparities exist across different provinces. Information gaps both from the service supply and demand sides hinder timely vaccination of children in rural areas. The rapid development of mobile health technology (mHealth) provides unprecedented opportunities for improving health services and reaching underserved populations. However, there is a lack of literature that rigorously evaluates the impact of mHealth interventions on immunization coverage as well as the usability and feasibility of smart phone applications (apps). This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a smart phone-based app (Expanded Program on Immunization app, or EPI app) on improving the coverage of children’s immunization. Methods/Design This cluster randomized trial will take place in Xuanhan County, Sichuan Province, China. Functionalities of the app include the following: to make appointments automatically, record and update children’s immunization information, generate a list of children who missed their vaccination appointments, and send health education information to village doctors. After pairing, 36 villages will be randomly allocated to the intervention arm (n?=?18) and control arm (n?=?18). The village doctors in the intervention arm will use the app while the village doctors in the control arm will record and manage immunization in the usual way in their catchment areas. A household survey will be used at baseline and at endline (8 months of implementation). The primary outcome is full-dose coverage and the secondary outcome is immunization coverage of the five vaccines that are included in the national Expanded Program on Immunization program as well as Hib vaccine, Rotavirus vaccine and Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Multidimensional evaluation of the app will also be conducted to assess usability and feasibility. Discussion This study is the first to evaluate the effectiveness of a smart phone app for child immunization in rural China. This study will contribute to the knowledge about the usability and feasibility of a smart phone app for managing immunization in rural China and to similar populations in different settings. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trials Registry (ChiCTR): ChiCTR-TRC-13003960 PMID:24645829

  2. Controls on the spatial distribution of landslide hazards triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, Sichuan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R. N.; Rosser, N. J.; Petley, D. N.; Densmore, A. L.

    2009-12-01

    During large earthquakes in regions of steep topography, seismically triggered landslides are a major secondary hazard, contributing significantly to total damage tolls. On 12th May 2008, the magnitude 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake occurred along the northwest striking fault system of the Longmen Shan mountain range, on the northwest margin of the Sichuan Basin. This area sits at the edge of the Tibetan Plateau, with high relief and steep slope gradients. The rupture zone of the earthquake and its aftershocks extend for around 300km to the NE of the epicentre (30.986° N, 103.364° E). Preliminary reports suggested that tens of thousands of landslides were triggered by the event, which greatly contributed to the high death toll of over 75,000 and widespread infrastructural damage. Our investigation seeks to identify controls on the spatial distribution of landslides triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake. This kind of investigation is commonly carried out through the production of a landslide inventory map. Landslides can be clearly identified in SPOT5 and EO-1 imagery acquired following the event. However, this investigation requires that slope failures are mapped across large areas adjacent to the 300km long coseismic rupture zone. Previous studies quote large working periods of up to 100 days to map areas of similar landslide impact using satellite imagery (Liu & Wong 1999). In order to more rapidly and efficiently map large numbers of landslides, algorithms have been developed for the automated classification of slope failures, using a combination of optical imagery and topographic data. This technique offers a tool for rapid data acquisition in the regional scale geomorphological study of landslide distributions. To date around 100,000 landslides have been mapped over an area of 20,000km2. The data is used to examine the interaction of fault rupture dynamics, topography and geology on landslide failure location. Notable are large areas of highly fractured Mesoproterozoic granite, with an average 19% area affected by landsliding. Rock-type and the structurally controlled drainage network show significant control on landslide density, in combination with marked hanging-wall / foot-wall effects, and distance decay from the fault rupture (shown in Figure 1). Figure 1. Relationship between landslide density and distance from coseismic fault rupture (5km distance buffers), underlain by SRTM topographic profile extracted within 1km distance buffers

  3. Geochemical characteristics of the Triassic Tethys-turbidites in northwestern Sichuan, China: Implications for provenance and interpretation of the tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, X. X.

    1994-11-01

    The Triassic Tethys graywacke-slate turbidites in the northwestern Sichuan, China have been analysed for major and trace elements and petrographically studied. Compared to Phanerozoic turbidites, the turbidites in this study are quartz-intermediate (average 55%) in composition and are characterized geochemically by their moderate Fe 2O ?3 + MgO (9.28 ± 2.84%), TiO 2 (0.72 ± 0.17%) contents and Al 2O 3/SiO 2 (0.25 ± 0.10) ratios; moderate abundances of ferromagnesian trace elements ( Co = 15 ± 8 ppm, Cr = 113 ± 72 ppm, Ni = 14 + 9 ppm, Sc = 12 ± 4 ppm, etc.); and moderate contents of incompatible elements, such as Th (11 ± 3 ppm), U (3 ± 0.7 ppm), Zr (170 ± 64 ppm), Hf (4 ± 1 ppm) and total REEs (159 ± 33 ppm). In general, the slates show systematically higher Fe 2O ?3 + MgO, Sc, Co and Eu/Eu?, but lower solLa/Sc and Th/Sc than the associated graywackes, suggesting that various provenance components may separate into different grain-size fractions during sedimentary sorting processes, that is, the more mafic materials tended to incorporate into the sedimentary record for the clay-size fraction. Framework modes and geochemical data indicate that the turbidites were mainly derived from a recycled orogenic provenance characterized chiefly by sedimentary-metasedimentary rocks and granite-gneisses, similar to the upper continental crust, but with a variable admixture of continental island arc volcanic components. Flysch deposition took place in a back arc basin situated between an active continental margin (the Kunlun-Qinling fold belt) and a continental island arc (the Yidun island arc). Weathering conditions in the source area significantly influenced the composition and distribution of elements in the sediments. With the elapse of time during sedimentation, the degree of chemical weathering in the provenance became intense while the tectonic activity decreased gradually.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of Elymus (Poaceae) in western China.

    PubMed

    Song, H; Nan, Z B; Tian, P

    2015-01-01

    Elymus L. is often planted in temperate and subtropical regions as forage. Species in the genus have 5 allopolyploid genomes that are found in the grass tribe Triticeae. To determine the phylogenetic relationships in Elymus species from western China, we estimated phylogenetic trees using sequences from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and non-coding chloroplast DNA sequences from 56 accessions (871 samples) of 9 polyploid Elymus species and 42 accessions from GenBank. Tetraploid and hexaploid Elymus species from western China had independent origins, and Elymus species from the same area or neighboring geographic regions were the most closely related. Based on the phylogenetic tree topology, the St- and Y-genomes were not derived from the same donor and Y-genome likely originated from the H-genome of Hordeum species, or they shared the same origin or underwent introgression. The maternal genome of tetraploid and hexaploid Elymus species originated from species of Hordeum or Pseudoroegneria. Additionally, Elymus species in western China began diverging 17-8.5 million years ago, during a period of increased aridification as a consequence of the Messinian salinity crisis. Elymus species adapted to drought and high salinity may have developed based on the environmental conditions during this period. Elymus evolution in western China may have been affected by the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (5 million years ago), when Elymus seeds were dispersed by gravity or wind into a newly heterogeneous habitat, resulting in isolation. PMID:26505371

  5. [Environmental efficiency evaluation under carbon emission constraint in Western China].

    PubMed

    Rong, Jian-bo; Yan, Li-jiao; Huang, Shao-rong; Zhang, Ge

    2015-06-01

    This research used the SBM model based on undesirable outputs to measure the static environmental efficiency of Western China under carbon emission constraint from 2000 to 2012. The researchers also utilized the Malmquist index to further analyze the change tendency of environmental efficiency. Additionally, Tobit regression analysis was used to study the factors relevant to environmental efficiency. Practical solutions to improve environmental quality in Western China were put forward. The study showed that in Western China, environmental efficiency with carbon emission constraint was significantly lower than that without carbon emission constraint, and the difference could be described as an inverse U-shaped curve which increased at first and then decreased. Guang-xi and Inner Mongolia, the two provinces met the effective environmental efficiency levels all the time under carbon emission constraint. However, the five provinces of Guizhou, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia and Xinjiang did not. Furthermore, Ningxia had the lowest level of environmental efficiency, with a score between 0.281-0.386. Although the environmental efficiency of most provinces was currently at an ineffective level, the environmental efficiency quality was gradually improving at an average speed of 6.6%. Excessive CO2 emission and a large amount of energy consumption were the primary factors causing environmental inefficiency in Western China, and energy intensity had the most negative impact on the environmental efficiency. The increase of import and export trade reduced the environmental efficiency significantly in Western China, while the increase of foreign direct investment had a positive effect on its environmental efficiency. PMID:26572038

  6. A more accurate relocation of the 2013 M s7.0 Lushan, Sichuan, China, earthquake sequence, and the seismogenic structure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, F.; Wen, X. Z.; Ruan, X.; Zhao, M.; Yi, G. X.

    2015-07-01

    We use a combined earthquake location technique to relocate the M s7.0 Lushan, Sichuan, China, earthquake sequence of April 20, 2013. A stepwise approach, employing three existing location methods (the HYPOINVERSE method, the Minimum 1-D model, and the Double Difference method), is used to improve location precision by iteratively revising the velocity model station corrections, and hypocenter relocations throughout the process. Our stepwise approach has significantly improved the location precision of the Lushan earthquake sequence, yielding hypocenter locations with final errors of 359, 309, and 605 m in the E-W, N-S, and vertical directions, respectively, with average travel time residuals of 0.12 s. Furthermore, we analyzed the seismogenic structure surrounding the Lushan earthquake sequence by combining the results of the relocated hypocenter distribution with new focal mechanism solutions and information from regional geological and geophysical investigations. From our analysis, we conclude that the vast majority of the aftershocks of the Lushan earthquake sequence occurred at depths of 6-9 km, near the front of the southwestern segment of the NE-trending Longmenshan fault zone. Densely aligned hypocenters clearly suggest that the seismogenic structure of the mainshock consists of a set of basal thrust faults dipping to the NW at 40-50°, at a ramp of the deep basal décollement-thrust system at depths of 7-18 km. Focal mechanism solutions suggest that the seismogenic faults have produced almost pure thrusting. At least one SE-dipping back-thrust is also observed within the basement, as indicated by the hypocenter relocations, which points to either a secondary rupture plane during the mainshock or a plane of aftershock slips. A small number of minor events in the Lushan sequence are located at depths of 0-6 km, with a distribution suggesting that the three NE-trending faults with surface traces running through or passing close to the aftershock area are confined to the upper Mesozoic sedimentary cover, making them independent of the deeper thrust faults that ruptured during the mainshock. Therefore, the 2013 M s7.0 Lushan earthquake was a blind thrust fault generated on active thrust faults within the basement of the southwestern Longmenshan fault zone, with an upper limit estimation of the rupture length, average down-dip width, and rupture area of 40, 16, and 640 km2, respectively.

  7. Strong ground motion simulation for the Mw6.6 Lushan Earthquake, Sichuan, China, base on the inverted and synthetic slip models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, W.; Zhong, Q.; Shi, B.

    2013-12-01

    As we know, the estimation of slip distributions on the fault surface is one of the most important issues for the source inversion of earthquake fault rupturing process. The characteristics of slip distribution on the mainfault play an important role to control strong ground motion pattern. Wang et al., and Zhang et al., published the fast inversion for the rupturing process soon after the 20 April 2013 Lushan, Ya'an earthquake in Sichuan, China. A large amount of works has suggested that variable slip models derived from longer-period ground motion recording are relevant for the prediction of higher-frequency ground motions. The k square model and crack model are well known to describe the slip distribution on the rupture surface. In this study, first we synthesize two forward models: the value of maximum slip, fault dimension, corner wave number derived from Wang model is used to constrain the production of k square model; also, the value of maximum slip, the dimension of asperities from Wang model is used to produce the crack model. Calculation shows that the value of corner wave number of these two synthetic slip models and the inverted models are much the same, and these four slip models are then used to simulate the ground motions for the Lushan earthquake base on the stochastic finite-fault method. Furthermore, a stochastic slip model is also employed for the simulation of strong ground motion for the Lushan event. The simulated results characterized by PGA and PGV show that the source models base on the inverted and synthetic slip distributions could capture most of the basic features of the ground motion. Moreover, the simulated MMI distributions reflect the obvious rupture directivity effect and the influence of the shallow velocity structure well. While the simulation of stochastic slip model is apparently higher than observed MMI. In addition, our simulation result shows that the higher-frequency ground is strongly sensitive to the degree of slip roughness, therefore, we suggest that, for a realistic ground motion simulations due to future earthquake, it is imperative to properly estimate the slip roughness distribution.

  8. Challenges in analysing ambient noise to characterise seismic slope response in complex site conditions: the case of hillslopes in Qiaozhuang (Sichuan, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Gaudio, Vincenzo; Wasowski, Janusz; Luo, Yonghong; Huang, Runqiu; Wang, Yungsheng

    2015-04-01

    The Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake of May 12th, 2008 shattered and induced failures on slopes of hills surroundings the centre of the town of Qiaozhuang, located 300 Km NE of the mainshock epicentre. This motivated the initial investigations on the possible occurrence of topographic amplification phenomena, which were conducted through a temporary accelerometer monitoring carried out between April and October 2009 on Weigan hill and Mount Dong, located SW and NE of the Qiaozhuang centre, respectively. In both cases, the amplification factors were found higher at sites closer to the hilltop and lower near the foot of the slope (Luo et al., 2014). However, the general characteristics of slope response also revealed that resonance phenomena were controlled by the local geological setting characterised by Silurian phyllites with sub-vertical schistosity (at Weigan) and by fractured Precambrian limestones (at Dong). To further investigate local slope response, ambient noise recordings, based on the calculation of horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVNR or Nakamura method), were also conducted on several sites in the peri-urban area, including those occupied by the accelerometer stations. The latter provided the possibility to validate the outcomes of ambient noise analysis. Data interpretation has been hampered by a contingent factor, i.e. the occurrence of environmental conditions characterised by a strong E-W oriented peak at low frequencies (below 1 Hz), and by the locally complex structural setting. For example, in the case of Weigan hill the sub-vertical schistosity appeared responsible for a considerable amplification of vertical ground motion. The former problem implies the need of a repetition of measurements under different environmental conditions to distinguish permanent, site-specific properties of noise related to slope dynamic response. By altering the H/V ratio, the presence of vertical amplification represents an obstacle for a routine data analysis and a straightforward interpretation of results. Therefore, further developments in advanced techniques of noise data analysis techniques appear necessary to facilitate the extraction of reliable information on seismic response of slopes in geologically complex conditions. Reference Luo Y., Del Gaudio V., Huang R., Wang Y. & Wasowski J., 2014: Evidence of hillslope directional amplification from accelerometer recordings at Qiaozhuang (Sichuan -- China). Engineering Geology, 183, 193-207, doi: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2014.10.015.

  9. Stress changes from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and increased hazard in the Sichuan basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.; Ji, C.; Kirby, E.

    2008-01-01

    On 12 May 2008, the devastating magnitude 7.9 (Wenchuan) earthquake struck the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau, collapsing buildings and killing thousands in major cities aligned along the western Sichuan basin in China. After such a large-magnitude earthquake, rearrangement of stresses in the crust commonly leads to subsequent damaging earthquakes. The mainshock of the 12 May earthquake ruptured with as much as 9 m of slip along the boundary between the Longmen Shan and Sichuan basin, and demonstrated the complex strike-slip and thrust motion that characterizes the region. The Sichuan basin and surroundings are also crossed by other active strike-slip and thrust faults. Here we present calculations of the coseismic stress changes that resulted from the 12 May event using models of those faults, and show that many indicate significant stress increases. Rapid mapping of such stress changes can help to locate fault sections with relatively higher odds of producing large aftershocks. ??2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  10. Widespread co-endemicity of human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis on the eastern Tibetan Plateau, northwest Sichuan/southeast Qinghai, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Zhen, Ren; Qiu, Jiamin; Qiu, Dongchuan; Xiao, Ning; Ito, Akira; Wang, Hu; Giraudoux, Patrick; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Craig, Philip S

    2010-03-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) or hydatid disease is known to be cosmopolitan in its global distribution, while alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a much rarer though more pathogenic hepatic parasitic disease restricted to the northern hemisphere. Both forms of human echinococcosis are known to occur on the Tibetan Plateau, but the epidemiological characteristics remain poorly understood. In our current study, abdominal ultrasound screening programs for echinococcosis were conducted in 31 Tibetan townships in Ganze and Aba Tibetan Autonomous Prefectures of northwest Sichuan Province during 2001-2008. Hospital records (1992-2006) in a major regional treatment centre for echinococcosis in Sichuan Province were also reviewed. Of 10,186 local residents examined by portable ultrasound scan, 645 (6.3%) were diagnosed with echinococcosis: a prevalence of 3.2% for CE, 3.1% for AE and 0.04% for dual infection (both CE and AE). Human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis in pastoral areas was highly co-endemic, in comparison to much lower prevalences in semi-pastoral or farming regions. The high ultrasound prevalence in these co-endemic areas in northwest Sichuan Province was also reflected in the hospital study, and hospital records furthermore indicated another possible highly co-endemic focus in Guoluo Prefecture of Qinghai Province, located at the border of northwest Sichuan. These chronic cestode zoonoses constitute an unparalleled major public health problem for pastoral Tibetan communities, and pose great difficulties for adequate treatment access and effective transmission control in such remote regions. PMID:19941830

  11. Impacts of climate change on the distribution of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Shennongjia area, China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhenhua; Zhou, Surong; Yu, Wendi; Yu, Huiliang; Yang, Jingyuan; Tian, Yanhong; Zhao, Mian; Wu, Hua

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the effects of climate change on primate ranging patterns is crucial for conservation planning. Rhinopithecus roxellana is an endangered primate species distributed in mountainous forests at the elevation of 1500-3500?m a.s.l. in China. Our study site, the Shennongjia National Nature Reserve, represents the eastern-most distribution of this species. This area has experienced significant habitat loss and fragmentation because of human population growth, increased farming and logging, and climate change. To estimate how changes in temperature and rainfall will affect the presumed future distribution of this species, we examined eco-geographic factors including bioclimate, habitat (vegetation type, landcover, etc.), topography, and human impact (human population, gross domestic product, etc.), and provide suggestions for management and conservation. We used a maximum entropy approach to predict the location and distribution of habitats suitable for R. roxellana in the present, 2020, 2050, and 2080 based on 33 environmental parameters, three general circulation models, three emissions scenarios, and two dispersal hypotheses. According to the ensemble modeling, we found range reductions of almost 30% by 2020, 70% by 2050, and over 80% by 2080. Although no obvious differences were found in distribution change based on full and zero dispersal assumptions, our results revealed range reductions in response to elevational, latitudinal, and longitudinal gradients, with the monkeys forced to migrate to higher elevations over time. Bioclimte factors, such as temperature, precipitation, evapo-transpiration, and aridity condition, were dominant contributors to range shifting. As habitat loss due to human influence and climate change is likely to be even more severe in the future, we considered three conservation hot-spots in the Shennongjia area and recommended: (i) securing existing reserves and establishing new reserves, (ii) re-designing management systems to include the Shenongjia reserve and the surrounding reserves and highlighting ecosystem protection at higher elevations, and (iii) using finer-scale research to guide the conservation planning and education in order to enhance protection and awareness in the local community. National and provincial conservation policies should integrate projections of climate change in making effective conservation strategies. PMID:25224271

  12. GIS-based analysis of 1933 Diexi Landslides and dam breach on the Min River, Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Song; Evans, Stephen G.

    2014-05-01

    Due to complex tectonic and geomorphologic factors, the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas, are particularly prone to landslides. Rivers have deeply cut into bedrock, forming narrow valleys that are especially prone to landslide damming. Numerous landslide damming and subsequent dam breaching events are recorded from the region in historical documents and the geosciece literature; these include events at the Dadu River (1786), Diexi (1933), Tanggudong (1967), Yigong (2000), and Tangjiashan (2008). We report the results of a GIS-based analysis of earthquake-generated landslide dams at Diexi. The Diexi Earthquake (M=7.5) occurred on August 25, 1933 and induced a series of giant landslides along the Min River, some of which blocked the river and formed three large landslide lakes. The landslide dam located furthest downstream breached on October 9, 1933, 45 days after the earthquake. The outburst flood resulted in huge damage to the downstream area killing 2,423 people, one of the most serious landslide-related disasters in China during the 20th Century. In the present work, GIS analysis is applied to the Diexi Landslides, based on a review of historical documents and previous studies, data collected during field work, and remote sensing and SRTM-3 digital terrain data. We attempted to determine the precise locations of the 1933 landslides and measured dam height, cross-section area, and volume of the damming landslides. Due to the lack of topographic data before the 1933 earthquake, data of the landslide lakes, including maximum water elevation and total impounded volume can only be estimated. Using credible water levels and inferred submerged topography we calculate an outburst volume for the 1933 event. Moreover, cross-sections are made for both the damming area and the Min River downstream in order to make a general assessment of the damage due to the subsequent flood. Maximum flood discharge is estimated by regression equations. The two remaining lakes on the Min River have experienced a slight water level decrease after over 80 years of outlet erosion. Despite this, these two lakes are considered to be safe.

  13. Evaluation of Rural Primary Health Care in Western China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Manli; Fang, Haiqing; Bishwajit, Ghose; Xiang, Yuanxi; Fu, Hang; Feng, Zhanchun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: China’s Ministry of Health has enacted Rural Primary Health Care Program (2001–2010) (HCP) guidelines to improve the quality of people’s health. However, the program’s success in Western China remains unevaluated. Thus, this study aims to begin to fill that gap by analyzing the provision and utilization of Rural Primary Health Care (RPHC) in Western China. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect secondary data on the socio-economic characteristics, system construction, services use and implementation of RPHC, and the residents’ health status of the sampled areas. Four hundred counties from 31 provinces in China were selected via stratified random sampling, including 171 counties from 12 Western provinces. Twenty-seven analysis indicators, covering system construction, services use and implementation of RPHC were chosen to assess Western China’s primary health quality. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Least Significant Difference (LSD) methods were used to measure the RPHC disparities between Western and Eastern and Central China. Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) was used to rank Western, Eastern and Central internal provinces regarding quality of their RPHC. Results: Of the 27 indicators, 13 (48.15%) were below the standard in Western China. These focused on rural health service system construction, Chinese medicine services, and public health. In the comparison between Western, Central and Eastern China, 12 indicators had statistical significance (p < 0.05), and using LSD to compare between Western and Eastern China, all indicators were statistically significant (p < 0.05), demonstrating regional disparities. Xinjiang Province’s RPHC ranked highest overall, and Yunnan Province ranked the lowest, indicating the internal differences within the 12 Western provinces; and Western provinces’ Ci value was lower than that of Eastern and Central China overall. Conclusion: Western China’s RPHC has proceeded well, but remains weaker than that of Eastern and Central China. Differences within Western internal provinces threaten the successful implementation of RPHC.  PMID:26528993

  14. Excavating the Nation: Archaeology and Control of the Past and Present in Republican Sichuan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyong-McClain, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation considers whether or not archaeology was an effective tool for nation-building elites in Republican China (1912-1949), by looking at the discipline's fortunes in the off-center locale of Sichuan province. Through consideration of the multiplicity of agents and motives involved in archaeological enterprise in Republican Sichuan,…

  15. The First Western-Style Hospital in China

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chi-Chao; Liu, Melissa M.; Tsai, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Peter Parker (1804–1888), a Yale University–trained missionary and physician, founded the first Western-style hospital in China, the Ophthalmic Hospital in Canton (now known as Guangzhou), on November 4, 1835. During its first 3 months, Parker treated 1061 patients, of whom 1020 (96.1%) had ocular illnesses. Since then, the Ophthalmic Hospital in Canton has become a comprehensive institution that is affiliated with Sun Yat-sen University and is one of the largest hospitals in China. In 1965, the Department of Ophthalmology, which originally employed only 2 ophthalmologists, expanded to become an ophthalmic hospital. In 1983, it joined the Eye Research Institute and the Office of Prevention of Blindness to form the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center. The center currently employs nearly 800 staff members and provides care to more than 500 000 patients annually. The first Western-style hospital in China has survived and thrived; it is now one of the most prestigious ophthalmic institutes in the world. PMID:21670348

  16. Developing a new perspective to study the health of survivors of Sichuan earthquakes in China: a study on the effect of post-earthquake rescue policies on survivors’ health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sichuan is a province in China with an extensive history of earthquakes. Recent earthquakes, including the Lushan earthquake in 2013, have resulted in thousands of people losing their homes and their families. However, there is a research gap on the efficiency of government support policies. Therefore, this study develops a new perspective to study the health of earthquake survivors, based on the effect of post-earthquake rescue policies on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of survivors of the Sichuan earthquake. Methods This study uses data from a survey conducted in five hard-hit counties (Wenchuan, Qingchuan, Mianzhu, Lushan, and Dujiangyan) in Sichuan in 2013. A total of 2,000 questionnaires were distributed, and 1,672 were returned; the response rate was 83.6%. Results Results of the rescue policies scale and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) scale passed the reliability test. The confirmatory factor analysis model showed that the physical component summary (PCS) directly affected the mental component summary (MCS). The results of structural equation model regarding the effects of rescue policies on HRQOL showed that the path coefficients of six policies (education, orphans, employment, poverty, legal, and social rescue policies) to the PCS of survivors were all positive and passed the test of significance. Finally, although only the path coefficient of the educational rescue policy to the MCS of survivors was positive and passed the test of significance, the other five policies affected the MCS indirectly through the PCS. Conclusions The general HRQOL of survivors is not ideal; the survivors showed a low satisfaction with the post-earthquake rescue policies. Further, the six post-earthquake rescue policies significantly improved the HRQOL of survivors and directly affected the promotion of the PCS of survivors. Aside from the educational rescue policy, all other policies affected the MCS indirectly through the PCS. This finding indicates relatively large differences in the effects of different post-earthquake rescue policies on the HRQOL of survivors. PMID:24168028

  17. Strong motion characteristics of the M w 6.6 Lushan earthquake, Sichuan, China — an insight into the spatial difference of a typical thrust fault earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinjun; Zhang, Wenbo; Xie, Lili; Zhang, Qi; Jiang, Zhijun

    2015-06-01

    Near-field strong ground motions are useful for engineering seismology studies and seismic design, but dense observation networks of damaging earthquakes are still rare. In this study, based on the strong-motion data from the M w 6.6 Lushan earthquake, the ground motion parameters in different spatial regions are systematically analyzed, and the contributions from different effects, like the hanging-wall effect, directivity effect, and attenuation effect are separated to the extent possible. Different engineering parameters from the observed ground motions are compared with the local design response spectra and a new attenuation relation of Western China. General results indicate that the high frequency ground motion, like the peak ground acceleration, on two sides of the fault plane is sensitive to the hanging-wall effect, whereas the low frequency ground motion, like the long period spectral acceleration, in the rupture propagation direction is affected by the directivity effect. Moreover, although the M w 6.6 Lushan earthquake is not a large magnitude event, the spatial difference of ground motion is still obvious; thus, for a thrust faulting earthquake, in addition to the hanging effect, the directivity effect should also be considered.

  18. Human Resource Development Issues in the Implementation of the Western China Development Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Mingzheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper systematically illustrates the value and role of human resource development in the implementation of the Western China development strategy. It analyzes in details some current human resource issues constraining the implementation of the Western China development strategy and those on the sustainable development process of economic…

  19. [Pharmacognostical studies on the folk medicine in Sichuan Prov. in China. II. On tu-er-feng derived from Gerbera plants].

    PubMed

    Ye, J N; Wang, T Z; Cai, S Q; Komatsu, K; Mikage, M; Namba, T

    1990-06-01

    Tu-er-feng is one of famous Chinese folk medicines in Sichuan prov. for common cold with cough, rheumatism, etc. Its sources are said to be either whole plants of some Gerbera or Ainsliaea species of family Compositae. In the recent markets, two types of Tu-er-feng are surely available. In this paper, Tu-er-feng derived from Gerbera species are studied to clarify the botanical origin; comparing mainly with the internal morphologies of the leaves and roots of G. piloselloides, G. delavayi, G. nivea, G. anandria (= Leibnitzia anandria) and G. jamesonii. As the result, G. piloselloides is determined as the botanical origin of Tu-er-feng obtained from the recent 16 markets. PMID:2213525

  20. Energy and its utilization in China

    SciTech Connect

    Liao Zhijie

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the potential of geothermal energy in China, which includes convection- and conduction-dominated systems. The possible installed capacity on the Chinese mainland sums up to 10,326 MW for 30 years, of which Tibet has 6,126 MW, western Yunnan 2,795 MW and western Sichuan 1,045 MW. The low enthalpy thermal water in ten basins in eastern China has been identified. The total thermal energy in waters is estimated to be 7,361 MW. The utilization of geothermal energy is of growing importance.

  1. Hydrologic modulation of seismicity in western China 1991-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randolph-Flagg, Noah; Day, Jesse; Manga, Michael; Bürgmann, Roland

    2015-04-01

    Hydrologic loading, changes in pore fluid pressures, solid earth tides, and stresses due to thermoelastic expansion have all been proposed to modulate seismicity in a range of tectonic and climatic settings. Seismicity from 1991-2014 (24,892 events) in western China, between 20° and 60° N and between 105° and 70° E, appears to be seasonally modulated with 50% more shallow events in the spring and fall than the summer and winter. We show that this modulation is statistically significant using Schuster tests, analysis of variance tests, and the multifrequential periodogram approach on complete catalogs, a catalog of repeating earthquakes (Schaff and Richards, JGR, 2011), and declustered catalogs. Leveraging the tectonic and climatic heterogeneity in our study region, we compare each of the proposed causes of modulation to observations. We find that the spatial variation of modulation correlates best with spatial variation in hydrologic loading as measured by the GRACE satellites.

  2. 78 FR 14512 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ...A-570-905] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China...duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from the People's Republic of China...Eastern'') and Huvis Sichuan Chemical Fiber Corp. and Huvis Sichuan Polyester...

  3. Landslide-dammed lake at Tangjiashan, Sichuan province, China (triggered by the Wenchuan Earthquake, May 12, 2008): Risk assessment, mitigation strategy, and lessons learned

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cui, P.; Dang, C.; Zhuang, J.; You, Y.; Chen, X.; Scott, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    Landslides and rock avalanches triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake produced 257 landslide dams, mainly situated along the eastern boundary of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where rivers descend approximately 3,000 m into the Sichuan Basin. The largest of these dams blocked the Tongkou River (a tributary of the Fujiang River) at Tangjiashan. The blockage, consisting of 2. 04 ?? 10 7 m 3 of landslide debris, impounded a lake with a projected maximum volume of 3. 15 ?? 10 8 m 3, potentially inundating 8. 92 km 2 of terrain. Its creation during the rainy season and the possibility of an uncontrolled release posed a serious, impending threat to at least 1. 3 million people downstream that could add substantially to the total of 69,200 individuals directly killed by the earthquake. Risk assessment of the blockage indicated that it was unlikely to collapse suddenly, and that eventual overtopping could be mitigated by notching the structure in order to create an engineered breach and achieve safe drainage of the lake. In addition to the installation of monitoring and warning instrumentation, for emergency planning we estimated several outburst scenarios equivalent to 20, 25, 33, and 50% of the dam failing suddenly, creating, respectively, 3. 35, 3. 84, 4. 22, and 4. 65 km 2 of flooded area, and overbank water depths of 4. 6, 5. 1, 5. 7, and 6. 2 m, respectively, in Mianyang, the second largest city in Sichuan Province, 48 km downstream from the blockage. Based on these scenarios, recommendations and plans for excavating a sluiceway, draining the lake, and downstream evacuation were proposed and later were implemented successfully, with the blockage breached by overtopping on June 10, less than a month after dam emplacement. The peak discharge of the release only slightly exceeded the flood of record at Mianyang City. No lives were lost, and significant property damage was avoided. Post-breaching evaluation reveals how future similar mitigation can be improved. Although initial breach erosion was slow, later erosion was judged uncontrollably rapid; increased slope of the engineered channel and adoption of a compound, trapezoid-triangular cross-section can be considered, as can other measures to control the rate of breach incision. Evacuees from Mianyang City spent an unnecessarily long time (12 days) in temporary settlements; more precise risk management planning can reduce this time in the future. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Detecting One-Hundred-Year Environmental Changes in Western China Using Seven-Year Repeat Photography

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huai; Yin, Kaipu; Wang, Haiyan; Zhong, Shenxian; Wu, Ning; Shi, Fusun; Zhu, Dan; Zhu, Qiuan; Wang, Weifeng; Ma, Zhihai; Fang, Xiuqin; Li, Weizhong; Zhao, Pengxiang; Peng, Changhui

    2011-01-01

    Due to its diverse, wondrous plants and unique topography, Western China has drawn great attention from explorers and naturalists from the Western World. Among them, Ernest Henry Wilson (1876 –1930), known as ‘Chinese’ Wilson, travelled to Western China five times from 1899 to 1918. He took more than 1,000 photos during his travels. These valuable photos illustrated the natural and social environment of Western China a century ago. Since 1997, we had collected E.H. Wilson's old pictures, and then since 2004, along the expedition route of E.H. Wilson, we took 7 years to repeat photographing 250 of these old pictures. Comparing Wilson's photos with ours, we found an obvious warming trend over the 100 years, not only in specific areas but throughout the entire Western China. Such warming trend manifested in phenology changes, community shifts and melting snow in alpine mountains. In this study, we also noted remarkable vegetation changes. Out of 62 picture pairs were related to vegetation change, 39 indicated vegetation has changed to the better condition, 17 for degraded vegetation and six for no obvious change. Also in these photos at a century interval, we found not only rapid urbanization in Western China, but also the disappearance of traditional cultures. Through such comparisons, we should not only be amazed about the significant environmental changes through time in Western China, but also consider its implications for protecting environment while meeting the economic development beyond such changes. PMID:21966397

  5. Local villagers’ perceptions of wolves in Jiuzhaigou County, western China

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Liang

    2015-01-01

    While there have been increasing numbers of reports of human-wolf conflict in China during recent years, little is known about the nature of this conflict. In this study, we used questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to investigate local villagers’ perceptions of wolves in Jiuzhaigou County, western China. We sampled nine villages with more frequent reports of wolf depredation to the local government, but included three villages near alpine pastures in which reports of depredation were less frequent. We sampled 100 residents, a subset of the local population who were more likely to have had experience with wolves. During the preceding three years, most families of the respondents grazed livestock on alpine pastures, and most of them reported that their livestock suffered from depredation by wolves. The mean value of the reported annual livestock loss rates was considerably higher in villages that reported depredation more frequently than in those with less frequent reports of depredation. Most respondents in the more frequently depredated villages perceived an increase in wolf populations, whereas many in the less frequently depredated villages perceived a decrease in wolf populations in their areas. People’s attitudes towards wolves did not differ significantly between these two village categories. The majority of the respondents were negative in their attitude to wolves, despite a prevalent Tibetan culture that favors the protection of wildlife. People’s negative attitude was directly related to the number of livestock owned by their family. Those with a larger number of livestock were more likely to have a negative attitude towards wolves. Factors such as village category, ethnicity, age and education level did not influence people’s attitudes to wolves. We suggest that improved guarding of livestock and provision of monetary support on human resources and infrastructure may mitigate human-wolf conflicts in this region. PMID:26082870

  6. Effects of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants on surface ozone concentrations over Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Emmons, Louisa K.; Walters, Stacy; Horowitz, Larry W.; Tao, Shu

    2014-11-01

    Due to a lack of industrialization in Western China, surface air there was, until recently, believed to be relatively unpolluted. However, recent measurements and modeling studies have found high levels of ozone (O3) there. Based on the state-of-the-science global chemical transport model MOZART-4, we identify the origin, pathway, and mechanism of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants to Western China in 2000. MOZART-4 generally simulates well the observed surface O3 over inland areas of China. Simulations find surface ozone concentrations over Western China on average to be about 10 ppbv higher than Eastern China. Using sensitivity studies, we find that anthropogenic emissions from all Eurasian regions except China contribute 10-15 ppbv surface O3 over Western China, superimposed upon a 35-40 ppbv natural background. Transport from European anthropogenic sources to Northwestern China results in 2-6 ppbv O3 enhancements in spring and summer. Indian anthropogenic sources strongly influence O3 over the Tibetan Plateau during the summer monsoon. Transport of O3 originating from emissions in the Middle East occasionally reach Western China and increase surface ozone there by about 1-4 ppbv. These influences are of similar magnitude as trans-Pacific and transatlantic transport of O3 and its precursors, indicating the significance of trans-Eurasian ozone transport in hemispheric transport of air pollution. Our study further indicates that mitigation of anthropogenic emissions from Europe, the Indian subcontinent, and the Middle East could benefit public health and agricultural productivity in Western China.

  7. OFF-GRID RENEWABLE ENERGY OPTIONS FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION IN WESTERN CHINA

    E-print Network

    Delaware, University of

    OFF-GRID RENEWABLE ENERGY OPTIONS FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION IN WESTERN CHINA by the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy of University of Delaware Sponsored by National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Ministry of Agriculture People's Republic of China June 2001 #12;i OFF-GRID RENEWABLE ENERGY

  8. Geology and petroleum resources of basins in western China

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmishek, G.

    1984-11-01

    Western China contains 11 recognized petroliferous or potentially petroliferous basins. Despite their great difference in size, these basins have important common features: (1) their Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary sequences are composed of rocks of essentially terrestrial origin, and (2) they experienced predominantly compressional stress during the late stages of their geologic history. The report is structured on a regional basis. The topics discussed for each basin include the stratigraphic and lithologic composition of the sedimentary cover, the major stages of tectonic development and the present-day structural framework, known oil and gas fields, probable source rocks, reservoir rocks, traps and seals, and potentially important exploration plays. The basins occupy 800,000 km/sup 2/ of land and contain over 4,000,000 km/sup 3/ of prospective sedimentary rocks. The most probable amounts of undiscovered petroleum resources in all these basins are estimated at 19.5 billion barrels of oil and 78 trillion cubic feet of gas. The Tarim, Zhungaer, and Chaidamu basins possess the great majority of these resources. 111 refs., 48 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Effects of Trans-Eurasian Transport of Air Pollutants on Surface1 Ozone Concentrations over Western China2

    E-print Network

    Mauzerall, Denise

    of industrialization, until recently Western China (WC) was considered55 relatively little affected by air pollutionEffects of Trans-Eurasian Transport of Air Pollutants on Surface1 Ozone Concentrations over Western 1 #12;Abstract:31 Due to a lack of industrialization in western China, surface air there was, until

  10. Cenozoic to active deformation in Western Yunnan (Myanmar China border)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socquet, A.; Pubellier, M.

    2003-04-01

    The northward movement of India induces a right-lateral shear band from the Sunda trench to the easternmost Himalaya, where wrenching between India and Sunda plates, interfere with a clockwise flow of material around the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis. We describe brittle and ductile deformation styles in Western Yunnan and Northern Myanmar, using field data and Landsat 7 imagery for Cenozoic structures as well as GPS and seismicity for active structures to unravel the Neogene to Present evolution. Western Yunnan is crossed by three continental-size ductile shear zones characterized by high mountain belts mainly composed of high-grade metamorphics and mylonitic rocks, and affected by active faulting. The easternmost metamorphic range, the Gaoligong Shan composed of verticalized foliated granites and mylonites is flattened westward and joins the Mogok metamorphic belt in Myanmar. East of the Gaoligong Shan, lie the Chong Shan and the Ailao / Diangcan Shan metamorphic ranges, which presents a vertical shistosity and a left-lateral motion. These three shear zones are separated by sedimentary fold-and-thrust-belts in the East, and , West of the Gaoligong, by Quaternary basins and volcanics. Preliminary results indicate that the Shan Scarp constituted the major strike-slip boundary between Indochina and India during Eocene to Miocene time, and accommodated deformation in right-lateral wrench. At the same time, the Ailao / Diangcan Shan and the Chong Shan zones were sheared left-laterally allowing the displacement toward the SE of Indochina block relative to south China. In the Miocene, ductile deformation migrated north along the Shan Scarp to the Mogok / Ruili metamorphic belt and the Gaoligong belt, dragging the Chong Shan right-laterally and superimposing a late right-lateral ductile deformation on its metamorphic rocks. The present-day relative motion between India and Sundaland, inferred from GPS processing, reaches 35 mm / yr in the Myanmar area. It is classically accepted that all of this motion is accommodated onto a single fault: the Sagaing fault in Myanmar. However, geodetic results show that, out of the 35 mm/yr of India versus Sundaland rate, only 18 mm / yr are accommodated by the Sagaing fault. Part of the remaining motion might be accommodated in western Yunnan. The present system might have been active since the Pliocene. We regard it as a combination of the right-lateral Sagaing Fault / Gaoligong, which propagates toward the north as a horsetail, and the circum syntaxis fault system. The state of stress, in Western Yunnan, is a WNW extension inferred from both focal mechanisms and recent fault-slip data analysis. The tectonic features are influenced by both the clockwise flow around the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis, and the northern extension along splays of the Sagaing fault. Deformation is then distributed between strike-slip and normal faulting. We propose that this interaction is accommodated by clockwise rotations of blocks.

  11. FREQUENCY-DEPENDENT NATURE OF Pn IN WESTERN CHINA: GAUSSIAN BEAM MODELING OF DATA FROM THE HI-CLIMB EXPERIMENT

    E-print Network

    Nowack, Robert L.

    FREQUENCY-DEPENDENT NATURE OF Pn IN WESTERN CHINA: GAUSSIAN BEAM MODELING OF DATA FROM THE HI the propagation of Pn beneath western China using data from Hi-CLIMB (An Integrated Study of the Himalayan a dataset for regional seismic events recorded by the Hi-CLIMB arrays and will show examples of long seismic

  12. Foods eaten by the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Shennongjia National Nature Reserve, China, in relation to nutritional chemistry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuecong; Stanford, Craig B; Yang, Jingyuan; Yao, Hui; Li, Yiming

    2013-08-01

    The diet of Rhinopithecus roxellana is characterized by lichens, which are available year-round and an uncommon food source for nonhuman primates, supplemented by seasonal plant foods. We present the first study of foods eaten by R. roxellana in relation to nutritional chemistry in Shennongjia National Nature Reserve, Hubei Province, China. We analyzed the nutrients (crude protein, crude fat, and water soluble carbohydrate [WSC]) and feeding deterrents (crude fiber, condensed tannin [CT], and total phenolic [TP]) of 111 parts from 53 plant species and of 6 lichen species. Results showed that lichens were a good choice for R. roxellana living in habitats with limited and seasonally available plant foods. They contained higher concentrations of WSC than foliage, fat concentrations equivalent to those in plant parts (except fruits/seeds), and lower concentrations of fiber than mature leaves, flowers, and fruits. Although lichens were lower in protein than plant parts (except fruits), the monkeys could likely meet their protein requirement by eating seasonal plant foods rich in protein, including foliage, flowers, buds, and seeds. The monkeys were not observed to select foliage higher in protein, but appeared to select mature leaves higher in WSC and lower in fiber. Fruits were a good source of WSC and fat, and seeds were a good source of fat. Neither CT nor TP content showed negative effects on the selection of mature leaves or lichens. PMID:23589133

  13. Community pharmacists' perceptions about pharmaceutical care of OTC western medicine: a survey in Harbin of China.

    PubMed

    Song, Menghuan; Ung, Carolina Oi Lam; Hu, Hao; Wang, Yitao

    2015-12-01

    Background In China, increasingly OTC-western medicine is obtained at the community pharmacy. It is unknown which care the community pharmacists in China provides with such medicines. Objective This study investigated community pharmacists' attitude, practice and perceived barriers about pharmaceutical care of over-the-counter western medicine. Moreover, community pharmacists' suggestions of improvement measures were also collected. Methods Questionnaire survey targeting community pharmacist. Results Respondents generally showed positive attitude towards pharmaceutical care. About 30 % of the respondents reported that they provided pharmaceutical care "whenever necessary", while about 40 % did it "as frequent as possible" or "to all consumers". Respondents considered "ambiguity of the professional role of pharmacists" (50.7 %), "Lack of scientific evidence of over-the-counter western medicine" (42.9), and "Lack of time" (40.0 %) as the main barriers. The 3 most important improvement measures suggested were "Formulating or refining legislation to clarify the legal professional role of pharmacists with respect to western medicine" (63.2 %), "Promoting public education of pharmacist role" (50.7 %), and "Formulating or refining the standards of pharmacists' practice with respect to western medicine" (50.7 %). Conclusion Community pharmacists in Harbin of China have a relatively positive attitude and intention to provide pharmaceutical care of OTC western medicine. However, lack of professional role definition, limited pharmaceutical knowledge and lack of human and financial resources limited the provision of pharmaceutical care by community pharmacists. PMID:26286338

  14. TSR versus non-TSR processes and their impact on gas geochemistry and carbon stable isotopes in Carboniferous, Permian and Lower Triassic marine carbonate gas reservoirs in the Eastern Sichuan Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q. Y.; Worden, R. H.; Jin, Z. J.; Liu, W. H.; Li, J.; Gao, B.; Zhang, D. W.; Hu, A. P.; Yang, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Palaeozoic and lowermost Mesozoic marine carbonate reservoirs of the Sichuan Basin in China contain variably sour and very dry gas. The source of the gas in the Carboniferous, Permian and Lower Triassic reservoirs is not known for certain and it has proved difficult to discriminate and differentiate the effects of thermal cracking- and TSR-related processes for these gases. Sixty-three gas samples were collected and analysed for their composition and carbon stable isotope values. The gases are all typically very dry (alkane gases being >97.5% methane), with low (<1%) nitrogen and highly variable H2S and CO2. Carboniferous gas is negligibly sour while the Lower Triassic gas tends to be most sour. The elevated H2S (up to 62%) is due to thermochemical sulphate reduction with the most sour Triassic and Permian reservoirs being deeper than 4800 m. The non-TSR affected Carboniferous gas is a secondary gas that was derived from the cracking of sapropelic kerogen-derived oil and primary gas and is highly mature. Carboniferous (and non-sour Triassic and Permian) gas has unusual carbon isotopes with methane and propane being isotopically heavier than ethane (a reversal of typical low- to moderate-maturity patterns). The gas in the non-sour Triassic and Permian reservoirs has the same geochemical and isotopic characteristics (and therefore the same source) as the Carboniferous gas. TSR in the deepest Triassic reservoirs altered the gas composition reaching 100% dryness in the deepest, most sour reservoirs showing that ethane and propane react faster than methane during TSR. Ethane evolves to heavier carbon isotope values than methane during TSR leading to removal of the reversed alkane gas isotope trend found in the Carboniferous and non-sour Triassic and Permian reservoirs. However, methane was directly involved in TSR as shown by the progressive increase in its carbon isotope ratio as gas souring proceeded. CO2 increased in concentration as gas souring proceeded, but typical CO2 carbon isotope ratios in sour gases remained about -4‰ V-PDB showing that it was not solely derived from the oxidation of alkanes. Instead CO2 may partly result from reaction of sour gas with carbonate reservoir minerals, such as Fe-rich dolomite or calcite, resulting in pyrite growth as well as CO2-generation.

  15. Does a temperate ungulate that breeds in summer exhibit rut-induced hypophagia? Analysis of time budgets of male takin (Budorcas taxicolor) in Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Guan, Tian Pei; Ge, Bao Ming; Powell, David M; McShea, William J; Li, Sheng; Song, Yan Ling

    2012-03-01

    Mammals maximize fitness by optimizing time and energy allocation between reproduction and survival. Describing time budgets is a way to understand a species' constraints in energy allocation. We describe a time budget for male takin (Budorcas taxicolor) in Tangjiahe Nature Reserve, China, to better understand rut-induced hypophagia, which is frequently observed in temperate ungulates that breed in autumn or in winter. Observations generally occurred at two elevations (1200-1600m and 2600-3200m), using 20-min focal animal scan sampling from 2007 to 2009. Feeding behaviors accounted for the majority in takin's time budget (61.1%) during daylight hours, relative to the other observed behaviors, such as rest (14.1%), alert behavior (10.2%) and locomotion (6.8%). We found a negative correlation between feeding behavior and rutting behavior during the rutting season. A ratio of feeding time to resting time increased from pre-rut to rut, while resting behavior did not change significantly across seasons. These results suggest the "energy saving" hypothesis could explain reduced foraging in male takin during the rut, but aspects of the species biology suggest that hypotheses for rut-induced hypophagia developed for other temperate ungulates do not apply to takin. We suggest that the unusual summer rutting season of takin releases males from the energy constraints encountered by temperate ungulates that breed in the autumn and has other benefits for offspring survival. Further research should be conducted on ungulates that exhibit rut during the summer and tropical ungulates that might not experience limited food availability following the mating season to improve our understanding on rut-induced hypophagia. PMID:22248568

  16. A Study on the Functions of Western Cultural Non-Verbal Behavior in English Classroom in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Yuehong

    2013-01-01

    In China, English classroom is the main place of English language acquisition. Therefore, how to improve English classroom teaching effectively has become the scholars' concern. This paper reports a study conducted at North China Electric Power University on the functions of western cultural nonverbal behaviors in English classroom in China.…

  17. A petrological investigation of the bi-modal gabbro-syenite Baima igneous complex, Sichuan, China: implications for the genesis of Fe-Ti-V-oxide ore deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsia, T. W.; Shellnutt, J. G.; Liu, T.; Iizuka, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The formation of orthomagmatic Fe-Ti oxide deposits from the Late Permian Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) of SW China is debated and has important petrologic and economic implications. The Baima igneous complex (BIC) is one of the largest Fe-Ti oxide deposits of the ELIP and is composed of a cumulate layered gabbroic portion, a thick Fe-Ti oxide ore zone and an isotropic peralkaline quartz syenite. The gabbro is composed of various proportions of olivine, plagioclase, clinopyroxene and interstitial titanomagnetite with minor apatite and sulphide minerals. Unlike many other ore-bearing layered intrusions (e.g. Bushveld, Stillwater), the oxide deposit is located in the lower third rather than the upper portions. This study attempts to experimentally constrain the origin and formation of the BIC by using a starting material (i.e. high-Ti Emeishan basalt) similar to the estimated parental magma composition of the gabbro-syenite complex. An anhydrous basaltic rock powder equal to high-Ti Emeishan rocks in the area was loaded into platinum envelopes and suspended in a 1-atm vertical-quenching furnace. The experiments proceeded at temperatures between 1310°C to 1100°C. They were quenched in water after each run. The run products were crafted into polished sections and individual phases were analyzed by EPMA. The experimental results show that the liquidus temperature is ~1310°C whereas the solidus temperature is estimated to be ~1100°C and the melting interval is ~210°C. The crystallization sequence is: titanomagnetite, plagioclase (An65), and pyroxene (Wo43-47En32-45Fs11-23). The residual liquid composition, represented by the quenched glass, evolves from lower SiO2 (SiO2 = ~45 wt%) values to higher SiO2 values (SiO2 = ~60 wt%) with corresponding decrease in Ti, Fe, Mg, Ca and increase of Na and K. The most evolved glass composition is strikingly similar to the enclaves within the Baima syenitic unit. Thus, the liquidus mineral is iron-titanium oxide which is consistent with the observation of basal oxide-ore formation. The low pressure results of this study indicate that early crystallization of Fe-Ti oxides will occur assuming a geologically reasonable starting material and the residual liquid is becoming more silicic. The direct implication is that the oxide deposits and spatially associated granitic rocks formed together by crystallization of a basaltic parental magma. Furthermore, external parameters (i.e. CO2-fluid fluxing) or silicate immiscibility are not necessarily required to form the oxide-ore deposits within evolved gabbroic intrusions.

  18. Reducing high maternal mortality rates in western China: a novel approach

    PubMed Central

    Gyaltsen, Kunchok; Jianzan, Gongque; Gyal, Lhusham; Xianjia, Li; Gipson, Jessica D; Kyi, Tsering; Rangji, Cai; Pebley, Anne R

    2015-01-01

    Among the Millennium Development Goals, maternal mortality reduction has proven especially difficult to achieve. Unlike many countries, China is on track to meeting these goals on a national level, through a programme of institutionalizing deliveries. Nonetheless, in rural, disadvantaged, and ethnically diverse areas of western China, maternal mortality rates remain high. To reduce maternal mortality in western China, we developed and implemented a three-level approach as part of a collaboration between a regional university, a non-profit organization, and local health authorities. Through formative research, we identified seven barriers to hospital delivery in a rural Tibetan county of Qinghai Province: (1) difficulty in travel to hospitals; (2) hospitals lack accommodation for accompanying families; (3) the cost of hospital delivery; (4) language and cultural barriers; (5) little confidence in western medicine; (6) discrepancy in views of childbirth; and (7) few trained community birth attendants. We implemented a three-level intervention: (a) an innovative Tibetan birth centre, (b) a community midwife programme, and (c) peer education of women. The programme appears to be reaching a broad cross-section of rural women. Multilevel, locally-tailored approaches may be essential to reduce maternal mortality in rural areas of western China and other countries with substantial regional, socioeconomic, and ethnic diversity. PMID:25555773

  19. Building Empire through Argumentation: Debating Salt and Iron in Western Han China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Xiaoye

    2010-01-01

    The history of American imperialism, as well as China's strong presence on the contemporary global scene, should encourage American scholars of rhetoric to look beyond the nation-state and study other rhetorical traditions such as Chinese practices of argument. A debate during the Western Han dynasty over the country's economic policies…

  20. Student Performance and Family Socioeconomic Status: Results from a Survey of Compulsory Education in Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiaofei; Lu, Ke

    2008-01-01

    This study used fifteen-year-old ninth-grade students from rural areas of five provinces in western China as samples to carry out research on the relationship between the socioeconomic status of Chinese families and student academic performance. Based on parents' educational background, occupation, family economic conditions, and other factors,…

  1. Factors Associated with the Utilization and Quality of Prenatal Care in Western Rural Regions of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dongxu, Wang; Yuhui, Shi; Stewart, Donald; Chun, Chang; Chaoyang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to identify key features of prenatal care utilization and quality in western regions of China and to determine the factors affecting the quality of prenatal care. Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted. The instrument for the study was a 10-stem respondent-administered, structured…

  2. Hydroclimate of the Tarim Basin, western China, during the past millennium

    E-print Network

    Smerdon, Jason E.

    Hydroclimate of the Tarim Basin, western China, during the past millennium: Clues from the deep1950 CE1970 ?? n = 1 n = 5 TARIM BASIN Subfossil 14 C dates implying wet conditions n = 32 0 10 15 5 20 HIGH LOPLAKE LOW Mollusc shell 14 C Renat Prz. S.H. CE1950 CE1970 ?? n = 1 n = 5 TARIM BASIN Subfossil

  3. Synoptic Disturbances over the Equatorial South China Sea and Western Maritime Continent during Boreal Winter

    E-print Network

    Chang, Chih-Pei

    Synoptic Disturbances over the Equatorial South China Sea and Western Maritime Continent during, California 93943. E-mail: cpchang@nps.navy.mil. #12;Abstract During boreal winter, the Maritime Continent is a region of deep cumulus convection and heavy precipitation systems that play a major role in several

  4. Education Management and Performance after Rural Education Finance Reform: Evidence from Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Mingxing; Murphy, Rachel; Tao, Ran; An, Xuehui

    2009-01-01

    Based on a survey of rural school districts in Western China, this essay explores the effects of fiscal centralisation on the relationship between local governance and school district management, most particularly on how managerial power is distributed in the rural education sector. The essay also examines some of the possible effects that changes…

  5. Home Language and Educational Attainments of Ethnic Minorities in Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Yanbi

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses effects of home language usage on minority student educational attainment in western China. Using survey data, the author finds that non-Chinese-speaking minority students are at a disadvantage in the transition to senior secondary schools. However, their transition to junior secondary schools is even more complicated. Rural…

  6. Renewable Energy Policy in Remote Rural Areas of Western China: Implementation and Socio-economic Benefits

    E-print Network

    Franz, Sven Oliver

    Renewable Energy Policy in Remote Rural Areas of Western China: Implementation and Socio on renewable energy sources. However, such an option is not universally agreed upon. This dissertation examines a renewable energy-based rural electrification program, the `Township Electrification Program', launched

  7. Acceptance of Male Circumcision Among Male Rural-to-Urban Migrants in Western China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Junjun; Huang, Jiegang; Yang, Xiaobo; Ye, Li; Wei, Bo; Deng, Wei; Wei, Suosu; Qin, Bo; Upur, Halmurat; Zhong, Chaohui; Wang, Qianqiu; Wang, Qian; Ruan, Yuhua; Wei, Fumei; Xu, Na; Xie, Peiyan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract To describe the acceptability of male circumcision (MC) and explore potential factors associated with MC acceptability among male rural-to-urban migrants in western China, a cross-sectional survey of MC acceptability was conducted with 1,904 subjects in three western provinces with high HIV prevalence (Guangxi, Chongqing, and Xinjiang) in China between June 2009 and November 2009. Through face-to-face interviews, the participants completed a self-administered questionnaire about demographics, MC knowledge, willingness and reasons to accept or refuse MC, sexual behaviors, and other psychosocial variables. Factors associated with acceptability of MC were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. Of the participants (n=1,904), 710 men were willing to accept MC (37.3%); the reasons included promotion of the partners' genital hygiene (54.9%), redundant prepuce or phimosis (43.1%), enhancement of sexual pleasure (40.6%), prevention of penile inflammation or cancer (35.5%), and protection against HIV and sexual transmitted diseases (STDs)(31.1%). A multivariable logistic regression showed that four factors were associated with acceptability of MC, including education level (OR=1.286, 95% CI=1.025?1.614), redundant prepuce or phimosis (OR=13.751, 95% CI=10.087?18.745), having one or more circumcised friends (OR=2.468, 95% CI=1.953?3.119), and having sexual intercourse with a temporary partner in the past year (OR=1.543, 95% CI=1.101?2.162). Compared with previously published data among the general population in China or worldwide, the acceptability of MC (37.3%) was low among the male rural-to-urban migrants in western China. Nevertheless, appropriate education could greatly improve the acceptability of MC. More public campaigns and health education on MC are needed to increase the rate of MC in China. PMID:23931654

  8. Paleozoic plate-tectonic evolution of the Tarim and western Tianshan regions, western China

    SciTech Connect

    Yangshen, S.; Huafu, L.; Dong, J.

    1994-11-01

    The plate-tectonic evolution of the Tarim basin and nearby western Tianshan region during Paleozoic time is reconstructed in an effort to further constrain the tectonic evolution of Central Asia, providing insights into the formation and distribution of oil and gas resources. The Tarim plate developed from continental rifting that progressed during early Paleozoic time into a passive continental margin. The Yili terrane (central Tianshan) broke away from the present eastern part of Tarim and became a microcontinent located somewhere between the Junggar ocean and the southern Tianshan ocean. The southern Tianshan ocean, between the Tarim craton and the Yili terrane, was subducting beneath the Yili terrane from Silurian to Devonian time. During the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous, the Tarim plate collided with the Yili terrane by sinistral accretional docking that resulted in a late Paleozoic deformational episode. Intracontinental shortening (A-type subduction) continued through the Permian with the creation of a magmatic belt. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Thaumasite formation in a tunnel of Bapanxia Dam in Western China

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Baoguo; Gao Xiaojian . E-mail: xjgao2002@yahoo.com.cn; Byars, Ewan A.; Zhou Qizhi

    2006-04-15

    A site investigation and sampling was carried out on a sulfate-attacked concrete structure in Bapanxia Hydraulic Power Plant in Western China. The concrete had been exposed to ground water containing substantial concentrations of salts (SO{sub 4} {sup 2-}, CO{sub 3} {sup 2-} and Cl{sup -}) for about 6 years and was analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), laser-Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. It is shown that a white mushy mixture consisting of thaumasite, ettringite, gypsum and calcite is present in the residual concrete. This paper reports the first instance of the thaumasite form of sulfate attack of concrete in China.

  10. Is traditional Chinese medicine recommended in Western medicine clinical practice guidelines in China? A systematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jun; Li, Xun; Sun, Jin; Han, Mei; Yang, Guo-Yan; Li, Wen-Yuan; Robinson, Nicola; Lewith, George; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based medicine promotes and relies on the use of evidence in developing clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). The Chinese healthcare system includes both traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine, which are expected to be equally reflected in Chinese CPGs. Objective To evaluate the inclusion of TCM-related information in Western medicine CPGs developed in China and the adoption of high level evidence. Methods All CPGs were identified from the China Guideline Clearinghouse (CGC), which is the main Chinese organisation maintaining the guidelines issued by the Ministry of Health of China, the Chinese Medical Association and the Chinese Medical Doctors’ Association. TCM-related contents were extracted from all the CPGs identified. Extracted information comprised the institution issuing the guideline, date of issue, disease, recommendations relating to TCM, evidence level of the recommended content and references supporting the recommendations. Results A total of 604 CPGs were identified, only a small number of which (74/604; 12%) recommended TCM therapy and only five guidelines (7%) had applied evidence grading. The 74 CPGs involved 13 disease systems according to the International Classification of Diseases 10th edition. TCM was mainly recommended in the treatment part of the guidelines (73/74, 99%), and more than half of the recommendations (43/74, 58%) were related to Chinese herbal medicine (single herbs or herbal treatment based on syndrome differentiation). Conclusions Few Chinese Western medicine CPGs recommend TCM therapies and very few provide evidence grading for the TCM recommendation. We suggest that future guideline development should be based on systematic searches for evidence to support CPG recommendations and involve a multidisciplinary approach including TCM expertise. PMID:26041487

  11. Comparison of China-US Engineering Ethics Educations in Sino-Western Philosophies of Technology.

    PubMed

    Cao, Gui Hong

    2015-12-01

    Ethics education has become essential in modern engineering. Ethics education in engineering has been increasingly implemented worldwide. It can improve ethical behaviors in technology and engineering design under the guidance of the philosophy of technology. Hence, this study aims to compare China-US engineering ethics education in Sino-Western philosophies of technology by using literature studies, online surveys, observational researches, textual analyses, and comparative methods. In my original theoretical framework and model of input and output for education, six primary variables emerge in the pedagogy: disciplinary statuses, educational goals, instructional contents, didactic models, teaching methods, and edificatory effects. I focus on the similarities and differences of engineering ethics educations between China and the US in Chinese and Western philosophies of technology. In the field of engineering, the US tends toward applied ethics training, whereas China inclines toward practical moral education. The US is the leader, particularly in the amount of money invested and engineering results. China has quickened its pace, focusing specifically on engineering labor input and output. Engineering ethics is a multiplayer game effected at various levels among (a) lower level technicians and engineers, engineering associations, and stockholders; (b) middle ranking engineering ethics education, the ministry of education, the academy of engineering, and the philosophy of technology; and (c) top national and international technological policies. I propose that professional engineering ethics education can play many important roles in reforming engineering social responsibility by international cooperation in societies that are becoming increasingly reliant on engineered devices and systems. Significantly, my proposals contribute to improving engineering ethics education and better-solving engineering ethics issues, thereby maximizing engineering sustainability. PMID:25481713

  12. Origin of ancient potash evaporites: clues from the modem nonmarine qaidam basin of Western china.

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, T K; Spencer, R J; Pengxi, Z

    1989-09-01

    Modern potash salt deposits and associated brines of the Qaidam Basin, western China, demonstrate that some anomalous marine evaporites may have formed from nonmarine brines instead of seawater. Qaidam Basin brines are derived from meteoric river inflow mixed with small amounts of CaCl spring inflow similar in composition to many saline formation waters and hydrothermal brines. Evaporation of springenriched inflow yields a predicted mineral sequence including carnallite, bischofite, and tachyhydrite that is identical to several anomalous marine evaporites. Other mixtures of river and spring inflow produce the salt assemblage expected from evaporation of seawater. PMID:17838808

  13. 2008 Landslide Near Hongyan Resort, China

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The May 12, 2008, Great Sichuan Earthquake, also called the Wenchuan Earthquake, occurred at 14:28 local time, in Sichuan Province, China. The earthquake magnitudes were Mw = 7.9 (USGS), Ms = 8.0 (Chinese Earthquake Administration). The epicenter was 80 km west-northwest of Chengdu, the capital city...

  14. Effect of anthropogenic sulphate aerosol in China on the drought in the western-to-central US

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Sang-Wook; Park, Rokjin J.; Kim, Minjoong J.; Jeong, Jaein I.; Song, Chang-Keun

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, droughts have occurred in the western-to-central United States (US), significantly affecting food production, water supplies, ecosystem health, and the propagation of vector-borne diseases. Previous studies have suggested natural sea surface temperature (SST) forcing in the Pacific as the main driver of precipitation deficits in the US. Here, we show that the aerosol forcing in China, which has been known to alter the regional hydrological cycle in East Asia, may also contribute to reducing the precipitation in the western-to-central US through atmospheric teleconnections across the Pacific. Our model experiments show some indications that both the SST forcing and the increase in regional sulphate forcing in China play a similar role in modulating the western-to-central US precipitation, especially its long-term variation. This result indicates that regional air quality regulations in China have important implications for hydrological cycles in East Asia, as well as in the US. PMID:26391405

  15. Effect of anthropogenic sulphate aerosol in China on the drought in the western-to-central US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Sang-Wook; Park, Rokjin J.; Kim, Minjoong J.; Jeong, Jaein I.; Song, Chang-Keun

    2015-09-01

    In recent decades, droughts have occurred in the western-to-central United States (US), significantly affecting food production, water supplies, ecosystem health, and the propagation of vector-borne diseases. Previous studies have suggested natural sea surface temperature (SST) forcing in the Pacific as the main driver of precipitation deficits in the US. Here, we show that the aerosol forcing in China, which has been known to alter the regional hydrological cycle in East Asia, may also contribute to reducing the precipitation in the western-to-central US through atmospheric teleconnections across the Pacific. Our model experiments show some indications that both the SST forcing and the increase in regional sulphate forcing in China play a similar role in modulating the western-to-central US precipitation, especially its long-term variation. This result indicates that regional air quality regulations in China have important implications for hydrological cycles in East Asia, as well as in the US.

  16. Effect of anthropogenic sulphate aerosol in China on the drought in the western-to-central US.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Sang-Wook; Park, Rokjin J; Kim, Minjoong J; Jeong, Jaein I; Song, Chang-Keun

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, droughts have occurred in the western-to-central United States (US), significantly affecting food production, water supplies, ecosystem health, and the propagation of vector-borne diseases. Previous studies have suggested natural sea surface temperature (SST) forcing in the Pacific as the main driver of precipitation deficits in the US. Here, we show that the aerosol forcing in China, which has been known to alter the regional hydrological cycle in East Asia, may also contribute to reducing the precipitation in the western-to-central US through atmospheric teleconnections across the Pacific. Our model experiments show some indications that both the SST forcing and the increase in regional sulphate forcing in China play a similar role in modulating the western-to-central US precipitation, especially its long-term variation. This result indicates that regional air quality regulations in China have important implications for hydrological cycles in East Asia, as well as in the US. PMID:26391405

  17. [Development of integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine and change of medical policy in China].

    PubMed

    Shin, S S

    1999-01-01

    "Sect of Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine" came into the world four hundred years ago when Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) contacted Western Medicine (WM) at the beginning of the 17th century. It collected historical experiences showing that the cooperation of TCM and WM is more efficient for the cure and prevention of disease than each of them separately. Now the recognition that the cooperation of eastern and western medicine is more efficient to cure disease is spreading widely. This study will help Korean eastern and western medicine to find their directions. First, the concept of "sect of Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine" which was established between the beginning of the 17th century and the middle of the 20th century, and Integration of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine (ITCWM) which was formed after the middle of the 20th century will be discussed. The relationship of "sect of Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine" and ITCWM and political consideration for the establishment of ITCWM will also be discussed. Finally, the current status of ITCWM in China will be discussed. New trends of thought appeared in Chinese medicine, owing to the cultural background of modern China, the development of WM, and the academic background of the intellectual class. "Sect of Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine" and ITCWM are different in historical and social background. However, purpose, foundation of thoughts and logical idea are fundamentally the same. It can be said that "sect of Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine" provided academic mood to open the way for ITCWM and ITCWM is a succession of "sect of Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine". The concept of ITCWM has many ways of explanation. However, it can be said to build up the foundation of new medical area including Chinese special way of medical treatment and new methods of modern medicine, succeeding a legacy of TCM. ITCWM began before the establishment of People's Republic of China. Mao Ze-dong (1893-1976), a powerful politician, and Li Ding-ming (1881-1947) who had many experiences and insight for TCM and WM played important roles at this stage. The period from the New China to the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (1966-1975) is the term for the establishment of the shape of ITCWM. "The effort of research and development on TCM-WM integration" was adapted as one of hygienic policies for curing of epidemic disease and succession and development of the heritage of TCM to establish new medical area. TCM class for western medical doctors was opened and mass media was used to spread out ITCWM throughout China. During the period of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, ITCWM had to be stepped back and stagnant. Only the TCM class of western medical doctors and some clinical applications were barely kept moving on and alive. From the period of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution to the end of the 1980s, there are the movement of re-preparation of ITCWM, education of successors, and the establishment of the Institute of ITCWM. Hospitals began to establish department of ITCWM. Furthermore, it was clearly indicated in the constitutional law that "We not only have to develop modern medicine but also traditional medicine". The equality of TCM and WM was legally established in this time. From the 1990s, "equality of TCM and WM" was adapted as one of the hygienic policies, and department of ITCWM was opened in traditional Chinese medical school and western medical school. ITCWM has been settled down as a new academic field through education, training, research, academic activity, and publishing text books. In conclusion, the motive of the development of ITCWM was the policy such as "the effort of research and development on TCM-WM integration" abd "equality of TCM and WM" aimed at the development of Chinese medical area. It is no doubt helpful to organize systems and policy-making for the cooperation o

  18. Population Genetic Structure and Species Status of Asiatic Toads (Bufo gargarizans) in Western China.

    PubMed

    Wen, Guannan; Yang, Weizhao; Fu, Jinzhong

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the population genetic structure of Asiatic toads (Bufo gargarizans) from the mountains of western China to determine their species status, using genotypic data of ten microsatellite DNA loci and DNA sequences from one mitochondrial gene. A total of 197 samples from eight sites were examined, which cover a large range of elevations (559-3457 m), as well as all three traditionally defined species (or subspecies). AMOVA did not reveal any particularly large among-groups structure, whether the sites were grouped by drainage, elevation, region, or species (subspecies). Individual assignment tests placed all samples into two genetic clusters, which largely corresponded to their geographic locations. An isolation-by-distance pattern was also detected when an outlier population (site 3) was excluded. Furthermore, a mitochondrial gene tree revealed deep divergence among haplotypes, sometimes within the same site. The clade patterns were partially associated with geographic distribution but had no resemblance to the traditional 2- or 3-species classification. Overall, these toad populations harbor a large amount of genetic diversity and have very high population differentiation, but taken together the evidence suggests that all populations belong to a single species. Our results are consistent with most previous molecular studies, and we recommend using Bufo gargarizans to represent all Asiatic toad populations from western China without subspecies division. PMID:26428719

  19. Saline-alkali land classification using MODIS data In Western Jilin Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Lingjia; Ren, Ruizhi; Cao, Junsheng; Sun, Jian

    2013-09-01

    Remote sensing technology can extract useful information from observation areas, meanwhile provide effective data for land monitoring, which is widely used in dynamic monitoring and resources research of saline alkali land. Through using MODIS spectral remote sensing data, a case study of Western Jilin Province of China mainly covered by typical saline alkali land was carried out in this paper. After using the proposed optimal band combination method, the main distribution positions of the observed saline alkali land were roughly determined based on the colors and shapes of MODIS images derived from deferent seasons. After analyzing the time series of NDVI observations, the decision tree classification of land cover was designed to determine the land cover types and the degree of salinity-alkalinity. Through obtaining and analyzing of the spectral characteristics of each saline alkali land type, the relationship between the spectral characteristics and saline alkali land type was deduced. The research results demonstrated that the saline alkali lands located in Western Jilin Province, China were effectively classified based on the spectral characteristics of MODIS data, which provided the moderate spatial resolution classification results for a wide range of saline alkali land monitoring.

  20. 3-D Crustal Structure in Southwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Chan, W.; Mooney, W.

    2001-12-01

    Using P and S arrival data of 4,625 local and regional earthquakes recorded at 174 seismic stations and associated geophysical investigation, we present a 3-D crustal and upper mantle velocity structure of the southwestern China (Sichuan and Yunnan provinces). The southwestern China lies in the transition zone between the uplifted Tibetan plateau to the west and the Yangtze continental platform to the east. In the upper crust, a positive anomaly velocity zone exists in the Sichuan basin; whereas a large-scale negative anomaly velocity zone exists in the western Sichuan plateau, which is consistent with the upper crustal structure under Tibetan Plateau. The boundary between these two positive and negative anomaly zones is the Longmen Shan fault. The Tengchong volcanic area, as well as the strike-slip faults, such as Xianshuihe fault, Anninghe fault, the northern segment of Red River fault, and the southern segment of Xiaojiang fault, are in the areas with a negative anomaly zone in the upper crust. In the mid-crustal depth, we found that there is a general consistency between the negative velocity anomaly and seismicity. The negative velocity anomalies at the depth of 50 km in the Tengchong volcanic area and the Panxi tectonic zone appears to be associated with the temperature and composition variations in the upper mantle. The Red River fault is the boundary between the positive and negative velocity anomalies at 50 km depth. The overall features of the crustal and the upper mantle structures in the southwestern China are the low average velocity, the large crustal thickness variations, the existence of a high conductivity layer in the crust or/and upper mantle, and a high geothermal value. All these features are closely related to the collision between the Indian and the Asian plates.

  1. Sequence Analysis of cytb Gene in Echinococcus granulosus from Western China

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Xiuqin; Wang, Ning; Hu, Dandan; Wang, Jiahai; Liu, Tianyu; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong

    2014-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus is the causative agent of cystic echinococcosis with medical and veterinary importance in China. Our main objective was to discuss the genotypes and genetic diversity of E. granulosus present in domestic animals and humans in western China. A total of 45 hydatid cyst samples were collected from sheep, humans, and a yak and subjected to an analysis of the sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene. The amplified PCR product for all samples was a 1,068 bp band. The phylogenetic analysis showed that all 45 samples were identified as E. granulosus (genotype G1). Ten haplotypes were detected among the samples, with the main haplotype being H1. The haplotype diversity was 0.626, while the nucleotide diversity was 0.001. These results suggested that genetic diversity was low among our samples collected from the west of China based on cytb gene analysis. These findings may provide more information on molecular characteristics of E. granulosus from this Chinese region. PMID:24850967

  2. Child body mass index in four cities of East China compared to Western references

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Huiqi; Jiang, Yifang; Jing, Xinming; Fu, Sulin; Jiang, Yan; Lin, Zhongfang; Sheng, Zhihua; Cole, Tim J.

    2008-01-01

    Background The rising trends in child obesity worldwide are poorly documented in China. Aim The present study compared the distribution of body mass index (BMI) by age in children from four cities in East China with Western references. Subjects and methods 94 370 boys and 90 048 girls aged 0–19 years from Shanghai, Jinan, Xuzhou and Hefei were measured in 1999–2004 for length/height and weight. The LMS method was used to construct BMI centiles for each city. Shanghai children aged 0–6 years in 1986 and US and UK BMI references were used for comparison. Results The median BMI curves for the four cities differed in shape from those for the USA and UK. Chinese boys were fatter than US boys in early to mid-childhood but less so in adolescence, and US boys were fatter at age 18. Within China the adiposity rebound was earlier in boys than girls. Shanghai children were appreciably fatter in 2000 than in 1986, and boys more so than girls. Conclusions The roots of child obesity lie in early life, particularly in boys, and are linked to economic development, which has important implications for both the aetiology of child obesity and the health of current and future Chinese children. PMID:19085513

  3. Change as Challenge for Shop-Floor Learning: The Case of Western and Local Manufacturing Companies in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jianzhong

    2000-11-01

    This paper explores the process of workplace learning and problem solving by examining Western and local enterprises in South China. The paper addresses the subject on two levels. First, it examines the process of learning by solving problems on the shop floor. Second, it deals with certain managerial concepts embedded in Chinese culture and discusses whether these concepts help or impede collective learning. The article concludes that new ways of working and learning are emerging through the interaction of Western and Chinese culture.

  4. Origin, Divergence, and Phylogeny of Asexual Epichloë Endophyte in Elymus Species from Western China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hui; Nan, Zhibiao

    2015-01-01

    Asexual Epichloë species are likely derived directly from sexual Epichloë species that then lost their capacity for sexual reproduction or lost sexual reproduction because of interspecific hybridization between distinct lineages of sexual Epichloë and/or asexual Epichloë species. In this study we isolated asexual Epichloë endophytes from Elymus species in western China and sequenced intron-rich regions in the genes encoding ?-tubulin (tubB) and translation elongation factor 1-? (tefA). Our results showed that there are no gene copies of tubB and tefA in any of the isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that sequences in this study formed a single clade with asexual Epichloë bromicola from Hordeum brevisubulatum, which implies asexual Epichloë endophytes that are symbionts in a western Chinese Elymus species likely share a common ancestor with asexual E. bromicola from European H. brevisubulatum. In addition, our results revealed that asexual E. bromicola isolates that are symbionts in a western Chinese Elymus species and sexual Epichloë species that are symbionts in a North American Elymus species have a different origin. Further analysis found that Epichloë species likely originated in Eurasia. In addition, the results support the hypothesis that migratory birds or humans might have aided the dispersal of these fungal endophytes to other continents. PMID:25970178

  5. Decadal trends of RSMA-based GV and NPV in western China during 2000-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, J.; Okin, G. S.

    2010-12-01

    Western China (73-112°E, 26 - 50°N) is an important arid and semi-arid area that is dominated by a typical monsoon climate. Currently, this region is experiencing both climatic and human induced stresses. Thus, an accurate description of vegetation dynamics in the last decade is necessary to help us understand and attribute the response of vegetation to both natural forcings and anthropogenic disturbances. The continuous and intensive MOD43B4 Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR) product, covering western China, were acquired for the period of 2000 to 2008. To better understand the variability of the total vegetation cover in the growing season (from April to October) in this arid region, relative spectral mixture analysis (RSMA) was selected as the target indicator. The resulting data set was used in a non-parametric trend analysis to characterize spatial patterns of green vegetation (GV), non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and total vegetation (TV) trends. Results indicate that shrubland, grassland and “barren” land cover types have experienced significant changes in vegetation (GV and NPV) cover. A few large areas of distinct clustering for GV changes are observed in the middle part of Gansu, the southern part of Shanxi, south-eastern Xizang, northern Xinjiang and central Qinghai. Shanxi (69.6%) and Gansu (28.2%) have the greatest percentage of pixels with a persistent increasing GV, whereas portions of Xinjiang (9.64%) shows a persistent decline. Associated spatial patterns of NPV change reveal that those regions with decreasing NPV are in the central and northern Gansu, around the Taklimakan Desert, Shanxi and central Qinghai, whereas the area with significant increase is in northern Xinjiang. A cluster of increasing TV is observed in the southern Shanxi and areas with decreasing TV are located in northern Shanxi and northern slope of Tianshan Mountain in Xinjiang. These results indicate that complex interactions between human and natural forcings are altering vegetation cover, with significant implications for dust emission, planetary albedo, and land-atmosphere interactions in the region. Keywords: Relative Spectral Mixture Analysis (RSMA), MOD43B4, Trend analysis, western China, nonphotosynthetic vegetation, green vegetation.

  6. The Impact of Overseas Training on Curriculum Innovation and Change in English Language Education in Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Daguo; Edwards, Viv

    2013-01-01

    This article assesses the impact of a UK-based professional development programme on curriculum innovation and change in English Language Education (ELE) in Western China. Based on interviews, focus group discussions and observation of a total of 48 English teachers who had participated in an overseas professional development programme influenced…

  7. Psychological Distress among Adolescents in Chengdu, Sichuan at 1 Month after the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaonan; Zhang, Jianxin; Mak, Winnie W. S.; Choi, Kai Chow; Lui, Wacy W. S.; Zhang, Jianxin; Chan, Emily Y. Y.

    2010-01-01

    A devastating earthquake occurred on May 12, 2008 in Sichuan, China. This study investigated the prevalence and factors in association with psychological problems among secondary school students living in Chengdu (90 km away from the disaster epicenter) in June 2008. In a cross-sectional survey, 3,324 secondary students self-administered a structured questionnaire in classroom setting. Validated scales were used in this study. Among all respondents, 22.3% reported post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); 22.6% were probable depression cases; 10.6% reported suicidal ideation; and 14.1% would like to receive psychological counseling. No gender differences were found. While social/emotional support from teachers or peers (OR from 0.40 to 0.78) and exposure to positive news reports (OR from 0.59 to 0.62) were found protective, prior experience of severe mental distress (OR from 1.60 to 2.68) and corporal punishment (OR from 1.31 to 1.58), worry about future aftershocks (OR from 1.64 to 3.11), absence from school when it was not closed (OR from 1.38 to 1.48), exposures to scary or sorrowful disaster media coverage (OR from 1.39 to 2.07), post-disaster visits to affected sites (OR from 1.51 to 1.59), separation from parents (OR?=?1.61), etc., were risk factors predictive of some of the aforementioned psychological problems. Negative mental health impacts were prevalent among the respondents. Teachers, parents, and the mass media are all important in maintaining good mental health among adolescents that are indirectly affected by the severe earthquake. The results have important implications for earthquake preparedness and relief work in the future. PMID:20405226

  8. Psychological distress among adolescents in Chengdu, Sichuan at 1 month after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Lau, Joseph T F; Yu, Xiaonan; Zhang, Jianxin; Mak, Winnie W S; Choi, Kai Chow; Lui, Wacy W S; Zhang, Jianxin; Chan, Emily Y Y

    2010-05-01

    A devastating earthquake occurred on May 12, 2008 in Sichuan, China. This study investigated the prevalence and factors in association with psychological problems among secondary school students living in Chengdu (90 km away from the disaster epicenter) in June 2008. In a cross-sectional survey, 3,324 secondary students self-administered a structured questionnaire in classroom setting. Validated scales were used in this study. Among all respondents, 22.3% reported post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); 22.6% were probable depression cases; 10.6% reported suicidal ideation; and 14.1% would like to receive psychological counseling. No gender differences were found. While social/emotional support from teachers or peers (OR from 0.40 to 0.78) and exposure to positive news reports (OR from 0.59 to 0.62) were found protective, prior experience of severe mental distress (OR from 1.60 to 2.68) and corporal punishment (OR from 1.31 to 1.58), worry about future aftershocks (OR from 1.64 to 3.11), absence from school when it was not closed (OR from 1.38 to 1.48), exposures to scary or sorrowful disaster media coverage (OR from 1.39 to 2.07), post-disaster visits to affected sites (OR from 1.51 to 1.59), separation from parents (OR = 1.61), etc., were risk factors predictive of some of the aforementioned psychological problems. Negative mental health impacts were prevalent among the respondents. Teachers, parents, and the mass media are all important in maintaining good mental health among adolescents that are indirectly affected by the severe earthquake. The results have important implications for earthquake preparedness and relief work in the future. PMID:20405226

  9. Biogeography of Nocardiopsis strains from hypersaline environments of Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces, western China

    PubMed Central

    He, Song-Tao; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Jiang, Hongchen; Yang, Ling-Ling; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Hozzein, Wael N.; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The genus Nocardiopsis is a widespread group within the phylum Actinobacteria and has been isolated from various salty environments worldwide. However, little is known about whether biogeography affects Nocardiopsis distribution in various hypersaline environments. Such information is essential for understanding the ecology of Nocardiopsis. Here we analyzed 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and sodA genes of 78 Nocardiopsis strains isolated from hypersaline environments in Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces of western China. The obtained Nocardiopsis strains were classified into five operational taxonomic units, each comprising location-specific phylo- and genotypes. Statistical analyses showed that spatial distance and environmental factors substantially influenced Nocardiopsis distribution in hypersaline environments: the former had stronger influence at large spatial scales, whereas the latter was more influential at small spatial scales. PMID:26289784

  10. Geodynamic setting of mineralization of Mississippi Valley-type deposits in world-class Sichuan-Yunnan-Guizhou Zn-Pb triangle, southwest China: Implications from age-dating studies in the past decade and the Sm-Nd age of Jinshachang deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Changqing; Wu, Yue; Hou, Lin; Mao, Jingwen

    2015-05-01

    The Sichuan-Yunnan-Guizhou (S-Y-G) Zn-Pb triangle is a world-class metallogenic belt in southwestern China that contains hundreds of carbonate-hosted giant-to-small epigenetic Zn-Pb deposits. Here, we provide an overview of the ore geology, geochemistry and ore-forming fluids of the major Zn-Pb deposits in this area. These deposits are most likely Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits that formed as a result of the regional migration of basinal brines along large fault systems and more minor secondary structures. The Sm-Nd age (201 ± 6.2 Ma) of ore-stage fluorite from the Jinshachang Zn-Pb deposit, within northeast Yunnan province, China, reveals this deposit formed during the Late Triassic, consistent with the majority of the published isotopic ages for other Zn-Pb deposits in the S-Y-G MVT triangle. These fluorite samples have initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.711385-0.711463 and ?Nd values of -8.4 to -8.7, confirming the basin-related nature of the mineralizing fluids. Published geochronological data combined with basic features of MVT deposits (e.g., geology, geochemistry, and ore-forming fluids) and the geological evolution of the study area has enabled us to develop a model for the Zn-Pb mineralization, where this word-class MVT belt has formed as a result of the regional-scale migration of basinal fluids coincident with tectonic activity along ore-controlling structures (e.g., thrust-fold systems). Both the fluid migration and the tectonic activity were probably triggered by the late Indosinian Orogeny, which in turn was a response to the closure of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean.

  11. Geology, distribution, and classification of gold deposits in the western Qinling belt, central China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mao, J.; Qiu, Y.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Zhang, Z.; Garwin, S.; Fengshou, R.

    2002-01-01

    Gold deposits of the western Qinling belt occur within the western part of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogen, which is located between the Precambrian North China and Yangtze cratons and east of the Songpan-Ganzi basin. The early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic orogen can be divided into northern, central, and southern zones, separated by the Shangdan and Lixian-Shanyang thrust fault systems. The northern zone consists of an early Paleozoic arc accreted to the North China craton by ca. 450 Ma. The central zone, which contains numerous orogenic gold deposits, is dominated by clastic rocks formed in a late Paleozoic basin between the converging cratonic blocks. The southern zone is characterized by the easternmost exposure of Triassic sedimentary rocks of the Songpan-Ganzi basin. These Early to Late Triassic turbidities, in part calcareous, of the immense Songpan-Ganzi basin also border the western Qinling belt to the west. Carlinlike gold deposits are abundant (1) along a westward extension of the southern zone defined by a window of early Paleozoic clastic rocks extending into the basin, and (2) within the easternmost margin of the basinal rocks to the south of the extension, and in adjacent cover rocks of the Yangtze craton. Triassic and Early Jurassic synkinematic granitoids are widespread across the western Qinling belt, as well as in the Songpan-Ganzi basin. Orogenic lode gold deposits along brittle-ductile shear zones occur within greenschist-facies, highly deformed, Devonian and younger clastic rocks of the central zone. Mainly coarse-grained gold, along with pyrite, pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, and minor base metal sulfides, occur in networks of quartz veinlets, brecciated wall rock, and are dissminated in altered wall rock. Isotopic dates suggest that the deposits formed during the Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic as the leading edge of the Yangtze craton was thrust beneath rocks of the western Qinling belt. Many gold-bearing placers are distributed along the river systems that flow south from the lode-bearing central zone. Carlin-like gold deposits have only been identified during the last decade in the southern zone of the western Qinling and in the northeastern corner of the Songpan-Ganzi basin. The deposits mainly contain micron-diameter gold in arsenical pyrite; are characterized by the common occurence of cinnabar, stibnite, realgar, and orpiment; exhibit strong silicification, carbonatization, pyritization, and decalcification dissolution textures; and are structurally controlled. The lack of reactive host lithologies may have prevented development of large (> 100 tones of gold), stratigraphically-controlled orebodies, which are typical of the Carlin deposits in the western USA. These deposits are hosted by Triassic turbidities and shallow-water carbonates, and an early Paleozoic inlier in the Songpan-Ganzi basin that extends in an east-west belt for about 300 km. Rather than true "Carlin" deposits, these Carlin-like deposits may be some type of shallow-crustal (i.e., epithermal) hybrid with features intermediate to Nevada-style Carlin deposits and the orogenic gold deposits to the immediate north. These Carlin-like deposits also overlap in age with the early Mesozoic orogenic gold deposits and, therefore, also formed during the final stages of collision between the cratons and intermediate basin closure.

  12. The use of propagation path corrections to improve regional seismic event location in western China

    SciTech Connect

    Steck, L.K.; Cogbill, A.H.; Velasco, A.A.

    1999-03-01

    In an effort to improve the ability to locate seismic events in western China using only regional data, the authors have developed empirical propagation path corrections (PPCs) and applied such corrections using both traditional location routines as well as a nonlinear grid search method. Thus far, the authors have concentrated on corrections to observed P arrival times for shallow events using travel-time observations available from the USGS EDRs, the ISC catalogs, their own travel-tim picks from regional data, and data from other catalogs. They relocate events with the algorithm of Bratt and Bache (1988) from a region encompassing China. For individual stations having sufficient data, they produce a map of the regional travel-time residuals from all well-located teleseismic events. From these maps, interpolated PPC surfaces have been constructed using both surface fitting under tension and modified Bayesian kriging. The latter method offers the advantage of providing well-behaved interpolants, but requires that the authors have adequate error estimates associated with the travel-time residuals. To improve error estimates for kriging and event location, they separate measurement error from modeling error. The modeling error is defined as the travel-time variance of a particular model as a function of distance, while the measurement error is defined as the picking error associated with each phase. They estimate measurement errors for arrivals from the EDRs based on roundoff or truncation, and use signal-to-noise for the travel-time picks from the waveform data set.

  13. Recent 121-year variability of western boundary upwelling in the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Peng, Zicheng; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Zhou, Renjun; Song, Shaohua; Shi, Zhengguo; Chen, Tegu; Wei, Gangjian; Delong, Kristine L.

    2013-06-01

    upwelling is typically related to the eastern boundary upwelling system, whereas the powerful southwest Asian summer monsoon can also generate significant cold, nutrient-rich deep water in western coastal zones. Here we present a sea surface temperature record (A.D. 1876-1996) derived from coral Porites Sr/Ca for an upwelling zone in the northern South China Sea. The upwelling-induced sea surface temperature anomaly record reveals prominent multidecadal variability driven by Asian summer monsoon dynamics with an abrupt transition from warmer to colder conditions in 1930, and a return to warmer conditions after 1960. Previous studies suggest the expected increase in atmospheric CO2 for the coming decades may result in intensification in the eastern boundary upwelling system, which could enhance upwelling of CO2-rich deep water thus exacerbating the impact of acidification in these productive zones. In contrast, the weakening trend since 1961 in the upwelling time series from the northern South China Sea suggests moderate regional ocean acidification from upwelling thus a stress relief for marine life in this region.

  14. Efficacy trial of Vi polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid fever in south-western China.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, H. H.; Wu, C. G.; Xie, G. Z.; Gu, Q. W.; Wang, B. R.; Wang, L. Y.; Wang, H. F.; Ding, Z. S.; Yang, Y.; Tan, W. S.; Wang, W. Y.; Wang, X. C.; Qin, M.; Wang, J. H.; Tang, H. A.; Jiang, X. M.; Li, Y. H.; Wang, M. L.; Zhang, S. L.; Li, G. L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy of locally produced Vi vaccine over a time period of longer than one year. METHODS: A double-blinded, randomized field trial was performed in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in south-western China, using 30 micrograms doses of locally produced Vi. Enrolled subjects were 3-50 years of age, although the majority (92%) were school-aged children, who have the highest rate of typhoid fever in this setting. A total of 131,271 people were systematically allocated a single dose of 30 micrograms of Vi polysaccharide or saline placebo. The study population was followed for 19 months, with passive surveillance conducted in the Ministry of Health and the Regional Health and Anti-epidemic Centre (HAEC). Clinically suspected cases of typhoid fever were confirmed by blood culture, or by serological reaction with O-antigen (Widal tests). FINDINGS: After 19 months, there were 23 culture-confirmed cases of typhoid fever in the placebo group versus 7 cases in the Vi group (Protective efficacy (PE) = 69%; 95% CI = 28%, 87%). Most of the isolates were from school-aged children: 22 cases in the placebo group versus 6 in the Vi group (PE = 72%; 95% CI = 32%, 82%). No serious post-injection reactions were observed. The locally produced Vi polysaccharide vaccine showed levels of protective efficacy similar to those for Vi vaccine produced in industrial countries. CONCLUSION: The slightly higher dose of vaccine did not seem to alter efficacy significantly in China. PMID:11477965

  15. Drought in the Western US and Floods in China: Pacific Response to Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmerom, Y.; Polyak, V.; Burns, S.; Rasmussen, J.

    2007-12-01

    Regional response to increased warming due to greenhouse forcing is of vital interest and is only now beginning to be explored. . The Pacific Ocean plays an important role in modulating regional climate in many parts of the world at interannual to decadal time-scales; the response of the Pacific to global warming is thus important to any future climate predictions. Currently, there are contradictory modeling inferences on the response of the Pacific to greenhouse warming. One way to resolve these contradictions is to look for analogues to global warming scenarios in the paleoclimate record. Although climate response to solar variability is likely to be different in magnitude and detail compared to greenhouse forcing, it is a potential analog. Solar modulation of Holocene climate has now been documented in a number of regions, including the southwestern US (SW) and the monsoon region of China, based on precipitation records of precisely-dated speleothems. In the SW higher than normal solar activity was associated with drier than normal conditions, typical of La Niña and the negative phase of the PDO. In contrast, higher solar activity was associated with wetter than normal conditions in China. This inverse response to solar forcing by the two regions is attributed to changes in the Walker circulation and the Pacific Decadal and El Niño/Southern Oscillation systems of the Pacific Ocean. The inverse response to solar forcing by the two regions is consistent with modern negative correlation (r = -0.45) of precipitation patterns between the two regions. If solar forcing is indeed a low-level analogue to greenhouse forcing, the speleothem data suggest that warming from greater greenhouse emissions will lead to La Niña and the negative phase of the PDO-like conditions in the Pacific. These conditions would result in greater drought in the western USA and wetter conditions in the monsoon regions of Asia.

  16. Variations in Upper Water Structure during MIS3 from the Western South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, B.

    2010-12-01

    Global climate changes of last glacial are characterized by millennium-scale fluctuations in oxygen isotope records. Dansgaard-Oeschger cycle (D-O cycle), which is characterized by alternation of interstadial (IS) and stadial in Greenland ice core[1], and Herinch event (H event), which is an event of sudden iceberg discharge into the North Atlantic, are identified to be the major components in the fluctuations. Core 17954 is located in the modern summer upwelling area in the western South China Sea, its sediments recorded the variations of upwelling generated by East Asia Summer Monsoon(EASM) during MIS3. Based on the strict age model of AMS 14C dating,the paleo-Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Salinity (SSS) are reconstructed by pairing Mg/Ca-Paleothermometer and ?18O of planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber (white s.s.). Results show that in Core 17954, the ?18O record of G.ruber has significant millennium fluctuations as the ?18O records from NGRIP icecore and Hulu Cave stalagmites, this indicates that the climate changes of western SCS contains both signals from High Latitude of Northern Hemisphere as well as EASM. In order to get more information on upwelling changes, previous records of thermocline and foraminiferal primary productivity in Core 17954 are collected, restudied and compared. Five distinct shallowing periods of thermocline (referred to as S1~S5) are identified in this study. In S1~S4, SST is lower and productivity is higher, these indicate to an enhanced upwelling and strengthened EASM during these periods. And the lower SSS, caused by increasing precipitation or fresh water input, also prove this standpoint.

  17. Ocean response to typhoon Nuri (2008) in western Pacific and South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jingru; Oey, Lie-Yauw; Chang, Roger; Xu, Fanghua; Huang, Shih-Ming

    2015-05-01

    Typhoon Nuri formed on 18 August 2008 in the western North Pacific east of the Philippines and traversed northwestward over the Kuroshio in the Luzon Strait where it intensified to a category 3 typhoon. The storm weakened as it passed over South China Sea (SCS) and made landfall in Hong Kong as a category 1 typhoon on 22 August. Despite the storm's modest strength, the change in typhoon Nuri's intensity was unique in that it strongly depended on the upper ocean. This study examines the ocean response to typhoon Nuri using the Princeton Ocean Model. An ocean state accounting for the sea-surface temperature (SST) and mesoscale eddy field prior to Nuri was constructed by assimilating satellite SST and altimetry data 12 days before the storm. The simulation then continued without further data assimilation, so that the ocean response to the strong wind can be used to understand processes. It is found that the SST cooling was biased to the right of the storm's track due to inertial currents that rotated in the same sense as the wind vector, as has previously been found in the literature. However, despite the comparable wind speeds while the storm was in western Pacific and SCS, the SST cooling was much more intense in SCS. The reason was because in SCS, the surface layer was thinner, the vorticity field of the Kuroshio was cyclonic, and moreover a combination of larger Coriolis frequency as the storm moved northward and the typhoon's slower translational speed produced a stronger resonance between wind and current, resulting in strong shears and entrainment of cool subsurface waters in the upper ocean.

  18. [Emission Inventory of Crop Residues Field Burning and Its Temporal and Spatial Distribution in Sichuan Province].

    PubMed

    He, Min; Wang, Xing-rui; Han, Li; Feng, Xiao-qiong; Mao, Xue

    2015-04-01

    Based on the collected activity data, the 2012 emission inventory of crop residues field burning in Sichuan province was developed through the emission factor approach. Besides, the temporal and spatial distribution of pollutant emissions was also analysed in this paper. The results showed that the total emissions of SO2, NO(x), NH3, CH4, NMVOC, CO, PM2.5, EC and OC from crop residues field burning in Sichuan province in the year of 2012 were 1 210, 12 185, 2 827, 20 659, 40 463, 292 671, 39 277, 1 984 and 10 215 t, respectively; The rice straw, wheat straw, corn straw and oil rape straw were four major contributors to pollutant emissions, with a total contribution about 88% - 94%; Crop residues field burning emissions were affected by agricultural harvesting. Temporally, the emissions were concentrated in July and August with a small peak in May; Spatially, the Chengdu plain, the Northern area and the Eastern area of Sichuan province were the highest emission areas, while the Western area had relatively low emissions; The key uncertain sources included emission factors and parameters used for estimating crop burning amounts. PMID:26164892

  19. Profiling bacterial diversity in a limestone cave of the western Loess Plateau of China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yucheng; Tan, Liangcheng; Liu, Wuxing; Wang, Baozhan; Wang, Jianjun; Cai, Yanjun; Lin, Xiangui

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria and archaea sustain subsurface cave ecosystems by dominating primary production and fueling biogeochemical cyclings, despite the permanent darkness and shortage of nutrients. However, the heterogeneity and underlying mechanism of microbial diversity in caves, in particular those well connect to surface environment are largely unexplored. In this study, we examined the bacterial abundance and composition in Jinjia Cave, a small and shallow limestone cave located on the western Loess Plateau of China, by enumerating and pyrosequencing small subunit rRNA genes. The results clearly reveal the contrasting bacterial community compositions in relation to cave habitat types, i.e., rock wall deposit, aquatic sediment, and sinkhole soil, which are differentially connected to the surface environment. The deposits on the cave walls were dominated by putative cave-specific bacterial lineages within the ?-Proteobacteria or Actinobacteria that are routinely found on cave rocks around the world. In addition, sequence identity with known functional groups suggests enrichments of chemolithotrophic bacteria potentially involved in autotrophic C fixation and inorganic N transformation on rock surfaces. By contrast, bacterial communities in aquatic sediments were more closely related to those in the overlying soils. This is consistent with the similarity in elemental composition between the cave sediment and the overlying soil, implicating the influence of mineral chemistry on cave microhabitat and bacterial composition. These findings provide compelling molecular evidence of the bacterial community heterogeneity in an East Asian cave, which might be controlled by both subsurface and surface environments. PMID:25870592

  20. Reversal process of the South China Sea western boundary current in autumn 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhixin; Guo, Jingsong; Guo, Binghuo

    2015-10-01

    Using merged sea level anomaly and absolute geostrophic velocity products from satellite altimetry and Argos drifter data, we analyzed the reversal process of the South China Sea (SCS) western boundary current (SCSwbc) from a summer to winter pattern in 2011 and important oceanic phenomena during this process. Results show that the outbreak time of the northeast monsoon over the southern SCS lagged that over the northern SCS by about 1 month. During the SCS monsoon reversal period, the SCSwbc reversed rapidly into the winter pattern at the Guangdong continental slope in late September. Subsequently, the southward Vietnam coastal boundary current strengthened. However, the northward Natuna Current maintained a summer state until mid-October. Thus, the balance between the southward and northward currents was lost when they met, their junction moved gradually southward. However, a loop current formed southeast of Vietnam because the main stream of the Vietnam Offshore Current (VOC) remained near its original latitude. Meanwhile, the VOC and associated dipole circulation system strengthened. After mid- October, the northward Natuna Current began to weaken, the loop current finally shed, becoming a cool ring. The VOC and its associated dipole sub-basin circulation system also weakened gradually until it disappeared.

  1. Mineralogical characteristics of the superlarge Quaternary bauxite deposits in Jingxi and Debao counties, western Guangxi, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuefei; Wang, Qingfei; Zhang, Qizuan; Feng, Yuewen; Cai, Shuhui

    2012-06-01

    In recent decades, more than 0.5 billion tons of ores scattered in the Quaternary laterite in western Guangxi, China have been explored. The ores were derived from a bauxite horizon in Permian via physical break-up and re-sediment process. Utilizing various test methods, i.e., XRD, DTA, TG/DTG, SEM/EDS and EPMA, the mineralogical characteristics of the Quaternary bauxite ores in Jingxi and Debao counties were investigated. XRD was used together with TG/DTG to obtain relatively accurate ore mineral abundance. Diaspore is the major phase, whereas hematite, kaolinite, anatase, chamosite, gibbsite, goethite, illite and rutile are minor. Diaspore is characterized by a small particle size, low degrees of crystallinity and complex chemical composition. Both gibbsite and goethite have a varied particle size, and goethite crystals contain high Al substitution and Si. It is clarified that diaspore, chamosite and anatase were formed in a mildly reduced and alkaline depositional environment in Permian, while gibbsite, hematite, goethite and part kaolinite were precipitated from Al3+-, Si4+- and Fe3+-enriched solutions within an Quaternary oxidized environment. The ions Al3+, Si4+ and Fe3+ are mostly released from chamosite in its dissolution process. The different physicochemical conditions between the Permian depositional and the Quaternary weathering periods resulted in a complex mineral assemblage in the Quaternary bauxite.

  2. Social vulnerability of rural households to flood hazards in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D. L.; Li, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Evaluating social vulnerability is a crucial issue in risk and disaster management. In this study, a household social vulnerability index (HSVI) to flood hazards was developed and used to assess the social vulnerability of rural households in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China. Eight key indicators were indentified through interactive discussions with multidisciplinary specialists and local farmers, and their weights were determined using principle component analysis (PCA). The results showed that (1) the ratio of perennial working in other places, hazard-related training and illiteracy ratio (15+) were the most dominant factors to social vulnerability. (2) The numbers of high, moderate and low vulnerable households were 14, 64 and 16, respectively, which accounted for 14.9, 68.1, and 17.0 % of the total interviewed rural households, respectively. (3) The correlation coefficient between household social vulnerability scores and casualties in a storm flood in July 2010 was significant at 0.05 significance level (r = 0.248), which indicated that the selected indicators and their weights were valid. (4) Some mitigation strategies to reduce the household social vulnerability to flood hazards were proposed based on the assessment results. The results provide useful information for rural households and local governments to prepare, mitigate and response to flood hazards.

  3. Cyclic precipitation variation on the western Loess Plateau of China during the past four centuries

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Liangcheng; An, Zhisheng; Huh, Chih-An; Cai, Yanjun; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Shiau, Liang-Jian; Yan, Libin; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation variation on the Loess Plateau (LP) of China is not only important for rain-fed agriculture in this environmentally sensitive region, but also critical for the water and life securities over the whole Yellow River basin. Here we reconstruct high resolution precipitation variation on the western LP during the past 370 years by using two replicated, annually-laminated stalagmites. Spatial analysis suggests that the reconstruction can be also representative for the whole LP region. The precipitation variations show a significant quasi-50 year periodicity during the last 370 years, and have an important role in determining the runoff of the middle Yellow River. The main factor controlling the decadal scale variations and long-term trend in precipitation over this region is southerly water vapour transport associated with the Asian summer monsoon. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation is also an important influence on precipitation variation in this region, as it can affect the East Asian summer monsoon and the West Pacific Subtropical High. PMID:25223372

  4. Permian brachiopods from the Baoshan and Simao Blocks in Western Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Shuzhong; Shi, G. R.; Zongjie, Fang

    2002-08-01

    This paper describes and illustrates four Permian brachiopod assemblages (Assemblages A-D) from western Yunnan, southwest China. Assemblage A occurs in the basal part of the Yongde Formation in the Xiaoxinzhai section in the southern Baoshan Block and is assignable to the latest Artinskian or earliest Kungurian. Assemblage B occurs about 50 m stratigraphically above Assemblage A in the same section, and is of Chihsian (Kungurian-Roadian) age. Assemblage C was collected from the Yongde Formation in the Anpaitian section in the southern Baoshan Block and is most likely Roadian to Wordian in age. Assemblage D came from the Longtan Formation in the Simao Block and is of late Wuchiapingian in age. The brachiopod faunas from the Yongde Formation of the Baoshan Block, as a whole, is dominated by species characteristic of the Cathaysian Province, although some links with Peri-Gondwanan faunas are also evident. In contrast, Assemblage D from the Simao Block is characterised exclusively by taxa of the Cathaysian Province. New taxa described and illustrated are Neochonetes ( Huangichonetes) inflatus n. sp. Costatumulus minor n. sp. and Celebetus yunnanensis n. sp.

  5. Profiling bacterial diversity in a limestone cave of the western Loess Plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yucheng; Tan, Liangcheng; Liu, Wuxing; Wang, Baozhan; Wang, Jianjun; Cai, Yanjun; Lin, Xiangui

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria and archaea sustain subsurface cave ecosystems by dominating primary production and fueling biogeochemical cyclings, despite the permanent darkness and shortage of nutrients. However, the heterogeneity and underlying mechanism of microbial diversity in caves, in particular those well connect to surface environment are largely unexplored. In this study, we examined the bacterial abundance and composition in Jinjia Cave, a small and shallow limestone cave located on the western Loess Plateau of China, by enumerating and pyrosequencing small subunit rRNA genes. The results clearly reveal the contrasting bacterial community compositions in relation to cave habitat types, i.e., rock wall deposit, aquatic sediment, and sinkhole soil, which are differentially connected to the surface environment. The deposits on the cave walls were dominated by putative cave-specific bacterial lineages within the ?-Proteobacteria or Actinobacteria that are routinely found on cave rocks around the world. In addition, sequence identity with known functional groups suggests enrichments of chemolithotrophic bacteria potentially involved in autotrophic C fixation and inorganic N transformation on rock surfaces. By contrast, bacterial communities in aquatic sediments were more closely related to those in the overlying soils. This is consistent with the similarity in elemental composition between the cave sediment and the overlying soil, implicating the influence of mineral chemistry on cave microhabitat and bacterial composition. These findings provide compelling molecular evidence of the bacterial community heterogeneity in an East Asian cave, which might be controlled by both subsurface and surface environments. PMID:25870592

  6. Interpretation of earthquake-induced landslides triggered by the 12 May 2008, M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in the Beichuan area, Sichuan Province, China using satellite imagery and Google Earth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sato, H.P.; Harp, E.L.

    2009-01-01

    The 12 May 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in the People's Republic of China represented a unique opportunity for the international community to use commonly available GIS (Geographic Information System) tools, like Google Earth (GE), to rapidly evaluate and assess landslide hazards triggered by the destructive earthquake and its aftershocks. In order to map earthquake-triggered landslides, we provide details on the applicability and limitations of publicly available 3-day-post- and pre-earthquake imagery provided by GE from the FORMOSAT-2 (formerly ROCSAT-2; Republic of China Satellite 2). We interpreted landslides on the 8-m-resolution FORMOSAT-2 image by GE; as a result, 257 large landslides were mapped with the highest concentration along the Beichuan fault. An estimated density of 0.3 landslides/km2 represents a minimum bound on density given the resolution of available imagery; higher resolution data would have identified more landslides. This is a preliminary study, and further study is needed to understand the landslide characteristics in detail. Although it is best to obtain landslide locations and measurements from satellite imagery having high resolution, it was found that GE is an effective and rapid reconnaissance tool. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  7. Characteristics of strong ground motions in the 2014 M s 6.5 Ludian earthquake, Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J. J.; Zhang, Q.; Jiang, Z. J.; Xie, L. L.; Zhou, B. F.

    2015-10-01

    The 2014 M s 6.5 (M w6.1) Ludian earthquake occurred in the eastern Sichuan-Yunnan border region of western China. This earthquake caused much more severe engineering damage than the usual earthquakes with the same magnitude in China. The National Strong Motion Network obtained large set of ground motion recordings during the earthquake. To investigate the engineering interested characteristics of ground motion from Ludian earthquake and compare it with the M w 7.9 Wenchuan and the M w 6.6 Lushan earthquakes in western China, studies on the ground motion field, attenuation relationship, distance dependence of significant duration, and site amplification were carried out. Some conclusion is drawn. Specifically, the ground motion field reveals a directional feature, and the distribution characteristics of the two horizontal components are similar. The attenuation relationship for Ludian earthquake is basically consistent with the ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) for western China, except the slight smaller than the GMPE predicted at short periods. The distance dependences of ground motion duration are different in Sichuan and Yunnan regions due to the local physical dispersion and Q value. The site amplification factors are dominated by linear site response for lower reference ground motion, but the nonlinearity becomes notable for higher reference ground motion. This feature is basically consistent with the empirical model for western China. All the results indicate that the spatial distribution of ground motion, the attenuation characteristics, and the site amplification effect should be considered in characterization of near-field ground motion.

  8. A Sea-Surface Radiation Data Set for Climate Applications in the Tropical Western Pacific and South China Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Chan, Pui-King; Yan, Michael M.-H.

    2000-01-01

    The sea-surface shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes have been retrieved from the radiances measured by Japan's Geostationary Meteorological Satellite 5. The surface radiation data set covers the domain 40S-40N and 90E-170W. The temporal resolution is 1 day, and the spatial resolution is 0.5 deg x 0.5 deg latitude-longitude. The retrieved surface radiation have been validated with the radiometric measurements at the Atmospheric Radiation Measuring (ARM) site on Manus island in the equatorial western Pacific for a period of 15 months. It has also been validated with the measurements at the radiation site on Dungsha island in the South China Sea during the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) Intensive Observing Period (May and June 1998). The data set is used to study the effect of El Nino and East Asian Summer monsoon on the heating of the ocean in the tropical western Pacific and the South China Sea. Interannual variations of clouds associated with El Nino and the East Asian Summer monsoon have a large impact on the radiative heating of the ocean. It has been found that the magnitude of the interannual variation of the seasonal mean surface radiative heating exceeds 40 W/sq m over large areas. Together with the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) shortwave fluxes at top of the atmosphere and the radiative transfer calculations of clear-sky fluxes, this surface radiation data set is also used to study the impact of clouds on the solar heating of the atmosphere. It is found that clouds enhance the atmospheric solar heating by approx. 20 W/sq m in the tropical western Pacific and the South China Sea. This result is important for evaluating the accuracy of solar flux calculations in clear and cloudy atmospheres.

  9. Equity in use of maternal health services in Western Rural China: a survey from Shaanxi province

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The 20th century was marked by a significant improvement in worldwide human health and access to healthcare. However, these improvements were not completely or uniformly distributed among, or even within, nations. This study was designed to assess the use of maternal health services by pregnant women in China, with a focus on the inequity related to family income level. Methods Two population-based cross-sectional surveys were carried out in the Zhenan and Lantian counties in March 2007 and from December 2008 to March 2009. A total of 2562 women completed the questionnaires, including 948 who were pregnant in 2006 and 1614 from 2008–2009. The concentration index (CI) was calculated and used to analyze the parameters of maternal health care in the two counties surveyed. Results The responses in both 2006 and 2008–2009 indicated a bias towards higher (rich) economic statuses for the use of maternal and child health services. The CI of ‘delivery at health facility’ was 0.0206 (95% confidence interval between 0.0114 and 0.0299) for 2006 and 0.0053 (95% confidence interval between 0.0015 and 0.0091) for 2008, which represented a statistically significant inequity for women of lower (poor) economic statuses. Similar CI was observed in ‘receiving antenatal care within 12?weeks’ for 2006 (CI2006 =?0.0956, 95% confidence interval between 0.0516 and 0.1396). The CIs of ‘postnatal visit’ and ‘postnatal visit >3-times’ was positive (except for 2006), indicating that the poor used postnatal care less than the non-poor. In 2008, poor women had C-sections more often than non-poor women (CI2008 =??0.0629, 95% confidence interval between-0.1165 and ?0.0093), but such a difference was not observed in 2006. Conclusions In 2006 and 2008, the use of maternal health services in western rural China was significantly unequal between pregnant women of poor and non-poor economic statuses. Financial support that enables poorer pregnant women to use health services will be beneficial. Utilization of maternal healthcare services can be improved if out-of-pocket expenses can be minimized. PMID:24708641

  10. Monitoring interannual variability of vegetation in the western Liaohe River Basin, Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fang; Wang, Ping; Qin, Yujun; Li, Yanqing

    2008-10-01

    Because vegetation affect several processes including water balance, absorption and reemission of solar radiation, latent and sensible heat fluxes, and carbon cycle, the variations in the composition and distribution of vegetation represents one of the most main source of systematic change on local, regional, or global scale. To monitor and better assess natural or man-made change in vegetation of the earth is desirable for modeling and predicting interactions between land surface and atmosphere. The temporal evolution of decadal NDVI composition is regarded as an effective time window able to show the natural seasonal variations. This paper investigates vegetation change between 1998 and 2006 in the west Liao River watershed, North China, which is the east fringe of agro-pasture transitional zone in northern China and highly sensitive to global change. Time series of SPOT-VEGETATION Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data are used to detect the vegetation cover change during last 9 years. Results show that the yearly maximum value composite mean NDVI over the study area increased slightly from 0.277 in 1998 to 0.287 in 2006, which indicated the increasing trend of vegetation activity. The annual average NDVI value in whole area was steady. Very slight improved and slight improved area reached 113442.32 km2 and 27987.34 km2, taking up 67.81% and 16.73% of the whole study area respectively. The degraded regions occupied about 15.16%. During 1998-2006, the landscape evolution in the western Liaohe River Basin was characterized by two opposite processes, namely vegetation restoration (returning cropland for farming to grassland and close grazing) and desertification (especially land salinization). The increasing amplitude is larger than the decreasing amplitude on the whole. There was obvious decrease of monthly MNDVI in spring months, while increasing tendency of monthly MNDVI in summer and autumn was found. Results will help to provide valuable information for environmental management policies involving biodiversity preservation and rational exploitation of natural and agricultural resources in this vulnerable ecotone.

  11. Co-seismic ruptures of the 12 May 2008, Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan: East-west crustal shortening on oblique, parallel thrusts along the eastern edge of Tibet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu-Zeng, J.; Zhang, Z.; Wen, L.; Tapponnier, P.; Sun, Jielun; Xing, X.; Hu, G.; Xu, Q.; Zeng, L.; Ding, L.; Ji, C.; Hudnut, K.W.; van der Woerd, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Ms 8.0, Wenchuan earthquake, which devastated the mountainous western rim of the Sichuan basin in central China, produced a surface rupture over 200??km-long with oblique thrust/dextral slip and maximum scarp heights of ~ 10??m. It thus ranks as one of the world's largest continental mega-thrust events in the last 150??yrs. Field investigation shows clear surface breaks along two of the main branches of the NE-trending Longmen Shan thrust fault system. The principal rupture, on the NW-dipping Beichuan fault, displays nearly equal amounts of thrust and right-lateral slip. Basin-ward of this rupture, another continuous surface break is observed for over 70??km on the parallel, more shallowly NW-dipping Pengguan fault. Slip on this latter fault was pure thrusting, with a maximum scarp height of ~ 3.5??m. This is one of the very few reported instances of crustal-scale co-seismic slip partitioning on parallel thrusts. This out-of-sequence event, with distributed surface breaks on crustal mega-thrusts, highlights regional, ~ EW-directed, present day crustal shortening oblique to the Longmen Shan margin of Tibet. The long rupture and large offsets with strong horizontal shortening that characterize the Wenchuan earthquake herald a re-evaluation of tectonic models anticipating little or no active shortening of the upper crust along this edge of the plateau, and require a re-assessment of seismic hazard along potentially under-rated active faults across the densely populated western Sichuan basin and mountains. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Geology and timing of mineralization at the Cangshang gold deposit, north-western Jiaodong Peninsula, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, X.; Cawood, Peter A.; Wilde, S.A.; Liu, R.; Song, H.; Li, W.; Snee, L.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Cangshang gold deposit of the northwestern Jiaodong Peninsula contains reserves of greater than 50 tonnes (t) and is developed by the largest open pit gold mine in China. This deposit is a Jiaojia-style (i.e. disseminated-and-veinlet) deposit. It is controlled by the San-Cang fault zone, which trends ???040?? and dips 40-75??SE at the mine site. The main (no. 1) orebody lies between a hanging wall of Precambrian metamorphic rocks (mainly amphibolite) of the Fenzishan Group and a footwall composed of the Mesozoic Linglong granitoid. The ore zone is mainly composed of pyritized, sericitized and silicified granitoid, which has undergone variable degrees of cataclasis. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zircon indicates that the protolith of the hanging wall amphibolite was formed at 2530 ?? 17 Ma and underwent metamorphism at 1852 ?? 37 Ma. The footwall granodiorite has been dated at 166 ?? 4 Ma, whereas zircons from the ore zone yield a younger age of 154 ?? 5 Ma. Cathodoluminescence images of zircons from the granodiorite and ore zone show oscillatory zonation indicative of an igneous origin for both and the ages of these zircons, therefore, are all interpreted to be representative of magmatic crystallization. Dating of sericite by 40Ar-39Ar has been used to directly determine the timing of formation of the Cangshang deposit, providing the first time absolute age on formation of the Jiaojia-style gold deposits. The well-defined age of 121.3 ?? 0.2 Ma provides the precise timing of gold mineralization at the Cangshang deposit. This age is consistent with those of Linglong-style (vein type) gold mineralization, also from the north-western Jiaodong Peninsula, at between 126 and 120 Ma. Therefore, our work indicates that both styles of gold deposits in the Jiaodong Peninsula were formed during the same mineralization event.

  13. Anurans from the Lower Cretaceous Jehol Group of Western Liaoning, China

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Liping; Ro?ek, Zbyn?k; Wang, Yuan; Jones, Marc E H.

    2013-01-01

    Background To date, the Lower Cretaceous Jehol Group of western Liaoning, China has yielded five monotypic genera of anurans, including Liaobatrachus grabaui, Callobatrachus sanyanensis, Mesophryne beipiaoensis, Dalianbatrachus mengi, and Yizhoubatrachus macilentus. However, the validity and distinctness of these taxa have been questioned. Methodology/Principal Finding We provide a comprehensive analysis of the Jehol frogs that includes a re-examination of the published taxa as well as an examination of a number of new specimens that have been collected over the past 10 years. The results show that the five previously named taxa can be referred to three species of one genus–Liaobatrachus grabaui, L. beipiaoensis comb. nov. and L. macilentus comb. nov.. The diagnosis of Liaobatrachus is revised, and a new diagnosis is provided for each species of this genus. We also establish Liaobatrachus zhaoi sp. nov., on the basis of a dozen well-preserved specimens from a new locality. This taxon is distinguished by a unique combination of characteristics, including relatively long hind limbs, a rounded rather than triangular acetabulum, and a gradually-tapering cultriform process of the parasphenoid. In addition, an unnamed frog from a higher horizon, which has narrow sacral diapophyses and particularly long legs, is different from Liaobatrachus and represents another form of anuran in the Jehol Biota. Conclusion/Significance Comparisons with other Mesozoic and extant anurans and the primary phylogenetic analysis both suggest that Liaobatrachus is a member of the anuran crown-group and forms a polytomy with leiopelmatids (Ascaphus and Leiopelma) and the remaining crown-group anurans (Lalagobatrachia). PMID:23922783

  14. New species of the genus Chydaeus from China, Nepal, Myanmar, and Thailand, with remarks on species previously described (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Harpalini).

    PubMed

    Kataev, Boris M; Wrase, David W; Schmidt, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Ten new species of the genus Chydaeus Chaudoir, 1854 are described: C. dissimilis sp. n. (the bedeli species group) from the Doi Inthanon Mountain, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand; C. shaanxiensis sp. n. (the kasaharai species group) from the Daba Shan Mountain Range, southern Shaanxi, China; C. kabaki sp. n. (the kasaharai species group) from southern Sichuan, China; C. weishanensis sp. n. (the kasaharai species group) from the northern part of Wuliang Shan, western Yunnan, China; C. belousovi sp. n. (the kasaharai species group) from the south-western Yunnan, China; C. putaoensis sp. n. (the kasaharai species group) from the environments of Putao, the northernmost part of Myanmar; C. ganeshensis sp. n. (the irvinei species group) from the Ganesh Himal, Central Nepal; C. chuliensis sp. n. (the semenowi species group) from the Manaslu Himal, Central Nepal; C. wuliangensis sp. n. (the semenowi species group) from the northern part of Wuliang Shan, western Yunnan, China; C. luxiensis sp. n. (the semenowi species group) from the environments of Luxi, western Yunnan, China. New data about the distribution of the following species are provided: C. kasaharai Ito, 2002, C. shunichii Ito, 2006, C. semenowi (Tschitschérine, 1899), C. convexus Ito, 2002, C. baoshanensis Kataev & Liang, 2012, and C. obtusicollis Schauberger, 1932. The following taxa are reported for the first time: Chydaeus semenowi, C. obtusicollis and C. bedeli interjectus Kataev & Schmidt, 2002 from the Indian state Arunachal Pradesh, C. bedeli difficilis Kataev & Schmidt, 2002 from Myanmar, and C. similis Kataev & Schmidt, 2002 from the Chinese provinces Shaanxi and Chongqing. PMID:24870882

  15. Origin of back-arc basins and effects of western Pacific subduction systems on eastern China geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Assuming that subduction initiation is a consequence of lateral compositional buoyancy contrast within the lithosphere [1], and recognizing that subduction initiation within normal oceanic lithosphere is unlikely [1], we can assert that passive continental margins that are locations of the largest compositional buoyancy contrast within the lithosphere are the loci of future subduction zones [1]. We hypothesize that western Pacific back-arc basins were developed as and evolved from rifting at passive continental margins in response to initiation and continuation of subduction zones. This hypothesis can be tested by demonstrating that intra-oceanic island arcs must have basement of continental origin. The geology of the Islands of Japan supports this. The highly depleted forearc peridotites (sub-continental lithosphere material) from Tonga and Mariana offer independent lines of evidence for the hypothesis [1]. The origin and evolution of the Okinawa Trough (back-arc basin) and Ryukyu Arc/Trench systems represents the modern example of subduction initiation and back-arc basin formation along a (Chinese) continental margin. The observation why back-arc basins exit behind some subduction zones (e.g., western Pacific) but not others (e.g., in South America) depends on how the overlying plate responds to subduction, slab-rollback and trench retreat. In the western Pacific, trench retreat towards east results in the development of extension in the upper Eurasian plate and formation of back-arc basins. In the case of South America, where no back-arc basins form because trench retreat related extension is focused at the 'weakest' South Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It is thus conceptually correct that the South Atlantic is equivalent to a huge 'back-arc basin' although its origin may be different. Given the negative Clayperon slope of the Perovskite-ringwoodite phase transition at the 660 km mantle seismic discontinuity (660-D), slab penetration across the 660-D is difficult and trench retreat in the western Pacific readily result in the horizontal stagnation of the Pacific plate in the transition zone beneath eastern Asian continent [2]. Dehydration of this slab supplies water, which rises and results in 'basal hydration weakening' of the eastern China lithosphere and its thinning by converting it into weak material of asthenospheric property [3]. We note the proposal that multiple subduction zones with more water (i.e., subduction of the South China Block beneath the North China Craton, NCC; subduction of the Siberian/Mongolian block beneath the NCC) all contribute to the lithosphere thinning beneath the NCC [4]. However, 'South China-NCC' and 'Siberian/Mongolian-NCC' represent two collisional tectonics involving no trench retreat, causing no transition-zone slab stagnation, supplying no water, and thus contributing little to lithosphere thinning beneath the NCC. Furthermore, lithosphere thinning happened to the entire eastern China, not just limited to the NCC, emphasizing the effects of the western Pacific subduction system on eastern China geology. References: [1] Niu et al., 2003, Journal of Petrology, 44, 851-866. [2] Kárason & van der Hilst, R., 2000, Geophysical Monograph, 121, 277-288. [3] Niu, 2005, Geological Journal of China Universities, 11, 9-46. [4] Windley et al., 2010, American Journal of Science, 310, 1250-1293.

  16. Geological characteristics and ore-forming process of the gold deposits in the western Qinling region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiajun; Liu, Chonghao; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Li, Yujie; Mao, Zhihao; Wang, Jianping; Wang, Yinhong; Zhang, Jing; Zhai, Degao; Zhang, Huafeng; Shan, Liang; Zhu, Laimin; Lu, Rukui

    2015-05-01

    The western Qinling, belonging to the western part of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogen between the North China Block and South China Block, is one of the most important gold regions in China. Isotopic dates suggest that the Mesozoic granitoids in the western Qinling region emplaced during the Middle-Late Triassic, and the deposits formed during the Late Triassic. Almost all gold deposits in the western Qinling region are classified as orogenic, Carlin-type, and Carlin-like gold deposits, and they are the products of Qinling Orogenesis caused by the final collision between the North China Block and the South China Block. The early subduction of the Mian-Lue oceanic crust and the latter collision between South Qinling Terrane and the South China Block along the Mian-Lue suture generated lithosphere-scale thermal anomalies to drive orogen-scale hydrothermal systems. The collision-related magmatism also provided heat source for regional ore-forming fluids in the Carlin-like gold deposits. Orogenic gold deposits such as Huachanggou, Liziyuan, and Baguamiao lie between the Shang-Dan and Mian-Lue sutures and are confined to WNW-trending brittle-ductile shear zones in Devonian and Carboniferous greenschist-facies metasedimentary rocks that were highly-deformed and regionally-metamorphosed. These deposits are typical orogenic gold deposits and formed within a Late Triassic age. The deposits show a close relationship between Au and Ag. Ores contain mainly microscopic gold, and minor electrum and visible gold, along with pyrite. The ore-forming fluids were main metamorphic fluids. Intensive tectonic movements caused by orogenesis created fluid-migrating channels for precipitation locations. Although some orogenic gold deposits occur adjacent to granitoids, mineralization is not synchronous with magmatism; that is, the granitoids have no genetic relations to orogenic gold deposits. As ore-forming fluids converged into dilated fractures during the extension stage of orogenesis, changes of physico-chemical conditions resulted in fluid immiscibility that played a key role in gold and sulfide deposition. The geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of the Carlin-type deposits in the western Qinling region are similar to those in the Carlin trend, Nevada, USA. Gold deposits such as La'erma and Jinlongshan occur mostly in the southeastern margin of the western Qinling regionic region whereas some deposits occur in its eastern part. These deposits are hosted in slightly metamorphosed Cambrian to Triassic sedimentary rocks, showing structurally- and stratigraphically-controlled features. The deposits mainly contain submicroscopic and microscopic gold in arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite, with characteristic ore-forming elements of Au-As-Sb-Ba. The ore-forming fluids are early-stocked formation water and later-recharged meteoric water. Meteoric water apparently evolved in ore-forming fluids by circulation, indicating the extensional setting, and led to the deposition of Au and other elements in cool reactive permeable rocks at shallow levels, forming the disseminated ores. Carlin-like gold deposits occur between the Shang-Dan suture and the Fengxian-Zhen'an fault. The host rocks are mainly sedimentary rocks that underwent reconstruction through reworking by structural metamorphism. These deposits are structurally controlled by brittle-ductile shear zone and occur adjacent to granitoid plutons. The most important characteristic that differ to the orogenic and Carlin-type gold deposits is the genetic relationship with the synchronous magmatism. Gold occurs mainly as microscopic gold. Pyrite and arsenian pyrite can be recognized as gold-bearing minerals. The ore-forming fluids are main magmatic water mixed with metamorphic and/or formation water. Similar to orogenic gold deposits, fluid immiscibility caused the deposition of gold Carlin-like gold deposits.

  17. Chinese Herbal Therapy and Western Drug Use, Belief and Adherence for Hypertension Management in the Rural Areas of Heilongjiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Hao, Yanhua; Sun, Hong; Gao, Lijun; Wu, Qunhong; Quan, Hude

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) including Chinese herbal therapy has been widely practiced in China. However, little is known about Chinese herbal therapy use for hypertension management, which is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in China. Thus we described Chinese herbal therapy and western drug users, beliefs, hypertension knowledge, and Chinese herbal and western drug adherence and determinants of Chinese herbal therapy use among patients with hypertension in rural areas of Heilongjiang Province, China. Methodology and Principal Findings This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive respondents aged 30 years or older in rural areas of Heilongjiang Province, China. Of 665 respondents, 39.7% were male, 27.4% were aged 65 years or older. At the survey, 14.0% reported using Chinese herbal therapy and 71.3% reported using western drug for hypertension management. A majority of patients had low level of treatment adherence (80.6% for the Chinese herbal therapy users and 81.2% for the western drug users). When respondents felt that their blood pressure was under control, 72.0% of the Chinese herbal therapy users and 69.2% of the western drug users sometimes stopped taking their medicine. Hypertensive patients with high education level or better quality of life are more likely use Chinese herbal therapy. Conclusions and Significance Majority of patients diagnosed with hypertension use western drugs to control blood pressure. Chinese herbal therapy use was associated with education level and quality of life. PMID:25923438

  18. Epidemiology study of HBV genotypes and antiviral drug resistance in multi-ethnic regions from Western China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Liao, Yun; Chen, Jie; Cai, Bei; Su, Zhenzhen; Ying, Binwu; Lu, Xiaojun; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lanlan

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a critical global health issue and moderately epidemic in Western China, but HBV molecular epidemiology characteristics are still limited. We conducted this study to investigate HBV genotypes and antiviral resistant mutations in this multi-ethnic area. A total of 1316 HBV patients were recruited from four ethnic groups from 2011 to 2013. Genotypes and resistant mutations were determined by Sanger sequencing. Four genotypes (B, C, D and C/D) were identified. Genotype B and C were common in Han population, while genotype D was predominant in Uygurs. Genotype C was the major genotype in both Tibetans and Yis, and recombinant C/D was found in Tibetans only. Lamivudine resistance was common in all populations, especially in Hans with prevalence of 42.8%. Entecavir resistance was barely observed regardless of ethnicity. Genotype C isolates had higher rates of rtA181T/V than genotype B (13.5% vs. 5.1%, P?Western China, which provided molecular epidemiology data for clinical management. PMID:26612031

  19. Applying Western Organization Development in China: Lessons from a Case of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore a successful case of a Chinese state-owned enterprise (SOE) as it applied western organization development (OD) approaches. Specifically, this study seeks to answer two questions: How has western organization development and change (OD/C) been applied in one Chinese SOE? and What lessons can be…

  20. Three-dimensional velocity structure of crust and upper mantle in southwestern China and its tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chun-Yong; Chan, W. Winston; Mooney, Walter D.

    2003-09-01

    Using P and S arrival times from 4625 local and regional earthquakes recorded at 174 seismic stations and associated geophysical investigations, this paper presents a three-dimensional crustal and upper mantle velocity structure of southwestern China (21°-34°N, 97°-105°E). Southwestern China lies in the transition zone between the uplifted Tibetan plateau to the west and the Yangtze continental platform to the east. In the upper crust a positive velocity anomaly exists in the Sichuan Basin, whereas a large-scale negative velocity anomaly exists in the western Sichuan Plateau, consistent with the upper crustal structure under the southern Tibetan plateau. The boundary between these two anomaly zones is the Longmen Shan Fault. The negative velocity anomalies at 50-km depth in the Tengchong volcanic area and the Panxi tectonic zone appear to be associated with temperature and composition variations in the upper mantle. The Red River Fault is the boundary between the positive and negative velocity anomalies at 50-km depth. The overall features of the crustal and the upper mantle structures in southwestern China are a low average velocity, large crustal thickness variations, the existence of a high-conductivity layer in the crust or/and upper mantle, and a high heat flow value. All these features are closely related to the collision between the Indian and the Asian plates.

  1. Heterogeneity and Azimuthal Anisotropy of the Crust in SE Tibet and Sichuan Province from Surface Wave Array Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, H.; van der Hilst, R. D.; Montagner, J.

    2008-12-01

    On 12 May 2008 a destructive magnitude 7.9 earthquake hit Wenchuan, Sichuan Province, SW China. The main shock and many aftershocks occurred along the Longmenshan fault zone, which marks the eastern Tibetan Plateau margin and the boundary with Sichuan Basin. With data from temporary seismograph arrays and local permanent stations in SE Tibet we have performed high-resolution surface wave array tomography of the crust and uppermost mantle in SW China. Our tomographic images of heterogeneity and anisotropy put important constraints on the structural framework of the crust near the May 12, 2008 epicenters and will help improve our understanding of the deformation and (tectonic) block motions in this earthquake prone area. Using both ambient noise and teleseismic surface wave data, we performed high-resolution surface wave array tomography in SE Tibet. The horizontal resolution is about 100 km in the crust and the data can resolve wavespeed variations and azimuthal anisotropy in the upper, middle, and lower crust. Because of the possible effect of mechanically weak layers on regional deformation, of our particular interest is the existence and geometry of low (shear) velocity layers (LVLs). In some regions prominent LVLs occur in the middle crust, in others they may appear in the lower crust. In some cases the lateral transition of shear wavespeed coincides with major fault zones. Azimuthal anisotropy of the upper crust reveals a pattern that is similar to the surface strain field and which is consistent with clockwise rotation of crustal material around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. At larger depth the pattern of azimuthal anisotropy is different from that of shallow crust, implying changes of deformation pattern from the crust to the upper mantle. The widespread crustal LVLs as well as the clockwise rotational pattern of azimuthal anisotropy support models of ductile flow of crustal material beneath SE Tibet. However, the spatial variation in strength and depth of crustal LVLs and in the pattern of azimuthal anisotropy suggests that the 3-D geometry of crustal weak layers is complex and that unhindered crustal flow over large regions may not occur. Consideration of such complexity may be the key to a better understanding of relative block motion and patterns of regional seismicity. In close collaboration with colleagues in China (at China Earthquake Administration and Sichuan Province Earthquake Administration) we are in the process of analyzing data from the (permanent) Sichuan Province seismograph network and temporary array deployments in the region, with the objective to establish relationships among the crustal structure, surface deformation, regional tectonics, and local seismicity in SW China.

  2. Retrieval and spatial-temporal analysis of aerosol in Sichuan province based on multi-source remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhihong; Liu, Hu; Zhang, Yang; Ge, Ying

    2015-04-01

    Sichuan Basin is one of the serious haze regions in China. It has great significance to monitor the atmospheric haze in Sichuan Basin. In this study, MOD04 product , OMI-NO2 product and OMI-SO2 product were used to analysis the spatial and temporal distribution characteristic of atmospheric pollutants in Sichuan from year 2008 to 2012. Micro pulse lidar (MPL) and HJ-1 satellites were used to retrieve the aerosol extinction coefficient and aerosol optical depth (AOD). Also we established a linear relationship between the AOD and PM10. The MOD04 data showed that the AOD in west Sichuan plateau was relatively low. The annual AOD-average in the regions such as Kangding, Maerkang, Xichang and Yaan was about 0.2. The Sichuan Basin such as Chengdu, Deyang, Mianyang has relatively higher annual AOD-average which was about 0.8 to 1.0, and it had obvious seasonal change feature. The spatial and temporal distribution of aerosol optical depth in Chendu showed obvious urban characteristics. These characteristics are related to the industrial situation, the location and the climate condition of Sichuan. Year 2011 has this highest annual AOD-average value. The OMI-NO2 product showed that the distribution characteristic of NO2 in Sichuan was similar with aerosol. The NO2 concentration was about 0.7 molec/cm2 in west Sichuan plateau and greater than 4.2 molec/cm2 in Chengdu, Deyang, Mianyang. However, the SO2 distribution characteristic was slightly different. The SO2 concentration was low in west Sichuan plateau with an annual average concentration of 0.2 DU. Zigong, Yibin, Luzhou were the main high value areas with an annual average concentration of 1.1 DU. Fernald method was used to retrieve the aerosol extinction coefficient based on the MPL. The result showed that the daily maximum was appeared about 07:00 am and the highest aerosol extinction coefficient season was winter. The aerosol extinction coefficient was higher below the altitude of 300 m. Based on the data of HJ-1 satellites, this study retrieved the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), proposed a method that used the EVI vegetation index to determine dark pixel to inverse AOD. This method can eliminate part of the atmospheric influence in determining the dark pixels. A comparison of the inversion results with CE318 measured data produced a correlation of 0.957. The inversion result can meet the requirement of refinement. The MODIS AOD has a good positive correlation with PM10 mass (R2=0.62). The R2 rose to 0.70 when the relative humidity was added to rectify the model.

  3. Acceptability of Male Circumcision among College Students in Medical Universities in Western China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaobo; Huang, Mingbo; Deng, Wei; Huang, Jiegang; Liang, Bingyu; Qin, Bo; Upur, Halmurat; Zhong, Chaohui; Wang, Qianqiu; Wang, Qian; Ruan, Yuhua; Ye, Li; Liang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Background Male circumcision (MC) has been shown to reduce the risk of female to male transmission of HIV. The goal of this survey was to explore MC’s acceptability and the factors associated with MC among college students in medical universities in western China. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in three provinces in western China (Guangxi, Chongqing and Xinjiang) to assess the acceptability of MC as well as to discover factors associated with the acceptability among college students in medical universities. A total of 1,790 uncircumcised male students from three medical universities were enrolled in this study. In addition, 150 students who had undergone MC were also enrolled in the survey, and they participated in in-depth interviews. Results Of all the uncircumcised participants (n = 1,790), 55.2% (n = 988) were willing to accept MC. Among those who accepted MC, 67.3% thought that MC could improve their sexual partners’ hygiene, 46.3% believed that HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) could be partially prevented by MC. The multivariable logistic regression indicates that MC’s acceptability was associated with three factors: the redundant foreskin (OR = 10.171, 95% CI = 7.629–13.559), knowing the hazard of having a redundant foreskin (OR = 1.597, 95% CI = 1.097–2.323), and enhancing sexual pleasure (OR = 1.628, 95% CI = 1.312–2.021). The in-depth interviews for subjects who had undergone MC showed that the major reason for having MC was the redundant foreskin (87.3%), followed by the benefits and the fewer complications of having MC done. In addition, most of these participants (65.3%) said that the MC could enhance sexual satisfaction. Conclusions MC’s acceptance among college students in medical universities is higher than it is among other populations in western China. An implementation of an MC programme among this population is feasible in the future. PMID:26390212

  4. Sichuan province scores in antipollution efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-07

    According to State Council regulations, Sichuan Province has begun charging entrepreneurial units fees for discharging waste water, waste gas and waste residue in excess of state standards, and using the money to treat environmental pollution. Results have been notable. Charging fees for discharging wastes is a major economic measure which the state has adopted to promote environmental protection. So far over 120 cities and counties in the province have adopted this measure. From April 1980 to the end of 1982, the province collected a total of 68 million yuan to fund 1,200 waste treatment projects. As a spinoff of the measure, the enterprises began raising funds on their own to treat pollution. Before 1979, the province spent an average of 3 million yuan annually on treatment of pollution. Last year the figure reached 28 million yuan. Since effluent fees came into effect, Leshan City has invested more money on more pollution-treatment projects every year. Chengdu City invested 14 million yuan in 1982 on 514 projects, completing 292 projects the very same year. The completed projects treat 25,000 tons of effluent a day. Waste water containing disease germs discharged from the army-system hospitals in the province is by and large treated. Effluent fees have spurred the enterprises to strengthen management, conserve and comprehensively utilize resources and energy, thus improving the economic results of the enterprises.

  5. Study and Service in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beechy, Atlee; Beechy, Winifred

    A description is given of the ten-week Goshen College Study-Service Trimester experiment at Sichuan Teachers College in China. Goshen College emphasizes international education and has a requirement in this area for all of its graduates. The trimester exchange program was developed to promote international education and world peace and prepare…

  6. Species identification of human echinococcosis using histopathology and genotyping in northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Tiaoying; Ito, Akira; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Qiu, Jiamin; Nakao, Minoru; Zhen, Ren; Xiao, Ning; Chen, Xingwang; Giraudoux, Patrick; Craig, Philip S

    2008-06-01

    Human cystic echinococcosis, caused by infection with the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, and alveolar echinococcosis, caused by the larval form of E. multilocularis, are known to be important public health problems in western China. Echinococcus shiquicus is a new species of Echinococcus recently described in wildlife hosts from the eastern Tibetan plateau and its infectivity and/or pathogenicity in humans remain unknown. In the current study, parasite tissues from various organs were collected post-operatively from 68 echinococcosis patients from Sichuan and Qinghai provinces in eastern China. The tissues were examined by histopathology and genotyped using DNA sequencing and PCR-RFLP. Histopathologically, 38 human isolates were confirmed as E. granulosus and 30 as E. multilocularis. Mitochondrial cob gene sequencing and PCR-RFLP with rrnL as the target gene confirmed 33 of 53 of the isolates to have the G1 genotype of sheep/dog strain of E. granulosus as the only source of infection, while the remaining 20 isolates were identified as E. multilocularis. No infections were found to be caused by E. shiquicus. Additionally, 5 of 20 alveolar echinococcosis patients were confirmed to have intracranial metastases from primary hepatic alveolar echinococcosis lesions. All these cases originated from four provinces or autonomous regions but most were distributed in Sichuan and Qinghai provinces, where high prevalence rates of human alveolar echinococcosis and cystic echinococcosis were previously documented. PMID:18396303

  7. Postgraduate Educational Aspirations and Policy Implications: A Case Study of University Students in Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Peter S.; Li, Liming; Zong, Li

    2007-01-01

    China's educational reform from the late 1990s, has substantially increased university capacity. This has been most evident in undergraduate enrolments. As an increasingly large cohort of university graduates enters the job market yearly, the demand for university graduates has not caught up with supply. Some university students plan to pursue…

  8. Mesozoic-Cenozoic basins of Western China as example of partitioned retro-arc foreland basin system

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, S.A.; Zuchang, X.; Carroll, A.; McKnight, C.

    1988-01-01

    Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary basins of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, western China, occupy a retro-arc foreland position with respect to the southern Eurasian convergent continental margin. Yet these basins differ in many ways from retro-arc foreland basins in other parts of the world. In North America, for instance, the Cretaceous Rocky Mountain foreland basin overlies basement that has been an integral part of cratonal North America since the Precambrian. The region had a long early Paleozoic history as a divergent continental margin and was later modified by relatively modest continental growth through accretionary tectonics. Once established in the Mesozoic, the Rocky Mountain foreland basin was a structurally simple, large, integrated basin, with the exception of the Laramide time-space segment of the foreland system. In contrast, the Mesozoic-Cenozoic foreland basins of Xinjiang are markedly partitioned, reflecting the process and architecture of major tectonic accretion from the Paleozoic through the collision of India in the Tertiary. The stage was set for a partitioned Mesozoic foreland with the Paleozoic suturing of the Siberia and Tarim cratons and intervening terranes. Although the margins of these blocks were deformed and uplifted during collision, their interiors persisted as depocenters into the foreland basin phase during the Mesozoic. The foreland basins of western China apparently represent poorly documented end members in the spectrum of retro-arc foreland basins. The Chinese examples occur in a region characterized by extreme continental growth through tectonic accretion. Reactivation of structural trends inherited from pre-foreland history were key factors in segmentation of the foreland.

  9. Is the Returning Farmland to Forest Program a Success? Three Case Studies from Sichuan

    PubMed Central

    Trac, Christine Jane; Schmidt, Amanda H.; Harrell, Stevan; Hinckley, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    China’s tuigeng huanlin or “Returning Farmland to Forest” (RFFP) program has been widely praised as the world’s largest and most successful payment for ecosystem services program, as well as a major contributor to China’s dramatic increase in forest cover from perhaps as low as 8% in 1960 to about 21% today. By compensating rural households for the conversion of marginal farmland to forestland and financing the afforestation of barren mountainsides, the program, in addition to expanding forestland, aims to reduce soil erosion and alleviate poverty. This paper presents qualitative and quantitative studies conducted on the local implementation of RFFP in three diverse townships in Sichuan. We find the actual results to be more mixed than the official figures would indicate. Though there have been some positive results, we identify problems with site and species selection, compensation for land taken out of cultivation, shift of labor to off-farm activities, and monitoring of replanted sites, which challenge the ecological and economic impacts of these programs and reveal much of the effort of the program has been misdirected. We suggest that efforts are misplaced because of the top-down, panacea nature of the program, which in turn is a feature of Chinese bureaucratic management. PMID:26213492

  10. The public health system response to the 2008 Sichuan province earthquake: a literature review and interviews.

    PubMed

    Lin, Leesa; Ashkenazi, Isaac; Dorn, Barry C; Savoia, Elena

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes and analyses the public health system response to the deadly earthquake in Sichuan province, China, in May 2008. Drawing on an experiential learning project consisting of a literature review and field research, including a series of interviews with medical and public health professionals, policy-makers and first responders, a conceptual framework was developed to describe the response. This approach emphasises the pre-existing preparedness level of the medical and public health systems, as well as social, economic and geo-political factors that had an impact on mitigation efforts. This framework was used to conduct post-disaster analyses addressing major response issues and examining methods employed during the public health response to the disaster. This framework could be used to describe and analyse the emergency response to other disasters. PMID:25196335

  11. Have steering flows in the western North Pacific and the South China Sea changed over the last 50 years?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Pao-Shin; Kim, Joo-Hong; Ruan Chen, Ying

    2012-05-01

    Long-term trends in steering flows over the western North Pacific (WNP) and the South China Sea (SCS) are examined during the peak typhoon season. A nonparametric and robust trend detection method is employed. Both the NCEP and ERA reanalysis data sets suggest a statistically significant decreasing trend in steering flows in the subtropical region of the western WNP (between 120°E or near Taiwan and 145°E) and the northern SCS during 1958-2001. Over this period, the decrease in the WNP is quite large with a magnitude of 1.1 m s-1 given that the background mean steering flow is only 3.26 m s-1. This decrease corresponds approximately to one third of the mean flow. When the data are extended from 1958 to 2009 the long-term decrease in steering flows in the aforementioned subtropical region are still significant, although more modest at a rate of 0.7 m s-1. Time series of translational speeds averaged over the same subtropical region also exhibit a slow-down of storms' motion over the last 52 years. This is consistent with the weakening of easterly steering flows analyzed from independent data sets. Results of this study imply a longer life span for tropical cyclones and a greater tendency for storms along prevailing typhoon tracks to recurve.

  12. The Protestant medical missions to China: the introduction of Western medicine with vaccination.

    PubMed

    Fu, Louis

    2013-05-01

    Modern medicine in China began with the arrival of Anglo-American Protestant missionaries in the early 19th century. Conditions were vastly different from the times of the Jesuits in Peking during the 17th and 18th centuries, when the priests enjoyed the endorsement of the Court and high officials. Faced with hostile and xenophobic officialdom and populace, surgeons of the British East India Company in collaboration with missionaries took the initiative. In 1805 Dr Alexander Pearson (1780-1874) introduced smallpox vaccination in Macao and Canton. Reverend Dr Robert Morrison (1782-1834) of the London Missionary Society with another East India Company Surgeon, Dr John Livingstone (1829) opened a dispensary for the poor in Macao in 1820. These pioneers paved the way for later Anglo-American medical missionaries who revolutionized medical practice in China. PMID:24585751

  13. Seismic evidence for significant lateral variations in lithospheric thickness beneath the central and western North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ling; Cheng, Cheng; Wei, Zigen

    2009-08-01

    We have migrated teleseismic S-receiver functions to construct detailed lithospheric structure images that cover the three constituent parts of the North China Craton (NCC). Our images show that in contrast to the eastern NCC where significantly thinned lithosphere (60-100 km) is widespread, the central and western NCC are characterized by the coexistence of both preserved thick and dramatically thinned lithosphere. The thick lithosphere (> 200 km) is present beneath the stable Ordos Plateau and the thinned lithosphere (up to 80 km) is found in the late Cenozoic Yinchuan-Hetao and Shaanxi-Shanxi rift areas, with sharp changes occurring over a lateral distance of < 200-400 km. Near the boundary between the eastern and central NCC, a rapid thickening of the lithosphere by 20-40 km over ~ 100 km laterally is observed, concordant with abrupt changes in surface topography and roughly coincident with the North-South Gravity Lineament (NSGL). Together with petrological and geochemical data these structural features suggest that lithospheric remobilization and thinning may have affected the NCC much further to the west than previously thought. Compared to the widespread reactivation and destruction of lithospheric mantle in the eastern NCC, lithospheric modification of the central and western NCC may have been less intensive and spatially more localized. Rifting and lithospheric reactivation probably occurred at mechanically weak boundary zones, but the cratonic nucleus of the Ordos block (which forms the western part of NCC) seems to have retained its rigidity, thickness, and stability over long periods of geological time. The long-term survival of such lateral contrasts suggests that the thick lithosphere is compositionally distinct from the convecting upper mantle.

  14. Second highly modified hypogean species of the genus Morimotoidius Habu from western Jiangxi Province, China, with a new locality for M. zhushandong (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Platynini).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinhui; Pang, Jianmei; Tian, Mingyi

    2015-01-01

    Morimotoidius cavicola sp. n. is described and illustrated from a limestone cave called Guanfeng Dong in Yichun City of western Jiangxi Province, China. It is the second hypogean and highly morphologically modified species of the genus Morimotoidius recorded in China. M. cavicola sp. n. is easily recognized by its shorter pronotum which is less expanded medially than that in M. zhushandong Pang & Tian, 2014. M. zhushandong is also recorded from the cave Zhuangxi Dong. A distribution map, together with a modified key to Chinese species of the genus are also provided. PMID:26624460

  15. A new ctenochasmatid pterosaur from the Lower Cretaceous, western Liaoning, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shunxing; Wang, Xiaolin

    2011-12-01

    A nearly complete skull of a new ctenochasmatid pterosaur, Pterofiltus qiui gen. et sp. nov., from the Lower Cretaceous deposits of Liaoning, China, is described here. The specimen (IVPP V12339), was collected from the shale of the lower Yixian Formation (125 Ma) at the Zhangjiagou locality. It has the following combination of characters: about 112 teeth in total (including the upper and lower jaws); the dentition occupies more than 50% of the skull length; the anterior teeth vary in size; the mandibular symphysis is longer than half of the whole mandible length; in ventral view, an apparent symphyseal trough in the median part of the symphysis. PMID:22146956

  16. New male pelecinid wasps (Hymenoptera: Pelecinidae) from the Yixian Formation of western Liaoning (China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Hua; Shih, Chungkun; Ren, Dong; Liu, Chenxi

    2010-12-01

    Two new genera and species Abropelecinus annulatus gen. et sp. nov. and Azygopelecinus clavatus gen. et sp. nov., placed in the subfamily Iscopininae of the family Pelecinidae, are described and illustrated. Sinopecinus viriosus Zhang, Rasnitsyn & Zhang, 2002 are re-described. All these male specimens were collected from the Yixian Formation of Beipiao City, Liaoning Province, northeastern China. A key to the male species of the subfamily Iscopininae is given. In addition, sexual dimorphism in Pelecinidae and the paleoclimate of the Yixian Formation are briefly discussed.

  17. Trends of increase in western medical services in traditional medicine hospitals in china

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Compare changes in types of hospital service revenues between traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) hospitals and Western-medicine based general hospitals. Methods 97 TCM hospitals and 103 general hospitals were surveyed in years of 2000 and 2004. Six types of medical service revenue between the two types of hospitals were compared overtime. The national statistics from 1999 to 2008 were also used as complementary evidence. Results For TCM hospitals, the percentage of service revenue from Western medicine increased from 44.3% to 47.4% while the percentage of service revenue from TCM declined from 26.4% to 18.8% from 1999 to 2004. Percentages of revenue from laboratory tests and surgical procedures for both types of hospitals increased and the discrepancy between the two types of hospitals was narrowed from 1999 to 2004. For TCM hospitals, revenues from laboratory tests increased from 3.64% to 5.06% and revenues from surgical procedures increased from 3.44% to 7.02%. General hospitals' TCM drug revenue in outpatient care declined insignificantly from 5.26% to 3.87%, while the decline for the TCM hospitals was significant from 19.73% to 13.77%. The national statistics from 1999 to 2008 showed similar trends that the percentage of revenue from Western medicine for TCM hospitals increased from 59.6% in 1999 to 62.2% in 2003 and 66.1% in 2008 while the percentage of revenue from TCM for TCM hospitals decreased from 18.0% in 1999, 15.4% in 2003, and 13.7% in 2008. Conclusion Western medicine has become a vital revenue source for TCM hospitals in the current Chinese health care environment where government subsidies to health care facilities have significantly declined. Policies need to encourage TCM hospitals to identify their own special and effective services, improve public perception, increase demand, strengthen financial sources, and ultimately make contributions to preserving one of the national treasures. PMID:21896200

  18. Does residing in urban or rural areas affect the incidence of polypharmacy among older adults in western China?

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Lu, Jing; Hao, Qiukui; Luo, Li; Dong, Birong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the differences among older adults who are rural or urban residents with respects to their socioeconomic position, chronic health conditions and medication use. This cross-sectional study included 887 community-dwelling older adults (?60 years) from western China. Trained interviewers collected data from all of the study subjects through face-to-face interviews. Polypharmacy was defined as the concomitant use of five or more medications. A total of 717 participants were included in the study analyses. Compared with their urban counterparts, the older adults in rural China were more likely to have more chronic health conditions, and a lower education level, annual income and insurance coverage rate. In addition, the rural inhabitants were less likely to use medications (58.7% vs. 75.7%, p<0.001). The intensity of medication use (the mean number of drugs) was 1.7 for rural residents and 2.3 for urban residents (p<0.001). The prevalence of polypharmacy was significantly lower in rural residents than urban residents (11.5% vs. 17.5%, p=0.021). Urban residence (odds ratios (OR) 1.89, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.03-3.48), number of chronic conditions (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.16-3.30), diabetes (OR 4.14, 95% CI 2.33-7.37), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.25-3.51) were positively associated with polypharmacy, whereas good self-rated health (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.16-0.65) was negatively associated with polypharmacy. In conclusion, urban residence is independently associated with polypharmacy in Chinese elders regardless of chronic health conditions and socioeconomic status. PMID:25440757

  19. Biweekly Sea Surface Temperature over the South China Sea and its association with the Western North Pacific Summer Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaid, B. H.

    2015-10-01

    The association of the biweekly intraseasonal (BWI) oscillation in the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) over the South China Sea (SCS) and the Western North Pacific Summer Monsoon is authenticated using version 4 the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager data (SST and rain) and heat fluxes from Ocean Atmosphere Flux project data during 1998-2012. The results suggest that the SCS involves ocean-atmosphere coupling on biweekly timescales. The positive biweekly SST anomalies lead the rain anomalies over the SCS by 3 days, with a significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.6, at 99 % significance levels) between the SST-rain anomalies. It is evident from lead/lag correlation between biweekly SST and zonal wind shear that warm ocean surface induced by wind shear may contribute to a favorable condition of the convective activity over the SCS. The present study suggests that ocean-to-atmospheric processes induced by the BWI oscillation in the SCS SST results in enhanced sea level pressure and surface shortwave radiation flux during the summer monsoon. Besides, it is observed that the SCS BWI oscillation in the changes of SST causes a feedback in the atmosphere by modifying the atmospheric instability. This suggests that the active/break biweekly cycle of the SST over the SCS is related by sea level pressure, surface heat fluxes and atmospheric instability. The potential findings here indicate that the biweekly SST over the SCS play an important role in the eastward and the southward propagation of the biweekly anomalies in the Western North Pacific.

  20. Permian fusulinid biostratigraphy of the Baoshan Block in western Yunnan, China with constraints on paleogeography and paleoclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hao; Shi, Yukun; Jin, Xiaochi

    2015-05-01

    Newly obtained fossil materials together with published data enable a review on the Permian fusulinids of the Gondwana-derived Baoshan Block in western Yunnan, China. The Baoshan Block yields rather impoverish Sakmarian-Yakhtashian fusulinids with just Eoparafusulina and Pseudofusulina in its northern and southern parts. These fusulinids biogeographically demonstrate the feature of peri-Gondwana province and signify a temperate-water condition. Further comparison suggests the Baoshan Block was located distant from the tropical region and even with higher latitude than Central Iran and Central Pamir during the Sakmarian-Yakhtashian. In contrast, Murgabian-Midian fusulinids are more diversified. In the southern Baoshan Block, the Schwagerina assemblage, the Eopolydiexodina assemblage, the Sumatrina assemblage and the Verbeekina assemblage could be recognized in the Xiaoxinzhai area, and the Yangchienia-Nankinella assemblage and the Chusenella-Rugosofusulina assemblage in the Bawei area, in ascending order. Contemporaneously, the Neofusulinella assemblage occurs in the northern and the Eopolydiexodina assemblage in the southwestern Baoshan Block respectively. These Murgabian-Midian fusulinids show affinity of western Tethyan province and suggest a warm-water environment. Interestingly, the Midian Verbeekina assemblage is characterized by relatively low diversity and rather abundance of just one genus. Such compositional feature most likely signifies warm but still not optimal sea-surface water for the diversification of fusulinids. Also taking into account of the presence of Verbeekinids and Neoschwagerinids and the moderate total diversity, the Middle Permian fusulinids indicate that the Baoshan Block, during the Murgabian-Midian, was probably located between equatorial region with warm water to the north and the majority of Sibumasu areas lacking Verbeekinids and Neoschwagerinids with temperate water to the south.

  1. Landsat and SPOT data for oil exploration in North-Western China

    SciTech Connect

    Nishidai, Takashi

    1996-07-01

    Satellite remote sensing technology has been employed by Japex to provide information related to oil exploration programs for many years. Since the beginning of the 1980`s, regional geological interpretation through to advanced studies using satellite imagery with high spectral and spatial resolutions (such as Landsat TM and SPOT HRV), have been carried out, for both exploration programs and for scientific research. Advanced techniques (including analysis of airborne hyper-multispectral imaging sensor data) as well as conventional photogeological techniques were used throughout these programs. The first program using remote sensing technology in China focused on the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and was carried out using Landsat MSS data. Landsat MSS imagery allows us to gain useful preliminary geological information about an area of interest, prior to field studies. About 90 Landsat scenes cover the entire Xinjiang Uygru Autonomous Region, this allowed us to give comprehensive overviews of 3 hydrocarbon-bearing basins (Tarim, Junggar, and Turpan-Hami) in NW China. The overviews were based on the interpretations and assessments of the satellite imagery and on a synthesis of the most up-to-date accessible geological and geophysical data as well as some field works. Pairs of stereoscopic SPOT HRV images were used to generate digital elevation data with a 40 in grid cover for part of the Tarim Basin. Topographic contour maps, created from this digital elevation data, at scales of 1:250,000 and 1:100,000 with contour intervals of 100 m and 50 m, allowed us to make precise geological interpretation, and to carry out swift and efficient geological field work. Satellite imagery was also utilized to make medium scale to large scale image maps, not only to interpret geological features but also to support field workers and seismic survey field operations.

  2. China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    China has the longest continuous civilization in the world--about 4000 years. Another reason to study China is its sheer size in both area and population. This text gives students the opportunity to explore those aspects of Chinese life which have changed in recent years. The extensive history and religion sections allow these changes to be seen…

  3. High-resolution mantle tomography of China and surrounding regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinli; Zhao, Dapeng

    2006-09-01

    A high-resolution P wave tomographic model of the crust and mantle down to 1100 km depth under China and surrounding regions is determined by using about one million arrival times of P, pP, PP, and PcP waves from 19,361 earthquakes recorded by 1012 seismic stations. The subducting Pacific slab is imaged clearly as a high-velocity zone from the oceanic trenches down to about 600 km depth, and intermediate-depth and deep earthquakes are located within the slab. The Pacific slab becomes stagnant in the mantle transition zone under east China. The western edge of the stagnant slab is roughly coincident with a surface topographic boundary in east China. The active Changbai and Wudalianchi intraplate volcanoes in northeast China are underlain by significant slow anomalies in the upper mantle, above the stagnant Pacific slab. These results suggest that the active intraplate volcanoes in NE China are not hot spots but a kind of back-arc volcano associated with the deep subduction of the Pacific slab and its stagnancy in the transition zone. Under the Mariana arc, however, the Pacific slab penetrates directly down to the lower mantle. The active Tengchong volcano in southwest China is related to the eastward subduction of the Burma microplate. The subducting Indian and Philippine Sea plates are also imaged clearly. The Indian plate has subducted down to 200-300 km depth under the Tibetan Plateau with a horizontal moving distance of about 500 km. High-velocity anomalies are revealed in the upper mantle under the Tarim basin, Ordos, and Sichuan basin, which are three stable blocks in China.

  4. Age and duration of eclogite-facies metamorphism, North Qaidam HP/UHP terrane, Western China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattinson, C.G.; Wooden, J.L.; Liou, J.G.; Bird, D.K.; Wu, C.L.

    2006-01-01

    Amphibolite-facies para-and orthogneisses near Dulan, at the southeast end of the North Qaidam terrane, enclose minor eclogite and peridotite which record ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphism associated with the Early Paleozoic continental collision of the Qilian and Qaidam microplates. Field relations and coesite inclusions in zircons from paragneiss suggest that felsic, mafic, and ultramafic rocks all experienced UHP metamorphism and a common amphibolite-facies retrogression. SHRIMP-RG U-Pb and REE analyses of zircons from four eclogites yield weighted mean ages of 449 to 422 Ma, and REE patterns (flat HREE, no Eu anomaly) and inclusions of garnet, omphacite, and rutile indicate these ages record eclogite-facies metamorphism. The coherent field relations of these samples, and the similar range of individual ages in each sample suggests that the ???25 m.y. age range reflects the duration of eclogite-facies conditions in the studied samples. Analyses from zircon cores in one sample yield scattered 433 to 474 Ma ages, reflecting partial overlap on rims, and constrain the minimum age of eclogite protolith crystallization. Inclusions of Th + REE-rich epidote, and zircon REE patterns are consistent with prograde metamorphic growth. In the Lu??liang Shan, approximately 350 km northwest in the North Qaidam terrane, ages interpreted to record eclogite-facies metamorphism of eclogite and garnet peridotite are as old as 495 Ma and as young as 414 Ma, which suggests that processes responsible for extended high-pressure residence are not restricted to the Dulan region. Evidence of prolonged eclogite-facies metamorphism in HP/UHP localities in the Northeast Greenland eclogite province, the Western Gneiss Region of Norway, and the western Alps suggests that long eclogite-facies residence may be globally significant in continental subduction/collision zones.

  5. Petrogenesis and geodynamic implications of the Gejiu igneous complex in the western Cathaysia block, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yanbo; Mao, Jingwen; Spandler, Carl

    2013-08-01

    The Gejiu tin district in western Cathaysia block comprises a series of igneous rocks including equigranular and porphyritic granites, gabbro and nepheline syenite. Systematic SHRIMP or LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb analyses of 15 representative samples from various phases of the Gejiu complex yielded Late Cretaceous ages of 78-85 Ma. Based on their mineralogical, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope characteristics, these rocks are categorized into three groups: felsic rocks, alkaline rocks and mafic rocks. The felsic rock group includes the equigranular and porphyritic granites. Geochemical characteristics include high SiO2 contents, enrichment in Rb, Th, U, Nb, Ta, Nd and Hf and depletion in Ba, K, Sr, P, Eu and Ti compared to primitive mantle. REE patterns feature slight LREE enrichment with pronounced negative Eu anomalies. Geochemical data and Sr-, Nd- and Hf-isotopic compositions indicate that the felsic rocks were probably generated by partial melting of crustal source rocks with a minor input from mantle materials. The mafic rocks (gabbro and mafic microgranular enclaves) have distinct geochemical and isotopic features consistent with derivation from an enriched mantle source, with variable degrees of mixing with crustal-derived magmas. Strontium-, Nd- and Hf-isotopic compositions of the alkaline rocks are similar with those of the mafic rocks, suggesting that they have a similar source. Nevertheless, petrological and geochemical characteristics of these rocks indicate that they experienced extensive crystal fractionation and limited crustal contamination. Based on the emplacement of the gabbro-mafic microgranular enclaves-syenite-granites in the Gejiu district, together with contemporaneous geological events in other parts of the western Cathaysia block, we suggest that a widespread extension-related magmatic episode affected the entire region in the late Cretaceous, possibly as a result of lithospheric thinning, basaltic underplating and associated crustal melting.

  6. Onsite infectious agents and toxins monitoring in 12 May Sichuan earthquake affected areas.

    PubMed

    Yao, Maosheng; Zhu, Tong; Li, Kejun; Dong, Shuofei; Wu, Yan; Qiu, Xinghua; Jiang, Bo; Chen, Liansheng; Zhen, Shiqi

    2009-11-01

    At 14:28 on 12 May 2008, Sichuan Province of China suffered a devastating earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter scale with more than 80 000 human lives lost and millions displaced. With inadequate shelter, poor access to health services, and disrupted ecology, the survivors were at enormous risk of infectious disease outbreaks. This work, believed to be unprecedented, was carried out to contain a possible outbreak through onsite monitoring of airborne biological agents in the high-risk areas. In such a mission, a mobile laboratory was developed using a customized vehicle along with state-of-art bioaerosol and molecular equipment and tools, and deployed to Sichuan 11 days after the earthquake. Using a high volume bioaerosol sampler (RCS High Flow) and Button Inhalable Aerosol Sampler equipped with gelatin filters, a total of 55 air samples, among which are 28 filter samples, were collected from rubble, medical centers, and camps of refugees, troops and rescue workers between 23 May and 9 June, 2008. After pre-treatment of the air samples, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), gel electrophoresis, limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were applied to detect infectious agents and to quantify environmental toxins and allergens. The results revealed that, while high levels of endotoxin (180 approximately 975 ng/m3) and (1,3)-beta-d-glucans (11 approximately 100 ng/m3) were observed, infectious agents such as Bacillus anthracis, Bordetella pertussis, Neisseria meningitidis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, influenza A virus, bird flu virus (H5N1), enteric viruses, and Meningococcal meningitis were found below their detection limits. The total bacterial concentrations were found to range from 250 to 2.5 x 10(5) DNA copies/L. Aspergillus fumigatus (Asp f 1) and dust mite allergens (Der p 1 and Der f 1) were also found below their detection limits. PMID:19890556

  7. An unusual long-tailed pterosaur with elongated neck from western Liaoning of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolin; Kellner, Alexander W A; Jiang, Shunxing; Meng, Xi

    2009-12-01

    A new long-tailed pterosaur, Wukongopterus lii gen. et sp. nov, is described based on an almost complete skeleton (IVPP V15113) representing an individual with an estimated wing span of 730 mm. The specimen was discovered in strata that possibly represent the Daohugou Bed (or Daohugou Formation) at Linglongta, Jianchang, Liaoning Province, China. Wukongopterus lii is a non-pterodactyloid pterosaur diagnosed by the first two pairs of premaxillary teeth protruding beyond the dentary, elongated cervical vertebrae (convergent with Pterodactyloidea), and a strongly curved second pedal phalanx of the fifth toe. The specimen further has a broken tibia that indicates an injury occurred while the individual was still alive. Taphonomic aspects provide indirect evidence of an uropatagium, supporting the general hypothesis that at least all non-pterodactyloid pterosaurs show a membrane between the hind limbs. A phylogenetic analysis including most non-pterodactyloid pterosaurs shows that Wukongopterus lii gen. et sp. nov. lies outside the Novialoidea, being cladistically more primitive than the Rhamphorhynchidae and Capylognathoides. This analysis differs from previous studies and indicates that more work is needed before a stable picture of non-pterodactyloid pterosaur relationships is achieved. PMID:19893903

  8. Rural household income and inequality under the Sloping Land Conversion Program in western China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Feldman, Marcus W.; Li, Shuzhuo; Daily, Gretchen C.

    2011-01-01

    As payment for ecosystem services (PES) programs proliferate globally, assessing their impact upon households’ income and livelihood patterns is critical. The Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) is an exceptional PES program, in terms of its ambitious biophysical and socioeconomic objectives, large geographic scale, numbers of people directly affected, and duration of operation. The SLCP has now operated in the poor mountainous areas in China for 10 y and offers a unique opportunity for policy evaluation. Using survey data on rural households’ livelihoods in the southern mountain area in Zhouzhi County, Shaanxi Province, we carry out a statistical analysis of the effects of PES and other factors on rural household income. We analyze the extent of income inequality and compare the socio-demographic features and household income of households participating in the SLCP with those that did not. Our statistical analysis shows that participation in SLCP has significant positive impacts upon household income, especially for low- and medium-income households; however, participation also has some negative impacts on the low- and medium-income households. Overall, income inequality is less among households participating in the SLCP than among those that do not after 7 y of the PES program. Different income sources have different effects on Gini statistics; in particular, wage income has opposite effects on income inequality for the participating and nonparticipating households. We find, however, that the SLCP has not increased the transfer of labor toward nonfarming activities in the survey site, as the government expected. PMID:21518856

  9. Melt-peridotite interaction in the Pre-Cambrian mantle beneath the western North China Craton: Petrology, geochemistry and Sr, Nd and Re isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong-Fu; Sun, Ya-Li; Tang, Yan-Jie; Xiao, Yan; Zhang, Wen-Hui; Zhao, Xin-Miao; Santosh, M.; Menzies, Martin A.

    2012-09-01

    Spinel facies mantle xenoliths from the western North China Craton (NCC) reveal the presence of a Pre-Cambrian protolith (Archean-Proterozoic) modified by recent melt infiltration and refertilisation. Herein we present petrological and geochemical data including highly siderophile elements (HSE) and Re-Os isotopes for a suite of spinel peridotite xenoliths found in the Cenozoic Jining basalts from Sanyitang within the Inner Mongolia Suture Zone (IMSZ), western North China Craton. The mantle harzburgites-lherzolites show low but variable Re (0.02-0.25 ppb) and Os (0.5-4.9 ppb) abundances and 187Os/188Os (0.1172-0.1598) ratios. They yield a range of present day to Proterozoic Re depletion ages (< 1.4 Ga) that show a general correlation with olivine Fo values or fertility. The Re-Os age data from the western NCC are remarkably different from those of the eastern NCC where Paleozoic kimberlite-borne peridotitic xenoliths have Archean ages. The present-day SCLM beneath the NCC was not newly-accreted in the Phanerozoic but was transformed from the ancient lithospheric mantle by interaction with melts. This led to the dissolution of the sulfides in the mantle thus accounting for the lower Os abundances and increasing 187Os/188Os ratios. Integration of elemental and isotopic data reveals the presence of multiple melt metasomatic events in the lithospheric mantle and demonstrates the importance of lithospheric refertilization by melt/rock reaction beneath the western NCC.

  10. [Application and projects approved for fundamental research on integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine in National Natural Science Foundation of China from 2000 to 2004].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-En; Pang, Zong-Ran; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Shan-Shan

    2005-01-01

    From 2000 to 2004, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) accepted 1 171 applications and funded 160 projects for fundamental research on integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine. The success rate is 13.64%. Being supported by NSFC, a number of achievements well known in China and abroad have been made, such as acupuncture complementary anaesthesia, treatment of leukemia, viral hepatitis, cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, acute abdomen, burns and fracture with integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine and their therapeutic mechanisms, and some new concepts and theories have been put forward, such as the theories of activating blood to resolve stagnation, simultaneous treatment of bacteria and toxin, etc. But there still exit some problems in the research of the funded projects. The research ways are mainly combination of different methods instead of integration of both traditional Chinese and Western medicine. The research results are mainly confirmation of traditional Chinese medical theories instead of exploration of their innate regularities. The relationship among disease, syndrome and symptom is not clearly explored. The principal-subordinate relationship between macro- and micro-differentiation of syndromes is not clear. Academic research is short of new ideas. Improper or biased explanation of the theories of traditional Chinese medicine still exists. On analysis of above problems, some preferable aspects of projects for fundamental research on integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine funded by NSFC in future are suggested in this article. PMID:15644150

  11. Four New Sesquiterpenoids from Ligularia subspicata Collected in China; Isolation of a Bakkane-type Lactone, an Eremophilane-type Lactone, and Two Ortho Esters.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshinori; Otsubo, Takanori; Iwamoto, Yuko; Nakashima, Katsuyuki; Okamoto, Yasuko; Gong, Xun; Kuroda, Chiaki; Tori, Motoo

    2015-06-01

    A bakkane type lactone, an eremophilane type lactone, and two ortho esters were isolated from Ligularia subspicata collected in Sichuan Province, China. The ortho ester type compound has been isolated from Ligularia for the first time. PMID:26197492

  12. Mycorrhizal specificity, preference, and plasticity of six slipper orchids from South Western China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li; Yang, Zhu L; Li, Shu-Yun; Hu, Hong; Huang, Jia-Lin

    2010-11-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi of six endangered species, Paphiopedilum micranthum, Paphiopedilum armeniacum, Paphiopedilum dianthum, Cypripedium flavum, Cypripedium guttatum, and Cypripedium tibeticum, from two closely related genera in the Orchidaceae from Southwestern China, were characterized using the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and part of the large subunit gene of mitochondrial rDNA (mtLSU) sequences. The most frequently detected fungi belonged to the Tulasnellaceae. These fungi were represented by 25 ITS sequence types and clustered into seven major clades in the phylogenetic analysis of 5.8S sequences. Species of Paphiopedilum and Cypripedium shared no fungal ITS sequence types in common, but their fungal taxa sometimes occurred in the same major clade of the 5.8S phylogenetic tree. Although it had several associated fungal ITS sequence types in a studied plot, each orchid species had in general only a single dominant type. The fungal sequence type spectra of different species of Paphiopedilum from similar habitats sometimes overlapped; however, the dominant sequence types differed among the species and so did the sequence-type spectra within Cypripedium. Orchids of P. micranthum and P. armeniacum transplanted from the field and grown in two greenhouses had a greater number of mycorrhizal associations than those sampled directly from the field. Root specimens from P. micranthum taken from the greenhouses were preferably associated with mycobionts of the Tulasnella calospora complex, while those from the field had mycorrhizal associations of other tulasnelloid taxa. Such plasticity in mycorrhizal associations makes ex situ conservation or even propagation by means of mycorrhization of axenically grown seedlings possible. PMID:20217434

  13. Assessment of trans fatty acids content in popular Western-style products in China.

    PubMed

    Fu, H; Yang, L; Yuan, H; Rao, P; Lo, Y M

    2008-10-01

    To date, the published information on trans fatty acids (TFAs) in food products in China remains scarce and of questionable accuracy. Systematic approaches to educate the consumers and to ensure proper labeling of TFAs are among the many urgent challenges the regulatory agencies in this rapidly growing country have to face. In the present study, 97 most popular, national brand food products on the Chinese market, including 6 cheeses, 10 chocolates, 10 crisps, chips, and fries, 10 ice creams, 15 margarines, 10 pies and cakes, 8 sauces and dressings, 19 wafers and biscuits, and 9 Chinese-style snacks, were assayed to profile their fat content and fatty acid composition, particularly the TFAs. The highest level of TFAs, up to 30.9% of total fatty acids, were found in pies. The average TFAs contents in different product categories, ranging from high to low, were: pie and cake (12.07%), cheese (6.95%), margarine (5.09%), wafer and biscuit (4.35%), ice cream (2.67%), sauce and dressing (2.65%), crisps, chips, and fries (2.15%), chocolate (1.44%), and Chinese-style snacks (0.83%). One hundred percent of cheese contained TFAs, so did pie and cake, followed by crisps, chips, and fries (90%), sauce and dressing (88%), ice cream and margarine (80%), chocolate (60%), wafer and biscuit (53%), then Chinese-style snacks (33%). Profiling of key TFAs constituents could yield information characteristic to the types of partially hydrogenated oils employed, which is a critical step towards product reformulation in order to reduce or eliminate TFAs in the products. PMID:19019125

  14. Spatial analysis of schizotypal personality traits in Chinese male youths: evidence from a GIS-based analysis of Sichuan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Schizotypal personality traits are associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, stating that schizotypal traits may represent a “prodrome” or other developmental precursor of schizophrenia. Genetic and environmental factors both play importanxt roles in the development of schizotypal traits. Different levels of schizotypal traits across regions may be indicative of similar differences in the incidence of schizophrenia. Aim The present study identifying where in a given region, schizotypal personality traits are more or less level of schizotypal personality scores in Chinese male youth of Sichuan province. Not only for research purposes but also for the evaluation of new draft and allocation policy initiatives intended to aid recruitment of mental health employees. Methods Data from the Psychological Selection Systems for Chinese Recruits, a mental health screening system used in China, collected in 2011 (67,558 copies) were used to map spatial distribution of schizotypal personality traits using geostatistics and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Correlation analyses were conducted to explore the effects of years of education and illiterate rate on schizotypal personality traits. Results Maps for three schizotypal personality clinical scales (dissociative, Dit; neurotic, Net and sensitive, Set) showed similar geographical trends. The highest T scores were distributed mainly in the eastern and northern counties of Sichuan, with scores decreasing successively from east to west, with the eastern counties generally showing higher scores. Correlation analysis showed that t-scores of Set were negatively correlated with years of education, whereas t-scores of Net were negatively correlated with illiteracy rate. Conclusions Schizotypal personality traits in male youth showed specific geographical trends in Sichuan province, providing some evidence that kriging based on GIS can be used to geographically localize genetic and environmental factors associated with schizotypal personality traits. This approach could be used to help allocate public health resources to specific areas and could also have personnel selection applications. PMID:24423022

  15. Eco-environmental problems and effective utilization of water resources in the Kashi Plain, western Terim Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Nian-Feng; Tang, Jie; Han, Feng-Xiang

    2001-02-01

    Since ancient times, water resources, mainly from melting snow in the high mountains, have nourished a large area of an oasis in the Kashi Plain in the western Terim Basin, China. In the last half-century, however, the rapid growth of population and the overexploitation of water, soil, and biological resources have led to drought, salinization, and desertification in the area, and consequently have hindered the development of sustainable agriculture. In this study, groundwater reservoirs with sustainable water supplies equivalent to 44.65×108 m3/year were identified, which has made it possible to implement several projects in the area to improve the ecological and agricultural environment. Three strategies are proposed for the integrated development and management of both surface-water and groundwater resources in the area. Résumé. Depuis des temps anciens, les ressources en eaux, provenant surtout de la fonte des neiges en montagne, ont alimenté une large part d'une oasis de la plaine de Kashi, dans le bassin occidental de Terim (Chine). Au cours des derniers cinquante ans, toutefois, l'accroissement rapide de la population et la surexploitation de l'eau, des sols et des ressources biologiques ont provoqué la sécheresse, la salinisation et la désertification de la région cela a eu pour conséquence d'entraver le développement d'une agriculture durable. Cette étude identifie les réserves en eau souterraine, susceptibles de fournir durablement 44,65×108 m3/an, ce qui a permis de réaliser plusieurs projets dans cette région pour améliorer l'environnement écologique et agricole. Trois stratégies sont proposées pour le développement intégré et la gestion simultanée des ressources en eau de surface et en eau souterraine de cette région. Resumen. Los recursos hídricos, procedentes fundamentalmente del deshielo en alta montaña, han nutrido desde tiempo inmemorial una gran área de un oasis situado en las llanuras de Kashi, en la cuenca occidental de Terim (China). Sin embargo, en la última mitad de siglo, el rápido aumento de población y la sobreexplotación de los recursos hídricos, pedológicos y biológicos han producido la sequía, salinización y desertificación en la zona, y, por consiguiente, han obstaculizado el desarrollo de una agricultura sostenible. En este estudio, se identificaron reservorios de agua subterránea con unos recursos equivalentes a 44,65×108 m3/a, hecho que ha permitido establecer varios proyectos en el área para mejorar el medio ambiente ecológico y agrícola. Se proponen tres estrategias para el desarrollo integrado y la gestión en la zona, tanto de los recursos superficiales como de los subterráneos.

  16. Socio-hydrologic Perspectives of the Co-evolution of Humans and Water in the Tarim River Basin, Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ye; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Heping; Liu, Dengfeng; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2013-04-01

    Socio-hydrology studies the co-evolution of coupled human-water systems, which is of great importance for long-term sustainable water resource management in basins suffering from serious eco-environmental degradation. Process socio-hydrology can benefit from the exploring the patterns of historical co-evolution of coupled human-water systems as a way to discovering the organizing principles that may underpin their co-evolution. As a self-organized entity, the human-water system in a river basin would evolve into certain steady states over a sufficiently long time but then could also experience sudden shifts due to internal or external disturbances that exceed system thresholds. In this study, we discuss three steady states (also called stages in the social sciences, including natural, human exploitation and recovery stages) and transitions between these during the past 1500 years in the Tarim River Basin of Western China, which a rich history of civilization including its place in the famous Silk Road that connected China to Europe. Specifically, during the natural stage with a sound environment that existed before the 19th century, shifts in the ecohydrological regime were mainly caused by environmental changes such river channel migration and climate change. During the human exploitation stages in the 5th and again in the 19th-20th centuries, however, humans gradually became the main drivers for system evolution, during which the basin experienced rapid population growth, fast socio-economic development and intense human activities. By the 1970s, after 200 years of colonization, the Tarim River Basin evolved into a new regime with vulnerable ecosystem and water system, and suffered from serious water shortages and desertification. Human society then began to take a critical look into the effects of their activities and reappraise the impact of human development on the ecohydrological system, which eventually led the basin into a treatment and recovery stage. Since then, the basin has shown a reverse trend of regime shift towards healing of the environmental damage that was inflicted in the previous stage of human development. In this paper we analyze the recasting effect of human activities on the water system and provide explanations on how human activities influence the co-evolution of human-water system from a broader perspective.

  17. Comparison of Conventional, Trace Element, and Pseudosection Thermobarometry in UHP Eclogite, North Qaidam Terrane, Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattinson, C. G.; Regel, M. E.; Zhang, J.

    2014-12-01

    In the southeastern North Qaidam terrane, near Dulan, felsic host gneisses enclose minor eclogite lenses. A small (~3°C/km) increase in temperatures to the west based on Zr-in-Rt thermometry is supported by a textural trend of zoned garnet with prograde mineral inclusions in the west to unzoned garnet with only peak-stage inclusions in the east. A western eclogite sample contains minor Ep and trace Phe in addition to Grt-Omp-Qtz-Rt; a strong foliation is defined by banding of Grt and Omp. Garnet Ca falls significantly from core (Alm44Prp23Grs32) to rim (Alm48Prp27Grs23). Phengite contains 3.34-3.36 Si pfu. Conventional Grt-Omp-Phe thermobarometry yields 23-27 kbar, 660-730°C, and Zr-in-Rt thermometry yields 671 ± 9°C (n = 37). An isochemical phase diagram (pseudosection) for the system NCKFMASHO calculated with PerpleX indicates that garnet Xgrs decreases with increasing P and T, suggesting that observed garnet zoning reflects prograde growth. Garnet rim compositional isopleths intersect at 23-27 kbar, 580-620°C, depending on choice of effective bulk composition and assumed Fe3+/Fetotal. Garnet rims help define the foliation, suggesting that these P-T conditions apply to this deformation. An eastern eclogite sample contains minor Ep and abundant, coarse-grained Phe in addition to Grt-Omp-Qtz-Rt; foliation is weak. Garnet zoning is weak; compositions are Alm41-43Prp26-28Grs29-32. Phengite cores contain 3.48-3.56 Si pfu. Conventional Grt-Omp-Phe thermobarometry yields 32-36 kbar, 700-750°C, and Zr-in-Rt thermometry yields 691 ± 12°C (n = 34). Conventional thermobarometry and pseudosections yield similar peak P-T conditions, but from different mineral compositions: thermobarometry yields peak P from high-Ca Grt, but the pseudosection yields peak P from intermediate-Ca Grt; maximum Ca in Grt is predicted at lower P and T. Pseudosection-based peak Ts are significantly lower than those from Zr-in-Rt and conventional thermometry. Wide isopleth spacing in the observed assemblage field makes isopleth positions very sensitive to the bulk composition; Zr-in-Rt results are therefore regarded as the best estimate of peak conditions, but isopleth patterns provide valuable constraints on possible P-T paths.

  18. Boron occurrence in halite and boron isotope geochemistry of halite in the Qarhan Salt Lake, western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, QiShun; Ma, YunQi; Cheng, HuaiDe; Wei, HaiCheng; Yuan, Qin; Qin, ZhanJie; Shan, FaShou

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have investigated boron (B) isotope composition of salt lake brines in the Qaidam Basin, western China. However, the research on B isotope geochemistry of halite from a sediment core in a typical sedimentary basin has been very limited. In this study, a 102-m-long drill core (ISL1A) was recovered from Qarhan Salt Lake in eastern Qaidam Basin. Forty-three halite samples from upper 44.0 m in ISL1A were collected and analyzed for chemical compositions (K+, Na+, Ca2 +, Mg2 +, Cl-, SO42 -, Sr2 + and B3 +) and B isotopes in order to investigate their relationships, and B isotope fractionation between halite and brines in the Qarhan Salt Lake. The results show that: (1) more B3 + and Mg2 + values in halite are low concentrations and more concentrated, and low B3 + concentrations have a strong correlation with low Mg2 + in halite, which imply that they might be the same source; (2) low Mg2 + values in halite from ISL1A have a similar trend with mMg2 + (molarity) of fluid inclusion brines from two sediment cores (east to ISL1A about 50 km) in the study area, suggesting that low B3 + and Mg2 + concentrations should derive from fluid inclusions in halite based on X-ray diffraction results in ISL1A that no borate and small amount of magnesium salts were deposited; (3) ?11B values of halite in ISL1A range from - 0.35 to + 5.84‰, which are in the range of those of river water and brines (- 1.0 to + 9.6‰), and almost overlapped with those of brines (+ 2.9 to + 7.5‰) in the Qarhan Salt Lake. These results suggest that no or minor B isotope fractionation between halite and brine occurred.

  19. Remote sensing, paleoecology, and the archaeology of human migration during the Pleistocene in central Asia and western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glantz, Michelle M.; Todd, Lawrence

    2003-07-01

    Remote sensing used in the context of global information systems has enormous applications within archaeology. This technology enables the discovery of new archaeological features and promotes an understanding of the relationship between ecosystem and cultural dynamics. Archaeologists are able to add a time dimension to 'creeping environmental changes' that other areas of scientific inquiry concerned with climate change often lack. Remote sensing and other aerial prospecting has been used successfully to model land use and population expansions during relatively recent archaeological eras, such as the Bronze and Iron Ages. Although satellite image databases exist for numerous areas of the New and Old World, very little research has been conducted in Central Asia or western China. This region is historically significant because of its position along the important trading route called the Silk Road. The purpose of the present research is to investigate another poorly understood period of human history that would benefit from the application of remote sensing and associated ground truthing techniques. The migration of hominids out of Africa during the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene and their subsequent colonization of north-central, east, and south-east Asia is relatively well documented in the archaeological record and marks the beginning of the long-term process of human impacts on the region. However, the trajectory of dispersal of Homo erectus, Neandertals, and early modern humans and the ways by which ecosystem vagaries affected this dispersal across Eurasia is unknown. Our purpose is to summarize what is currently known about the geological indicators of ecosystem changes that remote sensing techniques provide and how ecosystem variables may allow us to model human migration as that of an invasive species through this important geographic crossroads of the Old World.

  20. The China Connection: Western Institutions Meet Chinese Students and Alumni on the Country's Most Popular Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramspott, Becca

    2013-01-01

    As one of the top U.S. choices for international students, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has a solid reputation in China and a history of educating Chinese students that goes back more than a century. But the university did not realize until last June that its nickname in China is the "Cornfield Ivy" and that Chinese…

  1. The Merging of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine in China: Old Ideas Cross Culturally Communicated through New Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnell, James A.

    Cross-cultural communication between China and the West, instigated in 1979 by the establishment of an open-door policy in China, has led to the merging of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with the medical practices of the West. The result of these medical exchanges is a blending of medical practices that proves to be more effective in the…

  2. Effects of Natural Disasters on Conservation Policies: The Case of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China

    E-print Network

    Earthquake, China Andre´s Vin~a, Xiaodong Chen, William J. McConnell, Wei Liu, Weihua Xu, Zhiyun Ouyang the impacts of a devastating earthquake on forest recovery and avoided forest loss estimated to have been% of the forests in Wenchuan County, Sichuan province, China were imme- diately affected by the 2008 earthquake

  3. Dynamical downscaling simulation and future projection of precipitation over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jiawei; Feng, Jinming; Wang, Yongli

    2015-08-01

    This study assesses present-day and future precipitation changes over China by using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.5.1. The WRF model was driven by the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Earth System Model with the Generalized Ocean Layer Dynamics component (GFDL-ESM2G) output over China at the resolution of 30 km for the present day (1976-2005) and near future (2031-2050) under the Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 (RCP4.5) scenario. The results demonstrate that with improved resolution and better representation of finer-scale physical process, dynamical downscaling adds value to the regional precipitation simulation. WRF downscaling generally simulates more reliable spatial distributions of total precipitation and extreme precipitation in China with higher spatial pattern correlations and closer magnitude. It is able to successfully eliminate the artificial precipitation maximum area simulated by GFDL-ESM2G over the west of the Sichuan Basin, along the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau in both summer and winter. Besides, the regional annual cycle and frequencies of precipitation intensity are also well depicted by WRF. In the future projections, under the RCP4.5 scenario, both models project that summer precipitation over most parts of China will increase, especially in western and northern China, and that precipitation over some southern regions is projected to decrease. The projected increase of future extreme precipitation makes great contributions to the total precipitation increase. In southern regions, the projected larger extreme precipitation amounts accompanied with fewer extreme precipitation frequencies suggest that future daily extreme precipitation intensity is likely to increase in these regions.

  4. New characteristics of intensity assessment of Sichuan Lushan "4.20" M s7.0 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Baitao; Yan, Peilei; Chen, Xiangzhao

    2014-08-01

    The post-earthquake rapid accurate assessment of macro influence of seismic ground motion is of significance for earthquake emergency relief, post-earthquake reconstruction and scientific research. The seismic intensity distribution map released by the Lushan earthquake field team of the China Earthquake Administration (CEA) five days after the strong earthquake ( M7.0) occurred in Lushan County of Sichuan Ya'an City at 8:02 on April 20, 2013 provides a scientific basis for emergency relief, economic loss assessment and post-earthquake reconstruction. In this paper, the means for blind estimation of macroscopic intensity, field estimation of macro intensity, and review of intensity, as well as corresponding problems are discussed in detail, and the intensity distribution characteristics of the Lushan "4.20" M7.0 earthquake and its influential factors are analyzed, providing a reference for future seismic intensity assessments.

  5. Comparison of two large earthquakes: the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake and the 2011 East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Otani, Yuki; Ando, Takayuki; Atobe, Kaori; Haiden, Akina; Kao, Sheng-Yuan; Saito, Kohei; Shimanuki, Marie; Yoshimoto, Norifumi; Fukunaga, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Between August 15th and 19th, 2011, eight 5th-year medical students from the Keio University School of Medicine had the opportunity to visit the Peking University School of Medicine and hold a discussion session titled "What is the most effective way to educate people for survival in an acute disaster situation (before the mental health care stage)?" During the session, we discussed the following six points: basic information regarding the Sichuan Earthquake and the East Japan Earthquake, differences in preparedness for earthquakes, government actions, acceptance of medical rescue teams, earthquake-induced secondary effects, and media restrictions. Although comparison of the two earthquakes was not simple, we concluded that three major points should be emphasized to facilitate the most effective course of disaster planning and action. First, all relevant agencies should formulate emergency plans and should supply information regarding the emergency to the general public and health professionals on a normal basis. Second, each citizen should be educated and trained in how to minimize the risks from earthquake-induced secondary effects. Finally, the central government should establish a single headquarters responsible for command, control, and coordination during a natural disaster emergency and should centralize all powers in this single authority. We hope this discussion may be of some use in future natural disasters in China, Japan, and worldwide. PMID:22410538

  6. Exploratory analysis of extremely low tropical cyclone activity during the late-season of 2010 and 1998 over the western North Pacific and the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Haikun; Chu, Pao-Shin; Hsu, Pang-Chi; Murakami, Hiroyuki

    2014-12-01

    This study attempts to understand why the tropical cyclone (TC) frequency over the western North Pacific and the South China Sea was so low in 2010 and 1998 even though a strong La Niña signal occurred in both years. We found that the TC frequency during the late-season (October to December), not in the peak season (July to September), makes 2010 a record low year; the next lowest year is 1998. Specifically, four TCs were observed over the South China Sea (SCS) in the late-season of 1998, but no TCs occurred over the SCS in the same season during 2010. The genesis potential index is used to help diagnose changes in environmental conditions for TC genesis frequency. Results indicate that the decreased low-level vorticity makes the largest contribution to the decreased TC formation over the SCS. The second largest contribution comes from the enhanced vertical wind shear, with relatively small contributions from the negative anomaly in potential intensity and reduction in midlevel relative humidity. These observational results are consistent with numerical simulations using a state of the art model from the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI-AGCM 3.2 Model). Numerical experiments show that the unfavorable conditions for sharply decreased TC formation during the late-season over the SCS in 2010 mainly results from the sea surface temperature anomaly over the western North Pacific basin. This effect is partly offset by the sea surface temperature anomaly in the South Indian Ocean and Northern Indian Ocean basins.

  7. Determining Optimal Strategies to Reduce Maternal and Child Mortality in Rural Areas in Western China: an Assessment Using the Lives Saved Tool.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhen; Guo, Su Fang; Scherpbier, Robert W; Wen, Chun Mei; Xu, Xiao Chao; Guo, Yan

    2015-08-01

    China, as a whole, is about to meet the Millennium Development Goals for reducing the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and infant mortality rate (IMR), but the disparities between rural area and urban area still exists. This study estimated the potential effectiveness of expanding coverage with high impact interventions using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). It was found that gestational hypertension, antepartum and postpartum hemorrhage, preterm birth, neonatal asphyxia, and neonatal childhood pneumonia and diarrhea are still the major killers of mothers and children in rural area in China. It was estimated that 30% of deaths among 0-59 month old children and 25% of maternal deaths in 2008 could be prevented in 2015 if primary health care intervention coverage expanded to a feasible level. The LiST death cause framework, compared to data from the Maternal and Child Mortality Surveillance System, represents 60%-80% of neonatal deaths, 40%-50% of deaths in 1-59 month old children and 40%-60% of maternal deaths in rural areas of western China. PMID:26383598

  8. Vegetation and climate history in arid western China during MIS2: New insights from pollen and grain-size data of the Balikun Lake, eastern Tien Shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yongtao; An, Cheng-Bang; Mao, Limi; Zhao, Jiaju; Tang, Lingyu; Zhou, Aifeng; Li, Hu; Dong, Weimiao; Duan, Futao; Chen, Fahu

    2015-10-01

    Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 is mostly a cold period encompassing the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), but the regional expression of MIS2 in arid areas of China is not well known. In this paper, we use high-resolution lacustrine pollen and grain-size records from Balikun Lake to infer vegetation, lake evolution, and climate in arid western China during MIS2. Our results suggest that: 1) the regional vegetation around Balikun was mainly dominated by desert and/or desert-steppe, and Balikun Lake was relatively shallow and experienced high aeolian input during MIS2; 2) distinctive runoff from mountain glacial meltwater in the eastern parts of the Balikun basin caused a high relative abundance of Artemisia pollen during the LGM (26.5-19.2 cal kyr BP), while simultaneously the desert areas expanded as indicated by the high abundance of desert shrubs (e.g., Elaeagnaceae, Rhamnaceae, Hippophae). This cold and dry LGM climate triggered a substantial lowering of lake level; 3) an extremely cold and dry climate prevailing from 17.0 to 15.2 cal kyr BP, correlated with Heinrich event 1 (H1), would explain the low vegetation cover found then; and 4) the warm and humid Bølling/Allerød interstadial (BA: ca. 15-ca. 13 cal kyr BP) is clearly recorded in the Balikun region by the development of wetland herb communities (e.g., Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Typha), and the lake level rose due to increased runoff. Our results challenge the traditional view of cold and wet climatic conditions and high lake levels in arid western China during the LGM, and we propose that changes in local temperature modulated by July insolation was an indispensable factor in triggering vegetation evolution in the Balikun region during MIS2.

  9. Tomographic inversion of Pn travel times in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chuntao; Song, Xiaodong; Huang, Jinli

    2004-11-01

    Pn travel times are useful for studying crustal and uppermost mantle structure and regional tectonics because they are affected by crustal velocity and thickness as well as uppermost mantle velocity and anisotropy. We obtained 57,740 Pn travel time picks from 5433 earthquakes and 307 stations from Chinese national and provincial earthquake bulletins and the International Seismological Center bulletins to invert for Pn velocity variation and anisotropy and station delays in China. Our inversion reveals significant features that correlate with surface geology. The main results are as follows: (1) The Pn velocities show a mosaic of very fast and very slow anomalies, mirroring the heterogeneous geology of China at the surface. The Pn velocities are high beneath the major basins in the west (Sichuan, Qaidam, west Tarim, Tulufan, and Junggar) and low in areas of active volcanoes (Myanmar and western Yunnan) and Quaternary volcanism in northern Tibet, in seismically active areas in north China and Tien Shan, and in the southern part of south China (the Hainan plume). (2) The Pn anisotropy beneath the major basins in the west is generally weak. Strong anisotropy is found beneath high-deformation regions (the Tibetan Plateau, southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, western Tien Shan, and part of north China), suggesting the anisotropy is likely related to recent large-scale tectonic activity. (3) A large area of north China shows prominent low Pn velocity beneath Archean basement with thin crust. Our observations are consistent with rifting, lithospheric thinning, and mantle upwelling in the region. The Pn anisotropy is consistent with a dextral simple shear in the NNE direction in the lithosphere mantle during the last (and ongoing) major deformation period. (4) The Pn velocity in northern Tibet is generally lower than that in the south. Southern Tibet has significant E-W structure. Low-velocity anomalies can be traced from northern Tibet across southwestern Tibet and south central Tibet to near the India plate. Anisotropy is absent beneath much of the Himalaya block, but consistent anisotropy with E-W fast direction is present beneath the Lhasa block and large anisotropy (up to 4%) is observed in low-velocity regions of the northern and western Tibet. Complex station delays in the eastern margin of the plateau suggest that the whole crust may be highly deformed. The anisotropy pattern in the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau suggests a mantle lithospheric deformation similar to the clockwise rotation of material observed at the surface. (5) Crustal thicknesses inferred from our station delays are consistent with previous models, which correlate well with surface topography.

  10. Cultural attitudes to corruption : a perspective on the interplay between cultural and legal norms for Western businesses operating in China

    E-print Network

    Winters, Timothy (Timothy Mark)

    2013-01-01

    Corruption is an important challenge facing those who wish to do business in China. Beyond the commercial context, corruption and attitudes towards it are also more broadly relevant to politics, political economics and ...

  11. Isotopes of deuterium and oxygen-18 in thermal groundwater in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xun, Zhou; Bin, Fang; Haiyan, Zhou; Juan, Li; Ying, Wang

    2009-06-01

    Compositions of deuterium and 18O isotopes of 90 representative samples indicate that thermal groundwater in most parts of China is meteoric in origin. Latitude, altitude, and continent effects have significant bearing on the values of ?D and ?18O of the hot water samples. Oxygen-18 shift is not significant in most of the thermal groundwater, especially the hot water of low-to-moderate temperature. Slight oxygen-18 shift is only found in some hot springs of high temperature in Tibet and western Yunnan and in thermal groundwater of low-to-moderate temperature in the deep-seated carbonate aquifers in the northern North China Plain (including the Tianjin area). Near-surface boiling may causes the shift of the former and the latter may be attributed to exchange of oxygen-18 between water and carbonates in the geothermal systems of taphrogenic basin-type. Hot springs in Tibet and western Sichuan have very low contents of ?D and ?18O, possibly due to recharge of precipitation and snow-melting water of extremely depleted ?D and ?18O values at high latitudes of several thousands of meters.

  12. A new Polymixis (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) species from China.

    PubMed

    Saldaitis, Aidas; Benedek, Balázs; Babics, János

    2015-01-01

    A new Polymixis Hübner species from China's Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces is described and distribution data for Polymixis albiorbis Hreblay & Ronkay, 1998 is provided. The type specimen of Polymixis albirena (Boursin, 1944) and the Polymixis magnirena (Alphéraky, 1892) holotype's genitalia are illustrated. PMID:26250235

  13. A new species of Oroplexia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from China.

    PubMed

    Gyulai, Peter; Saldaitis, Aidas

    2015-01-01

    The genus Oroplexia Hampson, 1908 comprises some 25 known species. Oroplexia is a south Asiatic, widely distributed genus, displays the highest diversity from the monsoon influenced regions of the Central and Southern Himalaya (Nepal, Myanmar and Vietnam) and Southern China (Sichuan and Yunnan provinces) to India (Hindostan) to the South. PMID:26249470

  14. A Community Fault Model (CFM) for the Sichuan basin and Longmen Shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, J.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Riesner, M.; Smith, H.; Wang, M.; Durand-Riard, P.

    2012-12-01

    The 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake struck Sichuan Province, China, along the Longmen Shan fold-and-thrust belt. The rupture occurred in a region with no prior, historical earthquakes of comparable size, and in a region with low horizontal shortening. Thus, the event occurred with little prior warning based on current methods of seismic hazards assessment. In order to improve seismic hazards assessment, we have constructed a Community Fault Model (CFM) and Community Velocity Model (CVM) for the region, modeled after the Southern California CFM/CVM (Plesch et al., 2007). Here, we describe the CFM, which consists of 3D representations of the main active faults in the region. To facilitate model construction, we imported a variety of surface and subsurface datasets into Gocad, a 3D CAD tool. These include geological maps, fault maps, seismicity, focal mechanisms, well data, cross-sections, and seismic reflection profiles. We developed a quantitative technique for constructing fault surfaces using these datasets, described in Riesner et al. (2012). The region displays a variety of faulting styles. The Longmen Shan is a NE-SW-striking fold-and-thrust belt, characterized by a set of NW-dipping imbricated thrust ramps that sole into a deep detachment at ~15-20 km. This detachment rises to the SE along a blind thrust ramp (the Range Front thrust), and flattens to a shallower detachment that underlies much of the Sichuan basin (2-7 km depth). Many of the active faults in the basin sole to this shallow detachment, which is localized in a Triassic evaporite sequence. There is also evidence of deeper faulting within the Sichuan basin, as shown by the Weiyuan anticline and patches of seismicity at greater depth. These faults generally dip steeply, and may be thick-skinned or rise from a deeper detachment. The main fault that ruptured in the Wenchuan earthquake, the Beichuan fault, lies within the Longmen Shan and dips steeply. More shallowly dipping faults splay off of this fault to the SE; one of these (the Pengguan fault) also ruptured in the Wenchuan earthquake. Slip in the earthquake was highly oblique, with right-lateral motion. Consistent with this obliquity, we see evidence for the breakthrough of a new strike-slip fault to the NE of the mapped rupture in the Wenchuan earthquake based on seismicity patterns. To the north and south, the Longmen Shan is bounded by two large NW-SE to N-S-striking left-lateral strike-slip systems: the Kunlun to the north, and the Xianshuihe-Anninghe to the south. Although some faults are well-constrained by surface and subsurface data, others are represented only by a surface trace and sparse seismicity. When the geometry is unclear, we provide multiple alternative models. We plan to develop "quality rankings" for the faults based on data availability and community surveys. These rankings will be used to identify the preferred model when multiple alternatives are available. In addition to providing an integrative repository for fault studies and data, this model is intended to be used in a wide range of earthquake studies, including analysis of geodetic data to assess fault slip rates, simulations of the strong ground motion that will result from future earthquakes, and improvement of regional tomographic models. We will be releasing the fault model together with our 3D velocity model (Wang et al., 2012) to facilitate such studies.

  15. Long-range atmospheric transport of persistent organochlorinated compounds from south and mainland south-eastern Asia to a remote mountain site in south-western China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yue; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Chakraborty, Paromita; Li, Hua; Liu, Xiang

    2011-11-01

    A range of organochlorinated compounds have been consumed in China, India and the countries of mainland southeast Asia (MSA). Considering their persistence in the environment and ability in long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT), the potential outflow of these compounds from this region is therefore of great concern in the context of the global distribution of toxic chemicals. As part of a monitoring campaign aimed at investigating the LRAT of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from southern China, MSA and northern India, atmospheric levels of OCPs and PCBs were measured once a week from October 2005 through December 2006 at Tengchong Mountain (TM), a remote site located in south-western China. The average concentrations of OCPs were found to be higher than those in other remote stations in the Arctic and the Tibetan plateau, except for ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH). A high level of ?-HCH and low ?-HCH/?-HCH ratio was attributed to an accidental release of ?-HCH from unknown sources, besides obvious evidence of lindane (?-HCH) and technical HCH usage. Temporal variations of chlordanes and endosulfan were related to the usage pattern of these compounds, as well as LRAT. In contrast, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exhibited a relatively minor seasonal variation. The OCP levels at the monitoring site were found to be related to the air parcel back trajectories on the basis of four distinct clusters. Elevated levels of HCHs and DDTs were observed when air parcels originated from northern India where considerable OCP usage was reported recently, while high levels of ?-HCH and TC (trans-chlordane) were mainly associated with air masses from southern China and northern MSA. The study highlighted the high background level of OCPs as well as their temporal patterns of trans-boundary LRAT in the MSA region. PMID:21952469

  16. Aerosol size distribution and new particle formation in the western Yangtze River Delta of China: 2 years of measurements at the SORPES station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, X. M.; Ding, A. J.; Nie, W.; Petäjä, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Herrmann, E.; Xie, Y. N.; Zheng, L. F.; Manninen, H.; Aalto, P.; Sun, J. N.; Xu, Z. N.; Chi, X. G.; Huang, X.; Boy, M.; Virkkula, A.; Yang, X.-Q.; Fu, C. B.; Kulmala, M.

    2015-11-01

    Aerosol particles play important roles in regional air quality and global climate change. In this study, we analyzed 2 years (2011-2013) of measurements of submicron particles (6-800 nm) at a suburban site in the western Yangtze River Delta (YRD) of eastern China. The number concentrations (NCs) of particles in the nucleation, Aitken and accumulation modes were 5300 ± 5500, 8000 ± 4400, 5800 ± 3200 cm-3, respectively. The NCs of total particles are comparable to those at urban/suburban sites in other Chinese megacities, such as Beijing, but about 10 times higher than in the remote western China. Long-range and regional transport largely influenced number concentrations and size distributions of submicron particles. The highest and lowest accumulation-mode particle number concentrations were observed in air masses from the YRD and coastal regions, respectively. Continental air masses from inland brought the highest concentrations of nucleation-mode particles. New particle formation (NPF) events, apparent in 44 % of the effective measurement days, occurred frequently in all the seasons except winter. The frequency of NPF in spring, summer and autumn is much higher than other measurement sites in China. Sulfuric acid was found to be the main driver of NPF events. The particle formation rate was the highest in spring (3.6 ± 2.4 cm-3 s-1), whereas the particle growth rate had the highest values in summer (12.8 ± 4.4 nm h-1). The formation rate was typically high in relatively clean air masses, whereas the growth rate tended to be high in the polluted YRD air masses. The frequency of NPF events and the particle growth rates showed a strong year-to-year difference. In the summer of 2013, associated with a multi-week heat wave and strong photochemical processes, NPF events occurred with larger frequency and higher growth rates compared with the same period in 2012. The difference in the location and strength of the subtropical high pressure system, which influences the air mass transport pathways and solar radiation, seems to be the cause for year-to-year differences. This study reports, up to now, the longest continuous measurement records of submicron particles in eastern China and helps to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the main factors controlling the seasonal and year-to-year variation of the aerosol size distribution and NPF in this region.

  17. Tree ring ?18O's indication of a shift to a wetter climate since the 1880s in the western Tianshan Mountains of northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guobao; Liu, Xiaohong; Wu, Guoju; Chen, Tuo; Wang, Wenzhi; Zhang, Qiong; Zhang, Youfu; Zeng, Xiaomin; Qin, Dahe; Sun, Weizhen; Zhang, Xuanwen

    2015-07-01

    Central Asian droughts have drastically and significantly affected agriculture and water resource management in these arid and semiarid areas. Based on tree ring ?18O from native, dominant Schrenk spruce (Picea schrenkiana Fisch. et Mey.), we developed a 300 year (1710-2010) standard precipitation-evaporation index (SPEI) reconstruction from January to August for China's western Tianshan Mountains. The regression model explained 37.6% of the variation in the SPEI reconstruction during the calibration period from 1950 to 2010. Comparison with previous drought reconstructions confirmed the robustness of our reconstruction. The 20th century has been a relatively wet period during the past 300 years. The SPEI showed quasi 2, 5, and 10 year cycles. Several pluvials and droughts with covariability over large areas were revealed clearly in the reconstruction. The two longest pluvials (lasting for 12 years), separated by 50 years, appeared in the 1900s and the 1960s. The most severe drought occurred from 1739 to 1761 and from 1886 to 1911 was the wettest period since 1710. Compared to previous investigations of hydroclimatic changes in the western Tianshan Mountains, our reconstruction revealed more low-frequency variability and indicated that climate in the western Tianshan Mountains shifted from dry to wet in 1886. This regime shift was generally consistent with other moisture reconstructions for the northeastern Tibetan Plateau and northern Pakistan and may have resulted from a strengthened westerly circulation. The opposite hydrological trends in the western Tianshan Mountains and southeastern Tibetan Plateau reveal a substantial influence of strengthened westerlies and weakening of the Indian summer monsoon.

  18. Socio-demographics, sexual behaviours, and use of HIV prevention services among men who have sex with men and women in Western China.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhenzhen; Zhong, Xiaoni; Peng, Bin; Zhang, Yan; Liang, Hao; Peng, HongBin; Zhong, Xiao Hua; Liu, Xiyao; Huang, Ailong

    2016-02-01

    This paper looks into the differences of sexual risk behaviours and prevention services among men who have sex with men and women and men who have sex with men only. The data from a cross-sectional survey of 159 men who have sex with men and women and 1186 men who have sex with men only in western China is analysed. It is found that men who have sex with men and women, with multiple anal sex partners, have higher rates of selling and buying sex than men who have sex with men only, but obtain less HIV-related knowledge from partners or HIV consulting and testing services. More efforts should be made to promote safer sexual behaviours and reduce the barriers for access to health services. PMID:25725493

  19. Concentration, distribution and variation of polar organic aerosol tracers in Ya'an, a middle-sized city in western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Dai, Dongjue; Deng, Shihuai; Feng, Jialiang; Zhao, Min; Wu, Jun; Liu, Lu; Yang, Xiaohui; Wu, Sishi; Qi, Hui; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Wang, Yingjun; Zhang, Yanzong

    2013-02-01

    PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 ?m) and TSP (total suspended particulates) aerosol samples were collected in Ya'an, a middle-sized city with extensive wood resources in Southwestern China, to characterize the contribution of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) to the regional troposphere, the composition of the organic tracers as well as factors affecting their concentrations. A total of 34 samples were gathered on the Campus of Sichuan Agricultural University (SAU, urban site, in the city zone of Ya'an), while 49 samples were collected at Baima Spring Scenic Area (BSSA, forest site, situated about 30 km to the northeast of SAU) during June to July, 2010. Using GC/MS analysis with prior trimethylsilylation, organic tracers including isoprene oxidation products (2-methyltetrols, C5-alkene triols and 2-methylglyceric acid), ?-/?-pinene oxidation products (norpinic acid, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, 3-hydroxy-4,4-dimethylglutaric acid, and 3-methyl-1,2,3- butanetricarboxylic acid), a sesquiterpene oxidation product (?-caryophyllinic acid), sugars (glucose and fructose), sugar alcohols (arabitol, mannitol, erythritol, sorbitol and xylitol), anhydrosugars (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan) and malic acid were determined. The factors that could potentially affect the SOA tracer concentrations, i.e. trace gases (SO2, NOx, O3, NH3), aerosol acidity and meteorological parameters, were monitored. The results showed that the concentrations of total isoprene oxidation products were 72 and 82 ng/m3 at the two sampling locations, with 29 ± 18, 37 ± 9, 6 ± 2 ng/m3 at SAU and 57 ± 34, 33 ± 33, 4 ± 2 ng/m3 at BSSA for 2-methyltetrols, C5-alkene triols and 2-methylglyceric acid respectively. Compared with the concentrations of isoprene oxidation products, those of ?-/?-pinene oxidation products and ?-caryophyllinic acid were much lower, being 6 ± 33 and 0.5 ± 1.9 ng/m3 at SAU, and 9 ± 14 and 1.0 ± 1.2 ng/m3 at BSSA, respectively. The unique composition of isoprene oxidation products, particularly, the high concentrations of the C5-alkene triols and their relative abundances comparable to those of the 2-methyltetrols, are possibly due to the fact that they are formed through acid-catalyzed reactions of C5-epoxydiols on weak acidic aerosols. Moreover, sugars and sugar alcohols were measured in important fractions at the two study areas, with the median concentrations of 309.7 and 465.7 ng/m3 at SAU and BSSA, respectively. The high abundances of sugar and sugar alcohols in the study area are explained by the robust metabolism of microorganism in the fertile soil under the warm and moist climate as well as vigorous physiological activities of vegetations in the exuberant subtropical areas. The detected organic tracers accounted in total for 1.5-1.8% of organic carbon (OC) in the study atmosphere, and about 15-21% of the OC could in total be apportioned to biogenic aerosol sources and source processes.

  20. [Near infrared spectrum analysis and meaning of the soil in 512 earthquake surface rupture zone in Pingtong, Sichuan].

    PubMed

    Yi, Ze-bang; Cao, Jian-jin; Luo, Song-ying; Wang, Zheng-yang; Liao, Yi-peng

    2014-08-01

    Through modern near infrared spectrum, the authors analyzed the yellow soil from the rupture zone located in Ping- tong town,Pingwu, Sichuan province. By rapid identification of the characteristic of peak absorption of mineral particles, the result shows that the soil samples mainly composed of calcite, dolomite, muscovite, sericite, illite, smectite; talc, tremolite, actinolite, chlorite, etc. And the mineral compositions of the soil is basically the same with the yellow soil in Sichuan region. By analyzing and comparing it was revealed that part of mineral compositions of the soil are in accordance with the characteristics of the rock mineral compositions below the rupture zone, indicating that part of the minerals of the soil's evolution is closely related to the rock compositions in this area; and the compositions of the clay mineral in the rupture zone is similar to the Ma Lan loess in the north of China, so it is presumed that the clay minerals in these two kinds of soil have the same genetic type. The characteristic of the mineral composition of the soil is in accordance with evolution characteristics of the rocks which is bellow the rupture zone, also it was demonstrated that the results of soil minerals near-infrared analysis can effectively analyze the mineral particles in the soil and indicate the pedogenic environment. Therefore, the result shows the feasibility of adopting modern near-infrared spectrum for rapid analysis of mineral particles of the soil and research of geology. Meanwhile, the results can be the foundation of this region's soil mineral analysis, and also provide new ideas and methods for the future research of soil minerals and the earthquake rupture zone. PMID:25508716

  1. [Near infrared spectrum analysis and meaning of the soil in 512 earthquake surface rupture zone in Pingtong, Sichuan].

    PubMed

    Yi, Ze-bang; Cao, Jian-jin; Luo, Song-ying; Wang, Zheng-yang; Liao, Yi-peng

    2014-08-01

    Through modern near infrared spectrum, the authors analyzed the yellow soil from the rupture zone located in Ping- tong town,Pingwu, Sichuan province. By rapid identification of the characteristic of peak absorption of mineral particles, the result shows that the soil samples mainly composed of calcite, dolomite, muscovite, sericite, illite, smectite; talc, tremolite, actinolite, chlorite, etc. And the mineral compositions of the soil is basically the same with the yellow soil in Sichuan region. By analyzing and comparing it was revealed that part of mineral compositions of the soil are in accordance with the characteristics of the rock mineral compositions below the rupture zone, indicating that part of the minerals of the soil's evolution is closely related to the rock compositions in this area; and the compositions of the clay mineral in the rupture zone is similar to the Ma Lan loess in the north of China, so it is presumed that the clay minerals in these two kinds of soil have the same genetic type. The characteristic of the mineral composition of the soil is in accordance with evolution characteristics of the rocks which is bellow the rupture zone, also it was demonstrated that the results of soil minerals near-infrared analysis can effectively analyze the mineral particles in the soil and indicate the pedogenic environment. Therefore, the result shows the feasibility of adopting modern near-infrared spectrum for rapid analysis of mineral particles of the soil and research of geology. Meanwhile, the results can be the foundation of this region's soil mineral analysis, and also provide new ideas and methods for the future research of soil minerals and the earthquake rupture zone. PMID:25474937

  2. Role of atmospheric heating over the South China Sea and western Pacific regions in modulating Asian summer climate under the global warming background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bian; Yang, Song; Li, Zhenning

    2015-07-01

    The response of monsoon precipitation to global warming, which is one of the most significant climate change signals at the earth's surface, exhibits very distinct regional features, especially over the South China Sea (SCS) and adjacent regions in boreal summer. To understand the possible atmospheric dynamics in these specific regions under the global warming background, changes in atmospheric heating and their possible influences on Asian summer climate are investigated by both observational diagnosis and numerical simulations. Results indicate that heating in the middle troposphere has intensified in the SCS and western Pacific regions in boreal summer, accompanied by increased precipitation, cloud cover, and lower-tropospheric convergence and decreased sea level pressure. Sensitivity experiments show that middle and upper tropospheric heating causes an east-west feedback pattern between SCS and western Pacific and continental South Asia, which strengthens the South Asian High in the upper troposphere and moist convergence in the lower troposphere, consequently forcing a descending motion and adiabatic warming over continental South Asia. When air-sea interaction is considered, the simulation results are overall more similar to observations, and in particular the bias of precipitation over the Indian Ocean simulated by AGCMs has been reduced. The result highlights the important role of air-sea interaction in understanding the changes in Asian climate.

  3. Association of Inflammation with Metabolic Syndrome among Low-Income Rural Kazakh and Uyghur Adults in Far Western China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yi-Zhong; Ma, Ru-Lin; Ding, Yu-Song; Guo, Heng; Zhang, Jing-Yu; Mu, La-Ti; Zhang, Mei; Liu, Jia-Ming; Rui, Dong-Sheng; He, Jia; Sun, Feng; Wang, Kui; Guo, Shu-Xia

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on low-income rural and nomadic minority people residing in China's far west and investigated their relationship between inflammatory markers (IL-6, hsCRP, FFA, and adiponectin) and MS and ethnic differences. And it found that improving behavioral lifestyle by education or using drugs to control inflammation may prevent MS. These observations may benefit low-income populations. PMID:26246695

  4. Association of Inflammation with Metabolic Syndrome among Low-Income Rural Kazakh and Uyghur Adults in Far Western China

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yi-Zhong; Ma, Ru-Lin; Ding, Yu-Song; Guo, Heng; Zhang, Jing-Yu; Mu, La-Ti; Zhang, Mei; Liu, Jia-Ming; Rui, Dong-Sheng; He, Jia; Sun, Feng; Wang, Kui; Guo, Shu-Xia

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on low-income rural and nomadic minority people residing in China's far west and investigated their relationship between inflammatory markers (IL-6, hsCRP, FFA, and adiponectin) and MS and ethnic differences. And it found that improving behavioral lifestyle by education or using drugs to control inflammation may prevent MS. These observations may benefit low-income populations. PMID:26246695

  5. River capture by earthquake caused the transition of ancient Sichuan civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, N.; Wu, B.; Nie, R.; Liu, X.; Cao, S.

    2014-12-01

    About three thousand years ago, Sanxingdui Civilization in Sichuan, China suddenly disappeared in its flourishing stage, following by a new Civilization called Jinsha locates about 40 kilometers southwest of Sanxingdui. The previous reasons such as flood or war was not so convincing to explain the sudden extinction of Sanxingdui and the heritage of Jinsha. Nevertheless, no sufficient attention has been paid to the special geomorphologic characters of Yanmen Ravine (a tributary of Minjiang River), Jianjiang River and Baishui River (a tributary of Jianjiang River), either. Based on field investigation conducted in the relevant areas, in addition with 3S (Remote Sensing RS, Geographical information System GIS and Global Positioning System GPS) technologies, it is found that Yanmen Ravine, Baishui River and Jianjiang River (all are bed rock rivers) are too wide in according with the small flow discharge. Some cirques locate in high areas of Mount Gauangguang, which is the divide of the current Yanmen Ravine and Baishui River, but no cirques exist near the proposed old channel. As a result, it proves that Baishui River and Jianjiang River are beheaded rivers and Yanmen Ravine is a reversed river. All the demonstrations above prove that Minjiang River used to flow southeast into Tuojiang River through Mount Guangguang along Baishui River and Jianjiang River. The profiles of Minjing River, Zagunao River, Yanmen Ravine and Wenzheng Ravine also demonstrate that river capture once happened. Combining historic records and archaeological materials, it is concluded that a strong earthquake happened in 1099B.C. triggered rock avalanches and landslides, the old Minjiang River was dammed in Mount Guangguang and river capture happened. The avulsion of river resulted in sharp decreasing of the flow discharge of the river flowing by Sanxingdui Civilization. As a result, for the short of water resources, Sanxingdui Civilization was forced to migrate and finally found the big river in Jinsha, where the new river flowed by, and thus a new civilization developed. River capture also caused the serious floods in Duyu Kingdom Periods.

  6. Late Carboniferous collision between the Tarim and Kazakhstan-Yili terranes in the western segment of the South Tian Shan Orogen, Central Asia, and implications for the Northern Xinjiang, western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bao-Fu; He, Guo-Qi; Wang, Xue-Chao; Guo, Zhao-Jie

    2011-12-01

    The Tian Shan of Central Asia is located in the southwestern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB, also known as the Central Asian Orogenic System or CAOS). Formation of the South Tian Shan Orogen is a diachronous, scissors-like process during the Paleozoic and its western segment in China-Kyrgyzstan contiguous regions is accepted as the site of the final collision zone between the Tarim craton to the south and the Kazakhstan-Yili terrane to the north in the Late Paleozoic. However, when the final collision occurred is still in hot debate. Particularly, an end-Permian to Triassic collisional model is recently proposed for the western segment of the South Tian Shan Orogen. This even leads to the speculation that the complicated accretion-collision processes in the Northern Xinjiang of western China, which involved the terrane amalgamation in the East and West Junggar and the collision between the Altai and Kazakhstan terranes and between the Yili-Central Tian Shan and Junggar terranes, were finally terminated during the end-Permian to mid-Triassic, rather than the Late Paleozoic as usually accepted. Obviously, the western segment of the South Tian Shan Orogen also presents the key issue associated with the termination time of accretion-collision processes in the Northern Xinjiang. A collisional model that is derived from the knowledge of the Himalayan Orogen is helpful for establishing a sequence of major tectonothermal events in the western segment of the South Tian Shan Orogen and constraining the time of collision between the Tarim craton and the Kazakhstan-Yili terrane. For the western segment of the South Tian Shan Orogen, the end-Permian to Triassic collisional model is mainly based on Triassic zircon U-Pb ages of 234 to 226 Ma from the West Tian Shan eclogite and two suspected Late Permian radiolarian specimens Albaillella excelsa Ishiga, Kito and Imoto (?) from the Baleigong ophiolitic mélange. Actually, the poor preservation of the two radiolarian specimens and the lack of a ventral wing make their identifications difficult. Furthermore, the Baleigong ophiolitic mélange was intruded by one granite pluton with a zircon age of 273 Ma, and this provides geological evidence against the reliability of the Late Permian radiolarian specimens. Because the Triassic zircons contain no index mineral inclusions such as omphacite and coesite grown under high to ultrahigh pressure conditions, it is difficult to link their ages to high to ultrahigh pressure peak metamorphism. In addition, this model is not compatible with extensive Permian plutonism and molasse sedimentation and Triassic to Jurassic tectonomagmatic quiescence and continental deposits in the collisional zone and adjacent tectonic units. In contrast, new U-Pb ages of the zircon domains containing omphacite and phengite inclusions and Sm-Nd and rutile U-Pb ages of eclogite samples from the western segment of the South Tian Shan Orogen consistently indicate that high pressure peak metamorphism of subducted oceanic material occurred at ~ 319 Ma (the end of the Early Carboniferous). This and the youngest Early Carboniferous radiolarian and conodonts fossils from ophiolitic mélanges show that the collision must have taken place after the Early Carboniferous, whereas the oldest stitching granitic plutons in the collisional zone place an upper-age bound of ~ 300 Ma (the end of the Late Carboniferous) for the collision. These specify that the final collision in the western segment of the South Tian Shan took place in the Late Carboniferous rather than the end-Permian to Triassic. Noticeably, syn-collisional granitoids are rare, but Permian post-collisional plutonism and molasse sedimentation are widespread in the western segment of the South Tian Shan and adjacent tectonic units, and the oldest post-collisional plutons were nearly concurrent with low pressure, high temperature metamorphism in the south edge of the Kazakhstan-Yili terrane. All these suggest a significant geodynamic change at ~ 300 Ma, which may be caused by delamination of the thickened lithos

  7. Trace gases, aerosols and their interactions with synoptic weather: An overview of in-situ measurements at the SORPES Station in the western Yangtze River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, A.; Fu, C.; Yang, X.; Petaja, T.; Kerminen, V.; Kulmala, M. T.

    2011-12-01

    This work presents an overview of 1 yr measurements of ozone (O3) and fine particular matter (PM2.5) and related trace gases at a recently developed regional background site, the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES), in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in eastern China. Ozone and PM2.5 showed strong seasonal cycles but with contrast patterns: O3 reached a maximum in warm seasons but PM2.5 in cold seasons. Correlation analysis suggests a VOC-sensitive regime for O3 chemistry and a formation of secondary aerosols under conditions of high O3 in summer. Compared with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in China, our measurements report 15 days of O3 exceedance and 148 days of PM2.5 exceedance during the 1 yr period, suggesting a severe air pollution situation in this region. A calculation of potential source contributions based on Lagrangian dispersion simulations suggests that emissions from the YRD contributed to over 70% of the O3 precursor CO, with a majority from the mid-YRD. North-YRD and the North China Plain are the main contributors to PM2.5pollution in this region. Case studies for typical O3 and PM2.5 episodes showed that synoptic weather played an important role in air pollution, especially for O3. Observation during the typical biomass burning seasons also shows clear air pollution - weather interactions. For the typical episode occurred on 10 June, 2012, the measurement suggest that the mixed agricultural burning plumes with fossil fuel combustion pollution resulted in a decrease of solar radiation by more than 70 %, of sensible heat flux over 85 %, a temperature drop by almost 10 K, and a change 10 of rainfall during daytime and nighttime. This work shows an important environmental impact from industrialization and urbanization in the YRD region, and suggests an urgent need for improving air quality in these areas through collaborative control measures among different administrative regions, and also highlights a cross-disciplinary need in both measurement and modeling to study the regional environmental, weather and climate problems in East China.

  8. Trace gases, aerosols and their interactions with synoptic weather: An overview of in-situ measurements at the SORPES Station in the western Yangtze River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, A.; Fu, C.; Yang, X.; Petaja, T.; Kerminen, V.; Kulmala, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    This work presents an overview of 1 yr measurements of ozone (O3) and fine particular matter (PM2.5) and related trace gases at a recently developed regional background site, the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES), in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in eastern China. Ozone and PM2.5 showed strong seasonal cycles but with contrast patterns: O3 reached a maximum in warm seasons but PM2.5 in cold seasons. Correlation analysis suggests a VOC-sensitive regime for O3 chemistry and a formation of secondary aerosols under conditions of high O3 in summer. Compared with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in China, our measurements report 15 days of O3 exceedance and 148 days of PM2.5 exceedance during the 1 yr period, suggesting a severe air pollution situation in this region. A calculation of potential source contributions based on Lagrangian dispersion simulations suggests that emissions from the YRD contributed to over 70% of the O3 precursor CO, with a majority from the mid-YRD. North-YRD and the North China Plain are the main contributors to PM2.5pollution in this region. Case studies for typical O3 and PM2.5 episodes showed that synoptic weather played an important role in air pollution, especially for O3. Observation during the typical biomass burning seasons also shows clear air pollution - weather interactions. For the typical episode occurred on 10 June, 2012, the measurement suggest that the mixed agricultural burning plumes with fossil fuel combustion pollution resulted in a decrease of solar radiation by more than 70 %, of sensible heat flux over 85 %, a temperature drop by almost 10 K, and a change 10 of rainfall during daytime and nighttime. This work shows an important environmental impact from industrialization and urbanization in the YRD region, and suggests an urgent need for improving air quality in these areas through collaborative control measures among different administrative regions, and also highlights a cross-disciplinary need in both measurement and modeling to study the regional environmental, weather and climate problems in East China.

  9. Spatio-temporal variation of drought in China during 1961-2012: A climatic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kai; Yang, Dawen; Yang, Hanbo; Li, Zhe; Qin, Yue; Shen, Yan

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the spatial and temporal variation of drought is essentially important in drought assessment. In most previous studies, drought event is usually identified in space and time separately, ignoring the nature of the dynamic processes. In order to better understand how drought changes have taken place in China during the past half-century, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of their spatio-temporal variation based on multiple drought indices from a climatic perspective. A 3-dimensional clustering method is developed to identify drought events in China from 1961 to 2012 based on the 0.25° gridded indices of SPI3 (3 months Standardized Precipitation Index), RDI3 (3 months Reconnaissance Drought Index) and SPEI3 (3 months Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index). Drought events are further characterized by five parameters: duration, affected area, severity, intensity, and centroid. Remotely sensed soil moisture data were used to validate the rationality of identified drought events. The results show that the two most severe drought events in the past half century which occurred in the periods 1962-1963 and 2010-2011 swept more than half of the non-arid regions in China. Large magnitude droughts were usually centered in the region from North China Plain to the downstream of Yangtze River. The western part of North China Plain, Loess Plateau, Sichuan Basin and Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau had a significant drying trend, which is mainly caused by the significant decrease of precipitation. The three drought indices have almost the same performance in the humid regions, while SPI and RDI were found to be more appropriate than SPEI in the arid regions.

  10. Sources and photochemistry of volatile organic compounds in the remote atmosphere of western China: results from the Mt. Waliguan Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, L. K.; Wang, T.; Guo, H.; Blake, D. R.; Tang, J.; Zhang, X. C.; Saunders, S. M.; Wang, W. X.

    2013-05-01

    The chemistry of the natural atmosphere and the influence by long-range transport of air pollution are key issues in the atmospheric sciences. Here we present two intensive field measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in late spring and summer of 2003 at Mt. Waliguan (WLG, 36.28° N, 100.90° E, 3816 m a.s.l.), a baseline station in the northeast part of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Most VOC species exhibited higher concentrations in late spring than in summer. A typical diurnal variation was observed with higher nighttime levels, in contrast to results from other mountainous sites. Five different air masses were identified from backward trajectory analysis showing distinct VOC speciation. Air masses originating from the central Eurasian continent contained the lowest VOC levels compared to the others that were impacted by anthropogenic emissions from China and the Indian sub-continent. The data were compared with the TRACE-P (Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific) data to examine the inflow and outflow of air pollution over the China sub-continent. The results show that the free troposphere over China may be affected by the inflow from the Eurasian continent in spring, and the emissions in China may not have a significant influence on the free tropospheric outflow. A photochemical box model based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (version 3.2) and constrained by a full suite of measurements was developed to probe the photochemistry of atmosphere at WLG. Our results show net ozone production from in-situ photochemistry during both late spring and summer. Oxidation of nitric oxide (NO) by the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) dominates the ozone production relative to the oxidation by the organic peroxy radicals (RO2), and the ozone is primarily destroyed by photolysis and reactions with the HOx(HOx = OH + HO2) radicals. Ozone photolysis is the predominant primary source of radicals (ROx = OH + HO2 + RO2), followed by the photolysis of oxygenated VOCs and hydrogen peroxides. The radical losses are governed by the self and cross reactions among the radicals. The findings can provide insights into the background chemistry and the impacts of pollution transport on the pristine atmosphere over the Eurasian continent.

  11. What Contributes to the Activeness of Ethnic Minority Patients with Chronic Illnesses Seeking Allied Health Services? A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Western China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shangfeng; Dong, Dong; Ji, Lu; Fu, Hang; Feng, Zhanchun; Bishwajit, Ghose; He, Zhifei; Ming, Hui; Fu, Qian; Xian, Yue

    2015-09-01

    Actively seeking health services lies at the core of effective models of chronic disease self-management and contributes to promoting the utilization of allied health services (AHS). However, the use of AHS by ethnic minority Chinese, especially the elderly living in rural areas, has not received much attention. This study, therefore, aims to explore the association between personal characteristics and the activeness of ethnic minority patients with chronic diseases in rural areas of western China seeking AHS. A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect data on the socio-demographic and economic characteristics, health knowledge level and health communication channels of the sampled patients. A logistic regression model was used to examine the association of these predictors with the activeness of the surveyed patients in seeking AHS. A total of 1078 ethnic minorities over 45 years old who had chronic conditions were randomly selected from three western provinces in China and were interviewed in 2014. It is found that the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) is the most salient predictor affecting the activeness of Chinese ethnic minorities in seeking AHS. The probability is 8.51 times greater for those insured with NCMS to actively seek AHS than those without (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 4.76-15.21; p < 0.001). Moreover, participants between 60 and 70 years old and those who have five to six household members are more likely to seek AHS compared with other social groups (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.64, 95% CI 1.28-2.97, p = 0.007; OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.15-2.36, p = 0.002). However, the activeness of patients seeking AHS is lower for those who have better household economic conditions. Besides socio-demographic predictors, the Chinese ethnic minorities' activeness in seeking AHS is clearly associated with the communication channels used for receiving health information, which include direct communication with doctors (OR = 5.18, 95% CI 3.58-7.50, p < 0.001) and dissemination of elementary public health knowledge posted on bulletin boards (OR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.61-3.27, p < 0.001) and traditional mass media (OR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.22-2.48, p = 0.002). First, the government should further improve the coverage of NCMS to households suffering from chronic diseases and satisfy the requirements of social groups at different income levels and various ages in their health care to improve their activeness in AHS utilization. Second, doctors' advice, bulletin boards and traditional media are common health communication channels for those seeking AHS and thus should be continuously employed in rural western China. Third, specified healthcare services should be designed to meet the needs of different patient segmentations. PMID:26389931

  12. What Contributes to the Activeness of Ethnic Minority Patients with Chronic Illnesses Seeking Allied Health Services? A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Western China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shangfeng; Dong, Dong; Ji, Lu; Fu, Hang; Feng, Zhanchun; Bishwajit, Ghose; He, Zhifei; Ming, Hui; Fu, Qian; Xian, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Actively seeking health services lies at the core of effective models of chronic disease self-management and contributes to promoting the utilization of allied health services (AHS). However, the use of AHS by ethnic minority Chinese, especially the elderly living in rural areas, has not received much attention. This study, therefore, aims to explore the association between personal characteristics and the activeness of ethnic minority patients with chronic diseases in rural areas of western China seeking AHS. A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect data on the socio-demographic and economic characteristics, health knowledge level and health communication channels of the sampled patients. A logistic regression model was used to examine the association of these predictors with the activeness of the surveyed patients in seeking AHS. A total of 1078 ethnic minorities over 45 years old who had chronic conditions were randomly selected from three western provinces in China and were interviewed in 2014. It is found that the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) is the most salient predictor affecting the activeness of Chinese ethnic minorities in seeking AHS. The probability is 8.51 times greater for those insured with NCMS to actively seek AHS than those without (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 4.76–15.21; p < 0.001). Moreover, participants between 60 and 70 years old and those who have five to six household members are more likely to seek AHS compared with other social groups (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.64, 95% CI 1.28–2.97, p = 0.007; OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.15–2.36, p = 0.002). However, the activeness of patients seeking AHS is lower for those who have better household economic conditions. Besides socio-demographic predictors, the Chinese ethnic minorities’ activeness in seeking AHS is clearly associated with the communication channels used for receiving health information, which include direct communication with doctors (OR = 5.18, 95% CI 3.58–7.50, p < 0.001) and dissemination of elementary public health knowledge posted on bulletin boards (OR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.61–3.27, p < 0.001) and traditional mass media (OR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.22–2.48, p = 0.002). First, the government should further improve the coverage of NCMS to households suffering from chronic diseases and satisfy the requirements of social groups at different income levels and various ages in their health care to improve their activeness in AHS utilization. Second, doctors’ advice, bulletin boards and traditional media are common health communication channels for those seeking AHS and thus should be continuously employed in rural western China. Third, specified healthcare services should be designed to meet the needs of different patient segmentations. PMID:26389931

  13. Petrology and geochemistry of Zijinshan alkaline intrusive complex in Shanxi Province, western North China Craton: Implication for magma mixing of different sources in an extensional regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Jifeng; Zhang, Hongfu; Sun, Min; Tang, Yanjie; Zhou, Xinhua; Liu, Xiaoming

    2007-10-01

    In situ zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic compositions and whole rock geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data are presented for the Zijinshan alkaline intrusive complex from the Shanxi Province, western North China Craton. Salic rocks dominate the complex with the monzonite occurring in the outermost and pseudoleucite phonolitic breccia in the center. The intrusion took place 127 Ma ago with the earliest emplacement of monzonite and the termination of cryptoexplosive pseudoleucite phonolitic breccia. All rocks from this complex show LREE enrichment and HFSE depletion and exhibit enriched to depleted Sr-Nd isotopic features. The presence of inherited zircons and enriched Hf isotopic compositions in zircon rims, along with the enriched whole rock Sr-Nd isotopic compositions, indicate that the monzonite was formed through the mixing of lithospheric mantle-derived magma with lower crust-derived melts. The diopside syenite and nepheline-bearing diopside syenite are more depleted than the monzonite in terms of the Sr and Nd isotopes, together with their very high concentrations of LILE, we proposed that they originated from a mixed mantle source of enriched lithospheric mantle and depleted asthenosphere. The nepheline syenite has very low concentrations of MgO, Ni, Cr, suggesting that the magma underwent significant crystal fractionation. The most depleted Sr and Nd isotopic compositions (( 87Sr/ 86Sr) i = 0.7036-0.7042, ?Nd( t) = - 0.2-0.3) among all rock types indicate a great contribution of asthenosphere to the nepheline syenite. The Zijinshan complex and its related crust-mantle interaction occurred in an extensional environment which resulted in continuously asthenospheric upwelling. Such an extensional environment might have been developed during the post-orogenic stage of the Late Paleozoic amalgamation of North China Craton with Mongolian continents and subsequent Mongol-Okhotsk ocean closure.

  14. Effects of food availability and climate on activity patterns of western black-crested gibbons in an isolated forest fragment in southern Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Ni, Qingyong; Xie, Meng; Grueter, Cyril C; Jiang, Xuelong; Xu, Huailiang; Yao, Yongfang; Zhang, Mingwang; Li, Yan; Yang, Jiandong

    2015-10-01

    The critically endangered western black-crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor) is distributed in isolated habitat fragments in northern Vietnam, northwestern Laos, and southwestern China. To assess the behavioral adaptation of this species to forest fragments and its response to seasonal variation in food availability and climate, we present activity patterns of a group inhabiting an isolated forest based on two year-long studies in southern Yunnan, China. Annually, the gibbons spent nearly half of their active time resting, followed by moving and feeding. In both study periods, the time allocated to activities varied significantly between months, and was affected by food availability and climate factors. The group delayed retirement when tree fruit was abundant, and they decreased time spent moving and playing during periods of low fruit availability. In the cold months, the gibbons decreased time spent moving, and they decreased active time and resting time when rainfall was high. The results suggest that the group may seek to maximize net energy intake like energy maximizers when high quality food is most available, and adopt an energy-conserving strategy during periods of lower food availability and temperature. The gibbons showed similar diurnal variation in activity patterns to a group inhabiting a continuous forest at Dazhaizi, Mt. Wuliang, central Yunnan. However, they had a longer active period, and devoted more time to resting but less time to feeding. The individuals also spent lower percentages of time engaged in social behavior than those at Dazhaizi. These differences may be due to their smaller home range and unusual group composition caused by habitat fragmentation. PMID:26275664

  15. [Dendroclimatic potentials for the tree rings of Huangshan pine (Pinus taiwanensis ) at Xiaolinhai in the western Dabie Mountains, China].

    PubMed

    Peng, Jian-Feng; Li, Guo-Dong; Li, Ling-Ling

    2014-07-01

    By using the dendrochronology research methods, this paper developed the 1915-2011 tree ring-width standard chronology of the Huangshan pine (Pinus taiwanesis) at the north slope of western Dabie Mountains in the junction of Hubei, Henan and Anhui provinces. High mean sensitivity (MS) indicated that there was conspicuous high-frequency climate signals and high first-order autocorrelation (AC) showed there were significant lag-effects of tree previous growth. The higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and expressed population signal (EPS) indicated that the trees had high levels of common climate signals. Correlations between the tree ring-width standard chronology and climatic factors (1959-2011) revealed the significant influences of temperature, precipitation and relative humidity on the tree width growth of Huangshan pine by the end of growing season (September and October). Significant positive correlations were found between the tree-ring indices and the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) of current September and October. In conclusion, the combination of water and heat of September and October is the major effect factor for the growth of Huangshan pine in western Dabie Mountains. PMID:25345032

  16. Predatory Ground Beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Gaoligong Mountain Region of Western Yunnan Province, China: the Tribe Cyclosomini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cueva-Dabkoski, M.; Kavanaugh, D.

    2013-12-01

    Between 1998 and 2007, the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) was the lead institution in a multi-national, multi-disciplinary biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region (GLGS) in the Yunnan province of China. The project surveyed the species diversity of both higher plants and bryophytes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and selected groups of arachnids and insects. The GLGS of China is one of the most biodiverse areas in all of Asia, yet it is also very poorly sampled and in great threat from increasing human activities in the region. CAS's biodiversity inventory project there has increased the number of carabid species known from just 50 to more than 550 species, an eleven-fold increase. The task that remains is to identify all of those 500 additional species and describe any that are new to science. This project is part of that larger biodiversity survey. Our objective was to identify and/or describe carabid beetles of the tribe Cyclosomini represented by nearly a hundred specimens collected in the GLSG. Among those specimens, six morphospecies were identified - one belonging to the genus Cyclosomus Latreille 1829, and the other five belonging to the genus Tetragonoderus Dejean 1829. Following this initial identification process, a list of known distributions of taxa in both genera was assembled to determine which described species to consider for comparative work. Original descriptions were then located for candidate species with known distributions in or near the GLGS; and these are being used now in morphological comparison of specimens. Type specimens for each of the candidate species have been requested from various academic institutions, and morphological comparisons with these types are underway. Morphological characteristics being examined include body proportions and overall shape, color of appendages, color and shape of pronotum, elytral color patterns, and shape and internal structure of male genitalia.

  17. Aerosol size distribution and new particle formation in western Yangtze River Delta of China: two-year measurement at the SORPES station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, X. M.; Ding, A. J.; Nie, W.; Petäjä, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Herrmann, E.; Xie, Y. N.; Zheng, L. F.; Manninen, H.; Aalto, P.; Sun, J. N.; Xu, Z. N.; Chi, X. G.; Huang, X.; Boy, M.; Virkkula, A.; Yang, X.-Q.; Fu, C. B.; Kulmala, M.

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol particles play important roles in regional air quality and global climate change. In this study, we analyzed two-year (2011-2013) of measurements of submicron particles (6-800 nm) at a suburban site in western Yangtze River delta (YRD) of East China. The number concentrations (NCs) of particles in the nucleation, Aitken and accumulation modes were 5300 ± 5500, 8000 ± 4400, 5800 ± 3200 cm-3, respectively. Number concentrations and size distributions of submicron particles were also influenced by long-range and regional transport of air masses. The highest and lowest accumulation mode particle number concentrations were observed in air masses from YRD and coastal region, respectively. Continental air masses from inland had the highest concentrations of nucleation mode particles. New particle formation (NPF) events, apparent in 44% of the effective measurement days, occurred frequently in all the seasons except winter. Radiation and pre-existing particles were found to be the main factors influencing the occurrence of NPF events. The particle formation rate was the highest in spring (3.6 ± 2.4 cm-3 s-1), whereas the particle growth rate had the highest values in summer (12.8 ± 4.4 nm h-1). The formation rate was typically high in relatively clean air masses, whereas the growth rate tended to be high in the polluted YRD air masses. The frequency of NPF events and the growth rate showed a strong year-to-year difference. In the summer of 2013, associated with a multi-week heat wave and photochemical pollution, NPF events occurred more frequently and the growth rate was much higher than in the same period of 2012. The difference in the location and strength of sub-tropical High, which influences the air mass transport pathways and solar radiation, seems to be the driving cause for year-to-year differences. This study reported the longest continuous measurement records of submicron particles in the East China and gained a comprehensive understanding of the main factors controlling the seasonal and year-to-year variation of the aerosol size distribution and NPF in the East China. The work highlights the importance and need for long-term measurements in understanding the atmosphere system and the impact by human activities.

  18. Lithospheric electrical structure of South China imaged by magnetotelluric data and its tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Letian; Jin, Sheng; Wei, Wenbo; Ye, Gaofeng; Jing, Jianen; Dong, Hao; Xie, Chengliang

    2015-02-01

    The region of South China mainly consists of the Yangtze block in the northwest, the Cathaysia block in the southeast and the Jiangnan orogen in between these two major Precambrian continental blocks. The Yangtze block borders the North China Craton in the north and the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau in the west. The Cathaysia block adjoins the Pacific tectonic domain in the east. The study of tectonics in this region is of great significance given its important role in understanding the formation of the Asia continent. Under the auspices of SinoProbe Project, new magnetotelluric (MT) data were collected along a ?1200 km long profile starting from central Sichuan Basin near Suining, extending southeastward, passing through the Yangtze Block, Jiangnan Orogen, and terminating within the western Cathaysia Block near Ganzhou. Based on data analysis results, 2D inversions were conducted on the dataset. Resulting model shows that the lithospheric electrical structure of South China is generally resistive which is consistent with the basic feature of stable Precambrian tectonic setting. The resistive western Yangtze block represents the stable, Archean aged cratonic region of the Yangtze basement. While the electrically conductive eastern Yangtze block is characterized by lithospheric shearing of the strike-slip fault system and extensional process that is probably caused by slab roll-back of a flatly subducted plate. The Jiangshao fault performs as a northwestward dipping conductive layer, which indicates the lithospheric underthrusting of Cathaysia block beneath Yangtze block with its frontal edge reaching the area of Jishou in the upper mantle. To the west of Jiangshao fault, eastern flank of the Xuefengshan Mountain marks the overthrusting frontier of the Yangtze block, as well as its southeastern boundary. To the east of Jiangshao fault, the northwestern boundary of the Cathaysia block displays the pattern of wedging tectonics, which is characterized by a conductive layer wedging into the Cathaysia lithosphere at the depth range of Moho.

  19. Review of the millipede genus Epanerchodus Attems, 1901 in continental China, with descriptions of new species (Diplopoda: Polydesmidae).

    PubMed

    Golovatch, S I

    2014-01-01

    Four new species of Epanerchodus are described from mainland China: E. jaegeri sp. nov. and E. martensi sp. nov., both sympatric and even partly syntopic in Shaanxi, E. schawalleri sp. nov., from Sichuan, and E. yunnanensis sp. nov., from Yunnan. In addition, E. koreanus Verhoeff, 1937 is formally new to the fauna of China due to fresh samples from Jilin. A key is presented to all 14 unquestioned species of Epanerchodus currently known from mainland China. PMID:24870082

  20. Atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from China.

    PubMed

    Lang, Chang; Tao, Shu; Liu, Wenxin; Zhang, Yanxu; Simonich, Staci

    2008-07-15

    A potential receptor influence function (PRIF) model, based on air mass forward trajectory calculations, was applied to simulate the atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from China. With a 10 day atmospheric transport time, most neighboring countries and regions, as well as remote regions, were influenced by PAH emissions from China. Of the total annual PAH emission of 114 Gg, 92.7% remained within the boundary of mainland China. The geographic distribution of PRIFs within China was similar to the geographic distribution of the source regions, with high values in the North China Plain, Sichuan Basin, Shanxi, and Guizhou province. The Tarim basin and Sichuan basin had unfavorable meteorological conditions for PAH outflow. Of the PAH outflow from China (8092 tons or 7.1% of the total annual PAH emission), approximately 69.9% (5655 tons) reached no further than the offshore environment of mainland China and the South China Sea. Approximate 227, 71, 746, and 131 tons PAHs reached North Korea, South Korea, Russia-Mongolia region, and Japan, respectively, 2-4 days after the emission. Only 1.4 tons PAHs reached North America after more than 9 days. Interannual variation in the eastward PAH outflow was positively correlated to cold episodes of El Niño/Southern Oscillation. However, trans-Pacific atmospheric transport of PAHs from China was correlated to Pacific North America index (PNA) which is associated with the strength and position of westerly winds. PMID:18754369

  1. Atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from China

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Lang; Shu Tao; Wenxin Liu; Yanxu Zhang; Staci Simonich

    2008-07-15

    A potential receptor influence function (PRIF) model, based on air mass forward trajectory calculations, was applied to simulate the atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from China. With a 10 day atmospheric transport time, most neighboring countries and regions, as well as remote regions, were influenced by PAH emissions from China. Of the total annual PAH emission of 114 Gg, 92.7% remained within the boundary of mainland China. The geographic distribution of PRIFs within China was similar to the geographic distribution of the source regions, with high values in the North China Plain, Sichuan Basin, Shanxi, and Guizhou province. The Tarim basin and Sichuan basin had unfavorable meteorological conditions for PAH outflow. Of the PAH outflow from China (8092 tons or 7.1% of the total annual PAH emission), approximately 69.9% (5655 tons) reached no further than the offshore environment of mainland China and the South China Sea. Approximate 227, 71, 746, and 131 tons PAHs reached North Korea, South Korea, Russia-Mongolia region, and Japan, respectively, 2-4 days after the emission. Only 1.4 tons PAHs reached North America after more than 9 days. Interannual variation in the eastward PAH outflow was positively correlated to cold episodes of El Nino/Southern Oscillation. However, trans-Pacific atmospheric transport of PAHs from China was correlated to Pacific North America index (PNA) which is associated with the strength and position of westerly winds. 38 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Simulating Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Sichuan Grassland Net Primary Productivity Using the CASA Model and In Situ Observations

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chuanjiang; Fu, Xinyu; Jiang, Dong; Zhang, Xinyue; Zhou, Su

    2014-01-01

    Net primary productivity (NPP) is an important indicator for grassland resource management and sustainable development. In this paper, the NPP of Sichuan grasslands was estimated by the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model. The results were validated with in situ data. The overall precision reached 70%; alpine meadow had the highest precision at greater than 75%, among the three types of grasslands validated. The spatial and temporal variations of Sichuan grasslands were analyzed. The absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (APAR), light use efficiency (?), and NPP of Sichuan grasslands peaked in August, which was a vigorous growth period during 2011. High values of APAR existed in the southwest regions in altitudes from 2000?m to 4000?m. Light use efficiency (?) varied in the different types of grasslands. The Sichuan grassland NPP was mainly distributed in the region of 3000–5000?m altitude. The NPP of alpine meadow accounted for 50% of the total NPP of Sichuan grasslands. PMID:25250396

  3. Inventory of the carabid beetle fauna of the Gaoligong Mountains, western Yunnan Province, China: species of the tribe Zabrini (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Kavanaugh, David H; Hieke, Fritz; Liang, Hongbin; Dong, Dazhi

    2014-01-01

    A ten-year multidisciplinary, multi-national and multi-institutional biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region of western Yunnan Province, China generated more than 35,000 specimens of the beetle (Coleoptera) family Carabidae. In this report, first of a planned series, we focus on diversity in tribe Zabrini. Our study of just over 1300 specimens of zabrine carabids from the project, all in genus Amara Bonelli, found a total of 13 species, all previously described, to occur in the study area, with none of them strictly endemic. We present a key for identification of adults of these species, as well as nomenclatural data, diagnoses, illustrations of dorsal habitus and male genitalia, and information about geographical, altitudinal and habitat distributions within the study area and overall geographical distribution for each species. Distributions of the species within the study area are compared, and broader geographical range patterns are characterized. We also discuss a possible role of the Gaoligong Shan region as one source area for the present-day fauna of the Himalaya and southern edge of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau. PMID:24899831

  4. Inventory of the carabid beetle fauna of the Gaoligong Mountains, western Yunnan Province, China: species of the tribe Zabrini (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kavanaugh, David H.; Hieke, Fritz; Liang, Hongbin; Dong, Dazhi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A ten-year multidisciplinary, multi-national and multi-institutional biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region of western Yunnan Province, China generated more than 35,000 specimens of the beetle (Coleoptera) family Carabidae. In this report, first of a planned series, we focus on diversity in tribe Zabrini. Our study of just over 1300 specimens of zabrine carabids from the project, all in genus Amara Bonelli, found a total of 13 species, all previously described, to occur in the study area, with none of them strictly endemic. We present a key for identification of adults of these species, as well as nomenclatural data, diagnoses, illustrations of dorsal habitus and male genitalia, and information about geographical, altitudinal and habitat distributions within the study area and overall geographical distribution for each species. Distributions of the species within the study area are compared, and broader geographical range patterns are characterized. We also discuss a possible role of the Gaoligong Shan region as one source area for the present-day fauna of the Himalaya and southern edge of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau. PMID:24899831

  5. A method to separate temperature and precipitation signals encoded in tree-ring widths for the western Tien Shan Mountains, northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenhuo; Gou, Xiaohua; Li, Jinbao; Huo, Yuxia; Fang, Keyan

    2015-10-01

    Separating temperature and precipitation signals encoded in tree rings is a complicated issue. Here, we present a separation method by combining two tree-ring width chronologies of Schrenk's spruce (Picea schrenkiana) from the upper and lower timberlines in the western Tien Shan Mountains, northwest China. Correlation analyses show that both chronologies correlate positively with precipitation. However, temperature correlates positively with the chronology from the upper timberline, while negatively with the chronology from the lower timberline. This suggests that the two chronologies contain similar precipitation information but opposite temperature signals. In light of this, we calculated the average and difference of the two chronologies, and found that each of them has a much stronger correlation with precipitation or temperature alone. Finally, we reconstructed local precipitation and temperature variations over the past 201 years by using the average and difference of the two chronologies. The two reconstructions do not have a significant correlation, but they have significant positive and negative relationships on the high- and low-frequency band, respectively.

  6. Sustainable management of river oases along the Tarim River in North-Western China under conditions of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumbaur, C.; Thevs, N.; Disse, M.; Ahlheim, M.; Brieden, A.; Cyffka, B.; Doluschitz, R.; Duethmann, D.; Feike, T.; Frör, O.; Gärtner, P.; Halik, Ü.; Hill, J.; Hinnenthal, M.; Keilholz, P.; Kleinschmit, B.; Krysanova, V.; Kuba, M.; Mader, S.; Menz, C.; Othmanli, H.; Pelz, S.; Schroeder, M.; Siew, T. F.; Stender, V.; Stahr, K.; Thomas, F. M.; Welp, M.; Wortmann, M.; Zhao, X.; Chen, X.; Jiang, T.; Zhao, C.; Zhang, X.; Luo, J.; Yimit, H.; Yu, R.

    2014-10-01

    The Tarim River Basin, located in Xinjiang, NW China, is the largest endorheic river basin of China and one of the largest in whole Central Asia. Due to the extremely arid climate with an annual precipitation of less than 100 mm, the water supply along the Aksu and Tarim River solely depends on river water. This applies for anthropogenic activities (e.g. agriculture) as well as for the natural ecosystems so that both compete for water. The on-going increase of water consumption by agriculture and other human activities in this region has been enhancing the competition for water between human needs and nature. Against this background, 11 German and 6 Chinese universities and research institutes formed the consortium SuMaRiO (www.sumario.de), which aims at gaining a holistic picture of the availability of water resources in the Tarim River Basin and the impacts on anthropogenic activities and natural ecosystems caused by the water distribution within the Tarim River Basin. The discharge of the Aksu River, which is the major tributary to the Tarim, has been increasing over the past 6 decades due to enhanced glacier melt. Alone from 1989 to 2011, the area under agriculture more than doubled. Thereby, cotton became the major crop and there was a shift from small-scale farming to large-scale intensive farming. The major natural ecosystems along the Aksu and Tarim River are riparian ecosystems: Riparian (Tugai) forests, shrub vegetation, reed beds, and other grassland. Within the SuMaRiO Cluster the focus was laid on the Tugai forests, with Populus euphratica as dominant tree, because the most productive and species-rich natural ecosystems can be found among those forests. On sites with groundwater distance of less than 7.5 m the annual increments correlated with river runoffs of the previous year. But, the further downstream along the Tarim River, the more the natural river dynamics ceased, which impacts on the recruitment of Populus euphratica. Household surveys revealed that there is a considerable willingness to pay for conservation of those riparian forests with the mitigation of dust and sandstorms considered as the most important ecosystem service. This interdisciplinary project will result in a decision support tool (DST), build on the participation of regional stakeholders and models based on results and field experiments. This DST finally shall assist stakeholders in balancing the water competition acknowledging the major external effects of any water allocation.

  7. SAR interferometry and optical remote sensing for analysis of co-seismic deformation, source characteristics and mass wasting pattern of Lushan (China, April 2013) earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, John; Majumdar, Ritwik; Kumar, K. Vinod

    2015-03-01

    Co-seismic deformation associated with the Lushan (China) earthquake that occurred along the south-western segment of the Longmenshan Fault Zone (LFZ) on the 20th April 2013 has been estimated by differential interferometric SAR (DInSAR) technique using Radarsat-2 data. The Lushan earthquake resulted in the deformation of the Sichuan basin and the Longmenshan ranges in proximity to the LFZ. The line of sight (LOS) displacement values obtained from DInSAR technique mainly range between -4.0 cm to +3.0 cm. The western Sichuan basin shows oblique westward movement with predominant downward component in areas farther from LFZ and predominant westward component over the downward movement in areas closer to the source fault. Inversion modelling has been used to derive the seismic source characteristics from DInSAR derived deformation values using elastic dislocation source type. The linear inversion model converged at a double-fault source solution consisting of a deeper, steep, NW dipping fault plane-1 of 60 km × 16 km dimension and a shallower, gentle, NW dipping fault plane-2 of 60 km × 15 km dimension, with distributed slip values varying between 0 to 2.26 m. These fault planes (fault planes-1 and -2) coincide with the Dachuan-Shuangshi fault and the buried Range Front Fault, respectively. The inversion model gives a moment magnitude of 6.81 and the geodetic moment of 2.07 × 1019 Nm, comparable to those given in literature, derived using teleseismic body wave data. Thus DInSAR technique helped to quantify the co-seismic deformation and to retrieve the source characteristics from the estimated deformation values. The study also evaluated the distribution pattern of earthquake induced landslides (EIL) triggered fresh or re-activated during the Lushan earthquake and found that they show spatial association with the seismic source zone and also with various pre-conditioning factors of slope instability.

  8. Formation of tectonic peperites from alkaline magmas intruded into wet sediments in the Beiya area, western Yunnan, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, X.-W.; Cai, X.-P.; Zhong, J.-Y.; Song, B.-C.; Peters, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    Tertiary (3.78 Ma to 3.65 Ma) biotite-K-feldspar porphyritic bodies intrude Tertiary, poorly consolidated lacustrine sedimentary rocks in the Beiya mineral district in southwestern China. The intrusives are characterized by a microcrystalline and vitreous-cryptocrystalline groundmass, by replacement of some tabular K-feldspar phenocrysts with microcrystalline chlorite and calcite, and by Fe-rich rings surrounding biotite phenocrysts. Peculiar structures, such as contemporary contact faults and slickensides, ductile shear zones and flow folds, foliation and lineations, tension fractures, and banded and boudin peperites, are developed along the contact zones of the intrusives. These features are related to the forceful intrusion of the alkaline magmas into the wet Tertiary sediments. The partially consolidated magmas were deformed and flattened by continued forceful magma intrusion that produced boudinaged and banded peperites. These peperites characterized by containing oriented deformation fabrics are classified as tectonic peperites as a new type of peperite, and formation of these tectonic peperites was related to fracturing of magmas caused by forceful intrusion and shear deformation and to contemporary migration and injection of fluidized sediments along fractures that dismembered the porphyritic magma. Emplacement of the magma into the wet sediments in the Beiya area is interpreted to be related to a large pressure difference rather than to the buoyancy force. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fluorine distribution in aquatic environment and its health effect in the Western Region of the Songnen Plain, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Hong, Mei; Zhang, Bai; Zhang, Xue-lin; Zhao, Yong-sheng

    2007-10-01

    Endemic fluorosis was investigated and studied in the west region of the Songnen plain, Northeast China in 2001-2002. The results showed that the fluorine distribution in aquatic environment was that the fluorine concentrations in the lake water and unconfined ground water were higher than that in the river water and confined ground water. The lake water (Alkali lake) is connected with unconfined ground water. In unconfined ground water, from the east and southeast areas to the west and the northwest areas of the plain, fluorine concentration fluctuated with high and low alternatively. The fluorine in the water comes from the weathering of rocks and minerals in the mountains and hills around the Songnen Plain. The main influence factors of the fluorine distribution in aquatic environment are discussed. Unconfined ground water containing high fluorine is used as drinking water. In this region, the fluorine concentration in drinking water is evidently correlated to the morbidity of dental and skeletal fluorosis. High fluorine concentration in drinking water has endangered human health. PMID:17564808

  10. Geochronological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic characteristics of Cretaceous monzonitic plutons in western Zhejiang Province, Southeast China: New insights into the petrogenesis of intermediate rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liang; Qiu, Jian-Sheng; Zhao, Jiao-Long; Yang, Ze-Li

    2014-05-01

    We present comprehensive petrological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data for the Matou and Dalai plutons in western Zhejiang Province, Southeast China, with the aim of constraining the petrogenesis of monzonites and to offer new insights into the deep processes of interaction between crustal- and mantle-derived magmas beneath SE China. The Matou pluton comprises quartz monzonite, whereas the Dalai pluton consists of quartz monzodiorite. Zircon U-Pb ages obtained by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry show that both plutons were emplaced at 99-101 Ma. Rocks of both plutons are intermediate to silicic, metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, subalkaline, and K-rich in composition. Samples of the plutons are enriched in large ion lithophile (e.g., Rb, K, and Pb) and light rare earth elements, depleted in high-field strength elements (e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti), and have small negative or no Eu anomalies. In addition, the rocks have high Mg# values (up to 53.9), high zircon ?Hf(t) values (up to - 1.4), and low Nb/U and Ta/U ratios. Geochemical evidence suggests that both depleted asthenospheric and metasomatically enriched mantle components were involved in the formation of these monzonitic rocks. The presence of inherited zircons with Palaeoproterozoic ages and zircons with unusually low ?Hf(t) values (- 12.9) in the Matou quartz monzonites indicates that ancient crustal materials were also involved in their petrogenesis. In combination with the presence of abundant mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) with spheroidal to ellipsoidal-ovoidal shapes and xenocrysts within the more diffused enclaves, and the results of trace element modelling, we suggest that the Matou quartz monzonites were generated by mixing between mantle-derived mafic magmas and crustally derived silicic magmas. The Dalai pluton is relatively homogeneous and contains fewer MMEs than the Matou pluton. Zircons from the Dalai pluton show no inherited components, indicating that crustal materials have played a limited role in the petrogenesis of the quartz monzodiorites. The Dalai quartz monzodiorites have lower SiO2 contents, higher Mg# values, and considerably higher and variable Cr, Co, and Ni concentrations than the Matou quartz monzonites. Zircon Hf isotopic compositions of the Dalai pluton are relatively homogeneous (?Hf(t) = - 5.2 to - 3.2). The combined petrological, geochemical, and isotopic features indicate that the Dalai monzodiorites were generated by olivine- and pyroxene-dominated fractional crystallisation from basaltic magmas, which were in turn produced by mixing between melts from depleted asthenosphere and subduction-enriched mantle. Our interpretation implies that Late Mesozoic monzonitic rocks in Southeast China require a significant input of mantle melts, and some may have been generated solely by fractionation of basaltic magmas. This petrogenetic model may be applicable to other monzonitic rocks in Southeast China, and to similar tectonic settings and sites of monzonitic magma generation worldwide.

  11. Crustal structures across the western Weihe Graben, North China: Implications for extrusion tectonics at the northeast margin of Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Youcai; Zhou, Shiyong; Chen, Y. John; Sandvol, Eric; Liang, Xiaofeng; Feng, Yongge; Jin, Ge; Jiang, Mingming; Liu, Mian

    2015-07-01

    The stable Ordos Plateau, extensional Weihe Graben, and Qinling orogenic belt are located at the northeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau. They have been thought to play different roles in the eastward expanding of the Tibetan Plateau. Peking University deployed a linear seismic array across the western end of the Weihe Graben to investigate the crustal structures of the tectonic provinces of this structure. Receiver function analyses revealed low-to-moderate Poisson's ratios and anticorrelations between Poisson's ratios and topography beneath the Qinling Orogen. These features may indicate a tectonic thickening of the felsic upper crust by folding and thrusting within the Qinling Orogen. We observed a strong horizontal negative signal at the midcrust beneath the Ordos Plateau which may indicate a low-velocity zone. This observation would suggest the stable cratonic Ordos Plateau had been modified due to the compression between the Tibetan Plateau and the Ordos Plateau. We also observed an abrupt 4 km Moho offset across the Weihe Fault, changing from ~44 km beneath the Ordos Plateau to ~40 km beneath the Qinling Orogen. We conclude that the Weihe Fault is a lithosphere-scale fault/shear zone, which extends into the upper mantle beneath the Weihe Graben. It acts as the major boundary separating the stable Ordos Plateau and the active Qinling Orogen.

  12. Surface Sediments in the Marsh-Sandy Land Transitional Area: Sandification in the Western Songnen Plain, China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaofei; Grace, Michael; Zou, Yuanchun; Yu, Xuefeng; Lu, Xianguo; Wang, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    The development of sandification process was studied, by monitoring the changes of sediment characteristics, at marsh-sandy land intersections in China's Songnen region. A series of sediment collection plates were deployed in the region; after one year, sediments in these plates were analyzed for changes of mass and chemical characteristics. The sediment flux and the sand content of the sediments decreased with the increasing longitudinal distance between the sampling site and the centre line of a sand dune. The mean sediment flux was 29±14 kg m?2 yr?1 and 0.6±0.3 kg m?2 yr?1 in the sandy land and marsh, respectively. Strong, positive correlations were found between the concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, P, Fe, Ti, V and Zr, all of which were also negatively correlated with the sand content. The concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, P, Fe, Ti, V and Zr in the marsh sediment samples were all significantly greater than the corresponding concentrations of the sandy land (p<0.001). Sand content and Ti, V and Zr concentrations all proved to be valid indicators of sandification intensity, and they showed that the marsh could be divided into three distinct zones. Sand expansion extended about 88 m into the marsh. The mean sand content in the sediments of the sandy land was 91% and then 64% in the marsh, which in turn was higher than that of marshes outside the influence of sandification, suggesting that the marsh in the marsh-sandy land transitional area has already undergone extensive sandification in the past. The study results provide information on the wetland's function of indicating and buffering the sandification process. PMID:24932717

  13. Geological and geochemical characteristics in the paleo-weathering crust sedimentary type REE deposits, western Guizhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lingjie; Zhang, Zhengwei; Li, Yujiao; You, Fuhua; Wu, Chengquan; Zheng, Chaofei

    2013-09-01

    A supergene REE deposit closely interrelated with the weathering of the Emeishan basalt formation was produced in the Xuanwei formation, the overlying stratum of the late Permian Emeishan basalt formation in West Guizhou, China. The host strata consist primarily of offwhite kaolinite clay rock and/or grayish black carbonaceous shale. Mineralogical analyses reveal that kaolinites are the major minerals in REE ores with small amounts of smectite, illite, boehmite, hornblende, pyrophyllite, calcite, dolomite and/or iron-bearing minerals, with a certain proportion of feldspar, quartz crystal debris and noncrystal debris. Geochemical analyses reveal high enrichment of trace elements like Cu, Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf. The host strata feature considerable lithological variability, close interrelation of the REE grade with the lithology and uneven spatial distribution of the REE ores, which are mostly found in Lufang, Maojiaping and Zhangsigou profiles of Weining County and can be as thick as 20 m. Of the five stratigraphic profiles, 48% have their whole-rock ?REE higher than 1000 ppm. The REE in this framework consists primarily of ion adsorbed phases and REE-rich residual independent mineral phases. Comprehensive analyses suggest that the source may not only include the Emeishan basalt, but the intermediate acid volcanic rocks evolved from the Emeishan basalt in the later periods; the hydrothermal alteration subsequently imposed on the host strata might have boosted the mineralization of the rare earth. The preliminary genetic model should have been: the denudation product from the weathering of the parent rock was migrated to the sea-continental margin at the continent side carrying huge quantities of REE with it and was preserved by the quick marine transgression. The host strata consist primarily of kaolinite clay rock and/or carbonaceous shale, which are so far believed to be a sedimentary type REE deposit closely interrelated with weathering effect.

  14. Sources and photochemistry of volatile organic compounds in the remote atmosphere of western China: results from the Mt. Waliguan Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, L. K.; Wang, T.; Guo, H.; Blake, D. R.; Tang, J.; Zhang, X. C.; Saunders, S. M.; Wang, W. X.

    2013-09-01

    The chemistry of the natural atmosphere and the influence by long-range transport of air pollution are key issues in the atmospheric sciences. Here we present two intensive field measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in late spring and summer of 2003 at Mt. Waliguan (WLG, 36.28° N, 100.90° E, 3816 m a.s.l.), a baseline station in the northeast part of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Most VOC species exhibited higher concentrations in late spring than in summer. A typical diurnal variation was observed with higher nighttime levels, in contrast to results from other mountainous sites. Five different air masses were identified from backward trajectory analysis showing distinct VOC speciation. Air masses originating from the central Eurasian continent contained the lowest VOC levels compared to the others that were impacted by anthropogenic emissions from China and the Indian subcontinent. A photochemical box model based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (version 3.2) and constrained by a full suite of measurements was developed to probe the photochemistry of atmosphere at WLG. Our results show net ozone production from in situ photochemistry during both late spring and summer. Oxidation of nitric oxide (NO) by the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) dominates the ozone production relative to the oxidation by the organic peroxy radicals (RO2), and the ozone is primarily destroyed by photolysis and reactions with the HOx (HOx = OH + HO2) radicals. Ozone photolysis is the predominant primary source of radicals (ROx = OH + HO2 + RO2), followed by the photolysis of secondary oxygenated VOCs and hydrogen peroxides. The radical losses are governed by the self and cross reactions among the radicals. Overall, the findings of the present study provide insights into the background chemistry and the impacts of pollution transport on the pristine atmosphere over the Eurasian continent.

  15. On the Domene species of China, with descriptions of four new species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Feldmann, Benedikt; Peng, Zhong; Li, Li-Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Material of the paederine genus Domene Fauvel, 1873 from China is examined. Nine species were identified, four of them described previously, one unnamed (represented exclusively by females), and four are newly described: Domene cultrata sp. n. (Gansu, Hubei, Shaanxi); Domene cuspidata sp. n. (Gansu, Shaanxi, Sichuan); Domene chenae sp. n. (Guangxi); Domene reducta sp. n. (Sichuan). A lectotype is designated for Domene reitteri Koch, 1939; a neotype is designated for Domene chenpengi Li, 1990. Domene dersuuzalai Gusarov, 1992 is placed in synonymy with Domene chenpengi. Previous records of two Japanese species from China are most likely based on misidentifications and considered erroneous. Thus, the Domene fauna of China is currently composed of twelve described species. A key to the Domene species of China is provided. The distributions of eleven species are mapped. PMID:25709524

  16. Micoletzkya chinaae n. sp. (Nematoda: Diplogastridae), a potential predacious nematode and Ektaphelenchus macrobulbosus (Nematoda: Ektaphelenchinae) isolated from Simao pine in South-western China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ren-E; Liang, Jun; Lu, Quan; Zhang, Xing-Yao

    2010-12-01

    Detailed morphology of a new diplogastrid and a known ektaphelenchid species isolated from Simao pine in south-western China were illustrated and described/redescribed. Micoletzkya chinaae n. sp. is characterized by a relatively short body length (601-802 ?m in female and 505-773 ?m in male), undivided cheilorhabdia (forming an entire ring), dimorphic buccal cavity (eury- or stenostomatous), a large claw-like dorsal tooth and a large right subventral tooth in the stoma of eurystomatous form, typical diplogastrid pharynx, didelphic female gonads, nine pairs of genital papillae on male tail region with two ventral pairs (GP1 and GP2) closely associated, a unique gubernaculum morphology, and a long filiform tail in both sexes. The new diplogastrid belongs to the Group 1 category of Micoletzkya species sensuMassey, 1966, which is characterized by stoma equipped with a large dorsal and a large subventral tooth, and both teeth can cross near the center of the pharynx. The new species can be easily distinguished from other species within this group except for M. tomeaMassey, 1966 with the long filiform female and male tails. However, it shows great similarities to Mononchoides spp., Koerneria spp., Fictor spp., and Acrostichus members in some aspects. More morphological features as well as molecular data of this clade should be available before relationships between and within these genera can be better interpreted. The two large moveable teeth in eurystomatous worms indicate their potentially predacious habits, and re-isolation of this species is necessary. Morphology of south-western Chinese population of Ektaphelenchus macrobulbosus (Rühm,1956) Massey, 1974 conforms well to the previous descriptions except for a few minor variations. It is characterized by medium-long female and male bodies (676-791 and 613-685 ?m, respectively), three incisures in the lateral field, offset cephalic region, knobless stylet 18-20 ?m long, oblong median bulb with posteriorly situated valves, two to three rows of developing oocytes, short postuterine sac, absence of female rectum and anus, two pairs of subventral papillae on the male tail region, a cucullus (apophysis) present on the dorsal distal end of the spicule, and the conoid female and male tails. PMID:22736862

  17. Petrogenesis of the Kekesai composite intrusion, western Tianshan, NW China: Implications for tectonic evolution during late Paleozoic time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongyang; Zhang, Zhaochong; Encarnación, John; Xue, Chunji; Duan, Shigang; Zhao, Zhidan; Liu, Junlai

    2012-08-01

    The late Carboniferous to Permian is a critical period for final amalgamation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), which is characterized by voluminous igneous rocks, particularly granitoids. The Kekesai composite granitoid porphyry intrusion, situated in the Chinese western Tianshan (southwest part of CAOB) includes two intrusive phases, a monzogranite phase, intruded by a granodiorite phase. LA-ICPMS U-Pb zircon analyses suggest that the monzogranitic rocks were formed at 305.5 ± 1.1 Ma, with a wide age range of inherited zircons (358-488 Ma and 1208-1391 Ma), whereas the granodioritic rocks formed at 288.7 ± 1.5 Ma. The monzogranitic and granodioritic phases have similar geochemical features and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions. They exhibit high and variable SiO2 (66-71 wt.%) and MgO (0.41-2.14 wt.%) contents with some arc-like geochemical characteristics (e.g., enrichment of large ion lithophile elements and negative anomalies of Nb, Ta and Ti) and relatively high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (ISr = 0.7055-0.7059), low positive ?Nd(t) (+ 0.84 to + 1.03) as well as a large variation in Hf isotopic compositions with ?Hf(t) between + 3.43 and + 14.8, implying both of them were derived from similar source materials. These geochemical characteristics suggest that they might be mainly derived from the partial melting of arc-derived Mesoproterozoic mafic lower crust with involvement of a mantle-derived component in variable proportions by mantle-derived magma underplating. The presence of late-Ordovician to earliest early Carboniferous inherited zircons and the Hf isotopic compositions in the monzogranitic sample, similar to that of the widespread juvenile arc rocks, indicates some crust contamination during magma emplacement. Our new data, combined with previous studies, imply that extensive post-collisional magmatism due to underplating of mantle-derived magma, could plausibly be explained by slab break-off regime.

  18. Early-Cretaceous highly fractionated I-type granites from the northern Tengchong block, western Yunnan, SW China: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ren-Zhi; Lai, Shao-Cong; Qin, Jiang-Feng; Zhao, Shao-Wei

    2015-03-01

    Western Yunnan, an important constituent of the southeastern segment of the East Tethyan tectonic domain, lies along a transformed orientation from the NWW trending Himalayan-Tethyan segment to the northerly trending Southeast Asian segment. However, the geodynamical setting of the Early Cretaceous tectonothermal magmatism along the Bangong-Nujiang-Lushui-Luxi-Ruili belt as the Tethyan branch in western Yunnan (SW China) remains controversial. The Donghe granitoid, which is located between the Gaoligong and Tengliang belts in the northern Tengchong block, reveals its petrogenesis and its tectonics, both of which play a vital role in resolving previous disputes. Our zircon laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry U-Pb dating of granites from the Donghe batholith yields ages of 119.9 ± 0.9-130.6 ± 2.5 Ma. These granites display features typical of highly fractionated I-type granites: high SiO2 contents (>71 wt.%), high K contents (K2O = 3.88-5.66 wt.%), calc-alkaline character, slight peraluminosity (A/CNK = 1.02-1.16), and a highly differentiated index ranging from 83.6 to 95.6. In addition, as SiO2 contents increase, the rare earth element (REE) abundances, especially heavy REE abundances, and REE pattern slopes change gradually, but the negative Eu anomalies increase sharply, while the degree of enrichment in Rb, Th, U, and Pb and depletion in Ba, Nb, Sr, P, and Ti are enhanced. These features indicate that K-feldspar, ±plagioclase, ±biotite, ±amphibole, ±apatite, ±sphene/garnet, and ±Fe-Ti oxides such as ilmenite play the major role in the fractional crystallization process. The high initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7067 and 0.7079) and negative ?Nd(t) values (-8.6 to -10.1), with T2DM ranging from 1.39 to 1.49 Ga, indicate that the sources were mainly derived from the mature ancient middle to lower crust and minor mantle-derived materials. The initial 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb ratios of 18.462-18.646, 15.717-15.735, and 38.699-39.007, respectively, signify that some subduction-related material such as ocean island volcanic rocks and mature arc primitive rocks may be involved as sources. Based on an analysis of similar zircon saturated temperature and geochemical characteristics of typical highly fractionated I-type granites in SE and SW China, and consideration of the regional geological setting, we suggest that the parent magma may be derived from the ancient middle to lower continental crust and mantle-derived basaltic magma. These were generated in the setting of a westward subducted Lushui-Luxi-Ruili (LLR) Tethyan oceanic slab, where mantle-wedge-derived sources provided enough heat and material to melt the middle to lower ancient crust. Taking into account the temporal-spatial distributions of Early Cretaceous magmatic rocks in the region, we further suggest the existence of an Andean-type active continental margin from the Lhasa block to the Tengchong block along the Bangong-Nujiang-LLR Tethys Ocean during the Early Cretaceous.

  19. Effect of household and village characteristics on financial catastrophe and impoverishment due to health care spending in Western and Central Rural China: A multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to examine the effect of household and community characteristics on financial catastrophe and impoverishment due to health payment in Western and Central Rural China. Methods A household survey was conducted in 2008 in Hebei and Shaanxi provinces and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region using a multi-stage sampling technique. Independent variables included village characteristics, household income, chronic illness status, health care use and health spending. A composite contextual variable, named village deprivation, was derived from socio-economic status and availability of health care facilities in each village using factor analysis. Dependent variables were whether household health payment was more than 40% of household's capacity to pay (catastrophic health payment) and whether household per capita income was put under Chinese national poverty line (1067 Yuan income per year) after health spending (impoverishment). Mixed effects logistic regression was used to assess the effect of the independent variables on the two outcomes. Results Households with low per capita income, having elderly, hospitalized or chronically ill members, and whose head was unemployed were more likely to incur financial catastrophe and impoverishment due to health expenditure. Both catastrophic and impoverishing health payments increased with increased village deprivation. However, the presence of a village health clinic had no effect on the two outcomes, nor did household enrollment in the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (national health insurance). Conclusions Village deprivation independently increases the risk for financial hardship due to health payment after adjusting for known household-level factors. This suggests that policy makers need to view the individual, household and village as separate units for policy targeting. PMID:21466714

  20. Comparative analysis of land use/cover change trajectories and their driving forces in two small watersheds in the western Loess Plateau of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dongchuan; Gong, Jianhua; Chen, Liding; Zhang, Lihui; Song, Yiquan; Yue, Yujuan

    2013-04-01

    To prevent soil loss and achieve better ecological environments, soil conservation measures have been taken during the past decades in the western Loess Plateau of China. In this paper, a case study was taken in Luoyu valley and Lver valley, two sub-watersheds of Xihe watershed and comparison was carried out between them. The main object of this study is to monitor land use/cover changes in the two similar small watersheds utilizing SPOT5 imageries by object-oriented human-computer interactive classification method, further develop the method of spatio-temporal analysis of land use/cover change by using pattern metrics of change trajectories and relative land use suitability index (R) in smaller watersheds, and make comparisons between the two similar small watersheds, taking water and soil conservation measures into consideration. Results show that combining GIS and RS, this method can be perfectly applied to make comparisons between different small watersheds with similar geographical backgrounds. And land use/cover spatiotemporal dynamic change characteristics can be preferably expressed by pattern metrics of change trajectories and R values based on topographical data. Different emphases have been laid according to their own geological backgrounds in the two watersheds and human activities have different effects on the landscapes of the two watersheds. The main change pattern is from slope farmland to terrace (322, the largest in Luoyu valley) or to economic fruit forest (344, the largest in Lver valley). R value of every slope grade in both of the two watersheds drops with the rising of slope degree on the whole and it shows that there is still much to do for people in the two watersheds in consideration that all the R values are still lower than 0.7.

  1. Depositional evolution of the Early Cretaceous Sihetun Lake and implications for regional climatic and volcanic history in western Liaoning, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Baoyu; Fürsich, Franz T.; Hethke, Manja

    2012-06-01

    Numerous well-known fossils of the Jehol Biota, including early birds, feathered theropods, primitive mammals, and putative early angiosperms, have been discovered in lacustrine deposits (Lake Sihetun) of the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of western Liaoning province, NE China. Based on extensive field investigations and four high-resolution excavations, we document in detail the spatio-temporal changes of sedimentary facies, facies associations and limnic community relicts, reconstruct the depositional history, and discuss the significance of these deposits regarding the regional climatic and volcanic history. Four phases are recognized in the history of Lake Sihetun. They are: (1) a phase of fluctuating but gradually rising water level indicated by subaerial and shallow-water lacustrine deposits, (2) a lake with beach-nearshore facies along the marginal areas and suspension-dominated lake floor facies in central areas, (3) a lake phase with a lake floor dominated by hyperpycnal flows, and (4) progradation of a fan delta. Two distinct depositional conditions are observed: stratified and unstratified lake intervals. The former occurred mainly during the second phase and produced clay-poor and clay-rich laminae, whereas the latter developed during the other three phases, and were dominated by deposition of subaqueous sedimentary density flows. These alternations of depositional conditions in offshore lacustrine deposits suggest that the Yixian Formation may have formed under a transitional climate regime fluctuating gradually from warm and dry to warm and humid conditions. Resurgent volcanism is inferred to have become stronger during the late phase of lake development based on distribution of deposits characterizing the unstratified lake interval and volcanic rocks of the overlying Upper Lava unit, a higher content of primary pyroclastic fragments, and evidence of strong syndepositional disturbance.

  2. Quantitative determination of the effect of temperature on mudstone decay during wet-dry cycles: A case study of 'purple mudstone' from south-western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dan; Chen, Anqiang; Wang, Xuemei; Liu, Gangcai

    2015-10-01

    Although temperature is considered a key factor influencing rock decay, little is known about the quantitative relationship between a rock's decay rate and temperature, which makes it difficult to quantitatively predict the rate of rock decay under varied temperature during wetting-drying cycle conditions. Thus, the aim of the present paper was to observe the decay rate of various purple mudstones and to develop a model with which to calculate their decay rates under varied temperature conditions. Three types of purple mudstone were sampled from the Tuodian group (J3t), Matoushan group (K2m) and Lufeng group (J1l), located in the Chuxiong district of Yunnan province, south-western China. All samples were manually cut into cubes of 50 × 50 × 50 mm, before being subjected to 39 wetting-drying cycles in a 2 mm sieve under artificial constant temperature, natural daily temperature variation and artificial temperature alternation (minimum and maximum) treatments in the laboratory. Decay rates were calculated by weighing the mass remaining in the sieve after each treatment cycle. The results showed that the decay rates of the tested rocks rose with an increase in temperature and temperature difference (maximum-minimum), with the rank order of decay rate being J3t > K2m > J1l. Quantitative analysis revealed rock decay rate to be significantly related to temperature by a power function, and exponentially related to temperature difference. Our results suggested that temperature difference has a stronger effect on purple mudstone decay than that of temperature magnitude during the wetting-drying processes.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in river sediments from the western and southern catchments of the Bohai Sea, China: toxicity assessment and source identification.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Siyu; Zeng, Lin; Dong, Xin; Chen, Jining

    2013-05-01

    The concentration, distribution, and origin of 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in river sediments from the western and southern catchments of the Bohai Sea, China. A toxicity assessment of 28 sediment samples collected from 15 main rivers was conducted by utilizing threshold and probable effect concentrations (TEC and PEC, respectively) derived from consensus-based sediment quality guidelines. The concentrations of total PAHs (?PAH(16)) ranged from 0.14 to 10,757 ?g/kg dry weight (mean = 1,368.6 ?g/kg). The high concentrations of PAHs found in Binhai New Area of Tianjin and Binzhou City are likely the result of rapid population and heavy industry growth, resulting in elevated point and nonpoint source inputs of PAHs. Of the samples collected, samples 1 and 10 (7.1 % of the total) were categorized as toxic since some of the PAH concentrations exceeded the corresponding PECs. Twenty samples were classified as nontoxic, with both the individual PAH and the ?PAH(16) concentrations falling below the corresponding TECs. Analyses of selected PAH isomer ratios aided in the identification of PAH origins, allowing for a discrimination between pyrogenic and petrogenic sources. Spatial variability confirmed source heterogeneity within the study area. The most significant PAH-associated contamination was found in the Beitang River and Ji Canal, which are located in Binhai New Area. The magnitude of contamination and the likelihood of an ongoing influx of PAHs support the need for a better understanding of pollution sources and methods for both control and sediment restoration. PMID:22983614

  4. Stratigraphy and stable isotope results from an Eocene-Miocene section of the western Qaidam Basin, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Garzione, C. N.; Pullen, A.; Chang, H.; Molnar, P. H.

    2012-12-01

    The climate of central Asia has changed significantly throughout the Cenozoic, with surface uplift of the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau cited as the primary cause of the change. However, the timing and mechanisms of plateau uplift, especially the northern plateau, is still unclear. Sedimentary basin deposits and their stable isotopic composition record both paleo-environment and paleoclimate information and thus can be used to study the climate evolution and ultimately-the surface uplift history. The Qaidam Basin, in the northern part of the Tibetan Plateau, deposited thick fluviolacustrine sediments from Eocene to Pleistocene time. Here, we report a newly documented 4440 m long sedimentary section near Huatugou town in the western Qaidam Basin, and preliminary O and C stable isotope results from sedimentary carbonates. The section includes four formations. Xiaganchaigou Formation (XGCG Fm), with a late Eocene age, is dominated by alluvial to fluvial conglomerates, sandstones and sandy mudstones in the lower part, and siltstones, mudstones with gypsum of lacustrine origin in the upper part. The Oligocene Shangganchaigou Formation (SGCG Fm) and early to middle Miocene Xiayoushashan Formation (XYSS Fm) both consist mainly of lacustrine mudstones, siltstones, sandstones, intercalated with marls, limestones and minor conglomerates. The late Miocene Shangyoushashan Formation (SYSS Fm, the lower part) is dominated by alluvial to delta-front conglomerates, gravelly sandstones and siltstones; paleosols with root traces are also common in this formation. Between 232 and 1196 m (XGCG Fm), both the ?18O (VPDB) and ?13C (VPDB) values of marls show large variability between -3.3 and -8.9‰ and between 0.7 and -2.7‰, respectively. Between 1196 and 2524 m (SGCG Fm), the ?18O values of marls and limestones show a more narrow range of lower values between -7.0 and -8.6‰, and the ?13C values decrease to between -1.5 and -4.9‰. We speculate that the large variability in XGCG Fm resulted from late Eocene climate cyclicity, followed by decreasing ? values related to global cooling during the Eocene-Oligocene transitions and cooling associated with the horizontal translation of the Basin to higher latitudes. From 2500 to 3500 m (XYSS Fm), there is a more pronounced decrease in the ?18O values of paleosols and carbonate cements to between -8.2 and -10.0‰, but their ?13C values show large variations between -0.6 and -6.8‰. A plausible explanation for these changes is localized climate perturbations associated with the growth of surrounding mountain ranges. At the top of the section, between 3500 and 4400 m (XYSS and SYSS Fm), both the ?18O and ?13C values of paleosols and carbonate cements show a positive shift by 1 to 2‰. This positive shift is interpreted as the result of mid-Miocene aridification, a regional climatic change event that was also documented in Tarim Basin, eastern Qaidam Basin, and in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Extreme aridity that is comparable to present day is not recorded in the Huatuguo section, most likely because these deposits predate the Plio-Pleistocene time period when modern conditions were established.

  5. A new Polychrysia (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Plusiinae) species from China.

    PubMed

    Saldaitis, Aidas; Benedek, Balázs

    2015-01-01

    The genus Polychrysia is comprised of seven species separated into three species groups. Six of the seven species are distributed in the Palaearctic region and one of these six species has a Holarctic distribution. The genus has been discussed in detail in monographs by Goater et al. (2003) and Ronkay et al. (2008). A new species of Polychrysia was discovered during an expedition studying the nocturnal fauna of China's Sichuan Province in August, 2014 and is described here. PMID:26249905

  6. Teaching West in the East: An American University in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturgut, Osman

    2007-01-01

    Having closed its door to Western ideas for centuries, China has always presented itself as a puzzle both for academicians and politicians. Westerners, though, have always been attracted by the natural resources and human power that China offers to the capitalistic world. This study explores the entrance of Western ideas in China from an…

  7. An ecological analysis of the population in impoverished areas in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, C

    1996-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of environmental conditions and efforts at environmental protection in impoverished areas in China. China began in 1980 to alleviate poverty by investing 500 million yuan in promoting agricultural production in impoverished areas. The state established a standard for measuring impoverishment in 1986. 664 counties fit the impoverishment criteria, of which 301 received national government support and 363 received provincial government support. These 664 counties comprised 30% of total population and were situated in 22 provinces. 27 impoverished counties were added in 1988 to those supported by provincial government, and 77 counties in Tibet were recognized as impoverished. In 1988 there were 35.13% impoverished counties in the country, or 24.01% of total population. This population resided on 40.82% of land area. Impoverishment was greatest in the provinces of Tibet (77 counties), Jianxi (56 counties), and Sichuan (51 counties). 24.89% (172 out of 691 counties) were situated in 10 provinces along the eastern coast and Shanghai. 34.50% (256 out of 742 counties) were situated in 9 central provinces. 44.83% (347 out of 774 counties) were situated in western provinces. Impoverishment increased from coastal areas to the western boundaries. During 1988-92 the number of impoverished counties declined from 775 to 592 (to 105 in the east, 180 in the central region, and 307 in the west). During 1986-92 impoverished population declined from 125 million to 80 million. Most impoverished counties have poor environmental conditions and low yields: deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, salinization, drought, and pollution. The author describes each of the environmental conditions. Resources above the ground are overused, while there are vast reserves of water, energy sources, and minerals underground. The author describes five policy and program directions for environmental protection and poverty alleviation. PMID:12291967

  8. Teaching about Ethnicities in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Caryn White

    2010-01-01

    A unit on China's ethnicities provides students rich opportunities to explore multiple themes in the social studies while helping them to develop a deeper understanding of recent events in western China. Studying China's ethnic minorities encompasses such topics as stereotyping, cultural diversity, the creation of ethnic identities, and key…

  9. Diurnal variation of MCSs over Asia and the western Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yu; Pan, Yinong; Wang, Jinxin

    2013-06-01

    Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) are severe disaster-producing weather systems. Radar data and infrared satellite image are useful tools in MCS surveillance. The previous method of MCS census is to look through the printed infrared imagery manually. This method is not only subjective and inaccurate, but also inefficient. Different from previous studies, a new automatic MCS identification (AMI) method, which overcomes the above disadvantages, is used in the present study. The AMI method takes three steps: searching potential MCS profiles, tracking the MCS, and assessing the MCS, so as to capture MCSs from infrared satellite images. Finally, 47468 MCSs are identified over Asia and the western Pacific region during the warm seasons (May-October) from 1995 to 2008. From this database, the geographical distribution and diurnal variation of MCSs are analyzed. The results show that different types of MCSs have similar geographical distributions. Latitude is the main control factor for MCS distribution. MCSs are most frequent over the central Tibetan Plateau; meanwhile, this area also has the highest hail frequency according to previous studies. Further, it is found that the diurnal variation of MCSs has little to do with MCSs' size or shape; MCSs in different areas have their own particular diurnal variation patterns. Based on the diurnal variation characteristics, MCSs are classified into four categories: the whole-day occurring MCSs in low latitude, the whole-day occurring MCSs in high latitude, the nocturnal MCSs, and the postmeridian MCSs. MCSs over most places of mainland China are postmeridian; but MCSs over the Sichuan basin and its vicinity are nocturnal. This conclusion is coincidental with the hail climatology of China.

  10. Trace elements, U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes of zircons from Mesozoic granites in the western Nanling Range, South China: Implications for petrogenesis and W-Sn mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Xu-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Sun, Tao; Xu, Xisheng; Dai, Meng-Ning

    2011-12-01

    The E-W trending Nanling Range, located in the southern part of the South China Block (SCB), is characterized by widespread intra-continental Mesozoic granitoids and accompanying W-Sn polymetallic ore deposits. Detailed studies are presented on trace elements, U-Pb ages and Lu-Hf isotopes in zircons from the Mesozoic A2-type like granitoids (including the Qianlishan, Qitianling, Xianghualing, Huashan, Guposhan, Niumiao, Tong'an, Jinziling and Jinjiling Plutons) from the western Nanling Range. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb analyses of zircon indicate that these granites intruded mainly from ca 160-150 Ma. Two types of zircon (magmatic and late-magmatic hydrothermal) with similar ages can be distinguished based on their zircon trace element compositions. The late-magmatic hydrothermal zircons have high contents of metallogenic elements (e.g., W and Sn) and may be closely related with the ore deposits. The ?Hf(t) values of zircons from the Mesozoic granitoids are mildly negative to positive, indicating the reworking of both old and young crustal components. The significant involvement of Mesozoic juvenile mantle-derived materials in the source can be excluded because of the rare occurrences of mafic rocks with radiogenic isotopic signatures in the area. The average crustal residence age patterns of the Mesozoic granites in the western Nanling Range are similar to those of the Neoproterozoic magmatic rocks in the eastern part of the Jiangnan orogen, which may represent the Neoproterozoic collisional belt between the Yangtze and Cathaysia blocks. Considering the specific isotopic and metallogenic features of the Mesozoic granitoids in the study area, we propose that the western Nanling Range may represent a western extension of Neoproterozoic arc-continent collisional belt in South China. The Mesozoic granitoids of this area may have been generated mainly by reworking of deeply-buried Neoproterozoic arc-related volcanic-sedimentary materials due to thermal perturbations triggered by the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate in Mesozoic time.

  11. Groundwater Dynamics under Water Saving Irrigation and Implications for Sustainable Water Management in an Oasis: Tarim River Basin of Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Hu, H.; Tian, F.; Yao, X.; Sivapalan, M.

    2014-02-01

    Water is essential for life. Specifically in the oases of inland arid basins, water is a critically limited resource, essential for the development of socio-economy and sustainability of eco-environmental systems. Due to the unique hydrological regime present in arid oases, a moderate groundwater table is the goal of sustainable water management. A shallow water table induces serious secondary salinization and collapse of agriculture, while a deep water table causes deterioration of natural vegetation. From the hydrological perspective, the exchange flux between unsaturated vadose zone and groundwater reservoir is a critical link to understand regional water table dynamics. This flux is substantially influenced by anthropogenic activities. In Tarim River Basin of western China, where agriculture consumes over 90% of available water resources, the exchange flux is influenced strongly by irrigation. Recently, mulched drip irrigation, a very advanced water-saving irrigation method, has been widely applied in the Tarim River Basin, which greatly impacted the exchange flux and thus the regional groundwater dynamics. Capitalizing on recent progress in evaporation measurement techniques, we can now close the water balance and directly quantify the exchange flux at the field scale, thus gain a better understanding of regional groundwater dynamics. In this study, comprehensive observations of water balance components in an irrigated cropland were implemented in 2011 and 2012 in a typical oasis within Tarim River Basin. The water balance analysis showed that the exchange flux and groundwater dynamics were significantly altered by the application of water-saving irrigation. The exchange flux is mostly downward (310.5 mm yr-1), especially during drip irrigation period and spring flush period, while the upward flux is trivial (-16.1 mm yr-1) due to the moderate groundwater table depth (annual average depth 2.9 m). Traditional secondary salinization caused by intense phreatic evaporation (fed by upward exchange flux) is alleviated. However, a new form of secondary salinization may be introduced unwittingly if there is lack of water for periodic flushing, especially when brackish water is used in the irrigation. Furthermore, the water saved via drip irrigation has been used in further growth of irrigated lands instead of supporting ecological system. This would lead to increasing risk of eco-environmental degradation and calls for improved governance schemes. The insights gained from this study can be potentially applied to other arid inland areas (e.g., central Asia, sub-Saharan Africa) which face similar water shortages and human development problems.

  12. Characteristics and genesis of mineral deposits in East Ujimqin Banner, western segment of the Great Xing'an Mountains, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wanyi; Nie, Fengjun; Liu, Shuwen; Zuo, Liyan; Yao, Xiaofeng; Jia, Delong; Liu, Jiangtao

    2015-01-01

    The East Ujimqin Banner, located in the western segment of the Great Xing'an Mountains, NE China, has undergone a long and multi-stage tectonic evolution, which has resulted in significant Fe-Ag-Pb-Zn-Au-Cu-Mo deposits. There are two main types of mineralization: vein and skarn types. The Jilinbaolige and Aerhada vein deposits, and the Chagan Obo and Chaobuleng skarn-type deposits are four typical deposits in this area. The vein deposits mainly occur as veins with hydrothermal alteration in fractures within pre-mineralization clastic rocks and felsic volcanic rocks. The skarn-type deposits always show a temporal and spatial relationship with Mesozoic granite intruded into Paleozoic limestone. The sulfur isotope data from the sulfides in these four deposits have a very narrow range (+1‰ to +8‰), suggesting that most were derived from magma. The 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios range from 17.949 to 18.529, 15.370 to 15.691 and 37.653 to 38.460 respectively, indicating that the metals derive mainly from the mantle source. In the diagrams 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb, the points of lead isotope of the sulfide ores are very near or coincide to the K-feldspar, indicating that the ore-forming materials sources have the genetic relationship. It seems that there are four key factors controlling the mineralization styles in this district: the tectonic setting, magmatic activity, wall rocks, and structures. The superposition of multi-stage tectonism from a Mesozoic extensional setting on a Paleozoic subduction setting provided a remobilization and enrichment mechanism for the ore-forming elements. The magmatic activities were sources of metals and fluids, and drove them to the mineralization sites. The wall rocks are key factors for mineralization styles. When metal-bearing fluid flows into clastic rocks and felsic volcanic rocks, the mineralization is mainly vein type, and mineralization in limestone is mainly skarn type. NE- and NW-trending extensional faults may have provided the channels for the movement of metal-bearing fluids and depositional space for metals.

  13. The Formation of the Patterns of Desert Shrub Communities on the Western Ordos Plateau, China: The Roles of Seed Dispersal and Sand Burial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yange; Yang, Xiaohui; Shi, Zhongjie

    2013-01-01

    The western Ordos Plateau is a key area of shrub diversity and a National Nature Reserve of endangered shrub species in north-west China. Desert expansion is becoming the most important threat to these endangered species. However, little is known about the effects of sand burial on the dynamics of the shrub community. This study aims to investigate how the shrubs as a community and as different individual shrubs respond to the disturbances caused by the desert expansion. The approach used by this study is to separate the seed-dispersal strategy from the sand-burial forces that are involved in structuring the shrub communities at different disturbance stages. Four communities for different disturbance stages were surveyed by using 50×50 m plots. The individual shrubs were classified into coloniser and successor groups at the seed-dispersal stage and strong and weak sand-burial tolerance groups at the sand-expansion stage. We employed spatial point pattern analysis with null models for each community to examine the seed-dispersal strategy and sand-burial forces affecting community distribution patterns. At the seed-dispersal stage, the interactions between the colonisers and the successors showed significant positive correlation at a scale of 0–1 m and significant negative correlation at a scale of 2 m; significant negative correlations between the groups with strong and weak sand-burial tolerance in the early stage of sand expansion at scales of 3–6 m, and significant positive correlation in the later stage of sand expansion at a scale of 13 m, were found. Seed-dispersal strategy is a reasonable mechanism to explain the shrub community pattern formation in the earlier stages, whereas sand burial is the primary reason for the disappearance of shrubs with weak sand-burial tolerance, this irreversible disturbance causes homogenisation of the community structure and produces aging populations of shrub species. This has an important influence on the succession direction of desert shrub communities. PMID:23922877

  14. Socio-hydrologic perspectives of the co-evolution of humans and water in the Tarim River Basin, Western China: the Taiji-Tire Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Tian, F.; Hu, H.; Sivapalan, M.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a historical socio-hydrological analysis of the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang Province, Western China, from the time of the opening of the Silk Road to the present. The analysis is aimed at exploring the historical co-evolution of coupled human-water systems and at identifying common patterns or organizing principles underpinning socio-hydrological systems (SHS). As a self-organized entity, the evolution of the human-water system in the Tarim Basin reached stable states for long periods of time, then punctuated by sudden shifts due to internal or external disturbances. In this study, we discuss three steady periods (i.e. natural, human exploitation, and degradation and recovery) and transitions in between during the past 2000 yr. During the "natural" stage that existed pre-18th century, with small-scale human society and sound environment, evolution of the SHS was mainly driven by natural environmental changes such as river channel migration and climate change. During the human exploitation stage, especially in the 19th and 20th centuries, it experienced rapid population growth, massive land reclamation and fast socio-economic development, and humans became the principal players of system evolution. By the 1970s, the Tarim Basin had evolved into a new regime with a vulnerable eco-hydrological system seemingly populated beyond its carrying capacity, and a human society that began to suffer from serious water shortages, land salinization and desertification. With intensified deterioration of river health and increased recognition of unsustainability of traditional development pattern, human intervention and recovery measures have been adopted. Since then, the basin has shown a reverse regime shift towards some healing of the environmental damage. Spatio-temporal variations of historical socio-hydrological co-evolution are classified into four types: primitive agricultural, traditional agricultural, industrial agricultural and urban SHSs. These co-evolutionary changes have been summarized in terms of the Taiji-Tire Model, a refinement of a special concept in Chinese philosophy, relating to the co-evolution of a system because of interactions among its components.

  15. Socio-hydrologic perspectives of the co-evolution of humans and water in the Tarim River basin, Western China: the Taiji-Tire model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Tian, F.; Hu, H.; Sivapalan, M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a historical socio-hydrological analysis of the Tarim River basin (TRB), Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, in Western China, from the time of the opening of the Silk Road to the present. The analysis is aimed at exploring the historical co-evolution of coupled human-water systems and at identifying common patterns or organizing principles underpinning socio-hydrological systems (SHS). As a self-organized entity, the evolution of the human-water system in the Tarim Basin reached stable states for long periods of time, but then was punctuated by sudden shifts due to internal or external disturbances. In this study, we discuss three stable periods (i.e., natural, human exploitation, and degradation and recovery) and the transitions in between during the past 2000 years. During the "natural" stage that existed pre-18th century, with small-scale human society and sound environment, evolution of the SHS was mainly driven by natural environmental changes such as river channel migration and climate change. During the human exploitation stage, especially in the 19th and 20th centuries, it experienced rapid population growth, massive land reclamation and fast socio-economic development, and humans became the principal players of system evolution. By the 1970s, the Tarim Basin had evolved into a new regime with a vulnerable eco-hydrological system seemingly populated beyond its carrying capacity, and a human society that began to suffer from serious water shortages, land salinization and desertification. With intensified deterioration of river health and increased recognition of unsustainability of traditional development patterns, human intervention and recovery measures have since been adopted. As a result, the basin has shown a reverse regime shift towards some healing of the environmental damage. Based on our analysis within TRB and a common theory of social development, four general types of SHSs are defined according to their characteristic spatio-temporal variations of historical co-evolution, including primitive agricultural, traditional agricultural, industrial agricultural, and urban SHSs. These co-evolutionary changes have been explained in the paper in terms of the Taiji-Tire model, a refinement of a special concept in Chinese philosophy, relating to the co-evolution of a system because of interactions among its components.

  16. A conceptual socio-hydrological model of the co-evolution of humans and water: case study of the Tarim River basin, western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Tian, F.; Lin, M.; Sivapalan, M.

    2015-02-01

    The complex interactions and feedbacks between humans and water are critically important issues but remain poorly understood in the newly proposed discipline of socio-hydrology (Sivapalan et al., 2012). An exploratory model with the appropriate level of simplification can be valuable for improving our understanding of the co-evolution and self-organization of socio-hydrological systems driven by interactions and feedbacks operating at different scales. In this study, a simplified conceptual socio-hydrological model based on logistic growth curves is developed for the Tarim River basin in western China and is used to illustrate the explanatory power of such a co-evolutionary model. The study area is the main stream of the Tarim River, which is divided into two modeling units. The socio-hydrological system is composed of four sub-systems, i.e., the hydrological, ecological, economic, and social sub-systems. In each modeling unit, the hydrological equation focusing on water balance is coupled to the other three evolutionary equations to represent the dynamics of the social sub-system (denoted by population), the economic sub-system (denoted by irrigated crop area ratio), and the ecological sub-system (denoted by natural vegetation cover), each of which is expressed in terms of a logistic growth curve. Four feedback loops are identified to represent the complex interactions among different sub-systems and different spatial units, of which two are inner loops occurring within each separate unit and the other two are outer loops linking the two modeling units. The feedback mechanisms are incorporated into the constitutive relations for model parameters, i.e., the colonization and mortality rates in the logistic growth curves that are jointly determined by the state variables of all sub-systems. The co-evolution of the Tarim socio-hydrological system is then analyzed with this conceptual model to gain insights into the overall system dynamics and its sensitivity to the external drivers and internal system variables. The results show a costly pendulum swing between a balanced distribution of socio-economic and natural ecologic resources among the upper and lower reaches and a highly skewed distribution towards the upper reach. This evolution is principally driven by the attitudinal changes occurring within water resources management policies that reflect the evolving community awareness of society to concerns regarding the ecology and environment.

  17. Groundwater dynamics under water-saving irrigation and implications for sustainable water management in an oasis: Tarim River basin of western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Hu, H.; Tian, F.; Yao, X.; Sivapalan, M.

    2014-10-01

    Water is essential for life. Specifically in the oases of inland arid basins, water is a critically limited resource, essential for the development of the socio-economy and the sustainability of eco-environmental systems. Due to the unique hydrological regime present in arid oases, a moderate groundwater table is the goal of sustainable water management. A shallow water table induces serious secondary salinization and collapse of agriculture, while a deep water table causes deterioration of natural vegetation. From the hydrological perspective, the exchange flux between the unsaturated vadose zone and groundwater reservoir is a critical link to understanding regional water table dynamics. This flux is substantially influenced by anthropogenic activities. In the Tarim River basin of western China, where agriculture consumes over 90% of available water resources, the exchange flux between the unsaturated vadose zone and groundwater reservoir is influenced strongly by irrigation. Recently, mulched drip irrigation, a sophisticated water-saving irrigation method, was widely applied in the Tarim River basin, which greatly impacted the exchange flux and thus the regional groundwater dynamics. Capitalizing on recent progress in evaporation measurement techniques, we can now close the water balance and directly quantify the exchange flux at the field scale, thus gaining a better understanding of regional groundwater dynamics. In this study, comprehensive observations of water balance components in an irrigated cropland were implemented in 2012 and 2013 in a typical oasis within the Tarim River basin. The water balance analysis showed that the exchange flux and groundwater dynamics were significantly altered by the application of water-saving irrigation. The exchange flux at the groundwater table is mostly downward (310.5 mm year-1), especially during drip irrigation period and spring flush period, while the upward flux is trivial (16.1 mm year-1) due to the moderate groundwater table depth (annual average depth 2.9 m). Traditional secondary salinization caused by intense phreatic evaporation (fed by upward exchange flux) is alleviated. However, a new form of secondary salinization may be introduced unwittingly if there is lack of water for periodic flushing, especially when brackish water is used in the irrigation. Furthermore, the water saved via drip irrigation has been used in further growth of irrigated lands instead of supporting the ecological system. This could lead to an increased risk of eco-environmental degradation and calls for improved governance schemes. The insights gained from this study can be potentially applied to other arid inland areas (e.g., central Asia) which face similar water shortages and human development problems.

  18. A Coupled Modeling Framework of the Co-evolution of Humans and Water: Case Study of Tarim River Basin, Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Tian, F.; Lin, M.; Sivapalan, M.

    2014-12-01

    The complex interactions and feedbacks between humans and water are very essential issues but are poorly understood in the newly proposed discipline of socio-hydrology (Sivapalan et al., 2012). An exploratory model with the appropriate level of simplification can be valuable to improve our understanding of the co-evolution and self-organization of socio-hydrological systems driven by interactions and feedbacks operating at different scales. In this study, a simple coupled modeling framework for socio-hydrology co-evolution is developed for the Tarim River Basin in Western China, and is used to illustrate the explanatory power of such a model. The study area is the mainstream of the Tarim River, which is divided into two modeling units. The socio-hydrological system is composed of four parts, i.e., social sub-system, economic sub-system, ecological sub-system, and hydrological sub-system. In each modeling unit, four coupled ordinary differential equations are used to simulate the dynamics of the social sub-system represented by human population, the economic sub-system represented by irrigated crop area, the ecological sub-system represented by natural vegetation cover and the hydrological sub-system represented by stream discharge. The coupling and feedback processes of the four dominant sub-systems (and correspondingly four state variables) are integrated into several internal system characteristics interactively and jointly determined by themselves and by other coupled systems. For example, the stream discharge is coupled to the irrigated crop area by the colonization rate and mortality rate of the irrigated crop area in the upper reach and the irrigated area is coupled to stream discharge through irrigation water consumption. The co-evolution of the Tarim socio-hydrological system is then analyzed within this modeling framework to gain insights into the overall system dynamics and its sensitivity to the external drivers and internal system variables. In the modeling framework, the state of each subsystem is holistically described by one state variable and the framework is flexible enough to comprise more processes and constitutive relationships if they are needed to illustrate the interaction and feedback mechanisms of the human-water system.

  19. Whole-Genome Optical Mapping and Finished Genome Sequence of Sphingobacterium deserti sp. nov., a New Species Isolated from the Western Desert of China

    PubMed Central

    Molnár, István; Li, Xinna; Tang, Ran; Chen, Ming; Wang, Lin; Su, Shiyou; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Min

    2015-01-01

    A novel Gram-negative bacterium, designated ZWT, was isolated from a soil sample of the Western Desert of China, and its phenotypic properties and phylogenetic position were investigated using a polyphasic approach. Growth occurred on TGY medium at 5–42°C with an optimum of 30°C, and at pH 7.0–11.0 with an optimum of pH 9.0. The predominant cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16:1?7c/C16:1?6c or C16:1?6c/C16:1?7c) (39.22%), iso-C15:0 (27.91%), iso-C17:0 3OH (15.21%), C16:0 (4.98%), iso-C15:0 3OH (3.03%), C16:0 3OH (5.39%) and C14:0 (1.74%). The major polar lipid of strain ZWT is phosphatidylethanolamine. The only menaquinone observed was MK-7. The GC content of the DNA of strain ZWT is 44.9 mol%. rDNA phylogeny, genome relatedness and chemotaxonomic characteristics all indicate that strain ZWT represents a novel species of the genus Sphingobacterium. We propose the name S. deserti sp. nov., with ZWT (= KCTC 32092T = ACCC 05744T) as the type strain. Whole genome optical mapping and next-generation sequencing was used to derive a finished genome sequence for strain ZWT, consisting of a circular chromosome of 4,615,818 bp in size. The genome of strain ZWT features 3,391 protein-encoding and 48 tRNA-encoding genes. Comparison of the predicted proteome of ZWT with those of other sphingobacteria identified 925 species-unique proteins that may contribute to the adaptation of ZWT to its native, extremely arid and inhospitable environment. As the first finished genome sequence for any Sphingobacterium, our work will serve as a useful reference for subsequent sequencing and mapping efforts for additional strains and species within this genus. PMID:25830331

  20. Taxonomy of the genus Osorius Guérin-Méneville (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Osoriinae) from China.

    PubMed

    Zou, Si-Si; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the taxonomy of the genus Osorius Guérin-Méneville, 1829 (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Osoriinae) and reports 10 new species and three new records from China: Osorius depressicapitatus sp. nov. (Yunnan and Xizang), O. guizhouensis sp. nov. (Guizhou), O. huangi sp. nov. (Hunan), O. limatidepressus sp. nov. (Sichuan), O. micromidas sp. nov. (Yunnan), O. minutoserratus sp. nov. (Yunnan), O. rectomarginatus sp. nov. (Yunnan, Guangxi, Hainan, Fujian, Guangdong and Xizang), O. striolatus sp. nov. (Hunan and Guangdong), O. trichinosis sp. nov. (Guizhou and Zhejiang), O. tuberocapitatus sp. nov. (Hubei), O. aspericeps Fauvel, 1905, new record of China (Yunnan, Sichuan, Xizang and Zhejiang), O. frontalis Fauvel, 1905, new record of China (Sichuan), and O. punctulatus Motschulsky, 1857, new record of China (Yunnan and Fujian). The number of the Chinese Osorius species is thus increased to 21 in total. The paper provides line drawings for 21 species and redescriptions for the species recorded for the first time in China. A key to Chinese species is also included. PMID:26624775

  1. Teaching about China in Secondary Schools in Western Europe: Report. Proceedings of the European Teachers' Seminar (22nd, Donaueschingen, West Germany, November 7-12, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Graham

    This document discusses a rationale and alternative strategies for teaching about China. Topics include China as: (1) a communist nation; (2) as a developing economic and political power; (3) as a country with a rich historical and traditional culture; and (4) as a powerful contrast to Eurocentrism. Ideas and institutions are suggested as a core…

  2. Using Parent and Teacher Voices in the Creation of a Western-Based Early Childhood English-Language Program in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimpi, Priya M.; Paik, Jae H.; Wanerman, Todd; Johnson, Rebecca; Li, Hui; Duh, Shinchieh

    2015-01-01

    The current English-language research and educational program was driven by an initiative to create a more interactive, theme-based bilingual language education model for preschools in Chengdu, China. During a 2-week teacher education program centered at the Experimental Kindergarten of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Chengdu, China, a team of…

  3. Groundwater pollution of post-mined phosphate rock in Tuojiang watershed (Sichuan, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    changwen, ye

    2014-05-01

    Phosphate rock is the source of phosphorus used to make phosphatic fertilizers, essential for growing the food needed by humans in the world today and in the future. The erosion and eluviation on exposed phosphrite layer and overburden in the phosphate rock areas result in the releasing of fluoride and phosphorus and groundwater polluting. Meanwhile, the waste water and untreated mineral waste residue in the beneficiation and mining operations are also main source of pollution. The un-restored post-mined phosphate rock areas in Tuojiang watershed is large scale. The investigation of the amounts of pollutants releasing from mined lands and transporting by runoffs was conducted. The releasing and transporting amounts of pollutants were calculated according to the results of column leaching studies and acreages of exposed phosphrite layers and overburdens. In conclusion, phosphorus mining activity is an important non-point source of groundwater contamination of Tuojiang watershed.Study about the management and engineering measurement can be carried out according to the non-point source: agriculture, Pollution, Phosphorous mine and chemical plant. The study can provide the practical consultation and help making the decision about the management and treatment of groundwater resource in Tuojiang watershed. Keywords: Tuojiang watershed; Groundwater pollution; Losing process; Fluorine; Phosphorus

  4. Ordovician reef-hosted Jiaodingshan Mn-Co deposit and Dawashan Mn deposit, Sichuan Province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fan, Delian; Hein, James R.; Ye, Jie

    1999-01-01

    The Jiaodingshan Mn-Co and Dawashan Mn deposits are located in the approximately 2-m thick Daduhe unit of the Wufengian strata of Late Ordovician (Ashgill) age. Paleogeographic reconstruction places the deposits at the time of their formation in a gulf between Chengdu submarine rise and the Kangdian continent. The Jiaodingshan and Dawashan deposits occur in algal-reef facies, the former in an atoll-like structure and the latter in a pinnacle reef. Ores are mainly composed of rhodochrosite, kutnahorite, hausmannite, braunite, manganosite, and bementite. Dark red, yellowish-pink, brown, green-gray, and black ores are massive, banded, laminated, spheroidal, and cryptalgal (oncolite, stromatolite, algal filaments) boundstones. Blue, green, and red algal fossils show in situ growth positions. Samples of high-grade Jiaodingshan and Dawashan ores assay as much as 66.7% MnO. Jiaodingshan Mn carbonate ores have mean contents of Ba, Co, and Pb somewhat higher than in Dawashan ores. Cobalt is widely distributed and strongly enriched in all rock types as compared to its crustal mean content. Cobalt is correlated with Cu, Ni, and MgO in both deposits and additionally with Ba and Zn in the Dawashan deposit. The ?13C(PDB) values of Mn carbonate ores (-7.8 to -16.3‰) indicate contributions of carbon from both seawater bicarbonate and the bacterial degradation of organic matter, the latter being 33% to 68%, assuming about -24‰ for the ?13C(PDB) of the organic matter. Host limestones derived carbon predominantly from seawater bicarbonate ?1313C(PDB) of +0.2 to -7‰). NW-trending fault zones controlled development of lithofacies, whereas NE-trending fault zones provided pathways for movement of fluids. The source of Co, Ni, and Cu was mainly from weathering of mafic and ultramafic rocks on the Kangdian continent, whereas contemporaneous volcanic eruptions were of secondary importance. The reefs were likely mineralized during early diagenesis under shallow burial. The reefs were highly porous and acted as the locus for metasomatic replacement by Mn that combined with CO2 produced during oxidation of organic matter in the zone of sulfate reduction and seawater bicarbonate. That metasomatic replacement formed the rhodochrosite ores.

  5. Atmospheric wet deposition of sulfur and nitrogen in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Xiao, Weiyang; Jaffe, Daniel; Kota, Sri Harsha; Ying, Qi; Tang, Ya

    2015-04-01

    In the last two decades, remarkable ecological changes have been observed in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR). Some of these changes might be related to excessive deposition of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N), but the relationship has not been quantified due to lack of monitoring data, particularly S and N deposition data. In this study, we investigated the concentrations, fluxes, and sources of S and N wet deposition in JNNR from April 2010 to May 2011. The results show that SO4(2-), NO3-, and NH4+ concentrations in the wet deposition were 39.4-170.5, 6.2-34.8, and 0.2-61.2 ?eq L(-1), with annual Volume-Weighted Mean (VWM) concentrations of 70.5, 12.7, and 13.4 ?eq L(-1), respectively. Annual wet deposition fluxes of SO4(2-), NO3-, and NH4+ were 8.06, 1.29, and 1.39 kg S(N)ha(-1), respectively, accounting for about 90% of annual atmospheric inputs of these species at the monitoring site. The results of Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis show that fossil fuel combustion, agriculture, and aged sea salt contributed to 99% and 83% of annual wet deposition fluxes of SO4(2-) and NO3-, respectively. Agriculture alone contributed to 89% of annual wet deposition flux of NH4+. Although wet deposition in JNNR was polluted by anthropogenic acids, the acidity was largely neutralized by the Ca2+ from crust and 81% of wet deposition samples had a pH higher than 6.00. However, acid rain mainly caused by SO4(2-) continued to occur in the wet season, when ambient alkaline dust concentration was lower. Since anthropogenic emissions have elevated S and N deposition and caused acid rain in JNNR, further studies are needed to better quantify the regional sources and ecological effects of S and N deposition for JNNR. PMID:25525712

  6. Structural and thermal characters of the Longmen Shan (Sichuan, China) A. Robert a,

    E-print Network

    Nicolas, Chamot-Rooke

    by temperatures varying from 590 °C down to 300 °C as commonly observed in mature accretionary wedges. Both thick material abutting the resistant and cold Yangtze crust. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved, as a consequence of the distant India­Eurasia collision and the uplift of the Tibetan plateau (Yong et al., 2006

  7. Traditional Livelihoods, Conservation and Meadow Ecology in Jiuzhaigou National Park, Sichuan, China

    PubMed Central

    Urgenson, Lauren; Schmidt, Amanda H.; Combs, Julie; Harrell, Stevan; Hinckley, Thomas; Yang, Qingxia; Ma, Ziyu; Yongxian, Li; Hongliang, Lü; MacIver, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Jiuzhaigou National Park (JNP) is a site of global conservation significance. Conservation policies in JNP include the implementation of two national reforestation programs to increase forest cover and the exclusion of local land-use. We use archaeological excavation, ethnographic interviews, remote sensing and vegetation surveys to examine the implications of these policies for non-forest, montane meadows. We find that Amdo Tibetan people cultivated the valley for >2,000 years, creating and maintaining meadows through land clearing, burning and grazing. Meadows served as sites for gathering plants and mushrooms and over 40 % of contemporary species are ethnobotanically useful. Remote sensing analyses indicate a substantial (69.6 %) decline in meadow area between 1974 and 2004. Respondents report a loss of their “true history” and connections to the past associated with loss of meadows. Conservation policies intended to preserve biodiversity are unintentionally contributing to the loss of these ecologically and culturally significant meadow habitats. PMID:26097267

  8. A method for quickly extracting seismogeological hazards in Yingxiu, Sichuan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qinjun; Chen, Yu; Bi, Jiantao; Lin, Qizhong

    2014-11-01

    A method for seismogeological hazards extraction using high resolution remote sensing was proposed in the research taken the epicenter of Wenchuan earthquake-Yingxiu town as the study area. In which, making imagery was built according to the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) to remove interfering factors. Then, the masked imagery was diced into several small parts to reduce the large imageries' inconsistency and they were used as the sources to be classified. After that, the vector conversion was performed on the classified images to mapping geological hazards. Finally, other interfering factors such as bare lands, lands covered by few vegetation and buildings on the top altitude were removed manually. For it can extract geological hazards in a short time, it is of great importance for the decision-makers and rescuers to know the damaged degree in the disaster area, especially within 72 hours after the earthquake. Therefore, it will play an important role in decision making, site rescue and hazards response planning.

  9. Prevalence of Mental Disorders in 6–16-Year-Old Students in Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yuan; Jiang, Hongyun; Zhang, Ni; Wang, Dahai; Guo, Lanting

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the point prevalence of mental disorders in school students, multistage cluster stratified random sampling and two-phase survey methods were used to identify 40 primary and middle schools. The students were screened using the Chinese version of the Child Behavior Checklist and diagnosed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The prevalence of behavioral problems was 19.13%. The prevalence of behavioral problems significantly differed by sex, age, city of residence, and caretaker. The six-month prevalence of any mental disorder was 15.24% (95% CI: 15.49%–16.97%). Psychiatric disorders were more prevalent in boys (17.33%) relative to girls (13.11%; p < 0.01). The prevalence of mental disorders significantly differed by community and caretaker, and 36.46% of students exhibited comorbidity. Results demonstrated important mental health issues, with a high incidence of comorbidities, in this population. Students’ mental health requires increased attention, particularly in poverty-stricken areas and left-behind children and adolescents. PMID:25985310

  10. Infertility caused by male partners with genetic defects in Sichuan Province of China.

    PubMed

    Quan, Q; Li, T J; Ding, X P; Wei, J; Li, L X; Fu, L

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect chromosomal aberrations and azoospermia factor (AZF) microdeletions in male patients with reproductive problems and to summarize related clinical features to provide reliable information for evaluating prenatal and preimplantation diagnoses. A large cohort of 5083 men with various phenotypes of male infertility was analyzed via G-banding karyotyping, and Origin 8.0 was used to analyze the prevalence of abnormalities. Additionally, patients with azoospermia, oligozoospermia, and oligoasthenozoospermia were analyzed using multiplex polymerase chain reaction to detect microdeletion in the AZF. We identified 387 patients with abnormal karyotypes, and the ratio was 7.61%. Among them were 175 patients with Klinefelter's syndrome, which was the most common numerical chromosomal abnormality and accounted for 45.22% of all chromosomal aberrations. The frequencies of increased satellites, balanced translocations, and Robertsonian translocations were 6.47, 7.00, and 3.62%, respectively. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction performed in 810 cases with azoospermia, oligozoospermia, and oligoasthenozoospermia found a ratio of AZF microdeletions of 4.94%. The finding suggests that chromosomal abnormalities and AZF deletion are main factors that result in male infertility. Detecting these common genetic variations is necessary in infertile men seeking assisted reproductive technology. PMID:24390997

  11. Pn Tomography and Location in Eurasia Lee Steck1, Scott Phillips1, Charlotte Rowe1, Michael Begnaud1, Kevin Mackey2, Kaz Fujita2 and Hans Hartse1

    E-print Network

    . These include fast mantle velocities in central and western China, in particular under the Tarim, Jungar, Tsaidam and Sichuan basins, and slower velocities beneath eastern China, including the continental shelf

  12. Environmental effects of the recent emission changes in China: implications for particulate matter pollution and soil acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Dong, Xinyi; Wang, Jiandong; Duan, Lei; Fu, Xiao; Hao, Jiming; Fu, Joshua

    2013-06-01

    Driven by a rapid increase of energy consumption and emerging pollution control policies, air pollutant emissions have changed dramatically in China during 2005-2010. This study developed a multi-pollutant emission inventory, and used the community multi-scale air quality (CMAQ) modeling system to evaluate the impact of the emission changes on particulate matter pollution and soil acidification. During 2005-2010, the emissions of SO2, PM10 and PM2.5 decreased by 14.9%, 15.1% and 11.7%, respectively. In contrast, the emissions of NOX, NMVOC and NH3 increased by 33.8%, 21.0% and 10.4%, respectively. The emission trends differed notably in different regions. Driven by emission changes, PM2.5 concentrations decreased by 2-17 ?g m-3 in most of the North China Plain, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta, while increasing by 4.5-16 ?g m-3 in most of the Sichuan Basin and Eastern Hubei. The changes of PM2.5 emissions led to the decline of primary PM2.5 concentrations in most of Eastern China. As an effect solely of emission changes, nitrate concentrations increased across most of China; sulfate concentrations decreased in most of Eastern China, with the largest reduction in the North China Plain, while they increased in the Sichuan Basin and parts of the Pearl River Delta and Eastern Hubei. The concentrations of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA) and the extinction coefficient increased in most of China, especially in the Sichuan Basin and Eastern Hubei, implying that the NOX and NH3 emissions should be reduced simultaneously in China. Combining the acidification effects of S and N, the exceedance of critical loads decreased across the country, but increased in the Sichuan Basin, the Pearl River Delta and Eastern Hubei, where the soil acidification was the most serious. Different control policies need to be implemented in different regions.

  13. In Brief: China shaken by magnitude 7.9 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-05-01

    A magnitude 7.9 earthquake that struck the eastern Sichuan region of China on 12 May 2008 at 0628 UTC has caused more than 22,000 fatalities as of press time, and Chinese government officials have indiciated that this figure could increase to 50,000. The quake also caused severe damage including landslides and cracks to 391 mostly small dams, according to an Associated Press report that cited the Xinhua News Agency and CCTV news. China's Ministry of Water Resources has dispatched several work teams to quake-hit localities ``to prevent dams that were damaged by the earthquake from bursting and endangering the lives of residents,'' the ministry stated.

  14. Endemic characteristics of infantile visceral leishmaniasis in the People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was once a severe parasitic disease in China. Thanks to the great efforts of integrated control, VL was eliminated in most epidemic areas, except for certain western provinces (autonomous region) at the end of 1950s. From then on, VL gained less attention and has seemed to spread, especially in the last 15?years. Infants are the most important population threatened by VL. However, there have been few studies on the endemic characteristics of infantile VL in China. Methods Infantile VL cases were collected from the online National Infectious Diseases Reporting System (NIDRS). Statistical description and inference was used to reveal the endemic characteristics in gender, age group, time and regionalism. Spatial analysis was carried out to explore the high risk area for infantile VL in China. Results A total of 1093 infantile VL cases were reported from 2006 to 2012. There was no statistically significant difference in gender over time. The minimum, maximum and mean age of these cases was 1.1, 35.9 and 13.8?months, respectively. Among them 86.92% were under 2?years of age, and there was a statistically significant difference among age groups over time. An incidence peak appeared in 2008-2009, most cases were distributed in the months September to December, and there was a tail-raising effect in the coming two months of the next year. More than 98% of cases were reported in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Gansu Province and Sichuan Province, accounting for 61.02%, 32.75% and 4.57%, respectively. A total of 56 counties reported infantile VL cases, with the cumulative incidence ranging from 0.02 to 24.57%. There were two main zones of high endemicity for infantile VL in China. The monthly incidence clearly coincides with the number of towns where infantile VL cases were reported. Three fatalities were reported during the study period, the case fatality rate was 2.75‰. Conclusions The endemic situation of infantile VL is serious, and there are several active foci of infantile VL prevalence in China. VL has emerged as a severe threat to infants of endemic regions in China. PMID:23680411

  15. New teacher induction in China : a qualitative case study of practice and experience in Yinchuan city through the lens of Western literature and theories and concepts therein 

    E-print Network

    Han, Xu

    2013-07-05

    The importance of designing and delivering comprehensive induction programmes for newly qualified school teachers (e.g. Draper and O’Brien, 2006) is widely accepted. In China, ongoing curriculum reform and teacher ...

  16. Precambrian oil and gas in China

    SciTech Connect

    Sisheng Hao; Guangdi Liu

    1989-03-01

    Abundant Precambrian oil and gas occurring mainly in two large basins, Sichuan basin in southwestern China and Bohai Bay basin in northern China, account for a considerable portion of the reserves and production in China. The Precambrian producing formations are all carbonates. Weiyuan gas field in Sichuan basin is one of the large gas fields in China. Its gas is produced primarily from the dolomite of the Dengying Formation (Sinian System) and was generated chiefly in the algal dolomite of the same system. However, a deeper origin for the gas cannot be ruled out. Renqiu oil field in Bohai Bay basin, a buried-hill oil field, is also one of the largest oil fields in China. The oil is produced primarily from the dolomite of the Wumishan Formation of the middle-upper Proterozoic and was generated chiefly in the Oligocene Shahejie Formation. It is also possible that the oil was partly sourced by middle-upper Proterozoic rocks. In addition, many oil and gas shows have been found in the middle-upper Proterozoic of the Yanshan fold-belt at the northern margin of the Bohai Bay basin. According to an organic geochemical study, the middle-upper Proterozoic in the area has a good potential for hydrocarbon generation, and formation conditions for indigenous hydrocarbon accumulation should exist in the Bohai Bay basin and nearby Yanshan foldbelt. From the analyses of hydrocarbon generation, reservoir, cap rock, trapping, and preservation, the presentation systematically describes the petroleum geological features and hydrocarbon prospects of the Precambrian in China.

  17. Crust/mantle interaction during the construction of an extensional magmatic dome: Middle to Late Jurassic plutonic complex from western Liaoning, North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Yuan, Lingling; Wilde, Simon A.

    2014-09-01

    Differentiating magmatic doming and low-angle normal faulting remains critical for fully understanding the thermal, mechanical and chemical evolution of continental landmasses under extension. This zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical study documents two Middle to Late Jurassic batholiths (Lüshan and Haitangshan) from the Yiwulüshan range of western Liaoning, North China Craton. They consist of a variety of lithologies including gabbro, diorite, granodiorite, monzogranite, together with microgranular magmatic enclaves (MME) and mafic dykes. Synthesizing petrologic, elemental, whole-rock Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopic data leads to the characterization of multiple mafic and felsic end-members and their concomitant interaction in building the magmatic dome. A subduction-related metasomatized lithospheric mantle source is fingerprinted by the gabbroic to dioritic rocks with enriched large ion lithophile elements, depleted high field strength elements and heterogeneous isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70541 to 0.70577, ?Nd(t) = - 1.78 to - 5.54 and zircon ?Hf(t) = - 6.0 to 8.1). One felsic magma end-member of ancient mafic lower crustal parentage is discernable from adakitic granites with high Sr/Y and evolved isotopic composition (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70533 to 0.70792, ?Nd(t) = - 18.8 to - 21.7, zircon ?Hf(t) = - 18.5 to - 28.8), whereas another felsic magma end-member of newly underplated crustal heritage manifests itself from some monzogranites with non-adakitic elemental affinity and juvenile isotopic composition (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70429 to 0.70587, ?Nd(t) = - 4.47 to - 5.87, zircon ?Hf(t) = 4.3 to 1.3). Hybridization processes between mantle-derived mafic magma and ancient crustal-derived felsic magma result in the formation of MME-bearing granodiorites with intermediate isotopic signatures (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70491 to 0.70499, ?Nd(t) = - 15.3 to - 15.8, zircon ?Hf(t) = - 12.7 to - 17.4). Subsequent fractional crystallization of the hybridized magmas endows the differentiated monzogranites with low Sr/Y and highly evolved isotopes (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70496 to 0.70605, ?Nd(t) = - 16.0 to - 18.7, zircon ?Hf(t) = - 14.3 to - 21.5). Apart from distinguishing Middle-Late Jurassic extensional magmatic doming from Early Cretaceous detachment faulting, this complex mafic-felsic magma association encapsulates a multi-level crust/mantle interaction leading to lithospheric thinning and concomitant crustal architectural reorganization in the Yanshan belt during the Late Mesozoic. Near-synchronization of a two-stage extensional pattern in the Yanshan belt and even across NE continental Asia accords well with gravitational collapse and convective removal of lithospheric mantle within an evolved post-collisional to within-plate extensional regime.

  18. Petrology of HP metamorphic veins in coesite-bearing eclogite from western Tianshan, China: Fluid processes and elemental mobility during exhumation in a cold subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Zeng; Zhang, Lifei; Du, Jinxue; Yang, Xin; Tian, Zuolin; Xia, Bin

    2012-04-01

    A petrological study was carried out for high pressure (HP) veins which cut through the host coesite-bearing eclogites at Habutengsu-Kebuerte in western Tianshan, China. The results place constraints on the origin and property of metamorphic fluids during subduction-zone metamorphism. Omphacite-, clinozoisite- and quartz-dominated veins occur on centimeter to meter scales within lens-shaped and layered eclogites, or cutting into the country rocks of garnet phengite schists. Coesite-bearing eclogites mainly consist of fibrous fine-grained omphacite and porphyroblastic garnet, with minor amounts of amphibole (mainly barroisite), clinozoisite, white mica (mainly paragonite) and rutile. The veins are pronouncedly coarse-grained compared to the host eclogites and commonly consist of quartz, clinozosite, rutile, white mica (phengite and paragonite) and garnet, with or without omphacite, titanite, apatite, carbonate (mainly dolomite) and glaucophane. Fluid inclusions are abundant in vein omphacite, titanite and apatite, but are rare in the equivalent minerals of host eclogites. Rounded vein garnets usually occur close to the sharp interface of vein and host eclogite. Omphacite in the veins is characterized by its euhedral form surrounded by quartz, or coarse bladed aggregates in contrast to the fibrous or patchy one, suggesting dynamic recrystallization in the host rocks. Omphacite in both veins and host eclogites has similar jadeite contents (Jd40-50), indicating formation at eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions. Vein phengite uniformly contains certain amounts of Ba with maximum BaO content of 3.16-4.25 wt.%, suggesting that Ba was mobilized during the exhumation of UHP rocks. Specific textures of vein minerals, such as the enclosure of magnesite (or calcite) in dolomite, rutile in titanite, and the occurrence of zoned Ba-rich phengite, indicate the chemical variability of channelized fluids over time. Based on Zr content in rutile and the presence of paragonite, omphacite, phengite, glaucophane as well as the little deformed textures of HP veins, it is estimated that the vein-forming fluids would flow at about 1.3-2.1 GPa and 540-580 °C, corresponding to the stage of retrograde eclogite-facies recrystallization during exhumation of the UHP eclogites that formed at peak P-T conditions of > 2.7 GPa and 460-520 °C. The HP veins occur as a consequence of a regional tectonothermal event, triggering breakdown of lawsonite within the UHP eclogites. Based on the petrology of vein minerals, it is inferred that the HP fluids were enriched in Si, Ca, Na, Al and Ba. This suggests that these elements could be mobilized during the retrograde metamorphism of UHP eclogites in a cold subduction zone. Coeval pervasive flow of HP metamorphic fluids through the UHP eclogites at this stage may be an important process to eliminate most mineralogical evidence of the UHP metamorphism.

  19. Mitochondrial genome of the Sichuan field mouse (Apodemus latronum).

    PubMed

    Yue, Hao; Liu, Shaoying; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Xiuyue; Fan, Zhenxin

    2016-03-01

    Wood mice of the genus Apodemus are the most common small rodents in fields and broad-leaf forests in the temperate zone. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Apodemus latronum. It was endemic species to China, which mainly inhabited at the high land of the eastern Tibetan Plateau. The complete mitochondrial genome sequences of A. latronum was estimated to be 16,288 bases. Its organization and order were similar to that of typical vertebrate and other rodents' mitochondrial genomes, which consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 control region. Most protein-coding genes used ATG as the initiation codon. However, ND1, ND2 and ND5 began with ATA, whereas ND3 initiated with ATT. The termination codon also showed some degree of variation, and three types of stop codons were observed. The mitogenome sequence of A. latronum could provide helpful data to study the phylogeny of Apodemus. PMID:24963761

  20. Western Foot Patrol Western University

    E-print Network

    Lennard, William N.

    Western Foot Patrol Western University Room 57, University Community Centre London, Ontario N6A 3K7 August 2014 Get involved! Volunteer with Western Foot Patrol Welcome to Western! Thank you for your interest in volunteering for Western Foot Patrol (WFP)! WFP is a free service that promotes

  1. LETTER Earth Planets Space, 62, 875879, 2010 The Mw 7.9, 12 May 2008 Sichuan earthquake rupture measured by sub-pixel

    E-print Network

    Klinger, Yann

    of the satellite and the horizontal along-track direction, and to map the surface rupture. The earthquake broke 270; TERRAPUB. doi:10.5047/eps.2009.05.002 the ALOS satellite to map the Sichuan earthquake ruptureLETTER Earth Planets Space, 62, 875­879, 2010 The Mw 7.9, 12 May 2008 Sichuan earthquake rupture

  2. Drivers of Echinococcus multilocularis Transmission in China: Small Mammal Diversity, Landscape or Climate?

    PubMed Central

    Giraudoux, Patrick; Raoul, Francis; Pleydell, David; Li, Tiaoying; Han, Xiuming; Qiu, Jiamin; Xie, Yan; Wang, Hu; Ito, Akira; Craig, Philip S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Human alveolar echinococcocosis (AE) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic disease caused by the larval stage of the cestode E. multilocularis. Its life-cycle includes more than 40 species of small mammal intermediate hosts. Therefore, host biodiversity losses could be expected to alter transmission. Climate may also have possible impacts on E. multilocularis egg survival. We examined the distribution of human AE across two spatial scales, (i) for continental China and (ii) over the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We tested the hypotheses that human disease distribution can be explained by either the biodiversity of small mammal intermediate host species, or by environmental factors such as climate or landscape characteristics. Methodology/findings The distributions of 274 small mammal species were mapped to 967 point locations on a grid covering continental China. Land cover, elevation, monthly rainfall and temperature were mapped using remotely sensed imagery and compared to the distribution of human AE disease at continental scale and over the eastern Tibetan plateau. Infection status of 17,589 people screened by abdominal ultrasound in 2002–2008 in 94 villages of Tibetan areas of western Sichuan and Qinghai provinces was analyzed using generalized additive mixed models and related to epidemiological and environmental covariates. We found that human AE was not directly correlated with small mammal reservoir host species richness, but rather was spatially correlated with landscape features and climate which could confirm and predict human disease hotspots over a 200,000 km2 region. Conclusions/Significance E. multilocularis transmission and resultant human disease risk was better predicted from landscape features that could support increases of small mammal host species prone to population outbreaks, rather than host species richness. We anticipate that our study may be a starting point for further research wherein landscape management could be used to predict human disease risk and for controlling this zoonotic helminthic. PMID:23505582

  3. Seismic imaging in the crust and upper mantle under Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Fukao, Y.

    2009-12-01

    We collected a large number of P-wave and S-wave arrival-time data from 14,474 local earthquakes and 4,782 teleseismic events to simultaneously invert the three-dimensional (3-D) P- and S-wave velocity structures under the Southwest (SW) China. The inverted Vp and Vs images are, in general, coherent with each other from the crust to a deep depth of the upper mantle. Our velocity models confirmed the major features delineated by previous global and local P-wave tomographic approaches as well as surface wave studies and revealed some new features of the structural heterogeneities in details in the crust and upper mantle. Low anomalous Vp and Vs are generally imaged at the shallow upper crust under the Sichuan foreland basin, being consistent with the surface geological study that the foreland basin contains primarily Mesozoic and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks with thickness greater than 10 km. Prominent high-velocity anomalies are clearly mapped at depths of 65-400 km under the Yangtze Platform in a sharp contrast to low-velocity perturbations beneath the regions of the Songpan-Ganzi Fold System, the Northwest Qiangtang Block as well as the Indochina Block at these depths. The Foreland Sichuan Basin is characterized as a lithospheric body with strong high-velocity anomalies with a southwestern dipping angle subducting into the southeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau to a depth of 400 km. These features of lithospheric heterogeneities are well consistent with the station delays of the relative travel-time residuals calculated from the teleseismic data in the study region. A low-velocity layer with Vp and Vs anomalies of 1-2% at around depth of the boundary between the crust and upper mantle is generally revealed in the western regions to the Sichuan Foreland Basin, including the Songpan-Ganzi Fold System and parts of the Chuan-Dian Fragment, which may reflect the presence of ductile flow in the lower crust. Such a feature of the rheological strength variation in the crust suggests that the crustal deformation of the southeast Tibetan Plateau is decoupled with the motion of the upper mantle. Beneath the Tongcheng volcano, prominent slow velocities of both Vp and Vs are imaged from the surface to an extended depth of 500 km, indicating that the root of the volcanism is probably from the upper mantle transition zone. The azimuths of the maximum compressional stress along the major tectonic plate boundaries and sutures estimated using 147 high-quality stress data revealed a characteristic regional stress fields in the study region. Our study suggests that, apart from the influence from the collision between the Indian and Eurasian continental plates, the present-data crustal stress field along the tectonic zones in SW China is significantly affected by ductile deformation in the crust.

  4. Trade-Offs between the Top-Down and Bottom-Up School Education Management Models: The Implementation of School Development Planning in Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Zhiyong

    2008-01-01

    In the 1990s, numerous primary and secondary schools in China began experimental exploration and research on the implementation of school development planning (SDP). However, there has been a lack of self-criticism and reflection on the actual implementation situations and changes in SDP's concepts in the participating schools. This study assessed…

  5. Characteristics of the long-range transport dust events in Chengdu, Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuan; Luo, Bin; Xie, Shao-dong

    2015-12-01

    Chengdu is an inland megacity in the Sichuan Basin, where dust influence remained an open question. During a one-year haze campaign, two dust events were identified in March 2013, indicating that desert dust can be transported to Chengdu and impacted local air quality strongly. The suggested low SO2/PM10, NO2/PM10 and PM2.5/PM10 ratios of 0.15, 0.27 and 0.40 could be used as immediate indicators for dust days. On typical dust day of March 12, PM10 was as high as 359.1 ?g m-3, and crustal matter contributed 80.5% to total PM2.5 mass (106.6 ?g m-3). Enrichment factors of most elements have decreased due to the dilution effect except for Ca and Mg. The dust was mainly from western and northern dust regions in China, including the "Northerly Mongolia Path", "Western Desert Path" and "Northwestern Desert Path". Due to the obstruction of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau on the west, the dust air to Chengdu was mostly from the northeastward direction after passing over Qinling Mountain. Moreover, the air experienced obvious elevation from its source regions driven by the cold front synoptic pattern. The spatial distribution of high AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth) values over 1.2 but low Ångström exponent of 0.5-0.6 around Chengdu verified the coarse pollution patterns. However, the dust pollution was not serious in nearby Chongqing and Guizhou and exhibited weak regional feature, a result different from those in Beijing and Shanghai.

  6. Sediment dispersal system in the Taiwan-South China Sea collision zone along a convergent margin: A comparison with the Papua New Guinea collision zone of the western Solomon Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiung, Kan-Hsi; Yu, Ho-Shing

    2013-01-01

    Through a large-scale examination of the morpho-sedimentary features on sea floors in the Taiwan-Luzon convergent margin, we determined the main sediment dispersal system which stretches from 23°N to 20°N and displays as an aligned linear sediment pathway, consisting of the Penghu Canyon, the deep-sea Penghu Channel and northern Manila Trench. The seafloor of South China Sea north of 21°N are underlain by a triangle-shaped collision marine basin, resulting from oblique collision between the Luzon Arc and Chinese margin, and are mainly occupied by two juxtaposed slopes, the South China Sea and Kaoping Slopes, and a southward tilting basin axis located along the Penghu Canyon. Two major tributary canyons of the Formosa and Kaoping and small channels and gullies on both slopes join into the axial Penghu Canyon and form a dendritic canyon drainage system in this collision marine basin. The canyon drainage system is characteristic of lateral sediment supply from flank slopes and axial sediment transport down-canyon following the tilting basin axis. The significance of the collision marine basin in term of source to sink is that sediments derived from nearby orogen and continental margins are transported to and accumulated in the collision basin, serving as a temporary sediment sink and major marine transport route along the basin axis. The comparison of the Taiwan-South China Sea collision zone with the Papua New Guinea collision zone of the western Solomon Sea reveals remarkable similarities in tectonic settings and sedimentary processes that have resulted in similar sediment dispersal systems consisting of (1) a canyon drainage network mainly in the collision basin and (2) a longitudinal sediment transport system comprising a linear connection of submarine canyon, deep-sea channel and oceanic trench beyond the collision marine basin.

  7. Sleeping cluster patterns and retiring behaviors during winter in a free-ranging band of the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Bao-guo; Watanabe, Kunio; Qi, Xiao-guang

    2011-07-01

    Little information is available on the sleeping cluster pattern and retiring behavior of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana). Here, we provide observational data on a provisioned free-ranging band in the Qinling Mountains, central China. The results suggest that winter night activity of R. roxellana is a compromise between antipredator and thermoregulatory strategies and an adaptation to ecological conditions of their temperate habitat. Monkeys retired between 1804 and 1858 h in winter. In support of the antipredation hypothesis, all monkeys slept in trees at night, whereas 18.8% of individuals slept on the ground during the day. Also, the study band was more spatially cohesive at night than in daytime, with shorter distances between one-male units. Keeping warm is critical for survival in freezing temperatures. Monkeys often slept in the lower stratum of the tree canopy, avoiding the upper canopy where it is cold and windy. They formed larger sleeping clusters at night than in daytime. The most common types of night-sleeping clusters were adult females and juveniles, followed by adult females with other adult females. These accounted for 60.2% of the total records. The frequency of female-male clusters is two times greater, and that of adult male-juvenile clusters was four times less at night than during the day. The variations in composition of sleeping clusters suggest affiliative patterns at night-sleeping sites differ from those during the day. PMID:21350935

  8. "But when You Are Doing Your Exams It Is the Same as in China"--Chinese Students Adjusting to Western Approaches to Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lihong; Byram, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Investigations of Chinese students and their approaches to learning have emphasised a dichotomy in "western" and "Confucian" approaches to education but in a longitudinal study of Chinese postgraduate students' academic adjustment to a British university the dichotomy is less than real. The focus of this research was on an in-depth study of…

  9. [A historical survey of diphtheria in the Western World, China and Japan. Part II: Modern age (from sixteenth century to the beginning of nineteenth century)].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, A

    1996-09-01

    In Europe and North America, literatures on diphtheritic diseases was increasing from sixteenth to eighteenth century. In New England of North America, diphtheria and scarlet fever occurred epidemically in mingled form from 1735 to the succeeding year. Thereafter, many physicians in Europe and America treated patients of diphtheria and had different opinions about the nature of croup and diphtheria. In China, its own clinical medicine progressed extraordinarily during the modern age. Laryngeal specialists appeared and wrote special monographs about the pharynx and larynx. A physician wrote about "epidemic exanthem", which the author presumes to be a complicated form of scarlet fever and diphtheria. In Japan, diphtheria occurred in sporadic form usually, and in epidemic form occasionally. Japanese physicians studied medicine from China since the ancient age, and also introduced European medicine through the Netherlands in the eighteenth century. So Japanese physicians learned knowledge about throat diseases and diphtheria from Chinese and European medicine. PMID:11619318

  10. Gene expression profiles in the pituitary glands of Sichuan White geese during prelaying and laying periods.

    PubMed

    Gao, G L; Zhao, X Z; Li, Q; Su, J; Wang, Q G

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the molecular mechanism(s) underlying egg-laying in Sichuan white geese, the profiles of genes in the pituitary gland were investigated during the prelaying and laying periods. Total RNA was extracted from the pituitary glands of geese during prelaying or laying periods and cDNA was generated. After sequencing and annotation, 54 upregulated and 84 downregulated genes were obtained from gene libraries. These genes were related primarily to biosynthetic processes, cellular nitrogen metabolic processes, transport, cell differentiation, cellular protein modification processes, signal transduction, and small molecule metabolic processes. Eleven genes were selected for further analyses using quantitative real-time PCR, and the results were generally consistent with the profiling results. Among these genes, levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone, vasoactive intestinal peptide and its receptor, follistatin, estrogen receptor beta, and the progesterone receptor were differentially overexpressed during the prelaying period compared with the laying period. These results provide a solid foundation for elucidating the molecular mechanism of egg-laying performance in Sichuan white geese. PMID:26505414

  11. Transcriptome profiling of the hypothalamus during prelaying and laying periods in Sichuan white geese (Anser cygnoides).

    PubMed

    Gao, Guangliang; Li, Qin; Zhao, Xianzhi; Ding, Ning; Han, Qing; Su, Jian; Wang, Qigui

    2015-08-01

    The Sichuan White goose is a Chinese breed well known for the quality of its meat. However, reproductive performance in this goose is not ideal, and little information is available regarding the abundance of transcripts. To better understand the molecular mechanism(s) underpinning prelaying and laying periods in the Sichuan white goose, high-throughput RNA sequencing was performed to analyze the transcriptome in the hypothalamus. After sequencing and annotation, 26,921 unigenes were obtained, with 48 transcripts up-regulated in the prelaying period and 180 transcripts up-regulated during the laying period. These transcripts were primarily related to diseases, cancers, signaling molecules and interactions, the nervous system and the immune system. Eight transcripts were selected for further analyses with quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The qRT-PCR results were mostly consistent with those from the high-throughput RNA sequencing. Among these transcripts, serine/threonine-protein kinase (AMPK), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1) were differentially expressed during the prelaying and laying periods. The results of this study provide a useful resource for future studies examining the hypothalamus in geese. PMID:25601520

  12. Impact of Community-Based Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine Metabolic Syndrome Intervention Technology in Rural Residents in Southern Jiangsu, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuqing; Xie, Bo; Tao, Yanghong; Ma, Yonghua; Zhang, Kaijin

    2015-01-01

    Background To explore the feasibility and efficiency of community-based integrated traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine metabolic syndrome (MS) intervention in rural residents. Material/Methods The MS intervention was administered to 598 rural community residents aged 45 years and older in Zhoushi from 2011 to 2013. Subjects completed a health examination and health behavior questionnaire before and after the intervention. In the intervention, we designed a “healthy life self-help program” using TCM appropriate technologies for the subjects. Results After 2 years of intervention by means of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine, 57.0% (341 persons) of the subjects no longer suffered from MS. The recovery rate of BMI, blood pressure, FBG, TG, and HDL-C were 22.1%, 40.5%, 37.9%, 32.8%, and 62.4%, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in exercise, smoking, and alcohol drinking between baseline and 2 years later. Conclusions The integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine MS intervention was effective in deceasing most of the parameters of MS, especially blood pressure, and helping people to do more exercise. The program would be useful to implement in other similar populations. PMID:26210819

  13. Multiple sources for the origin of the early Cretaceous Xinxian granitic batholith and its tectonic implications for the western Dabie orogen, eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Xu, Zhaowen; Chen, Maohong; Yu, Yang

    2015-10-01

    This paper investigates the petrogenesis of the Xinxian granitic batholith and its tectonic implications for the Dabie orogen. Two Xinxian granites yield Early Cretaceous 238U/206Pb ages of 122.7 ± 1.3 Ma and 123.6 ± 2.2 Ma. The granites are metaluminous differentiated I-type granites, with A/NKC ranging from 0.90 to 0.96. The chondrite-normalised REE patterns display significant LREE/HREE enrichments with moderate negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu? = 0.30 ~ 0.85). The granites show enrichments in large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs, e.g. Rb, K, Th and U) and depletions in Sr, Ba and high field strength elements (HFSEs, e.g. Nb, Ta and Ti). Inherited zircons of different age (Neoproterozoic, one Early Proterozoic, one Archean and two Triassic inherited metamorphic zircons) are identified. The Early Cretaceous magmatic zircons contain enriched Hf isotopes with ? Hf (t) values ranging from -26.9 to -18.7 (average = -22.5), more enriched than their probable alleged source, i.e. the Dabie Complex, represented by the Neoproterozoic and Triassic inherited zircons. Thus, the Archean and Early Proterozoic crustal materials may represent an enriched end member source for the parental magma of the Xinxian granites. Provenance analysis of the magmatic zircons in the North China and Yangtze blocks demonstrates that the Early Proterozoic inherited zircon in Xinxian has North China affinity. Thus, we proposed a multiple-sourced petrogenetic model for the Xinxian granitic batholith, which suggests that the batholith was formed by the remelting of a mixed crustal assemblage, including the Archean and Early Proterozoic crust of the North China Block, the Neoproterozoic crust of the Yangtze Block, as well as some Triassic collision-related ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks.

  14. Taxonomic study of the genus Halolaguna Gozmány (Lepidoptera, Lecithoceridae) from China, with descriptions of two new species

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Kaijian; Liu, Shurong; Wang, Shuxia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Halolaguna Gozmány, 1978 is studied in China. Two new species, Halolaguna flabellata sp. n. from Guangxi and Halolaguna discoidea sp. n. from Chongqing, Guangxi and Sichuan are described. The female of Halolaguna guizhouensis Wu, 2012 is reported for the first time. Photographs of adults and genitalia are provided. A checklist of all known Halolaguna species is included, along with a key to the Chinese species. PMID:25589871

  15. Geodynamical Evolution and Tectonic Framework of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIU, Guangding

    In this paper, we show that the tectonic framework of mainland China consists of "three latitudinal strips", namely, Tianshan-Yinshan-Yanshan, Qinling-Dabie, and Nanling; "two longitudinal strips" namely, Daxing'anling Taihangshan Wulingshan, Helanshan-Longmenshan; and "two triangles", Songpan-Ganzi, and Chaidamu. The geodynamic evolution of China can be considered in five-stages, which can be summarised as a kind of "teeterboard-like" process. The evolutionary process is that in the Palaeozoic era, the China mainland had lower elevation in the west and higher in the east, with OrdosSichuan as an axis. After the Mesozoic era, because the blocks of Qiangtang, Gangdese, and India collided and sutured with the Tarim block. During this time closure of the Tethys ocean occurred, and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau formed. In the Cenozoic subduction of the Pacific plate northwestwards under the Philippine Sea began, and the Philippine Sea block converged towards the Eurasian plate. This was associated with extension and thinning of the crust in East China, which resulted in the uplift of the land in the west and subsidence in the east of China. Finally, we point out that research on the geodynamic evolution of the terranes is of practical significance in prospecting for mineral deposits and hydrocarbon resources.

  16. The emission density and trend of ammonia over China

    SciTech Connect

    Wen-Xing Wang; Xiao-Feng Lu; Yan-Bo Pang; Tao Wang

    1996-12-31

    Nationwide, province-based and gridded anthropogenic NH{sub 3} emissions in China have been made based on the number of livestock, poultry, fertilizer application, NH{sub 3} production and human beings. The total annual emissions have been calculated to be 89194.4 kt in 1991. In which livestock, fertilizer application, human beings, poultry and NH{sub 3} production account for 56.8%, 17.5%, 16.7% and 0.9% respectively. The gridded emission densities show that the high densities have appeared in the Middle Eastern China and Sichuan Basin. The average emission density over China is 0.9 t/km{sup 2} a in 1991. Which is just less than that of Europe (1.1 t/km{sup 2} a). The emission trends of NH{sub 3} have also been calculated from 1991 to 1992.

  17. Whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope systematics of the Late Carboniferous volcanic rocks of the Awulale metallogenic belt in the western Tianshan Mountains (NW China): Petrogenesis and geodynamical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Songsheng; Zhai, Mingguo; Safonova, Inna; Li, Dapeng; Zhu, Xiyan; Zuo, Pengfei; Shan, Houxiang

    2015-07-01

    The Awulale metallogenic belt (AMB) of the western Tianshan (NW China) includes Late Carboniferous (ca. 320 Ma) ore-bearing volcanic rocks of the Dahalajunshan Formation. The petrogenesis and tectonic setting of these volcanic rocks are important for the understanding of the tectonic evolution and metallogeny of the western Tianshan. This paper presents new major and trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data from the Dahalajunshan volcanic rocks, which are mainly calc-alkaline basaltic trachy-andesite and trachy-andesite with subordinate basalt, trachy-basalt and rhyolite. The variations of major and trace elements in the mafic and intermediate volcanic rocks indicate the fractionation of pyroxene and magnetite or hornblende, magnetite, apatite and plagioclase, respectively, during their petrogenesis. The Dahalajunshan volcanic rocks have similar primitive mantle-normalized diagrams and chondrite-normalized rare-earth element (REE) patterns suggesting their similar mantle source(s). They are characterized by enrichment in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and light REEs (LREEs), depletion in heavy REEs (LaN/YbN ? 2.80 to 9.59) and high field strength elements (HFSEs) and ?Nd(t) ranging from + 1.2 to + 6.0 at 86Sr/87Sr(t) = 0.7047-0.7063 and 206Pb/204Pbi = 17.49-18.19. Both the geochemical and isotopic data indicate that the volcanic rocks were probably derived by low-degree melting of sub-arc lithospheric mantle modified by fluids in a continental arc setting. Our obtained results, in conjunction with previous published data, allow us to suggest that the southward subduction of Junggar oceanic crust continued until the Late Carboniferous and was followed by a tectonic shift from continental arc to post-collisional extension environment.

  18. Impacts of the North India Ocean SST on the extremely cold winters of 2011 and 2012 in the region of Da Hinggan Mountains and its western areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tao; Han, Jingwei; Gao, Lian; Yan, Wei

    2014-08-01

    The study of the winter temperatures, averaged from the records of 11 observatories in the Da Hinggan Mountains and its western areas in China (DHM-WA), identified 11 extremely cold (? - 1.5 °C) and 13 extremely warm winters (? + 1.5 °C) during the past 60 years (1951-2010). The winters of 2011 and 2012 are another two extremely cold events. Aimed at exploring the climate causes, a comprehensive investigation is carried out on variations of some major atmospheric circulation components. Additionally, opposite circulation regimes are verified by examining the mean 500-hPa circulation patterns and sea level pressure (SLP) corresponding to 14 warm and 18 cold sea surface temperature (SST) phases over the North India Ocean (NIO) during the period of 1951-2010. Composite of an extremely cold winter usually includes a large and strong Siberian High, a deep East Asian trough to the west, an small and weak western Pacific Subtropical High to the east, a large North Polar vortex and a weakened westerly stream over Eurasia continent accompanied by a strong meridional winds from the polar region to lower latitude. Moreover, it has been found that a favorable circulation condition associated with the extremely cold winters to DHM-WA is mainly controlled by the SST over NIO in the previous warm season (June-September); This is primarily related to changes in the intensity of the Walker and Anti-Walker circulations, which subsequently influence the major circulation components and result in an extremely cold winter in DHM-WA.

  19. The Financial Impact of the ‘Zero-Markup Policy for Essential Drugs’ on Patients in County Hospitals in Western Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhongliang; Su, Yanfang; Campbell, Benjamin; Zhou, Zhiying; Gao, Jianmin; Yu, Qiang; Chen, Jiuhao; Pan, Yishan

    2015-01-01

    Objective With a quasi-experimental design, this study aims to assess whether the Zero-markup Policy for Essential Drugs (ZPED) reduces the medical expense for patients at county hospitals, the major healthcare provider in rural China. Methods Data from Ningshan county hospital and Zhenping county hospital, China, include 2014 outpatient records and 9239 inpatient records. Quantitative methods are employed to evaluate ZPED. Both hospital-data difference-in-differences and individual-data regressions are applied to analyze the data from inpatient and outpatient departments. Results In absolute terms, the total expense per visit reduced by 19.02 CNY (3.12 USD) for outpatient services and 399.6 CNY (65.60 USD) for inpatient services. In relative terms, the expense per visit was reduced by 11% for both outpatient and inpatient services. Due to the reduction of inpatient expense, the estimated reduction of outpatient visits is 2% among the general population and 3.39% among users of outpatient services. The drug expense per visit dropped by 27.20 CNY (4.47 USD) for outpatient services and 278.7 CNY (45.75 USD) for inpatient services. The proportion of drug expense out of total expense per visit dropped by 11.73 percentage points in outpatient visits and by 3.92 percentage points in inpatient visits. Conclusion Implementation of ZPED is a benefit for patients in both absolute and relative terms. The absolute monetary reduction of the per-visit inpatient expense is 20 times of that in outpatient care. According to cross-price elasticity, the substitution between inpatient and outpatient due to the change in inpatient price is small. Furthermore, given that the relative reductions are the same for outpatient and inpatient visits, according to relative thinking theory, the incentive to utilize outpatient or inpatient care attributed to ZPED is equivalent, regardless of the 20-times price difference in absolute terms. PMID:25790443

  20. Development potentials and policy options of biomass in China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to10(6) tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts' energy distribution also varies from province to province in China. Based on the analysis of the market scale and industry development, the article argues that China's biomass energy industry is still at a very early stage of development and that Feed-in Tariffs (FIT) might be the best policy option for China to promote its development of biomass energy. A successful enforcement of FIT in China needs some policy combination of special capital subsidies, R&D funding, tax incentives and pricing. PMID:20372892

  1. Schistosomiasis transmission and control in China.

    PubMed

    Zou, Lan; Ruan, Shigui

    2015-03-01

    In the last 60 years, great progress has been made in controlling and preventing schistosomiasis in China. However, due to the ecosystem changes caused by the construction of the Three Gorges Dams and the South-north Water Conversion Project, the effects of climate change, the scarcity of a highly sensitive surveillance and response system, schistosomiasis is still considered as a major public health problem and is listed among the top infectious diseases in the country prioritized for control and elimination. Based on the epidemiological pattern of schistosomiasis and ecological characteristics of the vector snail, endemic areas of schistosomiasis in China were categorized into three types: (i) plain region with waterway networks, (ii) mountainous and hilly regions, and (iii) marshland and lake regions. China aims to reach the criteria of transmission control threshold of less than 1% in the lake and marshland provinces and reach transmission interruption threshold in hilly provinces of Sichuan and Yunnan by the end of 2015. The purpose of this article is to use the deterministic model proposed in our earlier study in (Chen et al., 2010) to simulate the schistosomiasis infection data from other lake and marshland provinces, including Hunan, Jiangxi and Anhui. Our simulations demonstrate that the model can reasonably mimic the schistosomiasis infection data from these lake and marshland provinces. Thus, similar control and prevention measures can be designed and proposed for these provinces. We will also try to use the model to simulate the schistosomiasis infection data from Sichuan and Yunnan provinces in the mountainous and hilly regions where cattle farming is not as popular and important as in the lake and marshland provinces and find out that different control and prevention strategies are required. PMID:25559046

  2. Porphyry Cu-Au and associated polymetallic Fe-Cu-Au deposits in the Beiya Area, western Yunnan Province, south China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, X.-W.; Cai, X.-P.; Xiao, Q.-B.; Peters, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    The Alkaline porphyries in the Beiya area are located east of the Jinshajiang suture, as part of a Cenozoic alkali-rich porphyry belt in western Yunnan. The main rock types include quartz-albite porphyry, quartz-K-feldspar porphyry and biotite-K-feldspar porphyry. These porphyries are characterised by high alkalinity [(K2O + Na2O)% > 10%], high silica (SiO2% > 65%), high Sr (> 400??ppm) and 87Sr/86Sr (> 0.706)] ratio and were intruded at 65.5??Ma, between 25.5 to 32.5??Ma, and about 3.8??Ma, respectively. There are five main types of mineral deposits in the Beiya area: (1) porphyry Cu-Au deposits, (2) magmatic Fe-Au deposits, (3) sedimentary polymetallic deposits, (4) polymetallic skarn deposits, and (5) palaeoplacers associated with karsts. The porphyry Cu-Au and polymetallic skarn deposits are associated with quartz-albite porphyry bodies. The Fe-Au and polymetallic sedimentary deposits are part of an ore-forming system that produced considerable Au in the Beiya area, and are characterised by low concentrations of La, Ti, and Co, and high concentrations of Y, Yb, and Sc. The Cenozoic porphyries in western Yunnan display increased alkalinity away from the Triassic Jinshajiang suture. Distribution of both the porphyries and sedimentary deposits in the Beiya area are interpreted to be related to partial melting in a disjointed region between upper mantle lithosphere of the Yangtze Plate and Gondwana continent, and lie within a shear zone between buried Palaeo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere and upper mantle lithosphere, caused by the subduction and collision of India and Asia. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Two new species of the genus Platambus Thomson, 1859 from China (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Agabinae).

    PubMed

    Hendrich, Lars; Przewo?ny, Marek

    2015-01-01

    One new species of the genus Platambus Thomson, 1859 from Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province (P. brancuccii sp. n.) and one from Chengdu, Sichuan Province (P. korgei sp. n.) are described. They belong to the Platambus semenowi-group sensu Nilsson (2000). Important species characters (median lobes and colour patterns) of the two new species are figured, and notes on their distribution are given. Altogether seven species of the semenowi-group are now known from higher mountain regions in Central Asia, northern India, Nepal, Bhutan, Pakistan and China. Six of them are illustrated with habitus photos and a modified key to all species of the semenowi-group is presented. PMID:25947729

  4. Strong ground motion prediction for southwestern China from small earthquake records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Z. R.; Tao, X. X.; Cui, A. P.

    2015-09-01

    For regions lack of strong ground motion records, a method is developed to predict strong ground motion by small earthquake records from local broadband digital earthquake networks. Sichuan and Yunnan regions, located in southwestern China, are selected as the targets. Five regional source and crustal medium parameters are inversed by micro-Genetic Algorithm. These parameters are adopted to predict strong ground motion for moment magnitude (Mw) 5.0, 6.0 and 7.0. Strong ground motion data are compared with the results, most of the result pass through ideally the data point plexus, except the case of Mw 7.0 in Sichuan region, which shows an obvious slow attenuation. For further application, this result is adopted in probability seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) and near-field strong ground motion synthesis of the Wenchuan Earthquake.

  5. Impact of micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on birth weight, duration of gestation, and perinatal mortality in rural western China: double blind cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of antenatal supplementation with multiple micronutrients or iron and folic acid compared with folic acid alone on birth weight, duration of gestation, and maternal haemoglobin concentration in the third trimester. Design Cluster randomised double blind controlled trial. Setting Two rural counties in north west China. Participants 5828 pregnant women and 4697 live births. Interventions Villages were randomised for all pregnant women to take either daily folic acid (control), iron with folic acid, or multiple micronutrients with a recommended allowance of 15 vitamins and minerals. Main outcome measures Birth weight, length, and head circumference measured within 72 hours after delivery. Neonatal survival assessed at the six week follow-up visit. Results Birth weight was 42 g (95% confidence interval 7 to 78 g) higher in the multiple micronutrients group compared with the folic acid group. Duration of gestation was 0.23 weeks (0.10 to 0.36 weeks) longer in the iron-folic acid group and 0.19 weeks (0.06 to 0.32 weeks) longer in the multiple micronutrients group. Iron-folic acid was associated with a significantly reduced risk of early preterm delivery (<34 weeks) (relative risk 0.50, 0.27 to 0.94, P=0.031). There was a significant increase in haemoglobin concentration in both iron-folic acid (5.0 g/l, 2.0 to 8.0 g/l, P=0.001) and multiple micronutrients (6.9 g/l, 4.1 to 9.6 g/l, P<0.001) groups compared with folic acid alone. In post hoc analyses there were no significant differences for perinatal mortality, but iron-folic acid was associated with a significantly reduced early neonatal mortality by 54% (relative risk 0.46, 0.21 to 0.98). Conclusion In rural populations in China antenatal supplementation with iron-folic acid was associated with longer gestation and a reduction in early neonatal mortality compared with folic acid. Multiple micronutrients were associated with modestly increased birth weight compared with folic acid, but, despite this weight gain, there was no significant reduction in early neonatal mortality. Pregnant women in developing countries need sufficient doses of iron in nutrient supplements to maximise reductions in neonatal mortality. Trial registration ISRCTN08850194. PMID:18996930

  6. Late Carboniferous high ?Nd(t)-?Hf(t) granitoids, enclaves and dikes in western Junggar, NW China: Ridge-subduction-related magmatism and crustal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Gong-Jian; Wang, Qiang; Wyman, Derek A.; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Zhao, Zhen-Hua; Yang, Yue-Heng

    2012-05-01

    We report results of petrologic, geochronological and geochemical investigation of the Late Carboniferous diorites, granodiorites, amphibole (Am)-bearing granites, and associated dioritic and monzonitic enclaves and mafic and granitic dikes in the Keramay area, of the western Junggar region of Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Zircon U-Pb dating suggests that they were generated in the Late Carboniferous (316-304 Ma). The diorite and granodiorite compositions extend over a wide range of SiO2 (53-70 wt.%), Sr (240-602 ppm), and Mg# (41-58) values, and are characterized by moderately fractionated rare earth element (REE) patterns, Nb-Ta depletion and relatively low Y and Yb contents. The mafic dikes consist of dolerites, diorite porphyries and minor granodiorite porphyries, and have variable SiO2 (51-59 wt.%) and high Mg#, Cr and Ni values. With the exception of two samples with relatively high heavy REE (HREE) contents, the mafic dikes exhibit trace element characteristics similar to diorites and granodiorites. The Am-bearing granites and a granite porphyry dike sample have high levels of SiO2 (73-77 wt.%), HREEs (e.g., Yb = 3.46-15.7 ppm) and low Mg#, Cr and Ni contents, along with clearly negative Eu, Ba and Sr anomalies, similar to typical A-type granites. All granitoids, enclaves and dikes in this region have high positive ?Nd(t) (+ 7.13 to + 9.74) and zircon ?Hf(t) (+ 10 to + 16) values and moderate initial 87Sr/87Sr ratios (0.7004-0.7049). Mineral composition data suggest that the parental magmas for mafic dikes are similar to Cenozoic sanukitoids in the Setouchi arc area (Japan) and were possibly generated under water-rich and high oxygen fugacity (NNO + 1.5 to NNO + 2.7) conditions. They most likely originated from partial melting of a mantle source variably modified by subducted oceanic crust-derived melts and minor fluids and subsequently underwent fractional crystallization. The diorites and granodiorites were possibly generated by magma mixing between enriched lithospheric mantle and juvenile lower crust-derived magmas coupled with minor crystal fractionation. The Am-bearing granites and granite porphyry dike were produced by partial melting of juvenile crustal materials at shallow crustal levels. Taking into account widespread contemporaneous magmatism including "MORB-type" basalts and slab-derived adakites in western Junggar, we suggest that the Keramay intrusive rocks were generated in a special arc setting related to ridge subduction and resultant slab window, which played an important role in the crustal growth of the CAOB.

  7. A 15,400-year record of climate variation from a subalpine lacustrine sedimentary sequence in the western Nanling Mountains in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wei; Cao, Jiayuan; Xue, Jibin; Ouyang, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Multi-proxy records of a subalpine lacustrine sequence in Daping Swamp in the western Nanling Mountains provide evidence for exploring climate variability in the past 15,400 yr. Two dry and cool (15,400-14,500 and 13,000-11,000 cal yr BP) and one humid and warm interval (14,500-13,200 cal yr BP), which we correlate to Heinrich Event 1, the Younger Dryas and the Bølling-Allerød event respectively, are revealed. The early Holocene climate (11,000-8000 cal yr BP) was characterized by less humid and warm conditions, suggesting a weaker Asian summer monsoon (ASM) intensity. Our findings indicate that the Holocene optimum occurred between 8000 and 4500 cal yr BP, and the most intensified ASM appears from 8000 to 7000 cal yr BP. After 4500 cal yr BP, climate shifted to relatively cool and dry conditions. We speculate that five short dry and cool events centered at ~ 11,000, 9000, 8400, 6000, and 3500 cal yr BP were linked to the Holocene ice-rafting events detected in the North Atlantic. Migration of the ITCZ, and the oceanic-atmospheric circulations, particularly SST changes in the tropical Pacific may play a pivotal role in climate variation of the study region.

  8. A brief statistical analysis of stomatology papers published in international journals by researchers from the mainland of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-hua; Pan, Yun-tao; Hong, Xiao

    2011-01-01

    This paper has briefly analyzed the publication status of Chinese stomatology papers in 2009 with statistics from Journal Citation Reports® provided by Thomson Scientific. Only those papers with the first author coming from the mainland of China were included for calculations. We have found a significant increase in the number of SCIE-indexed papers, most of which were published by six dental institutions in China. Among all Chinese medical institutions, West China School of Stomatology Sichuan University is the first dental institution to enter the top-20 list with the most publications, and it also ranks the 9th in the number of outstanding articles. West China School of Stomatology Sichuan University and the Forth Military Medical University are the only two dental institutions in China which have published SCIE-indexed papers over a hundred. The former has published the most SCIE-indexed stomatology papers, while the latter has the highest average impact factor. As the laboratories and funds in China have close connections with various dental hospitals, the pratice of translational medicine in dentistry is fast and fluent. PMID:21449209

  9. Western Skink

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Western skink (Plestiodon skiltonianus) is a relatively common and widespread lizard in Southern California. It is more secretive and prefers more grassy habitat than the Western fence lizard or the side-blotched lizard, yet USGS and National Park Service biologists are finding signs of genetic ...

  10. A modeling study of the effects of river runoff, tides, and surface wind-wave mixing on the Eastern and Western Hainan upwelling systems of the South China Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Daoru; Yang, Yi; Wang, Jia; Bai, Xuezhi

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates the variation of eastern Hainan (or Qiongdong) and western Hainan upwelling systems during the East Asia summer monsoon (EASM) season using a state-of-the-art finite-volume coastal model and reveals the impacts of tidal mixing, surface wind-wave mixing, and river runoff on the Hainan upwellings in terms of the spatial and temporal variations, intensification, and vertical structure. It is found that (1) river runoff, a stabilizer of the water column, suppresses the upwelling beneath it from reaching the surface, although strong upwelling still occurs in the lower layer of the water column; (2) tidal mixing, a mechanism of forming bottom mixed layer, promotes upwelling, leading to strengthening of the upwelling; (3) surface wind-wave mixing, a major mechanism for formation of the upper mixed layer and a sharp thermocline, inhibits the upwelling from crossing the thermocline to reach the surface; and (4) unlike the east coast upwelling, the upwelling on the west coast is tidally induced.

  11. Geology, geochronology, and geochemistry of the Yinachang Fe-Cu-Au-REE deposit of the Kangdian region of SW China: Evidence for a Paleo-Mesoproterozoic tectono-magmatic event and associated IOCG systems in the western Yangtze Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lin; Ding, Jun; Deng, Jun; Peng, Hui-juan

    2015-05-01

    Numerous Fe-Cu-Au-rare earth element (REE) deposits have been identified within the Paleoproterozoic Dongchuan Group of the Kangdian region of SW China. This region hosts the Yinachang deposit, which contains more than 16.8 Mt Fe, 682.6 kt Cu, and significant amounts of Au and the REEs. Both the Haizi dolerite and a magmatic breccia in the central part of the Kangdian region are thought to be related to the Dongchuan dolerite in the northern part of this region; all three of these units provide evidence of the tectono-magmatic history of the Kunyang Rift and are closely spatially and temporally related to Fe-Cu-Au-REE mineralization in this region. Here, we present a new zircon U-Pb age for the Haizi dolerite (1764.7 ± 5.7 Ma), which is consistent with the known age of the Dongchuan dolerite (1765 ± 57 Ma), allowing the determination of the precise timing of Paleo-Mesoproterozoic intraplate mafic magmatism in this region (1.72-1.77 Ga). The breccia in this region formed during magmatism at around 1.73-1.74 Ga, as documented by zircon U-Pb dating of matrix material within the Yinachang magmatic breccia (1739 ± 13 Ma). The geochemistry of Haizi and Dongchuan dolerite samples provides evidence of intraplate extension in the Kangdian region, the majority of which was concentrated along the Kunyang Rift. The Kangdian region underwent variable degrees of extension, as evidenced by the fact that break-up in the central part of this region occurred earlier than in the north. This also led to the emplacement of deeper-sourced alkaline magmas (usually OIB-type magmas) in the central part of this region. The iron-oxide copper gold (IOCG) mineralization in the Kangdian region is associated with the upwelling of mantle material. A chalcopyrite Re-Os age of 1648 ± 14 Ma from the Yinachang Fe-Cu-Au-REE deposit obtained during this study is some 50-100 Myr younger than the timing of emplacement of the deeply sourced Haizi and Dongchuan dolerites. The Yinachang deposit is a typical IOCG-type deposit, and the presence of this and other deposits in the Kangdian region indicates that this region hosts an intraplate extension-related IOCG system within the western edge of the Yangtze Block, China.

  12. Elevation-dependent variations of tree growth and intrinsic water-use efficiency in Schrenk spruce (Picea schrenkiana) in the western Tianshan Mountains, China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guoju; Liu, Xiaohong; Chen, Tuo; Xu, Guobao; Wang, Wenzhi; Zeng, Xiaomin; Zhang, Xuanwen

    2015-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration (Ca) is expected to accelerate tree growth by enhancing photosynthesis and increasing intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE). However, the extent of this effect on long-term iWUE and its interactions with climate remains unclear in trees along an elevation gradient. Therefore, we investigated the variation in the radial growth and iWUE of mature Picea schrenkiana trees located in the upper tree-line (A1: 2700 m a.s.l.), middle elevation (A2: 2400 m a.s.l.), and lower forest limit (A3: 2200 m a.s.l.), in relation to the rising Ca and changing climate in the Wusun Mountains of northwestern China, based on the basal area increment (BAI) and tree-ring ?13C chronologies from 1960 to 2010. We used the CRU TS3.22 dataset to analyze the general response of tree growth to interannual variability of regional climate, and found that BAI and ?13C are less sensitive to climate at A1 than at A2 and A3. The temporal trends of iWUE were calculated under three theoretical scenarios, as a baseline for interpreting the observed gas exchange at increasing Ca. We found that iWUE increased by 12–32% from A1 to A3 over the last 50 years, and showed an elevation-dependent variation in physiological response. The significant negative relationship between BAI and iWUE at A2 and A3 showed that tree growth has been decreasing despite long-term increases in iWUE. However, BAI remained largely stable throughout the study period despite the strongest iWUE increase [at constant intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) before 1980] at A1. Our results indicate a drought-induced limitation of tree growth response to rising CO2 at lower elevations, and no apparent change in tree growth and diminished iWUE improvement since 1980 in the upper tree-line. This study may contradict the expectation that combined effects of elevated Ca and rising temperatures have increased forest productivity, especially in high-elevation forests. PMID:25999973

  13. Medical Education in Peoples's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, John A. D.; Yingang, Lin

    1987-01-01

    The three types of physicians trained in the People's Republic of China (practitioners in Chinese medicine, traditional Mongolian medicine, and western-style medicine) and the design of the medical schools and programs are discussed. (MSE)

  14. Innovation and Development of Foreign Language Teaching in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zheng-dong

    2006-01-01

    Foreign language teaching has been playing a dominant role in China's curriculum reform, especially in the present globalization of Chinese society and economy. However, the insufficient research into foreign language teaching and blindly adopting western theory demand China learn from its own experience and also develop western foreign language…

  15. The millipede genus Riukiaria Attems, 1938 in continental China, with descriptions of new species (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae).

    PubMed

    Golovatch, S I

    2014-01-01

    Fresh collections of Diplopoda from China contain five new species of the large, East Asian, warm temperate to subtropical genus Riukiaria: R. martensi sp. nov., from Shaanxi Province, as well as R. belousovi sp. nov., R. kabaki sp. nov., R. korolevi sp. nov. and R. davidiani sp. nov. from Sichuan Province. A key is given to all eight Riukiaria species currently known to occur in mainland China, including R. tianmu (Tanabe, Ishii & Yin, 1996), comb. nov. ex Sinoria Tanabe, Ishii & Yin, 1996, the latter genus a new junior subjective synonym of Riukiaria, syn. nov. PMID:24870160

  16. Long-term change of wet and dry climatic conditions in the southwest karst area of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bingjun; Chen, Cuiliu; Lian, Yanqing; Chen, Junfan; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-04-01

    Using the daily precipitation and temperature data at 153 stations in the karst area of Southwest China from 1959 to 2009, the long-term change characteristics of wet and dry climatic conditions are analyzed by the Mann-Kendall test. This study shows that: 1) the annual average temperature has increased at 88% of the stations with an average rate of + 0.16 °C/10-year. This increase rate is greater than + 0.30 °C/10-year in the southeastern, northeastern, and western parts of the study region. Very warm days and abnormally warm days were seen increased at 47% and 63% of the stations, respectively. Very cool days and abnormally cool days in a year have reduced at respectively 94% and 95% of the stations; 2) no clear change trend was found for average annual precipitation over the entire area as a whole, but regional and seasonal changes were quite obvious. The annual total precipitation has decreased by - 22.5 mm/10-year in the central part but increased by + 8.9 mm/10-year in the western part of the region, and summer and winter seemed to become wetter while spring and autumn became drier. Although the number of rainy days in a year has decreased at almost 53% of the total stations with an average rate of - 3.9 days/10-year over the entire area, the number of extremely heavy rainy days has increased by + 0.2, + 0.4 and + 0.4 days/10-year in the southern Sichuan Province, the central part of Yunnan Province, and the northeastern Hubei Province, respectively; and 3) the extreme drought became more serious. The consecutive dry days has increased significantly at nearly 46% of the stations, especially in the western Guangxi Autonomous Region, the southern Guizhou Province, and the eastern Chongqing Municipality. The extreme drought remained at a high frequency at the beginning of the 21st century. It has shifted gradually from the eastern and western parts to the south-central part which is characterized by medium-high rocky desertification. Hopefully findings from this study will help for a better understanding of the impacts to some eminent geological hazards such as rocky desertification, increased frequency of drought and storms, and landslides in recent years.

  17. Introduction to special section: China shale gas and shale oil plays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, Shu; Zeng, Hongliu; Zhang, Jinchuan; Fishman, Neil; Bai, Baojun; Xiao, Xianming; Zhang, Tongwei; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Li, Xinjing; Richards-McClung, Bryony; Cai, Dongsheng; Ma, Yongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Even though China shale gas and shale oil exploration is still in an early stage, limited data are already available. We are pleased to have selected eight high-quality papers from fifteen submitted manuscripts for this timely section on the topic of China shale gas and shale oil plays. These selected papers discuss various subject areas including regional geology, resource potentials, integrated and multidisciplinary characterization of China shale reservoirs (geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and petrophysics) China shale property measurement using new techniques, case studies for marine, lacustrine, and transitional shale deposits in China, and hydraulic fracturing. One paper summarizes the regional geology and different tectonic and depositional settings of the major prospective shale oil and gas plays in China. Four papers concentrate on the geology, geochemistry, reservoir characterization, lithologic heterogeneity, and sweet spot identification in the Silurian Longmaxi marine shale in the Sichuan Basin in southwest China, which is currently the primary focus of shale gas exploration in China. One paper discusses the Ordovician Salgan Shale in the Tarim Basin in northwest China, and two papers focus on the reservoir characterization and hydraulic fracturing of Triassic lacustrine shale in the Ordos Basin in northern China. Each paper discusses a specific area.

  18. Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder in temporary settlement residents 1 year after the Sichuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Ma, Ning; Yang, Lei; Agho, Kingsley; Stevens, Garry; Raphael, Beverley; Cui, Lijun; Liu, Yongqiao; Yan, Baoping; Ma, Hong; Yu, Xin

    2015-03-01

    The authors sought to determine the prevalence and risk factors for major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among survivors living in temporary accommodation in the Yongxing settlement in Mianyang city 1 year after the Sichuan earthquake for further interventions. They interviewed 182 residents, using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and a self-report questionnaire. The 12-month prevalence of depressive disorder and PTSD were 48.9% and 39.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that bereaved survivors were 5.51 times (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 5.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.14-14.22) more likely to report PTSD and 2.42 times (AOR = 2.42; 95%CI =1.00-5.48) more likely to report depressive disorder than nonbereaved survivors. Older age and receipt of government financial support were significantly associated with 12-month PTSD. Depressive disorder 12 months after the earthquake was associated with receipt of government financial support, pre-earthquake physical illness, single marital status, being currently employed, and Han ethnicity. PMID:23666829

  19. Statistical study of plasma density and temperature variations applied to the Great Sichuan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, T.; Berthelier, J.-J.

    2012-04-01

    We report initial results from a detailed statistical study of the ion density and temperature variations and electrostatic turbulence occurrence observed by the DEMETER satellite over the Sichuan region during a period of 20 days encompassing the large earthquake of magnitude M=7.9 that occurred on May 12, 2008. This work was performed using an improved statistical method to analyze the whole set of data that was developed to help detecting possible earthquake precursors among larger irregular disturbances arising from the natural variability of the ionosphere. This method makes use of "reference zones" displaced respectively eastward and westward from the "epicentre zone" in order to recognize ionospheric variations that mainly result from magnetospheric activity and are present over a wider range of longitudes while plasma disturbances possibly induced by earthquakes in preparation maximize close to the "epicentre" zone. We have also used recently produced sector magnetic activity indices which allow to infer the longitudinal dependence of the magnetospheric processes. The initial outcomes of this study on plasma disturbances will be presented in the poster and compared with the previous conclusions inferred from a study of the electrostatic turbulence alone.

  20. Effects of healing on the seismogenic potential of carbonate fault rocks: Experiments on samples from the Longmenshan Fault, Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianye; Verberne, Berend A.; Spiers, Christopher J.

    2015-08-01

    Fault slip and healing history may crucially affect the fault seismogenic potential in the earthquake nucleation regime. Here we report direct shear friction tests on simulated gouges derived from a carbonate fault breccia, and from a clay/carbonate fault-core gouge, retrieved from a surface exposure of the Longmenshan Fault Zone (LFZ) which hosted the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The experiments were conducted under dry and hydrothermal conditions, at temperatures up to 140°C, at an effective normal stress of 50 MPa, and involved sequential velocity-stepping (VS), slide-hold-slide (SHS), and velocity-stepping stages. Dry tests performed on breccia-derived samples showed no dependence of (quasi) steady state friction (?ss) on SHS or VS history, and a log linear relation between transient peak healing (??pk) and hold time, or classical "Dieterich-type" healing behavior. By contrast, all experiments conducted under hydrothermal conditions were characterized by "non-Dieterich" healing behavior. This included (1) an increase in ?ss upon resliding after a hold period and (2) an increase in friction rate parameter (a - b), after SHS testing. Comparison with previous results suggests that the healing behavior seen in our wet tests may be attributed to solution transfer processes occurring during hold periods. Our findings imply that the shallow portions of faults with carbonate/clay-rich cores (e.g., the LFZ) can heal much faster than previously recognized, while the upper limit of the seismogenic zone may migrate to deeper levels during interseismic periods. These effects have important implications for understanding the seismic cycle in tectonically active carbonate terrains.

  1. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles A New Frog of the Genus Oreolalax (Pelobatidae) from Sichuan, China

    E-print Network

    Shaffer, H. Bradley

    Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles A New Frog of the Genus Oreolalax (Pelobatidae of Amphibians and Reptiles Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1564828 Accessed: 31/08/2010 18:58 Your use of Amphibians and Reptiles is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Journal

  2. Controlling processes in a CaCO 3 precipitating stream in Huanglong Natural Scenic District, Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, G.; Zheng, C.; Donahoe, R. J.; Berry Lyons, W.

    2000-04-01

    Huanglong Scenic District is well known for its unusual and diversified landforms such as travertine pools, travertine falls and travertine flows. These landforms, resulting from high-altitude surface cold-water CaCO 3 precipitation, were chosen by UNESCO in 1994 as an entry in The World's Nature Heritage. Huanglong is a pristine region where there are limited human activities. Water analyses and thin section (glass slide) precipitation experiments were conducted to determine the aqueous processes controlling CaCO 3 precipitation and travertine landform formation. Results from the travertine flow indicate that the concentrations of HCO 3-, Ca +2, and H + decrease regularly along the flow paths. Chemical equilibrium modeling results demonstrate the importance of CO 2 out-gassing and CaCO 3 precipitation processes. CO 2 out-gassing and CaCO 3 precipitation increase with increasing flow velocities. In the pool area, varying hydrodynamics are the primary factors which determine the extent of processes such as advection and diffusion, and hence also control CaCO 3 precipitation and CO 2 out-gassing. When the pool water circulation is very slow, the pH of water flowing over the travertine dams increases significantly (approximately 0.15 pH units) downstream. When the circulation is relatively fast, the pH of stream water initially decreases followed by an increase of approximately 0.21 pH units as it flows past the travertine pool dams. In both cases, the pH rise is caused by sudden changes in the hydrodynamics of the pools, despite the different initial flow conditions. Pool development is a consequence of spatial variations in pH which provide different conditions for CaCO 3 precipitation inside the travertine dam, where less precipitation or even dissolution occurs, compared to conditions at the top and downstream side of the dams. Precipitation experiments demonstrate that the top and downstream side of travertine dams are the locations of the most active precipitation, particularly for pools having faster circulation. Precipitation experiments also reveal that vaterite, a rare polymorph of CaCO 3, co-precipitates with calcite in milky opalescent water near the upstream input portion of the pool groups. Thin sections covered by algae at the bottom of pools have 40% less CaCO 3 precipitation than those not covered by algae. SEM photographs of the surface of natural travertine deposits show that biofilms with diatom minimize CaCO 3 precipitation and that diatom-adhered calcite surfaces show signs of etching, suggesting that calcite dissolution may be aided by diatoms.

  3. Attitudes of Young People in China to Family Formation. A Study in Urban and Rural Areas in Beijing and Sichuan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zhi Yi

    The attitudes of young Chinese people toward family formation are examined giving insights to the varying attitudes of young men and women according to rural or urban setting, educational levels, types of employment, economic status, and proximity to centers of economic and social development. Information is also provided on population policies…

  4. Forest Structure, Stand Composition, and Climate-Growth Response in Montane Forests of Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Mark W.; Dolanc, Christopher R.; Gao, Hui; Strauss, Sharon Y.; Schwartz, Ari C.; Williams, John N.; Tang, Ya

    2013-01-01

    Montane forests of western China provide an opportunity to establish baseline studies for climate change. The region is being impacted by climate change, air pollution, and significant human impacts from tourism. We analyzed forest stand structure and climate-growth relationships from Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve in northwestern Sichuan province, along the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We conducted a survey to characterize forest stand diversity and structure in plots occurring between 2050 and 3350 m in elevation. We also evaluated seedling and sapling recruitment and tree-ring data from four conifer species to assess: 1) whether the forest appears in transition toward increased hardwood composition; 2) if conifers appear stressed by recent climate change relative to hardwoods; and 3) how growth of four dominant species responds to recent climate. Our study is complicated by clear evidence of 20th century timber extraction. Focusing on regions lacking evidence of logging, we found a diverse suite of conifers (Pinus, Abies, Juniperus, Picea, and Larix) strongly dominate the forest overstory. We found population size structures for most conifer tree species to be consistent with self-replacement and not providing evidence of shifting composition toward hardwoods. Climate-growth analyses indicate increased growth with cool temperatures in summer and fall. Warmer temperatures during the growing season could negatively impact conifer growth, indicating possible seasonal climate water deficit as a constraint on growth. In contrast, however, we found little relationship to seasonal precipitation. Projected warming does not yet have a discernible signal on trends in tree growth rates, but slower growth with warmer growing season climates suggests reduced potential future forest growth. PMID:23951188

  5. Two novel reassortants of avian influenza A (H5N6) virus in China.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yuhai; Mei, Kun; Shi, Weifeng; Liu, Di; Yu, Xiaolan; Gao, Zhimin; Zhao, Lihua; Gao, George F; Chen, Jianjun; Chen, Quanjiao

    2015-05-01

    Eight avian influenza A (H5N6) viruses were isolated from live poultry markets (LPMs) in Sichuan and Jiangxi Provinces in China in 2014, including those close to the county where the human H5N6 infection occurred. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that these H5N6 viruses were novel reassortants between H5N1 clade 2.3.4 and H6N6 viruses, and had evolved into two distinct lineages (Sichuan and Jiangxi). Moreover, the human H5N6 virus was closely related to the avian-source viruses of Sichuan lineage. Notably, H5N6 viruses contained a T160A substitution in the haemagglutinin protein and an 11 aa deletion in the neuraminidase stalk, which may aid in enhancing viral affinity for human-like receptors and virulence in mammals. As the H5N1 virus infects humans through direct contact, infection with the novel H5N6 virus raised significant concerns that the H5 subtype was a likely candidate for a pandemic. Therefore, extensive and long-term surveillance of avian influenza viruses in LPMs is essential. PMID:25604926

  6. Flooding in Central China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, frequent, heavy rains gave rise to floods and landslides throughout China that have killed over 1,000 people and affected millions. This false-color image of the western Yangtze River and Dongting Lake in central China was acquired on August 21, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. (right) The latest flooding crisis in China centers on Dingtong Lake in the center of the image. Heavy rains have caused it to swell over its banks and swamp lakefront towns in the province of Hunan. As of August 23, 2002, more than 250,000 people have been evacuated, and over one million people have been brought in to fortify the dikes around the lake. Normally the lake would appear much smaller and more defined in the MODIS image. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

  7. On the Phase Relations between the Western North Pacific, Indian, and Australian Monsoons*

    E-print Network

    Li, Tim

    On the Phase Relations between the Western North Pacific, Indian, and Australian Monsoons* DEJUN GU Guangzhou Institute of Tropical and Marine Meteorology, and Key Open Laboratory for Tropical Monsoon, China Laboratory for Tropical Monsoon, China Meteorological Administration, Guangzhou, China (Manuscript received

  8. Local and inter-regional contributions to PM2.5 nitrate and sulfate in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Qi; Wu, Li; Zhang, Hongliang

    2014-09-01

    Emissions of NOx, SO2 and primary nitrate and sulfate from seven regions in China (North, Northeast, East, Central, South, Southwest and Northwest) were separately tracked in a source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to quantify the local and inter-regional contributions to PM2.5 nitrate and sulfate concentrations in different cities and provinces. In January, high concentrations of nitrate (?30 ?g m-3) occurred in the North China Plain (NCP) and the Middle and Lower Yangtze Plain (MLYP), as well as the Sichuan Basin. NOx emissions from North, Central and East China were transported over long distances to form rather uniform concentration of nitrate in the NCP and MLYP regions and significantly impacted nitrate concentrations in downwind regions as far as the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in South China. Wintertime sulfate concentrations demonstrated a more significant inter-regional southward transport pattern and wider spatial distributions than nitrate. The top-five ranked provinces with combined nitrate and sulfate concentrations (Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Anhui and Hunan) were all affected by emissions from the North, Central and East China, in addition to their local region emissions. In August, slower northerly and northeasterly wind reduced inter-regional transport. Nitrate and sulfate concentrations peaked in North China as dilution was more severely restricted by mountain ranges further north. Three of the top five high concentration provinces (Tianjin, Hebei and Beijing) were located in North China and had more than 55% of local region contributions. Emissions from North China accounted for ?20% in the remaining two provinces (Shandong in East China and Henan in Central China). In addition to emissions from North China, ?30% or more of the nitrate and sulfate concentrations in four of the top five high concentration provinces (Tianjin, Henan, Hebei and Shandong) were due to emissions from East China. Time series of daily regional contributions in three megacities (Beijing, Shanghai and Chongqing) and a large city cluster (PRD) also indicated stronger and more frequent inter-regional transport in winter than in summer. Although the cities were mostly affected by local region emissions, influences of long range transport were especially obvious for sulfate concentration in the PRD region in winter, where emissions from North, East and Central China often accounted for more than 80% of the total concentrations. The results from this study suggest that provincial or region-level emission controls alone may not be sufficient to effectively reduce nitrate and sulfate concentrations in many areas and coordinated local and inter-regional emission control strategies are necessary for the country.

  9. A Simulation of the Aerosol Optical Depth over China in 2006 and Its Validation with Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua

    By taking the updated emission source of Streets2006 and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis meteorolog-ical field as the input data, MATCH (Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry) is used in this paper to simulate the aerosol optical depth (AOD) over China in 2006 for the major types of aerosol, including sulfate, dust, organic carbon, black carbon and sea salt. The simulation shows that the areas with higher AOD values are mainly located in Sichuan Basin, East and South China, while areas with lower AOD values are mainly located in Tibetan Plateau, Northwest and Northeast China. The simulation results are then validated with CSHNET (Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network), MOD08M 3, andAERON ET (observationaldataandsunphotometernetwork), respect 0.0001).ItdemonstratesthatM AT CHhastheabilitytosimulateAODinChinawell.KeywordsM AT CH, aer

  10. Pension Reform in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes China's pension arrangement and notes that China has recently established a universal non-contributory pension plan covering urban non-employed workers and all rural residents, combined with the pension plan covering urban employees already in place. Further, in the latest reform, China has discontinued the special pension plan for civil servants and integrated this privileged welfare class into the urban old-age pension insurance program. With these steps, China has achieved a degree of universalism and integration of its pension arrangement unprecedented in the non-Western world. Despite this radical pension transformation strategy, we argue that the current Chinese pension arrangement represents a case of "incomplete" universalism. First, its benefit level is low. Moreover, the benefit level varies from region to region. Finally, universalism in rural China has been undermined due to the existence of the "policy bundle." Additionally, we argue that the 2015 pension reform has created a situation in which the stratification of Chinese pension arrangements has been "flattened," even though it remains stratified to some extent. PMID:26549002

  11. Organochlorine pesticide residues in surface water from Sichuan Basin to Aba Prefecture profile, east of the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongxia; Hu, Ying; Qi, Shihua; Xing, Xinli; Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Dan; Qu, Chengkai

    2015-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) found in rivers from the Sichuan Basin to Aba Prefecture profile were analyzed to assess possible health risks to adults and children who use the river as a source of drinking water. OCP concentrations in surface water ranged between 22.29-274.28 ng·L-1. Compared with other published data around the world, OCP levels in this study were moderate. Among all OCPs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the predominant compounds. Higher concentrations of OCPs were attributed close to the agricultural fields of the Sichuan Basin, current OCPs inputs, and long-range atmospheric transport from abroad. Various spatial patterns of OCPs in the profile might be affected by the usage and physicochemical properties of the pesticides, in addition to the adjacent geographical environment. The health risk assessment indicated that most OCPs had little impact on human health according to the acceptable risk level for carcinogens (10-6) recommended by the US EPA. However, carcinogenic effects caused by heptachlor, Aldrin, HCB, and ?-HCH might occur in drinking water. The risk of negative impacts caused by OCPs is much higher for children than for adults.

  12. Simulations of water resource changes in eastern and central China in the past 130 years by a regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yiqun; Long, Tingting; Zeng, Xinmin; Qiang, Xuemin

    2011-10-01

    Anthropogenic influences on regional climate and water resources over East Asia are simulated by using a regional model nested to a global model. The changes of land use/land cover (LULC) and CO2 concentration are considered. The results show that variations of LULC and CO2 concentration during the past 130 years caused a warming trend in many regions of East Asia. The most remarkable temperature increase occurred in Inner Mongolia, Northeast and North China, whereas temperature decreased in Gansu Province and north of Sichuan Province. LULC and CO2 changes over the past 130 years resulted in a decreasing trend of precipitation in the Huaihe River valley, Shandong Byland, and Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, but precipitation increased along the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, the middle reaches of the Yellow River, and parts of South China. This pattern of precipitation change with changes in surface evapotranspiration may have caused a more severe drought in the lower reaches of the Yellow River and the Huaihe River valley. The drought trend, however, weakened in the mid and upper reaches of the Yellow River valley, and the Yangtze River valley floods were increasing. In addition, changes in LULC and CO2 concentration during the past 130 years led to adjustments in the East Asian monsoon circulation, which further affected water vapor transport and budget, making North China warm and dry, the Sichuan basin cold and wet, and East China warm and wet.

  13. Westlaw China Westlaw China English Database

    E-print Network

    Po, Lai-Man

    Westlaw China User Guide #12;Westlaw China English Database Signing on to Westlaw China............................................................................................................................................................... 2 Cross-Database Search ................................................................................................................................................................. 14 CONTENTS #12;1Westlaw China User Guide 1 Westlaw China User Guide (English Database) Signing

  14. Segmentation and millennium recurrence interval of morphogenic earthquakes of the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt, central China (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, A.

    2013-12-01

    The magnitude (Mw) 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake occurred on 12 May 2008 in the Longmen Shan region of China, the transition zone between the Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin, rupturing ~285-300 km segment along the active fault zone of the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt (LSTB), which resulted in widespread damage throughout central and western China. Although many studies undertaken since the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake have made substantial progress in terms of understanding the co-seismic ground deformation features along the major active faults of the southwestern and central segments of the LSTB, and the current activity, only a few studies have examined northeast- and southwest-most segments and the paleoseismicity along the 500-km-long LSTB. The structural features, therefore, including its slip sense and paleoseismicity, are still unclear due to a lack of geologic data. In this study, based on the geological structures, tectonic landforms, slip sense and paleoseismic data, co-seismic surface deformation features of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, the active fault zone of the LSTB can be divided into four segments: Qingchuan, (the northeast-most), Beichuan (northeast-central), Dujiangyan (southwest-central) and Lingguan (the southwest-most). The northeast-most Qingchuan segment is dominated by right-lateral strike-slip with a little thrust component. The slip rate of this segment is estimated to be ca.4-8 mm/yr with an average rate of 6 mm/yr. In contrast, the central Beichuan and Dujiangyan segments are dominated by folding and thrusting with a little right-lateral and left-lateral displacement component, respectively. The vertical slip rate of these two segments is estimated to be ca.1-3 mm/yr with an average amount of 2 mm/yr. While the southwest-most Lingguan segment is dominated by folding and thrusting with a distinct left-lateral displacement component. Recently, the Mw 6.6 Ya-An earthquake occurred on 20 April 2013, which ruptured ~60 km along this segment. Field investigation, paleoseismic and archaeological evidence, and radiocarbon dating results reveal that at least four large morphogenic earthquakes including the 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquakes occurred in the Sichuan region during the late Tang-Song (AD 800-1000), Han (206 BC to AD 220), and late Shang-Chunqiu (1200-800 BC) dynasties, comparable with the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in its seismic intensity, suggesting an average millennium recurrence interval for Wenchuan-magnitude (M = ˜8) earthquakes in the late Holocene within the LSTB. This finding is in contrast with previous estimates of 2,000-10,000 years for the recurrence interval of morphogenic earthquakes within the LSTB, as obtained from long-term slip rates based on the Global Positioning System and geological data, thereby necessitating substantial modifications to existing seismic-hazard models for the densely populated region at the eastern marginal zone of the Tibetan Plateau. Our results confirm that the present-day shortening strain upon the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau is mostly released by seismic thrusting and folding with strike-slip partitioning along the active faults within the LSTB. References Lin et al., 2009, Tectonophysics, 471, 203-215; 2) Lin et al., 2010, J. Seismol., 14, 615-628; 3) Lin et al., 2010, Tectonophysics, 491, 21-34; 4) Lin, A., 2011, Geology, 39, 547-550; 5) Lin et al., 2012. Tectonophysics, 522-523, 243-252; 6) Lin et al., 2013, Tectonophysics, submitted.

  15. Chinese haze versus Western smog: lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution in many Chinese cities has been so severe in recent years that a special terminology, the “Chinese haze”, was created to describe China’s air quality problem. Historically, the problem of Chinese haze has developed several decades after Western high-income countries have significantly improved their air quality from the smog-laden days in the early- and mid-20th century. Hence it is important to provide a global and historical perspective to help China combat the current air pollution problems. In this regard, this article addresses the followings specific questions: (I) What is the Chinese haze in comparison with the sulfurous (London-type) smog and the photochemical (Los Angeles-type) smog? (II) How does Chinese haze fit into the current trend of global air pollution transition? (III) What are the major mitigation measures that have improved air quality in Western countries? and (IV) What specific recommendations for China can be derived from lessons and experiences from Western countries? PMID:25694813

  16. Changes in the ultra-low frequency wave field during the precursor phase to the Sichuan earthquake: DEMETER observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, S. N.; Kadirkamanathan, V.; Pokhotelov, O. A.

    2013-09-01

    Electromagnetic phenomena observed in association with increases in seismic activity have been studied for several decades. These phenomena are generated during the precursory phases of an earthquake as well as during the main event. Their occurrence during the precursory phases may be used in short-term prediction of a large earthquake. In this paper, we examine ultra-low frequency (ULF) electric field data from the DEMETER satellite during the period leading up to the Sichuan earthquake. It is shown that there is an increase in ULF wave activity observed as DEMETER passes in the vicinity of the earthquake epicentre. This increase is most obvious at lower frequencies. Examination of the ULF spectra shows the possible occurrence of geomagnetic pearl pulsations, resulting from the passage of atmospheric gravity waves generated in the vicinity of the earthquake epicentre.

  17. 75 FR 39911 - Aerospace Supplier Development Mission to China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ...China Aviation Industry Corporation I and...country's aerospace industry. Over the years...engaged in manufacturing, design and engineering...companies to Chinese joint- venture...Western original equipment manufacturers...Xi'an Aircraft Industry Group and the...

  18. Tectonic dynamics and correlation of major earthquake sequences of the Xiaojiang and Qujiang-Shiping fault systems, Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue-Ze, Wen; Fang, Du; Feng, Long; Jun, Fan; Hang, Zhu

    2013-04-01

    The N-S trending Xiaojiang fault zone and the NW-SE trending Qujiang-Shiping fault zone are adjacent active fault systems and seismogenic zones associated with strong and major earthquakes in Yunnan, China. To understand the interaction of the two fault systems, and its probable influence on earthquake occurrences, we conduct a synthetic study based on data of active tectonics, historical earthquakes, relocated small earthquakes, GPS station velocities and focal mechanism resolutions. Our study makes several conclusions. (1) The active southward motion of the western side of the Xiaojiang fault zone (i.e. the side of the Sichuan-Yunnan block) has a persistent and intensive effect on the Qujiang-Shiping fault zone. The later fault zone has absorbed and transformed the southward motion of the western side of the former fault zone through dextral strike-slip/shearing as well as transverse shortening/thrusting. (2) Along the Xiaojiang fault zone, the present sinistral strike-slip/shearing rate decreases from 10 and 8 mm/a on the northern, central and central-southern segments to 4 mm/a on the southern segment. The decreased rate has been adjusted in the area along and surrounding the Qujiang-Shiping fault zone through reverse-dextral faulting and distributed shearing and shortening. (3) The tectonic-dynamic relation between the Xiaojiang fault zone and the Qujiang-Shiping fault zone is also manifested by a close correlation of earthquake occurrences on the two fault zones. From 1500 to 1850 a sequence of strong and major earthquakes occurred along the Xiaojiang fault zone and its northern neighbor, the Zemuhe fault zone, which was characterized by gradually accelerating strain release, gradually shortening intervals between M?7 events, and major releases occurring in the mid to later stages of the sequence. As a response to this sequence, after an 88-year delay, another sequence of 383 years (from 1588 to 1970) of strong and major earthquakes occurred on the Qujiang-Shiping fault zone, and had the same features in accelerating strain release and its temporal course. Also, the seismic potential for major earthquakes occurring on the Xiaojiang fault zone has been analyzed in this study. Key words: Active fault systems, fault interaction, fault motion transformation, tectonic dynamics, correlation of earthquake sequences

  19. Review of the millipede genus Eutrichodesmus Silvestri, 1910, in China, with descriptions of new cavernicolous species (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Haplodesmidae).

    PubMed

    Golovatch, Sergei I; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Mauriès, Jean-Paul; VandenSpiegel, Didier

    2015-01-01

    The Eutrichodesmus fauna of mainland China, by far the largest genus in the Indo-Australian family Haplodesmidae, is reviewed and shown to encompass 23 species (of a total of 45), all keyed. The following nine new species, all presumed troglobites, are described: Eutrichodesmustriangularis sp. n., from Sichuan, Eutrichodesmuslipsae sp. n., from Guangxi, Eutrichodesmustenuis sp. n., Eutrichodesmustrontelji sp. n., Eutrichodesmuslatellai sp. n., Eutrichodesmusobliteratus sp. n. and Eutrichodesmustroglobius sp. n., all from Guizhou, Eutrichodesmussketi sp. n., from Hunan, and Eutrichodesmusapicalis sp. n., from Hubei. PMID:26052236

  20. Review of the millipede genus Eutrichodesmus Silvestri, 1910, in China, with descriptions of new cavernicolous species (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Haplodesmidae)

    PubMed Central

    Golovatch, Sergei I.; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Mauriès, Jean-Paul; VandenSpiegel, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Eutrichodesmus fauna of mainland China, by far the largest genus in the Indo-Australian family Haplodesmidae, is reviewed and shown to encompass 23 species (of a total of 45), all keyed. The following nine new species, all presumed troglobites, are described: Eutrichodesmus triangularis sp. n., from Sichuan, Eutrichodesmus lipsae sp. n., from Guangxi, Eutrichodesmus tenuis sp. n., Eutrichodesmus trontelji sp. n., Eutrichodesmus latellai sp. n., Eutrichodesmus obliteratus sp. n. and Eutrichodesmus troglobius sp. n., all from Guizhou, Eutrichodesmus sketi sp. n., from Hunan, and Eutrichodesmus apicalis sp. n., from Hubei. PMID:26052236

  1. Experience from the 300 MWe CFB Demontration Plant in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauvillé, P.; Semedard, J.-C.; Darling, S.

    This paper will describe the background and current status of the 300MWe CFB Demonstration Project located at the Baima Power Plant in Sichuan Province. This project was the first 300MWe class CFB in China and the first project built under the Transfer of Technology from Alstom. The plant entered commercial operation in early 2006. The fuel is a high-ash anthracite which has presented significant challenges in terms of higher-than-expected ash content and top size. While this fuel has been problematic for the adjacent suspension-fired boilers, performance in the CFB boiler has been excellent, with low carbon content in the ash, low turndown and low emissions. Key boiler performance parameters will be described along with a comparison of design and actual performance and the operational experience will be addressed. Finally, the paper will describe Alstom's process for scaling the CFB technology from 300MWe to 600MWe, and our supercritical CFB design.

  2. Geologic characteristics of hydrocarbon-bearing marine, transitional and lacustrine shales in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shu; Xu, Zhengyu; Feng, Youliang; Zhang, Jinchuan; Cai, Dongsheng; Chen, Lei; Wu, Yue; Zhou, Dongsheng; Bao, Shujing; Long, Shengxiang

    2016-01-01

    Organic-rich shales spanning in age from Pre-Cambrian to Quaternary were widely deposited in China. This paper elaborates the geology and unique characteristics of emerging and potential hydrocarbon-bearing shales in China. The Pre-Cambrian Sinian Doushantuo to Silurian black marine shales in the intra-shelf low to slope environments were accumulated in South China and Tarim Platform in Northwest China. These marine shales with maturity (Ro) of 1.3-5% are in dry gas window. During Carboniferous to Permian, the shales associated with coal and sandstones were mainly deposited in coastal swamp transitional setting in north China, NE China, NW China and Yangtze platform in South China. These transitional shales are generally clay rich and are potential gas-bearing reservoirs. Since Middle Permian, the lacustrine shales with total carbon content (TOC) up to 30% and Ro mainly in oil window are widely distributed in all the producing basins in China. The lacustrine shales usually have more clay mineral content than marine shales and are characterized by rapid facies change and are interbedded with carbonates and sandstone. The high quality shale reservoir with high TOC, hydrocarbon content and brittle minerals content is usually located at transgressive systems tract (TST) to early highstand systems tract (EHST) interval deposited in anoxic depositional setting. Recent commercial shale gas production from the Silurian Longmaxi marine shale in the southeastern Sichuan Basin, preliminary tight oil production associated with lacustrine hydrocarbon-bearing shale intervals and hydrocarbon shows from many other shales have proven the hydrocarbon-bearing shales in China are emerging and potential shale gas and tight (shale) oil plays. Tectonic movements could have breached the early hydrocarbon accumulation in shales and tectonically stable areas are suggested to be favorable prospects for China shale plays exploration and production.

  3. Cooperative wind erosion mechanics research between USDA-ARS Wind Erosion and Water Conservation Research Unit(WEWC) and Key Lab of Western Environmental Disaster (KLWED), Lanzhou University, Gansu, P.R. China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broad expanses of bare, fragile soil and frequent high-velocity winds create conditions leading to wind-induced soil loss and fugitive dust generation in the semi-arid regions of the United States and People’s Republic of China. Mechanistic process driven models have necessitated an increased under...

  4. Secondary Education in the People's Republic of China: Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    Focusing on secondary education in China, primarily since the Communist victory in 1949, this annotated bibliography contains 24 items. The listed items include books, journal articles, newspaper stories, examples of secondary Chinese educational materials, and reports from western educators traveling in China. Emphasis is placed on educational…

  5. Pet Dogs Benefit Owners' Health: A "Natural Experiment" in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headey, Bruce; Na, Fu; Zheng, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports results from a "natural experiment" taking place in China on the impact of dogs on owners' health. Previous Western research has reported modest health benefits, but results have remained controversial. In China pets were banned in urban areas until 1992. Since then dog ownership has grown quite rapidly in the major cities,…

  6. Reflection on Prosperity: Localization of Pedagogy in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Daishu

    2009-01-01

    In the past 20 years, China has seen an influx of foreign pedagogies that emphasize Western concepts such as dualistic opposition and linear development. As educational studies have become localized to China's environment, there has been a tendency to substitute transplanted ideas for methods based on local research. As such Chinese educational…

  7. What China Inc. Can Learn from American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallows, James

    2012-01-01

    From afar, the boom in China's higher education system seems to be one more indication of its ceaseless rise overall. Potentially it is the most significant sign, since a China that could rival the existing American and Western-democratic dominance of the world's research and educational establishment might enjoy many other advantages as well.…

  8. Petroleum geology of Giant oil and gas fields in Turpan Basin Xinjiang China

    SciTech Connect

    Boliang, Hu; Jiajing, Yang,

    1995-08-01

    Turpan Basin is the smallest and the last development basin in three big basins of Xinjiang autonomous region, P.R. China. Since April, 1989, the Shanshan oilfield was discovered, the Oinling, Wenjisang, Midang, Baka, Qiudong and North Putaogou fields were discovered. In 1994, the crude oil productivity of Turpan Basin was a Million tons, with an estimated output of 3 million tons per year by 1995; obviously a key oil productive base in the west basins of China, Tarim, Jungar, Chaidam, Hexi, Erduos and Sichuan Basins. The Turpan Basin is an intermontane basin in a eugeosyncline foldbelt of the north Tianshan Mountains. The oil and gas was produced from the payzone of the Xishanyao, Sanjianfang and Qiketai Formatiosn of the Middle Jurassic series. The geochemical characteristics of the crude oil and gas indicate they derive from the Middle to Lower Jurassic coal series, in which contains the best oil-prone source rocks in the basin.

  9. Comment on “Magnetostratigraphic study of the Kuche Depression, Tarim Basin, and Cenozoic uplift of the Tian Shan Range, Western China” Baochun Huang, John D.A. Piper, Shoutao Peng, Tao Liu, Zhong Li, Qingchen Wang, Rixiang Zhu [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2006, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.09.020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charreau, Julien; Chen, Yan; Gilder, Stuart; Barier, Laurie

    2008-04-01

    The recent publication of "Magnetostratigraphic study of the Kuche Depression, Tarim Basin, and Cenozoic uplift of the Tian Shan Range,Western China" by B.C. Huang, J.D.A. Piper, S.T. Peng, T. Liu, Z. Li, Q.C. Wang, R.X. Zhu [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2006, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.09.020] discusses the Cenozoic uplift history of the Tianshan Mountains by studying the magnetostratigraphy of Paleogene to Neogene continental sediments from two sections located in the Kuche basin at the northern edge of the Tarim basin. To support their conclusion they reinterpreted a magnetostratigraphic study of the Yaha section, which lies ~ 10 km south of their sections, we previously published [J. Charreau, S. Gilder, Y. Chen, S. Dominguez, J.-P. Avouac, S. Sen, M. Jolivet, Y. Li and W. Wang, Magnetostratigraphy of the Yaha section, Tarim Basin (China): 11 Ma acceleration in erosion and uplift of the Tianshan Mountains, Geology 34(3), 2006, 181­184.]. Here, (1) we argue that the interpretations of the sedimentation rate changes they proposed for the Kuche sections are partially invalid, (2) we disagree with their reinterpretation of the age of the Yaha section, and (3) we think that the way they interpret their AMS data is incorrect.

  10. Spatiotemporal variations of precipitation extremes of China during the past 50 years (1960-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Xiaoxiao; Yin, Zhan'e.; Wang, Xuan; Sun, Yuke

    2015-04-01

    Extreme weather events have become more frequent and intense under global warming in recent years, which has attracted much attention of scholars at home and abroad. In this paper, we used data sets of daily precipitation recorded at 499 meteorological stations to analyze the temporal and spatial variations of precipitation extremes in China over the past 50 years (1960-2009). Through the comparison of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and the percentile method, DFA was selected to define the thresholds of precipitation extremes in China. Temporal variations of extreme precipitation amount, frequency, and intensity were analyzed in four major regions: Northwest China, the Qinghai-Tibet region, North China, and South China. Spatial distributions were obtained by the Kriging interpolation method, and then, we examined the varying tendencies of extreme precipitation amount, frequency, and intensity by the Mann-Kendall test. The results show that increasing trends are dominant for all indices over China; extreme precipitation amount and frequency appear to have risen since 1970-1979, but there are some regional differences. The Qinghai-Tibet region and South China have an ascending trend, and Northwest China maintains balance while North China has a descending trend. The amount and intensity of precipitation extremes are decreasing from southeastern coastal areas to northwestern inlands, and the frequency of precipitation extremes is randomly distributed. However, they are all high in the Sichuan Basin, the middle and lower Yangtze River, and the southern part of South China. Trends of most stations are statistically insignificant, but the percentage of stations with a significant increased trend in the Qinghai-Tibet region is larger than that of other regions.

  11. Vegetable Seedling Breeding with Biochar Produced from Invasive Plant Biomass in South West of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guitong; Tian, Yanfang; Liu, Cheng; Cao, Jianhua; Lin, Qimei; Zhao, Xiaorong

    2015-04-01

    Crofton Weed (Ageratina adenophora) is an invasive plant widely colonized in the southwest part of China, such as Yunnan, Guizhou, and Sichuan. It is estimated that the total biomass of this small shrub in China can be as much as 30 million tones. Many methods have been developed to control its malignant expansion, mostly by using its leaves as feed for livestock. Its stem is difficult to use, although it accounts for more than 90% of its total biomass. A biochar production system, using the stems of Crofton Weed as feedstock, was established at Xi-Yu Biological Science and Technology Company, Pan-Zhi-hua, Sichuan Province, China. The system is composed of feeder, hot-air dryer, pyrolyser, activator, steam producer, and biochar-based fertilizer producer. The energy for producing hot-air to pre-dry the feedstock and steam to activate the carbonized material comes from the re-use of the heat yielded from the pyrolysis process. The whole system is in a high level of automation and energy efficiency. With this system, local farmers can improve their income by collecting stems of Crofton Weed and selling them to the producer. It is a practical way to control this kind of invasive plant by offering economic value for the local people. The biochar can be used to produce new seedling substrate by replacing peat to protect wetland resource. The biochar seedling media was produced in a simple way and the effects on growth of vegetable seedlings was evaluated. Results showed that the response of vegetable seeds to the biochar seedling media was different, meaning more detailed studies need to done to find the reasons for some kinds of seeds failed to germinate in the tested biochar seedling media. This research was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China under the Public Industry Science and Technology Project (201103027).

  12. Dementia care in rural China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Dementia is a major cause of disability and has immense cost implications for the individual suffering from the condition, family caregivers and society. Given the high prevalence of dementia in China with its enormous and rapidly expanding population of elderly adults, it is necessary to develop and test approaches to the care for patients with this disorder. The need is especially great in rural China where access to mental healthcare is limited, with the task made more complex by social and economic reforms over the last 30 years that have transformed the Chinese family support system, family values and health delivery systems. Evidence-based collaborative care models for dementia, depression and other chronic diseases that have been developed in some Western countries serve as a basis for discussion of innovative approaches in the management of dementia in rural China, with particular focus on its implementation in the primary care system. PMID:24427180

  13. Chinese haze versus Western smog: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Samet, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution in many Chinese cities has been so severe in recent years that a special terminology, the "Chinese haze", was created to describe China's air quality problem. Historically, the problem of Chinese haze has developed several decades after Western high-income countries have significantly improved their air quality from the smog-laden days in the early- and mid-20(th) century. Hence it is important to provide a global and historical perspective to help China combat the current air pollution problems. In this regard, this article addresses the followings specific questions: (I) What is the Chinese haze in comparison with the sulfurous (London-type) smog and the photochemical (Los Angeles-type) smog? (II) How does Chinese haze fit into the current trend of global air pollution transition? (III) What are the major mitigation measures that have improved air quality in Western countries? and (IV) What specific recommendations for China can be derived from lessons and experiences from Western countries? PMID:25694813

  14. The effect of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Sichuan earthquake on regional landslide patterns between 2001 and 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leith, Kerry; Krammel, Lisa; Krautblatter, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Large earthquakes have a major impact on patterns of regional landsliding. Here, we utilise a twelve-year record of forest cover change in the region of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake in order to assess geomorphic factors contributing to slope instability in years prior to, during, and after the earthquake. The satellite-based catalogue of forest cover change developed by Hansen et al. (2013) compares favourably with results from a study of earthquake-induced slope instability undertaken by Parker et al. (2011), indicating that our correlation of tree loss with regional landsliding is reasonable. While we cannot account for slope stability on unvegetated slopes, the temporal nature of the dataset allows us to account for the presence of pre-existing landslides or barren rock slopes which have complicated previous studies. We assess a number of geomorphic factors including slope, aspect, curvature, ruggedness, height and distance from river channels, and the hydrological slope (calculated using the downslope distance to river channels). In order to account for spatial distributions as a result of local seismicity, interpreted landslide locations were normalised against a randomly generated distribution of points seeded using observed landslide concentrations within 1 km x 1 km cells. We find that while few metrics allow us to distinguish the 2008 data from the random dataset, aspect played an important role in determining susceptibility, and slopes with a greater hydrological slope demonstrate a greater susceptibility for failure. In addition, we observe a notable decrease in the elevation of landslides in the year of the earthquake, and progressive increase in elevations in successive years following. This may either be a result of retrogressive slope failure, or a return to 'normal' stability conditions in the four years following the earthquake. Hansen, M. C., Potapov, P. V., Moore, R., Hancher, M., Turubanova, S. A., Tyukavina, A., Thau, D., Stehman, S. V., Goetz, S. J., Loveland, T. R., Kommareddy, A., Egorov, A., Chini, L., Justice, C. O., and Townshend, J. R. G., 2013, High-Resolution Global Maps of 21st-Century Forest Cover Change: Science, v. 342, no. 6160, p. 850-853. Parker, N. Robert; Densmore, Alexander, L.; Rosser, Nicholas J. et. al., 2011. Mass wasting triggered by the 2008 Sichuan earthquake is greater than orogenic growth. Nature Geoscience 4, 339-452.

  15. The use of photovoltaics for rural electrification in northwestern China

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.L.; Li Jingming; Gao Shangbin

    1998-09-01

    The use of renewable energy technologies in China is becoming increasingly important to meet the needs of a large rural population. Solar and wind renewable resources in particular are available in regions of China that at present have no access to conventional grid power. Two regions in China that have an acute lack of electricity are a large region in northern and western China and the coastal island region of China. These regions have attracted the attention of the Chinese government in terms of increasing the quality of life and standard of living conditions of the rural population. These regions have also attracted the attention of domestic Chinese companies and of international companies, governments, and multilateral development organizations as a potential market for renewable energy rural electrification systems. This paper focuses on the bilateral cooperation between the US Department of Energy and China in providing assistance for the use of renewable technologies for rural electrification in northwestern China.

  16. Democracy and International Higher Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onsman, Andrys; Cameron, Jackie

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that supports the theory that higher education and democracy are highly correlated. Throughout modern history, students have been at the forefront of democratic movements, including the 1989 pro-democracy uprising in China. Since then, and despite the increased availability of Western-style education within and…

  17. Decreasing Trends in Sunshine Duration Over China for 1954-1998: Indication of Increased Haze Pollution?

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, Dale P.; Qian, Yun

    2002-11-01

    Analysis of meteorological data made available by the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) reveals significant decreases in sunshine duration over the latter half of the 20th century over much of China, especially in the eastern half of the country. Most of the decrease has occurred since about 1980, and appears to be related to large increases in atmospheric anthropogenic aerosol loading that have increased the aerosol extinction coefficient (AEC), as calculated from observations of (decreasing) visual range. A finding of particular interest is a significant decrease in summertime maximum temperature over this time period for a large portion of southeastern China near the Sichuan Basin (while the rest of China-and indeed most of the northern hemisphere-has warmed). This same region of southeastern China shows the largest decreases in sunshine duration and largest increases in AEC. The consistent spatial and temporal patterns of change in these variables seem to support the theory that aerosol loading has decreased the duration and intensity of sunshine in this region and thus lowered summertime maximum temperatures.

  18. An Anatomy of China's Energy Insecurity and Its Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Bo

    2005-12-06

    China’s energy insecurity largely originates from its constrained availability, questionable reliability, and uncertain affordability of its oil supplies. The country’s fast industrialization and urbanization, together with demand for infrastructure and increasing popularity of automobiles, requires a lot of energy, but it consumes energy both intensively and inefficiently, threatening the environmental well-being of China and its neighbors. China’s risk aversion and poor energy policy making system further magnifies its perceptions of the low availability, reliability and affordability of oil imports, which further compounds its sense of energy insecurity. Distrustful of the market, and suspicious of other major energy players in the international market, the Chinese leadership relies on the state-centered approach, or economic nationalism, rather than a market approach to enhance its energy security. However, the country lacks not only an energy policy making system that can make and implement sound energy policies but also an energy market that relies on market prices to allocate energy resources efficiently. As a result of this domestic failure, China has pushed its national flagship companies to undertake a global scavenger hunt for energy while muddling along a messy road of energy reform at home. Setbacks in acquiring new sources of oil have validated the Chinese leadership’s belief that the international oil market is not free and China’s access to international oil is not guaranteed through the market. China’s problems in the international energy market are also perceived as evidence of attempts to prevent China from exerting international influence. China’s leadership is convinced that China should focus on areas where western capital is not heavily concentrated or where western influences are weak. With the recent revaluation of Chinese currency and growing economy, China has both the wherewithal and appetite to acquire more oil assets abroad. Both China and the United States stand at a critical juncture of history where China’s rise depends on reliable energy supplies which it increasingly imports from abroad and where the growing wealth of the United States is increasingly dependent upon China’s success. If China does not have energy security it’s 1.3 billion fuel-starved people will prevent the rest of the world from achieving energy security.

  19. Statistical Interpretation of Natural and Technological Hazards in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borthwick, Alistair, ,, Prof.; Ni, Jinren, ,, Prof.

    2010-05-01

    China is prone to catastrophic natural hazards from floods, droughts, earthquakes, storms, cyclones, landslides, epidemics, extreme temperatures, forest fires, avalanches, and even tsunami. This paper will list statistics related to the six worst natural disasters in China over the past 100 or so years, ranked according to number of fatalities. The corresponding data for the six worst natural disasters in China over the past decade will also be considered. [The data are abstracted from the International Disaster Database, Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED), Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium, http://www.cred.be/ where a disaster is defined as occurring if one of the following criteria is fulfilled: 10 or more people reported killed; 100 or more people reported affected; a call for international assistance; or declaration of a state of emergency.] The statistics include the number of occurrences of each type of natural disaster, the number of deaths, the number of people affected, and the cost in billions of US dollars. Over the past hundred years, the largest disasters may be related to the overabundance or scarcity of water, and to earthquake damage. However, there has been a substantial relative reduction in fatalities due to water related disasters over the past decade, even though the overall numbers of people affected remain huge, as does the economic damage. This change is largely due to the efforts put in by China's water authorities to establish effective early warning systems, the construction of engineering countermeasures for flood protection, the implementation of water pricing and other measures for reducing excessive consumption during times of drought. It should be noted that the dreadful death toll due to the Sichuan Earthquake dominates recent data. Joint research has been undertaken between the Department of Environmental Engineering at Peking University and the Department of Engineering Science at Oxford University on the production of zonation maps of certain natural hazards in China. Data at city and county level have been interpreted using a hierarchical system of indices, which are then ranked according to severity. Zonation maps will be presented for debris flows, landslide and rockfall hazards, flood risk in mainland China, and for soil erosion processes in the Yellow River basin. The worst debris flow hazards are to be found in southwest China as the land begins to become mountainous. Just over 20% of the land area is at high or very high risk of landslide and rockfall hazards, especially Yunnan, Sichuan, Gansu and Shannxi provinces. Flood risk is concentrated towards the eastern part of China, where the major rivers meet the sea. The paper will also consider data on technological disasters in China from 1900 to 2010, using data supplied by CRED. In terms of fatalities, industrial accidents appear to be dominated by explosion events. However, gas leaks have affected the largest number of people. Transport accidents are ranked in terms of fatalities as follows: water - road - rail - air. Fire is a major cause of loss of life, whereas chemical spills and poisoning seem to lead to fewer deaths.

  20. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from pigs from different localities in China by PCR-RFLP

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii is a widely prevalent protozoan parasite that causes serious toxoplasmosis in humans and animals. The present study aimed to determine the genetic diversity of T. gondii isolates from pigs in Jiangxi, Sichuan, Guangdong Provinces and Chongqing Municipality in China using multilocous polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technology. Methods A total of 38 DNA samples were extracted from hilar lymph nodes of pigs with suspected toxoplasmosis, and were detected for the presence of T. gondii by semi-nested PCR of B1 gene. The positive DNA samples were typed at 11 genetic markers, including 10 nuclear loci, namely, SAG1, 5?-SAG2 and 3?-SAG2, alternative SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and an apicoplast locus Apico. Results Twenty-five of the 38 DNA samples were T. gondii B1 gene positive. Complete genotyping data for all loci could be obtained for 17 of the 25 samples. Two genotypes were revealed (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotypes #9 and #3). Sixteen samples belong to genotype #9 which is the major lineage in mainland China and one sample belongs to genotype #3 which is Type II variant. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of genetic typing of T. gondii isolates from pigs in Jiangxi, Sichuan Province and Chongqing Municipality, and the first report of ToxoDB #3?T. gondii from pigs in China. These results have implications for the prevention and control of foodborne toxoplasmosis in humans. PMID:23919620

  1. Barriers to and Facilitators of Research Utilization: A Survey of Registered Nurses in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Ping; Jiang, Xiao-Lian; Wang, Lei; Wang, Guo-Rong; Bai, Yang-Jing

    2013-01-01

    Aims This survey aims to describe the perception of barriers to and facilitators of research utilization by registered nurses in Sichuan province, China, and to explore the factors influencing the perceptions of the barriers to and facilitators of research utilization. Methods A cross sectional survey design and a double cluster sampling method were adopted. A total of 590 registered nurses from 3 tertiary level hospitals in Sichuan province, China, were recruited in a period from September 2006 to January 2007. A modified BARRUERS Scale and a Facilitators Scale were used. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, rank transformation test, and multiple linear regression. Results Barriers related to the setting subscale were more influential than barriers related to other subscales. The lack of authority was ranked as the top greatest barrier (15.7%), followed by the lack of time (13.4%) and language barrier (15.0%). Additional barriers identified were the reluctance of patients to research utilization, the lack of funding, and the lack of legal protection. The top three greatest facilitators were enhancing managerial support (36.9%), advancing education to increase knowledge base (21.1%), and increasing time for reviewing and implementing (17.5%), while cooperation of patients to research utilization, establishing a panel to evaluate researches, and funding were listed as additional facilitators. Hospital, educational background, research experience, and knowledge on evidence-based nursing were the factors influencing perceptions of the barriers and facilitators. Conclusions Nurses in China are facing a number of significant barriers in research utilization. Enhancing managerial support might be the most promising facilitator, given Chinese traditional culture and existing health care system. Hospital, educational background, research experience and knowledge on evidence-based nursing should be taken into account to promote research utilization. The BARRIERS Scale should consider funding and involvement of patients in research utilization. PMID:24312380

  2. Acculturation, Internalization of Western Appearance Norms, and Eating Pathology Among Japanese and Chinese International Student Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark-Wroblewski, Kim; Yanico, Barbara J.; Lupe, Steven

    2005-01-01

    In the context of the sociocultural model of eating disorders, this study investigated the hypothesis that Westernization would be positively associated with eating pathology among non-Western women. International participants from Japan (n=26), Peoples Republic of China (n=25), Taiwan (n=30), and Hong Kong (n=25) who were studying in the United…

  3. Why Chinese People Play Western Classical Music: Transcultural Roots of Music Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hao

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the complex relationship between Confucian values and music education in East Asia, particularly its history in China. How does one account for the present "cultural fever" of Western classical music that has infected more than 100 million Chinese practitioners? It is proposed that Western classical music finds transcultural…

  4. Developing Students' Intercultural Communication Competences in Western Etiquette Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiaochi

    2010-01-01

    How to develop students' intercultural communication competences is a controversial issue in foreign language education in China. In this article, the author attempts to offer an answer to this issue by putting forward a proposition for developing students' intercultural communication competences in western etiquette teaching. First of all, the…

  5. Substantial Contribution of Anthropogenic Air Pollution to Catastrophic Floods in Southwest China

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Jiwen; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Yang, Yan; Zhao, Chun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Li, Zhanqing

    2015-07-20

    Extreme events such as heat waves, floods, and droughts, have become more frequent since the 1950s1-2. This is likely caused through changes in greenhouse gases and aerosols that perturb the radiative balance and alter cloud processes3-8. On 8-9 July, 2013 a catastrophic flood devastated several metropolitan areas at the foothills of the Sichuan Basin. Using a high-resolution coupled atmosphere-chemistry model, we show that this disaster was not entirely natural. Ensemble simulations robustly show that the severe anthropogenic pollution in the Sichuan Basin significantly enhanced rainfall intensity over the mountainous area northwest of the basin. The heavy air pollution (mainly black carbon) absorbs solar radiation in the lower atmosphere at the expense of surface cooling, which stabilizes the atmosphere and suppresses convection and precipitation over the basin. The enhanced moisture and moist static energy over the basin are then transported by the prevailing winds towards the mountains during daytime. As the excessive moist air that reaches the foothills at night is orographically lifted, very strong convection develops and produces extremely heavy precipitation. Reducing black carbon (BC) emissions in the basin can effectively mitigate the extreme precipitation in the mountains. Unfortunately, BC emissions have been increasing in many developing countries including China9, making them more vulnerable to enhanced disasters as reported here.

  6. Impact of land use type conversion on carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems of China: A spatial-temporal perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mei; Huang, Xianjin; Chuai, Xiaowei; Yang, Hong; Lai, Li; Tan, Junzhong

    2015-05-01

    Our work is the first study to explore the national and provincial composite carbon storage variations in terrestrial ecosystems of China caused by the entire flows of land use type conversion (LUTC). Only water body was excluded. The results indicated that terrestrial ecosystems of China lost 219?Tg-C due to LUTC from 1980 to 1995, and the amount was 60?Tg-C during the period 1995-2010. Despite the decrease in the total amount, carbon losses from LUTC intensified, but most of the losses were balanced by the opposite conversions. Our analyses also revealed that LUTCs in China were becoming detrimental to carbon reduction, mainly due to the insufficient increase of forest land to meet the growing demand for carbon absorption, the accelerating disappearance of grassland and the rapid expansion of settlements. More than 50% of the carbon storage variations for a single LUTC flow concentrated in several provinces. To improve China’s LUTC status from the aspect of low-carbon, Heilongjiang, Sichuan, Inner Mongolia, Tibet, Qinghai, Xinjiang and coastal regions, such as Shandong, Jiangsu and Liaoning, should be dealt with first according to their conditions. This study can be helpful to planners, policy makers and scholars concerned about carbon reduction in China.

  7. Impact of land use type conversion on carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems of China: A spatial-temporal perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mei; Huang, Xianjin; Chuai, Xiaowei; Yang, Hong; Lai, Li; Tan, Junzhong

    2015-01-01

    Our work is the first study to explore the national and provincial composite carbon storage variations in terrestrial ecosystems of China caused by the entire flows of land use type conversion (LUTC). Only water body was excluded. The results indicated that terrestrial ecosystems of China lost 219?Tg-C due to LUTC from 1980 to 1995, and the amount was 60?Tg-C during the period 1995-2010. Despite the decrease in the total amount, carbon losses from LUTC intensified, but most of the losses were balanced by the opposite conversions. Our analyses also revealed that LUTCs in China were becoming detrimental to carbon reduction, mainly due to the insufficient increase of forest land to meet the growing demand for carbon absorption, the accelerating disappearance of grassland and the rapid expansion of settlements. More than 50% of the carbon storage variations for a single LUTC flow concentrated in several provinces. To improve China’s LUTC status from the aspect of low-carbon, Heilongjiang, Sichuan, Inner Mongolia, Tibet, Qinghai, Xinjiang and coastal regions, such as Shandong, Jiangsu and Liaoning, should be dealt with first according to their conditions. This study can be helpful to planners, policy makers and scholars concerned about carbon reduction in China. PMID:25975282

  8. WESTERN UNIVERSITY Disaster Plan

    E-print Network

    Lennard, William N.

    WESTERN UNIVERSITY Disaster Plan January 2015 Disaster Plan #12;WESTERN UNIVERSITY Disaster Plan.4.2 Manmade Threats 1.5 Definitions 1.6 Scope of Western's Planning for Major Emergencies and Disasters 1/Administrative Unit Responsibilities 1.8.8 Situation Reports 2. UTILIZING THE DISASTER PLAN 2.1 Emergency Process

  9. Bayesian geostatistical modelling of soil-transmitted helminth survey data in the People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminth infections affect tens of millions of individuals in the People’s Republic of China (P.R. China). There is a need for high-resolution estimates of at-risk areas and number of people infected to enhance spatial targeting of control interventions. However, such information is not yet available for P.R. China. Methods A geo-referenced database compiling surveys pertaining to soil-transmitted helminthiasis, carried out from 2000 onwards in P.R. China, was established. Bayesian geostatistical models relating the observed survey data with potential climatic, environmental and socioeconomic predictors were developed and used to predict at-risk areas at high spatial resolution. Predictors were extracted from remote sensing and other readily accessible open-source databases. Advanced Bayesian variable selection methods were employed to develop a parsimonious model. Results Our results indicate that the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections in P.R. China considerably decreased from 2005 onwards. Yet, some 144 million people were estimated to be infected in 2010. High prevalence (>20%) of the roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides infection was predicted for large areas of Guizhou province, the southern part of Hubei and Sichuan provinces, while the northern part and the south-eastern coastal-line areas of P.R. China had low prevalence (<5%). High infection prevalence (>20%) with hookworm was found in Hainan, the eastern part of Sichuan and the southern part of Yunnan provinces. High infection prevalence (>20%) with the whipworm Trichuris trichiura was found in a few small areas of south P.R. China. Very low prevalence (<0.1%) of hookworm and whipworm infections were predicted for the northern parts of P.R. China. Conclusions We present the first model-based estimates for soil-transmitted helminth infections throughout P.R. China at high spatial resolution. Our prediction maps provide useful information for the spatial targeting of soil-transmitted helminthiasis control interventions and for long-term monitoring and surveillance in the frame of enhanced efforts to control and eliminate the public health burden of these parasitic worm infections. PMID:24350825

  10. The Western Water Institutional Solutions-Western Water

    E-print Network

    Wolf, Aaron

    The Western Water Institutional Solutions-Western Water Information Network Collaboration................................................................................................. 27 3.3 Stakeholder Analysis

  11. Dynamic elastic properties of the Wufeng-Longmaxi formation shale in the southeast margin of the Sichuan Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jixin; Shen, Hui; Xu, Zhonghua; Ma, Zhonggao; Zhao, Qun; Li, Chengcheng

    2014-06-01

    In spite of the growing interest in Late Ordovician to the Early Silurian Wufeng-Longmaxi black shale for gas production in the southeast of the Sichuan Basin, little data is available on the acoustic properties of these shale reservoirs. The dynamic elastic properties of a suite of shales from this formation with different organic matter content were measured using the ultrasonic transmission technique at a range of confining pressures. The mineralogical features and reservoir space types were studied with the goal of analyzing their influence on the acoustic properties of the shale samples. The TOC (total organic content) is found to have a positive correlation with the quartz content and a negative correlation with the clay content. Organic matter pores and inter-crystal micro-pores are the main pore types. Organic-rich shales show a low P-wave impedance (Ip) and Vp/Vs ratio due to relatively higher TOC and quartz content; nonetheless, high P-wave (Ip) is also observed when the quartz content is very high resulting from the variation of load-bearing grains. The velocities and anisotropy of different shale samples show varying pressure dependence. A strong positive correlation is found between the anisotropy and the clay content. Three different types of microfabric can be observed in the shale samples, giving a qualitative explanation for the correlation between the anisotropy and the clay content. The occurrence of preferential alignment of the clay minerals requires that the clay content exceeds a critical volume, and this value is about 25%-30% in this study.

  12. Regulation of intrinsic apoptosis in cycloheximide-treated macrophages by the Sichuan human strain of Chinese Leishmania isolates.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jin; Chen, Qi-Wei; Yu, Ze-Ying; Zhang, Jun-Rong; Chen, Da-Li; Song, Chen; Luo, Jie; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Shun-Li; Chen, Jian-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania spp. are able to survive and proliferate inside mammals' mononuclear phagocytes, causing Leishmaniasis. Previous studies have noted that the regulation of apoptosis in host cells by these parasites may contribute to their ability to evade the immune system. However, current results remain unclear about whether the parasites can promote or delay the apoptotic process in host cells, because the regulatory effect of Leishmania was assumed to be strain-, species- and even infection time-dependent. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the Sichuan isolates of Chinese Leishmania (SC10H2) can alter the process of intrinsic apoptosis induced by cycloheximide in different types of macrophage cell lines and to determine in which steps of the signaling pathway the parasites were involved. Human THP-1 and mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were infected by SC10H2 promastigotes followed by cycloheximide stimulation to assess the alteration of intrinsic apoptosis in these cells. The results indicated that SC10H2 infection of human THP-1 macrophages could promote the initiation of intrinsic apoptosis, but completely opposite results were found in mouse RAW264.7 macrophages. Nevertheless, the expression of Bcl-2 and the DNA fragmentation rates were not altered by SC10H2 infection in the cell lines used in the experiments. This study suggests that SC10H2 promastigote infection is able to promote and delay the transduction of early apoptotic signals induced by cycloheximide in THP-1 and RAW264.7 macrophages, revealing that the regulation of intrinsic apoptosis in host cells by SC10H2 in vitro occurs in a host cell-dependent manner. The data from this study might play a significant role in further understanding the relationship between Leishmania and different host cells. PMID:26482137

  13. Modeling the geographic spread of rabies in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Zou, Lan; Jin, Zhen; Ruan, Shigui

    2015-05-01

    In order to investigate how the movement of dogs affects the geographically inter-provincial spread of rabies in Mainland China, we propose a multi-patch model to describe the transmission dynamics of rabies between dogs and humans, in which each province is regarded as a patch. In each patch the submodel consists of susceptible, exposed, infectious, and vaccinated subpopulations of both dogs and humans and describes the spread of rabies among dogs and from infectious dogs to humans. The existence of the disease-free equilibrium is discussed, the basic reproduction number is calculated, and the effect of moving rates of dogs between patches on the basic reproduction number is studied. To investigate the rabies virus clades lineages, the two-patch submodel is used to simulate the human rabies data from Guizhou and Guangxi, Hebei and Fujian, and Sichuan and Shaanxi, respectively. It is found that the basic reproduction number of the two-patch model could be larger than one even if the isolated basic reproduction number of each patch is less than one. This indicates that the immigration of dogs may make the disease endemic even if the disease dies out in each isolated patch when there is no immigration. In order to reduce and prevent geographical spread of rabies in China, our results suggest that the management of dog markets and trades needs to be regulated, and transportation of dogs has to be better monitored and under constant surveillance. PMID:26020234

  14. Anticounterfeit holograms in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Dahsiung; Zhou, Jing; Pei, Wen; Li, Qiang; Huang, Xuhuai; Cao, Yulin

    1995-02-01

    The Chinese holography industry has been given an enormous boost by the energetic sales and technology transfer of several western businesses. It is a fast growing industry which can keep up with domestic demand for anti-counterfeit embossed holograms because product counterfeiting is so rife internally. Tax papers, stamps, plastic cards, identification cards, and many packaged goods are authenticated with embossed holograms. Up to now, about 1,000 kinds of products in China have used holograms to protect themselves. Anti-counterfeit holograms with secret codes have also been used. After dependence on imports, China is rapidly developing its own sources of equipment, holographic materials, and embossing substrates. The quality of this equipment and materials is improving. The new Chinese Holography Association, a national industry association aiming to develop the application of holograms and to promote cooperation between organizations, was established in 1993. The CHA has requested affiliation to the International Hologram Manufacturers Association, a move which should improve the communication between the Chinese industry and the rest of the world industry.

  15. Dominant factors in controlling marine gas pools in South China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, S.; Watney, W.L.

    2007-01-01

    In marine strata from Sinian to Middle Triassic in South China, there develop four sets of regional and six sets of local source rocks, and ten sets of reservoir rocks. The occurrence of four main formation periods in association with five main reconstruction periods, results in a secondary origin for the most marine gas pools in South China. To improve the understanding of marine gas pools in South China with severely deformed geological background, the dominant control factors are discussed in this paper. The fluid sources, including the gas cracked from crude oil, the gas dissolved in water, the gas of inorganic origin, hydrocarbons generated during the second phase, and the mixed pool fluid source, were the most significant control factors of the types and the development stage of pools. The period of the pool formation and the reconstruction controlled the pool evolution and the distribution on a regional scale. Owing to the multiple periods of the pool formation and the reconstruction, the distribution of marine gas pools was complex both in space and in time, and the gas in the pools is heterogeneous. Pool elements, such as preservation conditions, traps and migration paths, and reservoir rocks and facies, also served as important control factors to marine gas pools in South China. Especially, the preservation conditions played a key role in maintaining marine oil and gas accumulations on a regional or local scale. According to several dominant control factors of a pool, the pool-controlling model can be constructed. As an example, the pool-controlling model of Sinian gas pool in Weiyuan gas field in Sichuan basin was summed up. ?? Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag 2007.

  16. Fbis report. Science and technology: China, August 18, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-18

    ;Contents: Impact of 1996-2010 World`s S&T Progress on China`s Social andEconomic Development; Microstructure of Nanocrystalline Materials; AFM Observation of Surface Nanoscale Lithography on Cadmium Stearate LB FilmStructure; Success in Inserting Anti-Bacteria Peptide Gene Into Rice; Achievements Made in Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences; ShanghaiCompletes Satellite/Computer Information Network System; Zhejiag University Holds International Virtual Reality Conference; China Develops First Domestic Automonous Underwater Robot; Reports on Diamond Thin Films; Beijing Telecom Expert Proposes Tactics for Developing `Capital Information Highway`; MPT To Build Jinan-Shijiazhuang- Taiyuan-Yinchuan Fiber Optic Cable; CAS Institute Unveils World-Class Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser; Tarium Oil Field Update; Three Largest Natural Gas Fields in Western China; World`s FirstS-Shaped Oil Well Goes Into Operation; China`s Largest Coastal Wind Power Gnerating Field--Nan`ao.

  17. Disturbance-induced reduction of biomass carbon sinks of China’s forests in recent years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunhua; Ju, Weimin; Chen, Jing M.; Wang, Xiqun; Yang, Lin; Zheng, Guang

    2015-11-01

    Forests play a critical role in mitigating climate change because of their high carbon storage and productivity. China has experienced a pronounced increase in forest area resulting from afforestation and reforestation activities since the 1970s. However, few comprehensive analyses have been made to assess the recent dynamics of biomass carbon sinks in China’s forests. This study refined biomass carbon sinks of China’s forests based on eight forest inventories from 1973 to 2013. These sinks increased from 25.0 to 166.5 Tg C yr?1 between 1973 and 2008, and then decreased to 130.9 Tg C yr?1 for the period of 2009–2013 because the increases in forest area and biomass carbon density became slower. About 7% and 93% of this sink reduction occurred in planted and natural forests. The carbon sinks for young, middle-aged and premature forests decreased by 27.3, 27.0, and 7.6 Tg C yr?1, respectively. 42% of this decrease was offset by mature and overmature forests. During 2009–2013, forest biomass carbon sinks decreased in all regions but the north and northwest regions. The drivers for changes of forest biomass sinks differ spatially. More intensive harvest of young and middle-aged forests and snow damage were the major drivers for the decreases of biomass carbon sinks in the east (8.0 Tg C yr?1) and south (19.8 Tg C yr?1) regions. The carbon sink reduction in the southwest region (16.7 Tg C yr?1) was mainly caused by increased timber harvesting and natural disturbances, such as droughts in Yunnan province, snow damage in Guizhou province and forest fires in Sichuan province. In the northeast region, the sink reduction occurred mainly in Heilongjiang province (7.9 Tg C yr?1) and was caused dominantly by the combined effects of diseases, windthrow and droughts. The carbon sink increase was primarily attributed to forest growth and decreased deforestation in the north (10.0 Tg C yr?1) and northwest (2.3 Tg C yr?1) regions.

  18. Organic Carbon Storage in China's Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shuqing; Zhu, Chao; Zhou, Decheng; Huang, Dian; Werner, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    China has been experiencing rapid urbanization in parallel with its economic boom over the past three decades. To date, the organic carbon storage in China's urban areas has not been quantified. Here, using data compiled from literature review and statistical yearbooks, we estimated that total carbon storage in China's urban areas was 577±60 Tg C (1 Tg ?=?1012 g) in 2006. Soil was the largest contributor to total carbon storage (56%), followed by buildings (36%), and vegetation (7%), while carbon storage in humans was relatively small (1%). The carbon density in China's urban areas was 17.1±1.8 kg C m?2, about two times the national average of all lands. The most sensitive variable in estimating urban carbon storage was urban area. Examining urban carbon storages over a wide range of spatial extents in China and in the United States, we found a strong linear relationship between total urban carbon storage and total urban area, with a specific urban carbon storage of 16 Tg C for every 1,000 km2 urban area. This value might be useful for estimating urban carbon storage at regional to global scales. Our results also showed that the fraction of carbon storage in urban green spaces was still much lower in China relative to western countries, suggesting a great potential to mitigate climate change through urban greening and green spaces management in China. PMID:23991014

  19. Monitoring southwest drought of China using HJ-1A/B and Landsat remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, He; Zhou, Hongjian; Wang, Ping; Wu, Wei; Yang, Siquan

    2012-10-01

    Drought is one major nature disaster in the world. The affected population and agriculture loss caused by drought are the largest in all natural disasters. Drought has the characteristics of wide affected areas, long duration and periodic strong feature. Remote sensing has the advantages of large coverage, frequent observation, repeatable observation, reliable information source and low cost. These advantages make remote sensing a vital contributor for drought disaster monitoring and forecasting. So, remote sensing data have been widely used and delivered significant benefits in drought prevention and reduction in China. Three drought monitor models including Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI) and Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) had been used to monitor southwest drought occurred in China from 2009 to 2011 based on the small satellite constellation for environment and disaster monitoring and forecasting A/B satellites (HJ-1AB) and Landsat remote sensing data. The results shown that five regions including Sichuan province, Chongqing, Guizhou province, Yunnan province, Guangxi province in southwest of China had suffered different degrees agricultural drought disaster in 2010 and 2011. The comprehensive agricultural disaster situation of five affected areas in 2010 was more serious than drought events occurred in 2011. The many regions in Guizhou province were hardest-hit areas cased by the two consecutive year drought events in southwest China.

  20. City as a major source area of fine particulate (PM2.5) in China.

    PubMed

    Han, Lijian; Zhou, Weiqi; Li, Weifeng

    2015-11-01

    The PM2.5 concentration in 31% of China's territorial areas was less than 10 ?g/m(3), and in 26% of China's territorial areas was higher than 35 ?g/m(3). High concentrations of PM2.5 were found in the East China Plain, Sichuan province, and the Taklimakan desert. East China Plain was also found with strong significant positive trends. 73% of artificial surface (L01) was found with significant positive trends, but only 2% with significant negative trends. 76% of cropland (L02) was observed with significant positive trends, but only 2% with significant negative trends. The mean significant trends of PM2.5 concentration were 1.81 ?g/m(3)·year for L01 and 1.71 ?g/m(3)·year for L02, higher than that for the rest land covers. The PM2.5 pollution brought potential health risk to susceptible population: only 1% of thm lives at a safe level (<10 ?g/m(3)), but 69% of them were exposed to heavy PM2.5 pollution (>35 ?g/m(3)). PMID:26176632

  1. China Dust

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:?? Fingerprints in the Dust ?? ?? ... Image These Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) nadir-camera images of eastern China compare a somewhat hazy summer view from ... from central Manchuria near the top to portions of North and South Korea at the bottom. They are approximately 380 kilometers in width. ...

  2. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Technical Assistance to Beichuan Reconstruction: Creating and Designing Low- to Zero-carbon Communities in New Beichuan, Sichuan Province

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang; Wang, Chuang; Hong, Tianzhen; Levine, Mark

    2009-10-29

    Beichuan county, located in north of Sichuan Province, was the most severely damaged township in last May's Sichuan earthquake. Reconstruction of a new Beichuan is a high-profiled project by the governments. In addition to constructing structurally-sound, quake-safe buildings in the new development, rebuilding Beichuan presents an opportunity for constructing new low- to zero-carbon communities in the region. In fact, building up greener communities in the reconstruction has become a top priority for the county, which, at an estimated 7 square km, is expected to have 50,000 residents in 2015 and 70,000 in 2020. The recent focus of construction projects is on the east side of the river, while land on its west bank will be reserved for development in the mid- to long-term. In the near term, a number of new public buildings are scheduled to be constructed starting in November 2009. As indicated by the deputy county chief, Mr. He Wang, the construction timeframe is unusually tight. Many buildings, although in various stages of planning and design, will be constructed starting in November 2009. Timely expert advice on design improvement and planning considerations will benefit the integration of energy efficiency and environmental benign elements in Beichuan's reconstruction, and will help promoting integrated development of green communities with low- to zero-carbon emission from the region.

  3. Where and how much : density scenarios for the residential build-out of Gaoming, China

    E-print Network

    Hu, Karen Jia Ying

    2005-01-01

    The author will use Gaoming District in the western part of China's Pearl River Delta (PRD) as an opportunity to examine the impact a range of residential densities along planned public transportation corridors can have ...

  4. Maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and perinatal outcomes in Inner Mongolia, China, Journal

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Bayingnormen is a region located in western Inner Mongolia China with a population that is exposed to a wide range of drinking water Arsenic concentrations. This study evaluated the relationship between maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and perinatal endpoints ...

  5. The first pilot compact CFB boiler with water cooled separator in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yue Guangxi; Li Yan; Lu Xiaoma; Zhang Yanguo; Liu Qing; Lu Junfu; Zhao Xiaoxing

    1997-12-31

    The square cyclone was experimentally investigated in Tsinghua University. The flow field in the cyclone was measured and numerically simulated. The investigation prove that the corner of square cyclone created turbulence to decrease the collection efficiency. The acceleration of solid particles at the inlet of the square cyclone was also a factor for good efficiency. The collection efficiency has been improved by a carefully designed curved inlet of the cyclone which received the patent in China. The patented water cooled cyclone was used in a design of improved 75 T/h CFB boiler. The demonstration of the boiler started test operation in April 1996 at Jianjiang Cement Co. in Sichuan Province. The first operation will be used for adjusting the boiler. Further tests will be done to confirm the performance of the boiler.

  6. An Evaluation on the Effect of Health Education and of Low-Dose Statin in Dyslipidemia among Low-Income Rural Uyghur Adults in Far Western China: A Comprehensive Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jiaolong; Guo, Shuxia; Ma, Rulin; Zhang, Jingyu; Liu, Jiaming; Ding, Yusong; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Heng; He, Jia; Yan, Yizhong; Mu, Lati; Li, Shugang; Niu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of comprehensive intervention by health education and medical intervention to dyslipidemia Uyghur patients in low-income rural areas in Xinjiang, China. Method: A multistaged (prefecture-county-township-village) stratified cluster random sampling method was used to select participants in southern Xinjiang. Twelve villages in Jiangbazi Township in Jiashi County were chosen. These villages were randomly divided into six intervention groups and six control groups, and local Uyghur aged 18 years or older residing in the village for at least 6 months were interviewed for a baseline prevalence study and to select participants for two years of comprehensive intervention including low dose simvastatin and the effects of the interventions were observed. Results: A total of 655 participants (347 participants in the intervention groups, 308 participants in the control groups) were randomly selected from 12 villages in Jiangbazi Township, follow-up rate is 87.0%. Compared to baseline mean levels of TG and LDL-C were reduced by 1.39 mmol/L (p < 0.01) and 2.12 mmol/L (p < 0.01) respectively and levels of HDL-C increased by1.22 mmol/L (p < 0.01) in the intervention group. Lipids were controlled in 38.61% of the intervention groups vs. 3.57% of the control groups (p < 0.01). Compared with baseline lipid levels, TG, TC, LDL-C and HDL-C was significantly improved, compared with it was in control groups. Conclusions: Blood lipid levels of Uygur patients with dyslipidemia can be effectively improved through health education combined with low-dose statin administration. This suggests that national strategies in public health be developed to improve the treatments to low-income rural minorities with dyslipidemia. PMID:26378561

  7. China (CNSA) views of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, S.

    China's lunar objectives have widely attracted the world's attention since China National Space Administration (CNSA) chief Luan Enjie in October 2000 officially affirmed the nation plans to carry out lunar exploration. The success of the Shenzhou-3 mission last April, which indicates that China is on the eve to become the third nation to attain an independent ability to launch humans into space, coupled with Chinese president Jiang Zemin's announcement issued immediately after the launch of SZ-3 that China will develop its own space station, further prompted the mass media in the West to ponder whether "the next footsteps on the Moon will be Chinese." Although China's lunar intention is well publicized, no detail about the project has yet been unveiled in the Western space media because China's space program has been notoriously cloaked in state-imposed secrecy, while the available information is basically unreported by Western observers mainly due to the cultural and language barriers. Based on original research of both the unpublished documents as well as reports in China's space media and professional journals, this paper attempts to piece together the available material gathered from China, providing some insight into China's Moon project, and analyzing the Chinese activities in pursuit of their lunar dream in perspective of space policy. Motivations China's presence on the Moon, in the Chinese leadership's view, could help aggrandize China's international prestige and consolidate the cohesion of the Chinese nation. Lunar exploration, the science community consents, not only helps acquire knowledge about the Moon, but also deepen the understanding of the Earth. A lunar project is believed to be able to accelerate the development of launching and navigating technologies, preparing for future deep space exploration. The emergence of the return to the Moon movement in the world, and the presumption that NASA has plans to return to the Moon, as evidenced by prominent Chinese space scientists' remarks, are also the driving forces for China's determination to reach the Moon. Preliminary Studies Although China did not begin preliminary studies for lunar exploration seriously until the early 1990s, approximately the same time when the human spaceflight Project 921 started, lunar studies have been carried out in the nation for a few decades. The Advancement of Selenology, completed in 1977 by a team led by Ouyang Ziyuan at the CAS Institute of Geochemistry in Guiyang, is probably the most important work on the subject published in China. Under the direction of the Project 863 Experts Committee, a team of scientists led by Ouyang Ziyuan and Zhu Guibo of China Aerospace Industry Corporation in 1993 began to study the feasibility and necessity of lunar exploration by China. Based on a comprehensive survey of the nation's space technology and infrastructures, the feasibility study completed in 1995 believed it was possible to orbit a lunar satellite by 2000. In April 1997, CAS members Yang Jiachi, Wang Daheng and Chen Fangyun issued the "Proposal for Development of Our Nation's Lunar Exploration Technology" as part of the Project 863. The research and development of robotic rovers for lunar exploration began the following year. In May 2000 and January 2001, Tsinghua University organized two symposia on lunar exploration technology. The third lunar conference was held in March 2001 at Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (BUAA) to discuss China's lunar exploration and human spaceflight in the 21st century. A feasibility study for China's lunar adventure was unveiled at the conference for the first time. Objectives and Scenarios The primary objective of the first stage of lunar exploration, according to the feasibility study, will be a comprehensive survey of the lunar surface through remote sensing. Based on this survey, areas for soft landings will be selected. Lunar rovers will further explore these areas to identify an ideal site for the construction of a lunar base. To achieve this goal, a fi

  8. Lithospheric structure and its relationship to seismic and volcanic activity in southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinli; Zhao, Dapeng; Zheng, Sihua

    2002-10-01

    The Sichuan-Yunnan region in southwest China is located in the boundary area between the active Tibetan Plateau to the west and the stable South China platform to the east. This region is characterized by complex Cenozoic structures and active seismotectonics. In this study, we have used over 30,000 arrival times from 1315 local earthquakes recorded by 172 seismic stations to determine a detailed three-dimensional (3-D) P wave velocity structure of the lithosphere down to 85 km depth in this region. We have taken into account the complex morphology of the Moho discontinuity to conduct the tomographic inversions, which leads to a better result than that with a flat Moho as in the previous studies. Our results show that large velocity variations of up to 7% exist in the crust and upper mantle in the Sichuan-Yunnan region. The velocity image of the upper crust correlates with the surface geological features. The Sichuan basin is imaged as a prominent low-velocity zone, while the Panzhihua mining district is imaged as a high-velocity feature. Velocity changes are visible across some of the large fault zones, and the faults and some large crustal earthquakes seem to occur at the boundary areas between slow and fast velocity anomalies. Some of the faults, such as the Red River fault, may have cut through the crust and reached up to the upper mantle. Under the Tengchong volcanic area, strong low-velocity zones are visible down to 85 km depth, with a lateral extent of about 100 km, suggesting the existence of magma chambers under the volcano. It is unclear how the Tengchong intraplate volcanism was generated. It may be related to the collision processes between the Indian plate, Burma microplate and the Eurasian plate, and the possible subduction of the Burma microplate under the Eurasian plate. Another possibility is that it was caused by the extensional fractures of the lithosphere and the upward intrusion of the hot asthenospheric materials. It is also possible that the Tengchong volcanism represents a hot spot with a lower mantle origin.

  9. Development of an UAS for post-earthquake disaster surveying and its application in Ms7.0 Lushan Earthquake, Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiqiang; Yang, Jiansi; Peng, Chaoyong; Wu, Ying; Jiang, Xudong; Li, Rui; Zheng, Yu; Gao, Yu; Liu, Sha; Tian, Baofeng

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of early impact analysis after a disaster is to produce georeferenced data about the affected areas, in support of humanitarian action. Crucial information is the identification of the disaster areas and the estimation of the number of people involved. Satellite imageries are mainly used as input data for early impact analysis in medium and large scale map. Analyses aimed at defining the damages of infrastructure and/or to facilities require suitable data, such as high resolution satellite images. Unfortunately, satellite images are not always available in a few days after the event. Therefore in situ surveys are preferred. Innovations in Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) have allowed them to become valuable tools in capturing and assessing the extents and amount of damages. Flexibility, safety, ease of operation, and relatively low-cost of ownership and operation facilitate UAS implementation in disaster situations. In this paper, an example of UAS was developed for rapidly obtaining disaster information. Data acquisition at specified scales was successfully performed with the chosen fixed-wing UAS. For the image analysis, a photogrammetric workflow was applied to cope with the very high resolution of the images acquired without ground control points. Tests showed that the system plays an important role in the work of investigating and gathering information about disaster in epicentral areas of the earthquake, such as road detection, secondary disaster investigation, and rapid disaster evaluation. It can effectively provide earthquake information to salvation headquarters for swiftly developing the relief measures and improving the efficiency of emergency rescue.

  10. Steinernema sichuanense n. sp. (Rhabditida, Steinernematidae), a new species of entomopathogenic nematode from the province of Sichuan, east Tibetan Mts., China.

    PubMed

    Mrácek, Zdenek; Nguyen, Khuong B; Tailliez, Patrick; Boemare, Noël; Chen, Shulong

    2006-11-01

    Steinernema sichuanense n. sp. is characterized by male, female and IJ. For male, the spicules are robust with prominent rostrum; gubernaculum has blunt anterior end; cuneus is arrow-shaped, pointed posteriorly. Second-generation male has a prominent mucron. For female, tail usually has one to four papillae-like projections on tail tip; post anal swelling is absent. For IJ, body length is about 710 microm; lateral field has six ridges; the formula of lateral field is 2, 5, 6, 4, 2 with two prominent submarginal ridges; tail usually has a dorsal depression. In Steinernema affine/intermedium group, the IJ of S. sichuanense n. sp. differs from S. affine by its absence of the internal tail spine; differs from Steinernema beddingi by its six ridges in lateral field compared to 4 for S. beddingi. For male mucron is absent in both generations of S. affine, S. intermedium and S. beddingi, whereas it is present in the second-generation of S. sichuanense sp. n. Morphology and morphometrics of spicules and gubernacula of the four species in S. affine/intermedium group are quite different based on SEM photographs. For female, the postanal swelling is absent in the first-generation of S. sichuanense n. sp. whereas S. affine and S. intermedium have slight swelling and S. beddingi has conspicuous swelling. The new species is further recognized by characterization of sequences of ITS and D2/D3 regions of the ribosomal DNA. The symbiotic bacterium associated to S. sichuanense belongs to the species Xenorhabdus bovienii. PMID:16934830

  11. Hydrochemical characteristics of hot spring waters in the Kangding district related to the Lushan MS = 7.0 earthquake in Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z.; Zhou, X.; Du, J.; Xie, C.; Liu, L.; Li, Y.; Yi, L.; Liu, H.; Cui, Y.

    2015-06-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of 10 hot springs in the Kangding district was investigated by analyzing cation and anion concentrations in the spring water. The water samples were collected in the 5 days after the Lushan MS = 7.0 earthquake, which occurred on 20 April 2013. The spring waters are classified into seven chemical types based on their hydrochemical compositions. Compared with hydrochemical data before the Lushan earthquake, concentrations of Ca2+, HCO3- and total dissolved solid (TDS) in water samples from the Guanding, Erdaoqiao, Gonghe, Erhaoying, Tianwanhe and Caoke springs significantly increased, which may be the result of a greater increase in groundwater from carbonate rocks, and water-carbonate rock interactions, enhanced by the increment of CO2. Concentrations of Na+, Cl- and SO42- in water samples from the Guanding, Zheduotang, Xinxing and Gonghe springs decreased, indicating a dilution of shallow waters. Concentrations of Na+ and SO42- in water samples from the Erhaoying spring water increased, which may be attributed to water-granite interactions enhanced by H2S. The results indicated that hydrochemical components of spring water could be used as an effective indicator for earthquakes.

  12. Geochronology and geochemistry of late Paleozoic volcanic rocks on the western margin of the Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range Massif, NE China: Implications for the amalgamation history of the Xing'an and Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range massifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Feng; Tang, Jie; Pei, Fu-Ping; Wang, Zi-Jin

    2014-09-01

    We here elucidate the tectonic evolution of the Xing'an and Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range massifs during the early Carboniferous-early Permian, based on zircon U-Pb dating and whole-rock geochemical analyses of volcanic rocks of the Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range Massif in the Sunwu area, Heilongjiang Province, NE China. Euhedral-subeuhedral zircons from three rhyolites and one dacite from the study area display fine-scale oscillatory growth zoning, indicating a magmatic origin. Zircon U-Pb dating by LA-ICP-MS indicates that these acidic volcanic rocks formed in the early Carboniferous-early Permian; i.e., early Carboniferous (~ 351 Ma), early late Carboniferous (~ 319 Ma), and early Permian (295-293 Ma). The early Carboniferous rhyolites exhibit chemical affinities to A-type rhyolites, implying an extensional environment. Their positive ?Hf(t) values (+ 8.67 to + 13.4 except for one spot of + 1.63) and Hf two-stage model ages (TDM2 = 562-988 Ma) indicate that the primary magma was possibly derived from partial melting of newly accreted continental crust. The early late Carboniferous rhyolites and dacites (~ 319 Ma) exhibit calc-alkaline peraluminous signature [molar Al2O3/(CaO + K2O + Na2O) ratio, or A/CNK = 1.04-1.22]. The ?Hf(t) values and TDM2 ages of zircons from the 319 Ma dacites are in the range of + 5.33 to + 9.32 and 907-1268 Ma, respectively, suggesting that the primary magma was derived from partial melting of newly accreted crust. The early Permian rhyolites (295-293 Ma) show chemical affinities to A-type rhyolites, implying an extensional tectonic environment; their positive ?Hf(t) values (+ 8.82 to + 13.8) and Hf two-stage model ages (484-743 Ma) indicate that the primary magma was derived from partial melting of newly accreted crust. Combined with the geochemical features of coeval igneous rocks from the eastern margin of the Xing'an Massif, these data reveal the late Paleozoic tectonic history and relationships of the Xing'an and Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range massifs, i.e., early Carboniferous westward subduction of the Paleo-Asian oceanic plate beneath the Xing'an Massif, followed by early late Carboniferous collision and amalgamation of microcontinental blocks, and early Permian post-collisional extension.

  13. The epilog of the western paleo-Pacific subduction: Inferred from spatial and temporal variations and geochemistry of the Late Cretaceous to Early Cenozoic silicic magmatism in coastal South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng-Hong; Lee, Chi-Yu; Shinjo, Ryuichi

    2016-01-01

    The Late Cretaceous to Early Cenozoic magmatism in the South China coastal area produced some amounts of rhyolitic rocks in two phases, which may be used to unravel the geohistory of the epilog of the paleo-Pacific plate subduction system. Essence of the Phase I rocks is the high temperature rhyolite (A-type)-trachydacite association in north Fujian (95-91 Ma) that was coeval with regional A-type granites. They succeeded the vast rhyolite-dacite-andesite (RDA) associations and I-type granitoids (113.5-96 Ma) and preceded the silicic-dominating rhyolite/basalt bimodal suites or monolithologic rhyolite in Zhejiang (89-86 Ma). Phase II rocks include (a) the RDA association or rhyolite alone in some drifted continental fragments nearby (83-56 Ma) and (b) the following rift-basin related rhyolite-trachyte/basalt bimodal suites in Guangdong and west Taiwan (56-38 Ma). The silicic volcanism, spatially changed from a NE-SW to the nearly E-W direction after 83 Ma, may reflect tectonic-driven eruptions occurred in the post-orogenic extensional (Phase I), resumed plate subducting (Phase IIa) and continental margin rifting (Phase IIb) stages. Rhyolitic rocks basically are shoshonitic to high-K calc-alkaline affinities while the Phase IIa RDA associations are mostly concentrated in the high-K to medium-K calc-alkaline series. All these rocks generally possess a continental arc character in tectonic discrimination diagrams, except shoshonitic rocks that have within-plate signatures. Based on the trace element and Nd-Pb isotope data, A-type rocks are suggested to have derived from mixing between trachydacitic (or syenitic) magmas and crustal melts of various sources under the high temperature condition (±metasomatism), and the succeeding silicic rocks are derivatives of the contaminated lithospheric mantle melts through crystal fractionation. On the other hand, Phase II silicic rocks are mainly the fractionation products of mafic magmas originated either from the lithospheric or the asthenospheric mantle. In reflection to such magmatotectonics with time, break-off of the subducted slab shortly before 113.5 Ma, change of the plate-moving direction between 86 and 83 Ma, and termination of plate movement probably at ?56 Ma signify the epilog of the paleo-Pacific plate.

  14. Traveling Theory: The Dissemination and Transformation of Educational Narrative Inquiry in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Cai-xia

    2010-01-01

    Educational narrative inquiry has gained popularity since it was exported to China at the end of 1990s. The journey of educational narrative inquiry from western countries to China experiences four typical stages of the way any theory or idea traveling, which was put forward by Edward W. Said in 1983. The new curriculum reform and the trends of…

  15. Friend or Foe: The Impact of Undergraduate Teaching Evaluation in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John Chi-Kin; Huang, Yvonne Xianhan; Zhong, Binglin

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance in higher education has been an important issue not only in western countries but also in China. This study, based on Harman's framework, analyses the features and implementation of undergraduate teaching evaluation (UTE) through case studies of four different universities in Guangdong province, southern China. The findings…

  16. Book reviews Benjamin A. Elman, On Their Own Terms: Science in China, 15501900 and A Cultural

    E-print Network

    Elman, Benjamin

    of a Scientific Principle. By Kent W. Staley 455 Arthur I. Miller, Empire of the Stars: Obsession, Friendship.1017/S0007087407000039 When China and Japan went to war in 1894 many foreigners predicted a Chinese the acquisition of Western scientific and technical expertise. China's forces were well equipped with modern

  17. Upper mantle seismic velocities and anisotropy in China determined through Pn and Sn tomography

    E-print Network

    Rowe, Charlotte

    in western China. Particularly high velocities are associated with old basins (for example, Tarim, Junggar the remaining material has diverted northwestward beneath the Tarim Basin. Citation: Pei, S., J. Zhao, Y. Sun, Z Plateau and the North-South Seismic Zone (along 103°E). In Tarim and central China where we observe strong

  18. Decadal summer drought frequency in China: the increasing influence of the

    E-print Network

    Yu, Jin-Yi

    Decadal summer drought frequency in China: the increasing influence of the Atlantic Multi November 2014 Published 2 December 2014 Abstract Decadal variations in summer drought events during 1956 is found to dominate China drought frequency from the 1960s to early 1990s via modulating the Western

  19. Outsourcing CO2 within China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Kuishuang; Davis, Steven J.; Sun, Laixiang; Li, Xin; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Hubacek, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the high standard of living enjoyed by people in the richest countries often comes at the expense of CO2 emissions produced with technologies of low efficiency in less affluent, developing countries. Less apparent is that this relationship between developed and developing can exist within a single country’s borders, with rich regions consuming and exporting high-value goods and services that depend upon production of low-cost and emission-intensive goods and services from poorer regions in the same country. As the world’s largest emitter of CO2, China is a prominent and important example, struggling to balance rapid economic growth and environmental sustainability across provinces that are in very different stages of development. In this study, we track CO2 emissions embodied in products traded among Chinese provinces and internationally. We find that 57% of China’s emissions are related to goods that are consumed outside of the province where they are produced. For instance, up to 80% of the emissions related to goods consumed in the highly developed coastal provinces are imported from less developed provinces in central and western China where many low–value-added but high–carbon-intensive goods are produced. Without policy attention to this sort of interprovincial carbon leakage, the less developed provinces will struggle to meet their emissions intensity targets, whereas the more developed provinces might achieve their own targets by further outsourcing. Consumption-based accounting of emissions can thus inform effective and equitable climate policy within China. PMID:23754377

  20. Petrogenesis of the Yaochong granite and Mo deposit, Western Dabie orogen, eastern-central China: Constraints from zircon U-Pb and molybdenite Re-Os ages, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Xu, Zhaowen; Qiu, Wenhong; Li, Chao; Yu, Yang; Wang, Hao; Su, Yang

    2015-05-01

    The Dabie orogen is among the most famous continent-continent collisional orogenic belts in the world, and is characterized by intensive post-collisional extension, magmatism and Mo mineralization. However, the genetic links between the mineralization and the geodynamic evolution of the orogen remain unresolved. In this paper, the Yaochong Mo deposit and its associated granitic stocks were investigated to elucidate this issue. Our new zircon U-Pb ages yielded an Early Cretaceous age (133.3 ± 1.3 Ma) for the Yaochong granite, and our molybdenite Re-Os dating gave a similar age (135 ± 1 Ma) for the Mo deposit. The Yaochong stock is characterized by high silica and alkali but low Mg, Fe and Ca. It is enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and large ion lithophile elements (LILEs: Rb, K, Th and U), but strongly depleted in heavy REEs, and high field strength elements (HFSEs: Nb, Ta, Ti and Y). The Yaochong granite has initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7087-0.7096, and Pb isotopic ratios of (206Pb/204Pb)i = 16.599-16.704, (207Pb/204Pb)i = 15.170-15.618 and (208Pb/204Pb)i = 36.376-38.248. The granite has ?Nd(t) of -18.0 to -16.3 and ?Hf(t) values of -26.5 to -20.0. All these data indicate that the Yaochong granite is a high-K calc-alkaline fractionated I-type granite, and may have originated from partial melting of the thickened Yangtze continental crust. The Mo ores also show low radiogenic Pb isotopes similar to the Yaochong stock. Medium Re content in molybdenite (21.8-74.8 ppm) also suggests that the ore-forming materials were derived from the thickened lower crust with possibly minor mixing with the mantle. Similar to the Eastern Dabie orogen, the thickened crust beneath the Western Dabie orogen may also have experienced tectonic collapse, which may have exerted fundamental geodynamic controls on the two-stage Mo mineralization in the region.

  1. Western White Pine

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A western white pine (Pinus monticola) in Kings Canyon National Park, Calif., towers over USGS ecologist Nathan Stephenson. Scientists analyzed data from 403 species of trees from around the world -- including western white pine (Pinus monticola), pictured here -- and learned that in general, a tre...

  2. Pathways of sulfate enhancement by natural and anthropogenic mineral aerosols in China

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xin; Song, Yu; Zhao, Chun; Li, Mengmeng; Zhu, Tong; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2014-12-27

    China, the world’s largest consumer of coal, emits approximately 30 million tons of sulfur dioxide (SO?) per year. SO? is subsequently oxidized to sulfate in the atmosphere. However, large gaps exist between model-predicted and measured sulfate levels in China. Long-term field observations and numerical simulations were integrated to investigate the effect of mineral aerosols on sulfate formation. We found that mineral aerosols contributed a nationwide average of approximately 22% to sulfate production in 2006. The increased sulfate concentration was approximately 2 ?g m?³ in the entire China. In East China and the Sichuan Basin, the increments reached 6.3 ?g m?³ and 7.3 ?g m?³, respectively. Mineral aerosols led to faster SO? oxidation through three pathways. First, more SO? was dissolved as cloud water alkalinity increased due to water-soluble mineral cations. Sulfate production was then enhanced through the aqueous-phase oxidation of S(IV) (dissolved sulfur in oxidation state +4). The contribution to the national sulfate production was 5%. Second, sulfate was enhanced through S(IV) catalyzed oxidation by transition metals. The contribution to the annual sulfate production was 8%, with 19% during the winter that decreased to 2% during the summer. Third, SO? reacts on the surface of mineral aerosols to produce sulfate. The contribution to the national average sulfate concentration was 9% with 16% during the winter and a negligible effect during the summer. The inclusion of mineral aerosols does resolve model discrepancies with sulfate observations in China, especially during the winter. These three pathways, which are not fully considered in most current chemistry-climate models, will significantly impact assessments regarding the effects of aerosol on climate change in China.

  3. Pathways of sulfate enhancement by natural and anthropogenic mineral aerosols in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xin; Song, Yu; Zhao, Chun; Li, Mengmeng; Zhu, Tong; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2014-12-01

    China, the world's largest consumer of coal, emits approximately 30 million tons of sulfur dioxide (SO2) per year. SO2 is subsequently oxidized to sulfate in the atmosphere. However, large gaps exist between model-predicted and measured sulfate levels in China. Long-term field observations and numerical simulations were integrated to investigate the effect of mineral aerosols on sulfate formation. We found that mineral aerosols contributed a nationwide average of approximately 22% to sulfate production in 2006. The increased sulfate concentration was approximately 2 µg m-3 in the entire China. In East China and the Sichuan Basin, the increments reached 6.3 µg m-3 and 7.3 µg m-3, respectively. Mineral aerosols led to faster SO2 oxidation through three pathways. First, more SO2 was dissolved as cloud water alkalinity increased due to water-soluble mineral cations. Sulfate production was then enhanced through the aqueous-phase oxidation of S(IV) (dissolved sulfur in oxidation state +4). The contribution to the national sulfate production was 5%. Second, sulfate was enhanced through S(IV) catalyzed oxidation by transition metals. The contribution to the annual sulfate production was 8%, with 19% during the winter that decreased to 2% during the summer. Third, SO2 reacts on the surface of mineral aerosols to produce sulfate. The contribution to the national average sulfate concentration was 9% with 16% during the winter and a negligible effect during the summer. The inclusion of mineral aerosols does resolve model discrepancies with sulfate observations in China, especially during the winter. These three pathways, which are not fully considered in most current chemistry-climate models, will significantly impact assessments regarding the effects of aerosol on climate change in China.

  4. Understanding China`s nuclear non-proliferation policy

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, P.J.

    1999-06-01

    China`s nuclear-export activities appear to contradict its official non-proliferation policy. Scrutiny of China`s nuclear exports and non- proliferation commitments indicate an adherence to strict `letter-of-the-law` obligations. Yet, China`s commitment to the norms and values of the non- proliferation regime is controversial. The difference between China`s legal obligations and the international norms of acceptable export behavior is a function of the ambiguity inherent in international treaties and agreements. Stephen Meyer`s motivational hypothesis is used to evaluate China`s nuclear-export decision-making process. China`s motivational profile created by the combination of 16 incentives and disincentives on one hand, and international and domestic conditions on the other. Two case studies are used to illustrate that this profile is not static. As environmental conditions and China`s national priorities change, so does China`s motivational profile. In the past, U. S. attempts to alter China`s nuclear-export activities were successful when the targeted changes were congruent with China`s national priorities. For the United States to influence China`s future nuclear-export activities, it must first understand China`s national priorities and determine the corresponding export motivations that influence China`s decision-making process. The United States should then work to change conditions, which would shift the balance of incentives and disincentives, thereby changing the outcome of China`s cost-benefit calculus.

  5. Financial compensation for deceased organ donation in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoliang; Fang, Qiang

    2013-06-01

    In March 2010, China launched a pilot programme of deceased donor organ donation in 10 provinces and cities. However, the deceased donor donation rate in China remains significantly lower than in Spain and other Western countries. In order to provide incentive for deceased donor organ donation, five pilot provinces and cities have subsequently launched a financial compensation policy. Financial compensation can be considered to include two main forms, the 'thank you' form and the 'help' form. The 'thank you' form is an expression of gratitude on behalf of the Red Cross Society of China for consenting to donation. The 'help' form is social welfare support for needy families. PMID:23322684

  6. Factors Affecting Regional Per-Capita Carbon Emissions in China Based on an LMDI Factor Decomposition Model

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Feng; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Qingliang

    2013-01-01

    China is considered to be the main carbon producer in the world. The per-capita carbon emissions indicator is an important measure of the regional carbon emissions situation. This study used the LMDI factor decomposition model–panel co-integration test two-step method to analyze the factors that affect per-capita carbon emissions. The main results are as follows. (1) During 1997, Eastern China, Central China, and Western China ranked first, second, and third in the per-capita carbon emissions, while in 2009 the pecking order changed to Eastern China, Western China, and Central China. (2) According to the LMDI decomposition results, the key driver boosting the per-capita carbon emissions in the three economic regions of China between 1997 and 2009 was economic development, and the energy efficiency was much greater than the energy structure after considering their effect on restraining increased per-capita carbon emissions. (3) Based on the decomposition, the factors that affected per-capita carbon emissions in the panel co-integration test showed that Central China had the best energy structure elasticity in its regional per-capita carbon emissions. Thus, Central China was ranked first for energy efficiency elasticity, while Western China was ranked first for economic development elasticity. PMID:24353753

  7. Factors affecting regional per-capita carbon emissions in China based on an LMDI factor decomposition model.

    PubMed

    Dong, Feng; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Qingliang

    2013-01-01

    China is considered to be the main carbon producer in the world. The per-capita carbon emissions indicator is an important measure of the regional carbon emissions situation. This study used the LMDI factor decomposition model-panel co-integration test two-step method to analyze the factors that affect per-capita carbon emissions. The main results are as follows. (1) During 1997, Eastern China, Central China, and Western China ranked first, second, and third in the per-capita carbon emissions, while in 2009 the pecking order changed to Eastern China, Western China, and Central China. (2) According to the LMDI decomposition results, the key driver boosting the per-capita carbon emissions in the three economic regions of China between 1997 and 2009 was economic development, and the energy efficiency was much greater than the energy structure after considering their effect on restraining increased per-capita carbon emissions. (3) Based on the decomposition, the factors that affected per-capita carbon emissions in the panel co-integration test showed that Central China had the best energy structure elasticity in its regional per-capita carbon emissions. Thus, Central China was ranked first for energy efficiency elasticity, while Western China was ranked first for economic development elasticity. PMID:24353753

  8. Western producers face tougher competitors, foreign and domestic

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.

    1985-03-01

    This article discusses the domestic and international market for Western coal. Western coal's competitive marketing position is being eroded by a number of problems created not only by forces within the US but by international forces as well. On the domestic front, high transportation cost, acid rain legislation, electricity imports from Canada, and cogeneration are challenges the industry must address if it is to remain competitive. Internationally, competition from Australia, Canada, Poland, South Africa, Colombia and China are a real threat to the US coal export market, east and west. Some have gained the competive edge and are exporting coal into the US.

  9. China's Radio and TV Universities: Reflections on Theory and Practice of Open and Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Runfang

    2010-01-01

    Distance education and open learning are western innovations, representing the educational concepts, cultures and societies of western countries. The introduction of distance education and the adoption of open learning in China's radio and TV universities are by no means an indication that they will and can be copied wholesale. Open and distance…

  10. Malnutrition in China's Rural Boarding Schools: The Case of Primary Schools in Shaanxi Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to document the nature of boarding schools and empirically analyse the difference in nutrition intake and malnutrition status between boarding and non-boarding students in western rural China. By using two data sets on boarding schools and boarding students in Shaanxi Province, a representative province in western

  11. Genetic diversity of Saccharum spontaneum from geographical regions of China assessed by simple sequence repeats.

    PubMed

    Fan, L N; Deng, H H; Luo, Q W; He, H Y; Li, Y; Wang, Q N; Huang, Z X; Wu, J T; Li, Q W; Liu, S M; Qi, Y W

    2013-01-01

    Saccharum spontaneum is the most variable wild relative of sugarcane with potential for use in sugarcane improvement programs. In order to help preserve and exploit this species, 152 accessions from eight major geographical regions in China, including Hainan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Fujian, and Jiangxi provinces, were investigated by analyzing 20 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), including 11 genomic SSRs (gSSRs) and nine SSRs developed from expressed sequence tags (EST-SSRs). A total of 454 alleles were generated by the 20 SSRs, with 295 and 159 alleles detected by gSSRs and EST-SSRs respectively. The Mantel test showed significant correlation between genetic matrixes among the studied accessions revealed by gSSRs versus EST-SSRs, although the average polymorphism of EST-SSRs (17.7) was much lower than that of gSSRs (26.8). Among the eight provinces, collections from Guizhou were the most diverse and those from Guangdong were the most distinct. Clustering analysis and principal component analysis accordantly classified the accessions into four groups, which were "Southwest group", "Hainan group", "Guangdong group", and "Guangxi group", based on the geographical origin of the major accessions in each group, demonstrating that geographical factors play an important role in the pattern of genetic structure of Chinese S. spontaneum. As two (Guizhou and Yunnan) of the three provinces with highest genetic diversity are located in southwest China, we concluded that southwest China is the region with the highest genetic diversity of S. spontaneum. PMID:24338385

  12. The spatial distribution characteristics of a comprehensive drought risk index in southwestern China and underlying causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Lanying; Zhang, Qiang; Ma, Pengli; Jia, Jianying; Wang, Jinsong

    2015-03-01

    Drought is a serious problem in southwestern China, where drought risk exceeds the national average. Climate change is likely to exacerbate the problem, thereby endangering China's food security. In this paper, we used the analytic hierarchy process and meteorological, geographic, soil, and remote-sensing data to develop a drought risk assessment model based on the drought hazard, environmental vulnerability, sensitivity and exposure of the values at risk, and capacity to prevent or mitigate the problem. Using the model, we assessed the drought risk (defined using a comprehensive drought risk index, R) and its spatial distribution in southwestern China and revealed complex zonality. The eastern part of the study area had an extremely high risk, and risk was generally greater in the north than in the south, and increased from southwest to northeast. The comprehensive risk (R) was lowest in Yunnan province. It was highest in Sichuan Province and Chongqing Municipality. The contribution of the risk factors to R was highest for the capacity for prevention and mitigation, followed by the drought hazard, sensitivity and exposure, and environmental vulnerability.

  13. China: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that interest remains focused on the Tarim, Turpan and Junggar basins in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of far western China as areas which will provide significant new reserves for the country to take it into the 21st century. In a surprising move earlier this year, China National Petroleum Corp. (CNPC) opened discussions with foreign companies concerning their participation in E and P operations in Xinjiang. Previously, CNPC had indicated offshore E and P by foreigners would be restricted to 11 southern provinces which were offered several years ago, but which attracted little interest. The first foreign company into the Tarim area will apparently be Japan National Oil Corp. which last spring agreed to spend more than $49 million on seismic surveys over 4 -1/2 years. Parker Drilling Co., Tulsa, Oklahoma, also will return to the Tarim area where it drilled directional wells several years ago to cap a number of blowouts in Kekeya field located in the so