Sample records for western sichuan china

  1. Modelling and spatial discrimination of small mammal assemblages: an example from western Sichuan (China).

    PubMed

    Vaniscotte, Amélie; Pleydell, David; Raoul, Francis; Quéré, Jean Pierre; Jiamin, Qiu; Wang, Qian; Tiaoying, Li; Bernard, Nadine; Coeurdassier, Michael; Delattre, Pierre; Takahashi, Kenichi; Weidmann, Jean-Christophe; Giraudoux, Patrick

    2009-05-17

    We investigate the relationship between landscape heterogeneity and the spatial distribution of small mammals in two areas of Western Sichuan, China. Given a large diversity of species trapped within a large number of habitats, we first classified small mammal assemblages and then modelled the habitat of each in the space of quantitative environmental descriptors. Our original two step "classify then model" procedure is appropriate for the frequently encountered study scenario: trapping data collected in remote areas with sampling guided by expert field knowledge.In the classification step, we defined assemblages by grouping sites of similar species composition and relative densities using an expert-class-merging procedure which reduced redundancy in the habitat factor used within a multinomial logistic regression predicting species trapping probabilities. Assemblages were thus defined as mixtures of small mammal frequency distributions in discrete groups of sampled sites.In the modelling step, assemblages' habitats and environments of the two sampled areas were discriminated in the space of remotely sensed environmental descriptors. First, we compared the discrimination of assemblage/study areas by linear and non-linear forms of Discriminant Analysis (Linear Discriminant Analysis versus Mixture Discriminant Analysis) and of Multiple Regression (Generalized Linear Models versus Multiple Adaptive Regression Splines). The "best" predictive modelling technique was then used to quantify the contribution of each environmental variable in discriminations of assemblages and areas.Mixtures of Gaussians provided a more efficient model of assemblage coverage in environmental space than a single Gaussian cluster model. However, non-linearity in assemblage response to environmental gradients was consistently predicted with lower deviance and misclassification error by Multiple Adaptive Regression Splines. The two study areas were mainly discriminated along vegetation indices. However, although the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) could discriminate forested from non-forested habitats, its power to discriminate assemblages in Maerkang, where a greater diversity of forest habitat was observed, was seen to be limited, and in this case NDVI was outperformed by the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). Our analyses highlight previously unobserved differences between the environments and small mammal communities of two fringe areas of the Tibetan plateau and suggests that a biogeograph-ical approach is required to elucidate ecological processes in small mammal communities and to reduce extrapolation uncertainty in distribution mapping. PMID:20161274

  2. Sichuan Earthquake in China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Sichuan earthquake in China occurred on May 12, 2008, along faults within the mountains, but near and almost parallel the mountain front, northwest of the city of Chengdu. This major quake caused immediate and severe damage to many villages and cities in the area. Aftershocks pose a continuing danger, but another continuing hazard is the widespread occurrence of landslides that have formed new natural dams and consequently new lakes. These lakes are submerging roads and flooding previously developed lands. But an even greater concern is the possible rapid release of water as the lakes eventually overflow the new dams. The dams are generally composed of disintegrated rock debris that may easily erode, leading to greater release of water, which may then cause faster erosion and an even greater release of water. This possible 'positive feedback' between increasing erosion and increasing water release could result in catastrophic debris flows and/or flooding. The danger is well known to the Chinese earthquake response teams, which have been building spillways over some of the new natural dams.

    This ASTER image, acquired on June 1, 2008, shows two of the new large landslide dams and lakes upstream from the town of Chi-Kua-Kan at 32o12'N latitude and 104o50'E longitude. Vegetation is green, water is blue, and soil is grayish brown in this enhanced color view. New landslides appear bright off-white. The northern (top) lake is upstream from the southern lake. Close inspection shows a series of much smaller lakes in an elongated 'S' pattern along the original stream path. Note especially the large landslides that created the dams. Some other landslides in this area, such as the large one in the northeast corner of the image, occur only on the mountain slopes, so do not block streams, and do not form lakes.

  3. [Canopy interception of sub-alpine dark coniferous communities in western Sichuan, China].

    PubMed

    Lü, Yu-liang; Liu, Shi-rong; Sun, Peng-sen; Liu, Xing-liang; Zhang, Rui-pu

    2007-11-01

    Based on field measurements of throughfall and stemflow in combination with climatic data collected from the meteorological station adjacent to the studied sub-alpine dark coniferous forest in Wolong, Sichuan Province, canopy interception of sub-alpine dark coniferous forests was analyzed and modeled at both stand scale and catchment scale. The results showed that monthly interception rate of Fargesia nitida, Bashania fangiana--Abies faxoniana old-growth ranged from 33% Grass to 72%, with the average of 48%. In growing season, there was a linear or powerful or exponential relationship between rainfall and interception an. a negative exponential relationship between rainfall and interception rate. The mean maximum canopy interception by the vegetation in the catchment of in.44 km was 1.74 ment and the significant differences among the five communities occurred in the following sequence: Moss-Fargesia nitida, Bashan afanglana-A. faxoniana stand > Grass-F. nitida, B. fangiana-A. faxoniana stand > Moss-Rhododendron spp.-A. faxoniana stand > Grass-Rh. spp.-A. faxoniana stand > Rh. spp. shrub. In addition, a close linear relationship existed between leaf area index (LAI) and maximum canopy interception. The simulated value of canopy interception rate, maximum canopy interception rate and addition interception rate of the vegetation in the catchment were 39%, 25% and 14%, respectively. Simulation of the canopy interception model was better at the overall growing season scale, that the mean relative error was 9%-14%. PMID:18260438

  4. The anomalous lithium isotopic signature of Himalayan collisional zone carbonatites in western Sichuan, SW China: Enriched mantle source and petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Shihong; Hou, Zengqian; Su, Aina; Qiu, Lin; Mo, Xuanxue; Hou, Kejun; Zhao, Yue; Hu, Wenjie; Yang, Zhusen

    2015-06-01

    Lithium concentrations and isotopic compositions of 38 carbonatites and associated syenites from the Maoniuping, Lizhuang, and Dalucao in western Sichuan, along with previously published and new Pb-Sr-Nd-C-O isotope data and whole-rock analyses, are used to constrain their mantle source and genesis. Carbonatites and syenites are characterized by extremely varying Li concentrations (0.8-120 ppm) and highly variable Li isotopic compositions (-4.5‰ to +10.8‰). Among them, the majority of the carbonatites and syenites have ?7Li values between +0.2‰ and +5.8‰, which overlap with the reported values for MORB and OIB; 3 carbonatites have higher ?7Li values between +8.7‰ and +10.8‰; 5 carbonatites and 4 syenites have lighter ?7Li values between -4.5‰ and -0.3‰. These highly variable ?7Li compositions could not have been produced by diffusive-driven isotopic fractionation of Li and thus may record the isotopic signature of the late Proterozoic subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). This paper demonstrates the existence of anomalous ?7Li within the late Proterozoic subcontinental lithospheric mantle, suggesting that the ancient SCLM beneath western Sichuan was modified by interaction with fluids derived from the subducted oceanic crust and marine sediments. The modeling curves of fluids derived from a dehydrated slab (ratios: AOC80-SED20 to AOC40-SED60) with a representative mantle composition can account for the majority of lithium compositional variations. Some samples with unusual Pb-Sr-Nd-O isotopic compositions and highly variable ?7Li compositions are affected by significant involvement of marine sediments in their source region, not contaminated by crustal materials. The carbonatites and syenites in western Sichuan were generated by the partial melting of subcontinental lithospheric mantle, which was metasomatized by the Li-rich fluids derived from the subducted oceanic crust and marine sediments. This melting was most likely triggered by a Cenozoic asthenospheric mantle diapir related to Indian-Asian continental collision and post- or late-collisional stress relaxation in the Oligocene.

  5. Echinococcus granulosus Infection and Options for Control of Cystic Echinococcosis in Tibetan Communities of Western Sichuan Province, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Rong Yang; Donald P. McManus; Yan Huang; David D. Heath

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundHuman cystic echinococcosis (CE) is highly endemic in the Tibetan regions of Sichuan where most families keep guard dogs and where there are considerable numbers of ownerless\\/stray dogs. Strong Buddhist beliefs do not allow for elimination of stray dogs, and many strays are actually fed and adopted by households or monasteries. On account of the high altitude (3900–5000 m), pasturage

  6. The effects of China's environmental protection policies on pasture quality and the activities of small-scale herders in Songpan County, Western Sichuan.

    PubMed

    Veeck, Gregory; Li, Zhou; Yu, Fawen; Emerson, Charles

    2015-06-01

    Since 2000, there has been an ambitious governmental effort to protect China's grassland resources through new, often controversial, policies and programs backed up by massive capital investments and subsidies. The policies are intended to protect pastoral ecological systems while allowing the pasture-based husbandry sector to continue to evolve in ways that assure acceptable revenues to affected families and regions. This article reports results of a case study conducted in Songpan County of western Sichuan during the fall of 2013 specifically focused on these issues and interactions. The mixed-method research combines remotely sensed MODIS vegetation indices (EVI), livestock counts by type, and grassland area estimates at the township scale from 2000-2012, with depth interviews with local herding families and husbandry officials to determine how the husbandry sector has changed in the past 12 years under post-2000 policy interventions. Results for Songpan indicate that pasture coverage has improved slightly as grazing livestock density per hectare declined, but herders and local officials report that some of the new laws and programs have important unanticipated negative impacts on pasture quality, pasture ecology, and economic returns from herding for some families. PMID:25995138

  7. Genetic diversity and differentiation of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) population in western Sichuan, China, based on the second exon of the major histocompatibility complex class II DQB (MhcMamu-DQB1) alleles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstracts Background Rhesus macaques living in western Sichuan, China, have been separated into several isolated populations due to habitat fragmentation. Previous studies based on the neutral or nearly neutral markers (mitochondrial DNA or microsatellites) showed high levels of genetic diversity and moderate genetic differentiation in the Sichuan rhesus macaques. Variation at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci is widely accepted as being maintained by balancing selection, even with a low level of neutral variability in some species. However, in small and isolated or bottlenecked populations, balancing selection may be overwhelmed by genetic drift. To estimate microevolutionary forces acting on the isolated rhesus macaque populations, we examined genetic variation at Mhc-DQB1 loci in 119 wild rhesus macaques from five geographically isolated populations in western Sichuan, China, and compared the levels of MHC variation and differentiation among populations with that previously observed at neutral microsatellite markers. Results 23 Mamu-DQB1 alleles were identified in 119 rhesus macaques in western Sichuan, China. These macaques exhibited relatively high levels of genetic diversity at Mamu-DQB1. The Hanyuan population presented the highest genetic variation, whereas the Heishui population was the lowest. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and pairwise FST values showed moderate genetic differentiation occurring among the five populations at the Mhc-DQB1 locus. Non-synonymous substitutions occurred at a higher frequency than synonymous substitutions in the peptide binding region. Levels of MHC variation within rhesus macaque populations are concordant with microsatellite variation. On the phylogenetic tree for the rhesus and crab-eating macaques, extensive allele or allelic lineage sharing is observed betweenthe two species. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses confirm the apparent trans-species model of evolution of the Mhc-DQB1 genes in these macaques. Balancing selection plays an important role in sharing allelic lineages between species, but genetic drift may share balancing selection dominance to maintain MHC diversity. Great divergence at neutral or adaptive markers showed that moderate genetic differentiation had occurred in rhesus macaque populations in western Sichuan, China, due to the habitat fragmentation caused by long-term geographic barriers and human activity. The Heishui population should be paid more attention for its lowest level of genetic diversity and relatively great divergence from others. PMID:24930092

  8. Three dimensional surface displacement of the Sichuan earthquake (Mw 7.9, China) from Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcello de Michele; Daniel Raucoules; Julia de Sigoyer; Manuel Pubellier; Cecile Lasserre; Erwan Pathier; Yann Klinger; Jerome van der Woerd; Nicolas Chamot-Rooke

    2010-01-01

    The Sichuan earthquake, Mw 7.9, struck the Longmen Shan range front, in the western Sichuan province, China, on 12 May 2008. It severely affected an area where little historical seismicity and little or no significant active shortening were reported before the earthquake (e.g. Gu et al., 1989; Chen et al., 1994; Gan et al., 2007). The Longmen Shan thrust system

  9. The petroleum geologic characteristics of Sichuan basin, central China

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Li De (Research Inst. of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing (China))

    1991-03-01

    Sichuan basin is the main gas producer of China. It covers an area of 230,000 km{sup 2}. The evolution of this basin since Meso-Cenozoic was influenced by both trans-Eurasia Tethys tectonism from the west and the circum-Pacific tectonism from the east. So it has dual characteristics, compressional and tensional. The northward-moving Indian Plate resulted in a series of thrust fault zones along the Longmenshan western margin of Sichuan basin. Jurassic oil pools and Triassic, Permian, Carboniferous, and Sinian gas pools are present, where a series of box-like anticlines, comblike anticlines, and gentle slope dome anticlines, and gentle slope dome anticline, carbonate reef buildups are the main trap types. Significant role of fractures and caves of carbonate reservoir formations in Sichuan basin affects the production capacity of gas/oil wells and abundances of gas/oil reserves. Three-dimensional seismic methods are used to predict the unconformities and the paleokarst and fracture zones. Acidizing treatments were used for well completions.

  10. Echinococcus granulosus Infection and Options for Control of Cystic Echinococcosis in Tibetan Communities of Western Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu Rong; McManus, Donald P.; Huang, Yan; Heath, David D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) is highly endemic in the Tibetan regions of Sichuan where most families keep guard dogs and where there are considerable numbers of ownerless/stray dogs. Strong Buddhist beliefs do not allow for elimination of stray dogs, and many strays are actually fed and adopted by households or monasteries. On account of the high altitude (3900–5000 m), pasturage is the major agricultural activity in this area. The harsh mountainous climate often leads to many grazing animals dying on the pasture at the end of a hard winter. The skin and some meat are taken, and the rest of the animal is left for scavenging birds and animals. The poor sanitation and hygiene, the Buddhist doctrine of allowing old livestock to die naturally, plus the unrestricted disposal of animal viscera post-slaughter may be responsible for the high prevalence of human CE in this setting. Methods and Findings As part of a large collaborative control program for CE in Ganzi County, situated in the west of Sichuan Province, surveillance for Echinococcus infection in domestic dogs using a coproantigen method and necropsy of unwanted dogs was carried out prior to (in 2000) and after (in 2005) dog anthelminthic treatment (5 mg/kg oral praziquantal at 6 month intervals) to determine the efficacy of the treatment for control. The prevalence of E. granulosus only in dogs by necropsy was 27% and 22%, and prevalence of both Echinococcus spp. by necropsy was 63% and 38%; prevalence of both Echinococcus spp. by coproantigen analysis was 50% and 17%. Necropsy of sheep/goats (age <1 to 12 years) (prevalence of E. granulosus in 1–6-year-old animals was 38% and in 10–12-year-old animals was 70%) and yaks (age 4 years) (prevalence of E. granulosus was 38%) was undertaken to determine the baseline transmission pressure. Protoscoleces were only found in very old sheep/goats and yaks. Necropsy of dogs in the Datangma district indicated that there was no apparent significant change in the overall prevalence of E. granulosus in unwanted dogs after 5 years of 6-month praziquantel treatment. However, this was likely due to the number of dogs available for necropsy being too small to reflect the real situation prevailing. There was a highly significant decrease in Echinococcus prevalence after the 5-year treatment program shown by coproantigen-ELISA. This indicated a decreasing but continuing risk for re-infection of domestic and stray dogs. Genotyping of E. granulosus samples obtained from necropsied sheep/goats and yaks and from locally infected humans at surgery was carried out to determine the strain of parasite responsible for human infection. DNA genotyping indicated that only the sheep strain (G1) of E. granulosus was present in the study area. Conclusions Considerable re-infection rates of E. granulosus among dogs indicated a high infection pressure from infected livestock in this region, most likely from older animals dying on the pasture. A combination of livestock vaccination with the Eg95 vaccine, which is effective against the sheep strain of E. granulosus, and dog anthelmintic treatment, thus targeting two critical points of the parasite life-cycle, would avoid the conflicts of religion or local culture and could achieve the goal of hydatid control in the long term. PMID:19399162

  11. Road Damage from 2008 Great Sichuan Earthquake in China

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The May 12, 2008, Great Sichuan Earthquake, also called the Wenchuan Earthquake, occurred at 14:28 local time, in Sichuan Province, China. The earthquake magnitudes were Mw = 7.9 (USGS), Ms = 8.0 (Chinese Earthquake Administration). The epicenter was 80 km west-northwest of Chengdu, the capital city...

  12. Boulder from 2008 Great Sichuan Earthquake in China

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The May 12, 2008, Great Sichuan Earthquake, also called the Wenchuan Earthquake, occurred at 14:28 local time, in Sichuan Province, China. The earthquake magnitudes were Mw = 7.9 (USGS), Ms = 8.0 (Chinese Earthquake Administration). The epicenter was 80 km west-northwest of Chengdu, the capital city...

  13. Damage from 2008 Great Sichuan Earthquake in China

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The May 12, 2008, Great Sichuan Earthquake, also called the Wenchuan Earthquake, occurred at 14:28 local time, in Sichuan Province, China. The earthquake magnitudes were Mw = 7.9 (USGS), Ms = 8.0 (Chinese Earthquake Administration). The epicenter was 80 km west-northwest of Chengdu, the capital city...

  14. Nutrient and Litter Patterns in Three Subalpine Coniferous Forests of Western Sichuan, China 1 1 Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 30530630), the Major State Basic Research and Development Program of China (No. G2000046802-05), the National Key Technologies Research and Development Program of China during the Tenth Five-Year Period (No. 2001BA606A-05) and the Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No.KSCX1–02)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo LIN; Qing LIU; Yan WU; Hai HE

    2006-01-01

    Investigations were conducted to quantify litterfall, and litter and nutrient accumulation in forest floor, and to acquire information on litter decomposition and nitrogen and phosphorus release patterns in three different subalpine coniferous forests, a plantation (PI), a secondary forest (SF), and a primitive forest (PF), in western Sichuan, China. The litter trap method was used to evaluate litterfall with the

  15. [Effects of snow patches on the release of N and P during foliar litter decomposition in an alpine forest of western Sichuan China].

    PubMed

    He, Jie; Jiang, Xian-Min; Yang, Wan-Qin; Ni, Xiang-Yin; Xu, Li-Ya; Li, Han; Wu, Fu-Zhong

    2014-08-01

    A field experiment using litterbags was conducted in an alpine forest of western Sichuan in order to understand the effects of snow patches on the dynamics of N and P during decomposition of six representative species foliar litter in different periods of winter. Net N immobilization during foliar litter decomposition was observed in the whole snow cover season regardless of species. In contrast, P mainly released from foliar litter in the snow cover season, with a rapid rate of P release in the snow melt stage. Thick and moderate snow patches showed higher P release rates, but lower N release rates of foliar litter. The rate of N release was negatively related to daily mean temperature regardless of species, but the rate of P release was positively related to daily mean temperature with the exception of fir needle-litter. The decrease of snow cover in the scenario of global warming could inhibit P release but promote N release from foliar litter decomposition in winter in the alpine forest. PMID:25509063

  16. Study on the Effect of Source-Contacting Gas Accumulations upon Abnormal Pressures in Western Sichuan Depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinchuan ZHANG; Lifang LIU; Xuan TANG; Xiaowei SONG; Shengling JIANG; Bo XU; Ruikang BIAN

    2008-01-01

    The migration and accumulation of typical source-contacting gas, also called basin-centered gas, follow the piston principle that it generates superpressures essentially. In the tight sand reservoir, the formation water cannot exchange sufficiently, which maintains higher pressure in gas reservoirs compared with conventional reservoirs during tectonic uplift or subsidences. The western Sichuan depression is one of the earliest basins in China

  17. Epidemiology of human hookworm infections among adult villagers in Hejiang and Santai Counties, Sichuan Province, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liu Changhua; Zhang Xiaorong; Qiu Dongchuan; Xiao Shuhua; P. J. Hotez; Zhen Defu; Zhen Hulian; Li Mingden; Ren Hainan; Zhan Bing; Xue Haichou; J. Hawdon; Feng Zheng

    1999-01-01

    Hookworm infection as well as other intestinal nematodiases are endemic to Sichuan Province in China. In order to research the prevalence and intensity of these infections we visited two villages in Hejiang County (southern Sichuan Province) and Santai County (northwestern Sichuan Province) between July and October of 1997. Fecal examinations were performed on adult villagers over the age of 15

  18. Natural Hazard Public Policy Implications of the May 12, 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake, Sichuan, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Cydzik; H. D. Stenner; A. Cattarossi; P. L. Shrestha

    2009-01-01

    The May 12, 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake in Sichuan Province, China killed almost 90,000 people and affected a population of over 45.5 million throughout western China. Shaking caused the destruction of five million buildings, many of them homes and schools, and damaged 21 million other structures, inflicting devastating impacts to communities. Landslides, a secondary effect of the shaking, caused much

  19. HIV, syphilis, hepatitis C and risk behaviours among commercial sex male clients in Sichuan province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl; Luan, Rongsheng; Wang, Cunling; Nelson, Kenrad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Commercial sex male clients (CSMC) are at risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI) including HIV. This study reports the prevalence of HIV, syphilis and hepatitis C virus (HCV), a history of STI and HIV-related risk behaviours in a sample of 600 CSMC in three urban areas in Sichuan province, China. The risk factors for prevalent syphilis infection are also examined. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 600 CSMC in Sichuan province, China. Finger stick blood samples were collected for HIV, syphilis and HCV tests. Risk factors for syphilis were assessed using multivariate logistic regression by accounting for variance within and between study sites. Results Western blot confirmatory test results indicated that HIV prevalence was 1.5% (n=9). 32 participants (5.3%) screened positive for syphilis and 52 (8.7%) positive for HCV. The overall prevalence of consistent condom use with female sex workers (FSW) was 30.5%. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed local household registration (AOR 0.35, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.50), having snorted heroin in the past 6 months (AOR 2.36, 95% CI 1.18 to 4.74), always washing genitals after having sex with FSW (AOR 3.04, 95% CI 1.10 to 9.12) and consistent condom use with FSW (AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.98) were significant correlates of syphilis infection. Conclusions There is a large burden of syphilis infection coupled with high-risk sexual and substance use behaviours among male clients in Sichuan province, China. The data suggest that effective and comprehensive prevention interventions to promote condom use and reduce substance use among male clients in Sichuan province are urgently needed. PMID:20826867

  20. Success or Failure: Selectivity and Reasons of Return Migration in Sichuan and Anhui, China

    E-print Network

    Wang, Wenfei Winnie; Fan, C. Cindy

    2006-01-01

    among China's rural population'' Journal of DevelopmentChina'' Journal of International Development 11 661 ^ 672 Murphy R, 2002 How Migrant Labor is Changing RuralChina's developed eastern seaboard, it shares with Sichuan low levels of economic development, a large volume of surplus rural

  1. Basic education amongst national minorities: The case of the Yi in Sichuan Province, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith M. Lewin

    1995-01-01

    This paper offers a descriptive analysis of formal basic education provision amongst the Yi people who live in mountainous areas in the south-west of Sichuan Province in China and some reflections on the problems of educational provision for minority groups. Enrolments in primary school amongst the Yi remain well below universal levels and the drop-out rate, especially amongst girls, is

  2. Distribution of large landslides and landslide dams triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Fan; T. Gorum; C. J. van Westen; Q. Xu; C. Tang; R. Huang

    2009-01-01

    On May 12, 2008, the Wenchuan earthquake with a moment magnitude of 8.0 occurred on the NE-SW trending Longmenshan fault zone at the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, just west of the Sichuan basin, China. It not only caused severe damage to infrastructure, but also triggered a large number of landslides, rockfalls, rock avalanches, and debris flows. One third

  3. A Data Mining approach to predict mass movements induced by seismic events in Sichuan, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Teodoro de Souza; Zhaoyin Wang

    2010-01-01

    The entire world has been affected by Earthquakes inducing catastrophic consequences. On 12 May 2008, an earthquake with magnitude 7.9 on the Richter scale occurred in the Wenchuan area of the Sichuan Province in China. This disaster associated with subsequent aftershocks caused many avalanches, landslides, debris flows, collapses, and quake lakes; and induced many unstable slopes. This work proposes a

  4. The prevalence of canine Leishmania infantum infection in Sichuan Province, southwestern China detected by real time PCR

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in western China, and becoming an important public health concern. Infected dogs are the main reservoir for Leishmania infantum, and a potential sentinel for human VL in endemic areas. In the present study we investigated the prevalence of Leishmania DNA in dogs from Wenchuan, Heishui and Jiuzhaigou County in Sichuan Province, southwestern China, which are important endemic areas of zoonotic VL, detected by real time PCR. The results will help to design control strategies against visceral leishmaniasis in dogs and humans. Results The overall prevalence of Leishmania DNA in dogs was 24.8% (78/314) in Sichuan Province, with the positive rate of 23.5% (23/98) in Wenchuan County, 28.2% (20/71) in Heishui County, and 24.1% (35/145) in Jiuzhaigou County, and no significant difference was observed among the three counties (P > 0.05). The dogs were further allocated to different groups based on sexes, ages and external clinical symptoms. The logistic regression analysis revealed that a higher prevalence was found in older and external symptomatic dogs, compared to that of younger and asymptomatic dogs (P < 0.05). Conclusions The results revealed that L. infantum infection in dogs is widespread in Sichuan Province, southwestern China, which has a public health significance, due to its contribution to the transmission of the infection to humans by sandflies. It is necessary to take measures, including treatment or eradication of infected dogs, to control canine leishmaniasis, which could be helpful to reduce human VL in this area. PMID:21910882

  5. Using Satellite Data to Investigate the 12 May 2008 Sichuan Earthquake, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Pan; DanLing Tang

    2009-01-01

    The M 8.0 earthquake that struck Sichuan Province in southwestern China on 12 May 2008 was the most devastating earthquake in that country in the past 5 decades. At least 69,000 deaths have been confirmed and more than 374,000 people were injured, according to China's Ministry of Civil Affairs. Overall, more than 45.5 million people in 10 provinces and regions

  6. Using Satellite Data to Investigate the 12 May 2008 Sichuan Earthquake, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Gang; Tang, DanLing

    2009-04-01

    The M 8.0 earthquake that struck Sichuan Province in southwestern China on 12 May 2008 was the most devastating earthquake in that country in the past 5 decades. At least 69,000 deaths have been confirmed and more than 374,000 people were injured, according to China's Ministry of Civil Affairs. Overall, more than 45.5 million people in 10 provinces and regions in China were affected by the earthquake. Landslides and rockfalls damaged or destroyed several mountain roads and railways and buried buildings in the Beichuan-Wenchuan area of Sichuan Province, cutting off access to the region for several days (Figures 1a and 1b). Landslides also dammed several rivers, and the resultant creation of 36 barrier lakes (dangerous earthquake lakes) threatened about 700,000 people downstream.

  7. Heavy metal contamination in soil alongside mountain railway in Sichuan, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao Liu; Li-Ping Chen; Ying-Wei Ai; Xia Yang; Yan-Hua Yu; Yuan-Bin Zuo; Guo-Yong Fu

    2009-01-01

    Heavy metal concentration in soil was investigated at three sites with different topography (cut slope, flat and embankment)\\u000a within the vicinity of Chengdu-Kunming railway in Sichuan, China. Surface soil was sampled at certain distances from the track\\u000a at each site and was analyzed for Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cd by atomic absorption spectrometry. Cu, Cd and Zn concentrations in some

  8. [Emergy evaluation and dynamic measurement analysis of agro-ecosystems in Sichuan Province of Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Cong; Du, Shou-Hu

    2012-03-01

    Agro-ecosystem is the most basic system for human beings survival, while the analysis of the structure and function of the system is the key to solve the problems of agro-ecological environment. In this paper, emergy theory and related economic measurement methods including data envelopment analysis, cointegration test, and error correction model were applied to quantitatively analyze the operation dynamics, environmental loading, operation efficiency, and input-output relation of the agro-ecosystems in Sichuan Province and its 21 cities in 1997-2009. In the study period, Sichuan Province was in the transition period from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. The agricultural mechanization level of the Province improved constantly, resources utilization efficiency enhanced continually, overall structural dominant degree was better, but the over-reliance on economic emergy input caused the sustainability of the system weakened gradually. The development status of the agro-ecosystems in the Province varied among regions. Chengdu Plain and Western Sichuan Highland were either in overexploited or in underutilized, while the hilly areas were full of vitality and development potential, tended to be the important areas for the future development of Sichuan agriculture. Generally, the operation efficiency of the agro-ecosystems in the Province was relatively low, with the situation differed in different regions due to the lower technical efficiency or improper scale. There was a long-term equilibrium between the economic emergy indices and output emergy, but the short-term emergy input didn't reach the ideal output. PMID:22720632

  9. Euxinia prior to end-Permian main extinction at Xiaojiaba section, Sichuan Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, H.; Algeo, T. J.; Chen, D.; Yu, H.

    2013-12-01

    Redox conditions in the global ocean prior to, during, and following the end-Permian mass extinction at 252.28 Ma remain contentious. Previous studies in western Australia, South China, and East Greenland have shown that photic-zone euxinia was present at least intermittently from the early Changhsingian through the Dienerian1-3. Here we report a study of organic carbon isotopes, pyrite sulfur isotopes, TOC, pyritic sulfur content, REE, and major and trace elements from the Upper Permian Xiaojiaba section in the Chaotian district of Guangyuan City, Sichuan Province, China. During the Permian-Triassic transition, this section was located on the northwestern margin of the South China Block, facing the Paleo-Tethys Ocean. Our results indicate that suboxic conditions prevailed during the Wuchiapingian and suboxic to anoxic conditions with several pulses of euxinia during the Changhsingian. ?13Corg values are mostly -28‰ to -26‰ but show three positive excursions (to -22‰) prior to the end-Permian mass extinction horizon. These positive excursions are associated with higher Spy concentrations (to ~1%). ?34Spy values are variable (from -41‰ to +5‰) but show a sharp negative excursion in the late Changhsingian (to -43.4‰) that coincided with the most positive ?13Corg values. This horizon is also associated with increases in Eu/Eu*, Baxs, ?REE, Si, and redox-sensitive metals such as V. These patterns reflect linkage of the C and S cycles during the latest Permian, possibly in response to redox controls. The observed positive excursions in ?13Corg may be due to organic inputs from green sulfur bacteria, which exhibit a smaller photosynthetic fractionation (-12.5‰4) than eukaryotic algae. The pronounced negative excursion of ?34Spy corresponds to a sulfate-sulfide S isotope fractionation of about -60‰, suggesting a large flux of syngenetic framboidal pyrite, which would be indicative of euxinic water-column conditions. We infer that the euxinia prior to the main extinction horizon may have been caused by oceanic oxygen-minimum zone expansion and upward movement of the chemocline5. The coupled increases in Eu/Eu* and Baxs may record hydrothermal influence, possibly accompanied by increased ocean acidity and high seawater temperatures. Collectively, our results document major changes in seawater chemistry during the Changhsingian prior to the main end-Permian crisis.

  10. Passion: Burning in the West--An Investigation on College Students' Volunteer Teaching in Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhen, Li

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates college students' volunteer teaching in Western China. A series of investigations were conducted in Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, and Xinjiang. The results showed that teaching by volunteer college students played a positive role in the development of local education…

  11. Molecular epidemiology of Porcine torovirus (PToV) in Sichuan Province, China: 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Porcine torovirus (PToV) is a member of the genus Torovirus which is responsible for gastrointestinal disease in both human beings and animals with particular prevalence in youth. Torovirus infections are generally asymptomatic, however, their presence may worsen disease consequences in concurrent infections with other enteric pathogens. Methods A total of 872 diarrheic fecal samples from pigs of different ages were collected from 12 districts of Sichuan Province in the southwest of China. RT-PCR was done with PToV S gene specific primers to detect the presence of PToV positive samples. M gene specific primers were used with the PToV positive samples and the genes were sequenced. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the M gene nucleotide sequences from the 19 selected novel Sichuan strains and 21 PToV and BToV M gene sequences from GenBank. Results A total of 331 (37.96%, 331/872) samples were found to be positive for PToV and the highest prevalence was observed in piglets aged from 1 to 3 weeks old. Through phylogenetic inference the 40 PToV M gene containing sequences were placed into two genotypes (I & II). The 19 novel Sichuan strains of genotype I showed strong correlations to two Korean gene sequences (GU-07-56-11 and GU-07-56-22). Amino-acid sequence analysis of the 40 PToV M gene strains revealed that the M gene protein was highly conserved. Conclusions This study uncovered the presence of PToV in Sichuan Province, and demonstrated the need for continuous surveillance PToV of epidemiology. PMID:24903213

  12. Salt-related tectonics in the eastern Sichuan Basin, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Zhidong; Yin, Jifeng; Yuan, Miao; Zhai, Xiufen

    2015-04-01

    Sichuan Basin is located in the northwest of Upper Yangtze platform of South China, and East Sichuan is situated between Huaying Mountain fault and Qiyue Mountain fault. The surface Jura type folds are very famous with barrier parallel folds, but the cause of folds formation have not been completely understood. Stratigraphic units are composed of thick competent flexural layers separately by relatively thin incompetent ductile layers that can act as detachments.Multiple detachment layers are developed in the eastern Sichuan and result in distinct structural domains. In addition to the basal, Triassic and Silurian system detachment layers, we recognize a regionally extensive salt layer in the Middle and Lower Cambrian. The recognition of salt layer is by the synthetical studies of outcrop, drilling well, and chaotic seismic reflection configuration. The Middle and Lower Cambrian salt forms a tectonic domain boundary that can be observed by seismic reflection profile in subsurface. The stratigraphic intervals above and below the salt develop characteristic salt-related tectonics. And the folds formation is by flow in and flow out of salt movement of the Middle and Lower Cambrian and flexural slip and grouding of the overlying units. Above the salt, the thrust fault-related folds were generated by the contractional action from southeast to northwest, including the fault-bend fold, fault-propagation fold, and thrust wedge fold, and so on. Below the salt, the broad anticlines were formed due to the basal detachment. Hydrocarbon traps are formed above and below the salt, and they are potential gas exploration domains in the eastern Sichuan Basin.

  13. An aberrant species of Nipponocercyon from Sichuan, China (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Sphaeridiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Fiká?ek, Martin; Ryndevich, Sergey; Jia, Fenglong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A detailed examination of specimens of Cryptopleurum sichuanicum Ryndevich, 2005 from high altitudes of Sichuan Province, China, revealed that the species belongs in the genus Nipponocercyon Satô, 1963 previously endemic to Japan. The species is here transferred in Nipponocercyon, and Nipponocercyon sichuanicus (Ryndevich, 2005), comb. n. is redescribed and compared with Nipponocercyon shibatai Satô, 1963. The male genitalia of Nipponocercyon sichuanicus is described for the first time. An adapted diagnosis of Nipponocercyon is provided, and reasons for the inclusion of Nipponocercyon sichuanicus into Nipponocercyon and the general distribution of the genus are discussed. PMID:22936864

  14. Factors associated with drinking alcohol before visiting female sex workers among men in Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl; Luan, Rongsheng; Nelson, Kenrad

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use in commercial sex is highly prevalent globally and alcohol use in conjunction with sexual activity might increase the probability of risky behaviors, and. In the current study, we explored individual and contextual factors associated with drinking alcohol before visiting female sex workers (FSWs) among 560 male clients in Sichuan province, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Sichuan province, China. Over one-fifth (21.1%) of the participants reported always using alcohol before having sex with FSWs. As compared to those who reported not always drinking alcohol before having sex with FSWs, male clients who reported always drinking alcohol before having sex with FSWs had higher income, were more likely to have main sex partners, to drink alcohol daily, to report minor depressive symptoms and were more likely to visit FSWs with friends rather than by themselves. Results from this study highlight the importance of addressing alcohol use among men who pay for sex in China. Future interventions should promote alcohol-related norms in reducing the harms associated with consuming alcohol. PMID:22806054

  15. Characterization of cry2-type genes of bacillus thuringiensis strains from soilisolated of sichuan basin, china.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hongxia; Liu, Yao; Zhu, Jun; Peng, Guan; Li, Shuangcheng; Wang, Shiquan; Zheng, Aiping; Liu, Huainian; Li, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Sichuan basin, situated in the west of China, is the fourth biggest basin in China. In order to describe a systematic study of the cry2-type genes resources from Bacillus thuringiensis strains of Sichuan basin, a total of 791 Bacillus thuringiensis strains have been screened from 2650 soil samples in different ecological regions. The method of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to identify the type of cry2 genes. The results showed that 322 Bacillus thuringiensis strains harbored cry2-type genes and four different RFLP patterns were found. The combination of cry2Aa/cry2Ab genes was the most frequent (90.4%), followed by cry2Aa (6.8%) and cry2Ab alone (2.5%), and only one novel type of cry2 gene was cloned from one isolate (JF19-2). The full-length of this novel gene was obtained by the method of thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (Tail-PCR), which was designated as cry2Ag1 (GenBank No. ACH91610) by the Bt Pesticide Crystal Protein Nomenclature Committee. In addition, the result of scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation showed that these strains had erose, spherical, bipyramidal, and square crystal. And the results of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) demonstrated that these strains harbored about one to three major proteins. These strains exhibited a wide range of insecticidal spectrum toxic to Aedes aegypti (Diptera) and Pieris rapae Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera). Particularly, JF19-2 contained cry2Ag gene had the highest insecticidal activity. All these researches mentioned above revealed the diversity and particularity of cry2-type gene resources from Bacillus thuringiensis strains in Sichuan basin. PMID:24031615

  16. Three dimensional surface slip partitioning of the Sichuan earthquake from Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. de Michele; D. Raucoules; J. de Sigoyer; M. Pubellier; C. Lasserre; E. Pathier; Y. Klinger; J. van der Woerd

    2009-01-01

    The Sichuan earthquake, Mw 7.9, struck the Longmen Shan range front, in the western Sichuan province, China, on 12 May 2008. It severely affected an area where little historical seismicity and little or no significant active shortening were reported before the earthquake (e.g. Gu et al., 1989; Chen et al., 1994; Gan et al., 2007). The Longmen Shan thrust system

  17. A qualitative study on commercial sex behaviors among male clients in Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl A.; Liu, Peng; Nelson, Kenrad E.; Wang, Cunlin; Luan, Rongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Males who seek commercial sex have been identified as an important “bridging population” in the transmission of HIV. There is little information on the HIV-related risk perceptions and behaviors among commercial sex male clients (CSMCs) in China. This study reports qualitative findings from six focus groups and 41 in-depth interviews with CSMCs in Sichuan Province, China. Commercial sex visits were described as a group activity and associated with patterns of social-network specific interactions and norms. Primary motivations for visiting female sex workers included peer pressure, stress reduction, and fulfilling a need for an intimate and emotional support. Male clients’ decisions about condom use were influenced by their perceived norms of condom use, susceptibility of HIV infection, and the condom policy and availability in the establishments. Implications of these findings for further research and interventions are discussed. PMID:20390503

  18. Two new feather mites of the genus Neocalcealges Orwig (Analgoidea: Trouessartiidae) from the Sichuan province of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zi-Ying; Proctor, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of the feather mite genus Neocalcealges Orwig 1968 (Analgoidea: Trouessartiidae) are described from passerine birds (Passeriformes) from the Sichuan province of China: Neocalcealges davidi sp. nov. from Alcippe davidi Styan (Leiothrichidae) and N. chrysotis sp. nov. from Lioparus chrysotis (Blyth) (Paradoxornithidae). We provide a key to all described species of Neocalcealges. PMID:25947709

  19. Community-based survey of HCV and HIV coinfection in injection drug abusers in Sichuan Province of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Hua Ruan; Kun-Xue Hong; Shi-Zhu Liu; Yi-Xin He; Feng Zhou; Guan-Ming Qin; Kang-Lin Chen; Hui Xing; Jian-Ping Chen; Yi-Ming Shao

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of HCV\\/HIV coinfection in injection drug abusers (IDAs) in Lianshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan province, China. METHODS: From November 8, 2002 to November 29, 2002, a community-based survey was conducted to investigate the demographic characteristics, patterns of shared injectors devices and sexual behaviors in IDAs. Blood samples were also collected to

  20. Changed trends of major causes of visual impairment in Sichuan, China from 1987 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Fan, Ying-Chuan; He, Qi-Hong; Wu, Xiao-Yun; Wei, Min; Eichner, June E.; Farris, Bradley K.; Hildebrand, P. Lloyd; Lei, Chun-Tao; Wu, Shu-Hua; Yang, Jing-Yun

    2014-01-01

    AIM To study the trends of major causes of visual impairment (VI) in adults in Sichuan, China and evaluate the effect of aging on the trends. METHODS We used data from the National Sample Survey on Disabilities (NSSD) in Sichuan province conducted in 1987 and 2006. The age-adjusted prevalence of major causes of VI and the prevalence stratified by age in each cause were calculated and compared. The association between age and each cause of VI was also analyzed. RESULTS Retinal disease increased and became the second leading cause of VI in 2006 while blinding trachoma decreased markedly. Cataract and non-trachomatous corneal diseases were among the leading causes of VI in both years. We found associations between age and causes of VI, with age showing the strongest association with cataract and relatively lower associations with other causes. CONCLUSION In the last two decades, dramatic changes occurred in the major causes of VI with significantly increased retinal disease and decreased blinding trachoma. Aging of the population might be an important factor accounting for the changed trends of VI. Understanding the prevalence of VI, its major causes and trends over time can assist in prioritizing and developing effective interventional strategies and monitoring their impact. PMID:24634880

  1. Distribution of the Crustal Magnetic Field in Sichuan-Yunnan Region, Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Chunhua; Kang, Guofa; Gao, Guoming

    2014-01-01

    Based on the new and higher degree geomagnetic model NGDC-720-V3, we have investigated the spatial distribution, the altitude decay characteristics of the crustal magnetic anomaly, the contributions from different wavelength bands to the anomaly, and the relationship among the anomaly, the geological structure, and the geophysical field in Sichuan-Yunnan region of China. It is noted that the most outstanding feature in this area is the strong positive magnetic anomaly in Sichuan Basin, a geologically stable block. Contrasting with this feature, a strong negative anomaly can be seen nearby in Longmen Mountain block, an active block. This contradiction implies a possible relationship between the magnetic field and the geological activity. Completely different feature in magnetic field distribution is seen in the central Yunnan block, another active region, where positive and negative anomalies distribute alternatively, showing a complex magnetic anomaly map. Some fault belts, such as the Longmen Mountain fault, Lijiang-Xiaojinhe fault, and the Red River fault, are the transitional zones of strong and weak or negative and positive anomalies. The corresponding relationship between the magnetic anomaly and the geophysical fields was confirmed. PMID:25243232

  2. Genotypic characteristics of Haemophilus influenzae isolates from pediatric pneumonia patients in Chengdu city, Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Guozhong; Zhang, Li; Li, Machao; Wang, Xiaolei; Zheng, Yuhong; Li, Xiaojing; Huang, Cheng; Li, Xuechun; Xie, Yongqiong; Xu, Li; Ren, Hongyu; Shao, Zhujun

    2009-08-01

    Two hundred and seventy-three Haemophilus influenzae strains isolated from pediatric pneumonia patients in China were studied. We used Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) to analyze genotypic characteristics. All strains were biotyped and serotyped. Relatedness and patterns of genes among isolates were determined by the analysis of MLST and eBURST. H. influenzae primarily causes acute pneumonia in children under 1 year old. Nontypeable H. influenzae was responsible for most cases of pediatric pneumonia. All 273 strains were classified into eight biotypes. They mostly belonged to the I, II, and III biotypes (17.6%, 43.6%, and 22.7%, respectively). 62 strains (22.7%) produced beta-lactamase. We found 28 novel alleles. Fifty different STs were found by MLST, of which 39 were novel. These were ST477 through ST508 and ST521 through ST527. Group 17 and predicted founders 503 were new groups in this study. No STs correlated with strains from Korea, which is adjacent to China. The H. influenzae strains from China appeared to have heterogeneous ST types patterns which may be the reason no outbreaks or epidemics of H. influenzae infections have occurred in Chengdu city, Sichuan, China. PMID:19763425

  3. Re-emerging schistosomiasis in hilly and mountainous areas of Sichuan, China.

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Song; Yang, Changhong; Zhong, Bo; Qiu, Dongchuan

    2006-01-01

    Despite great strides in schistosomiasis control over the past several decades in Sichuan Province, China the disease has re-emerged in areas where it was previously controlled. We reviewed historical records and found that schistosomiasis had re-emerged in eight counties by the end of 2004 - seven of 21 counties with transmission control and one of 25 with transmission interruption as reported in 2001 were confirmed to have local disease transmission. The average "return time" (from control to re-emergence) was about eight years. The onset of re-emergence was commonly signalled by the occurrence of acute infections. Our survey results suggest that environmental and sociopolitical factors play an important role in re-emergence. The main challenge would be to consolidate and maintain effective control in the longer term until "real" eradication is achieved. This would be possible only by the formulation of a sustainable surveillance and control system. PMID:16501732

  4. A data-based model to locate mass movements triggered by seismic events in Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Fabio Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Earthquakes affect the entire world and have catastrophic consequences. On May 12, 2008, an earthquake of magnitude 7.9 on the Richter scale occurred in the Wenchuan area of Sichuan province in China. This event, together with subsequent aftershocks, caused many avalanches, landslides, debris flows, collapses, and quake lakes and induced numerous unstable slopes. This work proposes a methodology that uses a data mining approach and geographic information systems to predict these mass movements based on their association with the main and aftershock epicenters, geologic faults, riverbeds, and topography. A dataset comprising 3,883 mass movements is analyzed, and some models to predict the location of these mass movements are developed. These predictive models could be used by the Chinese authorities as an important tool for identifying risk areas and rescuing survivors during similar events in the future. PMID:24085622

  5. Natural Hazard Public Policy Implications of the May 12, 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake, Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cydzik, K.; Hamilton, D.; Stenner, H. D.; Cattarossi, A.; Shrestha, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    The May 12, 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake in Sichuan Province, China killed almost 90,000 people and affected a population of over 45.5 million throughout western China. Shaking caused the destruction of five million buildings, many of them homes and schools, and damaged 21 million other structures, inflicting devastating impacts to communities. Landslides, a secondary effect of the shaking, caused much of the devastation. Debris flows buried schools and homes, rock falls crushed cars, and rockslides, landslides, and rock avalanches blocked streams and rivers creating massive, unstable landslide dams, which formed “quake lakes” upstream of the blockages. Impassable roads made emergency access slow and extremely difficult. Collapses of buildings and structures large and small took the lives of many. Damage to infrastructure impaired communication, cut off water supplies and electricity, and put authorities on high alert as the integrity of large engineered dams were reviewed. During our field reconnaissance three months after the disaster, evidence of the extent of the tragedy was undeniably apparent. Observing the damage throughout Sichuan reminded us that earthquakes in the United States and throughout the world routinely cause widespread damage and destruction to lives, property, and infrastructure. The focus of this poster is to present observations and findings based on our field reconnaissance regarding the scale of earthquake destruction with respect to slope failures, landslide dams, damage to infrastructure (e.g., schools, engineered dams, buildings, roads, rail lines, and water resources facilities), human habitation within the region, and the mitigation and response effort to this catastrophe. This is presented in the context of the policy measures that could be developed to reduce risks of similar catastrophes. The rapid response of the Chinese government and the mobilization of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army to help the communities affected by the earthquake have allowed survivors to begin rebuilding their lives. However, the long-term impact of the earthquake continues to make headlines. Post-earthquake landslides and debris flows initiated by storm events have continued to impart devastation on the region. Events such as the Wenchuan Earthquake provide unique opportunities for engineers, scientists, and policy makers to collaborate for purposes of exploring the details of natural hazards and developing sound policies to protect lives and property in the future.

  6. A Landslide Monitoring Network based on Multi-source Spatial Sensors in Li County, Sichuan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, P.

    2014-12-01

    A multi-source spatial sensor network has been established to strengthen the landslide monitoring activities in the mountainous areas in Western China. The focused Xishancun landslide is in Li County in Sichuan Province, located in the upper Minjiang River areas that is thought as very unstable slope areas after the "5.12" Wenchuan Earthquake. This spatial sensor chiefly concentrates on constructing a monitoring network with four hierarchies of observation: (1) space-borne sensors including VHR optical images (P5, IKONOS, WorldView-1,2 and ZY-3) and a series of X-band TerraSAR-X SAR images; (2) aerial observation by a group of UAV scanning schemes with the ground-based controlling platform, the produced the 1:2000 scale DOM mosaic images and the generated high resolution DEM; (3) ground-based sensors involving in-situ sensors such as inclinometers and piezometers with a smart self-forming seamless real-time data communication and terrestrial remote sensing platform of laser scanning and ground-based SAR; and (4) internal investigation from geophysical approaches such as seismological and electromagnetic analyses. This landslide monitoring system based on spatial sensor network is expected to provide solid monitoring data for landslide models and data assimilation for potential landslide hazard prediction and risk assessment.

  7. Diversity and infectivity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in agricultural soils of the Sichuan Province of mainland China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan Yuan Wang; Mauritz Vestberg; Christopher Walker; Timo Hurme; Xiaoping Zhang; Kristina Lindström

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge about the presence and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in a specific area is an essential first\\u000a step for utilizing these fungi in any application. The community composition of AMF in intensively managed agricultural soil\\u000a in the Sichuan Province of southwest China currently is unknown. In one set of samples, AMF were trapped in pot cultures from\\u000a 40

  8. Evaluation Criteria for Implementation of a Sustainable Sanitation and Wastewater Treatment System at Jiuzhaigou National Park, Sichuan Province, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda S. Gaulke; Xiao Weiyang; Andrew Scanlon; Amanda Henck; Tom Hinckley

    2010-01-01

    The administration of Jiuzhaigou National Park in Sichuan Province, China, is in the process of considering a range of upgrades\\u000a to their sanitation and wastewater treatment systems. Their case history involves an ongoing series of engineering design\\u000a flaws and management failures. The administration of the Park identified sustainability, environmental protection, and education\\u000a goals for their sanitation and wastewater treatment system.

  9. Characteristics and formation mechanism of a catastrophic rainfall–induced rock avalanche–mud flow in Sichuan, China, 2010

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiang Xu; Xuanmei Fan; Xiujun Dong

    A catastrophic rock avalanche–mud flow was triggered by the heavy rainfall in Sichuan, China, on July 27, 2010. A mass of\\u000a strongly weathered basalts with a volume of ?480,000 m3 was initiated from a valley side slope and then moved downstream along the valley, entraining a large amount of unconsolidated\\u000a substrate and bilateral materials and colluviums. The entrainment increased the volume

  10. Investigations of Satellite Data for Ionospheric Disturbances Associated with Sichuan, China Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Rahul; Gwal, Ashok Kumar; Sondhiya, Deepak Kumar

    In the presented paper we have statistically analyzed the ionospheric parameters to search for variations in the vicinity of large earthquake prior to event using the DEMETER (Detection of Electromagnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions) satellite data. Because as the evidences have shown that the phenomenon of ionospheric disturbances associated with large earthquakes are considered to be most promising tools for earthquake studies. We have observed these variations in the ionospheric parameters before the Sichuan, China (30.98N, 103.36E) earthquake which was occurred on May 12, 2008 with the magnitude of M = 7.9. The variations in the ionospheric parameters like ion density, electron density and electron temperature have been recorded from different onboard instruments (i.e. ISL, IAP) mounted on the DEMETER satellite. The anomalous deviations in the ion density, electron density and electron temperature have been found by the statistical results. It was concluded that variations in these parameters are due to anomalous change in atmospheric electric field during the earthquake preparation process. Keywords: Earthquake Precursors, Ionospheric Perturbations, DEMETER Satellite.

  11. Semen quality evaluation in a cohort of 28213 adult males from Sichuan area of south-west China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, M; Chen, X; Yue, H; Xu, W; Lin, L; Wu, Y; Liu, B

    2014-10-01

    The trends in semen quality are conflicting. Although many previous surveys on semen quality indicated a decline, the trends in semen quality in Sichuan area of south-west China are not clear. We analysed the semen parameters in a cohort of 28,213 adult males close to general population in Sichuan between July 2007 and June 2012, and investigated the changes on semen quality. The semen parameters including pH, volume, concentration, motility, morphology were measured according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance was used to examine the statistical differences of semen quality between groups. We found that the medians (5th and 95th percentiles) were 2.4 ml (1.0-5.0) for semen volume, 62.0 × 10(6) ml(-1) (15.0-142.0) for semen concentration, 39% (18-60%) for sperm progressive motility and 10.5% (1.0-34.5%) for normal morphology. In these 5 years, sperm concentration and the percentage of sperm normal morphology were decreased from 66.0 × 10(6 ) ml(-1) to 49.0 × 10(6) ml(-1) and from 13.5% to 4.5%, respectively; among different reproductive history groups, sperm concentration and the percentage of sperm normal morphology were also decreased in these 5 years. And the incidence of azoospermia was increasing. These may imply that there is a decline in semen quality of adult males in Sichuan area. PMID:24079334

  12. The occurrence of synthetic musks in human breast milk in Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jie; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Naiyuan; Gao, Fudie; Wu, Yongning; Xiang, Jie; Shao, Bing

    2012-05-01

    Human breast milk samples collected from mothers (n=110) who lived in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, southwestern China in 2009 were analyzed to determine the concentrations of 13 musk compounds. Possible relationships between musk concentrations and some personal characteristics were also studied. Only five target analytes were detected in the milk samples analyzed, with median concentration values of 16.5, 11.5, 7.85, <1.5 and <1.4ngg(-1)lipid weight for AHTN (7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene), HHCB (1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[?]-2-benzopyran), HHCB-lactone (1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[?]-2-benzopyran-1-one), OTNE ([1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-2,3,8,8-tetramethylnaphthalen-2yl]ethan-1-one) and musk ketone (4-tert-butyl-2,6-dimethyl-3,5-dinitroacetophenone, MK), respectively. Mothers who reported high use of hand-cleaning agents, body-cleaning agents, shampoo and hair conditioners, hair dyes and hair gels had significantly elevated milk concentrations of HHCB whereas elevated milk concentrations of AHTN were observed among mothers reporting high use of body-cleaning agents, body lotions, shampoos, hair dyes and hair gels. Younger age showed a significantly positive effect on milk concentrations of both HHCB and AHTN whereas BMI after delivery, the number of children nursed and place of residence (urban or rural) had no significant effect. The estimated median daily intakes of synthetic musks for breast-fed infants were considerably lower than the current provisional tolerable daily intake amounts suggested for adults. PMID:22196088

  13. Dominant cloud microphysical processes of a torrential rainfall event in Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongjie; Cui, Xiaopeng

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution numerical simulation data of a rainstorm triggering debris flow in Sichuan Province of China simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model were used to study the dominant cloud microphysical processes of the torrential rainfall. The results showed that: (1) In the strong precipitation period, particle sizes of all hydrometeors increased, and mean-mass diameters of graupel increased the most significantly, as compared with those in the weak precipitation period; (2) The terminal velocity of raindrops was the strongest among all hydrometeors, followed by graupel's, which was much smaller than that of raindrops. Differences between various hydrometeors' terminal velocities in the strong precipitation period were larger than those in the weak precipitation period, which favored relative motion, collection interaction and transformation between the particles. Absolute terminal velocity values of raindrops and graupel were significantly greater than those of air upward velocity, and the stronger the precipitation was, the greater the differences between them were; (3) The orders of magnitudes of the various hydrometeors' sources and sinks in the strong precipitation period were larger than those in the weak precipitation period, causing a difference in the intensity of precipitation. Water vapor, cloud water, raindrops, graupel and their exchange processes played a major role in the production of the torrential rainfall, and there were two main processes via which raindrops were generated: abundant water vapor condensed into cloud water and, on the one hand, accretion of cloud water by rain water formed rain water, while on the other hand, accretion of cloud water by graupel formed graupel, and then the melting of graupel formed rain water.

  14. Nitrogen isotope chemostratigraphy across the Permian-Triassic boundary at Chaotian, Sichuan, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Masafumi; Ueno, Yuichiro; Nishizawa, Manabu; Isozaki, Yukio; Takai, Ken; Yao, Jianxin; Ji, Zhansheng

    2014-10-01

    Nitrogen isotopic compositions of upper Permian to lowermost Triassic rocks were analyzed at Chaotian in northern Sichuan, South China, in order to clarify changes in the oceanic nitrogen cycle around the Permian-Triassic boundary (P-TB) including the entire Changhsingian (Late Late Permian) prior to the extinction. The analyzed ca. 40 m thick interval across the P-TB at Chaotian consists of three stratigraphic units: the upper Wujiaping Formation, the Dalong Formation, and the lowermost Feixianguan Formation, in ascending order. The upper Wujiaping Formation, ca. 10 m thick, is mainly composed of dark gray limestone with diverse shallow-marine fossils such as calcareous algae and brachiopods, deposited on the shallow shelf. In contrast, the overlying Dalong Formation, ca. 25 m thick, is mainly composed of thinly bedded black mudstone and siliceous mudstone containing abundant radiolarians, deposited on the relatively deep slope/basin. Absence of bioturbation, substantially high total organic carbon contents (up to 15%), and abundant occurrence of pyrite framboids in the main part of the Dalong Formation indicate deposition under anoxic condition. The lowermost Feixianguan Formation, ca. 5 m thick, is composed of thinly bedded gray marl and micritic limestone with minor fossils such as ammonoids and conodonts, deposited on the relatively shallow slope. ?15NTN values are in positive values around +1 to +2‰ in the upper Wujiaping Formation implying denitrification and/or anammox in the ocean. ?15NTN values gradually decrease to -1‰ in the lower Dalong Formation and are consistently low (around 0‰) in the middle Dalong to lowermost Feixianguan Formation. No clear ?15NTN shift is recognized across the extinction horizon. The consistently low ?15NTN values suggest the enhanced nitrogen fixation in the ocean during the Changhsingian at Chaotian. Composite profiles based on previous and the present studies demonstrate the substantial ?15N variation on a global scale in the late Permian to earliest Triassic; a systematic ?15N difference by low and high latitudes is particularly clarified. Although the enhanced nitrogen fixation throughout the Changhsingian at Chaotian was likely a regional event in northwestern South China, the composite ?15N profiles imply that the sea area in which fixed nitrogen is depleted has gradually developed worldwide in the Changhsingian, possibly acting as a prolonged stress to shallow-marine biota.

  15. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the porcine kobuvirus VP1 region using infected pigs from Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Porcine kobuvirus (PKoV) is a member of the Kobuvirus genus within the Picornaviridae family. PKoV is distributed worldwide with high prevalence in clinically healthy pigs and those with diarrhea. Methods Fecal and intestinal samples (n?=?163) from pig farms in Sichuan Province, China were obtained to determine the presence of PKoV using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. Specific primers were used for the amplification of the gene encoding the PKoV VP1 protein sequence. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to clarify evolutionary relationships with other PKoV strains. Results Approximately 53% (87/163) of pigs tested positive for PKoV. PKoV was widespread in asymptomatic pigs and those with diarrhea. A high prevalence of PKoV was observed in pigs younger than 4 weeks and in pigs with diarrhea. Phylogenetic analysis of 36 PKoV VP1 protein sequences showed that Sichuan PKoV strains formed four distinct clusters. Two pigs with diarrhea were found to be co-infected with multiple PKoV strains. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed diversity within the same host and between different hosts. Significant recombination breakpoints were observed between the CHN/SC/31-A1 and CHN/SC/31-A3 strains in the VP1 region, which were isolated from the same sample. Conclusion PKoV was endemic in Sichuan Province regardless of whether pigs were healthy or suffering from diarrhea. Based on our statistical analyses, we suggest that PKoV was the likely causative agent of high-mortality diarrhea in China from 2010. For the first time, we provide evidence for the co-existence of multiple PKoV strains in one pig, and possible recombination events in the VP1 region. Our findings provide further insights into the molecular properties of PKoV, along with its epidemiology. PMID:24025093

  16. TaALMT1 promoter sequence compositions, acid tolerance, and Al tolerance in wheat cultivars and landraces from Sichuan in China.

    PubMed

    Han, C; Dai, S F; Liu, D C; Pu, Z J; Wei, Y M; Zheng, Y L; Wen, D J; Zhao, L; Yan, Z H

    2013-01-01

    Previous genetic studies on wheat from various sources have indicated that aluminum (Al) tolerance may have originated independently in USA, Brazil, and China. Here, TaALMT1 promoter sequences of 92 landraces and cultivars from Sichuan, China, were sequenced. Five promoter types (I', II, III, IV, and V) were observed in 39 cultivars, and only three promoter types (I, II, and III) were observed in 53 landraces. Among the wheat collections worldwide, only the Chinese Spring (CS) landrace native to Sichuan, China, carried the TaALMT1 promoter type III. Besides CS, two other Sichuan-bred landraces and six cultivars with TaALMT1 promoter type III were identified in this study. In the phylogenetic tree constructed based on the TaALMT1 promoter sequences, type III formed a separate branch, which was supported by a high bootstrap value. It is likely that TaALMT1 promoter type III originated from Sichuan-bred wheat landraces of China. In addition, the landraces with promoter type I showed the lowest Al tolerance among all landraces and cultivars. Furthermore, the cultivars with promoter type IV showed better Al tolerance than landraces with promoter type II. A comparison of acid tolerance and Al tolerance between cultivars and landraces showed that the landraces had better acid tolerance than the cultivars, whereas the cultivars showed better Al tolerance than the landraces. Moreover, significant difference in Al tolerance was also observed between the cultivars raised by the National Ministry of Agriculture and by Sichuan Province. Among the landraces from different regions, those from the East showed better acid tolerance and Al tolerance than those from the South and West of Sichuan. Additional Al-tolerant and acid-tolerant wheat lines were also identified. PMID:24301929

  17. Western China energy development and west to east energy transfer: Application of the Western China Sustainable Energy Development Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenying Chen; Hualin Li; Zongxin Wu

    2010-01-01

    China is striving for coordinated regional economic development and to solve the energy shortage in eastern China through a western China development plan with one focus being energy development and west to east energy transfer. This paper describes Western China Sustainable Energy Development Model (WSED) to evaluate various energy development scenarios for western China. The model includes a Western China

  18. Regional location in western China

    SciTech Connect

    Cogbill, A.H.; Steck, L.K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Earth and Environmental Sciences Div.

    1996-10-01

    Accurately locating seismic events in western China using only regional seismic stations is a challenge. Not only is the number of seismic stations available for locating events small, but most stations available to researchers are often over 10{degree} distant. Here the authors describe the relocation, using regional stations, of both nuclear and earthquake sources near the Lop Nor test site in western China. For such relocations, they used the Earthquake Data Reports provided by the US Geological Survey (USGS) for the reported travel times. Such reports provide a listing of all phases reported to the USGS from stations throughout the world, including many stations in the People`s Republic of China. LocSAT was used as the location code. The authors systematically relocated each event int his study several times, using fewer and fewer stations at reach relocation, with the farther stations being eliminated at each step. They found that location accuracy, judged by comparing solutions from few stations to the solution provided using all available stations, remained good typically until fewer than seven stations remained.With a good station distribution, location accuracy remained surprisingly good (within 7 km) using as few as 3 stations. Because these relocations were computed without good station corrections and without source-specific station corrections (that is, path corrections), they believe that such regional locations can be substantially improved, largely using static station corrections and source-specific station corrections, at least in the Lop nor area, where sources have known locations. Elsewhere in China, one must rely upon known locations of regionally-recorded explosions. Locating such sources is clearly one of the major problems to be overcome before one can provide event locations with any assurance from regional stations.

  19. Modeling the Production and Uses of Biological Resources from the Viewpoint of Energy Flow in a Rural Village in Sichuan, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atsushi Tsunekawa; Bo Zhu; Kazuko Abe; Chie Saito; Kazuhiko Takeuchi

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed at clarifying the impact of deforestation and afforestation on the quality of life in a village in Sichuan Province, China. We devised a conceptual model of bioresource production and use based on quantified energy flow. The basic structure of the model has three sectors: production, use, and externals. We developed comprehensive methodology to quantify the model. Bioresource

  20. Problems of Ecological Environment in Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenjuan, Zhang; Jixi, Gao

    2004-01-01

    Western China is vast, expansive, sparsely populated, and economically underdeveloped, but it plays an important role in economic and social development in China. While the west is a crucial base of power resources, it is also rich in fauna and flora resources and the major habitat for China's many rare wildlife species. Therefore, protecting its…

  1. Chemical and genetic study of Ligularia duciformis and related species in Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces of China.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Hajime; Hanai, Ryo; Yamada, Hiroka; Matsushima, Mika; Miura, Yui; Hoya, Takanori; Ozawa, Masaaki; Fujiwara, Miho; Kodama, Hikari; Torihata, Atsushi; Onuki, Hiroyuki; Nezu, Yoko; Kawai, Satoru; Yamazaki, Mizue; Hirota, Hiroshi; Saito, Yoshinori; Tori, Motoo; Ohsaki, Ayumi; Gong, Xun; Kuroda, Chiaki

    2012-04-01

    The chemical constituents of the root extracts and the evolutionarily neutral DNA base sequences were studied for 28 samples of Ligularia duciformis, L. kongkalingensis, and L. nelumbifolia collected in Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces of China. The samples could be classified into four chemotypes (1-4). Sesquiterpenoids having eremophilane and oplopane skeletons were isolated from two (Chemotype?1) and three (Chemotype?2) samples, respectively. Two new oplopane derivatives were isolated and their structures were determined. In 18 samples, phenylpropenoids were the major components (Chemotype?3). In five samples, neither phenylpropenoids nor sesquiterpenoids were found (Chemotype?4). Despite this large chemical variety, no correlation was found between the chemotype and the morphological criteria of species identification. The analysis of the evolutionarily neutral DNA regions also indicated that the samples were not separated into distinct clades and that introgression was extensive. PMID:22492496

  2. CRF07_BC Strain Dominates the HIV-1 Epidemic in Injection Drug Users in Liangshan Prefecture of Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Wei, Daying; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Li, Tianyi; Gui, Tao; Wood, Charles; Liu, Yongjian; Li, Hanping; Bao, Zuoyi; Liu, Siyang; Wang, Xiaolin; Li, Jingyun

    2015-05-01

    The Liangshan prefecture in Sichuan province is an area in China severely affected by the HIV epidemic, with intravenous drug use (IDU) as the main risk factor. No reports on HIV subtypes prevalent in IDUs in Liangshan prefecture could be found. In this study, we have characterized the genotypes of HIV-1 in the IDU population in Liangshan prefecture and further determined the phylogenetic relationship of the CRF07_BC strains to HIV-1 sequences from the other regions of China, including Xinjiang and Yunnan provinces, to explore the pattern and possible diffusion pathway of HIV-1 in these regions. HIV-1-seropositive drug-naive IDUs identified in Liangshan prefecture, Sichuan province were enrolled in 2009. Full-length gag and pol genes were amplified by reverse transcription and nested PCR and then sequenced. All of the sequences were subtyped. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods. Divergence times were estimated using a Bayesian molecular clock approach. CRF07_BC was found to be the predominant strain in IDUs in Liangshan prefecture (95.5%). The CRF07_BC strains from Liangshan prefecture were found to be intermixed with those from Yunnan province in phylogenetic trees. The CRF07_BC sequences from Xinjiang province can be grouped into several clusters, suggesting that the expansion of the CRF07_BC epidemic in Xinjiang province was the result of a local epidemic driven by multiple independent introductions in the late 1990s. Only low-level drug-resistant viruses were found in the IDU population. CRF07_BC strains from Liangshan prefecture were more similar to those from Yunnan province than those from Xinjiang province. This finding will contribute to our understanding of the distribution, the evolution, and the potential source of CRF07_BC founder strains, and will also provide useful information for the development of strategies to prevent transmission. PMID:25560398

  3. Middle Paleozoic convergent orogenic belts in western Inner Mongolia (China)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Middle Paleozoic convergent orogenic belts in western Inner Mongolia (China): framework, kinematics recognized in western Inner Mongolia (China), including, from south to north: North China Craton (NCC), Southern Orogenic Belt (SOB), Hunshandake Block (HB), Northern Orogenic Belt (NOB), South Mongolia

  4. Importance of Reactivation in the Thickening of the Eastern Tibetan Plateau (Longmen Shan, Sichuan, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sigoyer, J.; Robert, A.; Pubellier, M. F.; Deldicque, D.; Li, Y.; Yi, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The modalities of thickening and uplift of the Tibetan plateau have been often debated. Ages of thickening and of uplift all over the plateau seem to vary with the geological inheritance and reactivation of each area. The Longmen Shan, located on the eastern edge of Tibet, presents an important topographic gradient (from 5000 m to 500 m along 50 km) that overhangs a sharp Moho offset of 20km between the thick Tibetan crust (the Songpan Garze unit) (~67 km-thick) and the resistant 45 km-thick South China crust. Paradoxically the convergence rate across the Longmen Shan measured from geodetic data remains very low (3×3 mm/yr), and this has led to an underestimation of the seismic hazard in this area, and difficulties to explain the thickness of the Tibetan crust underneath. We have documented the thickening processes of the eastern Tibetan border in the Longmen Shan area by unravelling its polyphase evolution via Pressure Temperature (PT) estimates. The first phase of thickening of the Songpan Garze unit and the Longmen Shan occurred by the end of Triassic time during the closure of the Paleotethys. Structural, microstructural, metamorphic observations, PT studies (graphitization of carbonaceous material, quantified X-ray images, chlorite-phengite-quartz-water multi-equilibrium and thermodynamic modelling of phases equilibrium) and U-Pb geochronology are used to describe the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the internal part of the Longmen Shan belt along the Xuelongbao crystalline massif. The Xuelongbao granite is dated 765×7 Ma (in situ U/Pb dating on zircon), suggesting it forms part of the Neoproterozoic South China basement. The intense deformation observed in the sedimentary cover above the Xuelongbao massif, with step cleavage, twisted fold axes and CS structures with top to the SE thrusting vergence are associated to the decollement of the sedimentary pile over the basement. Four stages of deformation are described; three of them being related to the thickening of the Mesozoic wedge, and the last one is attributed to the Cainozoic thick-skin deformation. The first three stages of deformation are characterized by an inverted metamorphic gradient in the western sedimentary cover from the chlorite zone close to the basement contact to the staurolite zone at 10 km over the basement. The PT conditions of the metamorphic peak in the staurolite zone are estimated at 620×30°C, 8-13 kbar, which corresponds to a depth close to 30 km. The thickening of the cover up to 30 km has been made possible by the stack of sedimentary slices during the propagation of the Songpan Garze accretionary wedge onto the South China margin during the Early Mesozoics. The Cainozoic reactivation involved the exhumation of the basement along the Wenchuan-Maowen thrust. This latter reactivation in turn created a metamorphic overprint under greenschist facies conditions at about 350×50°C 6×2kbar, suggesting an exhumation of the base of the Mesozoic wedge from 15 km depth up to the surface.

  5. New constraints on the variation of the geomagnetic field during the late Neolithic period: Archaeointensity results from Sichuan, southwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Wei; Tauxe, Lisa; Deng, Chenglong; Qin, Huafeng; Pan, Yongxin; Yi, Liang; Zhu, Rixiang

    2015-04-01

    We have carried out an archaeomagnetic study on a late Neolithic locality (Liujiazhai) in Sichuan, southwestern China. We pull together various dating techniques, including radiocarbon analysis, optically stimulated luminescence dating, stratigraphic information as well as archaeological and archaeomagnetic estimations, to constrain the age of the studied samples. Rock magnetic results indicate thermally stable fine-grained magnetite or titanomagnetite as the dominant magnetic carriers. More than half of the specimens (141/246) in the paleointensity experiment pass the selection criteria and are considered to record robust intensity values. The virtual axial dipole moments range from approximately (2.8 to 7.8) × 1022 Am2 with an average of 5.9 × 1022 Am2, indicating that the geomagnetic intensity around 3000 before the Common Era (B.C.E.) is overall lower than the present field intensity (9.8 × 1022 Am2) of this area. The new results from Liujiazhai are generally consistent with the published data of similar age but deviate from the only available model of CALS10k.1b at certain time periods, making them important for future improvements of the model. Those data are significant for constraining the variation of geomagnetic field intensity between ~3100 and 2600 B.C.E. and improving the regional model of eastern Asia.

  6. [Evaluation index system of swamp degradation in Zoige Plateau of Sichuan, Southwest China under drainage stress].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-Xing; Li, Kei; Yang, Yang

    2013-07-01

    The evaluation index system of swamp degradation is one of the key scientific issues in the frontier field of international wetland science research. On the basis of long-term swamp field reconnaissance, and according to the fixed position ecological investigation of plant communities and the analysis of soil samples in 20 swamp plots in three belt transects of swamp degradation research under the stress of drainage in 2009, the swamps in the Zoige Plateau of Sichuan were classified into three groups with seven swamp communities, i. e., undisturbed (A type), disturbed by long-term and weak drainage (B-D type), and disturbed by short-term and strong drainage (E-G type), according to the species importance value and by Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN). The degradation degree of the swamps was graded by the method of Principal Components Analysis (PCA), and the swamp vegetation evaluation index (SVEI) and soil evaluation index (SSEI) were developed. Based on the SVEI, the swamps were classified as pristine swamp, lightly degraded swamp, moderately degraded swamp, and severely degraded swamp. Based on the SSEI, the swamps in Hongyuan County were divided into three grades, i. e. pristine swamp, lightly degraded swamp, and severely degraded swamp, while those in Ruoergai County were divided into lightly degraded swamp, moderately degraded swamp, and severely degraded swamp. The similarity of TWINSPAN classification results and SVEI/SSEI evaluation results was above 70%, indicating that both SVEI and SSEI were effective for the swamp degradation grading, and different classification methods should be combined to comprehensively evaluate the swamps in the Plateau. PMID:24175510

  7. Further notes on calicioid lichens and fungi from the Gongga Mountains (Sichuan, China)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Titov

    2001-01-01

    Abstract:Three new species, Chaenothecopsis eugenia, Chaenothecopsis vinosa andChaenothecopsis weiana are described from the Gongga Mountains in China. Chaenothecopsis pilosa is reported as new to Eurasia, and Chaenotheca sphaerocephala as new to Asia. Three genera, Cyphelium, Pyrgidium andStenocybe , and 13 species are reported as new to China. Descriptions and illustrations of the new species are presented along with data on

  8. Distribution and features of landslides induced by the 2008 Wengchuan Earthquake, Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigira, M.; Xiyong, W.; Inokuchi, T.; Gonghui, W.

    2009-04-01

    2008 Sichuan earthquake with a magnitude of Mw 7.9 induced numerous mass movements around the fault surface ruptures of which maximum separations we observed were 3.6 m vertical and 1.5 m horizontal (right lateral). The affected area was mountainous areas with elevations from 1000 m to 4500 m on the west of the Sichuan Basin. The NE-trending Longmenshan fault zone runs along the boundary between the mountains on the west and the Sichuan basin (He and Tsukuda, 2003), of which Yinghsiuwan-Beichuan fault was the main fault that generated the 2008 earthquake (Xu, 2008). The basement rocks of the mountainous areas range from Precambrian to Cretaceous in age. They are basaltic rocks, granite, phyllite, dolostone, limestone, alternating beds of sandstone and shale, etc. There were several types of landslides ranging from small, shallow rockslide, rockfall, debris slide, deep rockslide, and debris flows. Shallow rockslide, rock fall, and debris slide were most common and occurred on convex slopes or ridge tops. When we approached the epicentral area, first appearing landslides were of this type and the most conspicuous was a failure of isolated ridge-tops, where earthquake shaking would be amplified. As for rock types, slopes of granitic rocks, hornfels, and carbonate rocks failed in wide areas to the most. They are generally hard and their fragments apparently collided and repelled to each other and detached from the slopes. Alternating beds of sandstone and mudstone failed on many slopes near the fault ruptures, including Yinghsiuwan near the epicenter. Many rockfalls occurred on cliffs, which had taluses on their feet. The fallen rocks tumbled down and mostly stopped within the talus surfaces, which is quite reasonable because taluses generally develop by this kind of processes. Many rockslides occurred on slopes of carbonate rocks, in which dolostone or dolomitic limestone prevails. Deep-seated rockslide occurred on outfacing slopes and shallow rockslide and rockfall occurred on infacing slopes. Infacing slopes generally are steeper than outfacing slopes and hence surface rocks on infacing slopes tend to be loosened by gravity. Detachment surfaces of carbonate rocks are generally not smooth surfaces but are rough surfaces with dimple-like depressions, which are made by dissolution of these rocks. This feature is one of the most important causes to induce landslide in carbonate rocks. Many gravitational deformations were observed on phyllite slopes. Landslides on the west of Beichuan city is probably of weathered phyllite, which had been preceded by gravitational deformation beforehand. Taochishan landslide in Beichuan occurred on probable outfacing slope of phyllite. The Formosat II images on Google earth indicated that this landslide was also preceded by gravitational deformation, which appeared as spur-crossing depressions with upslope-convex traces on plan. Satellite images indicated that some landslides had long lobate forms, suggesting that they were flow. One of them was Shechadientsu landslide 34 km northeast of Dujiangyan, occurring across the probable earthquake fault rupture. It was 1.5 km long with a maximum width of 250 m and an apparent friction angle of 22°. The top of this landslide area was a steep cliff of Precambrian granite, which failed to go down a small valley. The volume of the slope failure was estimated much less than the volume of the deposit. The small valley had sporadic patches of bedrock consisting of alternating beds of sandstone and mudstone of Triassic in age. The bedrock was covered by bluish grey, clayey, water-saturated debris, which was not disturbed and in turn covered by water-saturated brownish debris with rubbles. The landslide deposits had wrinkles on the surface and streaks of same color rock fragments. In addition, cross section near the distal part had clearly defined reverse grading, in which larger rubbles with a maximum diameter of 5 m concentrated at the surface part. These characteristics strongly suggest that valley-fill sediments mobilized by the earthquake and flowed down

  9. Migration as a rural development strategy and the migrants involved : an account of a migrants' hometown in Sichuan, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mami Yamaguchi

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to describe part of the history of Chinese rural migration to urban industrial areas. Using a case study of a township in Sichuan, the author examines a type of rural development which she defines as a \\

  10. Paleogeothermal record of the Emeishan mantle plume: evidences from borehole Ro data in the Sichuan basin, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Emeishan basalt province located in the southwest of China is widely accepted to be a result of the eruption of a mantle plume at the time of middle-late Permian. If it was a mantle plume, the ambient sedimentary rocks must be heated up during the development of the mantle plume and this thermal effect must be recorded by some geothermometers in the country rocks. The vitrinite reflectance (Ro) data as a maximum paleotemperature recorder from boreholes in Sichuan basin was employed to expose the thermal regime related to the proposed Emeishan mantle plume. The Ro profiles from boreholes which drilled close to the Emeishan basalts shows a ';dog-leg' (break) style at the unconformity between the middle and the upper Permian, and the Ro profiles in the lower subsection (pre-middle Permian) shows a significantly higher slopes (gradients) than those in the upper subsection. In contrast, those Ro profiles from boreholes far away from the center of the basalt province have no break at the uncomformity. Based on the chemical kinetic model of Ro, the paleo-temperature gradients for the upper and the lower subsections in different boreholes, as well as the erosion at the unconformity between the middle and the upper Permian, were reconstructed to reveal the variations of the temperature gradients and erosion thickness with geological time and space. Both the thermal regime and the erosion thickness together with their spatial variation (structure) provide strong geothermal evidence for the existence of the Emeishan mantle plume in the middle-late Permian.

  11. Uppermost permian reefs and permo-triassic sedimentary facies from the southeastern margin of Sichuan Basin, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joachim W. Reinhardt

    1988-01-01

    Summary  A large-scale, gradual transition from an epicontinental marine regime, prevailing during most of the Paleozoic, to continental\\u000a (?molasse) red beds of Upper Triassic and younger age is documented within the Permo-Triassic sequence of marine carbonate\\u000a and siliciclastic rocks of the western Yangzi Platform in southern China. Large portions of the Yangzi Platform (along with\\u000a the Tarim and Sino-Korea Platforms, one

  12. Genotypic characteristics of Haemophilus influenzae isolates from pediatric pneumonia patients in Chengdu city, Sichuan, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guozhong Tian; Li Zhang; Machao Li; Xiaolei Wang; Yuhong Zheng; Xiaojing Li; Cheng Huang; Xuechun Li; Yongqiong Xie; Li Xu; Hongyu Ren; Zhujun Shao

    2009-01-01

    Two hundred and seventy-three Haemophilus influenzae strains isolated from pediatric pneumonia patients in China were studied. We used Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) to analyze\\u000a genotypic characteristics. All strains were biotyped and serotyped. Relatedness and patterns of genes among isolates were\\u000a determined by the analysis of MLST and eBURST. H. influenzae primarily causes acute pneumonia in children under 1 year old.

  13. Regulation of Civil Society in China: Necessary Changes after the Olympic Games and the Sichuan Earthquake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karla W. Simon

    2008-01-01

    This Article will address the following topics with regard to the regulation of civil society in China: (1)Making the existing regulations for social organizations (shehui tuanti, “SOs”), nonprofit non-commercial entities (minban fei qiye danwe, “NCEs”),and foundations (jijin hui) more user-friendly, including making it possible for de facto networks that provide and coordinate disaster relief to be recognized, perhaps as semi-legal

  14. Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haoyue; Stiller, Caroline K.; Scherbaum, Veronika; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Wang, Qi; Hormann, Elizabeth; Bellows, Anne C.

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected) in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19–42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) within the normal range (18.5 ? BMI < 25), 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas), while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ?30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs) the women’s overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%), was low in carbohydrates (49.6%), and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%). Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI) fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%), fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%), protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%), vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%), Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%), Fe (56.3% vs. 48%), Ca (55.1% vs. 41%) and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%). The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80%) than in urban (65.1%) areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both urban and rural women. The prevalence of underweight before conception and an insufficient supply of important micronutrients were more pronounced in rural areas. Therefore, attention must be given to the nutritional status, especially of rural women before, or at the latest, during pregnancy. PMID:23912325

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of canine parvovirus isolates from sichuan and gansu provinces of China in 2011.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Guo, H-C; Wei, Y-Q; Shu, L; Wang, J; Li, J-S; Cao, S-Z; Sun, S-Q

    2015-02-01

    Canine parvovirus causes serious disease in dogs. Study of the genetic variation in emerging CPV strains is important for disease control strategy. The antigenic property of CPV is connected with specific amino acid changes, mainly in the capsid protein VP2. This study was carried out to characterize VP2 gene of CPV viruses from two provinces of China in 2011. The complete VP2 genes of the CPV-positive samples were amplified and sequenced. Genetic analysis based on the VP2 genes of CPV was conducted. All of the isolates screened and sequenced in this study were typed as CPV-2a except GS-K11 strain, which was typed as CPV-2b. Sequence comparison showed nucleotide identities of 98.8-100% among CPV strains, whereas the Aa similarities were 99.6-100%. Compared with the reference strains, there are three distinctive amino acid changes at VP2 gene residue 267, 324 and 440 of the strains isolated in this study. Of the 27 strains, fourteen (51.85%) had the 267 (Phe-Tyr) and 440 (Thr-Ala) substitution, all the 27 (100%) had 324 (Tyr-Ile) substitution. Phylogenetically, all of the strains isolated in this study formed a major monophyletic cluster together with one South Korean isolate, two Thailand isolates and four Chinese former isolates. PMID:23506473

  16. INNOVATION IN CHINA: THE CONTRIBUTION OF SINO-WESTERN

    E-print Network

    Sheldon, Nathan D.

    i INNOVATION IN CHINA: THE CONTRIBUTION OF SINO-WESTERN JOINT VENTURES Li Liu Thesis submitted: ................................................. Li Liu #12;iii Abstract Name of Candidate: Li Liu Thesis title: Innovation in China: the contribution of Sino-Western joint ventures Since China embraced the Open Door policy in 1978, innovation has been

  17. Evaluation of high-risk Human papillomaviruses type distribution in cervical cancer in Sichuan province of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    En-qi Wu; Guo-nan Zhang; Xiang-hui Yu; Yuan Ren; Ying Fan; Yong-ge Wu; Wei Kong; Xiao Zha

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus is an important factor associated with cervical cancer, and the distribution of HPV types varies greatly worldwide. Determination of type-specific HPV prevalence constitutes an important step towards the development of vaccines for the prevention of cervical cancer. METHODS: The human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in 190 cervical cancer specimens taken from the Sichuan province, the

  18. A conduit-related genesis of the Lengshuiqing intrusive assemblage (Sichuan, SW China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munteanu, Marian; Wilson, Allan H.; Yao, Yong; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Chunnett, Gordon; Luo, Yaonan; Mafurutu, Leonard; Phadagi, Rofhiwa

    2010-01-01

    Lengshuiqing is part of the late Proterozoic igneous province from the western margin of the Yangtze craton. The Lengshuiqing area comprises five ultramafic-mafic intrusions, emplaced in the late Proterozoic Yanbian Group. The intrusions from Lengshuiqing contain cumulate ultramafic zones (peridotite + olivine pyroxenite), with cumulus olivine and Cr-spinel, and intercumulus pyroxenes, hornblende, phlogopite and plagioclase. Ni-Cu ore (pyrrhotite + pentlandite + chalcopyrite) is hosted in the ultramafic zones. Olivine-free diorite-quartz diorite ± gabbro and granite zones commonly occur above the ultramafic rocks. The genesis of the intrusions (conduit-related accumulation or differentiation from stagnant magma) was investigated. The amount of sulphides in the intrusions from Lengshuiqing is one order of magnitude bigger than the sulphides that can be dissolved by a volume of mafic magma similar with the volume of the intrusions. Most intrusions from Lengshuiqing have bulk composition (peridotite ± diorite ± granite) more magnesian (MgO = 21-22%; Mg# > 78) than the deduced composition of their parental magma (MgO = 9-11%; Mg# = 64-67). This indicates the accumulation of sulphide and mafic silicates from a volume of magma much bigger than the volume of the intrusions, which can be explained by the fractionation from magma ascending through the intrusions to shallower depths. A continuous supply and vent of magma is consistent with the lack of chilled margins, the melting of the wall rocks and the generation of high-temperature mineral assemblages (K-feldspar, diopside, and sillimanite) in the Yanbian Group. The intrusions from Lengshuiqing are seen as microchambers on conduits draining olivine-, Cr-spinel-, and sulphide-bearing mafic magma from a larger staging chamber.

  19. Spatio-temporal modeling with GIS and remote sensing for schistosomiasis control in Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bing

    Schistosomiasis is a water-borne parasitic disease endemic in tropical and subtropical areas. Its transmission requires certain kind of snail as the intermediate host. Some efforts have been made to mapping snail habitats with remote sensing and schistosomiasis transmission modeling. However, the modeling is limited to isolated residential groups and does not include spatial interaction among those groups. Remotely sensed data are only used in snail habitat classification, not in estimation of snail abundance that is an important parameter in schistosomiasis transmission modeling. This research overcomes the above two problems using innovative geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing technology. A mountainous environment near Xichang, China, is chosen as the test site. Environmental and epidemiological data are stored in a GIS to support modeling. Snail abundance is estimated from land-cover and land-use fractions derived from high spatial resolution IKONOS satellite data. Spatial interaction is determined in consideration of neighborhoods, group areas, relative slopes among groups, and natural barriers. Land-cover and land-use information extracted from 4 m high resolution IKONOS data is used as reference in scaling up to the regional level. The scale-up is done with coarser resolution satellite data including Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), EO-1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Hyperion data all at 30 m resolution. Snail abundance is estimated by regressing snail survey data with land-cover and land-use fractions. An R2 of 0.87 is obtained between the average snail density predicted and that surveyed at the group level. With such a model, a snail density map is generated for all residential groups in the study area. A spatio-temporal model of schistosomiasis transmission is finally built to incorporate the spatial interaction caused by miracidia and cercaria migration. Comparing the model results with and without spatial interaction has revealed a number of advantages of the spatio-temporal model. Particularly, with the inclusion of spatial interaction, more effective control of schistosomiasis transmission over the whole study area can be achieved.

  20. Controls on the PGE distribution of Permian Emeishan alkaline and peralkaline volcanic rocks in Longzhoushan, Sichuan Province, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Liang; Wang, Christina Yan; Zhou, Mei-Fu

    2008-12-01

    The ~ 260-Ma Emeishan large igneous province in SW China and northern Vietnam contains low-Ti tholeiitic basalts, high-Ti alkaline basalts and minor peralkaline volcanic rocks. The flood basalts in Longzhoushan, Sichuan Province, SW China, comprise four units, each of which has volcanic breccia at the base. From the base upward, rocks of Units 1 and 2 are high-Ti basalts with relatively high MgO (7.6-11.0 wt.%), TiO 2 (1.7-4.5 wt.%) and Ti/Y ratios (420-790). Unit 3 is composed of tephrites with lower MgO (0.87-6.2 wt.%), TiO 2 (0.96-2.14 wt.%) and Ti/Y ratios (190-530), whereas Unit 4 consists of basaltic andesites with moderate MgO (3.5-4.8 wt.%), TiO 2 (2.2-3.1 wt.%) and Ti/Y ratios (383-606). The high-Ti basalts may have been derived from an OIB-like mantle source and the basaltic andesites were probably generated by crustal contamination and fractionation of high-Ti basaltic magmas. The tephrites show high Nb/Y (1.2 to 2.7) and Th/Y (0.31 to 0.55) ratios, variable Zr/Hf ratios (40 to 49) and relatively low ?Nd( t) (- 0.7 to + 0.28) values, suggesting an asthenospheric mantle contribution modified by carbonate-rich fluids. The high-Ti basalts contain relatively high and variable PGE and their Cu/Pd ratios are relatively constant (compared to the tephrites) and vary from 8,500 to 86,000. We attribute such relative constancy of the Cu/Pd ratios to the presence of residual sulphide in the source of the high-Ti rocks and subsequent crystallization from S-undersaturated melts. The basaltic andesites have relatively high and constant Cu/Pd ratios (130,000-370,492) and the lowest PGE contents (average 0.12 ppb for Pd, 0.20 ppb for Pt), suggesting an earlier removal of sulfide due to crustal contamination before emplacement. The tephrites have PGE abundances (0.057 to 1.89 ppb for Pt and 0.11 to 2.10 ppb for Pd) higher than those for basaltic andesites, however, the Cu/Pd ratios (33,300 to 429,000) of the rocks are more variable than those for the basaltic andesites, suggesting that the tephrites may have undergone both S-saturated fractionation during emplacement of the magmas and weak removal of sulfides from the source magmas. Early fractionation of chromite together with removal of laurite and/or Os-Ir-Ru alloys from the parental magmas may be responsible for the negative Ru anomalies of the tephrites, high-Ti basalts and basaltic andesites.

  1. Rapid sea-level change in the Late Guadalupian (Permian) on the Tethyan side of South China: litho- and biostratigraphy of the Chaotian section in Sichuan.

    PubMed

    Isozaki, Yukio; Yao, Jianxin; Ji, Zhangshen; Saitoh, Masafumi; Kobayashi, Noritada; Sakai, Harutaka

    2008-01-01

    The Capitanian (Late Guadalupian) Maokou Formation at Chaotian in northern Sichuan, South China, is composed mainly of shallow marine shelf carbonates deposited on the Tethyan side of South China. By detailed field mapping and scientific drilling, we newly found out unique fossil assemblages and a sharp lithologic change in the upper part of the Maokou Formation. The main part of the Maokou Formation (over 130 m thick) is composed of algal packstone with Wordian-Capitanian large-tested fusulines, rugose corals and other sessile benthos, whereas the Uppermost Member (13 m thick) is composed of black limy mudstone/chert with Capitanian offshore biota (ammonoids, radiolarians, and conodonts). The topmost Capitanian conodont zones are missing; however, the Maokou Formation is disconformably overlain by 260+/-4 Ma volcanic ash (Wangpo bed) and the Early Lopingian Wujiaping Formation with plant-bearing coaly mudstone and shallow marine carbonates (packstone). The newly identified facies change indicates that northern Sichuan has experienced rapid sea-level changes in the late Guadalupian, i.e., first a transgression in the mid-Capitanian and then a regression across the Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary. As the end-Guadalupian is characterized by a global regression, such a volatile sea-level fluctuation, in particular the sea-level rise, is unique to the Tethyan side of South China. The newly recognized relatively deep-water late Guadalupian sequence adds new paleo-environmental information and further provides a paleotectonic interpretation of the low-latitude eastern Tethyan margin immediately before the end-Guadalupian mass extinction. PMID:18941307

  2. Population and FP programmes in Sichuan. Profiles of Sichuan Province.

    PubMed

    She, W

    1997-10-01

    This article describes the history of family planning (FP) programs in Sichuan province in south-central China. In 1996, Sichuan had a population of 83.56 million people living on 6% of total land area in China. 93% of total provincial population live in the eastern Sichuan Basin, which contains only 44.7% of total land area. Population density is 700 in Sichuan Basin, compared to 197 for the province. The per capita share of farmland is 0.07 hectares. Sichuan has abundant water resources. FP was introduced during the mid-1950s in pilot areas. The provincial government set up technical guidance offices on FP in hospitals in 2 cities and some prefectures in 1956, after a directive by the Central Government. Male and female sterilization were advocated in 1957. Oral contraception became available in 1963. The provincial government in 1964, established a two-child policy with an interval of 4-5 years and deferred marriage. Mobile FP units delivered FP to villages. During 1966-70 and the Cultural Revolution, FP activity stopped. FP departments reopened in 1971. FP was integrated within socioeconomic development plans as early as 1973. Later, the province adopted the deferred, spaced, and fewer-births policy. The one-child policy was adopted in 1979. In 1980, a goal was set for limiting births, incentives were given to those accepting FP, and services expanded. During 1980-85, the province achieved replacement level fertility. By 1990-95, the program had shifted emphasis several times and was emphasizing poverty alleviation. PMID:12293434

  3. A 5-year longitudinal study of schistosomiasis transmission in Shian village, the Anning River Valley, Sichuan Province, the Peoples' Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Schistosoma japonicum is a major public health concern in the Peoples' Republic of China (PRC), with over one million people infected and another 50 million living in areas at risk of infection. Based on ecological, environmental, population genetic and molecular factors, schistosomiasis transmission in PRC can be categorised into four discrete ecosystems or transmission modes. It is predicted that the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) will impact upon the transmission of schistosomiasis in the PRC, with varying degree across the four transmission modes. We undertook longitudinal surveillance from 2002 to 2006 in sentinel villages both above and below the TGD across five provinces (Hunan, Jiangxi, Hubei, Anhui and Sichuan) to determine whether there was any impact of the TGD on schistosomiasis transmission during its construction. Here we present the results from a schistosomiasis-endemic village located above the dam in Sichuan Province. Results Baseline results showed a human S. japonicum prevalence of 42.0% (95% CI: 36.6-47.5). At follow-up, results showed that the incidence of S. japonicum infection in the selected human cohort in Shian decreased by three quarters from 46% in 2003 to 11.3% in 2006. A significant (P < 0.01) downward trend was also evident in the yearly adjusted (for water contact) odds ratios. Over the four years of follow-up, the incidence of S. japonicum infection in bovines declined from 11.8% in the first year to zero in the final year of follow-up. Conclusions The substantial decrease in human (75%) and bovine (100%) incidence observed in Shian village can probably be attributed to the annual human and bovine PZQ treatment of positives; as seen in drug (PZQ) intervention studies in other parts of PRC. If an increase in schistosome transmission had occurred as a result of the TGD, it would be of negligible size compared to the treatment induced decline seen here. It appears therefore that the construction of the TGD had virtually no impact on schistosomiasis transmission in Shian village over the period of study. Furthermore, contrary to previous reports from Sichuan downplaying the role of animals in human schistosome transmission, bovines may indeed play a role. PMID:21429229

  4. Liberation or Oppression?--Western TESOL Pedagogies in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Shaofei; Ares, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine power relations in College English teaching in China, focusing on the "symbolic capital" of English as a global language. Framing our discussion with Bourdieu's concept of symbolic capital and a review of literature, we problematize the importation of pedagogies from Western countries to China and argue that…

  5. China's importation of Western psychiatry: Cultural relativity and mental disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah Woo

    1991-01-01

    As one aspect of China's modernization, the importation of Western psychiatric ideas poses a mystery. How are such ideas integrated with traditional assumptions? The apparently wholesale adoption of Western psychiatric categories runs counter to the fact that the Chinese have been generally reluctant to define problems in highly individualized psychiatric terms. Our lack of knowledge as to how the Chinese

  6. Reinfection studies of canine echinococcosis and role of dogs in transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis in Tibetan communities, Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Moss, J E; Chen, X; Li, T; Qiu, J; Wang, Q; Giraudoux, P; Ito, A; Torgerson, P R; Craig, P S

    2013-11-01

    In the eastern Tibetan plateau both human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by infection with Echincoccus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively are highly endemic. The domestic dog plays a key role in zoonotic transmission in this region. Our primary objective was to investigate the role of domestic dogs in maintaining transmission of E. multilocularis in Shiqu county, Sichuan. A cohort of 281 dogs was followed up over one year after a single treatment with praziquantel followed by re-infection surveillance at 2, 5 and 12 months post-treatment. Faecal samples were tested by an Echinococcus genus-specific coproantigen ELISA and two species-specific copro-PCR tests. Total Echinococcus coproantigen prevalence in Shiqu at baseline was 21% and 9·6% after 2 months. E. multilocularis copro-PCR was positive in 11·2% of dogs before treatment (vs 3·6% with E. granulosus copro-DNA), 2·9% at 2 months post-treatment, and 0% at 5 month and 12 months. The results suggest that dogs may have the potential to maintain E. multilocularis transmission within local pastoral communities, and thus dog dosing could be an effective strategy to reduce transmission of E. multilocularis as well as E. granulosus in these co-endemic Tibetan communities. PMID:23985352

  7. [Dynamics of regional ecological frangibility under natural hazard stress: a case study in Qingping Town of Sichuan Province, Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin-Tao; Tao, He-Ping; Liu, Shao-Quan; Yu, Hui; Kong, Bo

    2012-01-01

    By using the aerial remote sensing images after May 12, 2008 (the date of catastrophic Wenchuan Earthquake) and the unmanned aircraft vehicle remote sensing images after August 13, 2010 (the date of extraordinary debris flow), and in combining with the land use map (1:10000), topographic map (1:50000), and collected field investigation data of Qingping Town, Mianzhu City of Sichuan Province in 2006, this paper analyzed and evaluated the ecological frangibility of the Town. In the Town, the slightly, lightly, moderately, heavily, and extremely fragile ecological zones after the extraordinary debris flow occupied 1.9%, 7.9%, 18.7%, 23.0%, and 48.5%, respectively, with the area of heavily and extremely fragile ecological zones accounting for 71.5% of the total, being 238.45 km2, i. e., the ecological environment was overall very fragile. Under the impact of the two natural hazards, the ecological frangibility degree of the Town increased obviously. As compared with that before the Earthquake, the area of heavily and extremely fragile ecological zones after the Earthquake increased by 12.4%, and the area of extremely fragile ecological zone was 1.67 times larger. The dynamic evolution of the ecological frangibility of the Town was mainly manifested in the conversion of heavily fragile ecological zone into extremely fragile ecological zone. Complex terrain was the key factor of the ecological frangibility of the Town. PMID:22489499

  8. Rock magnetic properties of fault rocks from the rupture of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, China and their implications: Preliminary results from the Zhaojiagou outcrop, Beichuan County (Sichuan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tao; Chen, Jianye; Wang, Hongqiang; Jin, Haiqiang

    2012-03-01

    Rock magnetic measurements were conducted on fault rocks from the Zhaojiagou outcrop at Leigu Town, Beichuan County, Sichuan Province (China), located on the Yingxiu-Beichuan Fault, the main fault ruptured in the 2008 Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake. Hysteresis measurements indicate that fault rocks contain very low concentrations of ferrimagnetic minerals, and their magnetic behavior is dominated by para-/diamagnetic components. Temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility increased significantly above 400 °C in the heating run. Magnetic behavior reveals the presence of siderite, lepidocrocite, chlorite and smectite as the possible major Fe-bearing minerals in fault rocks. Their thermal decomposition to ferrimagnetic minerals (e.g., magnetite and/or maghemite) could be responsible for the high magnetic susceptibility during the thermal treatment. A kinetic model analysis indicates that frictional heating could increase the temperature within the fault zone up to 320-908 °C at depth of 590 m, and 335-952 °C at depth of 618.3 m, respectively, during the seismic slip of the Wenchuan earthquake, depending on shear stress. Such high temperatures are enough to drive thermal decomposition of Fe-bearing minerals in fault rocks (in particularly, in fault gouge), to form ferrimagnetic magnetite and/or maghemite. This is the most likely mechanism for the reported high magnetic susceptibility anomalies within the fault zone in the pilot hole of Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling Project (WFSD-1).

  9. Association of polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase genes (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1) with idiopathic azoospermia or oligospermia in Sichuan, China

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Da-Ke; Chen, Hong-Han; Ding, Xian-Ping; Zhang, Shao-Hong; Zhang, Jian-Hui

    2015-01-01

    The reported effects of the glutathione S-transferase (GSTs) genes (GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1) on male factor infertility have been inconsistent and even contradictory. Here, we conducted a case-control study to investigate the association between functionally important polymorphisms in GST genes and idiopathic male infertility. The study group consisted of 361 men with idiopathic azoospermia, 118 men with idiopathic oligospermia, and 234 age-matched healthy fertile male controls. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood, and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. There was a significant association between the GSTP1 variant genotype (Ile/Val + Val/Val) with idiopathic infertility risk (odds ratio [OR]: 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11–2.11; P = 0.009). Similarly, a higher risk of infertility was noted in individuals carrying a genotype combination of GSTT1-null and GSTP1 (Ile/Val + Val/Val) (OR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.43–3.31; P = 0.0002). These results suggest an increased risk of the GSTP1 variant genotype (Ile/Val + Val/Val) for developing male factor infertility. Our findings also underrate the significance of the effect of GSTM1 and/or GSTT1 (especially the former) in modulating the risk of male infertility in males from Sichuan, southwest China. PMID:25532576

  10. Comparative study of bacterial status from conjunctival sac of the elder Qiang minority and Han people with dry eye in Sichuan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Liu, Zhi-Rong; Chen, Hui; Dong, Wan-Jiang; Fan, Ying-Chuan; Yu, Hua; Wang, Guang-Jin; Li, Yu-Chan; Cao, Kui

    2012-01-01

    AIM To compare the status of bacteria in the conjunctival sac from the elder Qiang minority and Han people with dry eyes in Sichuan, China. METHODS Total of 54 elder Qiang people with dry eyes (108 eyes) were examined by cluster sampling. In the similar habitation region of Han people, 80 (160 dry eyes) Han people were analyzed as the control group. The bacteria was separated from the inferior palpebral conjunctiva, then inoculated on blood plate for 48 hours and identified. RESULTS Totally 24 strains of bacteria were cultured in either Qiang minority or Han c populations with 3 strains of them existed in both ethnic groups. The commonest bacteria in conjunctival sac in two ethnic groups were non-pathogenic bacterium. The composition of Corynebacterium in Han people (54.1%) was significantly higher than that in Qiang minority (27.4%) (?2=11.6721, P=0.0006). The percentage of Sphingomonas Paucimobilis in Qiang people was higher than that in Han people (?2=18.6442, P=0.0000). However, there was no significant difference between Qiang minority and Han people either in bacterial positive rate in conjunctival sac, or the composition of bacteria species and strains, or the composition of staphylococcus epidemids between two ethnic populations. CONCLUSION There was no significant difference of bacterial positive rate in conjunctival sac from the elder of Qiang minority and Han people with dry eye, but the species of bacteria were different. PMID:22773985

  11. Association of polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase genes (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1) with idiopathic azoospermia or oligospermia in Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Da-Ke; Chen, Hong-Han; Ding, Xian-Ping; Zhang, Shao-Hong; Zhang, Jian-Hui

    2015-01-01

    The reported effects of the glutathione S-transferase (GSTs) genes (GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1) on male factor infertility have been inconsistent and even contradictory. Here, we conducted a case-control study to investigate the association between functionally important polymorphisms in GST genes and idiopathic male infertility. The study group consisted of 361 men with idiopathic azoospermia, 118 men with idiopathic oligospermia, and 234 age-matched healthy fertile male controls. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood, and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. There was a significant association between the GSTP1 variant genotype (Ile/Val + Val/Val) with idiopathic infertility risk (odds ratio [OR]: 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-2.11; P = 0.009). Similarly, a higher risk of infertility was noted in individuals carrying a genotype combination of GSTT1-null and GSTP1 (Ile/Val + Val/Val) (OR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.43-3.31; P = 0.0002). These results suggest an increased risk of the GSTP1 variant genotype (Ile/Val + Val/Val) for developing male factor infertility. Our findings also underrate the significance of the effect of GSTM1 and/or GSTT1 (especially the former) in modulating the risk of male infertility in males from Sichuan, southwest China. PMID:25532576

  12. Assessing the scalar moment of moderate earthquake and the effect of lateral heterogeneity on normal modes-An example from the 2013/04/20 Lushan earthquake, Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiao Gang; Jiang, Ying; Sun, He Ping

    2014-07-01

    Medium-frequency normal modes in the frequency range of 2.0-6.0 mHz excited by moderate earthquakes (6.0 < Mw < 7.0) are weak seismic signals and seldom concerned in academic study. We show that the validity of predicted M0 (scalar seismic moment) for a complex moderate earthquake can be effectively assessed by a systematic comparison of observed and synthetic medium-frequency spheroidal modes, and the effect of lateral heterogeneity on normal-mode amplitudes can also be well assessed in the comparison. For a complex moderate earthquake, the differences between predicted M0 derived from different inversion methods are significant, in some cases as large as factors of 1.56-3.18. In this study we focus on the Lushan earthquake, a moderate thrust event on 20 April 2013 in the Western Sichuan, China. Five reported M0 for the earthquake differ significantly from 0.4 × 1019 to 1.06 × 1019 N m, up to about 2.5 times difference. To assess the validity of reported M0, we compare observed with synthetic modes corresponding to five centroid moment tensor solutions at 17 stations, which located within epicental distances of 5-30° and distributed in a wide range of source-receiver azimuths. Synthetic modes corresponding to moment tensor solutions derived from long-period waveforms show good agreement to observations. However, synthetics corresponding to moment tensor solutions derived from body waves display significant deviations of amplitudes from observations. We show underestimate of M0 is the main cause for such a large deviation. Another important result obtained from the comparison is that lateral heterogeneity has very little effects on the amplitudes of spherical modes at frequencies below 6.0 mHz. This observational result is inconsistent with previous theoretical result of lateral structure perturbations to normal modes.

  13. Late Jurassic salamandroid from western Liaoning, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ke-Qin; Shubin, Neil H

    2012-04-10

    A Jurassic salamander, Beiyanerpeton jianpingensis (gen. et sp. nov.), from a recently found site in western Liaoning Province, China is the earliest known record of Salamandroidea. As a Late Jurassic record of the group, it extends the range of the clade by ~40 Ma. The Late Jurassic taxon is neotenic and represented by exceptionally preserved specimens, including fully articulated cranial and postcranial skeletons and bony gill structures close to the cheek region. The fossil beds, consisting of dark-brown volcanic ash shales of the Upper Jurassic Tiaojishan (Lanqi) Formation (Oxfordian), underlie trachyandesite rocks that have yielded a SHRIMP zircon U-Pb date of 157 ± 3 Ma. The fossiliferous beds are substantially older than the Jehol Group, including the Yixian Formation ((40)Ar/(39)Ar dates of 122-129 Ma), but slightly younger than the Middle Jurassic Daohugou horizon ((40)Ar/(39)Ar date of 164 ± 4 Ma). The early fossil taxon shares with extant salamandroids derived character states, including: separated nasals lacking a midline contact, angular fused to the prearticular in the lower jaw, and double-headed ribs on the presacral vertebrae. In contrast to extant salamandroids, however, the salamander shows a discrete and tooth-bearing palatine, and unequivocally nonpedicellate and monocuspid marginal teeth in large and presumably mature individuals. The finding provides insights into the evolution of key characters of salamanders, and also provides direct evidence supporting the hypothesis that the split between Cryptobranchoidea and Salamandroidea had taken placed before the Late Jurassic Oxfordian time. In this aspect, both paleontological and molecular data now come to agree. PMID:22411790

  14. The prevalence of canine Leishmania infantum infection in western China detected by PCR and serological tests

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is endemic in western China, resulting in important public health problem. It is essential to evaluate the prevalence of canine Leishmania infantum infection for designing control policy. In the present study we report for the first time prevalence of Leishmania infection in dogs living in Jiuzhaigou County (Sichuan Provence, China), which is not only an important endemic area of CanL but also a tourism scenic spot, detected by PCR, ELISA and dipstick test. The results could provide key information for designing control programs against canine and human leishmaniasis. In addition, the complete sequence of the Leishmania isolate from Sichuan Province has not been reported to date and we present the sequences of 116 base-pair (bp) fragment of the conserved region in the minicircle kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) and the results of phylogenetic analyses based on the sequence of the amplified fragment. Results The proportion of dogs infected with Leishmania in Jiuzhaigou County was 36.79%, 9.43%, and 51.88% detected by ELISA, dipstick test, and PCR, respectively. The ELISA and PCR tests were more sensitive than dipstick test. The PCR method is the most sensitive way to detect dogs infected with Leishmania parasites. The total positive rate for infected dogs in the area was 59.43% by the three methods. The PCR products of 116-bp fragment amplified from the kDNA conserved region of dog blood samples and laboratory maintained L. infantum were DNA sequenced and the variation of the sequences was observed. The phylogenetic tree based on the sequences of 116-bp fragment reveals that L. infantum is more genetically related to visceralizing species L. donovani than to the Leishmania species associated with cutaneous disease. Conclusions More than half of dogs living in the endemic Jiuzhaigou County were infected by L. infantum. Control measures, such as treatment or eradication of infected dogs, or prohibition of maintaining dogs, must be taken against these infected dogs due to their role in the transmission of the infection to vectors. The phylogenetic tree based on the sequences of conserved region in kDNA of Leishmania can effectively distinguish species of Leishmania. PMID:21554677

  15. Effectiveness of a smart phone app on improving immunization of children in rural Sichuan Province, China: study protocol for a paired cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although good progress has been achieved in expanding immunization of children in China, disparities exist across different provinces. Information gaps both from the service supply and demand sides hinder timely vaccination of children in rural areas. The rapid development of mobile health technology (mHealth) provides unprecedented opportunities for improving health services and reaching underserved populations. However, there is a lack of literature that rigorously evaluates the impact of mHealth interventions on immunization coverage as well as the usability and feasibility of smart phone applications (apps). This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a smart phone-based app (Expanded Program on Immunization app, or EPI app) on improving the coverage of children’s immunization. Methods/Design This cluster randomized trial will take place in Xuanhan County, Sichuan Province, China. Functionalities of the app include the following: to make appointments automatically, record and update children’s immunization information, generate a list of children who missed their vaccination appointments, and send health education information to village doctors. After pairing, 36 villages will be randomly allocated to the intervention arm (n?=?18) and control arm (n?=?18). The village doctors in the intervention arm will use the app while the village doctors in the control arm will record and manage immunization in the usual way in their catchment areas. A household survey will be used at baseline and at endline (8 months of implementation). The primary outcome is full-dose coverage and the secondary outcome is immunization coverage of the five vaccines that are included in the national Expanded Program on Immunization program as well as Hib vaccine, Rotavirus vaccine and Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Multidimensional evaluation of the app will also be conducted to assess usability and feasibility. Discussion This study is the first to evaluate the effectiveness of a smart phone app for child immunization in rural China. This study will contribute to the knowledge about the usability and feasibility of a smart phone app for managing immunization in rural China and to similar populations in different settings. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trials Registry (ChiCTR): ChiCTR-TRC-13003960 PMID:24645829

  16. Geochemical characteristics of the Triassic Tethys-turbidites in northwestern Sichuan, China: Implications for provenance and interpretation of the tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, X. X.

    1994-11-01

    The Triassic Tethys graywacke-slate turbidites in the northwestern Sichuan, China have been analysed for major and trace elements and petrographically studied. Compared to Phanerozoic turbidites, the turbidites in this study are quartz-intermediate (average 55%) in composition and are characterized geochemically by their moderate Fe 2O ?3 + MgO (9.28 ± 2.84%), TiO 2 (0.72 ± 0.17%) contents and Al 2O 3/SiO 2 (0.25 ± 0.10) ratios; moderate abundances of ferromagnesian trace elements ( Co = 15 ± 8 ppm, Cr = 113 ± 72 ppm, Ni = 14 + 9 ppm, Sc = 12 ± 4 ppm, etc.); and moderate contents of incompatible elements, such as Th (11 ± 3 ppm), U (3 ± 0.7 ppm), Zr (170 ± 64 ppm), Hf (4 ± 1 ppm) and total REEs (159 ± 33 ppm). In general, the slates show systematically higher Fe 2O ?3 + MgO, Sc, Co and Eu/Eu?, but lower solLa/Sc and Th/Sc than the associated graywackes, suggesting that various provenance components may separate into different grain-size fractions during sedimentary sorting processes, that is, the more mafic materials tended to incorporate into the sedimentary record for the clay-size fraction. Framework modes and geochemical data indicate that the turbidites were mainly derived from a recycled orogenic provenance characterized chiefly by sedimentary-metasedimentary rocks and granite-gneisses, similar to the upper continental crust, but with a variable admixture of continental island arc volcanic components. Flysch deposition took place in a back arc basin situated between an active continental margin (the Kunlun-Qinling fold belt) and a continental island arc (the Yidun island arc). Weathering conditions in the source area significantly influenced the composition and distribution of elements in the sediments. With the elapse of time during sedimentation, the degree of chemical weathering in the provenance became intense while the tectonic activity decreased gradually.

  17. Correcting Regional Seismic Discriminants For Path Effects In Western China

    E-print Network

    Correcting Regional Seismic Discriminants For Path Effects In Western China H. E. Hartse, R. A of path on regional seismic wave propagation can be significant. In an effort to improve discriminant-frequency bands, which have previously been shown to be reliable discriminants. For data we use about 270

  18. Western Classical Music In China Patrick Quinn

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    of Four". Mao Zedong's wife, Jiang Qing, stands on the far right. #12;Image Source: http Music Performance Freshman Image Source: http://www.pulsarmedia.eu/data/media/24/wedding20ceremony20music20sheet.jpg #12;Image Source: http://www.china.org.cn/images/24267.jpg The Trial of the "Gang

  19. Mobile emergency (surgical) hospital: Development and application in medical relief of "4.20" Lushan earthquake in Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bin; Shi, Ruo-Fei; Du, Ding-Yuan; Hu, Ping; Feng, Jun; Huang, Guang-Bin; Cai, An-Ning; Yin, Wei; Yang, Rong-Gang

    2015-02-01

    In the 21st century, natural disasters and emergencies occur frequently worldwide, which leads to the loss of hundreds of thousands of lives as well as the direct and indirect economic losses. China has a vast territory frequently struck by natural disasters. However, the reality is not optimistic. Poor organization and management during the rescue actions, the lack of large-scale, systematic medical rescue equipment were all great barriers to the outcomes. Mobile hospitals are expected to provide better health care. We were inspired by the concept of mobile hospital. Chongqing Emergency Medical Center, has set up trauma care system since 1988, in which prehospital care, intensive care, and in-hospital treatment is fully integrated. As a major advantage, such a system provided assurance of "golden hour" rescue treatment. Providing mobile intensive care and prehospital surgical service for severe trauma patients could reduce mortality significantly. Based on the civilian experiences in Chongqing Emergency Medical Center, the mobile emergency (surgical) hospital was developed. PMID:26169086

  20. A more accurate relocation of the 2013 M s7.0 Lushan, Sichuan, China, earthquake sequence, and the seismogenic structure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, F.; Wen, X. Z.; Ruan, X.; Zhao, M.; Yi, G. X.

    2015-07-01

    We use a combined earthquake location technique to relocate the M s7.0 Lushan, Sichuan, China, earthquake sequence of April 20, 2013. A stepwise approach, employing three existing location methods (the HYPOINVERSE method, the Minimum 1-D model, and the Double Difference method), is used to improve location precision by iteratively revising the velocity model station corrections, and hypocenter relocations throughout the process. Our stepwise approach has significantly improved the location precision of the Lushan earthquake sequence, yielding hypocenter locations with final errors of 359, 309, and 605 m in the E-W, N-S, and vertical directions, respectively, with average travel time residuals of 0.12 s. Furthermore, we analyzed the seismogenic structure surrounding the Lushan earthquake sequence by combining the results of the relocated hypocenter distribution with new focal mechanism solutions and information from regional geological and geophysical investigations. From our analysis, we conclude that the vast majority of the aftershocks of the Lushan earthquake sequence occurred at depths of 6-9 km, near the front of the southwestern segment of the NE-trending Longmenshan fault zone. Densely aligned hypocenters clearly suggest that the seismogenic structure of the mainshock consists of a set of basal thrust faults dipping to the NW at 40-50°, at a ramp of the deep basal décollement-thrust system at depths of 7-18 km. Focal mechanism solutions suggest that the seismogenic faults have produced almost pure thrusting. At least one SE-dipping back-thrust is also observed within the basement, as indicated by the hypocenter relocations, which points to either a secondary rupture plane during the mainshock or a plane of aftershock slips. A small number of minor events in the Lushan sequence are located at depths of 0-6 km, with a distribution suggesting that the three NE-trending faults with surface traces running through or passing close to the aftershock area are confined to the upper Mesozoic sedimentary cover, making them independent of the deeper thrust faults that ruptured during the mainshock. Therefore, the 2013 M s7.0 Lushan earthquake was a blind thrust fault generated on active thrust faults within the basement of the southwestern Longmenshan fault zone, with an upper limit estimation of the rupture length, average down-dip width, and rupture area of 40, 16, and 640 km2, respectively.

  1. Challenges in analysing ambient noise to characterise seismic slope response in complex site conditions: the case of hillslopes in Qiaozhuang (Sichuan, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Gaudio, Vincenzo; Wasowski, Janusz; Luo, Yonghong; Huang, Runqiu; Wang, Yungsheng

    2015-04-01

    The Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake of May 12th, 2008 shattered and induced failures on slopes of hills surroundings the centre of the town of Qiaozhuang, located 300 Km NE of the mainshock epicentre. This motivated the initial investigations on the possible occurrence of topographic amplification phenomena, which were conducted through a temporary accelerometer monitoring carried out between April and October 2009 on Weigan hill and Mount Dong, located SW and NE of the Qiaozhuang centre, respectively. In both cases, the amplification factors were found higher at sites closer to the hilltop and lower near the foot of the slope (Luo et al., 2014). However, the general characteristics of slope response also revealed that resonance phenomena were controlled by the local geological setting characterised by Silurian phyllites with sub-vertical schistosity (at Weigan) and by fractured Precambrian limestones (at Dong). To further investigate local slope response, ambient noise recordings, based on the calculation of horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVNR or Nakamura method), were also conducted on several sites in the peri-urban area, including those occupied by the accelerometer stations. The latter provided the possibility to validate the outcomes of ambient noise analysis. Data interpretation has been hampered by a contingent factor, i.e. the occurrence of environmental conditions characterised by a strong E-W oriented peak at low frequencies (below 1 Hz), and by the locally complex structural setting. For example, in the case of Weigan hill the sub-vertical schistosity appeared responsible for a considerable amplification of vertical ground motion. The former problem implies the need of a repetition of measurements under different environmental conditions to distinguish permanent, site-specific properties of noise related to slope dynamic response. By altering the H/V ratio, the presence of vertical amplification represents an obstacle for a routine data analysis and a straightforward interpretation of results. Therefore, further developments in advanced techniques of noise data analysis techniques appear necessary to facilitate the extraction of reliable information on seismic response of slopes in geologically complex conditions. Reference Luo Y., Del Gaudio V., Huang R., Wang Y. & Wasowski J., 2014: Evidence of hillslope directional amplification from accelerometer recordings at Qiaozhuang (Sichuan -- China). Engineering Geology, 183, 193-207, doi: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2014.10.015.

  2. A more accurate relocation of the 2013 M s7.0 Lushan, Sichuan, China, earthquake sequence, and the seismogenic structure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, F.; Wen, X. Z.; Ruan, X.; Zhao, M.; Yi, G. X.

    2015-02-01

    We use a combined earthquake location technique to relocate the M s7.0 Lushan, Sichuan, China, earthquake sequence of April 20, 2013. A stepwise approach, employing three existing location methods (the HYPOINVERSE method, the Minimum 1-D model, and the Double Difference method), is used to improve location precision by iteratively revising the velocity model station corrections, and hypocenter relocations throughout the process. Our stepwise approach has significantly improved the location precision of the Lushan earthquake sequence, yielding hypocenter locations with final errors of 359, 309, and 605 m in the E-W, N-S, and vertical directions, respectively, with average travel time residuals of 0.12 s. Furthermore, we analyzed the seismogenic structure surrounding the Lushan earthquake sequence by combining the results of the relocated hypocenter distribution with new focal mechanism solutions and information from regional geological and geophysical investigations. From our analysis, we conclude that the vast majority of the aftershocks of the Lushan earthquake sequence occurred at depths of 6-9 km, near the front of the southwestern segment of the NE-trending Longmenshan fault zone. Densely aligned hypocenters clearly suggest that the seismogenic structure of the mainshock consists of a set of basal thrust faults dipping to the NW at 40-50°, at a ramp of the deep basal décollement-thrust system at depths of 7-18 km. Focal mechanism solutions suggest that the seismogenic faults have produced almost pure thrusting. At least one SE-dipping back-thrust is also observed within the basement, as indicated by the hypocenter relocations, which points to either a secondary rupture plane during the mainshock or a plane of aftershock slips. A small number of minor events in the Lushan sequence are located at depths of 0-6 km, with a distribution suggesting that the three NE-trending faults with surface traces running through or passing close to the aftershock area are confined to the upper Mesozoic sedimentary cover, making them independent of the deeper thrust faults that ruptured during the mainshock. Therefore, the 2013 M s7.0 Lushan earthquake was a blind thrust fault generated on active thrust faults within the basement of the southwestern Longmenshan fault zone, with an upper limit estimation of the rupture length, average down-dip width, and rupture area of 40, 16, and 640 km2, respectively.

  3. The development of Western philosophy in China and dialogue between Chinese, Western and Marxist philosophies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Jun

    2009-01-01

    ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????: ??????????????????????????Dialogue between Chinese, Western and Marxist philosophies reflects the openness of China's philosophical community. The mutual interpretation of philosophies with different cultural backgrounds and theoretical approaches will inevitably bring about new philosophy. Oriented to problems facing the entire humanity and listing on top of Chinese people's concerns, such dialogue aims to offer solutions from respective cultural perspective and mode

  4. Nutrient Release from Weathering of Purplish Rocks in the Sichuan Basin, China 1 1 Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2003CB415202) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 40571093 and 49601009)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo ZHU; Tao WANG; Xiang YOU; Mei-Rong GAO

    2008-01-01

    Purplish soils having high fertility with mineral nutrients inherited from the parent rock are widely distributed in the hills along the Yangtze River, especially in the Sichuan Basin. Pot and field weathering experiments were conducted to mimic rock weathering and nutrient release processes in order to better understand soil fertility and nutrient compensation. Three types of purplish rock formations formed

  5. Predominant lactic acid bacteria in traditional fermented yak milk products in the Sichuan Province

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    NOTE Predominant lactic acid bacteria in traditional fermented yak milk products in the Sichuan Abstract Yak milk products have been consumed for hundreds of years in the Sichuan province of China where-four samples of traditional yak milk products (kurut, qula cheese, raw milk, whey, and butter) were collected

  6. Psychological Distress among Adolescents in Chengdu, Sichuan at 1 Month after the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph T. F. Lau; Xiaonan Yu; Jianxin Zhang; Winnie W. S. Mak; Kai Chow Choi; Wacy W. S. Lui; Emily Y. Y. Chan

    2010-01-01

    A devastating earthquake occurred on May 12, 2008 in Sichuan, China. This study investigated the prevalence and factors in\\u000a association with psychological problems among secondary school students living in Chengdu (90 km away from the disaster epicenter)\\u000a in June 2008. In a cross-sectional survey, 3,324 secondary students self-administered a structured questionnaire in classroom\\u000a setting. Validated scales were used in this study.

  7. [Quantitative analysis of different restoration stages during natural succession processes of subalpine dark brown coniferous forests in western Sichuan, China].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiang-Ming; Liu, Shi-Rong; Shi, Zuo-Min; Zhang, Yuan-Dong; Chen, Bao-Yu

    2007-08-01

    By adopting space as a substitute for time, and based on the approaches of inter-specific association, PCA and optimal division, the restoration stages of various secondary forest communities originated from the natural succession processes of bamboo-dark brown coniferous and moss-dark brown coniferous old-growth forests after clear-cut were quantified at different temporal series (20, 30, 30, 40, 50 and 160-200 years). The results showed that Betula albo-sinensis, Salix rehderiana, Acer mono, A. laxiflorum, Prunus tatsienensis, Hydrangea xanthoneura, Tilia chinensis and Salix dolia were the declining species groups with progressive restoration processes from secondary forest to mature moss and bamboo-dark brown coniferous forests, Sorbus hupehensis, S. koehneana and P. pilosiuscula were the transient species groups, and Abies faxoniana, Picea purpurea, Tsuga chinensis and P. wilsonii were the progressive species groups. During the period of 20-40 years restoration, the secondary forests were dominated by broad-leaved tree species, such as B. albo-sinensis, and the main forest types were moss--B. albo-sinensis forest and bamboo--B. albo-sinensis forest. Through 50 years natural succession, the secondary forests turned into conifer/broad-leaved mixed forest dominated by B. albo-sinensis and A. faxoniana, and the main forest types were moss--B. albo-sinensis--A. faxoniana forest and bamboo--B. albo-sinensis--A. faxoniana forest. The remained 160-200 years old coniferous forests without cutting were dominated by old-growth stage A. faxoniana, and the main forest types were moss--A. faxoniana forest and bamboo--A. faxoniana forest. PMID:17974231

  8. Developing a new perspective to study the health of survivors of Sichuan earthquakes in China: a study on the effect of post-earthquake rescue policies on survivors’ health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sichuan is a province in China with an extensive history of earthquakes. Recent earthquakes, including the Lushan earthquake in 2013, have resulted in thousands of people losing their homes and their families. However, there is a research gap on the efficiency of government support policies. Therefore, this study develops a new perspective to study the health of earthquake survivors, based on the effect of post-earthquake rescue policies on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of survivors of the Sichuan earthquake. Methods This study uses data from a survey conducted in five hard-hit counties (Wenchuan, Qingchuan, Mianzhu, Lushan, and Dujiangyan) in Sichuan in 2013. A total of 2,000 questionnaires were distributed, and 1,672 were returned; the response rate was 83.6%. Results Results of the rescue policies scale and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) scale passed the reliability test. The confirmatory factor analysis model showed that the physical component summary (PCS) directly affected the mental component summary (MCS). The results of structural equation model regarding the effects of rescue policies on HRQOL showed that the path coefficients of six policies (education, orphans, employment, poverty, legal, and social rescue policies) to the PCS of survivors were all positive and passed the test of significance. Finally, although only the path coefficient of the educational rescue policy to the MCS of survivors was positive and passed the test of significance, the other five policies affected the MCS indirectly through the PCS. Conclusions The general HRQOL of survivors is not ideal; the survivors showed a low satisfaction with the post-earthquake rescue policies. Further, the six post-earthquake rescue policies significantly improved the HRQOL of survivors and directly affected the promotion of the PCS of survivors. Aside from the educational rescue policy, all other policies affected the MCS indirectly through the PCS. This finding indicates relatively large differences in the effects of different post-earthquake rescue policies on the HRQOL of survivors. PMID:24168028

  9. Mercury distribution and deposition in glacier snow over western China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianggong; Huang, Jie; Wang, Feiyue; Mark, Loewen; Xu, Jianzhong; Armstrong, Debbie; Li, Chaoliu; Zhang, Yulan; Kang, Shichang

    2012-05-15

    Western China is home to the largest aggregate of glaciers outside the polar regions, yet little is known about how the glaciers in this area affect the transport and cycling of mercury (Hg) regionally and globally. From 2005 to 2010, extensive glacier snow sampling campaigns were carried out in 14 snowpits from 9 glaciers over western China, and the vertical distribution profiles of Hg were obtained. The Total Hg (THg) concentrations in the glacier snow ranged from <1 to 43.6 ng L(-1), and exhibited clear seasonal variations with lower values in summer than in winter. Spatially, higher THg concentrations were typically observed in glacier snows from the northern region where atmospheric particulate loading is comparably high. Glacier snowpit Hg was largely dependent on particulate matters and was associated with particulate Hg, which is less prone to postdepositional changes, thus providing a valuable record of atmospheric Hg deposition. Estimated atmospheric Hg depositional fluxes ranged from 0.74 to 7.89 ?g m(-2) yr(-1), agreeing very well with the global natural values, but are one to two orders of magnitude lower than that of the neighboring East Asia. Elevated Hg concentrations were observed in refrozen ice layers in several snowpits subjected to intense melt, indicating that Hg can be potentially released to meltwater. PMID:22519575

  10. Urban drought: a potential environmental hotspot in the western region development of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qian Ye; Michael H. Glantz; Lianchun Song; Guowu Sun; Xiaoling Pan

    2003-01-01

    A large-scale economic development program in western China has begun since 1999. Fast urbanization is expected with urban population increasing dramatically. Western China is mostly in arid and semi-arid climate zone and water resources are very limited. It suggests that an early warning system specifically designed to deal with urban droughts should be developed. Thresholds on identifying the water related

  11. Human resource development issues in the implementation of the Western China development strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mingzheng Xiao

    2008-01-01

    This article systematically illustrates the value and role of human resource development in the implementation of the Western China development strategy. It analyses in detail some current human resource issues constraining the implementation of the Western China development strategy and those factors that constrain the sustainable development process of economic society. Based upon these analyses, the study accordingly proposes the

  12. Regional seismic discrimination in central Asia with emphasis on western China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. E. Hartse; S. R. Taylor; W. S. Phillips; G. E. Randall

    1996-01-01

    In support of an anticipated Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the authors have started to evaluate regional seismic event discrimination capabilities for central Asia, emphasizing western China. The authors have measured noise and seismic phase amplitudes of over 250 earthquakes and 18 underground nuclear explosions recorded at the broadband, digital station WMQ in western China and over 100 earthquakes and 5

  13. Human Resource Development Issues in the Implementation of the Western China Development Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Mingzheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper systematically illustrates the value and role of human resource development in the implementation of the Western China development strategy. It analyzes in details some current human resource issues constraining the implementation of the Western China development strategy and those on the sustainable development process of economic…

  14. Strong motion characteristics of the M w 6.6 Lushan earthquake, Sichuan, China — an insight into the spatial difference of a typical thrust fault earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinjun; Zhang, Wenbo; Xie, Lili; Zhang, Qi; Jiang, Zhijun

    2015-06-01

    Near-field strong ground motions are useful for engineering seismology studies and seismic design, but dense observation networks of damaging earthquakes are still rare. In this study, based on the strong-motion data from the M w 6.6 Lushan earthquake, the ground motion parameters in different spatial regions are systematically analyzed, and the contributions from different effects, like the hanging-wall effect, directivity effect, and attenuation effect are separated to the extent possible. Different engineering parameters from the observed ground motions are compared with the local design response spectra and a new attenuation relation of Western China. General results indicate that the high frequency ground motion, like the peak ground acceleration, on two sides of the fault plane is sensitive to the hanging-wall effect, whereas the low frequency ground motion, like the long period spectral acceleration, in the rupture propagation direction is affected by the directivity effect. Moreover, although the M w 6.6 Lushan earthquake is not a large magnitude event, the spatial difference of ground motion is still obvious; thus, for a thrust faulting earthquake, in addition to the hanging effect, the directivity effect should also be considered.

  15. Grassland dynamics and its driving forces in western Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Liping; Yang, Jiuchun; Zhang, Shuwen; Zhang, Yangzhen

    2009-07-01

    The study area including Kerqin Pasture and the farming-pastoral ecotone of Songnen Plain, is located in the western Northeast China. It is a natural protective screen for the Northeast Plain, which is the most important one of national food bases, to ensure the food supply security and ecological security. Based on the Landsat5/TM and ETM remote sensed images of 1986, 1996 and 2000, the grassland dynamic characteristics of the above two parts of the study area, including change area, transformation, change velocity, are analyzed respectively by land use/land cover spatial change models. The results show that, the grassland area of Kerqin Pasture decreased by 3,200 km2, while that of the western Songnen Plain decreased by 4,800 km2. It was mainly due to grassland reclamation activities driven by rapid population expansion. According to the results of regional differences got by GIS technique, in Kerqin Pasture, the dynamic degree in Shuangliao county of Jilin province is the largest, up to 2.7%, while the value of Alukerqin Banner is much smaller, and the grassland is well protected. In the western Songnen Plain, the dynamic degree in Baicheng and Taonan of Jilin province is more than 4%, primarily caused by grassland reclamation as well. By contrast, the grassland in Anda city and Qinggang county of Heilongjiang province took a turn for the better with active protection and improvement measures.

  16. [Isolation and identification of coxsackievirus in Sichuan golden monkey].

    PubMed

    He, Wen-qi; Lu, Hui-jun; Song, De-guang; Cheng, Jun; Gai, Xian-ying; Chen, Qi-jun; Gao, Feng

    2008-07-01

    A coxsackievirus B strain was successfully isolated by cells culture from cardiac muscle tissues of a dead Sichuan golden monkey with myocarditis from a zoo of Changchun in China. The isolate was consistent with CVB by morphology, physicochemistry test, animal regression test and RT-PCR. Analysis of VP1 partial gene sequence and detection of mice specific serum IgG showed that the strain isolated was a coxsackievirus B3. It was the first CVB case report in Sichuan golden monkey and the strain isolated was named CVB/SGM-05. PMID:18780636

  17. Hydrologic modulation of seismicity in western China 1991-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randolph-Flagg, Noah; Day, Jesse; Manga, Michael; Bürgmann, Roland

    2015-04-01

    Hydrologic loading, changes in pore fluid pressures, solid earth tides, and stresses due to thermoelastic expansion have all been proposed to modulate seismicity in a range of tectonic and climatic settings. Seismicity from 1991-2014 (24,892 events) in western China, between 20° and 60° N and between 105° and 70° E, appears to be seasonally modulated with 50% more shallow events in the spring and fall than the summer and winter. We show that this modulation is statistically significant using Schuster tests, analysis of variance tests, and the multifrequential periodogram approach on complete catalogs, a catalog of repeating earthquakes (Schaff and Richards, JGR, 2011), and declustered catalogs. Leveraging the tectonic and climatic heterogeneity in our study region, we compare each of the proposed causes of modulation to observations. We find that the spatial variation of modulation correlates best with spatial variation in hydrologic loading as measured by the GRACE satellites.

  18. Landslide-dammed lake at Tangjiashan, Sichuan province, China (triggered by the Wenchuan Earthquake, May 12, 2008): Risk assessment, mitigation strategy, and lessons learned

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cui, P.; Dang, C.; Zhuang, J.; You, Y.; Chen, X.; Scott, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    Landslides and rock avalanches triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake produced 257 landslide dams, mainly situated along the eastern boundary of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where rivers descend approximately 3,000 m into the Sichuan Basin. The largest of these dams blocked the Tongkou River (a tributary of the Fujiang River) at Tangjiashan. The blockage, consisting of 2. 04 ?? 10 7 m 3 of landslide debris, impounded a lake with a projected maximum volume of 3. 15 ?? 10 8 m 3, potentially inundating 8. 92 km 2 of terrain. Its creation during the rainy season and the possibility of an uncontrolled release posed a serious, impending threat to at least 1. 3 million people downstream that could add substantially to the total of 69,200 individuals directly killed by the earthquake. Risk assessment of the blockage indicated that it was unlikely to collapse suddenly, and that eventual overtopping could be mitigated by notching the structure in order to create an engineered breach and achieve safe drainage of the lake. In addition to the installation of monitoring and warning instrumentation, for emergency planning we estimated several outburst scenarios equivalent to 20, 25, 33, and 50% of the dam failing suddenly, creating, respectively, 3. 35, 3. 84, 4. 22, and 4. 65 km 2 of flooded area, and overbank water depths of 4. 6, 5. 1, 5. 7, and 6. 2 m, respectively, in Mianyang, the second largest city in Sichuan Province, 48 km downstream from the blockage. Based on these scenarios, recommendations and plans for excavating a sluiceway, draining the lake, and downstream evacuation were proposed and later were implemented successfully, with the blockage breached by overtopping on June 10, less than a month after dam emplacement. The peak discharge of the release only slightly exceeded the flood of record at Mianyang City. No lives were lost, and significant property damage was avoided. Post-breaching evaluation reveals how future similar mitigation can be improved. Although initial breach erosion was slow, later erosion was judged uncontrollably rapid; increased slope of the engineered channel and adoption of a compound, trapezoid-triangular cross-section can be considered, as can other measures to control the rate of breach incision. Evacuees from Mianyang City spent an unnecessarily long time (12 days) in temporary settlements; more precise risk management planning can reduce this time in the future. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  19. A random forest approach for predicting the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis intermediate host Ochotona spp. presence in relation to landscape characteristics in western China.

    PubMed

    Marston, Christopher G; Danson, F Mark; Armitage, Richard P; Giraudoux, Patrick; Pleydell, David R J; Wang, Qian; Qui, Jiamin; Craig, Philip S

    2014-12-01

    Understanding distribution patterns of hosts implicated in the transmission of zoonotic disease remains a key goal of parasitology. Here, random forests are employed to model spatial patterns of the presence of the plateau pika (Ochotona spp.) small mammal intermediate host for the parasitic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis which is responsible for a significant burden of human zoonoses in western China. Landsat ETM+ satellite imagery and digital elevation model data were utilized to generate quantified measures of environmental characteristics across a study area in Sichuan Province, China. Land cover maps were generated identifying the distribution of specific land cover types, with landscape metrics employed to describe the spatial organisation of land cover patches. Random forests were used to model spatial patterns of Ochotona spp. presence, enabling the relative importance of the environmental characteristics in relation to Ochotona spp. presence to be ranked. An index of habitat aggregation was identified as the most important variable in influencing Ochotona spp. presence, with area of degraded grassland the most important land cover class variable. 71% of the variance in Ochotona spp. presence was explained, with a 90.98% accuracy rate as determined by 'out-of-bag' error assessment. Identification of the environmental characteristics influencing Ochotona spp. presence enables us to better understand distribution patterns of hosts implicated in the transmission of Em. The predictive mapping of this Em host enables the identification of human populations at increased risk of infection, enabling preventative strategies to be adopted. PMID:25386042

  20. Local villagers’ perceptions of wolves in Jiuzhaigou County, western China

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Liang

    2015-01-01

    While there have been increasing numbers of reports of human-wolf conflict in China during recent years, little is known about the nature of this conflict. In this study, we used questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to investigate local villagers’ perceptions of wolves in Jiuzhaigou County, western China. We sampled nine villages with more frequent reports of wolf depredation to the local government, but included three villages near alpine pastures in which reports of depredation were less frequent. We sampled 100 residents, a subset of the local population who were more likely to have had experience with wolves. During the preceding three years, most families of the respondents grazed livestock on alpine pastures, and most of them reported that their livestock suffered from depredation by wolves. The mean value of the reported annual livestock loss rates was considerably higher in villages that reported depredation more frequently than in those with less frequent reports of depredation. Most respondents in the more frequently depredated villages perceived an increase in wolf populations, whereas many in the less frequently depredated villages perceived a decrease in wolf populations in their areas. People’s attitudes towards wolves did not differ significantly between these two village categories. The majority of the respondents were negative in their attitude to wolves, despite a prevalent Tibetan culture that favors the protection of wildlife. People’s negative attitude was directly related to the number of livestock owned by their family. Those with a larger number of livestock were more likely to have a negative attitude towards wolves. Factors such as village category, ethnicity, age and education level did not influence people’s attitudes to wolves. We suggest that improved guarding of livestock and provision of monetary support on human resources and infrastructure may mitigate human-wolf conflicts in this region. PMID:26082870

  1. Urban drought: a potential environmental hotspot in the western region development of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Qian; Glantz, Michael H.; Song, Lianchun; Sun, Guowu; Pan, Xiaoling

    2003-07-01

    A large-scale economic development program in western China has begun since 1999. Fast urbanization is expected with urban population increasing dramatically. Western China is mostly in arid and semi-arid climate zone and water resources are very limited. It suggests that an early warning system specifically designed to deal with urban droughts should be developed. Thresholds on identifying the water related hotspots must be determined based on different regions and economic sectors.

  2. Cenozoic to active deformation in Western Yunnan (Myanmar China border)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socquet, A.; Pubellier, M.

    2003-04-01

    The northward movement of India induces a right-lateral shear band from the Sunda trench to the easternmost Himalaya, where wrenching between India and Sunda plates, interfere with a clockwise flow of material around the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis. We describe brittle and ductile deformation styles in Western Yunnan and Northern Myanmar, using field data and Landsat 7 imagery for Cenozoic structures as well as GPS and seismicity for active structures to unravel the Neogene to Present evolution. Western Yunnan is crossed by three continental-size ductile shear zones characterized by high mountain belts mainly composed of high-grade metamorphics and mylonitic rocks, and affected by active faulting. The easternmost metamorphic range, the Gaoligong Shan composed of verticalized foliated granites and mylonites is flattened westward and joins the Mogok metamorphic belt in Myanmar. East of the Gaoligong Shan, lie the Chong Shan and the Ailao / Diangcan Shan metamorphic ranges, which presents a vertical shistosity and a left-lateral motion. These three shear zones are separated by sedimentary fold-and-thrust-belts in the East, and , West of the Gaoligong, by Quaternary basins and volcanics. Preliminary results indicate that the Shan Scarp constituted the major strike-slip boundary between Indochina and India during Eocene to Miocene time, and accommodated deformation in right-lateral wrench. At the same time, the Ailao / Diangcan Shan and the Chong Shan zones were sheared left-laterally allowing the displacement toward the SE of Indochina block relative to south China. In the Miocene, ductile deformation migrated north along the Shan Scarp to the Mogok / Ruili metamorphic belt and the Gaoligong belt, dragging the Chong Shan right-laterally and superimposing a late right-lateral ductile deformation on its metamorphic rocks. The present-day relative motion between India and Sundaland, inferred from GPS processing, reaches 35 mm / yr in the Myanmar area. It is classically accepted that all of this motion is accommodated onto a single fault: the Sagaing fault in Myanmar. However, geodetic results show that, out of the 35 mm/yr of India versus Sundaland rate, only 18 mm / yr are accommodated by the Sagaing fault. Part of the remaining motion might be accommodated in western Yunnan. The present system might have been active since the Pliocene. We regard it as a combination of the right-lateral Sagaing Fault / Gaoligong, which propagates toward the north as a horsetail, and the circum syntaxis fault system. The state of stress, in Western Yunnan, is a WNW extension inferred from both focal mechanisms and recent fault-slip data analysis. The tectonic features are influenced by both the clockwise flow around the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis, and the northern extension along splays of the Sagaing fault. Deformation is then distributed between strike-slip and normal faulting. We propose that this interaction is accommodated by clockwise rotations of blocks.

  3. Preliminary strategic environmental assessment of the Great Western Development Strategy: safeguarding ecological security for a new western China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Liu, Yan-ju; Yang, Zhifeng

    2012-02-01

    The Great Western Development Strategy (GWDS) is a long term national campaign aimed at boosting development of the western area of China and narrowing the economic gap between the western and the eastern parts of China. The Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedure was employed to assess the environmental challenges brought about by the western development plans. These plans include five key developmental domains (KDDs): water resource exploitation and use, land utilization, energy generation, tourism development, and ecological restoration and conservation. A combination of methods involving matrix assessment, incorporation of expert judgment and trend analysis was employed to analyze and predict the environmental impacts upon eight selected environmental indicators: water resource availability, soil erosion, soil salinization, forest destruction, land desertification, biological diversity, water quality and air quality. Based on the overall results of the assessment, countermeasures for environmental challenges that emerged were raised as key recommendations to ensure ecological security during the implementation of the GWDS. This paper is intended to introduce a consensus-based process for evaluating the complex, long term pressures on the ecological security of large areas, such as western China, that focuses on the use of combined methods applied at the strategic level. PMID:22190169

  4. Evidence for a Tang-Song Dynasty great earthquake along the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt prior to the 2008 M w  7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aiming Lin; Zhikun Ren; Dong Jia; Yosuke Miyairi

    2010-01-01

    The magnitude (M\\u000a w) 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake occurred on 12 May 2008 in the Longmen Shan region of China, the transition zone between the Tibetan\\u000a Plateau and the Sichuan Basin, resulting in widespread damage throughout central and western China. The steep, high-relief\\u000a eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau has undergone rapid Cenozoic uplift and denudation accompanied by folding and thrusting,

  5. Reverse Tracing of Precursors Applied to the Annual Earthquake Forecast: Retrospective Test of the Annual Consultation in the Sichuan-Yunnan Region of Southwest China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yizhe Zhao; Zhongliang Wu; Changsheng Jiang; Chuanzhen Zhu

    2010-01-01

    An Annual Consultation on the Likelihood of Earthquakes is regularly undertaken in continental China. It is a special kind\\u000a of intermediate-term medium-range earthquake forecast and a practical service provided by seismological communities within\\u000a the capability of modern seismology. One of the problems the Annual Consultation encounters is its false alarm rate, which\\u000a has been higher than expected and has caused

  6. A survey of undernutrition in children under three years of age in rural Western China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood undernutrition adversely impacts child health and is one of China’s largest health burdens. However, there is limited information on the current rate of childhood undernutrition in rural Western China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of childhood undernutrition and explore its association with socio-economic characteristics in Western China. Methods A total of 13,532 children of 0?~?36 months of age were recruited as subjects from 45 counties and 10 provinces in Western China with a 3-stage probability proportion to size sampling. The composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) was used to assess the childhood undernutrition. The association between socio-economic characteristics and childhood undernutrition was analyzed using a two-level logistic regression. Results Based on CIAF, the prevalence of undernutrition among children under three years of age in rural Western China in 2005 was 21.7%. The two-level logistic analysis presented a large difference in undernutrition among the 10 provinces with the highest odds ratio in Guizhou (OR: 2.15, 95%CI: 1.50, 3.08). Older children had a higher prevalence of undernutrition. As compared to girls, boys were more likely to be undernourished (OR 1.27, 95% CI: 1.16, 1.39). The likelihood of undernutrition was lower in subjects of Han ethnicity as opposed to subjects of minority ethnicities (OR 0.77, 95%CI: 0.65, 0.90). In addition, the education levels of the mother as well as wealth index were both negatively associated with childhood undernutrition. Conclusions Childhood undernutrition still remains a large health challenge in rural Western China. This study has important policy implications for the Chinese government to improve childhood undernutrition in the surveyed areas. PMID:24499429

  7. Geology and geochemistry of telluride-bearing Au deposits in the Pingyi area, Western Shandong, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-B. Hu; J.-W. Mao; S.-Y. Niu; Y.-F. Li; M.-W. Li

    2006-01-01

    Summary  Telluride-bearing gold deposits of the Pingyi area, western Shandong, China, are located on the southeastern margin of the\\u000a North China Craton. There are two main types of deposits: (i) mineralized cryptoexplosive breccia, e.g., Guilaizhuang; and\\u000a (ii) stratified, finely-disseminated mineralization hosted in carbonate rocks, e.g., Lifanggou and Mofanggou deposits. In\\u000a Guilaizhuang, the cryptoexplosive breccia is formed within rocks of the Tongshi

  8. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Relationships in the China Rose Group

    E-print Network

    Soules, Valerie Ann

    2011-02-22

    . henryi H2 QBG, 1996.016 Sichuan province R. longicuspis var. longicuspis Bertol. LL1 QBG, 1990.206B Yunnan province R. longicuspis var. longicuspis LL2 QBG, 1992.244 Sichuan R. longicuspis LL3 China R. rubus L?v. & Vaniot R1 QBG, 1992....071 Sichuan province R. rubus R2 China R. soulieana Cr?p. S1 QBG, 1991.190 Sichuan province R. soulieana S2 QBG, 2003.438C Sichuan province R. soulieana S3 China R. wichuriana Cr?p.'Basye?s Thornless' W1 ARE R. brunonii Lindl. Br China...

  9. Geology, distribution, and classification of gold deposits in the western Qinling belt, central China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingwen Mao; Yumin Qiu; Richard J. Goldfarb; Zhaochong Zhang; Steve Garwin; Ren Fengshou

    2002-01-01

    Gold deposits of the western Qinling belt occur within the western part of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogen, which is located between the Precambrian North China and Yangtze cratons and east of the Songpan-Ganzi basin. The early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic orogen can be divided into northern, central, and southern zones, separated by the Shangdan and Lixian-Shanyang thrust fault systems. The northern

  10. TSR versus non-TSR processes and their impact on gas geochemistry and carbon stable isotopes in Carboniferous, Permian and Lower Triassic marine carbonate gas reservoirs in the Eastern Sichuan Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q. Y.; Worden, R. H.; Jin, Z. J.; Liu, W. H.; Li, J.; Gao, B.; Zhang, D. W.; Hu, A. P.; Yang, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Palaeozoic and lowermost Mesozoic marine carbonate reservoirs of the Sichuan Basin in China contain variably sour and very dry gas. The source of the gas in the Carboniferous, Permian and Lower Triassic reservoirs is not known for certain and it has proved difficult to discriminate and differentiate the effects of thermal cracking- and TSR-related processes for these gases. Sixty-three gas samples were collected and analysed for their composition and carbon stable isotope values. The gases are all typically very dry (alkane gases being >97.5% methane), with low (<1%) nitrogen and highly variable H2S and CO2. Carboniferous gas is negligibly sour while the Lower Triassic gas tends to be most sour. The elevated H2S (up to 62%) is due to thermochemical sulphate reduction with the most sour Triassic and Permian reservoirs being deeper than 4800 m. The non-TSR affected Carboniferous gas is a secondary gas that was derived from the cracking of sapropelic kerogen-derived oil and primary gas and is highly mature. Carboniferous (and non-sour Triassic and Permian) gas has unusual carbon isotopes with methane and propane being isotopically heavier than ethane (a reversal of typical low- to moderate-maturity patterns). The gas in the non-sour Triassic and Permian reservoirs has the same geochemical and isotopic characteristics (and therefore the same source) as the Carboniferous gas. TSR in the deepest Triassic reservoirs altered the gas composition reaching 100% dryness in the deepest, most sour reservoirs showing that ethane and propane react faster than methane during TSR. Ethane evolves to heavier carbon isotope values than methane during TSR leading to removal of the reversed alkane gas isotope trend found in the Carboniferous and non-sour Triassic and Permian reservoirs. However, methane was directly involved in TSR as shown by the progressive increase in its carbon isotope ratio as gas souring proceeded. CO2 increased in concentration as gas souring proceeded, but typical CO2 carbon isotope ratios in sour gases remained about -4‰ V-PDB showing that it was not solely derived from the oxidation of alkanes. Instead CO2 may partly result from reaction of sour gas with carbonate reservoir minerals, such as Fe-rich dolomite or calcite, resulting in pyrite growth as well as CO2-generation.

  11. A petrological investigation of the bi-modal gabbro-syenite Baima igneous complex, Sichuan, China: implications for the genesis of Fe-Ti-V-oxide ore deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsia, T. W.; Shellnutt, J. G.; Liu, T.; Iizuka, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The formation of orthomagmatic Fe-Ti oxide deposits from the Late Permian Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) of SW China is debated and has important petrologic and economic implications. The Baima igneous complex (BIC) is one of the largest Fe-Ti oxide deposits of the ELIP and is composed of a cumulate layered gabbroic portion, a thick Fe-Ti oxide ore zone and an isotropic peralkaline quartz syenite. The gabbro is composed of various proportions of olivine, plagioclase, clinopyroxene and interstitial titanomagnetite with minor apatite and sulphide minerals. Unlike many other ore-bearing layered intrusions (e.g. Bushveld, Stillwater), the oxide deposit is located in the lower third rather than the upper portions. This study attempts to experimentally constrain the origin and formation of the BIC by using a starting material (i.e. high-Ti Emeishan basalt) similar to the estimated parental magma composition of the gabbro-syenite complex. An anhydrous basaltic rock powder equal to high-Ti Emeishan rocks in the area was loaded into platinum envelopes and suspended in a 1-atm vertical-quenching furnace. The experiments proceeded at temperatures between 1310°C to 1100°C. They were quenched in water after each run. The run products were crafted into polished sections and individual phases were analyzed by EPMA. The experimental results show that the liquidus temperature is ~1310°C whereas the solidus temperature is estimated to be ~1100°C and the melting interval is ~210°C. The crystallization sequence is: titanomagnetite, plagioclase (An65), and pyroxene (Wo43-47En32-45Fs11-23). The residual liquid composition, represented by the quenched glass, evolves from lower SiO2 (SiO2 = ~45 wt%) values to higher SiO2 values (SiO2 = ~60 wt%) with corresponding decrease in Ti, Fe, Mg, Ca and increase of Na and K. The most evolved glass composition is strikingly similar to the enclaves within the Baima syenitic unit. Thus, the liquidus mineral is iron-titanium oxide which is consistent with the observation of basal oxide-ore formation. The low pressure results of this study indicate that early crystallization of Fe-Ti oxides will occur assuming a geologically reasonable starting material and the residual liquid is becoming more silicic. The direct implication is that the oxide deposits and spatially associated granitic rocks formed together by crystallization of a basaltic parental magma. Furthermore, external parameters (i.e. CO2-fluid fluxing) or silicate immiscibility are not necessarily required to form the oxide-ore deposits within evolved gabbroic intrusions.

  12. Redesigning Livestock Systems to Improve Household Income and Reduce Stocking Rates in China’s Western Grasslands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Michalk; Hua Limin; David Kemp; Randall Jones; Taro Takahashi; Wu Jianping; Nan Zhibiao; Xu Zhu; Han Guodong

    \\u000a \\u000a Synopsis  Results and implications of a study of rangeland\\/livestock systems in four counties in western China are discussed. Two key\\u000a questions were posed: (1) Can changing the current livestock production system to an alternative enterprise, or (2) can changing\\u000a key management practices in current enterprises increase household profit at same stocking rate (SR) or maintain profit at\\u000a lower SR? The answers

  13. Golden Key Program. Common Education for Visually Impaired Children in Western China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Bailun

    This paper describes a new program in the Western provinces of China (Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Tibet, and Inner Mongolia) that is designed to integrate 20,000 children with low-vision into general education classrooms. The Golden Key Research Center of Education for Visually Impaired has been working with the…

  14. Factors Associated with the Utilization and Quality of Prenatal Care in Western Rural Regions of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dongxu, Wang; Yuhui, Shi; Stewart, Donald; Chun, Chang; Chaoyang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to identify key features of prenatal care utilization and quality in western regions of China and to determine the factors affecting the quality of prenatal care. Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted. The instrument for the study was a 10-stem respondent-administered, structured…

  15. Reducing high maternal mortality rates in western China: a novel approach.

    PubMed

    Gyaltsen Gongque Jianzan, Kunchok; Gyal Li Xianjia, Lhusham; Gipson, Jessica D; Kyi Cai Rangji, Tsering; Pebley, Anne R

    2014-11-01

    Among the Millennium Development Goals, maternal mortality reduction has proven especially difficult to achieve. Unlike many countries, China is on track to meeting these goals on a national level, through a programme of institutionalizing deliveries. Nonetheless, in rural, disadvantaged, and ethnically diverse areas of western China, maternal mortality rates remain high. To reduce maternal mortality in western China, we developed and implemented a three-level approach as part of a collaboration between a regional university, a non-profit organization, and local health authorities. Through formative research, we identified seven barriers to hospital delivery in a rural Tibetan county of Qinghai Province: (1) difficulty in travel to hospitals; (2) hospitals lack accommodation for accompanying families; (3) the cost of hospital delivery; (4) language and cultural barriers; (5) little confidence in western medicine; (6) discrepancy in views of childbirth; and (7) few trained community birth attendants. We implemented a three-level intervention: (a) an innovative Tibetan birth centre, (b) a community midwife programme, and (c) peer education of women. The programme appears to be reaching a broad cross-section of rural women. Multilevel, locally-tailored approaches may be essential to reduce maternal mortality in rural areas of western China and other countries with substantial regional, socioeconomic, and ethnic diversity. PMID:25555773

  16. Heavy metal contamination in western Xiamen Bay sediments and its vicinity, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luoping Zhang; Xin Ye; Huan Feng; Youhai Jing; Tong Ouyang; Xingtian Yu; Rongyuan Liang; Chengtie Gao; Weiqi Chen

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of selected heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni and Fe) in surface sediments from nine sites in western Xiamen Bay and its vicinity were studied in order to understand current metal contamination due to urbanization and economic development in Xiamen, China. The sediment samples were collected in December 2004 and July 2005 respectively in order to examine

  17. Home Language and Educational Attainments of Ethnic Minorities in Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Yanbi

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses effects of home language usage on minority student educational attainment in western China. Using survey data, the author finds that non-Chinese-speaking minority students are at a disadvantage in the transition to senior secondary schools. However, their transition to junior secondary schools is even more complicated. Rural…

  18. Concentration and distribution of elements in Late Permian coals from western Guizhou Province, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shifeng Dai; Deyi Ren; Yuegang Tang; Mei Yue; Liming Hao

    2005-01-01

    With the aim of better understanding geochemistry of coal, 71 Late Permian whole-seam coal channel samples from western Guizhou Province, Southwest China were studied and 57 elements in them were determined. The contents of Al, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Hf, K, Li, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, Sn, Ta, Ti, Th, U, V, Zr, and REEs in the Late

  19. Fern ecological implications from the Lower Jurassic in Western Hubei, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongdong Wang

    2002-01-01

    The Lower Jurassic Hsiangchi Formation in western Hubei, China is well known for its abundant and diverse fossil ferns, including Marattiaceae, Osmundaceae, Matoniaceae, Dipteridaceae and Dicksoniaceae. Through recent collections and investigation of the fossil plants in this area, an autochthonous\\/hypoautochthonous fern community has been recognised from the upper part of the Hsiangchi Formation in Zigui, Hubei. This community is dominated

  20. Building Empire through Argumentation: Debating Salt and Iron in Western Han China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Xiaoye

    2010-01-01

    The history of American imperialism, as well as China's strong presence on the contemporary global scene, should encourage American scholars of rhetoric to look beyond the nation-state and study other rhetorical traditions such as Chinese practices of argument. A debate during the Western Han dynasty over the country's economic policies…

  1. On Understanding the Movement to Send College Graduates as Volunteer Teachers to Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiao, Xiang; A'rong, Yun

    2008-01-01

    The Western China University Graduates Volunteer Teaching Program (VTP) is a government-oriented social movement aimed at the advancement of social equity and the establishment of a harmonious society. University students, as the undertakers of volunteer teaching, serve as a vital part of this program. The participation of university students has…

  2. Student Performance and Family Socioeconomic Status: Results from a Survey of Compulsory Education in Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiaofei; Lu, Ke

    2008-01-01

    This study used fifteen-year-old ninth-grade students from rural areas of five provinces in western China as samples to carry out research on the relationship between the socioeconomic status of Chinese families and student academic performance. Based on parents' educational background, occupation, family economic conditions, and other factors,…

  3. China's Western Development Strategy and Nature versus Nurture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Golley

    2007-01-01

    The current trend of rising inequalities in industrial development between East and West China has resulted from a combination of nature and nurture. Given the natural tendency for firms to agglomerate in a developing, market economy, and the numerous geographical and historical factors that have long favoured the Eastern region, it is hardly surprising that this is where Chinese industry

  4. Cenozoic to active deformation in Western Yunnan (Myanmar China border)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Socquet; M. Pubellier

    2003-01-01

    The northward movement of India induces a right-lateral shear band from the Sunda trench to the easternmost Himalaya, where wrenching between India and Sunda plates, interfere with a clockwise flow of material around the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis. We describe brittle and ductile deformation styles in Western Yunnan and Northern Myanmar, using field data and Landsat 7 imagery for Cenozoic structures

  5. Biogeographic differences in cone, needle and seed morphology among natural Picea asperata populations in Western China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-xun Luo; Xiao-lu Zhang; Wan-chun Gu

    2005-01-01

    This study represents a geographical approach to morphological variation of cones, needles and seeds in natural dragon spruce\\u000a (Picea asperata Mast.) populations across western China and the relationship between morphological traits and weather variation for the origins\\u000a of populations. Significant differences were found for all cone, needle and seed traits among populations and trees within\\u000a populations. The coefficients of variation

  6. Paleomagnetic constraints on neotectonic deformation in the Kashi depression of the western Tarim Basin, NW China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baochun Huang; John D. A. Piper; Rixiang Zhu

    2009-01-01

    A paleomagnetic study is reported of Eocene to Pliocene formations from the Kashi depression, which aims to constrain the\\u000a pattern of neotectonic deformation within the western sector of the Tarim Basin in northwest China. With the exception of\\u000a Pliocene specimens from one locality (East Kulukeqiati) which show large within site-mean variations in declination, most\\u000a sites from five sampled formations yield

  7. Contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Jiulong River Estuary and Western Xiamen Sea, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Maskaoui; J. L Zhou; H. S Hong; Z. L Zhang

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was determined in water, sediment and pore water of the Jiulong River Estuary and Western Xiamen Sea, China. Total PAH concentrations varied from 6.96 to 26.9 ?g\\/l in water, 59–1177 ng\\/g dry weight in surficial sediments, and 158–949 ?g\\/l in pore water. The PAHs were present in higher levels in pore water

  8. Spread of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii of European clone II in Western China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao He; Yi Xie; Hong Fan; Mei Kang; Chuanmin Tao; Rong Zhang; Yunjian Hu; Zhixing Chen; Lanlan Wang

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of resistance genes and the clonal relationship amongst imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from ten hospitals in Western China as well as to compare the molecular epidemiological data with those of isolates from two hospitals in Hangzhou and Beijing. Genes encoding OXA carbapenemases, metallo-?-lactamases, AmpC cephalosporinase and carbapenem resistance-associated outer membrane

  9. Application of Rare Earth Phosphate Fertilizer in Western Area of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liu Xiangsheng; Wang Jiachen; Yang Jun; Fan Yubin; Wu Yanping; Zhang He

    2006-01-01

    Rare earth phosphate fertilizer (REPF) as base fertilizer (750 kg per hm2) was applied in the western area of China during the “Tenth Five-Year Plan”, and the results show as follows: compared with calcium superphosphate (CK), REPF increases crops yields for maize by 17.0%, for rice by 10.5%, for wheat by 24.2%, for potato by 18.5%, for cabbage by 16.3%,

  10. Soil acidity reconstruction based on tree ring information of a dominant species Abies fabri in the subalpine forest ecosystems in southwest China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Chen; Fei-Hua Wu; Ting-Wu Liu; Juan Chen; Zhen-Ji Li; Zhen-Ming Pei; Hai-Lei Zheng

    2010-01-01

    To assess the suitability of dendrochemistry as an indicator of soil acidification, soil chemistry and tree ring information of Abies fabri were measured at two distinct sites (severe acid deposition site-Emei Mountain and clean site-Gongga Mountain) of the subalpine forest ecosystems of western Sichuan, southwest China. The actual soil acidity (pH) was significantly correlated with some of the recent xylem

  11. Acceptance of Male Circumcision Among Male Rural-to-Urban Migrants in Western China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Junjun; Huang, Jiegang; Yang, Xiaobo; Ye, Li; Wei, Bo; Deng, Wei; Wei, Suosu; Qin, Bo; Upur, Halmurat; Zhong, Chaohui; Wang, Qianqiu; Wang, Qian; Ruan, Yuhua; Wei, Fumei; Xu, Na; Xie, Peiyan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract To describe the acceptability of male circumcision (MC) and explore potential factors associated with MC acceptability among male rural-to-urban migrants in western China, a cross-sectional survey of MC acceptability was conducted with 1,904 subjects in three western provinces with high HIV prevalence (Guangxi, Chongqing, and Xinjiang) in China between June 2009 and November 2009. Through face-to-face interviews, the participants completed a self-administered questionnaire about demographics, MC knowledge, willingness and reasons to accept or refuse MC, sexual behaviors, and other psychosocial variables. Factors associated with acceptability of MC were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. Of the participants (n=1,904), 710 men were willing to accept MC (37.3%); the reasons included promotion of the partners' genital hygiene (54.9%), redundant prepuce or phimosis (43.1%), enhancement of sexual pleasure (40.6%), prevention of penile inflammation or cancer (35.5%), and protection against HIV and sexual transmitted diseases (STDs)(31.1%). A multivariable logistic regression showed that four factors were associated with acceptability of MC, including education level (OR=1.286, 95% CI=1.025?1.614), redundant prepuce or phimosis (OR=13.751, 95% CI=10.087?18.745), having one or more circumcised friends (OR=2.468, 95% CI=1.953?3.119), and having sexual intercourse with a temporary partner in the past year (OR=1.543, 95% CI=1.101?2.162). Compared with previously published data among the general population in China or worldwide, the acceptability of MC (37.3%) was low among the male rural-to-urban migrants in western China. Nevertheless, appropriate education could greatly improve the acceptability of MC. More public campaigns and health education on MC are needed to increase the rate of MC in China. PMID:23931654

  12. Change as Challenge for Shop-Floor Learning: The Case of Western and Local Manufacturing Companies in South China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jianzhong

    2000-01-01

    Explores the process of workplace learning and problem solving by examining Western and local enterprises in South China. Discusses whether the managerial concepts embedded in Chinese culture help or impede collective learning and concludes that new ways of working and learning are emerging through the interaction of Western and Chinese culture.…

  13. Risk factors for preterm birth: a case-control study in rural area of western China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaosong; Zhou, Min; Chen, Lijun; Hao, Bo; Zhao, Gengli

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality in China, the study is to learn risk factors for preterm birth in rural area of western China. A 1:1 case-control study in which cases included the pregnant women of preterm birth and controls included the matched pregnant women of normal deliver was conducted in 5 counties in western China. Data about the general situation, pregnancy history, reproductive health infection (RTI) symptoms, pregnancy complications, et al were obtained by using questionnaire. The results showed that the risk factors related to preterm birth were including: family income, mother’s age ? 35 years old, antennal visiting ? 4 times, low education level, preterm birth history, abnormal vaginal discharge, pregnancy complications. The logistic regression analysis showed that only 3 factors of preterm birth were left at the last step, which of antenatal visiting ? 4 times, PROM and placenta previa had significant difference. We show that family income, age, antennal visiting, low education level, preterm birth history, abnormal vaginal discharge, pregnancy complications are the risk factors of preterm birth.

  14. Fluoride content and distribution pattern in groundwater of eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou, China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kunli; Liu, Yonglin; Li, Huijie

    2012-02-01

    For study, the fluoride (F) content and distribution pattern in groundwater of eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou fluorosis area in southwestern China, the F content of 93 water samples [groundwater (fissure water, cool spring, and hot springs), rivers water] and 60 rock samples were measured. The result shows the F content of the fissure water and cold spring water is 0.027-0.47 mg/L, and river water is 0.048-0.224 mg/L. The F content of hot spring water is 1.02-6.907 mg/L. The drinking water supplied for local resident is mainly from fissure water, cool spring, and river water. And the F content in all of them is much lower than the Chinese National Standard (1.0 mg/L), which is the safe intake of F in drinking water. The infected people in eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou fluorosis area have very little F intake from the drinking water. The hot spring water in fluorosis area of eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou, southwest China has high F content, which is not suitable for drinking. PMID:21626135

  15. Crust and Upper-mantle Structure in the Western North China Craton from Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, M.; Guo, Z.; Wang, X.; Feng, Y.; Chen, Y. J.

    2014-12-01

    North China Craton (NCC) is separated by the Trans-North China Orogen into two parts: the Eastern NCC and the Western NCC. It has been proposed that the Western NCC has remained stable since the Precambrian. Here receiver function (RF) analysis is used to image the crustal structures along an N-S profile (31N-43N) across the Qinling Orogen from the south, through Ordos Block and Yinshan Orogen to the north. The profile consists of 36 portable broadband stations which were deployed by Peking University during June 2012 to June 2014 and 12 permanent seismic stations of CEA. We selected teleseismic P waveforms from events with magnitudes Mw>5.0 and within the epicentral distances of 35-90 degrees and used the iterative time domain deconvolution method to obtain the RFs. Crustal thickness and the average Poison's ratio are obtained by the use of H-k method while the 410 and 660 discontinuity depths are calculated by using common conversion point stacking method from the RF data. The fine structures from this receiver function study should help us to better understand the nature and evolution of the Western NCC.

  16. Thaumasite formation in a tunnel of Bapanxia Dam in Western China

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Baoguo [Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, (China); Gao Xiaojian [Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, (China)]. E-mail: xjgao2002@yahoo.com.cn; Byars, Ewan A. [CMRU, Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Zhou Qizhi [Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2006-04-15

    A site investigation and sampling was carried out on a sulfate-attacked concrete structure in Bapanxia Hydraulic Power Plant in Western China. The concrete had been exposed to ground water containing substantial concentrations of salts (SO{sub 4} {sup 2-}, CO{sub 3} {sup 2-} and Cl{sup -}) for about 6 years and was analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), laser-Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. It is shown that a white mushy mixture consisting of thaumasite, ettringite, gypsum and calcite is present in the residual concrete. This paper reports the first instance of the thaumasite form of sulfate attack of concrete in China.

  17. Is traditional Chinese medicine recommended in Western medicine clinical practice guidelines in China? A systematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jun; Li, Xun; Sun, Jin; Han, Mei; Yang, Guo-Yan; Li, Wen-Yuan; Robinson, Nicola; Lewith, George; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based medicine promotes and relies on the use of evidence in developing clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). The Chinese healthcare system includes both traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine, which are expected to be equally reflected in Chinese CPGs. Objective To evaluate the inclusion of TCM-related information in Western medicine CPGs developed in China and the adoption of high level evidence. Methods All CPGs were identified from the China Guideline Clearinghouse (CGC), which is the main Chinese organisation maintaining the guidelines issued by the Ministry of Health of China, the Chinese Medical Association and the Chinese Medical Doctors’ Association. TCM-related contents were extracted from all the CPGs identified. Extracted information comprised the institution issuing the guideline, date of issue, disease, recommendations relating to TCM, evidence level of the recommended content and references supporting the recommendations. Results A total of 604 CPGs were identified, only a small number of which (74/604; 12%) recommended TCM therapy and only five guidelines (7%) had applied evidence grading. The 74 CPGs involved 13 disease systems according to the International Classification of Diseases 10th edition. TCM was mainly recommended in the treatment part of the guidelines (73/74, 99%), and more than half of the recommendations (43/74, 58%) were related to Chinese herbal medicine (single herbs or herbal treatment based on syndrome differentiation). Conclusions Few Chinese Western medicine CPGs recommend TCM therapies and very few provide evidence grading for the TCM recommendation. We suggest that future guideline development should be based on systematic searches for evidence to support CPG recommendations and involve a multidisciplinary approach including TCM expertise. PMID:26041487

  18. Plumes and Drips Beneath Northeast China and the Western United States (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grand, S. P.; Tang, Y.; Niu, F.; Obayashi, M.; Chen, Y. J.; Kawakatsu, H.; Ning, J.; Ni, J.

    2013-12-01

    Northeast China and the western United States share common features in their tectonic history. Both regions experienced compressional tectonics and mountain building due to stresses induced by subduction processes on their boundaries. In Northeast China these events occurred in the Mesozoic and in the western United States a little later, up to the early Cenozoic. Subsequently, both regions experienced extension and widespread intraplate magmatism as the boundary conditions changed. We review the results from several seismic investigations for both regions and compare results. The NECESS project was a multi-national collaboration that consisted of the deployment of 140 broadband seismic stations across Northeast China. P and S wave tomography, receiver function analysis, and surface wave dispersion inversions were conducted to image the seismic structure of the upper mantle beneath the region. Fast seismic velocities from 500 to 660 km depth and a depressed 660 km discontinuity were found below the eastern edge of Northeast China. These observations are likely showing the subducting Pacific plate. At 420 latitude a gap in the deep transition zone fast velocities is observed coincident with an uplifted 660 km discontinuity. The shear wave tomography image shows a roughly 200 km diameter slow anomaly that can be traced from just below the gap in high velocities at 660 km depth to the shallow mantle beneath the Changbaishan volcanic field. We propose the gap in the deep slabs is a pathway for return flow upwelling that results in surface volcanism. Such deep upwelling at edges or gaps in deep slabs may be a common feature in subduction environments. In the shallow mantle strong lateral variations in velocity are seen across Northeast China that are associated with Cenozoic volcanic zones. Beneath a portion of the Xing'an mountains at 1160 longitude, a shallow slow anomaly associated with Pleistocene volcanism is adjacent to a high velocity anomaly at depths below 200 km. This may represent a region where lithosphere is being removed. Similar observations of potential lithosphere removal have been observed in the western United States. In particular, the Ristra experiment observed downwelling along the eastern edge of the Rio Grande Rift. Hydration of lithosphere that lowers its viscosity and subsequent extension may promote lithospheric instability for many tens of Ma after resulting in magmatism over a broad region.

  19. 2008 Landslide Near Hongyan Resort, China

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The May 12, 2008, Great Sichuan Earthquake, also called the Wenchuan Earthquake, occurred at 14:28 local time, in Sichuan Province, China. The earthquake magnitudes were Mw = 7.9 (USGS), Ms = 8.0 (Chinese Earthquake Administration). The epicenter was 80 km west-northwest of Chengdu, the capital city...

  20. Spread of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii of European clone II in Western China.

    PubMed

    He, Chao; Xie, Yi; Fan, Hong; Kang, Mei; Tao, Chuanmin; Zhang, Rong; Hu, Yunjian; Chen, Zhixing; Wang, Lanlan

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of resistance genes and the clonal relationship amongst imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from ten hospitals in Western China as well as to compare the molecular epidemiological data with those of isolates from two hospitals in Hangzhou and Beijing. Genes encoding OXA carbapenemases, metallo-?-lactamases, AmpC cephalosporinase and carbapenem resistance-associated outer membrane protein (CarO) were screened using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. PCR mapping was performed to determine whether insertion sequence ISAba1 elements preceded OXA carbapenemases and AmpC cephalosporinase. International clonal lineages were identified by sequence type multiplex PCR. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed to determine the sequence types (STs), and then eBURST algorithm was applied to assign clonal complexes (CCs). In this study, dissemination of acquired ISAba1 preceding the bla(OXA-23-like) gene was the predominant enzymatic resistance mechanism amongst 272 imipenem-resistant isolates. Five isolates harboured the carO gene disrupted by insertion of ISAba1 and three isolates lacked carO. All of the 36 representative isolates belonged to European clone II. Ten STs, including three novel types, were identified. These STs were clustered into CC92 and two distinct singletons. These observations suggest that imipenem-resistant A. baumannii of European clone II, which carries acquired ISAba1 preceding the bla(OXA-23-like) gene and belongs to CC92, has spread within Western China. PMID:21705198

  1. Origin, divergence, and phylogeny of asexual epichloë endophyte in elymus species from Western china.

    PubMed

    Song, Hui; Nan, Zhibiao

    2015-01-01

    Asexual Epichloë species are likely derived directly from sexual Epichloë species that then lost their capacity for sexual reproduction or lost sexual reproduction because of interspecific hybridization between distinct lineages of sexual Epichloë and/or asexual Epichloë species. In this study we isolated asexual Epichloë endophytes from Elymus species in western China and sequenced intron-rich regions in the genes encoding ?-tubulin (tubB) and translation elongation factor 1-? (tefA). Our results showed that there are no gene copies of tubB and tefA in any of the isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that sequences in this study formed a single clade with asexual Epichloë bromicola from Hordeum brevisubulatum, which implies asexual Epichloë endophytes that are symbionts in a western Chinese Elymus species likely share a common ancestor with asexual E. bromicola from European H. brevisubulatum. In addition, our results revealed that asexual E. bromicola isolates that are symbionts in a western Chinese Elymus species and sexual Epichloë species that are symbionts in a North American Elymus species have a different origin. Further analysis found that Epichloë species likely originated in Eurasia. In addition, the results support the hypothesis that migratory birds or humans might have aided the dispersal of these fungal endophytes to other continents. PMID:25970178

  2. The New Curriculum and the Urban-Rural Literacy Gap: The Case of One County in Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Dan

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to explore the impact of the new curriculum reform launched in 2001 urban-rural achievement disparities. It documents a pilot study on teachers' experiences in teaching literacy to children in primary one in a poverty-stricken county in western China. Interviews with teachers in various types of schools indicate that the…

  3. Changes in frequency of agents of tinea capitis in school children from Western China suggest slow migration rates in dermatophytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Deng; G. S. Bulmer; R. C. Summerbell; Hoog de G. S; Y. Hui; Y. Gräser

    2008-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a common dermatophyte infection of the scalp of children in Western China, with the gray-patch from being the most prevalent. Twenty years ago, the most widespread etiologic agent was reported to be Trichophyton violaceum, which was later succeeded by Microsporum ferrugineum and Trichophyton schoenleinii. In the framework of our recent study, 97 isolates were collected from patients

  4. Uranium and Thorium Distributions in the Sediments Collected From the Western South Okinawa Trough and the Northern South China Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Chun-Yen; C. Yu-Chia; W. Li-Wen

    2004-01-01

    Uranium and thorium radionuclides were measured on three cores each collected from the western South Okinawa Trough (SOT) and northern South China Sea (SCS) in order to examine the variations of these radionuclides and their activity ratios in the sediments and to understand the geochemistry of these nuclides in these two marginal sea areas. Three box cores were taken from

  5. Late Cenozoic climate changes in China's western interior: a review of research on Lake Qinghai and comparison with other records

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven M. Colman; Shi-Yong Yu; Zhisheng An; Ji Shen; A. C. G. Henderson

    2007-01-01

    We review Late Cenozoic climate and environment changes in the western interior of China with an emphasis on lacustrine records from Lake Qinghai. Widespread deposition of red clay in the marginal basins of the Tibetan Plateau indicates that the Asian monsoon system was initially established by ?8Ma, when the plateau reached a threshold altitude. Subsequent strengthening of the winter monsoon,

  6. Have steering flows in the western North Pacific and the South China Sea changed over the last 50 years?

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yuqing

    tendency for storms along prevailing typhoon tracks to recurve. Citation: Chu, P.-S., J.-H. Kim, and Y, the storm track is a major concern for society. The prevailing typhoon tracks in the western part East Asia has seen more typhoon activity while the South China Sea has experienced decreased storm

  7. The Impact of Overseas Training on Curriculum Innovation and Change in English Language Education in Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Daguo; Edwards, Viv

    2013-01-01

    This article assesses the impact of a UK-based professional development programme on curriculum innovation and change in English Language Education (ELE) in Western China. Based on interviews, focus group discussions and observation of a total of 48 English teachers who had participated in an overseas professional development programme influenced…

  8. A qualitative exploration of youth in the "new" China: perspectives on tobacco use from adolescents in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Janet; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Yan, He; Qiu, Peiyuan; Palmer, Paula H; Johnson, C Anderson

    2012-03-01

    School-based prevention programs are not common in China and the attempts to modify successful Western prevention programs have largely shown little effect. Distinct cultural and social systems differences could explain why modified programs have been unsuccessful. Smoking behavior is examined from the perspective of Chinese adolescents as part of the development of a large intervention trial. A total of 16 focus groups with 128 participants were conducted in Chengdu in Sichuan province of China. Impressions of adolescent smokers were mixed, most seeing the behavior as common among boys. Smokers were seen as being overwhelmed and stressed. Girls' smoking was mostly seen as universally "bad" and reflecting poorly on a girl's character. However, a small portion of focus group participants suggested that female smoking was fashionable and trendy. With social norms changing rapidly in the "new" China, understanding what the new generation of Chinese youth thinks about smoking is critical in determining how to address and tailor prevention efforts. PMID:20829274

  9. Psychological distress among adolescents in Chengdu, Sichuan at 1 month after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Lau, Joseph T F; Yu, Xiaonan; Zhang, Jianxin; Mak, Winnie W S; Choi, Kai Chow; Lui, Wacy W S; Zhang, Jianxin; Chan, Emily Y Y

    2010-05-01

    A devastating earthquake occurred on May 12, 2008 in Sichuan, China. This study investigated the prevalence and factors in association with psychological problems among secondary school students living in Chengdu (90 km away from the disaster epicenter) in June 2008. In a cross-sectional survey, 3,324 secondary students self-administered a structured questionnaire in classroom setting. Validated scales were used in this study. Among all respondents, 22.3% reported post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); 22.6% were probable depression cases; 10.6% reported suicidal ideation; and 14.1% would like to receive psychological counseling. No gender differences were found. While social/emotional support from teachers or peers (OR from 0.40 to 0.78) and exposure to positive news reports (OR from 0.59 to 0.62) were found protective, prior experience of severe mental distress (OR from 1.60 to 2.68) and corporal punishment (OR from 1.31 to 1.58), worry about future aftershocks (OR from 1.64 to 3.11), absence from school when it was not closed (OR from 1.38 to 1.48), exposures to scary or sorrowful disaster media coverage (OR from 1.39 to 2.07), post-disaster visits to affected sites (OR from 1.51 to 1.59), separation from parents (OR = 1.61), etc., were risk factors predictive of some of the aforementioned psychological problems. Negative mental health impacts were prevalent among the respondents. Teachers, parents, and the mass media are all important in maintaining good mental health among adolescents that are indirectly affected by the severe earthquake. The results have important implications for earthquake preparedness and relief work in the future. PMID:20405226

  10. Factors Influencing Chinese Male's Willingness to Undergo Circumcision: A Cross-Sectional Study in Western China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaobo; Abdullah, Abu S.; Wei, Bo; Jiang, Junjun; Deng, Wei; Qin, Bo; Yan, Weili; Wang, Qianqiu; Zhong, Chaohui; Wang, Qian; Ruan, Yuhua; Zou, Yunfeng; Xie, Peiyan; Wei, Fumei; Xu, Na; Liang, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Background Male circumcision (MC) has been shown to reduce the risk of female to male transmission of HIV. The goal of this survey was to explore the acceptability of MC among the Chinese and to identify factors associated with circumcision preference. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between September 2009 and December 2010. We interviewed 2,219 male community participants, from three high HIV prevalence provinces in western China. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on MC knowledge, willingness to accept MC, reasons to accept or refuse MC, and sexual behaviors and health. For those who refused MC, a health education intervention providing information on the benefits of circumcision was conducted. We used multiple logistic regression models to identify factors associated with the acceptability of MC. Results Of the respondents (n?=?2,219), 44.6% (989/2,219) reported they would accept MC for the following reasons: promotion of female partners' hygiene (60.3%), redundant foreskin (59.4%), prevention of penile cancer (50.2%), enhanced sexual pleasure (41.4%), and protection against HIV and STDs (34.2%). The multivariable logistic regression showed that five factors were associated with MC willingness: long foreskin (OR?=?15.98), residing in Xinjiang province (OR?=?3.69), being younger than 25 (OR?=?1.60), knowing hazards of redundant foreskin (OR?=?1.78), and having a friend who underwent circumcision (OR?=?1.36). Conclusion The acceptability of male circumcision was high among the general population in China. Our study elucidates the factors associated with circumcision preference and suggests that more health education campaigns about positive health effects are necessary to increase the MC rate in China. PMID:22253919

  11. Breastfeeding rates in central and western China in 2010: implications for child and population health

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Sufang; Fu, Xulan; Scherpbier, Robert W; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Hong; Wang, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe breastfeeding practices in rural China using globally recommended indicators and to compare them with practices in neighbouring countries and large emerging economies. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional survey of 2354 children younger than 2 years in 26 poor, rural counties in 12 central and western provinces was conducted. Associations between indicators of infant and young child feeding and socioeconomic, demographic and health service variables were explored and rates were compared with the most recent data from China and other nations. Findings Overall, 98.3% of infants had been breastfed. However, only 59.4% had initiated breastfeeding early (i.e. within 1 hour of birth); only 55.5% and 9.4% had continued breastfeeding for 1 and 2 years, respectively, and only 28.7% of infants younger than 6 months had been exclusively breastfed. Early initiation of breastfeeding was positively associated with at least five antenatal clinic visits (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 3.48; P?China, rates are very low. A commitment to improve infant and young child feeding is needed to reduce mortality and morbidity. PMID:23678195

  12. Mosquitoes of Western Yunnan Province, China: Seasonal Abundance, Diversity, and Arbovirus Associations

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei-Hong; Feng, Yun; Nasci, Roger S.; Yang, Jie; Liu, Yong-Hua; Dong, Chao-Liang; Li, Shi; Zhang, Bao-Sen; Yin, Zheng-Liu; Wang, Pi-Yu; Fu, Shi-Hong; Li, Ming-Hua; Liu, Fen; Zhang, Juan; Sun, Jie; Li, Can-Wei; Gao, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Hong; Wang, Huan-Yu; Petersen, Lyle R.; Liang, Guo-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Objective The western borderland between Yunnan Province, China, and Myanmar is characterized by a climate that facilitates year-round production of mosquitoes. Numerous mosquito-transmitted viruses, including Japanese encephalitis virus circulate in this area. This project was to describe seasonal patterns in mosquito species abundance and arbovirus activity in the mosquito populations. Methods Mosquitoes were collected in Mangshi and Ruili cities of Dehong Prefecture near the border of China and Burma in Yunnan Province, the Peoples Republic of China in 2010. We monitored mosquito species abundance for a 12-month period using ultraviolet light, carbon dioxide baited CDC light and gravid traps; and tested the captured mosquitoes for the presence of virus to evaluate mosquito-virus associations in rural/agricultural settings in the area. Results A total of 43 species of mosquitoes from seven genera were collected, including 15 Culex species, 15 Anopheles spp., four Aedes spp., three Armigeres spp., one Mimomyia spp., two Uranotaenia spp. and three Mansonia spp.. Species richness and diversity varied between Mangshi and Ruili. Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles sinensis and Anopheles peditaeniatus were the most abundant species in both sampling sites. Ultraviolet light traps collected more specimens than CDC light traps baited with dry ice, though both collected the same variety of mosquito species. The CDC gravid trap was the most effective trap for capture of Culex quinquefasciatus, a species underrepresented in light trap collections. A total of 26 virus strains were isolated, which included 13 strains of Japanese encephalitis virus, four strains of Getah virus, one strain of Oya virus, one strain from the orbivirus genus, and seven strains of Culex pipien pallens densovirus. Conclusions The present study illustrates the value of monitoring mosquito populations and mosquito-transmitted viruses year-round in areas where the climate supports year-round adult mosquito activity. PMID:24146951

  13. Satellite observations of the small-scale cyclonic eddies in the western South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Tang, S.; Chen, C.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution ocean color observations offer an opportunity to investigate the oceanic small-scale processes. In this study, the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) daily 300 m data were used to study small-scale processes in the western South China Sea. It is indicated that the cyclonic eddies with horizontal scales of 10 km are frequently observed during the upwelling season of each year over the 2004-2009 period. These small-scale eddies were generated in the vicinity of the southern front of the cold tongue, and then propagated eastward with a speed of approximately 12 cm s-1. This propagation speed was consistent with the velocity of the western boundary current. As a result, the small-scale eddies kept the high levels of phytoplankton rotating away from the coastal areas, resulting in the accumulation of phytoplankton in the interior of the eddies. The generation of the small-scale eddies may be associated with strengthening of the relative movement between the rotation speed of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies and the offshore transport. With the increases of the normalized rotation speed of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies relative to the offshore transport, the offshore current became a meander under the impacts of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies. The meandered cold tongue and instability front may stimulate the generation of the small-scale eddies. Unidirectional uniform wind along the cold tongue may also contribute to the formation of the small-scale eddies.

  14. Altered development and reproduction in western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) found in the Hanxi River, southern China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yong-Ping; Fang, Zhan-Qiang; Hou, Li-Ping; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2010-11-01

    The current study investigated the development and reproductive health of western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) in the Hanxi River, which has been heavily contaminated by municipal wastewaters from towns in Dongguan of southern China. Western mosquitofish collected from four study sites, Songmu (SM), Yangwu (YW), Hengli (HL), and Zhangcun (ZC) of the Hanxi River, as well as a reference site (LX) of the Liuxi River, were dissected and analyzed for development parameters (total length, wet body mass, liver mass, gonad index, and population composition), reproductive parameters (oocyte count and weight of females, and sperm count and viability of males), and morphology (anal fin in males and females, and hemal spines in males). With the exception of the origin site (SM), mosquitofish from the Hanxi River exhibited significantly decreasing development and reproduction levels. Significant correlations were found for the collected mosquitofish between the morphological and reproductive indexes (ratio of perpendicular distance to tip to vertical distance from the tip on the 16th hemal spine) versus the sperm count of males; ratio 16P:16D versus sperm viability of males; segments of anal fin ray 3 versus oocyte count of females; and segments of anal fin ray 3 versus average oocyte mass of females. The results demonstrated that both male and female mosquitofish in the Hanxi River were affected by the discharged wastewaters, as reflected in their morphological changes in comparison with those of mosquitofish from the reference site. PMID:20853458

  15. Phytoplankton patchiness during spring intermonsoon in western coast of South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiu-Juan; Tang, Dan Ling

    2014-03-01

    Jet-like phytoplankton blooms usually occur off the southwestern coast of the South China Sea (SCS) caused by strong winds during summer monsoons. However a jet-like phytoplankton patch was observed in the western SCS in the spring intermonsoon of 2010 in both field and remote sensing data. The present study investigated the biological processes associated with this spring phytoplankton patchiness. The data showed that chlorophyll a concentrations increased in the surface water, extending out to the SCS, and the depth of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum uplifted from 75 m to 50 m depth; low dissolved oxygen, low pH and nutrient enrichment (nitrate+nitrite and soluble reactive phosphate) were observed in the subsurface water (50 to ~200 m depth). Data analysis showed that variations in chlorophyll a, nutrients and temperature in the water column were related to wind-stress curl: the spatial distribution pattern and vertical structure of the phytoplankton patchiness were controlled by vertical flux of nutrients caused by curl-driven upwelling through Ekman pumping. There was a high correlation between chlorophyll a concentration and wind-stress curl where the influence of nutrient influx from the coast was limited. This study shows the importance of wind-stress curl in providing nutrients to support phytoplankton growth during the spring intermonsoon along the western coast of SCS. It may help to better understand the role of wind in marine biological processes.

  16. Simulation of sedimentary fill of Sichuan basin by upper Permian coals and carbonate sequences - an example of use of SEDPAK

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, J; Kendall, C.G.S.C.; Strobel, J.; Cannon, R.; Moore, P.; Bezdek, J.; Biswas, G.

    1989-03-01

    The Upper Permian sediments of Sichuan and western Hubei provinces of China, in ascending order, are (1) the basal Ermi basaltic volcanic sequence which exceeds 800-m thickness to the west but is only a few centimeters thick in the east; (2) the overlying coal-bearing Longtan Formation which onlaps as continental coal sequences to the west but downlaps and thins to a few meters of marine shales to the east where it is interbedded with and overlain by thick shelfal carbonates of the Wujiaping Formation; and (3) a thick wedge of carbonates of the Changxing Formation which onlaps the lower coals and interfingers with a thin upper coal sequence to the west. The post-volcanic sedimentary fill can be considered as two supercycles responding to two major sea level changes. The SEDPAK simulation captures deposition of the two supersequences. The first sequence is modeled as onlapping lowstand clastics and coals which, interfingering with ramp carbonates, deepen upward and begin to give up as sea level rise exceeds carbonate growth. The second is modeled as a sequence of ramp to platform carbonates which initially catches up and then keeps up while interfingering westward with coast marine coal sequences. SEDPAK highgrades the hydrocarbon potential of the carbonate buildups in the second sequence.

  17. Magnetostratigraphic investigations on an Emeishan basalt section in western Guizhou province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kainian; Opdyke, Neil D.

    1998-11-01

    A magnetostratigraphic investigation has been conducted on a late Permian Emeishan basalt section at Duge in western Guizhou province, China. The characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) directions resolved at high temperatures from the basalts pass the fold test with dual polarity and define a normal magnetozone of five sixths of the total thickness in the lower part and a reversed magnetozone of one sixth of the thickness in the top part of the section. The ChRM directions from the basalt clasts of pyroclastic rocks fail the conglomerate test, but the direction and polarity of the ChRM of the clasts from the upper reversed zone are consistent with those of the basaltic lavas in the reversed zone and the normal directions also dominate the ChRM of the clasts taken from the lower normal zone. This suggests that either the original remanence of the clasts was reset by cementing basaltic lavas or the ChRM of the basalts was acquired late but not beyond a field reversal. The magnetostratigraphic pattern (N-R) observed at Duge is as simple as that observed from some major continental flood basalt provinces in the world, where very few magnetic polarity zones were observed from volcanic sequences of great thickness; the emplacement of the Emeishan basalts in western Guizhou is estimated to be less than two million years. The normal polarity magnetozone observed indicates that the extrusion of the Emeishan basalts in western Guizhou postdates the Permo-Carboniferous reversed superchron (PCRS). The apparent shortness of the reversed magnetozone explains why far fewer reverse directions than normal ones have been so far reported from the Emeishan basalts.

  18. Exploring China’s western and central county systems performance measured by outcomes framework scores—A cross-sectional survey of routine healthcare data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Shi; Liang Zhang; Yue Liu; Jiangbo Wang; Chris Scarf; Juyang Xiong

    2011-01-01

    Summary  This study was designed to measure the performance of county health systems in central and western China utilizing routine\\u000a healthcare data. Drawing on a literature review and expert consultation, the study established a theoretical framework and\\u000a an indicator system for performance review. Questionnaires were designed and disseminated to collect empirical data on health\\u000a system performance in four counties of two

  19. Two new species of Itagonia Reitter (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Blaptini) from China

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ai-min

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Itagonia Reitter, 1887, Itagonia tibialis sp. n. and Itagonia litangensis sp. n. are described from Sichuan, China. A key to the known species of Itagonia from China is given. PMID:23794926

  20. Assessment of dietary intake among pregnant women in a rural area of western China

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yue; Dibley, Michael J; Zhang, Xueli; Zeng, Lingxia; Yan, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Background Adequate maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy is important to ensure satisfactory birth outcomes. There are no data available on the usual dietary intake among pregnant women in rural China. The present study describes and evaluates the dietary intake in a cohort of pregnant women living in two counties of rural Shaanxi, western China. Methods 1420 pregnant women were recruited from a trial that examined the effects of micronutrient supplementation on birth outcomes. Dietary information was collected at the end of their trimester or after delivery with an interviewed-administrated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Nutrients intake was calculated from the FFQ and compared to the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR). The EAR cut-offs based on the Chinese Nutrition Society Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) were used to assess the prevalence of inadequate dietary intakes of energy, protein, calcium, zinc, riboflavin, vitamin C and folate. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests were used to compare nutrient intakes across subgroups. Results The mean nutrient intakes assessed by the FFQ was similar to those reported in the 2002 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey from women living in rural areas except for low intakes of protein, fat, iron and zinc. Of the participants, 54% were at risk of inadequate intake of energy. There were high proportions of pregnant women who did not have adequate intakes of folate (97%) and zinc (91%). Using the "probability approach", 64% of subjects had an inadequate consumption of iron. Conclusion These results reveal that the majority of pregnant women in these two counties had low intakes of nutrients that are essential for pregnancy such as iron and folate. Trial registration ISRCTN08850194. PMID:19589154

  1. Shelf Clinoforms and Suspended Sediments at the Northern and Western Margin of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stattegger, K.; Unverricht, D.; Szczucinski, W.; Liu, Z.; Heinrich, C.; Nguyen, T. C.; Lahajnar, N.

    2013-12-01

    Sediment plumes and shelf clinoforms can be traced almost continuously from the Yangtse until the Mekong Delta as a unique morphodynamics feature of the northern and western marginal parts of the South China Sea. Major sediment plumes originate at the mouths of large rivers, namely the Yangtse, Pearl, Red and Mekong Rivers and extend several hundred kilometers in downdrift direction which is governed mainly by the monsoonal system with the prevailing winter-monsoon winds from NE. Outside the zone of influence of these large rivers we find numerous small mountainous rivers between the Yangtse and Pearl Rivers in SE China and between the Red and Mekong Rivers in central Vietnam providing high amounts of detrital sediments as well. Age control provides clear evidence that the shelf clinoforms developed after 8200 calendar years BP together with a re-organization of the coastal zone and the onset of major modern river deltas after the last phase of accelerated sea-level rise in the Early Holocene, 9000 - 8200 calendar years BP. For the last century 210-Pb activity profiles reveal complex sedimentary processes with event deposition and frequent erosion and re-deposition with average accumulation rates up to 1.5 cm/yr. Suspended sediment contents (SSC) were measured on the Vietnam Shelf. Key regions like the Gulf of Tonkin and the Mekong delta show a strong monsoonal signal as well as a strong tidal signal in the inter-monsoonal period by significant areas of SSCs greater than 25 ?l/l even in the inter-monsoonal season. Suspended sediments exhibit distinct seasonal variability while the deposits of shelf clinoforms reflect the average long-term accumulation patterns of terrigenous sediments sometimes winnowed by marine sedimentation and/or masked by bioturbation.

  2. Glacier change and glacier runoff variation in the Tuotuo River basin, the source region of Yangtze River in western China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Zhang; Shiyin Liu; Junli Xu; Donghui Shangguan

    2008-01-01

    Glaciers in the Tuotuo River basin, western China, have been monitored in recent decades by applying topographical maps and\\u000a high-resolution satellite images. Results indicate that most of glaciers in the Tuotuo River basin have retreated in the period\\u000a from 1968\\/1971 to 2001\\/2002, and their shrinkage area is 3.2% of the total area in the late 1960s. To assess the influence

  3. Stable isotopes of lake and fluid inclusion brines, Dabusun Lake, Qaidam Basin, western China: Hydrology and paleoclimatology in arid environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenbo Yang; Ronald J. Spencer; H. Roy Krouse; Tim K. Lowenstein; E. Casas

    1995-01-01

    The Qaidam Basin, underlain by salt, is the largest (120,000 km2) on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, western China. Numerous shallow to ephemeral saline lakes and dry saline pans are present on the Qarhan Salt Plain. Dabusun Lake, the largest (about 200 km2), contains high salinity Na?Mg?Cl brines. Whereas it precipitates halite, it is fringed by a potash salt flat.The dominant inflow

  4. The effects of tectonic uplift, landslides, and debris-flow erosion driven by the Wenchuan (Ms 8.0) earthquake on the geomorphic growth of Longmen Mountain,Sichuan,China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Zhou, R.; Zhao, G.; Li, H.; Su, D.; Ding, H.; Yan, Z.; Yan, L.; Yun, K.; Ma, C.

    2013-12-01

    Longmen Mountain is a linear, asymmetric border mountain between the Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin. The plateau margin is the steepest topographic gradient in all edges of the modern plateau. On May 12, 2008, the Wenchuan (Ms 8.0) earthquake took place in the middle and northern sections of Longmen Mountain, and on April 20, 2013, the Lushan (Ms 7.0) earthquake occurred in the southern section of Longmen Mountain. The tectonic uplift resulting from the Wenchuan 8.0 earthquake changed the slope gradient instantly and caused massive landslides and debris flows. As a consequence, the geomorphology and the river system were modified. Therefore, the role of strong earthquake events in the geomorphic evolution of Longmen Mountain and its surface processes has become a topic of scientific concern. But the effects of tectonic uplift, landslides, and debris-flow erosion driven by the Wenchuan (Ms 8.0) earthquake on the geomorphic growth of Longmen Mountain are a current subject of debate. Many uncertainties need to be taken into account to estimate the relationship between the total landslide volume and the net growth of the Longmen Shan in the Wenchuan earthquake. In this research, tectonic uplift, landslides, and debris-flow in Hongchun Gully, which is located at the earthquake epicenter, has been studied. The aim of this study is to understand how the mass wasting triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake affected the growth of the Longmen Shan. Field data, aerial photographs, and digital elevation data are used to conduct quantitative analyses of the tectonic uplift driven by the Wenchuan earthquake and of landslide and debris-flow erosion processes, along with their effects on the geomorphic growth of Longmen Mountain. The preliminary insights obtained are the following: (1) Hongchun Gully is located at the earthquake epicenter in alpine valleys. The seismogenic fault was the Beichuan Fault, which cuts through the gully. (2) The Wenchuan earthquake triggered coseismic landslides of 380.01 × 104 m3, which was three times the volume before the earthquake. (3) The volume of debris flow resulting from heavy rainfall on August 13 and 18, 2010, after the earthquake was 70.5 × 104 m3, which meant that 20% of the volume of coseismic landslides after the earthquake was changed into debris flows because of heavy rainfall. (4) Hongchun Gully debris flow discharged 48.5 × 104 m3 of solid materials into the Minjiang River (the main river), leading to a narrowed watercourse, elevated riverbed, and increased riverbed gradient. (5) The conversion ratio between the sediment input into watercourses and the coseismic landslide sediments was about 13%. The conversion ratio between the sediment input into the watercourse and the debris-flow sediment was 70%. (6) The volume of coseismic landslides in Hongchun Gully (380.01 × 104 m3) was less than the volume of coseismic uplift (667 × 104 m3). Only about 57% of the uplift volume was converted into landslide volume, indicating a greater volume of tectonic uplift compared to the volume of landslides resulting from Wenchuan earthquake, which was characterized by thrust and strike-slip motions. This has caused new uplift and the geomorphic growth of the Longmen Mountain.

  5. Profiling bacterial diversity in a limestone cave of the western Loess Plateau of China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yucheng; Tan, Liangcheng; Liu, Wuxing; Wang, Baozhan; Wang, Jianjun; Cai, Yanjun; Lin, Xiangui

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria and archaea sustain subsurface cave ecosystems by dominating primary production and fueling biogeochemical cyclings, despite the permanent darkness and shortage of nutrients. However, the heterogeneity and underlying mechanism of microbial diversity in caves, in particular those well connect to surface environment are largely unexplored. In this study, we examined the bacterial abundance and composition in Jinjia Cave, a small and shallow limestone cave located on the western Loess Plateau of China, by enumerating and pyrosequencing small subunit rRNA genes. The results clearly reveal the contrasting bacterial community compositions in relation to cave habitat types, i.e., rock wall deposit, aquatic sediment, and sinkhole soil, which are differentially connected to the surface environment. The deposits on the cave walls were dominated by putative cave-specific bacterial lineages within the ?-Proteobacteria or Actinobacteria that are routinely found on cave rocks around the world. In addition, sequence identity with known functional groups suggests enrichments of chemolithotrophic bacteria potentially involved in autotrophic C fixation and inorganic N transformation on rock surfaces. By contrast, bacterial communities in aquatic sediments were more closely related to those in the overlying soils. This is consistent with the similarity in elemental composition between the cave sediment and the overlying soil, implicating the influence of mineral chemistry on cave microhabitat and bacterial composition. These findings provide compelling molecular evidence of the bacterial community heterogeneity in an East Asian cave, which might be controlled by both subsurface and surface environments. PMID:25870592

  6. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seawater from the Western Taiwan Strait, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Ling; Wang, Xin-Hong; Li, Yong-Yu; Hong, Hua-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Seawater samples (including surface water and bottom water) were collected from the Western Taiwan Strait (WTS) during June 24-25, 2009; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in dissolved phase and particulate phase were analyzed, respectively. The results showed that the total concentrations of PAHs in the dissolved phase and particulate phase were ranged from 12.3 to 58.0 ng L(-1), and 10.3-45.5 ng L(-1), which showed a low-middle contamination level in the China Seas. The spatial variability of PAHs may be related to the complicated currents of WTS, especially the Min-Zhe coastal current. PAHs diagnostic ratios suggested that PAHs mainly originated from the inputs of pyrolytic (combustion) sources, which might be contributed to land-based atmospheric deposition. The particle-water partition coefficients of individual PAH showed that partitions were not correlated with suspended particulate matter content, dissolved organic carbon or salinity, similar to the Yangtze coastal area. PMID:21440914

  7. Cyclic precipitation variation on the western Loess Plateau of China during the past four centuries.

    PubMed

    Tan, Liangcheng; An, Zhisheng; Huh, Chih-An; Cai, Yanjun; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Shiau, Liang-Jian; Yan, Libin; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation variation on the Loess Plateau (LP) of China is not only important for rain-fed agriculture in this environmentally sensitive region, but also critical for the water and life securities over the whole Yellow River basin. Here we reconstruct high resolution precipitation variation on the western LP during the past 370 years by using two replicated, annually-laminated stalagmites. Spatial analysis suggests that the reconstruction can be also representative for the whole LP region. The precipitation variations show a significant quasi-50 year periodicity during the last 370 years, and have an important role in determining the runoff of the middle Yellow River. The main factor controlling the decadal scale variations and long-term trend in precipitation over this region is southerly water vapour transport associated with the Asian summer monsoon. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation is also an important influence on precipitation variation in this region, as it can affect the East Asian summer monsoon and the West Pacific Subtropical High. PMID:25223372

  8. Profiling bacterial diversity in a limestone cave of the western Loess Plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yucheng; Tan, Liangcheng; Liu, Wuxing; Wang, Baozhan; Wang, Jianjun; Cai, Yanjun; Lin, Xiangui

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria and archaea sustain subsurface cave ecosystems by dominating primary production and fueling biogeochemical cyclings, despite the permanent darkness and shortage of nutrients. However, the heterogeneity and underlying mechanism of microbial diversity in caves, in particular those well connect to surface environment are largely unexplored. In this study, we examined the bacterial abundance and composition in Jinjia Cave, a small and shallow limestone cave located on the western Loess Plateau of China, by enumerating and pyrosequencing small subunit rRNA genes. The results clearly reveal the contrasting bacterial community compositions in relation to cave habitat types, i.e., rock wall deposit, aquatic sediment, and sinkhole soil, which are differentially connected to the surface environment. The deposits on the cave walls were dominated by putative cave-specific bacterial lineages within the ?-Proteobacteria or Actinobacteria that are routinely found on cave rocks around the world. In addition, sequence identity with known functional groups suggests enrichments of chemolithotrophic bacteria potentially involved in autotrophic C fixation and inorganic N transformation on rock surfaces. By contrast, bacterial communities in aquatic sediments were more closely related to those in the overlying soils. This is consistent with the similarity in elemental composition between the cave sediment and the overlying soil, implicating the influence of mineral chemistry on cave microhabitat and bacterial composition. These findings provide compelling molecular evidence of the bacterial community heterogeneity in an East Asian cave, which might be controlled by both subsurface and surface environments. PMID:25870592

  9. Tree-ring hydrologic reconstructions for the Heihe River watershed, western China since AD 1430.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Sun, Junyan; Song, Huiming; Cai, Qiufang; Bao, Guang; Li, Xuxiang

    2010-05-01

    Based on the tree-ring-width analysis, the total precipitation from previous July to current June of the Qilian Mountains from 1634 to 2000 AD and the average runoff from previous September to current June in the middle section of the Heihe River from 1430 to 2007 have been reconstructed. This allowed detailed examination of the hydrologic history of the watershed of the Heihe River in western China. Precipitation, runoff and groundwater level were found to be significantly correlated with each other on the decadal scale. The three curves display quite synchronous trends of natural variation before AD 1940 to present before the onset of man-made disturbances. A remarkable period is AD 1925-1940 when the precipitation is low in the upper section, the runoff decreases in the middle section, and the groundwater level declines in the downstream section. After 1940, the groundwater level shows a lag effect, which may be a result of high water consumption in the middle and downstream sections. All three tree-ring based hydrologic indices commonly display the most significant periodicities around 80 (78-82), 50 (49-58) and 2 year. These cycles correspond to large-scale oscillation found in the climate system and appear mainly related to ocean-atmosphere interaction. PMID:20206961

  10. Cyclic precipitation variation on the western Loess Plateau of China during the past four centuries

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Liangcheng; An, Zhisheng; Huh, Chih-An; Cai, Yanjun; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Shiau, Liang-Jian; Yan, Libin; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation variation on the Loess Plateau (LP) of China is not only important for rain-fed agriculture in this environmentally sensitive region, but also critical for the water and life securities over the whole Yellow River basin. Here we reconstruct high resolution precipitation variation on the western LP during the past 370 years by using two replicated, annually-laminated stalagmites. Spatial analysis suggests that the reconstruction can be also representative for the whole LP region. The precipitation variations show a significant quasi-50 year periodicity during the last 370 years, and have an important role in determining the runoff of the middle Yellow River. The main factor controlling the decadal scale variations and long-term trend in precipitation over this region is southerly water vapour transport associated with the Asian summer monsoon. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation is also an important influence on precipitation variation in this region, as it can affect the East Asian summer monsoon and the West Pacific Subtropical High. PMID:25223372

  11. Cyclic precipitation variation on the western Loess Plateau of China during the past four centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Liangcheng; An, Zhisheng; Huh, Chih-An; Cai, Yanjun; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Shiau, Liang-Jian; Yan, Libin; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    2014-09-01

    Precipitation variation on the Loess Plateau (LP) of China is not only important for rain-fed agriculture in this environmentally sensitive region, but also critical for the water and life securities over the whole Yellow River basin. Here we reconstruct high resolution precipitation variation on the western LP during the past 370 years by using two replicated, annually-laminated stalagmites. Spatial analysis suggests that the reconstruction can be also representative for the whole LP region. The precipitation variations show a significant quasi-50 year periodicity during the last 370 years, and have an important role in determining the runoff of the middle Yellow River. The main factor controlling the decadal scale variations and long-term trend in precipitation over this region is southerly water vapour transport associated with the Asian summer monsoon. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation is also an important influence on precipitation variation in this region, as it can affect the East Asian summer monsoon and the West Pacific Subtropical High.

  12. Mineralogical characteristics of the superlarge Quaternary bauxite deposits in Jingxi and Debao counties, western Guangxi, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuefei; Wang, Qingfei; Zhang, Qizuan; Feng, Yuewen; Cai, Shuhui

    2012-06-01

    In recent decades, more than 0.5 billion tons of ores scattered in the Quaternary laterite in western Guangxi, China have been explored. The ores were derived from a bauxite horizon in Permian via physical break-up and re-sediment process. Utilizing various test methods, i.e., XRD, DTA, TG/DTG, SEM/EDS and EPMA, the mineralogical characteristics of the Quaternary bauxite ores in Jingxi and Debao counties were investigated. XRD was used together with TG/DTG to obtain relatively accurate ore mineral abundance. Diaspore is the major phase, whereas hematite, kaolinite, anatase, chamosite, gibbsite, goethite, illite and rutile are minor. Diaspore is characterized by a small particle size, low degrees of crystallinity and complex chemical composition. Both gibbsite and goethite have a varied particle size, and goethite crystals contain high Al substitution and Si. It is clarified that diaspore, chamosite and anatase were formed in a mildly reduced and alkaline depositional environment in Permian, while gibbsite, hematite, goethite and part kaolinite were precipitated from Al3+-, Si4+- and Fe3+-enriched solutions within an Quaternary oxidized environment. The ions Al3+, Si4+ and Fe3+ are mostly released from chamosite in its dissolution process. The different physicochemical conditions between the Permian depositional and the Quaternary weathering periods resulted in a complex mineral assemblage in the Quaternary bauxite.

  13. Geo-engineering lessons learned from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in Sichuan and their significance to reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Runqiu Huang

    2011-01-01

    The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in Sichuan of China was the result of quake-triggering along an active several hundred-kilometer-long\\u000a fault. The subsequent landslides and debris flow geohazards are dominating factors in planning post-disaster recovery and\\u000a rebuilding. This paper presents recommendations for coping with large-scale geohazards and disasters. It is essential to establish\\u000a a national emergency management system for huge scale catastrophe

  14. Interpretation of earthquake-induced landslides triggered by the 12 May 2008, M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in the Beichuan area, Sichuan Province, China using satellite imagery and Google Earth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sato, H.P.; Harp, E.L.

    2009-01-01

    The 12 May 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in the People's Republic of China represented a unique opportunity for the international community to use commonly available GIS (Geographic Information System) tools, like Google Earth (GE), to rapidly evaluate and assess landslide hazards triggered by the destructive earthquake and its aftershocks. In order to map earthquake-triggered landslides, we provide details on the applicability and limitations of publicly available 3-day-post- and pre-earthquake imagery provided by GE from the FORMOSAT-2 (formerly ROCSAT-2; Republic of China Satellite 2). We interpreted landslides on the 8-m-resolution FORMOSAT-2 image by GE; as a result, 257 large landslides were mapped with the highest concentration along the Beichuan fault. An estimated density of 0.3 landslides/km2 represents a minimum bound on density given the resolution of available imagery; higher resolution data would have identified more landslides. This is a preliminary study, and further study is needed to understand the landslide characteristics in detail. Although it is best to obtain landslide locations and measurements from satellite imagery having high resolution, it was found that GE is an effective and rapid reconnaissance tool. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Characteristics of damage to buildings by debris flows on 7 August 2010 in Zhouqu, Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, K. H.; Cui, P.; Zhang, J. Q.

    2012-07-01

    A debris-flow catastrophe hit the city of Zhouqu, Gansu Province, western China, at midnight on 7 August 2010 following a local extreme rainfall of 77.3 mm h-1 in the Sanyanyu and Luojiayu ravines, which are located to the north of the urban area. Eight buildings damaged in the event were investigated in detail to study the characteristics and patterns of damage to buildings by debris flows. It was found that major structural damage was caused by the frontal impact of proximal debris flows, while non-structural damage was caused by lateral accumulation and abrasion of sediment. The impact had a boundary decreasing effect when debris flows encountered a series of obstacles, and the inter-positioning of buildings produced so-called back shielding effects on the damage. Impact, accumulation, and abrasion were the three main patterns of damage to buildings in this event. The damage scale depended not only on the flow properties, such as density, velocity, and depth, but also on the structural strength of buildings, material, orientation, and geometry. Reinforced concrete-framed structures can effectively resist a much higher debris-flow impact than brick-concrete structures. With respect to the two typical types of structure, a classification scheme to assess building damage is proposed by referring to the Chinese Classification System of Earthquake Damage to Buildings. Furthermore, three damage scales (major structural, minor structural, and non-structural damage) are defined by critical values of impact pressure. Finally, five countermeasures for effectively mitigating the damage are proposed according to the on-site investigation.

  16. Modeling Aerosol Radiative Effects over Dust Source Regions in Western North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Gao, Y.

    2004-12-01

    To investigate the effects of aerosols on the radiation budget over Asian dust source regions in western north China, a synthetic numerical boundary layer model has been developed with respect to interactions of aerosols, heat, and wind fields. The model includes three sub-models, which are a 3-D non-stationary atmospheric boundary layer model, an atmospheric diffusion model and a radiation transmission model. The synthetic model has been validated with the measurement data of total suspended particles (TSP), temperature, wind, and radiation in atmospheric boundary layer obtained at Lanzhou (36N, 103E) and adjacent regions on the upper reaches of the Yellow River. The comparison shows that the simulated short and long wave radiation fluxes match the measured data fairly well. Testing of two modelling schemes with and without aerosols clearly brought up the importance of aerosol radiative effects on a regional scale. Preliminary results indicate an obvious heat increase in the boundary layer during daytime due to the effect of aerosol short radiative wave. The temperature increases more than 1 K in an hour. The corresponding variation of the wind speed is about 0.3m s-1. TSP concentrations on the lower layers tend to decline, but on the higher layers they tend to increase. At night, aerosol long wave radiative effect produces an increase in atmospheric temperature near the ground, but the temperature will drop in the lower layer (25m-300m) of the atmosphere, varying about 0.1-0.2 K h-1. Wind speed and TSP concentration tend to make corresponding variations.

  17. An evaluation of generalized likelihood Ratio Outlier Detection to identification of seismic events in Western China

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.R.; Hartse, H.E.

    1996-09-24

    The Generalized Likelihood Ratio Outlier Detection Technique for seismic event identification is evaluated using synthetic test data and frequency-dependent P{sub g}/L{sub g} measurements from western China. For most seismic stations that are to be part of the proposed International Monitoring System for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, there will be few or no nuclear explosions in the magnitude range of interest (e.g. M{sub b} < 4) on which to base an event-identification system using traditional classification techniques. Outlier detection is a reasonable alternative approach to the seismic discrimination problem when no calibration explosions are available. Distance-corrected P{sub g}/L{sub g} data in seven different frequency bands ranging from 0.5 to 8 Hz from the Chinese Digital Seismic Station WMQ are used to evaluate the technique. The data are collected from 157 known earthquakes, 215 unknown events (presumed earthquakes and possibly some industrial explosions), and 18 known nuclear explosions (1 from the Chinese Lop Nor test site and 17 from the East Kazakh test site). A feature selection technique is used to find the best combination of discriminants to use for outlier detection. Good discrimination performance is found by combining a low-frequency (0.5 to 1 Hz) P{sub g}/L{sub g} ratio with high-frequency ratios (e.g. 2 to 4 and 4 to 8 Hz). Although the low-frequency ratio does not discriminate between earthquakes and nuclear explosions well by itself, it can be effectively combined with the high-frequency discriminants. Based on the tests with real and synthetic data, the outlier detection technique appears to be an effective approach to seismic monitoring in uncalibrated regions.

  18. Geological characteristics and ore-forming process of the gold deposits in the western Qinling region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiajun; Liu, Chonghao; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Li, Yujie; Mao, Zhihao; Wang, Jianping; Wang, Yinhong; Zhang, Jing; Zhai, Degao; Zhang, Huafeng; Shan, Liang; Zhu, Laimin; Lu, Rukui

    2015-05-01

    The western Qinling, belonging to the western part of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogen between the North China Block and South China Block, is one of the most important gold regions in China. Isotopic dates suggest that the Mesozoic granitoids in the western Qinling region emplaced during the Middle-Late Triassic, and the deposits formed during the Late Triassic. Almost all gold deposits in the western Qinling region are classified as orogenic, Carlin-type, and Carlin-like gold deposits, and they are the products of Qinling Orogenesis caused by the final collision between the North China Block and the South China Block. The early subduction of the Mian-Lue oceanic crust and the latter collision between South Qinling Terrane and the South China Block along the Mian-Lue suture generated lithosphere-scale thermal anomalies to drive orogen-scale hydrothermal systems. The collision-related magmatism also provided heat source for regional ore-forming fluids in the Carlin-like gold deposits. Orogenic gold deposits such as Huachanggou, Liziyuan, and Baguamiao lie between the Shang-Dan and Mian-Lue sutures and are confined to WNW-trending brittle-ductile shear zones in Devonian and Carboniferous greenschist-facies metasedimentary rocks that were highly-deformed and regionally-metamorphosed. These deposits are typical orogenic gold deposits and formed within a Late Triassic age. The deposits show a close relationship between Au and Ag. Ores contain mainly microscopic gold, and minor electrum and visible gold, along with pyrite. The ore-forming fluids were main metamorphic fluids. Intensive tectonic movements caused by orogenesis created fluid-migrating channels for precipitation locations. Although some orogenic gold deposits occur adjacent to granitoids, mineralization is not synchronous with magmatism; that is, the granitoids have no genetic relations to orogenic gold deposits. As ore-forming fluids converged into dilated fractures during the extension stage of orogenesis, changes of physico-chemical conditions resulted in fluid immiscibility that played a key role in gold and sulfide deposition. The geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of the Carlin-type deposits in the western Qinling region are similar to those in the Carlin trend, Nevada, USA. Gold deposits such as La'erma and Jinlongshan occur mostly in the southeastern margin of the western Qinling regionic region whereas some deposits occur in its eastern part. These deposits are hosted in slightly metamorphosed Cambrian to Triassic sedimentary rocks, showing structurally- and stratigraphically-controlled features. The deposits mainly contain submicroscopic and microscopic gold in arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite, with characteristic ore-forming elements of Au-As-Sb-Ba. The ore-forming fluids are early-stocked formation water and later-recharged meteoric water. Meteoric water apparently evolved in ore-forming fluids by circulation, indicating the extensional setting, and led to the deposition of Au and other elements in cool reactive permeable rocks at shallow levels, forming the disseminated ores. Carlin-like gold deposits occur between the Shang-Dan suture and the Fengxian-Zhen'an fault. The host rocks are mainly sedimentary rocks that underwent reconstruction through reworking by structural metamorphism. These deposits are structurally controlled by brittle-ductile shear zone and occur adjacent to granitoid plutons. The most important characteristic that differ to the orogenic and Carlin-type gold deposits is the genetic relationship with the synchronous magmatism. Gold occurs mainly as microscopic gold. Pyrite and arsenian pyrite can be recognized as gold-bearing minerals. The ore-forming fluids are main magmatic water mixed with metamorphic and/or formation water. Similar to orogenic gold deposits, fluid immiscibility caused the deposition of gold Carlin-like gold deposits.

  19. Precise U-Pb zircon-baddeleyite age of the Jinchuan sulfide ore-bearing ultramafic intrusion, western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mingjie; Kamo, Sandra L.; Li, Chusi; Hu, Peiqing; Ripley, Edward M.

    2010-01-01

    The Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion in western China hosts the third-largest magmatic Ni-Cu deposit in the world. The crystallization age of the intrusion has long been debated. Here, we present a U-Pb ID-TIMS zircon age of 831.8 ± 0.6 Ma obtained on thermally annealed and chemically etched zircons from a lherzolite sample. The coexisting baddeleyite in the sample is indistinguishable from the age of zircon. Our new results confirm that the emplacement of the Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion was temporally related to the breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent.

  20. The effects and prospects of the integration of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine on andrology in China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wei-Guo; Jia, Jin-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Andrology has a long history in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) discussions concerning andropathies, and documentation of relevant therapeutic methods abound in the ancient literature on TCM. Integrated treatment combining TCM and Western medicine has seen both broad and in-depth development, with formidable status in the field of modern andrology in China. This article attempts to demonstrate the unique advantage of integrated treatment in the therapy of andropathies through a review of the ancient literature on andrology in the field of TCM and on the integrative treatment of prostatic diseases, sexual dysfunction, male infertility and late-onset hypogonadism. There is a need for the advancement of a medical theory that integrates TCM and Western medicine practices to create a new therapeutic system with standardized therapeutic and evaluative protocols for diseases involving male sexual health. PMID:21642998

  1. Tectonic evolution and hydrocarbon accumulation in the Yabulai Basin, western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Min; Wu, Xiaozhi

    2014-05-01

    The Yabulai petroliferous basin is located at the north of Hexi Corridor, western China, striking NEE and covering an area of 1.5×104 km2. It is bounded on the south by Beidashan Mountain to the Chaoshui Basin, on the east by Bayanwulashan Mountain to the Bayanhaote Basin, and on the northwest by Yabulai Mountain to the Yingen-Ejinaqi Basin. It is a Meso-cenozoic compressive depression residual basin. In view of regional geotectonics, the Yabulai basin sits in the middle-southern transition belt of Arershan massif in North China Craton. Driven by Indosinian movement at the late Triassic, two near EW normal faults were developed under the regional extensional stress along the northern fringe of Beidashan Mountain and the southern fringe of Yabulai Mountain front in the Arershan massif, forming the embryonic form of the Yabulai rift lake basin. Since Yanshan period, the Yabulai basin evolved in two major stages: Jurassic rift lake basin and Cretaceous rift lake basin. During early Yanshan period, EW striking Yabulai tensional rift was formed. Its major controlling fault was Beidashan normal fault, and the depocenter was at the south of this basin. During middle Yanshan period, collision orogenesis led to sharp uplift at the north of this basin where the middle-lower Jurassic formations were intensely eroded. During late Yanshan period, the Alashan massif and its northern area covered in an extensional tectonic environment, and EW striking normal faults were generated at the Yabulai Mountain front. Such faults moved violently and subsided quickly to form a new EW striking extensional rift basin with the depocenter at the south of Yabulai Mountain. During Himalayan period, the Alashan massif remained at a SN horizontal compressional tectonic environment; under the compressional and strike slip actions, a NW striking and south dipping thrusting nappe structure was formed in the south of the Yabulai basin, which broke the Beidashan normal fault to provide the echelon fault system and finally present the current structural framework of "east uplift and west depression, south faulted and north overlapping". The Yabulai basin presented as a strike-slip pull-apart basin in Mesozoic and a compressional thrusting depression basin in Cenozoic. Particularly, the Mesozoic tectonic units were distributed at a big included angle with the long axis of the basin, while the Cenozoic tectonic units were developed in a basically consistent direction with the long axis. The sags are segmented. Major subsiding sags are located in the south, where Mesozoic Jurassic-Cretaceous systems are developed, with the thickest sedimentary rocks up to 5300m. Jurassic is the best developed system in this basin. Middle Jurassic provides the principal hydrocarbon-bearing assemblage in this basin, with Xinhe Fm. and Qingtujing Fm. dark mudstone and coal as the source rocks, Xinhe Fm. and Qingtujing Fm. sandstones as the reservoir formation, and Xinhe Fm. mudstones as the cap rocks. However, the early burial and late uplifting damaged the structural framework of the basin, thus leading to the early violent compaction and tightness of Jurassic sandstone reservoir and late hydrocarbon maturity. So, tectonic development period was unmatched to hydrocarbon expulsion period of source rocks. The hydrocarbons generated were mainly accumulated near the source rocks and entrapped in reservoir. Tight oil should be the major exploration target, which has been proved by recent practices.

  2. Invasion Genetics of the Western Flower Thrips in China: Evidence for Genetic Bottleneck, Hybridization and Bridgehead Effect

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xian-Ming; Sun, Jing-Tao; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Li, Jin-Bo; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2012-01-01

    The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is an invasive species and the most economically important pest within the insect order Thysanoptera. F. occidentalis, which is endemic to North America, was initially detected in Kunming in southwestern China in 2000 and since then it has rapidly invaded several other localities in China where it has greatly damaged greenhouse vegetables and ornamental crops. Controlling this invasive pest in China requires an understanding of its genetic makeup and migration patterns. Using the mitochondrial COI gene and 10 microsatellites, eight of which were newly isolated and are highly polymorphic, we investigated the genetic structure and the routes of range expansion of 14 F. occidentalis populations in China. Both the mitochondrial and microsatellite data revealed that the genetic diversity of F. occidentalis of the Chinese populations is lower than that in its native range. Two previously reported cryptic species (or ecotypes) were found in the study. The divergence in the mitochondrial COI of two Chinese cryptic species (or ecotypes) was about 3.3% but they cannot be distinguished by nuclear markers. Hybridization might produce such substantial mitochondrial-nuclear discordance. Furthermore, we found low genetic differentiation (global FST?=?0.043, P<0.001) among all the populations and strong evidence for gene flow, especially from the three southwestern populations (Baoshan, Dali and Kunming) to the other Chinese populations. The directional gene flow was further supported by the higher genetic diversity of these three southwestern populations. Thus, quarantine and management of F. occidentalis should focus on preventing it from spreading from the putative source populations to other parts of China. PMID:22509325

  3. Applying Western Organization Development in China: Lessons from a Case of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore a successful case of a Chinese state-owned enterprise (SOE) as it applied western organization development (OD) approaches. Specifically, this study seeks to answer two questions: How has western organization development and change (OD/C) been applied in one Chinese SOE? and What lessons can be…

  4. Variations of the paleo-productivity in benthic foraminifera records in MIS 3 from western South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Y.; Du, J.; Huang, B.; Chen, M.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding climate change of last glacial age as the background information of climate forecasting is particularly important in climate research. Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3, 61-24 ka B.P.) is a relative warm and unstable period in the last glacial. Millennium scale abrupt climate changes, such as Heinrich events and Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) cycles, are identified in this period. Research topic on the variations of monsoon during the glacial cycles, especially in MIS 3, is critical for understanding low latitude climatic change and the global paleo-environment as a whole. Fortunately, high resolution sedimentary records in western South China Sea provide us valuable materials to uncover how East Asia Summer Monsoon (EASM) system acts in a highly fluctuating climate ambient like MIS 3. Core 17954 is located in the modern summer upwelling area off the Vietnam coast in western South China Sea (SCS), its sediments record the variations of upwelling generated by EASM. In this work, we carry out paleo-ecological analyses on planktonic ( Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, Globigerina bulloides) and benthic foraminifera (Bulimina aculeate, Uvigerina peregrina, Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi, ect.) sampled from Core 17954 to investigate paleo-productivity and nutrition change of western SCS and its relation to EASM. The results show that benthic and planktonic foraminifera have similar responses to nutrition change. Various indicators of productivity on the basis of benthic foraminiferal analyses reflect an overall three stage change trend: productivity gradually increases from the beginning of MIS 3 (60-40 ka) to its maximum during 35-30 ka, and finally declines after 30 ka. There is also another important discovery, if we observe the climate change in MIS 3 as a whole, we can also find western SCS and Northern Hemisphere High latitude have strong correspondences in such changes: Heinrich events coincided with high productivity events in the western SCS. Further, the result of this study also support precious study’s conclusion of five strengthened EASM periods (referred as S1-5) because productivity inferred form benthic foraminiferal analysis during these periods are relative high.

  5. Late Carboniferous collision between the Tarim and Kazakhstan–Yili terranes in the western segment of the South Tian Shan Orogen, Central Asia, and implications for the Northern Xinjiang, western China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bao-Fu Han; Guo-Qi He; Xue-Chao Wang; Zhao-Jie Guo

    2011-01-01

    The Tian Shan of Central Asia is located in the southwestern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB, also known as the Central Asian Orogenic System or CAOS). Formation of the South Tian Shan Orogen is a diachronous, scissors-like process during the Paleozoic and its western segment in China–Kyrgyzstan contiguous regions is accepted as the site of the final

  6. Are western community psychiatric models suitable for China? An examination of cultural and socio-economic foundations of western community psychiatry models using assertive community treatment as an example

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel F. Law

    2008-01-01

    Western community psychiatry models, such as Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) and Case Management, are well-studied and considered to be effective and cost-effective; in particular, ACT is perceived as a gold standard for community treatment of severe and persistently mentally ill patients. With China's recent rapid economic reform and attendant cultural and healthcare system changes, it is timely to examine the

  7. Characteristics of claystones across the terrestrial Permian-Triassic boundary: Evidence from the Chahe section, western Guizhou, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Suxin; Peng, Yuanqiao; Yu, Jianxin; Lei, Xinrong; Gao, Yongqun

    2006-08-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XFS) studies were undertaken for claystones and/or mudstones from the Chahe section—a terrestrial Permian-Triassic boundary (TPTB) section. Our results indicate that the compositions of claystones in the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) interval (Beds 66f-68) outlined by biostratigraphy are different from claystones and/or mudstones found either below or above the interval of the same section. The clay minerals in the claystones of the PTB interval are mainly composed of illite-montmorillonite interlayers, with a few montmorillonites and chlorites. The other claystones and/or mudstones underlying and overlying the PTB consist of chlorites and/or kaolinites. Some authigenic clastic minerals, such as hexagonal dipyramid quartz and zircons, are only found in claystones in the PTB interval from the Chahe section and some marine PTB sections in western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan, southwestern China. In addition, some elements are present in abnormal concentrations in the claystones of the PTB interval as well. Most important is that we found no spherules in all the claystones studied, indicating no evidence of an extraterrestrial impact during the Permian-Triassic transition. The particular characteristics of the TPTB claystones at the Chahe section indicate their volcanic origin and thus provide a reliable auxiliary event marker for high-resolution demarcation of the TPTB in South China. They are also indicative in the marine PTB claystones in South China. Thus, the PTB claystones can be used as auxiliary markers for high-resolution correlation of the PTB from marine facies to land in South China when direct fossil evidence in the PTB sequence is lacking.

  8. Characterization of a ranavirus isolated from the Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus, Blanchard, 1871) in China

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    Characterization of a ranavirus isolated from the Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus December 2012 Available online 7 January 2013 Keywords: Characteristics Chinese giant salamander-offs of farmed Chinese giant salamanders (Andrias davidianus) in Leshan, Sichuan Province, China. The farmed

  9. Retrieval and spatial-temporal analysis of aerosol in Sichuan province based on multi-source remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhihong; Liu, Hu; Zhang, Yang; Ge, Ying

    2015-04-01

    Sichuan Basin is one of the serious haze regions in China. It has great significance to monitor the atmospheric haze in Sichuan Basin. In this study, MOD04 product , OMI-NO2 product and OMI-SO2 product were used to analysis the spatial and temporal distribution characteristic of atmospheric pollutants in Sichuan from year 2008 to 2012. Micro pulse lidar (MPL) and HJ-1 satellites were used to retrieve the aerosol extinction coefficient and aerosol optical depth (AOD). Also we established a linear relationship between the AOD and PM10. The MOD04 data showed that the AOD in west Sichuan plateau was relatively low. The annual AOD-average in the regions such as Kangding, Maerkang, Xichang and Yaan was about 0.2. The Sichuan Basin such as Chengdu, Deyang, Mianyang has relatively higher annual AOD-average which was about 0.8 to 1.0, and it had obvious seasonal change feature. The spatial and temporal distribution of aerosol optical depth in Chendu showed obvious urban characteristics. These characteristics are related to the industrial situation, the location and the climate condition of Sichuan. Year 2011 has this highest annual AOD-average value. The OMI-NO2 product showed that the distribution characteristic of NO2 in Sichuan was similar with aerosol. The NO2 concentration was about 0.7 molec/cm2 in west Sichuan plateau and greater than 4.2 molec/cm2 in Chengdu, Deyang, Mianyang. However, the SO2 distribution characteristic was slightly different. The SO2 concentration was low in west Sichuan plateau with an annual average concentration of 0.2 DU. Zigong, Yibin, Luzhou were the main high value areas with an annual average concentration of 1.1 DU. Fernald method was used to retrieve the aerosol extinction coefficient based on the MPL. The result showed that the daily maximum was appeared about 07:00 am and the highest aerosol extinction coefficient season was winter. The aerosol extinction coefficient was higher below the altitude of 300 m. Based on the data of HJ-1 satellites, this study retrieved the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), proposed a method that used the EVI vegetation index to determine dark pixel to inverse AOD. This method can eliminate part of the atmospheric influence in determining the dark pixels. A comparison of the inversion results with CE318 measured data produced a correlation of 0.957. The inversion result can meet the requirement of refinement. The MODIS AOD has a good positive correlation with PM10 mass (R2=0.62). The R2 rose to 0.70 when the relative humidity was added to rectify the model.

  10. A GIS-based Local Spatial Autocorrelation for Drought Risk Assessment in Arid and Semi-Arid Environments: a Case Study in Ejin Oasis, Western China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meng-Lung Lin; Chien-Min Chu; Cheng-Wu Chen; Yu Cao; Jyh-yi Shih; Yung-Tan Lee; Lih-Der Ho

    2008-01-01

    Drought risk assessment is an important issue of environmental monitoring and assessment in arid environments. Using remote sensing and GIS techniques, this study quantified cumulative vegetative and hydrological drought risks in Ejin Oasis, western China. Analyses of spatial distributions in drought are often influenced by spatial autocorrelation. The use of the Getis statistic (Gi*) provides insights on the spatial relationships

  11. The Paleomagnetic record of Uppermost Permian, Lower Triassic rocks from the South China Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enkin, R. J.; Courtillot, V.; Leloup, Ph.; Yang, Z.; Xing, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhuang, Z.

    1992-11-01

    Paleomagnetic samples were collected from Uppermost Permian to Middle Triassic limestones from two localities in the Sichuan Basin in order to better constrain the paleography of the blocks now comprising China. Corresponding remanences found in other studies of the Permo-Triassic rocks from the Sichuan Basin are reviewed, and it is shown that the component is probably characteristic of the Lower Triassic. The difference between the Emeishan Basalts and the Sichuan Basin poles is interpreted to be the result of motion of the whole South China Block around the time of the Permo-Triassic boundary rather than that of strain within the block.

  12. Late Cenozoic climate changes in China's western interior: a review of research on Lake Qinghai and comparison with other records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colman, Steven M.; Yu, Shi-Yong; An, Zhisheng; Shen, Ji; Henderson, A. C. G.

    2007-09-01

    We review Late Cenozoic climate and environment changes in the western interior of China with an emphasis on lacustrine records from Lake Qinghai. Widespread deposition of red clay in the marginal basins of the Tibetan Plateau indicates that the Asian monsoon system was initially established by ˜8 Ma, when the plateau reached a threshold altitude. Subsequent strengthening of the winter monsoon, along with the establishment of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets, reflects a long-term trend of global cooling. The few cores from the Tibetan Plateau that reach back a million years suggest that they record the mid-Pleistocene transition from glacial cycles dominated by 41 ka cycles to those dominated by 100 ka cycles. During Terminations I and II, strengthening of the summer monsoon in China's interior was delayed compared with sea level and insolation records, and it did not reach the western Tibetan Plateau and the Tarim Basin. Lacustrine carbonate ? 18O records reveal no climatic anomaly during MIS3, so that high terraces interpreted as evidence for extremely high lake levels during MIS3 remain an enigma. Following the Last Glacial Maximum (LSM), several lines of evidence from Lake Qinghai and elsewhere point to an initial warming of regional climate about 14 500 cal yr BP, which was followed by a brief cold reversal, possibly corresponding to the Younger Dryas event in the North Atlantic region. Maximum warming occurred about 10 000 cal yr BP, accompanied by increased monsoon precipitation in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Superimposed on this general pattern are small-amplitude, centennial-scale oscillations during the Holocene. Warmer than present climate conditions terminated about 4000 cal yr BP. Progressive lowering of the water level in Lake Qinghai during the last half century is mainly a result of negative precipitation-evaporation balance within the context of global warming.

  13. Palynological assemblages of non-marine rocks at the Permian Triassic boundary, western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yuanqiao; Yu, Jianxin; Gao, Yongqun; Yang, Fengqing

    2006-12-01

    Marine and non-marine facies of the Permian-Triassic boundary stratigraphic set (PTBST) are well developed in South China. Palynological assemblages enable subdivision and correlation of the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) rocks. Three palynological assemblages are recognized across the PTBST in two terrestrial PTB sections in western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan, South China. Assemblage 1 (Xuanwei Formation) is a Late Permian palynological assemblage dominated by ferns and pteridosperms, with minor gymnosperms. Most taxa are typical long-ranging Paleozoic forms, but the appearance of Lueckisporites confirms a Late Permian age for this assemblage. Assemblage 2 (PTBST) is marked by an abrupt decrease in palynomorph abundance and diversity, and thriving fungal/algal(?) spores. Assemblage 2 is still dominated by ferns and pteridosperms, with a few gymnosperms, but is characterized by a mixed palynoflora containing both Late Permian and Early Triassic elements. Most taxa are typical Late Permian ones also found in Assemblage 1, however, some taxa of Early Triassic aspect, e.g. Lundbladispora and Taeniaesporites, appeared for the first time. In Assemblage 3 (top Xuanwei Formation and Kayitou Formation), the proportion of gymnosperm pollen increases rapidly, exceeding that of ferns and pteridosperms, but the abundance of palynomorphs is still low. Typical Early Triassic taxa (such as Lundbladispora, Aratrisporites and Taeniaesporites) are present in greater abundance and confirms an Early Triassic age for this assemblage.

  14. Recharge to the inter-dune lakes and Holocene climatic changes in the Badain Jaran Desert, western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoping; Ma, Nina; Dong, Jufeng; Zhu, Bingqi; Xu, Bing; Ma, Zhibang; Liu, Jiaqi

    2010-01-01

    We present new estimates on evaporation and groundwater recharge in the Badain Jaran Desert, western Inner Mongolia of northwestern China, based on a modified Penman Equation suitable for lakes in China. Geochemical data and water balance calculations suggest that local rainfall makes a significant contribution to groundwater recharge and that past lake-level variations in this desert environment should reflect palaeoclimatic changes. The chronology of lake-level change, established by radiocarbon and U-series disequilibrium dating methods, indicates high lake levels and a wetter climate beginning at ca. 10 ka and lasting until the late mid-Holocene in the Badain Jaran Desert. The greatest extension of lakes in the inter-dune depressions indicates that the water availability was greatest during the mid-Holocene. Relicts of Neolithic tools and pottery of Qijia Culture (2400-1900 BC) suggest relatively intensive human activity in the Badain Jaran Desert during the early and middle Holocene, supporting our interpretation of a less harsh environment. Wetter climates during the Holocene were likely triggered by an intensified East Asian summer monsoon associated with strong insolation.

  15. Inland Aridification of NW China Since the Late Middle Eocene: Stable Isotope Evidence from Western Qaidam Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Garzione, C. N.; Pullen, A. T.; Chang, H.; Molnar, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    Cenozoic paleoclimate reconstructions of China, based on pollens, fossils and sedimentary deposits, show a change from planetary aridity to inland aridity of NW China by the early Miocene. However, the initiation of this paleoclimate transition is not well-documented and might be much earlier. The surface uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, the retreat of the Para-Tethys sea, and global cooling have all been suggested to influence the establishment of this inland aridity, although their relative significance remains obscure. This paper presents a stable isotope study of a 4435 m long sedimentary section from the western Qaidam Basin, northern Tibetan Plateau, that spans from the late middle Eocene to late Miocene. The lowermost and uppermost parts of the section are dominated by fluvial and alluvial fan deposits, while the majority of the middle of the section represents palustrine, lower fan delta and marginal to shallow lacustrine fine-grained sediments intercalated with coarse sandstone and conglomerate. Our isotope data show sporadic aridity events in the late middle Eocene to early Oligocene, which might mark the transition from planetary aridity to, or the initiation of, inland aridity in NW China, due to the retreat of the Para-Tethys sea, a process that might be significantly influenced by the early topographic growth of the south-central Tibetan Plateau. A negative shift in oxygen isotope values around 19 Ma is also in accordance with other geological evidence suggesting the Oligocene-early Miocene growth of the Kunlun mountains south of the Qaidam basin. Later intensification of aridity occurred at ~12 Ma that corresponds with a regional climate change event, which we attribute to the upward and outward growth of the northern Tibetan Plateau. The final establishment of extreme inland aridity that is comparable to present day was most likely established at ~3.1-2.6 Ma in the Qaidam basin, and therefore global cooling and northern hemisphere glaciation is a major candidate for the cause.

  16. A global collaboration to deploy help to China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph Morelli; Chamindra de Silva; Trishan R. de Lanerolle; Rebecca Curzon; Xin Sheng Mao

    2010-01-01

    A firsthand account of an international team effort to install the Sahana disaster-management system in Chengdu, Sichuan after an earthquake. On Monday May 12, 2008, an earthquake measuring 7.9 on the Richter scale struck in Sichuan Province in southwestern China, destroying homes, schools, hospitals, roads, and vital power and communication infrastructure. More than 45 million people were affected---tens of thousands

  17. Households Food Security in Poverty-Stricken Regions: Evidence from Western Rural China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun Li; Wen Yu

    2010-01-01

    Food security of poor rural households has always been a policy concern. Based on a field survey on three western provinces, the paper finds that over two thirds of households achieved self-sufficiency in grain consumption, but the consumption of other major food items are all below recommended standard. Most households are unsatisfied with and expect to change this situation. Econometric

  18. Is the Returning Farmland to Forest Program a Success? Three Case Studies from Sichuan

    PubMed Central

    Trac, Christine Jane; Schmidt, Amanda H.; Harrell, Stevan; Hinckley, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    China’s tuigeng huanlin or “Returning Farmland to Forest” (RFFP) program has been widely praised as the world’s largest and most successful payment for ecosystem services program, as well as a major contributor to China’s dramatic increase in forest cover from perhaps as low as 8% in 1960 to about 21% today. By compensating rural households for the conversion of marginal farmland to forestland and financing the afforestation of barren mountainsides, the program, in addition to expanding forestland, aims to reduce soil erosion and alleviate poverty. This paper presents qualitative and quantitative studies conducted on the local implementation of RFFP in three diverse townships in Sichuan. We find the actual results to be more mixed than the official figures would indicate. Though there have been some positive results, we identify problems with site and species selection, compensation for land taken out of cultivation, shift of labor to off-farm activities, and monitoring of replanted sites, which challenge the ecological and economic impacts of these programs and reveal much of the effort of the program has been misdirected. We suggest that efforts are misplaced because of the top-down, panacea nature of the program, which in turn is a feature of Chinese bureaucratic management.

  19. Mycorrhizal specificity, preference, and plasticity of six slipper orchids from South Western China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Yuan; Zhu L. Yang; Shu-Yun Li; Hong Hu; Jia-Lin Huang

    2010-01-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi of six endangered species, Paphiopedilum micranthum, Paphiopedilum armeniacum, Paphiopedilum dianthum, Cypripedium flavum, Cypripedium guttatum, and Cypripedium tibeticum, from two closely related genera in the Orchidaceae from Southwestern China, were characterized using the nuclear internal\\u000a transcribed spacer (ITS) and part of the large subunit gene of mitochondrial rDNA (mtLSU) sequences. The most frequently detected\\u000a fungi belonged to the Tulasnellaceae.

  20. Proterozoic blueschist belt in western China: Best documented Precambrian blueschists in the world

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Liou; S. A. Graham; S. Maruyama; X. Wang; X. Xiao; A. R. Carroll; J. Chu; Y. Feng; M. S. Hendrix; Y. H. Liang; C. L. McKnight; Y. Tang; Z. X. Wang; M. Zhao; B. Zhu

    1989-01-01

    A coherent blueschist terrane near Aksu, northwestern China, is unconformably overlain by unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks of Sinian age (ca. 600-800 Ma). The pre-Sinian metamorphic rocks, termed the Aksu Group, have maintained stratal continuity and were derived from shale, sandstone, basaltic volcanic rocks, and minor pelagic sediments. They have undergone multistage deformation and transitional blueschist-greenschist facies metamorphism, and are represented by

  1. Molecular, ethno-spatial epidemiology of leprosy in China: novel insights for tracing leprosy in endemic and non endemic provinces.

    PubMed

    Weng, Xiaoman; Xing, Yan; Liu, Jian; Wang, Yonghong; Ning, Yong; Li, Ming; Wu, Wenbin; Zhang, Lianhua; Li, Wei; Vander Heiden, Jason; Vissa, Varalakshmi

    2013-03-01

    Leprosy continues to be detected at near stable rates in China even with established control programs, necessitating new knowledge and alternative methods to interrupt transmission. A molecular epidemiology investigation of 190 patients was undertaken to define Mycobacterium leprae strain types and discern genetic relationships and clusters in endemic and non-endemic regions spanning seventeen provinces and two autonomous regions. The findings support multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis as a useful tool in uncovering characteristic patterns across the multiethnic and divergent geographic landscape of China. Several scenarios of clustering of leprosy from township to provincial to regional levels were recognized, while recent occupational or remote migration showed geographical separation of certain strains. First, prior studies indicated that of the four major M. leprae subtypes defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), only type 3 was present in China, purportedly entering from Europe/West/Central Asia via the Silk Road. However, this study revealed VNTR linked strains that are of type 1 in Guangdong, Fujian and Guangxi in southern China. Second, a subset of VNTR distinguishable strains of type 3, co-exist in these provinces. Third, type 3 strains with rpoT VNTR allele of 4, detected in Japan and Korea were discovered in Jiangsu and Anhui in the east and in western Sichuan bordering Tibet. Fourth, considering the overall genetic diversity, strains of endemic counties of Qiubei, Yunnan; Xing Yi, Guizhou; and across Sichuan in southwest were related. However, closer inspection showed distinct local strains and clusters. Altogether, these insights, primarily derived from VNTR typing, reveal multiple and overlooked paths for spread of leprosy into, within and out of China and invoke attention to historic maritime routes in the South and East China Sea. More importantly, new concepts and approaches for prospective case finding and tracking of leprosy from county to national level have been introduced. PMID:23291419

  2. China's fuel gas sector: History, current status, and future prospects Chi-Jen Yang a,c,*, Yipei Zhou b

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Robert B.

    China's fuel gas sector: History, current status, and future prospects Chi-Jen Yang a,c,*, Yipei Sichuan University, Chengdu, China c Nicholas School of the Environment, Box 90338, Duke University petroleum gas China a b s t r a c t China has a unique urban pipeline network of three types of fuel gases

  3. New male pelecinid wasps (Hymenoptera: Pelecinidae) from the Yixian Formation of western Liaoning (China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Hua; Shih, Chungkun; Ren, Dong; Liu, Chenxi

    2010-12-01

    Two new genera and species Abropelecinus annulatus gen. et sp. nov. and Azygopelecinus clavatus gen. et sp. nov., placed in the subfamily Iscopininae of the family Pelecinidae, are described and illustrated. Sinopecinus viriosus Zhang, Rasnitsyn & Zhang, 2002 are re-described. All these male specimens were collected from the Yixian Formation of Beipiao City, Liaoning Province, northeastern China. A key to the male species of the subfamily Iscopininae is given. In addition, sexual dimorphism in Pelecinidae and the paleoclimate of the Yixian Formation are briefly discussed.

  4. Reconstructing upper water structure of western South China Sea in MIS 3 using planktonic foraminifera Mg/Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, J.; Huang, B.; Niu, Y.; Chen, M.

    2010-12-01

    In the last decade, climate scientists have realized that tropical-subtropical monsoon system is one of the most important elements of Global climate system. East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM), with its significant impacts on the climate and economics of the most populous region on earth, keeps enticing climate scientist into great interests. Further, the changes of EASM in a highly fluctuating Global climate ambient (Marin Isotope Stage 3, MIS 3) is of special attention as such climate condition is expected if Global Warming continues. In this study, we analyzed the ratio of magnesium to calcium (Mg/Ca) and ?18O in shells of planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber (white s.s.) sampled from Core 17954. This core was retrieved from western South China Sea (SCS) where EASM dominates during summer and generates upwelling in modern days. By pairing Mg/Ca-Paleothermometer and ?18O proxy of planktonic foraminiferal shells, paleo- sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) of western SCS during MIS 3 was reconstructed, which would help us tracking the evolution of EASM in this period. In addition, our results are compared with other data, mainly thermocline and primary productivity data from previous studies on these samples. We find, in MIS 3, strong millennium fluctuations characterize ?18O record of foraminiferal shells as it does to Greenland Ice Core and Hulu Cave stalagmite. This probably implies a tele-connection of global climate or a combination of strong influences from Northern Hemisphere High Latitude climate and tropical-subtropical monsoon system (represented by Hulu Cave stalagmite) on western SCS. Besides, in MIS 3, five distinct relative shallow periods of thermocline (referred as S1~S5) are identified. In S1~S4, SST of western SCS was lower and primary productivity was higher, suggesting an enhanced upwelling and strengthened EASM during these periods. On the other hand, SSS was also lower in S1~S4, which can be easily understood only by assuming an increasing precipitation or fresh water input in this oceanic region during these periods; this also favor our conclusion of a strengthened EASM in S1~S4.

  5. China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    China has the longest continuous civilization in the world--about 4000 years. Another reason to study China is its sheer size in both area and population. This text gives students the opportunity to explore those aspects of Chinese life which have changed in recent years. The extensive history and religion sections allow these changes to be seen…

  6. Petrogenesis of the early Paleozoic strongly peraluminous granites in the Western South China Block and its tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Touping; Fan, Weiming; Zhao, Guochun; Peng, Bingxia; Xia, Xiaoping; Mao, Yongsheng

    2015-02-01

    Strongly peraluminous (SP) granites have A/CNK (molecular Al2O3/(CaO+Na2O+K2O)) ratios >1.1, indicating a predominant origin from the partial melting of metasedimentary rocks. However, an increasing number of studies have documented that mantle-derived magmas can also be involved in the petrogenesis of some SP granites. This is the case in the Dulong batholith in the southeastern Yunnan province, southwestern South China Block, which is typically composed of SP granitic rocks with high A/CNK values (>1.1). Zircon U-Pb dating of four samples from this batholith yielded consistent crystallization ages of ca. 430 Ma, synchronous with the widespread late-orogenic magmatism (including S- and I-type granites and mafic igneous rocks) in the Wuyi-Yunkai orogen, South China Block (SCB). All the granites have fractionated REE patterns ((La/Yb)N = 1.28-12.3) and conspicuous negative Eu anomalies (Eu?/Eu = 0.07-0.43) with a similar depletion in HFSE (Nb, Zr, Hf), P, Ba and Sr, suggesting that these granitic magmas had a dominantly crustal source, likely the Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks (i.e., the Danzhou or Banxi groups) that are dominated by pelitic rocks with minor interlayered siltstones in the western Yangtze Block. However, their zircon Hf isotopic results also reveal an important input of the mantle-derived melts into their parental magma. Taken together, their geochemical and isotopic compositions reflect a derivation by magma mixing between the crust- and mantle-derived (?10% in volume) magmas. Their chemical variations resulted from the fractionation process during the emplacement from the magma chamber after magmatic mixing. In conjunction with regional data within the SCB, it is most likely that the magmatism younger than 435 Ma was generated in a post-collisional extensional regime related to the partial delamination of an overthickened lithospheric mantle root without lower crust.

  7. Grade agricultural soil loss amount by integrating GIS technology and USLE in upstream of Yangtze River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Shi-bo; Yang, Wu-nian; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2005-09-01

    The Chinese government established the Natural Forest Conservation Program(NFCP) in 1998. As nationwide engineering, one of the most important tasks of NFCP was to mandatory conversion of marginal farmlands to forestland or grassland(reforestation or afforestation in farmlands) where topographical slope steepness was more than 25. In order to quantitatively study the grade of agriculture soil loss amount and soil erosion volume spatio-temporal variation, as well as to guide the process of the conversion of farmlands to forest in upstream of Yangtze Rivers, western of Sichuan province in China. The research analyzed how to calculate K, S, L, C and P factors of Universal Soil Loss Equation(USLE) on the base of considering terrain, climate and characters of agricultural soil. The methods can adapt to the variation terrain of the dry valley region in western Sichuan province. As believed the reforestation was a long-term engineering, we thought the planning of reforest farmlands is a temporal decision, which should be considered that where should be afforested at once and where should afforested in abeyance on the basis of grading soil loss amount and the others conditions of reforesting farmland. Grading agricultural soil loss amount would be beneficial to program a feasible plan in the conversation of farmlands to forest.

  8. Association between dietary protein intake and the risk of hypertension: a cross-sectional study from rural western China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruru; Dang, Shaonong; Yan, Hong; Wang, Duolao; Zhao, Yaling; Li, Qiang; Liu, Xiaoning

    2013-11-01

    Evidence for an association between dietary proteins and the risk of hypertension in rural Chinese adults, whose diets are protein-poor and unbalanced, is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary proteins on hypertension among adults of rural western China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hanzhong, China, and 2241 residents were included in the analysis. Logistic regression models were used to examine whether dietary proteins (total, plant and animal protein) were independently correlated with hypertension. The total protein intake was inadequate (51.7 g per day for male and 40.1 g per day for female), accounting for 56-71% of the Chinese recommended nutrient intakes or adequate intakes. Nearly 80% of protein intake derived from plants, especially grains, and the proportion derived from plants was higher in females than in males. The daily animal protein intake was 12.1 g for males and 8.3 g for females. For females, no significant association was found between hypertension and total protein or plant protein intake. However, animal protein intake was significantly and negatively associated with the risk of hypertension after controlling for demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, body mass index and other dietary nutrients. In addition, the odds ratio for the upper quartile compared with the bottom quartile was 0.64 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.43-0.95, P for trend <0.05). Furthermore, a significant decrease of 1.082 mm Hg (95%CI: 0.189-1.975) in systolic blood pressure and 0.668 mm Hg (95%CI: 0.105-1.232) in diastolic blood pressure was observed per s.d. increase of animal protein intake in females. For males, we did not observe a significant association between dietary proteins and hypertension or blood pressure. In conclusion, for the western rural Chinese population, especially women, whose dietary protein intake is low and largely derived from plants, the intake of animal protein may be related to a decreased risk of hypertension. PMID:23842622

  9. China develops natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    As of 1981, more than 60 natural gas fields with a total annual output of 12.74 billion cu m have been discovered in China, placing the country among the top 12 gas producers in the world. In addition, there are prospects for natural gas in the Bohai-North China Basin and the Qaidam Basin, NW. China, providing a base for further expansion of the gas industry. Gas reservoirs have been found in 9 different geologic ages: Sinian, Cambrian, Ordovician, Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Tertiary, and Quaternary. Of the 60 gas field now being exploited, there are more than 40 fields in Sichuan. The Sichuan Basin gas industry is described in detail.

  10. Permian fusulinid biostratigraphy of the Baoshan Block in western Yunnan, China with constraints on paleogeography and paleoclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hao; Shi, Yukun; Jin, Xiaochi

    2015-05-01

    Newly obtained fossil materials together with published data enable a review on the Permian fusulinids of the Gondwana-derived Baoshan Block in western Yunnan, China. The Baoshan Block yields rather impoverish Sakmarian-Yakhtashian fusulinids with just Eoparafusulina and Pseudofusulina in its northern and southern parts. These fusulinids biogeographically demonstrate the feature of peri-Gondwana province and signify a temperate-water condition. Further comparison suggests the Baoshan Block was located distant from the tropical region and even with higher latitude than Central Iran and Central Pamir during the Sakmarian-Yakhtashian. In contrast, Murgabian-Midian fusulinids are more diversified. In the southern Baoshan Block, the Schwagerina assemblage, the Eopolydiexodina assemblage, the Sumatrina assemblage and the Verbeekina assemblage could be recognized in the Xiaoxinzhai area, and the Yangchienia-Nankinella assemblage and the Chusenella-Rugosofusulina assemblage in the Bawei area, in ascending order. Contemporaneously, the Neofusulinella assemblage occurs in the northern and the Eopolydiexodina assemblage in the southwestern Baoshan Block respectively. These Murgabian-Midian fusulinids show affinity of western Tethyan province and suggest a warm-water environment. Interestingly, the Midian Verbeekina assemblage is characterized by relatively low diversity and rather abundance of just one genus. Such compositional feature most likely signifies warm but still not optimal sea-surface water for the diversification of fusulinids. Also taking into account of the presence of Verbeekinids and Neoschwagerinids and the moderate total diversity, the Middle Permian fusulinids indicate that the Baoshan Block, during the Murgabian-Midian, was probably located between equatorial region with warm water to the north and the majority of Sibumasu areas lacking Verbeekinids and Neoschwagerinids with temperate water to the south.

  11. China.

    PubMed

    1983-12-01

    This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary school. China's goal is to provide universal elementary school education by 1990. Since 1978 the premise of China's economic policy has been that consumer welfare, economic productivity, and political stability are indivisible. Emphasis has been placed on raising personal income and consumption and on introducing new productivity incentive and management systems. Since early 1982 China has placed increasing importance on building closer ties with the 3rd world. China's armed forces total about 4.2 million. In February 1981 the Reagan Administration reaffirmed the US commitment to respect the principles of the 1979 Communique on the Establishment of Diplomatic relations. PMID:12178089

  12. Urban Fault Lines in Shangri-La: Population and economic foundations of interethnic conflict in the Tibetan areas of Western China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Martin Fischer; DESTIN LSE

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues that contemporary experiences of social exclusion and interethnic conflict\\u000ain the Tibetan areas of Western China are interrelated and revolve around three processes –\\u000apopulation, growth and employment – all of which centre on the urban areas. In this setting,\\u000athe critical factors generating ex clusion and fuelling conflict are the differentials between\\u000agroups, such as urbanisation

  13. Petrogenesis and geodynamic implications of the Gejiu igneous complex in the western Cathaysia block, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yanbo; Mao, Jingwen; Spandler, Carl

    2013-08-01

    The Gejiu tin district in western Cathaysia block comprises a series of igneous rocks including equigranular and porphyritic granites, gabbro and nepheline syenite. Systematic SHRIMP or LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb analyses of 15 representative samples from various phases of the Gejiu complex yielded Late Cretaceous ages of 78-85 Ma. Based on their mineralogical, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope characteristics, these rocks are categorized into three groups: felsic rocks, alkaline rocks and mafic rocks. The felsic rock group includes the equigranular and porphyritic granites. Geochemical characteristics include high SiO2 contents, enrichment in Rb, Th, U, Nb, Ta, Nd and Hf and depletion in Ba, K, Sr, P, Eu and Ti compared to primitive mantle. REE patterns feature slight LREE enrichment with pronounced negative Eu anomalies. Geochemical data and Sr-, Nd- and Hf-isotopic compositions indicate that the felsic rocks were probably generated by partial melting of crustal source rocks with a minor input from mantle materials. The mafic rocks (gabbro and mafic microgranular enclaves) have distinct geochemical and isotopic features consistent with derivation from an enriched mantle source, with variable degrees of mixing with crustal-derived magmas. Strontium-, Nd- and Hf-isotopic compositions of the alkaline rocks are similar with those of the mafic rocks, suggesting that they have a similar source. Nevertheless, petrological and geochemical characteristics of these rocks indicate that they experienced extensive crystal fractionation and limited crustal contamination. Based on the emplacement of the gabbro-mafic microgranular enclaves-syenite-granites in the Gejiu district, together with contemporaneous geological events in other parts of the western Cathaysia block, we suggest that a widespread extension-related magmatic episode affected the entire region in the late Cretaceous, possibly as a result of lithospheric thinning, basaltic underplating and associated crustal melting.

  14. [Environmental concerns on geochemical mobility of lead, zinc and cadmium from zinc smelting areas: western Guizhou, China].

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Jie; Xiao, Tang-Fu; Zhou, Wan-Chun; Ao, Zi-Qiang; Zhang, Jun-Fang

    2009-07-15

    Indigenous zinc smelting activity, widely spread in western Guizhou, China, had caused serious pollution of heavy metals of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in soil and water and posed risk to the local ecosystem. Geochemical distribution and mobility of Pb, Zn and Cd in soil, waste residue and waters were investigated in a small watershed in order to provide scientific base for the approach to pollution control and remediation. Concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cd in smelting residues averaged at 4 632 mg/kg, 8 968 mg/kg, and 58 mg/kg, respectively; whereas Pb 234 mg/kg, Zn 400 mg/kg and Cd 9.6 mg/kg in average in the soils around the smelting areas were measured. The sequential geochemical extraction test showed that Pb, Zn and Cd in the contaminated soils had high mobility and bioavailability for the metals, whereas smelting waste residues had lower mobility and bioavailability because their concentrations presented small percentages (all less than 0.2%) in the exchangeable fraction. Concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cd were high in the local stream water but low in groundwater. In the surface water, Pb, Zn and Cd were significantly concentrated in the suspended sediment. The results indicated that metal-rich erosion process of smelting residue and contaminated soil contributed to mobility of the metals into stream water. PMID:19775009

  15. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in pre-weaned calves in Shaanxi Province, north-western China.

    PubMed

    Qi, M Z; Fang, Y Q; Wang, X T; Zhang, L X; Wang, R J; Du, S Z; Guo, Y X; Jia, Y Q; Yao, L; Liu, Q D; Zhao, G H

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium, a worldwide protozoan parasite, is one of the most common causes of diarrhoea in humans and animals. The aim of the present study was to determine Cryptosporidium species/genotypes in pre-weaned calves in Shaanxi Province using PCR and sequencing based on the small subunit rRNA gene. A total of 258 faecal samples were collected from pre-weaned calves in 19 different farms from six areas in Shaanxi Province, north-western China. Cryptosporidium infection was detected in 14 of 19 farms (73.7?%), with a total prevalence of 20.2?% (52/258). Both dairy and Qinchuan (beef) cattle were found with Cryptosporidium infection. Three Cryptosporidium species, namely Cryptosporidium bovis (n?=?26), Cryptosporidium andersoni (n?=?14) and Cryptosporidium ryanae (n?=?12), were detected in pre-weaned calves in Shaanxi Province, with C. bovis (in 12 farms) identified as the most common species on cattle farms. Two additional and previously unknown C. ryanae genotypes, CRTypes III and IV, were observed in the present study. However, the zoonotic species, Cryptosporidium parvum, was not detected in this study, which suggested a low zoonotic potential in Cryptosporidium-infected pre-weaned calves in this province. PMID:25385243

  16. Rural household income and inequality under the Sloping Land Conversion Program in western China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Feldman, Marcus W.; Li, Shuzhuo; Daily, Gretchen C.

    2011-01-01

    As payment for ecosystem services (PES) programs proliferate globally, assessing their impact upon households’ income and livelihood patterns is critical. The Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) is an exceptional PES program, in terms of its ambitious biophysical and socioeconomic objectives, large geographic scale, numbers of people directly affected, and duration of operation. The SLCP has now operated in the poor mountainous areas in China for 10 y and offers a unique opportunity for policy evaluation. Using survey data on rural households’ livelihoods in the southern mountain area in Zhouzhi County, Shaanxi Province, we carry out a statistical analysis of the effects of PES and other factors on rural household income. We analyze the extent of income inequality and compare the socio-demographic features and household income of households participating in the SLCP with those that did not. Our statistical analysis shows that participation in SLCP has significant positive impacts upon household income, especially for low- and medium-income households; however, participation also has some negative impacts on the low- and medium-income households. Overall, income inequality is less among households participating in the SLCP than among those that do not after 7 y of the PES program. Different income sources have different effects on Gini statistics; in particular, wage income has opposite effects on income inequality for the participating and nonparticipating households. We find, however, that the SLCP has not increased the transfer of labor toward nonfarming activities in the survey site, as the government expected. PMID:21518856

  17. Paragneiss zircon geochronology and trace element geochemistry, North Qaidam HP/UHP terrane, western China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattinson, C.G.; Wooden, J.L.; Zhang, J.X.; Bird, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    In the southeastern part of the North Qaidam terrane, near Dulan, paragneiss hosts minor peridotite and UHP eclogite. Zircon geochronology and trace element geochemistry of three paragneiss samples (located within a ???3 km transect) indicates that eclogite-facies metamorphism resulted in variable degrees of zircon growth and recrystallization in the three samples. Inherited zircon core age groups at 1.8 and 2.5 Ga suggest that the protoliths of these rocks may have received sediments from the Yangtze or North China cratons. Mineral inclusions, depletion in HREE, and absence of negative Eu anomalies indicate that zircon U-Pb ages of 431 ?? 5 Ma and 426 ?? 4 Ma reflect eclogite-facies zircon growth in two of the samples. Ti-in-zircon thermometry results are tightly grouped at ???660 and ???600 ??C, respectively. Inclusions of metamorphic minerals, scarcity of inherited cores, and lack of isotopic or trace element inheritance demonstrate that significant new metamorphic zircon growth must have occurred. In contrast, zircon in the third sample is dominated by inherited grains, and rims show isotopic and trace element inheritance, suggesting solid-state recrystallization of detrital zircon with only minor new growth. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Teaching in China: An Outside Look In

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebans, Tanya; Radigan, Margie

    2007-01-01

    As part of a Canadian International Development Agency funded project working with rural teachers in central China, recent graduates Lebans and Radigan spent a month teaching in Chinese schools. The primary purpose of the project is to work with members of the Sichuan Provincial Teacher Training Centre and rural teachers from Wenchuan County…

  19. Assessment of trans fatty acids content in popular Western-style products in China.

    PubMed

    Fu, H; Yang, L; Yuan, H; Rao, P; Lo, Y M

    2008-10-01

    To date, the published information on trans fatty acids (TFAs) in food products in China remains scarce and of questionable accuracy. Systematic approaches to educate the consumers and to ensure proper labeling of TFAs are among the many urgent challenges the regulatory agencies in this rapidly growing country have to face. In the present study, 97 most popular, national brand food products on the Chinese market, including 6 cheeses, 10 chocolates, 10 crisps, chips, and fries, 10 ice creams, 15 margarines, 10 pies and cakes, 8 sauces and dressings, 19 wafers and biscuits, and 9 Chinese-style snacks, were assayed to profile their fat content and fatty acid composition, particularly the TFAs. The highest level of TFAs, up to 30.9% of total fatty acids, were found in pies. The average TFAs contents in different product categories, ranging from high to low, were: pie and cake (12.07%), cheese (6.95%), margarine (5.09%), wafer and biscuit (4.35%), ice cream (2.67%), sauce and dressing (2.65%), crisps, chips, and fries (2.15%), chocolate (1.44%), and Chinese-style snacks (0.83%). One hundred percent of cheese contained TFAs, so did pie and cake, followed by crisps, chips, and fries (90%), sauce and dressing (88%), ice cream and margarine (80%), chocolate (60%), wafer and biscuit (53%), then Chinese-style snacks (33%). Profiling of key TFAs constituents could yield information characteristic to the types of partially hydrogenated oils employed, which is a critical step towards product reformulation in order to reduce or eliminate TFAs in the products. PMID:19019125

  20. Black carbon aerosol characterization in a remote area of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, western China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiyuan; Schwarz, J P; Cao, Junji; Gao, Rushan; Fahey, D W; Hu, Tafeng; Huang, R-J; Han, Yongming; Shen, Zhenxing

    2014-05-01

    The concentrations, size distributions, and mixing states of refractory black carbon (rBC) aerosols were measured with a ground-based Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), and aerosol absorption was measured with an Aethalometer at Qinghai Lake (QHL), a rural area in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau of China in October 2011. The area was not pristine, with an average rBC mass concentration of 0.36 ?g STP-m(-3) during the two-week campaign period. The rBC concentration peaked at night and reached the minimal in the afternoon. This diurnal cycle of concentration is negatively correlated with the mixed layer depth and ventilation. When air masses from the west of QHL were sampled in late afternoon to early evening, the average rBC concentration of 0.21 ?g STP-m(-3) was observed, representing the rBC level in a larger Tibetan Plateau region because of the highest mixed layer depth. A lognormal primary mode with mass median diameter (MMD) of ~175 nm, and a small secondary lognormal mode with MMD of 470-500 nm of rBC were observed. Relative reduction in the secondary mode during a snow event supports recent work that suggested size dependent removal of rBC by precipitation. About 50% of the observed rBC cores were identified as thickly coated by non-BC material. A comparison of the Aethalometer and SP2 measurements suggests that non-BC species significantly affect the Aethalometer measurements in this region. A scaling factor for the Aethalometer data at a wavelength of 880 nm is therefore calculated based on the measurements, which may be used to correct other Aethalometer datasets collected in this region for a more accurate estimate of the rBC loading. The results present here significantly improve our understanding of the characteristics of rBC aerosol in the less studied Tibetan Plateau region and further highlight the size dependent removal of BC via precipitation. PMID:24561294

  1. Study on distribution characteristics of strong earthquakes in Sichuan-Yunnan area and their geological tectonic background

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Bin Han; Guo-Fang Jiang

    2004-01-01

    In the paper, the distribution characteristics of strong earthquakes in Sichuan-Yunnan area and their geological tectonic\\u000a background, especially the relation to Sichuan-Yunnan and Sichuan-Qinghai crustal blocks have been studied. The main results\\u000a are: a) Strong earthquakes in Sichuan-Yunnan area distribute mainly in Sichuan-Yunnan and Sichuan-Qinghai crustal blocks;\\u000a b) Most of strong earthquakes of the two blocks distribute mainly along their

  2. Socio-hydrologic Perspectives of the Co-evolution of Humans and Water in the Tarim River Basin, Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ye; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Heping; Liu, Dengfeng; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2013-04-01

    Socio-hydrology studies the co-evolution of coupled human-water systems, which is of great importance for long-term sustainable water resource management in basins suffering from serious eco-environmental degradation. Process socio-hydrology can benefit from the exploring the patterns of historical co-evolution of coupled human-water systems as a way to discovering the organizing principles that may underpin their co-evolution. As a self-organized entity, the human-water system in a river basin would evolve into certain steady states over a sufficiently long time but then could also experience sudden shifts due to internal or external disturbances that exceed system thresholds. In this study, we discuss three steady states (also called stages in the social sciences, including natural, human exploitation and recovery stages) and transitions between these during the past 1500 years in the Tarim River Basin of Western China, which a rich history of civilization including its place in the famous Silk Road that connected China to Europe. Specifically, during the natural stage with a sound environment that existed before the 19th century, shifts in the ecohydrological regime were mainly caused by environmental changes such river channel migration and climate change. During the human exploitation stages in the 5th and again in the 19th-20th centuries, however, humans gradually became the main drivers for system evolution, during which the basin experienced rapid population growth, fast socio-economic development and intense human activities. By the 1970s, after 200 years of colonization, the Tarim River Basin evolved into a new regime with vulnerable ecosystem and water system, and suffered from serious water shortages and desertification. Human society then began to take a critical look into the effects of their activities and reappraise the impact of human development on the ecohydrological system, which eventually led the basin into a treatment and recovery stage. Since then, the basin has shown a reverse trend of regime shift towards healing of the environmental damage that was inflicted in the previous stage of human development. In this paper we analyze the recasting effect of human activities on the water system and provide explanations on how human activities influence the co-evolution of human-water system from a broader perspective.

  3. Comparison of Conventional, Trace Element, and Pseudosection Thermobarometry in UHP Eclogite, North Qaidam Terrane, Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattinson, C. G.; Regel, M. E.; Zhang, J.

    2014-12-01

    In the southeastern North Qaidam terrane, near Dulan, felsic host gneisses enclose minor eclogite lenses. A small (~3°C/km) increase in temperatures to the west based on Zr-in-Rt thermometry is supported by a textural trend of zoned garnet with prograde mineral inclusions in the west to unzoned garnet with only peak-stage inclusions in the east. A western eclogite sample contains minor Ep and trace Phe in addition to Grt-Omp-Qtz-Rt; a strong foliation is defined by banding of Grt and Omp. Garnet Ca falls significantly from core (Alm44Prp23Grs32) to rim (Alm48Prp27Grs23). Phengite contains 3.34-3.36 Si pfu. Conventional Grt-Omp-Phe thermobarometry yields 23-27 kbar, 660-730°C, and Zr-in-Rt thermometry yields 671 ± 9°C (n = 37). An isochemical phase diagram (pseudosection) for the system NCKFMASHO calculated with PerpleX indicates that garnet Xgrs decreases with increasing P and T, suggesting that observed garnet zoning reflects prograde growth. Garnet rim compositional isopleths intersect at 23-27 kbar, 580-620°C, depending on choice of effective bulk composition and assumed Fe3+/Fetotal. Garnet rims help define the foliation, suggesting that these P-T conditions apply to this deformation. An eastern eclogite sample contains minor Ep and abundant, coarse-grained Phe in addition to Grt-Omp-Qtz-Rt; foliation is weak. Garnet zoning is weak; compositions are Alm41-43Prp26-28Grs29-32. Phengite cores contain 3.48-3.56 Si pfu. Conventional Grt-Omp-Phe thermobarometry yields 32-36 kbar, 700-750°C, and Zr-in-Rt thermometry yields 691 ± 12°C (n = 34). Conventional thermobarometry and pseudosections yield similar peak P-T conditions, but from different mineral compositions: thermobarometry yields peak P from high-Ca Grt, but the pseudosection yields peak P from intermediate-Ca Grt; maximum Ca in Grt is predicted at lower P and T. Pseudosection-based peak Ts are significantly lower than those from Zr-in-Rt and conventional thermometry. Wide isopleth spacing in the observed assemblage field makes isopleth positions very sensitive to the bulk composition; Zr-in-Rt results are therefore regarded as the best estimate of peak conditions, but isopleth patterns provide valuable constraints on possible P-T paths.

  4. Climate and environmental changes during the past millennium in central western Guizhou, China as recorded by Stalagmite ZJD-21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Tz-Shing; Liu, Zi-Qi; Li, Hong-Chun; Wan, Nai-Jung; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Ku, Teh-Lung

    2011-04-01

    Stalagmite ZJD-21 (12.3-cm long) was collected from Zhijin Cave in Zhijin County, Guizhou, China. Its 210Pb profile and seven 230Th/ 234U dates indicate that the stalagmite has grown continuously for the past 1100 years. The ?18O record of ZJD-21 indicates that ?18O in the stalagmite was mainly influenced by rainfall amount and/or summer/winter rain ratio, with lighter values corresponding to wetter climatic conditions and/or more summer monsoonal rains. The ZJD-21 ?18O record suggests: (1) dry/warm climates during AD 950-1100 (overlapping with most of the Medieval Warm Period, MWP, in Europe); (2) strengthening of the summer monsoon from the MWP toward the beginning of the Little Ice Age (LIA) at AD 1250; (3) relatively wet/cold conditions occurred between AD 1250 and 1500, shown by relatively light ?18O values; (4) the summer monsoon intensity strongly declined referred by the increase ?18O trend from AD 1500 to AD 1600, perhaps resulting in dry/cold conditions; and (5) a strongly enhancement of the summer monsoon intensity appeared from AD 1700 to 1950, reflecting wet/cold conditions during the late period of the LIA. On decadal scales the monsoonal climate of central western Guizhou can be either warm/wet and cold/dry, or warm/dry and cold/wet. The ?13C variations in ZJD-21 on decadal-to-centennial scales respond mainly to vegetation changes with heavier values reflecting lesser amount of forest coverage. Prior to AD 1700, the ?13C generally co-varied with ?18O reflecting the expected more extensive vegetation growth (lighter ?13C) under wetter climate (lighter ?18O). However, during the past 300 years the ?13C increased sharply showing an opposite trend to that of ?18O. This observation strongly suggests that a decline of surface vegetation due to an artificial deforestation might have occurred - an occurrence coincident with the large-scale immigration into central western Guizhou in connection with copper-mining activities during the reign of Emperor Yongzheng of Qing Dynasty. Since the late 1890s, especially in the past 50 years, population surge has led to serious karst rocky desertification in the area.

  5. Crustal flow in western Yunnan, China, and along the Mogok belt, Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonntag, Benita-Lisette; Min, Myo; Enkelmann, Eva; Kornfeld, Daniela; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Pfänder, Jörg; Jonckheere, Raymond; Dunkl, István

    2013-04-01

    The mode of deformation along the eastern boundary of the northward moving Indian block during the Cenozoic is still controversial. Models considered are: (i) southward lateral extrusion of a single crustal block bounded by the right lateral Sagaing fault in Myanmar and the left-lateral Aialo-Shan shear zone (ASSZ) in Yunnan; (ii) southward lateral extrusion of at least two different crustal blocks between the right-lateral S(W)-striking Gaoligong Shan shear zone (GSSZ), the NW-trending Chong Shan shear zone (CSSZ), and the ASSZ. We present a radically different new model: the GSSZ and CSSZ constitute a folded sub-horizontal detachment separating the brittle upper crust from the middle-lower crust represented by the Mogok igneous and metamorphic belt. The kinematics of flow along the detachment was dominantly top-to-S. Folding of the detachment was coeval with and followed top-to-S flow. In the brittle crust, ~E-W shortening is expressed by a fold-thrust belt, and in the ductile crust by L>S tectonites. The deformation pattern is preliminary interpreted as reflecting gravitationally driven flow of upper crustal material from Tibet towards SE-Asia, reminiscent to what is observed by GPS geodesy today. New Mogok-belt granitoid U-Pb zircon dates span the Early to Late Cretaceous (peaks at ~125; 115; 90, and 65 Ma) and tie the Mogok belt to the Gangdese arc of the Lhasa block. New Tertiary magmatic and metamorphic U-Pb zircon dates are 40-30 Ma, similar to magmatism observed across SE-Asia and similar to the monazite age of dikes that we interpret as pre-tectonic along CSSZ [1]. Published and new 40Ar/39Ar dates show that rapid cooling, that we relate to onset of high-strain deformation along the shear zones, started at 20-15 Ma [2, 3]. Fission-track and (U-Th)/He thermochronology indicates that its activity continued at least to 6-3 Ma. References: [1] Akciz, S., Burchfiel, B. C., Crowley, J. L., Jiyun, Y., and Liangzhong, C. (2008): Geometry, kinematics, and regional significance of the Chong Shan shear zone, Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis, Yunnan, China: Geosphere, Febr. 2008, v. 4, p. 292-314. [2] Lin, T.-H., Lo, S.-L., Hsu, F.-J., Yeh, M.-W., Lee, T.-Y., Ji, J.-Q., Wang, Y.-Z., and Liu, D. (2009): 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Jiali and Gaoligong shear zones: Implications for crustal deformation around the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis: Journal of Asian Earth Science, v. 34, p. 674-685. [3] Zhang, B., Zhang, J, Zhong, D., Yang, L., Yue, Y., and Yan, S. (2012): Polystage deformation of the Gaoligong metamorphic zone: Structures, 40Ar/39Ar mica ages, and tectonic implications: Journal of Structural Geology v. 37, p. 1-18.

  6. Boron occurrence in halite and boron isotope geochemistry of halite in the Qarhan Salt Lake, western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, QiShun; Ma, YunQi; Cheng, HuaiDe; Wei, HaiCheng; Yuan, Qin; Qin, ZhanJie; Shan, FaShou

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have investigated boron (B) isotope composition of salt lake brines in the Qaidam Basin, western China. However, the research on B isotope geochemistry of halite from a sediment core in a typical sedimentary basin has been very limited. In this study, a 102-m-long drill core (ISL1A) was recovered from Qarhan Salt Lake in eastern Qaidam Basin. Forty-three halite samples from upper 44.0 m in ISL1A were collected and analyzed for chemical compositions (K+, Na+, Ca2 +, Mg2 +, Cl-, SO42 -, Sr2 + and B3 +) and B isotopes in order to investigate their relationships, and B isotope fractionation between halite and brines in the Qarhan Salt Lake. The results show that: (1) more B3 + and Mg2 + values in halite are low concentrations and more concentrated, and low B3 + concentrations have a strong correlation with low Mg2 + in halite, which imply that they might be the same source; (2) low Mg2 + values in halite from ISL1A have a similar trend with mMg2 + (molarity) of fluid inclusion brines from two sediment cores (east to ISL1A about 50 km) in the study area, suggesting that low B3 + and Mg2 + concentrations should derive from fluid inclusions in halite based on X-ray diffraction results in ISL1A that no borate and small amount of magnesium salts were deposited; (3) ?11B values of halite in ISL1A range from - 0.35 to + 5.84‰, which are in the range of those of river water and brines (- 1.0 to + 9.6‰), and almost overlapped with those of brines (+ 2.9 to + 7.5‰) in the Qarhan Salt Lake. These results suggest that no or minor B isotope fractionation between halite and brine occurred.

  7. Remote sensing, paleoecology, and the archaeology of human migration during the Pleistocene in central Asia and western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glantz, Michelle M.; Todd, Lawrence

    2003-07-01

    Remote sensing used in the context of global information systems has enormous applications within archaeology. This technology enables the discovery of new archaeological features and promotes an understanding of the relationship between ecosystem and cultural dynamics. Archaeologists are able to add a time dimension to 'creeping environmental changes' that other areas of scientific inquiry concerned with climate change often lack. Remote sensing and other aerial prospecting has been used successfully to model land use and population expansions during relatively recent archaeological eras, such as the Bronze and Iron Ages. Although satellite image databases exist for numerous areas of the New and Old World, very little research has been conducted in Central Asia or western China. This region is historically significant because of its position along the important trading route called the Silk Road. The purpose of the present research is to investigate another poorly understood period of human history that would benefit from the application of remote sensing and associated ground truthing techniques. The migration of hominids out of Africa during the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene and their subsequent colonization of north-central, east, and south-east Asia is relatively well documented in the archaeological record and marks the beginning of the long-term process of human impacts on the region. However, the trajectory of dispersal of Homo erectus, Neandertals, and early modern humans and the ways by which ecosystem vagaries affected this dispersal across Eurasia is unknown. Our purpose is to summarize what is currently known about the geological indicators of ecosystem changes that remote sensing techniques provide and how ecosystem variables may allow us to model human migration as that of an invasive species through this important geographic crossroads of the Old World.

  8. Petroleum geology of principal sedimentary basins in eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.Y.

    1986-05-01

    The principal petroliferous basins in eastern China are the Songliao, Ordos, and Sichuan basins of Mesozoic age, and the North China, Jianghan, Nanxiang, and Subei basins of Cenozoic age. These basins contain mostly continental fluvial and lacustrine detrital sediments. Four different geologic ages are responsible for the oil and gas in this region: (1) Mesozoic in the Songliao, Ordos, and Sichuan basins; (2) Tertiary in the North China, Jianghan, Nanxiang, and Subei basins; (3) Permian-Carboniferous in the southern North China basin and the northwestern Ordos basin; and (4) Sinian in the southern Sichuan basin. The most prolific oil and gas sources are the Mesozoic of the Songliao basin and the Tertiary of the North China basin. Although the major source rocks in these basins are lacustrine mudstone and shale, their tectonic settings and the resultant temperature gradients differ. For example, in the Songliao, North China, and associated basins, trapping conditions commonly are associated with block faulting of an extensional tectonic regime; the extensional tectonics in turn contribute to a high geothermal gradient (40/sup 0/-60/sup 0/C/km), which results in early maturation and migration for relatively shallow deposits. However, the Ordos and Sichuan basins formed under compressional conditions and are cooler. Hence, maturation and migration occurred late, relative to reservoir deposition and burial, the result being a poorer quality reservoir.

  9. Comparison of Three Intervention Models for Promoting Circumcision among Migrant Workers in Western China to Reduce Local Sexual Transmission of HIV

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Li; Yang, Xiaobo; Wei, Bo; Deng, Wei; Wei, Suosu; Huang, Jiegang; Qin, Bo; Upur, Halmurat; Zhong, Chaohui; Wang, Qianqiu; Wang, Qian; Ruan, Yuhua; Wei, Fumei; Xu, Na; Xie, Peiyan; Hsi, Jenny H.; Shao, Yiming; Liang, Hao

    2013-01-01

    Objective Three models for promoting male circumcision (MC) as a preventative intervention against HIV infection were compared among migrant worker populations in western China. Methods A cohort study was performed after an initial cross-sectional survey among migrant workers in three provincial level districts with high HIV prevalence in western China. A total of 1,670 HIV seronegative male migrants were cluster-randomized into three intervention models, in which the dissemination of promotional materials and expert- and volunteer-led discussions are conducted in one, two, and three stage interventions. Changes in knowledge of MC, acceptability of MC, MC surgery uptake, and the costs of implementation were analyzed at 6-month and 9-month follow-up visits. Results All three models significantly increased the participants’ knowledge about MC. The three-stage model significantly increased the acceptability of MC among participants and led to greatest increase in MC uptake. At the end of follow-up, 9.2% (153/1,670) of participants underwent MC surgery; uptake among the one-, two-, and three-stage models were 4.9%, 9.3%, and 14.6%, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that three-stage model was the most effective method to scale up MC, with RR = 2.0 (95% CI, 1.3-3.1, P=0.002) compared to the on-site session model. The two-stage intervention model showed no significant difference with either the on-site session model (RR=1.5, 95% CI, 0.92-2.4, P=0.12) or three-stage model (P=0.10). Conclusions A three-stage intervention with gradual introduction of knowledge led to the significantly increase in MC uptake among migrant workers in western China, and was also the most cost-effective method among the three models. PMID:24098770

  10. Cenozoic Climate Evolution of Northeastern Tibet: Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Results From the Qaidam Basin, Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieser, A. B.; Bojar, A.; Neubauer, F.; Genser, J.; Friedl, G.; Liu, Y.; Ge, X.

    2003-12-01

    Carbon and oxygen stable isotope analyses on carbonates from the nonmarine, endorheic Qaidam basin in Western China yield cycles of various length and order and show several distinct events related to regional climate and tectonism. Situated at the northeastern margin of the Tibetan plateau and enclosed by three large mountain belts, the Altyn in the northwest, the Eastern Kunlun in the south and the Qilian mountains in the east, the Qaidam basin provides a unique research area. The basin has an up to 17, in average 8 kilometers thick Cenozoic sedimentary sequence of lacustrine-terrestrial, partly hypersalinar strata. Through most of its lifetime arid, hypersalinar conditions were dominating, interrupted by semiarid periods resulting in a large lake during Miocene. Such changes can be observed in the stable isotope record. About sixty deep water carbonate and marl samples from Eocene to Holocene formations from the northwestern part of the Qaidam basin have been analyzed. There is a general trend towards arid and highly evaporative conditions over Cenozoic time, visible in both ? 13C and ? 18O records. Carbon isotope data of the Hongsanhan section reveal two shorter cycles, which are interpreted as part of a higher-order cycle. This higher-order cycle shows a clear trend towards more arid conditions through time. The oxygen data stay in a narrow range between -8 and -6‰ until late Oligocene, then they start to vary more strongly. Three distinct tectonic events can be detected: A distinct drop in both ? 13C and ? 18O values of 3‰ and 1‰ PDB, respectively at ca. 24 Ma reflects Himalayan uplift. At 19-18 Ma an excursion towards warm and dry conditions coincides with the phase of strongest uplift in the Altyn Mountains. A relatively humid interval appears around 12 Ma simultaneous with pronounced subsidence of the Qaidam basin. The increasing aridity and evaporative conditions in Quaternary are well reflected by the positive delta-values of both carbon and oxygen isotopes. A Quaternary sample yielded an extremely high value of +8.69‰ ? 18O for matrix material. This represents the most positive value ever measured in a sedimentary rock.

  11. Effects of Natural Disasters on Conservation Policies: The Case of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China

    E-print Network

    Earthquake, China Andre´s Vin~a, Xiaodong Chen, William J. McConnell, Wei Liu, Weihua Xu, Zhiyun Ouyang the impacts of a devastating earthquake on forest recovery and avoided forest loss estimated to have been% of the forests in Wenchuan County, Sichuan province, China were imme- diately affected by the 2008 earthquake

  12. New characteristics of intensity assessment of Sichuan Lushan "4.20" M s7.0 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Baitao; Yan, Peilei; Chen, Xiangzhao

    2014-08-01

    The post-earthquake rapid accurate assessment of macro influence of seismic ground motion is of significance for earthquake emergency relief, post-earthquake reconstruction and scientific research. The seismic intensity distribution map released by the Lushan earthquake field team of the China Earthquake Administration (CEA) five days after the strong earthquake ( M7.0) occurred in Lushan County of Sichuan Ya'an City at 8:02 on April 20, 2013 provides a scientific basis for emergency relief, economic loss assessment and post-earthquake reconstruction. In this paper, the means for blind estimation of macroscopic intensity, field estimation of macro intensity, and review of intensity, as well as corresponding problems are discussed in detail, and the intensity distribution characteristics of the Lushan "4.20" M7.0 earthquake and its influential factors are analyzed, providing a reference for future seismic intensity assessments.

  13. Late Archean to Early Proterozoic lithospheric mantle beneath the western North China craton: Sr Nd Os isotopes of peridotite xenoliths from Yangyuan and Fansi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yi-Gang; Blusztajn, J.; Ma, Jin-Long; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Liu, J.-F.; Hart, S. R.

    2008-04-01

    Sr-Nd-Os isotopic analyses are presented for peridotite xenoliths from Tertiary alkali basalts in Yangyuan and Fansi with the aim of identifying and characterizing the relics of ancient lithospheric mantle that survived lithospheric removal in the western North China Craton (NCC). The analyzed samples are residual lherzolites and harzburgites, ranging from fertile to highly depleted (0.36-4.0 wt% Al 2O 3) composition. Some LREE-enriched samples are characterized by moderate 87Sr/ 86Sr (0.7044 to 0.7047) and low ?Nd (- 6.9 to - 10.6), pointing to an EMI-type signature. This is distinct from the predominant depleted isotopic composition in mantle xenoliths from eastern China. Os isotopic ratios range from 0.1106 to 0.1325. The lower limit is the most unradiogenic value measured so far for Cenozoic basalt-borne xenoliths from eastern China. Two samples show radiogenic Os ratios higher than that of the primitive upper mantle, one sample has an anomalously high Os concentration (> 9 ppb). These samples also show high La/Yb, consistent with the addition of radiogenic components during the infiltration of asthenosphere-derived and/or subduction-related melts in the lithospheric mantle. The remaining samples define positive correlations between 187Os/ 188Os and indices of melt extraction, which yield a model age of ˜ 2.6 Ga. This age of melt extraction overlaps with the Nd model age of the overlying crust, indicating a coupled crust-mantle system in the western NCC. This contrasts with the decoupled nature in the eastern NCC, suggesting distinct mantle domains underneath the NCC. Such a heterogeneous age structure of the upper mantle is compatible with the view that the lithospheric removal was largely limited to the eastern NCC.

  14. First quantification of severe wind erosion in yardang fields using cosmogenic 10Be within the western Qaidam Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrmann, A.; Heermance, R.; Kapp, P. A.; Mc-Callister, A.

    2010-12-01

    Desert environments are a major source of global loess and may undergo substantial wind-erosion as evidenced by yardangs, which are streamlined bedrock ridges sculpted from uni-directional winds. However, there are few quantitative estimates of wind erosion rates in deflationary deserts, globally. Here, we report the first quantitative rates of bedrock wind erosion determined using cosmogenic 10Be in the western Qaidam basin, China, where roughly one-third of the modern basin floor (~3.88 × 104 km2) exposes yardangs. Eleven Neogene bedrock sandstone samples and one pre-Cenozoic granite sample were analyzed for 10Be concentrations. The Neogene samples were collected from crests and limbs of broad and actively growing anticlines, where in most places strata have been wind-sculpted into yardangs. Sedimentary bedrock erosion rates vary from 0.04-0.34 mm/yr, although 60 percent (n=7) of all samples cluster tightly at 0.1 ± 0.03 mm/yr. Erosion rates assume steady-state erosion over ~10,000 years. The lowest rate of 0.0025 mm/yr was obtained from a granite bedrock sample along the Altyn-Tagh range bounding the northwestern margin of the Qaidam basin and is consistent with other 10Be bedrock erosion rates collected from granitic bedrock elsewhere on the Tibetan Plateau. These results demonstrate the importance of lithology in controlling bedrock erodibility by wind. The highest erosion rates of 0.17, 0.25, and 0.34 mm/yr were determined along a transect across an active anticline. The lowest of the three rates was obtained from the top of the structure, suggesting that wind erosion and thus wind speeds are highest on the limbs of an anticline as wind is forced around the obstacle (Bernoulli-effect), rather than flowing over it. The determined sedimentary bedrock erosion rates of 0.04-0.34 mm/yr are in good agreement with previous analysis of basin wide-average erosion rates from geological cross-sections (0.29 mm/yr) and simple erosion calculations using previous lake occupation as a reference datum for erosion (0.25-1.4 mm/yr). The combination of strong winds, hyper-aridity, vast exposure of young (Plio-Quaternary) and friable lacustrine strata, and active tectonic deformation has produced a situation where wind, and not water, is the dominant agent of erosion and sediment transport. Our results identify the Qaidam basin as a major locus of wind erosion, as well as a major potential source area for the Loess Plateau deposits located downwind of the Qaidam basin. Improved constraints on factors controlling rates of yardang formation on Earth and how they vary as a function of lithology and wind conditions, may even lead to a better understanding of environmental conditions and yardang formation on other planetary bodies like Mars.

  15. Source of surface ozone and reactive nitrogen speciation at Mount Waliguan in western China: New insights from the 2006 summer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, L. K.; Wang, T.; Zhang, J. M.; Zhang, X. C.; Deliger, null; Poon, C. N.; Ding, A. J.; Zhou, X. H.; Wu, W. S.; Tang, J.; Zhang, Q. Z.; Wang, W. X.

    2011-04-01

    Surface ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), and total and speciated reactive nitrogen compounds (NOy, NO, NO2, PAN, HNO3, and particulate ? were measured at Mount Waliguan (WLG; 36.28°N, 100.90°E, 3816 m above sea level (asl)) in the summer of 2006 to further understand the sources of ozone and reactive nitrogen and to investigate the partitioning of reactive nitrogen over the remote Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The mean mixing ratios of O3, CO, NOy, and daytime NO were 59 ppbv, 149 ppbv, 1.44 ppbv, and 71 pptv, respectively, which (except for NOy) were higher than those measured from a previous campaign in summer 2003, which is consistent with more frequent transport of anthropogenic pollution from central and eastern China in the measurement period of 2006 (55%) than that of 2003 (25%). The abnormally high values of NOy observed in 2003 were suspected to be due to the positive interference from ammonia (NH3) to the particular catalytic converter used in that study. Varied diurnal patterns were observed for the various NOy components. The ozone production efficiencies (?O3/?NOz), which were estimated from the slope of the O3-NOz scatterplot, were 7.7-11.3 for the polluted plumes from central and eastern China. The speciation of reactive nitrogen was investigated for the first time in the remote free troposphere in western China. PAN and particulate ? were the most abundant reactive nitrogen species at WLG, with average proportions of 32% and 31%, followed by NOx (24%) and HNO3 (20%). The relatively large contribution of particulate ? to NOy was due to the presence of high concentrations of NH3 and crustal particles, which favor the formation of particulate nitrate. An analysis of backward trajectories for the recent 10 years revealed that air masses from central and eastern China dominated the airflow at WLG in summer, suggesting strong impact of anthropogenic forcing on the surface ozone and other trace constituents on the Plateau.

  16. Ridge subduction and crustal growth in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from Late Carboniferous adakites and high-Mg diorites in the western Junggar region, northern Xinjiang (west China)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gongjian Tang; Qiang Wang; Derek A. Wyman; Zheng-Xiang Li; Zhen-Hua Zhao; Xiao-Hui Jia; Zi-Qi Jiang

    2010-01-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is a natural laboratory for the study of accretionary tectonics and crustal growth owing to its massive generation of juvenile crust in the Paleozoic. There is a debate, however, on the mechanism of this growth. In the Baogutu area of the western Junggar region, northern Xinjiang (west China), diorite–granodiorite porphyry plutons and dikes are

  17. Concentration, distribution and variation of polar organic aerosol tracers in Ya'an, a middle-sized city in western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Dai, Dongjue; Deng, Shihuai; Feng, Jialiang; Zhao, Min; Wu, Jun; Liu, Lu; Yang, Xiaohui; Wu, Sishi; Qi, Hui; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Wang, Yingjun; Zhang, Yanzong

    2013-02-01

    PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 ?m) and TSP (total suspended particulates) aerosol samples were collected in Ya'an, a middle-sized city with extensive wood resources in Southwestern China, to characterize the contribution of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) to the regional troposphere, the composition of the organic tracers as well as factors affecting their concentrations. A total of 34 samples were gathered on the Campus of Sichuan Agricultural University (SAU, urban site, in the city zone of Ya'an), while 49 samples were collected at Baima Spring Scenic Area (BSSA, forest site, situated about 30 km to the northeast of SAU) during June to July, 2010. Using GC/MS analysis with prior trimethylsilylation, organic tracers including isoprene oxidation products (2-methyltetrols, C5-alkene triols and 2-methylglyceric acid), ?-/?-pinene oxidation products (norpinic acid, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, 3-hydroxy-4,4-dimethylglutaric acid, and 3-methyl-1,2,3- butanetricarboxylic acid), a sesquiterpene oxidation product (?-caryophyllinic acid), sugars (glucose and fructose), sugar alcohols (arabitol, mannitol, erythritol, sorbitol and xylitol), anhydrosugars (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan) and malic acid were determined. The factors that could potentially affect the SOA tracer concentrations, i.e. trace gases (SO2, NOx, O3, NH3), aerosol acidity and meteorological parameters, were monitored. The results showed that the concentrations of total isoprene oxidation products were 72 and 82 ng/m3 at the two sampling locations, with 29 ± 18, 37 ± 9, 6 ± 2 ng/m3 at SAU and 57 ± 34, 33 ± 33, 4 ± 2 ng/m3 at BSSA for 2-methyltetrols, C5-alkene triols and 2-methylglyceric acid respectively. Compared with the concentrations of isoprene oxidation products, those of ?-/?-pinene oxidation products and ?-caryophyllinic acid were much lower, being 6 ± 33 and 0.5 ± 1.9 ng/m3 at SAU, and 9 ± 14 and 1.0 ± 1.2 ng/m3 at BSSA, respectively. The unique composition of isoprene oxidation products, particularly, the high concentrations of the C5-alkene triols and their relative abundances comparable to those of the 2-methyltetrols, are possibly due to the fact that they are formed through acid-catalyzed reactions of C5-epoxydiols on weak acidic aerosols. Moreover, sugars and sugar alcohols were measured in important fractions at the two study areas, with the median concentrations of 309.7 and 465.7 ng/m3 at SAU and BSSA, respectively. The high abundances of sugar and sugar alcohols in the study area are explained by the robust metabolism of microorganism in the fertile soil under the warm and moist climate as well as vigorous physiological activities of vegetations in the exuberant subtropical areas. The detected organic tracers accounted in total for 1.5-1.8% of organic carbon (OC) in the study atmosphere, and about 15-21% of the OC could in total be apportioned to biogenic aerosol sources and source processes.

  18. Intraspecific Genetic Variation and Phylogenetic Analysis of Dirofilaria immitis Samples from Western China Using Complete ND1 and 16S rDNA Gene Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tianyu; Liang, Yinan; Zhong, Xiuqin; Wang, Ning; Hu, Dandan; Zhou, Xuan; Gu, Xiaobin; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2014-01-01

    Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm) is the causative agent of an important zoonotic disease that is spread by mosquitoes. In this study, molecular and phylogenetic characterization of D. immitis were performed based on complete ND1 and 16S rDNA gene sequences, which provided the foundation for more advanced molecular diagnosis, prevention, and control of heartworm diseases. The mutation rate and evolutionary divergence in adult heartworm samples from seven dogs in western China were analyzed to obtain information on genetic diversity and variability. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using both maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayes methods based on the complete gene sequences. The results suggest that D. immitis formed an independent monophyletic group in which the 16S rDNA gene has mutated more rapidly than has ND1. PMID:24639299

  19. [Xi yuan lu (Records for Washing Away of Wrong Cases) and justice tests in the Republic of China in the context of western knowledge].

    PubMed

    Long, Wei

    2014-09-01

    Xi yuan lu (Records for Washing Away of Wrong Cases) has become the important criterion and authority of the criminal justice tests in the proceedings of case and judicatory judgment, since it was issued royally and officially in the reign of Kangxi Emperor of the Qing Dynasty. However, the Xi yuan lu and its traditional tests was subjected to strong criticism after the introduction of modern science. Especially since the May 4(th) New Culture Movement, not only the theory in the Xi yuan lu had been met with incredulity and condemned sharply through western chemical tests by the intelligentsia, but also the traditional methods of justice tests based on the book was fully criticized. Though the Xi yuan lu has fallen down from the altar, the traditional methods in the book still were used in practice in China during 1930s--1940s because the scientific system of forensic medicine was not established yet. Xi yuan lu, though fallen yet not defeated, reveals its deep-rooted life. The modern fate of the Xi yuan lu was not only the direct result of different historical conversation in the different periods of modern time, but also a true picture of modern China. PMID:25579214

  20. The Great Sichuan Earthquake of May 12, 2008 (Mw7.9) - An Unpredictable Earthquake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Purcaru

    2008-01-01

    The great Sichuan earthquake (Mw7.9, Ms8.0) occurred on the Longmenshan Rupture Zone (LRZ) triplet of parallel faults, the boundary fault rupture zone that separates the eastern Tibetan Plateau from the Sichuan Basin. No really scientific, successful prediction was made for this event in terms of place or size, or time (even on long-time scale) with an acceptable precision. That is,

  1. Formation of saddle dolomites in Upper Cambrian carbonates, western Tarim Basin (northwest China): Implications for fault-related fluid flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juntao Zhang; Wenxuan Hu; Yixiong Qian; Xiaolin Wang; Jian Cao; Jingquan Zhu; Qing Li; Xiaomin Xie

    2009-01-01

    The saddle dolomites occur more intensely in cores closely to fault than that in cores far away from the fault in Upper Cambrian carbonate of western Tarim basin, suggesting that formation of the saddle dolomites is likely related to fault-controlled fluid flow. They partially fill in fractures and vugs of replacement dolomite. The saddle dolomites exhibit complex internal textures, commonly

  2. In the office vs. outside the office: supervisor–subordinate guanxi maintenance among Chinese and Western managers in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Wang; Priscilla Murphy

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated differences between Chinese and Western supervisors regarding the fundamental Chinese construct of guanxi, or “personal connection”. We explored differences in behavior and values regarding guanxi through certain of its elements: ganqing (emotional attachment), renqing (reciprocal favors), face (outward appearance), and orientation to task vs. relationships. Applied to responses from an online survey of 134 Chinese employees, discriminant

  3. Comparison of Handaxes from Bose Basin (China) and the Western Acheulean Indicates Convergence of Form, Not Cognitive Differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Wang; Stephen J. Lycett; Noreen von Cramon-Taubadel; Jennie J. H. Jin; Christopher J. Bae

    2012-01-01

    Alleged differences between Palaeolithic assemblages from eastern Asia and the west have been the focus of controversial discussion for over half a century, most famously in terms of the so-called ‘Movius Line’. Recent discussion has centered on issues of comparability between handaxes from eastern Asian and ‘Acheulean’ examples from western portions of the Old World. Here, we present a multivariate

  4. Performance of Euroline Western Blot Assay in the Detection of Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 Antibody in Uganda, China, and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Jessica D.; Tobian, Aaron A. R.; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Ngo, Thoai D.; Redd, Andrew D.; Reynolds, Steven J.; Morrow, Rhoda Ashley; Gamiel, Jordyn L.; Serwadda, David; Gray, Ronald H.; Quinn, Thomas C.

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection is one of the most commonly sexually transmitted infections worldwide. While glycoprotein G-2 ELISA based assays are commonly used for the serologic detection of HSV-2 infections, they have low specificity in developing countries. Euroline Western blot (WB) is a commercially available assay that is easy to perform; however, little is known about its performance characteristics. This study evaluated Euroline WB for the detection of HSV-2 antibodies compared to University of Washington Western blot in three geographically different regions, Baltimore, Maryland, Rakai, Uganda, and Kunming, China. Among the 135 American men attending an STD clinic in Baltimore, Maryland, 72% (n=97) were HSV-2 positive by Euroline WB. The Euroline WB had a sensitivity of 97.8% and a specificity of 81.8%. Among the 273 commercial sex workers in Kunming, 62.3% were HSV-2 positive by Euroline WB. The Euroline WB had a sensitivity of 96.9% and a specificity of 89.1%. Among the 437 Ugandans in Rakai, 67.3% were HSV-2 positive by Euroline WB. The Euroline WB had a sensitivity of 98.7% and a specificity of 65.4%. The Euroline WB has a consistently high sensitivity, but specificity varied significantly among the different locations. PMID:21680672

  5. Theileriosis of sheep and goats in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianxun Luo; Hong Yin

    1997-01-01

    Summary  Theileriosis is an important disease of sheep and goats in West China. Its main distribution includes Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia,\\u000a Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi and Sichuan. The epidemic period is from late March to July with April–May being the peak months.\\u000a This is the perid of most intensive tick attack byHaemaphysalis qinghaiensis (772–9924%) during the year. It has been proved that the

  6. Thermal-rheological structure of the lithosphere beneath two types of basins in eastern and western China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liangshu Wang; Cheng Li; Futian Liu; Hua Li; Huafu Lu; Shaowen Liu

    2000-01-01

    After calculating thermal-rheological properties of the lithosphere in the Northern Jiangsu basin, the Bohaiwan basin as well\\u000a as the Jiyang depression in the east and Tarim basin in the west of China, this paper analyzes the relationship between thermal-rheological\\u000a structures and tectonic evolution of the two types of basins. The results show that the thermal-rheological structures of\\u000a the lithosphere directly

  7. Western high-performance HR practices in China: a comparison among public-owned, private and foreign-invested enterprises

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoyun Wang; Nealia Sue Bruning; Siqing Peng

    2007-01-01

    The current study is a comparison of the status of high-performance human resource (HR) practices and organizational goal priorities (economic and humanistic) in Chinese domestic-owned (public-owned and private-owned) and foreign-invested enterprises. This study also investigates the relationship between organization goal priorities and the adoption of high-performance HR practices. The study sample included 167 different organizations in China. The results indicate

  8. The western South China Sea currents from measurements by Argo profiling floats during October to December 2007

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Zhou; Dongliang Yuan; Ruixiang Li; Lei He

    2010-01-01

    The three dimensional structure of the western boundary current east of the Vietnam coast was determined from measurements\\u000a by Argo profiling floats which deployed near the east of the Vietnam Coast in October 2007. The trajectories of the Argo floats\\u000a provided robust evidence that there does exist southward flowing current along the Vietnam coast. The southward current begins\\u000a at about

  9. Petrology and U-Pb zircon dating of coesite-bearing metapelite from the Kebuerte Valley, western Tianshan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xin; Zhang, Lifei; Tian, Zuolin; Bader, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    This paper deals with the petrology and U-Pb dating of coesite-bearing garnet-phengite schist from the Kebuerte Valley, Chinese western Tianshan. It mainly consists of porphyroblastic garnet, phengite, quartz and chlorite with minor amounts of paragonite, albite, zoisite and chloritoid. The well preserved coesite inclusions (˜100 ?m) in garnet are encircled by a narrow rim of quartz. They were identified by optical microscopy and confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Using the computer program THERMOCALC, the peak metamorphic conditions of 29 kbar and 565 °C were obtained via garnet isopleth geothermobarometry. The predicted UHP peak mineral assemblage comprises garnet + jadeite + lawsonite + carpholite + coesite + phengite. The metapelite records prograde quartz-eclogite-facies metamorphism, UHP coesite-eclogite-facies peak metamorphism, and a late greenschist-facies overprint. Phase equilibrium modeling predicts that garnet mainly grew in the mineral assemblages garnet + jadeite + lawsonite + chloritoid + glaucophane + quartz + phengite and garnet + jadeite + lawsonite + carpholite + glaucophane + quartz + phengite. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of the coesite-bearing metapelite yielded the peak metamorphic age 320.4 ± 3.7 Ma. For the first time, age data of coesite-bearing UHP metapelite from the Chinese western Tianshan are presented in this paper. They are in accord with published ages obtained from eclogite from other localities in the Chinese western Tianshan and the Kyrgyz South Tianshan and therefore prove a widespread occurrence of UHP metamorphism.

  10. Terrestriality and tree stratum use in a group of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiming

    2007-07-01

    Morphological characters allow the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) to use multiple tree levels, but very few studies have quantified the terrestriality and tree stratum use of the species. I investigated the terrestriality and tree stratum use in a group of the monkeys from July 2003 to September 2004 (except February) in the Qianjiaping area of Shennongjia Nature Reserve, China. I collected data on the vertical position of individual monkeys in forest in relation to behavior types, diet, age/sex classes, vegetation types, tree height, and distribution of predators. The monkeys were much more arboreal than they were thought to be. They spent 97.1% of their time in trees (n=21,234 records) and 2.9% on the ground, and mainly used the middle (74.4%) and upper strata (17.4%). The monkeys displayed all behavioral types except searching in the middle and upper strata. The percentage of use of a stratum (except the low stratum) varied among months, and there was a difference in the percentage of use of a stratum among age/sex classes and between vegetation types. Approximately 94.2% of trees used by the monkeys were >6 m tall. They mainly fed on lichens, young leaves, mature leaves, flowers, fruits or seeds, and buds in the middle and upper strata, bark in the low and middle strata and herbs on the ground. Wolf (Canis lupus), leopard (Panthera pardus), and golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) are predators threatening the survival of individual monkeys in the study site. The results suggested that the seasonal vertical distribution of food items eaten in forest, predators, and vegetation types had important effects on the terrestriality and tree stratum use of the monkeys. PMID:17265009

  11. Modeling the atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanxu; Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu; Ma, Jianmin

    2011-06-01

    An Euler atmospheric transport model CanMETOP (Canadian Model for Environmental Transport of Organochlorine Pesticides) was applied to the atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in China in 2003 based on a square kilometer resolution emission inventory. The reaction with OH radical, gas/particle partition by considering the adsorption onto total aerosol surface area, and dynamic soil/ocean-air exchange of PAHs were also considered. The results show that the spatial distribution of PAH concentration levels in the atmosphere is greatly controlled by emission and meteorological conditions. Elevated concentration levels are predicted in Shanxi, Guizhou, North China Plain, Sichuan Basin and Chongqing metropolitan areas due to the high emission densities at those locations. High concentrations are also modeled in environments offshore of China and in the western Pacific Ocean. The model also predicts a slightly decreasing vertical profile in the planetary boundary layer (lower than ˜1 km), but concentration decreases ˜2 orders of magnitude in the free atmosphere. The Westerlies as well as the East Asian Monsoon and local topographical forcings are identified as key factors influencing the transport pattern of PAHs in China. In 2003, ˜3800°tons of the sixteen parent PAHs listed on USEPA priority control list were transported out of China with about 80% transported through the eastern boundary. The outflow concentrates near 30°N, signifying a slight discrepancy from the position of emission density peaks. The center of the outflow plume is located at a height of ˜1 km at 120°E, and climbs to 3.5 km and 5 km at 130°E and 140°E, respectively. A seasonal variation of 5-6 fold is also found for the outflow flux with greatly elevated transport flux in spring and winter.

  12. Spatio-temporal variation of drought in China during 1961-2012: A climatic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kai; Yang, Dawen; Yang, Hanbo; Li, Zhe; Qin, Yue; Shen, Yan

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the spatial and temporal variation of drought is essentially important in drought assessment. In most previous studies, drought event is usually identified in space and time separately, ignoring the nature of the dynamic processes. In order to better understand how drought changes have taken place in China during the past half-century, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of their spatio-temporal variation based on multiple drought indices from a climatic perspective. A 3-dimensional clustering method is developed to identify drought events in China from 1961 to 2012 based on the 0.25° gridded indices of SPI3 (3 months Standardized Precipitation Index), RDI3 (3 months Reconnaissance Drought Index) and SPEI3 (3 months Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index). Drought events are further characterized by five parameters: duration, affected area, severity, intensity, and centroid. Remotely sensed soil moisture data were used to validate the rationality of identified drought events. The results show that the two most severe drought events in the past half century which occurred in the periods 1962-1963 and 2010-2011 swept more than half of the non-arid regions in China. Large magnitude droughts were usually centered in the region from North China Plain to the downstream of Yangtze River. The western part of North China Plain, Loess Plateau, Sichuan Basin and Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau had a significant drying trend, which is mainly caused by the significant decrease of precipitation. The three drought indices have almost the same performance in the humid regions, while SPI and RDI were found to be more appropriate than SPEI in the arid regions.

  13. Sources and photochemistry of volatile organic compounds in the remote atmosphere of western China: results from the Mt. Waliguan Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, L. K.; Wang, T.; Guo, H.; Blake, D. R.; Tang, J.; Zhang, X. C.; Saunders, S. M.; Wang, W. X.

    2013-05-01

    The chemistry of the natural atmosphere and the influence by long-range transport of air pollution are key issues in the atmospheric sciences. Here we present two intensive field measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in late spring and summer of 2003 at Mt. Waliguan (WLG, 36.28° N, 100.90° E, 3816 m a.s.l.), a baseline station in the northeast part of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Most VOC species exhibited higher concentrations in late spring than in summer. A typical diurnal variation was observed with higher nighttime levels, in contrast to results from other mountainous sites. Five different air masses were identified from backward trajectory analysis showing distinct VOC speciation. Air masses originating from the central Eurasian continent contained the lowest VOC levels compared to the others that were impacted by anthropogenic emissions from China and the Indian sub-continent. The data were compared with the TRACE-P (Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific) data to examine the inflow and outflow of air pollution over the China sub-continent. The results show that the free troposphere over China may be affected by the inflow from the Eurasian continent in spring, and the emissions in China may not have a significant influence on the free tropospheric outflow. A photochemical box model based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (version 3.2) and constrained by a full suite of measurements was developed to probe the photochemistry of atmosphere at WLG. Our results show net ozone production from in-situ photochemistry during both late spring and summer. Oxidation of nitric oxide (NO) by the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) dominates the ozone production relative to the oxidation by the organic peroxy radicals (RO2), and the ozone is primarily destroyed by photolysis and reactions with the HOx(HOx = OH + HO2) radicals. Ozone photolysis is the predominant primary source of radicals (ROx = OH + HO2 + RO2), followed by the photolysis of oxygenated VOCs and hydrogen peroxides. The radical losses are governed by the self and cross reactions among the radicals. The findings can provide insights into the background chemistry and the impacts of pollution transport on the pristine atmosphere over the Eurasian continent.

  14. Phylogeography of the ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) in China.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jiangyong; Liu, Naifa; Bao, Xinkang; Wang, Xiaoli

    2009-07-01

    The ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) are widely distributed in China. We used mitochondrial DNA control-region data to investigate the origin and past demographic changes in 139 ring-necked pheasants (P. colchicus) sampled from the species' distribution range. A total of 1078 nucleotides from the control region of mitochondrial DNA were sequenced, and 88 polymorphic positions defined 102 haplotypes. High level of genetic diversity was detected in all populations studied which could be associated with the wide ecological distributions and niche variation. Phylogenetic analyses of all haplotypes identified five major clades. The haplotypes of Gray-rumped Pheasants existed in the three clades: A (western clade), B (eastern clade) and C (Sichuan Basin clade). Two haplotypes of Kirghiz Pheasants were in the clade B, and the rest haplotype of Kirghiz Pheasants formed the clade D. Only one haplotype from White-winged Pheasants made up clade E. The results of AMOVA showed a low gene flow (Nm=0.44) and significant genetic differentiation (Fst=0.31, P<0.001) among all populations. Based on the divergence time, we speculate that the divergence of the ring-necked pheasant occurring in the late Pleistocene may have resulted from three events: (1) the uplift of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, (2) the existence of Qinling Mountains and Liupan Mountains, (3) the isolation of Sichuan Basin. Demographic population expansion was strongly confirmed by the non-significant mismatch distribution analysis. The described subspecies of the ring-necked pheasant could not be supported by the phylogeographical structuring. PMID:19328240

  15. Predatory Ground Beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Gaoligong Mountain Region of Western Yunnan Province, China: the Tribe Cyclosomini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cueva-Dabkoski, M.; Kavanaugh, D.

    2013-12-01

    Between 1998 and 2007, the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) was the lead institution in a multi-national, multi-disciplinary biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region (GLGS) in the Yunnan province of China. The project surveyed the species diversity of both higher plants and bryophytes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and selected groups of arachnids and insects. The GLGS of China is one of the most biodiverse areas in all of Asia, yet it is also very poorly sampled and in great threat from increasing human activities in the region. CAS's biodiversity inventory project there has increased the number of carabid species known from just 50 to more than 550 species, an eleven-fold increase. The task that remains is to identify all of those 500 additional species and describe any that are new to science. This project is part of that larger biodiversity survey. Our objective was to identify and/or describe carabid beetles of the tribe Cyclosomini represented by nearly a hundred specimens collected in the GLSG. Among those specimens, six morphospecies were identified - one belonging to the genus Cyclosomus Latreille 1829, and the other five belonging to the genus Tetragonoderus Dejean 1829. Following this initial identification process, a list of known distributions of taxa in both genera was assembled to determine which described species to consider for comparative work. Original descriptions were then located for candidate species with known distributions in or near the GLGS; and these are being used now in morphological comparison of specimens. Type specimens for each of the candidate species have been requested from various academic institutions, and morphological comparisons with these types are underway. Morphological characteristics being examined include body proportions and overall shape, color of appendages, color and shape of pronotum, elytral color patterns, and shape and internal structure of male genitalia.

  16. Continental ultra-deep drilling locating research status and progress in the Jinchuan Ni-Cu ore-concentrated area,Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, H.; Tang, Z.; Yang, J.

    2010-12-01

    The abstract is the initial achievements of "Continental ultra-deep drilling locating pre-study in the Jinchuan nickel-copper ore-concentrated area,Western China". 1 Some scientific problems faced by Jinchuan scientific drilling 1.1 Tectonic research of plates convergent margins Jinchuan ore-concentrated area locate in intersection of the south China plate, the north China plate, the tarim plate and convergent orogenic belts. Carrying out deep drilling could obtain informations such as deep material composition, fluid composition, rock fabric, structural features of the special region,etc.Then we can discuss tectonic evolution of the area between the plates. 1.2 Metallogenic theory research Ore-forming material source and extension of the deep rock situation are the key of resolving and verifying metallogenic theory. Carrying out scientific drilling research which will make some issues, that reasons of the huge amount of metal accumulation, formation mechanism of Cu-Ni-PGE sulfide deposits, relationships of metals accumulation process and the crust-mantle interaction and geological background, in particular, fluid role in this process, be resolved. And we could research mantle-derived magmatism and mineralization. 1.3 Perfect Jinchuan metallogenic model Jinchuan deposit is typical for the world's "formation of large deposit in a small intrusion". That establishing the metallogenic model is predominant in international field of mafic-ultramafic magmatic sulfide deposits. Scientific deep drilling could obtain informations which will enrich the theory system. 2 New achievements of continental ultra-deep drilling locating pre-study (1) Previous studies shown that Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic strata,to south of Ore-bearing rock, are monoclines, but this research reveals that which are incomplete complex anticlines, which controlled and destructed by several major regional faults. And there are several ductile shear zones in Sinian strata that increased complexity of regional structure,deformation and metamorphism. These findings have a significant impact on studies of regional diagenesis, mineralization,magmation and tectonic evolution. (2) Systematic sampling analysis revealed that the formation of copper-rich,,PGE-rich ore bodies related to the latest magma (Su et al.,2010). The magma mineralization concentrated in the midwestern portion of No.1 ore body, this part was probably the location of the occurrence of magma channel. It's worthy of exploring at depth with other factors. (3)The application of controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric sounding shown that spatial distribution of electromagnetic geological bodies of the mining area over 3200m under the surface.

  17. A polyphase metamorphic evolution for the Xitieshan paragneiss of the north Qaidam UHP metamorphic belt, western China: In-situ EMP monazite- and U–Pb zircon SHRIMP dating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cong Zhang; Herman van Roermund; Lifei Zhang; Chris Spiers

    2012-01-01

    In-situ electron microprobe (EMP) U–Th–Pb monazite-, sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) zircon analyses, metamorphic phase equilibrium (Domino\\/Theriak)- and geothermobarometric calculations are performed on kyanite\\/sillimanite-bearing garnet biotite gneisses forming part of the dominant rock association in the Xitieshan ultra-high pressure metamorphic belt, north Qaidam, western China. Results are consistent with the following complex polyphase tectono-metamorphic evolution.The kyanite\\/sillimanite bearing garnet biotite gneisses

  18. Climatic and Tectonic Controls on ELA and Glacial Characteristics in the King Ata Tagh Range, Western China: Testing the Glacial Buzzsaw Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutz, J.; Schoenbohm, L.

    2008-12-01

    The King Ata Tagh range of the Pamir Mountains in western China is an ideal locality to observe the interactions between climate and tectonics and to test the glacial buzzsaw model, which hypothesizes that the mean elevation and other characteristics of a landscape is set by climatic factors in glaciated regions, rather than by tectonic uplift rate . ~100 alpine wet-based glaciers are shaping the landscape today. The King Ata Tagh range experiences gradients in precipitation as it intersects the mid-latitude westerlies, and gradients in tectonic uplift along the Kongur detachment fault. To evaluate the competing roles of climate and tectonics, this study established a local Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA), or snowline, for each glacier within the range by mapping current ice extent on satellite imagery (ASTER and LANDSAT) and slope maps and digital topographic maps derived from SRTM data. The ELA was calculated by mapping the extent of glaciers and performing an accumulation area balance ratio calculation. Glacier area and spacing were determined and a debris cover index was developed and a rating assigned to each glacier. The King Ata Tagh range is characterized by large, widely spaced, debris covered glaciers on the downwind or eastern flank and small, tightly spaced, debris free glaciers on the upwind or western flank. ELA is ~5256 m on the western flank and ~4468 m on the eastern flank. Strong winds may transfer snow over the range crest. This leads to small, debris-free glaciers on the upwind side and enhanced deposition of snow and ice from drifting and avalanching on the west side, leading to the development of larger, widely spaced glaciers and a depressed ELA. ELA does not reflect the NW-SE gradient in tectonic uplift, but glacier size, spacing and debris cover are higher in the SE, where the uplift rate is highest. This suggests that ELA depends on climate (prevailing wind direction) and the general range geometry, but that glacier characteristics such as spacing, size and debris cover reflect the tectonic uplift rate. Glaciers maintain a constant ELA in regions of higher uplift rate by becoming larger, and presumably more erosive. Our findings thus support the glacial buzzsaw hypothesis.

  19. A Juvenile Sichuan Golden Monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) Predated by a Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) in the Qinling Mountains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuyi Zhang; Baoping Ren; Baoguo Li

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that hawks, panthers, jackals, lynxes and wolves may prey on Sichuan golden monkeys in the wild [1, 2], but all these assumptions were based on observations of dead monkeys eaten by predators, and no direct attack of a living individual has been witnessed. During our field study on the behavioural ecology of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys in

  20. Atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from China

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Lang; Shu Tao; Wenxin Liu; Yanxu Zhang; Staci Simonich [Peking University, Beijing (China). Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences

    2008-07-15

    A potential receptor influence function (PRIF) model, based on air mass forward trajectory calculations, was applied to simulate the atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from China. With a 10 day atmospheric transport time, most neighboring countries and regions, as well as remote regions, were influenced by PAH emissions from China. Of the total annual PAH emission of 114 Gg, 92.7% remained within the boundary of mainland China. The geographic distribution of PRIFs within China was similar to the geographic distribution of the source regions, with high values in the North China Plain, Sichuan Basin, Shanxi, and Guizhou province. The Tarim basin and Sichuan basin had unfavorable meteorological conditions for PAH outflow. Of the PAH outflow from China (8092 tons or 7.1% of the total annual PAH emission), approximately 69.9% (5655 tons) reached no further than the offshore environment of mainland China and the South China Sea. Approximate 227, 71, 746, and 131 tons PAHs reached North Korea, South Korea, Russia-Mongolia region, and Japan, respectively, 2-4 days after the emission. Only 1.4 tons PAHs reached North America after more than 9 days. Interannual variation in the eastward PAH outflow was positively correlated to cold episodes of El Nino/Southern Oscillation. However, trans-Pacific atmospheric transport of PAHs from China was correlated to Pacific North America index (PNA) which is associated with the strength and position of westerly winds. 38 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Formation of tectonic peperites from alkaline magmas intruded into wet sediments in the Beiya area, western Yunnan, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, X.-W.; Cai, X.-P.; Zhong, J.-Y.; Song, B.-C.; Peters, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    Tertiary (3.78 Ma to 3.65 Ma) biotite-K-feldspar porphyritic bodies intrude Tertiary, poorly consolidated lacustrine sedimentary rocks in the Beiya mineral district in southwestern China. The intrusives are characterized by a microcrystalline and vitreous-cryptocrystalline groundmass, by replacement of some tabular K-feldspar phenocrysts with microcrystalline chlorite and calcite, and by Fe-rich rings surrounding biotite phenocrysts. Peculiar structures, such as contemporary contact faults and slickensides, ductile shear zones and flow folds, foliation and lineations, tension fractures, and banded and boudin peperites, are developed along the contact zones of the intrusives. These features are related to the forceful intrusion of the alkaline magmas into the wet Tertiary sediments. The partially consolidated magmas were deformed and flattened by continued forceful magma intrusion that produced boudinaged and banded peperites. These peperites characterized by containing oriented deformation fabrics are classified as tectonic peperites as a new type of peperite, and formation of these tectonic peperites was related to fracturing of magmas caused by forceful intrusion and shear deformation and to contemporary migration and injection of fluidized sediments along fractures that dismembered the porphyritic magma. Emplacement of the magma into the wet sediments in the Beiya area is interpreted to be related to a large pressure difference rather than to the buoyancy force. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Formation of tectonic peperites from alkaline magmas intruded into wet sediments in the Beiya area, western Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xing-Wang; Cai, Xin-Ping; Zhong, Jia-You; Song, Bao-Chang; Peters, Stephen G.

    2007-08-01

    Tertiary (3.78 Ma to 3.65 Ma) biotite-K-feldspar porphyritic bodies intrude Tertiary, poorly consolidated lacustrine sedimentary rocks in the Beiya mineral district in southwestern China. The intrusives are characterized by a microcrystalline and vitreous-cryptocrystalline groundmass, by replacement of some tabular K-feldspar phenocrysts with microcrystalline chlorite and calcite, and by Fe-rich rings surrounding biotite phenocrysts. Peculiar structures, such as contemporary contact faults and slickensides, ductile shear zones and flow folds, foliation and lineations, tension fractures, and banded and boudin peperites, are developed along the contact zones of the intrusives. These features are related to the forceful intrusion of the alkaline magmas into the wet Tertiary sediments. The partially consolidated magmas were deformed and flattened by continued forceful magma intrusion that produced boudinaged and banded peperites. These peperites characterized by containing oriented deformation fabrics are classified as tectonic peperites as a new type of peperite, and formation of these tectonic peperites was related to fracturing of magmas caused by forceful intrusion and shear deformation and to contemporary migration and injection of fluidized sediments along fractures that dismembered the porphyritic magma. Emplacement of the magma into the wet sediments in the Beiya area is interpreted to be related to a large pressure difference rather than to the buoyancy force.

  3. Trace element geochemistry of altered volcanic ash layers (tonsteins) in late Permian coal-bearing formations of eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou Provinces, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, Y.; Bohor, B.F.; Ren, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Trace element compositions were determined (by instrumental neutron activation analysis; INAA) in 30 samples of synsedimentary volcanic ash-derived tonsteins and detrital claystones from coal seams within the late Permian coal-bearing formation of eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou Provinces, China. The characteristics of trace-element geochemistry in the tonsteins can be distinguished from those of detrital claystones because of the former's unique volcanic-ash origin. The detrital claystones are characterized by their relatively high content of V, Ti, Sc, Cr, Co and Ni, relatively low content of Th and U, Th/U ratio, and small negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* 0.63-0.93). Overall, these trace element characteristics are consistent with a mafic source similar to the composition of basalt rocks in the erosional region on the western edge of the study area. In contrast, the tonsteins are low in V, Ti, Sc, Cr, Co and Ni contents and have a high Th/U ratio with a distinct negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* normally in the range of 0.2-0.4), consistent with a silicic magmatic source. Within the group of tonsteins, those from the lower section (P2.1) of the coal-bearing formation are relatively high in Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta and rare earth elements (REE), as compared to those from the middle and upper sections (P2.2+3). In trace-element discrimination diagrams (scatter plots) of Hf-Ta, Ti-Ta, Ti-V, Hf-Sc, Lu-Hf and Lu-Th, tonsteins from the P2.1 horizon always fall in isolated distribution areas, separate from the tonsteins of the P2.2+3 horizon. These results suggest that the source materials of tonsteins from the two separate horizons were probably derived from volcanic ash falls of two distinctly different natures. Based on a comparison of the concentrations and assemblages of trace elements between various magmatic rocks, the source materials of tonsteins from P2.1 horizon were mostly composed of calc-alkalic, silica-poor volcanic ash (similar to rhyodacitic magma), whereas those from P2.+3 were apparently more siliceous and K-rich (rhyolitic magma). Thus, tonsteins from the two different horizons are characterized by unique geochemical properties, which remain constant over a wide lateral extent. Integration of trace-elemental compositions with mineralogical and textural observations makes possible the establishment of tonstein stratigraphy, thus, facilitating more precise and reliable coal-seam correlations. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.Trace element compositions were determined in 30 samples of synsedimentary volcanic ash-derived tonsteins and detrital claystones from coal seams within the late Permian coal-bearing formation of eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou Provinces, China. The characteristics of trace-element geochemistry in the tonsteins can be distinguished from those of detrital claystones because of the former's unique volcanic-ash origin. The detrital claystones are characterized by their relatively high content of V, Ti, Sc, CR, Co and Ni, relatively low content of Th and U, Th/U ratio, and small negative Eu anomaly.

  4. Surface sediments in the marsh-sandy land transitional area: sandification in the western Songnen Plain, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaofei; Grace, Michael; Zou, Yuanchun; Yu, Xuefeng; Lu, Xianguo; Wang, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    The development of sandification process was studied, by monitoring the changes of sediment characteristics, at marsh-sandy land intersections in China's Songnen region. A series of sediment collection plates were deployed in the region; after one year, sediments in these plates were analyzed for changes of mass and chemical characteristics. The sediment flux and the sand content of the sediments decreased with the increasing longitudinal distance between the sampling site and the centre line of a sand dune. The mean sediment flux was 29 ± 14 kg m(-2) yr(-1) and 0.6 ± 0.3 kg m(-2) yr(-1) in the sandy land and marsh, respectively. Strong, positive correlations were found between the concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, P, Fe, Ti, V and Zr, all of which were also negatively correlated with the sand content. The concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, P, Fe, Ti, V and Zr in the marsh sediment samples were all significantly greater than the corresponding concentrations of the sandy land (p<0.001). Sand content and Ti, V and Zr concentrations all proved to be valid indicators of sandification intensity, and they showed that the marsh could be divided into three distinct zones. Sand expansion extended about 88 m into the marsh. The mean sand content in the sediments of the sandy land was 91% and then 64% in the marsh, which in turn was higher than that of marshes outside the influence of sandification, suggesting that the marsh in the marsh-sandy land transitional area has already undergone extensive sandification in the past. The study results provide information on the wetland's function of indicating and buffering the sandification process. PMID:24932717

  5. Geological and geochemical characteristics in the paleo-weathering crust sedimentary type REE deposits, western Guizhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lingjie; Zhang, Zhengwei; Li, Yujiao; You, Fuhua; Wu, Chengquan; Zheng, Chaofei

    2013-09-01

    A supergene REE deposit closely interrelated with the weathering of the Emeishan basalt formation was produced in the Xuanwei formation, the overlying stratum of the late Permian Emeishan basalt formation in West Guizhou, China. The host strata consist primarily of offwhite kaolinite clay rock and/or grayish black carbonaceous shale. Mineralogical analyses reveal that kaolinites are the major minerals in REE ores with small amounts of smectite, illite, boehmite, hornblende, pyrophyllite, calcite, dolomite and/or iron-bearing minerals, with a certain proportion of feldspar, quartz crystal debris and noncrystal debris. Geochemical analyses reveal high enrichment of trace elements like Cu, Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf. The host strata feature considerable lithological variability, close interrelation of the REE grade with the lithology and uneven spatial distribution of the REE ores, which are mostly found in Lufang, Maojiaping and Zhangsigou profiles of Weining County and can be as thick as 20 m. Of the five stratigraphic profiles, 48% have their whole-rock ?REE higher than 1000 ppm. The REE in this framework consists primarily of ion adsorbed phases and REE-rich residual independent mineral phases. Comprehensive analyses suggest that the source may not only include the Emeishan basalt, but the intermediate acid volcanic rocks evolved from the Emeishan basalt in the later periods; the hydrothermal alteration subsequently imposed on the host strata might have boosted the mineralization of the rare earth. The preliminary genetic model should have been: the denudation product from the weathering of the parent rock was migrated to the sea-continental margin at the continent side carrying huge quantities of REE with it and was preserved by the quick marine transgression. The host strata consist primarily of kaolinite clay rock and/or carbonaceous shale, which are so far believed to be a sedimentary type REE deposit closely interrelated with weathering effect.

  6. Sources and photochemistry of volatile organic compounds in the remote atmosphere of western China: results from the Mt. Waliguan Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, L. K.; Wang, T.; Guo, H.; Blake, D. R.; Tang, J.; Zhang, X. C.; Saunders, S. M.; Wang, W. X.

    2013-09-01

    The chemistry of the natural atmosphere and the influence by long-range transport of air pollution are key issues in the atmospheric sciences. Here we present two intensive field measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in late spring and summer of 2003 at Mt. Waliguan (WLG, 36.28° N, 100.90° E, 3816 m a.s.l.), a baseline station in the northeast part of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Most VOC species exhibited higher concentrations in late spring than in summer. A typical diurnal variation was observed with higher nighttime levels, in contrast to results from other mountainous sites. Five different air masses were identified from backward trajectory analysis showing distinct VOC speciation. Air masses originating from the central Eurasian continent contained the lowest VOC levels compared to the others that were impacted by anthropogenic emissions from China and the Indian subcontinent. A photochemical box model based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (version 3.2) and constrained by a full suite of measurements was developed to probe the photochemistry of atmosphere at WLG. Our results show net ozone production from in situ photochemistry during both late spring and summer. Oxidation of nitric oxide (NO) by the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) dominates the ozone production relative to the oxidation by the organic peroxy radicals (RO2), and the ozone is primarily destroyed by photolysis and reactions with the HOx (HOx = OH + HO2) radicals. Ozone photolysis is the predominant primary source of radicals (ROx = OH + HO2 + RO2), followed by the photolysis of secondary oxygenated VOCs and hydrogen peroxides. The radical losses are governed by the self and cross reactions among the radicals. Overall, the findings of the present study provide insights into the background chemistry and the impacts of pollution transport on the pristine atmosphere over the Eurasian continent.

  7. A new species Micrarctia kautti (Lepidoptera: Erebidae, Arctiinae) from West China.

    PubMed

    Saldaitis, Aidas; Pekarsky, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    A new tiger moth, Micrarctia kautti sp. n., from southwest China, Sichuan is described. A diagnostic comparison with Micrarctia trigona (Leech, 1899) is provided. During recent years the Chinese Arctiini have been intensively collected and explored (Dubatolov, 1996a; Dubatolov, 1996b; Dubatolov, 2003; Dubatolov, Kishida & Wu, 2005; Fang & Cao, 1984; Fang, 2000 and numerous other publications) so the discovery of a striking new species by Sergey Murzin in the Dafengding Mountains, Sichuan Province, was most unexpected.        Institutional acronyms used are as follows: ASV = Aidas Saldaitis (Vilnius, Lithuania); KNE = Kari Nupponen (Espoo, Finland); PKT = Peter Kautt (Tübingen, Germany); RMB = Ramon Macià (Barselona, Spain); WIGJ = World Insect Gallery (Joniškis, Lithuania). PMID:25947852

  8. On the Domene species of China, with descriptions of four new species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Feldmann, Benedikt; Peng, Zhong; Li, Li-Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Material of the paederine genus Domene Fauvel, 1873 from China is examined. Nine species were identified, four of them described previously, one unnamed (represented exclusively by females), and four are newly described: Domene cultrata sp. n. (Gansu, Hubei, Shaanxi); Domene cuspidata sp. n. (Gansu, Shaanxi, Sichuan); Domene chenae sp. n. (Guangxi); Domene reducta sp. n. (Sichuan). A lectotype is designated for Domene reitteri Koch, 1939; a neotype is designated for Domene chenpengi Li, 1990. Domene dersuuzalai Gusarov, 1992 is placed in synonymy with Domene chenpengi. Previous records of two Japanese species from China are most likely based on misidentifications and considered erroneous. Thus, the Domene fauna of China is currently composed of twelve described species. A key to the Domene species of China is provided. The distributions of eleven species are mapped. PMID:25709524

  9. Shortening rates across the foothills of the Western Kunlun (Xinjiang, China) inferred from geomorphic measurements and cosmogenic 10Be dating.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coudroy, T.; van der Woerd, J.; Li, H.; Barrier, L.; Tapponnier, P.; Simoes, M.; Thuizat, R.; Pan, J.; Si, J.; Xu, T.

    2009-04-01

    The Western Kunlun, which bounds north-western Tibetan Plateau, is one of the largest mountain range of Asia, with altitudes peaking at 6500-7500 m asl, and crustal thicknesses of up to ~70 km. North of the plateau, in the foreland of the range, an active fold-and-thrust belt extends 200 km into the Tarim basin, but remains poorly documented regarding amounts of shortening or deformation rates. We discuss the distribution of deformation on the basis of a study of specific foreland folds and faults using high resolution satellite imagery, digital elevation models, seismic reflection data, on-site topographic measurements and cosmogenic isotope dating. South of Hotan city, the 250 km-long Tekelike Fault - the mountain-front thrust that dips beneath the 45 km-wide, 5400m-high Tekelike Range, a basement ramp-anticline - cuts and offsets terraces abandoned by the Karakash River. 10Be concentrations of surface and sub-surface samples from these terraces upper-most deposits yield an exposure age of about 100 kyr for the upper terrace that lies 140 m above the present river bed, implying an incision rate of 1.4 mm/yr. Assuming a dip of 45 +/-15° and neglecting changes in river dynamics over this time period, this age would imply a minimum, average shortening rate of 1.4 +/- 0.7 mm/yr across the thrust. Farther North, 100 to 200 km-long WNW-ESE trending anticlines deform the thick Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary series lying in the foreland of the range. The 150 km-long, 35 km-wide Yecheng-Pishan anticline folds Plio-Quaternary molasses. Drainages crossing this growing anticline have abandoned flights of inset terraces on the sides of wind-gaps. The maximum elevation of the highest terrace above local drainage is about 350m. Near Pishan city, flat, well-preserved terrace surfaces are covered by thin loess, in turn capped by loose gravel pavement. On the uppermost two terraces of this valley, 70 and 120 meters-high, cosmogenic 10Be concentrations in surface and sub-surface samples are similarly high (> 8.106 at/g/yr), indicative of steady-state, with minimum ages of 500 kyr, and a maximum deflation rate of 0.001 mm/yr. Given these values, the maximum incision rate into the lower of these two terraces would have been 0.14 mm/yr. These preliminary results imply minimum foreland shortening rates only on order or 1-2 mm/yr, far less than might be expected for a Cenozoic mountain range of such height and width. More dating and geomorphic measurements are presently in progress across other active structures.

  10. Physicochemical impacts of dust particles on alpine glacier meltwater at the Laohugou Glacier basin in western Qilian Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhiwen; Qin, Dahe; Chen, Jizu; Qin, Xiang; Ren, Jiawen; Cui, Xiaoqing; Du, Zhiheng; Kang, Shichang

    2014-09-15

    This work discusses the temporal variation of various physicochemical species in the meltwater runoff of Laohugou Glacier No. 12 (4260 ma.s.l.) in central Asia, and their correlation with dust particles, based on a two-year field observation in summer 2012 and 2013, mainly focusing on dust concentration and size distribution, meltwater chemistry, particles SEM-EDX analysis in the meltwater, and MODIS atmospheric optical depth fields around the Qilian Mountains in central Asia. We find that, the volume-size distribution of dust particles in the meltwater is mainly composed of three parts, which includes fine aerosol particles (with diameter of 0~3.0 ?m, mainly PM 2.5), atmospheric dust (with diameter of 3.0~20 ?m), and local dust particles (20~100 ?m), respectively. Comparison of dust particles in the snowpack and meltwater runoff indicates that, large part of dust particles in the meltwater may have originated from atmospheric dust deposition to the snow and ice on the glacier, and transported into the meltwater runoff. Moreover, temporal variation of dust and major ions (especially crustal species) is very similar with each other, showing great influence of dust particles to the chemical constituents of the glacier meltwater. SPM and TDS implied significant influences of dust to the physical characteristics of the glacier meltwater. Results showed that, accelerated glacier melting may affect physicochemical characteristics of the meltwater at an alpine basin under global warming. MODIS atmospheric optical depth (AOD) fields derived using the Deep Blue algorithm, showed great influence of regional dust transportation over western Qilian Mountains in springtime. SEM-EDX analysis shows that dust particles in the glacier meltwater contain Si-, Al-, Ca-, K-, and Fe-rich materials, such as quartz, albite, aluminate, and fly ash, similar to that deposited in snowpack. These results showed great and even currently underestimated influences of atmospheric dust deposition to glacier meltwater physicochemistry at an alpine basin in central Asia. PMID:25010943

  11. The Permian Huangshanxi Cu-Ni deposit in western China: intrusive-extrusive association, ore genesis, and exploration implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mingjie; Li, Chusi; Fu, Piaoer; Hu, Peiqing; Ripley, Edward M.

    2011-02-01

    The Permian Huangshanxi Cu-Ni deposit is the second largest magmatic sulfide deposit discovered to date in a major Ni-Cu province related to protracted basaltic magmatism in eastern Xinjiang, China. It is hosted by a small mafic-ultramafic intrusion comprised predominantly of lherzolites, olivine websterites, gabbronorites, and gabbros. The Huangshanxi intrusion is coeval with Permian basalts of tholeiitic and alkaline affinities in the Tuha and Tarim basins, respectively. To evaluate a possible genetic relationship between the Huangshanxi intrusion and a specific type of coeval basalt in the region, as well as ore genesis in the intrusion, we have carried out an integrated mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical study. Our data reveal that the Huangshanxi intrusive rocks are characterized by relatively flat chondrite-normalized REE patterns, depletion in Nb and Ta, and elevated ?Nd values varying between 6 and 10. These features are similar to those of coeval tholeiitic basalts in the nearby Tuha basin, but are significantly different from those of coeval alkaline basalts in the relatively remote Tarim basin. The geochemical similarities and differences suggest that the Huangshanxi intrusion is genetically related to the tholeiitic basalts in the Tuha basin, not to the alkaline basalts in the Tarim basin, as suggested previously by some researchers. This implies that regional exploration for the Huangshanxi-type Cu-Ni deposits should be centered in the Tuha basin instead of the Tarim basin. More specifically, the uplifted areas around the Tuha basin where similar intrusions may have been brought close to the surface should be carefully examined for mineralization potential. Intrusive relations and mass balance constraints from incompatible trace elements and sulfide abundances suggest that the Huangshanxi intrusion represents a dynamic magma conduit through which multiple pulses of magma ascended to higher levels or to the surface. Numerical simulation of magma evolution and mixing calculations using Sr-Nd isotopes indicate that selective assimilation of S-bearing crustal materials is important for sulfide saturation during the early stages of magma evolution when lherzolites formed. Fractional crystallization may have also played a role in the attainment of sulfide saturation during the later stages of magma evolution when olivine websterites and gabbronorites formed. In both cases, immiscible sulfide droplets were retained in the conduit to form disseminated sulfide lenses while the fractionated silicate liquids and buoyant phases such as plagioclase continued to ascend. Extremely low PGE tenors in the sulfide ores of the Huangshanxi deposit suggest that the parental magma was highly depleted in chalcophile elements possibly due to previous sulfide segregation at depth.

  12. Seismic structure of the Helan-Liupan-Ordos western margin tectonic belt in North-Central China and its geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Bin; Cheng, Shunyou; Zhang, Guowei; Zhao, Dapeng

    2014-06-01

    We study high-resolution three-dimensional P-wave velocity (Vp) tomography and anisotropic structure of the crust and uppermost mantle under the Helan-Liupan-Ordos western margin tectonic belt in North-Central China using 13,506 high-quality P-wave arrival times from 2666 local earthquakes recorded by 87 seismic stations during 1980-2008. Our results show that prominent low-velocity (low-V) anomalies exist widely in the lower crust beneath the study region and the low-V zones extend to the uppermost mantle in some local areas, suggesting that the lower crust contains higher-temperature materials and fluids. The major fault zones, especially the large boundary faults of major tectonic units, are located at the edge portion of the low-V anomalies or transition zones between the low-V and high-V anomalies in the upper crust, whereas low-V anomalies are revealed in the lower crust under most of the faults. Most of large historical earthquakes are located in the boundary zones where P-wave velocity changes drastically in a short distance. Beneath the source zones of most of the large historical earthquakes, prominent low-V anomalies are visible in the lower crust. Significant P-wave azimuthal anisotropy is revealed in the study region, and the pattern of anisotropy in the upper crust is consistent with the surface geologic features. In the lower crust and uppermost mantle, the predominant fast velocity direction (FVD) is NNE-SSW under the Yinchuan Graben and NWW-SEE or NW-SE beneath the Corridor transitional zone, Qilian Orogenic Belt and Western Qinling Orogenic Belt, and the FVD is NE-SW under the eastern Qilian Orogenic Belt. The anisotropy in the lower crust may be caused by the lattice-preferred orientation of minerals, which may reflect the lower-crustal ductile flow with varied directions. The present results shed new light on the seismotectonics and geodynamic processes of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and its northeastern margin.

  13. Crustal and upper-mantle Seismic Tomography beneath the Helan-Liupan-Ordos's western margin structural belt and its adjacent region in central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, S.; Cheng, B.; Zhang, G.; Zhao, D.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract We determined high-resolution 3-D P-wave velocity and anisotropic structures under the Helan-Liupan-Ordos's western margin (H-L-O) structural belt and its adjacent region using 13,506 P-wave high-quality arrival times from 2,666 regional earthquakes recorded by 87 seismic stations distributed in Northwestern China during 1980 to 2008. The results indicate that the prominent low-Vp anomalies widely exist in the lower crust beneath the study region and extend to the uppermost mantle in local area, which suggest that the lower crust contains relative high-temperature materials and/or fluids. The major fault zones especial the large boundary faults are distributed in the edge portion of the low-Vp anomalies or a transitional zone between the low- and high-Vp anomalies in the upper crust, and the obvious low-Vp anomalies are revealed in the lower crust even uppermost mantle under most of the faults. Most of the large historical earthquakes are located in the boundary zones where P-wave velocity changes drastically in a short distance. The prominent low-Vp zones are visible in the lower crust even uppermost mantle beneath the large historical earthquakes and most of the regional earthquakes. The anisotropic patterns in the upper crust is good consistent with the surface structures. In the lower crust and uppermost mantle, the predominant fast velocity direction has the NNE-SSW under the Yinchuan Graben and NWW-SEE or NW-SE beneath the Corridor transitional zone, Qilian Orogenic Belt and Western Qinling Orogenic Belt with about NE-SW in local region such as eastern Qilian Orogenic Belt, respectively, being caused by the LPO of lower crustal minerals which may be result from the ductile flow of the lower crust with varied flow directions. Another velocity feature is being zonation with low- and high-velocity S-N strike and segments along S-N within the Crust. The present results shed new light on the structural heterogeneities and seismic anisotropy in the crust and uppermost mantle under the H-L-O structural belt, which provide some new inspires for understanding the deformation and its geodynamic process of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and its Northeastern margin.

  14. Early-Cretaceous highly fractionated I-type granites from the northern Tengchong block, western Yunnan, SW China: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ren-Zhi; Lai, Shao-Cong; Qin, Jiang-Feng; Zhao, Shao-Wei

    2015-03-01

    Western Yunnan, an important constituent of the southeastern segment of the East Tethyan tectonic domain, lies along a transformed orientation from the NWW trending Himalayan-Tethyan segment to the northerly trending Southeast Asian segment. However, the geodynamical setting of the Early Cretaceous tectonothermal magmatism along the Bangong-Nujiang-Lushui-Luxi-Ruili belt as the Tethyan branch in western Yunnan (SW China) remains controversial. The Donghe granitoid, which is located between the Gaoligong and Tengliang belts in the northern Tengchong block, reveals its petrogenesis and its tectonics, both of which play a vital role in resolving previous disputes. Our zircon laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry U-Pb dating of granites from the Donghe batholith yields ages of 119.9 ± 0.9-130.6 ± 2.5 Ma. These granites display features typical of highly fractionated I-type granites: high SiO2 contents (>71 wt.%), high K contents (K2O = 3.88-5.66 wt.%), calc-alkaline character, slight peraluminosity (A/CNK = 1.02-1.16), and a highly differentiated index ranging from 83.6 to 95.6. In addition, as SiO2 contents increase, the rare earth element (REE) abundances, especially heavy REE abundances, and REE pattern slopes change gradually, but the negative Eu anomalies increase sharply, while the degree of enrichment in Rb, Th, U, and Pb and depletion in Ba, Nb, Sr, P, and Ti are enhanced. These features indicate that K-feldspar, ±plagioclase, ±biotite, ±amphibole, ±apatite, ±sphene/garnet, and ±Fe-Ti oxides such as ilmenite play the major role in the fractional crystallization process. The high initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7067 and 0.7079) and negative ?Nd(t) values (-8.6 to -10.1), with T2DM ranging from 1.39 to 1.49 Ga, indicate that the sources were mainly derived from the mature ancient middle to lower crust and minor mantle-derived materials. The initial 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb ratios of 18.462-18.646, 15.717-15.735, and 38.699-39.007, respectively, signify that some subduction-related material such as ocean island volcanic rocks and mature arc primitive rocks may be involved as sources. Based on an analysis of similar zircon saturated temperature and geochemical characteristics of typical highly fractionated I-type granites in SE and SW China, and consideration of the regional geological setting, we suggest that the parent magma may be derived from the ancient middle to lower continental crust and mantle-derived basaltic magma. These were generated in the setting of a westward subducted Lushui-Luxi-Ruili (LLR) Tethyan oceanic slab, where mantle-wedge-derived sources provided enough heat and material to melt the middle to lower ancient crust. Taking into account the temporal-spatial distributions of Early Cretaceous magmatic rocks in the region, we further suggest the existence of an Andean-type active continental margin from the Lhasa block to the Tengchong block along the Bangong-Nujiang-LLR Tethys Ocean during the Early Cretaceous.

  15. Polyphase exhumation in the western Qinling Mountains, China: Rapid Early Cretaceous cooling along a lithospheric-scale tear fault and pulsed Cenozoic uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heberer, Bianca; Anzenbacher, Thomas; Neubauer, Franz; Genser, Johann; Dong, Yunpeng; Dunkl, István

    2014-03-01

    The western sector of the Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt plays a key role in both Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous "Yanshanian" intracontinental tectonics and Cenozoic lateral escape triggered by India-Asia collision. The Taibai granite in the northern Qinling Mountains is located at the westernmost tip of a Yanshanian granite belt. It consists of multiple intrusions, constrained by new Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous U-Pb zircon ages (156 ± 3 Ma and 124 ± 1 Ma). Applying various geochronometers (40Ar/39Ar on hornblende, biotite and K-feldspar, apatite fission-track, apatite [U-Th-Sm]/He) along a vertical profile of the Taibai Mountain refines the cooling and exhumation history. The new age constraints record the prolonged pre-Cenozoic intracontinental deformation as well as the cooling history mostly related to India-Asia collision. We detected rapid cooling for the Taibai granite from ca. 800 to 100 °C during Early Cretaceous (ca. 123 to 100 Ma) followed by a period of slow cooling from ca. 100 Ma to ca. 25 Ma, and pulsed exhumation of the low-relief Cretaceous peneplain during Cenozoic times. We interpret the Early Cretaceous rapid cooling and exhumation as a result from activity along the southern sinistral lithospheric scale tear fault of the recently postulated intracontinental subduction of the Archean/Palaeoproterozoic North China Block beneath the Alashan Block. A Late Oligocene to Early Miocene cooling phase might be triggered either by the lateral motion during India-Asia collision and/or the Pacific subduction zone. Late Miocene intensified cooling is ascribed to uplift of the Tibetan Plateau.

  16. Stratigraphy and stable isotope results from an Eocene-Miocene section of the western Qaidam Basin, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Garzione, C. N.; Pullen, A.; Chang, H.; Molnar, P. H.

    2012-12-01

    The climate of central Asia has changed significantly throughout the Cenozoic, with surface uplift of the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau cited as the primary cause of the change. However, the timing and mechanisms of plateau uplift, especially the northern plateau, is still unclear. Sedimentary basin deposits and their stable isotopic composition record both paleo-environment and paleoclimate information and thus can be used to study the climate evolution and ultimately-the surface uplift history. The Qaidam Basin, in the northern part of the Tibetan Plateau, deposited thick fluviolacustrine sediments from Eocene to Pleistocene time. Here, we report a newly documented 4440 m long sedimentary section near Huatugou town in the western Qaidam Basin, and preliminary O and C stable isotope results from sedimentary carbonates. The section includes four formations. Xiaganchaigou Formation (XGCG Fm), with a late Eocene age, is dominated by alluvial to fluvial conglomerates, sandstones and sandy mudstones in the lower part, and siltstones, mudstones with gypsum of lacustrine origin in the upper part. The Oligocene Shangganchaigou Formation (SGCG Fm) and early to middle Miocene Xiayoushashan Formation (XYSS Fm) both consist mainly of lacustrine mudstones, siltstones, sandstones, intercalated with marls, limestones and minor conglomerates. The late Miocene Shangyoushashan Formation (SYSS Fm, the lower part) is dominated by alluvial to delta-front conglomerates, gravelly sandstones and siltstones; paleosols with root traces are also common in this formation. Between 232 and 1196 m (XGCG Fm), both the ?18O (VPDB) and ?13C (VPDB) values of marls show large variability between -3.3 and -8.9‰ and between 0.7 and -2.7‰, respectively. Between 1196 and 2524 m (SGCG Fm), the ?18O values of marls and limestones show a more narrow range of lower values between -7.0 and -8.6‰, and the ?13C values decrease to between -1.5 and -4.9‰. We speculate that the large variability in XGCG Fm resulted from late Eocene climate cyclicity, followed by decreasing ? values related to global cooling during the Eocene-Oligocene transitions and cooling associated with the horizontal translation of the Basin to higher latitudes. From 2500 to 3500 m (XYSS Fm), there is a more pronounced decrease in the ?18O values of paleosols and carbonate cements to between -8.2 and -10.0‰, but their ?13C values show large variations between -0.6 and -6.8‰. A plausible explanation for these changes is localized climate perturbations associated with the growth of surrounding mountain ranges. At the top of the section, between 3500 and 4400 m (XYSS and SYSS Fm), both the ?18O and ?13C values of paleosols and carbonate cements show a positive shift by 1 to 2‰. This positive shift is interpreted as the result of mid-Miocene aridification, a regional climatic change event that was also documented in Tarim Basin, eastern Qaidam Basin, and in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Extreme aridity that is comparable to present day is not recorded in the Huatuguo section, most likely because these deposits predate the Plio-Pleistocene time period when modern conditions were established.

  17. Evolution of urban heat island effect in middle and small cities in Sichuan Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shangming Dan; Wenxia Qiu; Ji Wu; Huixi Xu; Bo Dan

    2010-01-01

    This paper used four cities - Meishan, Ziyang, Suining and Guang'an - as its research objects. All four cities are located in the middle of Sichuan Basin, closed by each other and distributed along a stripe. The band6 of the Landsat ETM+ Image in two time periods were used to recover the urban brightness temperature so as to disclose the

  18. NC-ERP Rapid Implementation in Sichuan Post-earthquake for Relief Material Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Huifen; Cui Lei

    2009-01-01

    In earthquake relief, the broad effects of humanitarian relief include delivery medical material to victims. Scientific relief need quick response of logistics supply chain, which include tracking situational urgency at various locations such as lack of food and medical supplies. The paper introduced the rapid adoption of NC-ERP in Sichuan post-earthquake which was donated by UFIDA. With the rapid implementation

  19. Molecular diversity of binucleate Rhizoctonia AGA in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Q. Li; L. P. Lei; W. H. Dong; S. M. Wang; S. Naito; G. H. Yang

    AG-A belongs to the binucleate Rhizoctonia (BNR) anastomosis group (AG) of the Ceratobasidium teleomorph, which parasitizes the roots of many plant species. Ninety nine isolate species of AG-A were obtained from Tibet,\\u000a Sichuan, and Yunnan Province in China. All isolates were divided into three types based on their cultural characteristics.\\u000a Type I: abundant aerial mycelia, dense hyphae, loose sclerotia; Type

  20. Non-Beijing Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in China? †

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Xu, Peng; Shen, Xin; Qi, Lihong; DeRiemer, Kathryn; Mei, Jian; Gao, Qian

    2011-01-01

    In a 2-year prospective study of tuberculosis (TB) patients in China, the prevalences of non-Beijing strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis varied between Shandong Province (20.6%), Shanghai (27.6%), and Sichuan Province (45.9%) (P < 0.005). These differences may be due to factors such as human migration, transmission, or diversification and adaptation of the mycobacteria to different hosts. PMID:21068281

  1. A ?microbialite carbonate crust at the Permian–Triassic boundary in South China, and its palaeoenvironmental significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Kershaw; Tingshan Zhang; Guangzhi Lan

    1999-01-01

    A 1 m thick carbonate crust, layered and commonly domal, caps crinoidal limestones on reef complexes of the top Permian Changxing Formation in the Huaying Mountains, eastern Sichuan, China. The crust's stratigraphic level lies at a sharp change in facies, and is overlain by poorly fossiliferous laminated micrites and shales of the Lower Triassic Feixianguan Formation. The crust therefore appears

  2. An ecological analysis of the population in impoverished areas in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, C

    1996-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of environmental conditions and efforts at environmental protection in impoverished areas in China. China began in 1980 to alleviate poverty by investing 500 million yuan in promoting agricultural production in impoverished areas. The state established a standard for measuring impoverishment in 1986. 664 counties fit the impoverishment criteria, of which 301 received national government support and 363 received provincial government support. These 664 counties comprised 30% of total population and were situated in 22 provinces. 27 impoverished counties were added in 1988 to those supported by provincial government, and 77 counties in Tibet were recognized as impoverished. In 1988 there were 35.13% impoverished counties in the country, or 24.01% of total population. This population resided on 40.82% of land area. Impoverishment was greatest in the provinces of Tibet (77 counties), Jianxi (56 counties), and Sichuan (51 counties). 24.89% (172 out of 691 counties) were situated in 10 provinces along the eastern coast and Shanghai. 34.50% (256 out of 742 counties) were situated in 9 central provinces. 44.83% (347 out of 774 counties) were situated in western provinces. Impoverishment increased from coastal areas to the western boundaries. During 1988-92 the number of impoverished counties declined from 775 to 592 (to 105 in the east, 180 in the central region, and 307 in the west). During 1986-92 impoverished population declined from 125 million to 80 million. Most impoverished counties have poor environmental conditions and low yields: deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, salinization, drought, and pollution. The author describes each of the environmental conditions. Resources above the ground are overused, while there are vast reserves of water, energy sources, and minerals underground. The author describes five policy and program directions for environmental protection and poverty alleviation. PMID:12291967

  3. Comparison between the Permian mafic dykes in Tarim and the western part of Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), NW China: Implications for two mantle domains of the Permian Tarim Large Igneous Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuan-Lin; Zou, Hai-bo

    2013-08-01

    Ages and chemical and isotopic compositions of the Permian mafic dyke swarms from Kelamayi, eastern Tianshan and western Tianshan in western part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), NW China, are reported here in order to gain more insights into the Permian Tarim Large Igneous Province (Tarim LIP). These CAOB mafic (-andesitic) dyke swarms from Kelamayi, eastern Tianshan and western Tianshan were emplaced at 267 ± 3 Ma, 278 ± 2 Ma and 260-290 Ma, respectively, and are coeval with the radiating mafic dyke swarm in the Tarim Block. The dykes in CAOB exhibit subalkalic character in major element compositions, and are enriched in LILE and LREE and depleted in HFSE and HREE, with the exception of a few LREE-depleted samples from western Tianshan. Isotopically, dykes from Kelamayi and western Tianshan are characterized by significant positive ?Nd(t) values (3.1 to 7.9 for Kelamayi; 7.2 to 7.3 for western Tianshan), while dykes form eastern Tianshan exhibit variable negative ?Nd(t) values (- 0.7 to - 3.3). Their geochemical features suggest that the mafic (-andesitic) dykes in CAOB were derived from a recently metasomatized lithospheric mantle source (sub-continental lithosphere mantle) with subsequent variable extents of assimilation of the crustal materials in a non-orogenic setting. In contrast, the mafic dykes in Tarim exhibit systematic chemical signatures similar to those of OIB, indicating that they were derived from a depleted sub-lithospheric mantle source. We thus propose that the Permian Tarim LIP has two different mantle domains for the coeval mafic rocks, i.e., the Tarim domain and the CAOB domain.

  4. A conceptual socio-hydrological model of the co-evolution of humans and water: case study of the Tarim River basin, western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Tian, F.; Lin, M.; Sivapalan, M.

    2015-02-01

    The complex interactions and feedbacks between humans and water are critically important issues but remain poorly understood in the newly proposed discipline of socio-hydrology (Sivapalan et al., 2012). An exploratory model with the appropriate level of simplification can be valuable for improving our understanding of the co-evolution and self-organization of socio-hydrological systems driven by interactions and feedbacks operating at different scales. In this study, a simplified conceptual socio-hydrological model based on logistic growth curves is developed for the Tarim River basin in western China and is used to illustrate the explanatory power of such a co-evolutionary model. The study area is the main stream of the Tarim River, which is divided into two modeling units. The socio-hydrological system is composed of four sub-systems, i.e., the hydrological, ecological, economic, and social sub-systems. In each modeling unit, the hydrological equation focusing on water balance is coupled to the other three evolutionary equations to represent the dynamics of the social sub-system (denoted by population), the economic sub-system (denoted by irrigated crop area ratio), and the ecological sub-system (denoted by natural vegetation cover), each of which is expressed in terms of a logistic growth curve. Four feedback loops are identified to represent the complex interactions among different sub-systems and different spatial units, of which two are inner loops occurring within each separate unit and the other two are outer loops linking the two modeling units. The feedback mechanisms are incorporated into the constitutive relations for model parameters, i.e., the colonization and mortality rates in the logistic growth curves that are jointly determined by the state variables of all sub-systems. The co-evolution of the Tarim socio-hydrological system is then analyzed with this conceptual model to gain insights into the overall system dynamics and its sensitivity to the external drivers and internal system variables. The results show a costly pendulum swing between a balanced distribution of socio-economic and natural ecologic resources among the upper and lower reaches and a highly skewed distribution towards the upper reach. This evolution is principally driven by the attitudinal changes occurring within water resources management policies that reflect the evolving community awareness of society to concerns regarding the ecology and environment.

  5. Characteristics and genesis of mineral deposits in East Ujimqin Banner, western segment of the Great Xing'an Mountains, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wanyi; Nie, Fengjun; Liu, Shuwen; Zuo, Liyan; Yao, Xiaofeng; Jia, Delong; Liu, Jiangtao

    2015-01-01

    The East Ujimqin Banner, located in the western segment of the Great Xing'an Mountains, NE China, has undergone a long and multi-stage tectonic evolution, which has resulted in significant Fe-Ag-Pb-Zn-Au-Cu-Mo deposits. There are two main types of mineralization: vein and skarn types. The Jilinbaolige and Aerhada vein deposits, and the Chagan Obo and Chaobuleng skarn-type deposits are four typical deposits in this area. The vein deposits mainly occur as veins with hydrothermal alteration in fractures within pre-mineralization clastic rocks and felsic volcanic rocks. The skarn-type deposits always show a temporal and spatial relationship with Mesozoic granite intruded into Paleozoic limestone. The sulfur isotope data from the sulfides in these four deposits have a very narrow range (+1‰ to +8‰), suggesting that most were derived from magma. The 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios range from 17.949 to 18.529, 15.370 to 15.691 and 37.653 to 38.460 respectively, indicating that the metals derive mainly from the mantle source. In the diagrams 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb, the points of lead isotope of the sulfide ores are very near or coincide to the K-feldspar, indicating that the ore-forming materials sources have the genetic relationship. It seems that there are four key factors controlling the mineralization styles in this district: the tectonic setting, magmatic activity, wall rocks, and structures. The superposition of multi-stage tectonism from a Mesozoic extensional setting on a Paleozoic subduction setting provided a remobilization and enrichment mechanism for the ore-forming elements. The magmatic activities were sources of metals and fluids, and drove them to the mineralization sites. The wall rocks are key factors for mineralization styles. When metal-bearing fluid flows into clastic rocks and felsic volcanic rocks, the mineralization is mainly vein type, and mineralization in limestone is mainly skarn type. NE- and NW-trending extensional faults may have provided the channels for the movement of metal-bearing fluids and depositional space for metals.

  6. Groundwater dynamics under water-saving irrigation and implications for sustainable water management in an oasis: Tarim River basin of western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Hu, H.; Tian, F.; Yao, X.; Sivapalan, M.

    2014-10-01

    Water is essential for life. Specifically in the oases of inland arid basins, water is a critically limited resource, essential for the development of the socio-economy and the sustainability of eco-environmental systems. Due to the unique hydrological regime present in arid oases, a moderate groundwater table is the goal of sustainable water management. A shallow water table induces serious secondary salinization and collapse of agriculture, while a deep water table causes deterioration of natural vegetation. From the hydrological perspective, the exchange flux between the unsaturated vadose zone and groundwater reservoir is a critical link to understanding regional water table dynamics. This flux is substantially influenced by anthropogenic activities. In the Tarim River basin of western China, where agriculture consumes over 90% of available water resources, the exchange flux between the unsaturated vadose zone and groundwater reservoir is influenced strongly by irrigation. Recently, mulched drip irrigation, a sophisticated water-saving irrigation method, was widely applied in the Tarim River basin, which greatly impacted the exchange flux and thus the regional groundwater dynamics. Capitalizing on recent progress in evaporation measurement techniques, we can now close the water balance and directly quantify the exchange flux at the field scale, thus gaining a better understanding of regional groundwater dynamics. In this study, comprehensive observations of water balance components in an irrigated cropland were implemented in 2012 and 2013 in a typical oasis within the Tarim River basin. The water balance analysis showed that the exchange flux and groundwater dynamics were significantly altered by the application of water-saving irrigation. The exchange flux at the groundwater table is mostly downward (310.5 mm year-1), especially during drip irrigation period and spring flush period, while the upward flux is trivial (16.1 mm year-1) due to the moderate groundwater table depth (annual average depth 2.9 m). Traditional secondary salinization caused by intense phreatic evaporation (fed by upward exchange flux) is alleviated. However, a new form of secondary salinization may be introduced unwittingly if there is lack of water for periodic flushing, especially when brackish water is used in the irrigation. Furthermore, the water saved via drip irrigation has been used in further growth of irrigated lands instead of supporting the ecological system. This could lead to an increased risk of eco-environmental degradation and calls for improved governance schemes. The insights gained from this study can be potentially applied to other arid inland areas (e.g., central Asia) which face similar water shortages and human development problems.

  7. Groundwater Dynamics under Water Saving Irrigation and Implications for Sustainable Water Management in an Oasis: Tarim River Basin of Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Hu, H.; Tian, F.; Yao, X.; Sivapalan, M.

    2014-02-01

    Water is essential for life. Specifically in the oases of inland arid basins, water is a critically limited resource, essential for the development of socio-economy and sustainability of eco-environmental systems. Due to the unique hydrological regime present in arid oases, a moderate groundwater table is the goal of sustainable water management. A shallow water table induces serious secondary salinization and collapse of agriculture, while a deep water table causes deterioration of natural vegetation. From the hydrological perspective, the exchange flux between unsaturated vadose zone and groundwater reservoir is a critical link to understand regional water table dynamics. This flux is substantially influenced by anthropogenic activities. In Tarim River Basin of western China, where agriculture consumes over 90% of available water resources, the exchange flux is influenced strongly by irrigation. Recently, mulched drip irrigation, a very advanced water-saving irrigation method, has been widely applied in the Tarim River Basin, which greatly impacted the exchange flux and thus the regional groundwater dynamics. Capitalizing on recent progress in evaporation measurement techniques, we can now close the water balance and directly quantify the exchange flux at the field scale, thus gain a better understanding of regional groundwater dynamics. In this study, comprehensive observations of water balance components in an irrigated cropland were implemented in 2011 and 2012 in a typical oasis within Tarim River Basin. The water balance analysis showed that the exchange flux and groundwater dynamics were significantly altered by the application of water-saving irrigation. The exchange flux is mostly downward (310.5 mm yr-1), especially during drip irrigation period and spring flush period, while the upward flux is trivial (-16.1 mm yr-1) due to the moderate groundwater table depth (annual average depth 2.9 m). Traditional secondary salinization caused by intense phreatic evaporation (fed by upward exchange flux) is alleviated. However, a new form of secondary salinization may be introduced unwittingly if there is lack of water for periodic flushing, especially when brackish water is used in the irrigation. Furthermore, the water saved via drip irrigation has been used in further growth of irrigated lands instead of supporting ecological system. This would lead to increasing risk of eco-environmental degradation and calls for improved governance schemes. The insights gained from this study can be potentially applied to other arid inland areas (e.g., central Asia, sub-Saharan Africa) which face similar water shortages and human development problems.

  8. Socio-hydrologic perspectives of the co-evolution of humans and water in the Tarim River Basin, Western China: the Taiji-Tire Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Tian, F.; Hu, H.; Sivapalan, M.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a historical socio-hydrological analysis of the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang Province, Western China, from the time of the opening of the Silk Road to the present. The analysis is aimed at exploring the historical co-evolution of coupled human-water systems and at identifying common patterns or organizing principles underpinning socio-hydrological systems (SHS). As a self-organized entity, the evolution of the human-water system in the Tarim Basin reached stable states for long periods of time, then punctuated by sudden shifts due to internal or external disturbances. In this study, we discuss three steady periods (i.e. natural, human exploitation, and degradation and recovery) and transitions in between during the past 2000 yr. During the "natural" stage that existed pre-18th century, with small-scale human society and sound environment, evolution of the SHS was mainly driven by natural environmental changes such as river channel migration and climate change. During the human exploitation stage, especially in the 19th and 20th centuries, it experienced rapid population growth, massive land reclamation and fast socio-economic development, and humans became the principal players of system evolution. By the 1970s, the Tarim Basin had evolved into a new regime with a vulnerable eco-hydrological system seemingly populated beyond its carrying capacity, and a human society that began to suffer from serious water shortages, land salinization and desertification. With intensified deterioration of river health and increased recognition of unsustainability of traditional development pattern, human intervention and recovery measures have been adopted. Since then, the basin has shown a reverse regime shift towards some healing of the environmental damage. Spatio-temporal variations of historical socio-hydrological co-evolution are classified into four types: primitive agricultural, traditional agricultural, industrial agricultural and urban SHSs. These co-evolutionary changes have been summarized in terms of the Taiji-Tire Model, a refinement of a special concept in Chinese philosophy, relating to the co-evolution of a system because of interactions among its components.

  9. Socio-hydrologic perspectives of the co-evolution of humans and water in the Tarim River basin, Western China: the Taiji-Tire model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Tian, F.; Hu, H.; Sivapalan, M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a historical socio-hydrological analysis of the Tarim River basin (TRB), Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, in Western China, from the time of the opening of the Silk Road to the present. The analysis is aimed at exploring the historical co-evolution of coupled human-water systems and at identifying common patterns or organizing principles underpinning socio-hydrological systems (SHS). As a self-organized entity, the evolution of the human-water system in the Tarim Basin reached stable states for long periods of time, but then was punctuated by sudden shifts due to internal or external disturbances. In this study, we discuss three stable periods (i.e., natural, human exploitation, and degradation and recovery) and the transitions in between during the past 2000 years. During the "natural" stage that existed pre-18th century, with small-scale human society and sound environment, evolution of the SHS was mainly driven by natural environmental changes such as river channel migration and climate change. During the human exploitation stage, especially in the 19th and 20th centuries, it experienced rapid population growth, massive land reclamation and fast socio-economic development, and humans became the principal players of system evolution. By the 1970s, the Tarim Basin had evolved into a new regime with a vulnerable eco-hydrological system seemingly populated beyond its carrying capacity, and a human society that began to suffer from serious water shortages, land salinization and desertification. With intensified deterioration of river health and increased recognition of unsustainability of traditional development patterns, human intervention and recovery measures have since been adopted. As a result, the basin has shown a reverse regime shift towards some healing of the environmental damage. Based on our analysis within TRB and a common theory of social development, four general types of SHSs are defined according to their characteristic spatio-temporal variations of historical co-evolution, including primitive agricultural, traditional agricultural, industrial agricultural, and urban SHSs. These co-evolutionary changes have been explained in the paper in terms of the Taiji-Tire model, a refinement of a special concept in Chinese philosophy, relating to the co-evolution of a system because of interactions among its components.

  10. Whole-Genome Optical Mapping and Finished Genome Sequence of Sphingobacterium deserti sp. nov., a New Species Isolated from the Western Desert of China

    PubMed Central

    Molnár, István; Li, Xinna; Tang, Ran; Chen, Ming; Wang, Lin; Su, Shiyou; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Min

    2015-01-01

    A novel Gram-negative bacterium, designated ZWT, was isolated from a soil sample of the Western Desert of China, and its phenotypic properties and phylogenetic position were investigated using a polyphasic approach. Growth occurred on TGY medium at 5–42°C with an optimum of 30°C, and at pH 7.0–11.0 with an optimum of pH 9.0. The predominant cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16:1?7c/C16:1?6c or C16:1?6c/C16:1?7c) (39.22%), iso-C15:0 (27.91%), iso-C17:0 3OH (15.21%), C16:0 (4.98%), iso-C15:0 3OH (3.03%), C16:0 3OH (5.39%) and C14:0 (1.74%). The major polar lipid of strain ZWT is phosphatidylethanolamine. The only menaquinone observed was MK-7. The GC content of the DNA of strain ZWT is 44.9 mol%. rDNA phylogeny, genome relatedness and chemotaxonomic characteristics all indicate that strain ZWT represents a novel species of the genus Sphingobacterium. We propose the name S. deserti sp. nov., with ZWT (= KCTC 32092T = ACCC 05744T) as the type strain. Whole genome optical mapping and next-generation sequencing was used to derive a finished genome sequence for strain ZWT, consisting of a circular chromosome of 4,615,818 bp in size. The genome of strain ZWT features 3,391 protein-encoding and 48 tRNA-encoding genes. Comparison of the predicted proteome of ZWT with those of other sphingobacteria identified 925 species-unique proteins that may contribute to the adaptation of ZWT to its native, extremely arid and inhospitable environment. As the first finished genome sequence for any Sphingobacterium, our work will serve as a useful reference for subsequent sequencing and mapping efforts for additional strains and species within this genus. PMID:25830331

  11. The Formation of the Patterns of Desert Shrub Communities on the Western Ordos Plateau, China: The Roles of Seed Dispersal and Sand Burial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yange; Yang, Xiaohui; Shi, Zhongjie

    2013-01-01

    The western Ordos Plateau is a key area of shrub diversity and a National Nature Reserve of endangered shrub species in north-west China. Desert expansion is becoming the most important threat to these endangered species. However, little is known about the effects of sand burial on the dynamics of the shrub community. This study aims to investigate how the shrubs as a community and as different individual shrubs respond to the disturbances caused by the desert expansion. The approach used by this study is to separate the seed-dispersal strategy from the sand-burial forces that are involved in structuring the shrub communities at different disturbance stages. Four communities for different disturbance stages were surveyed by using 50×50 m plots. The individual shrubs were classified into coloniser and successor groups at the seed-dispersal stage and strong and weak sand-burial tolerance groups at the sand-expansion stage. We employed spatial point pattern analysis with null models for each community to examine the seed-dispersal strategy and sand-burial forces affecting community distribution patterns. At the seed-dispersal stage, the interactions between the colonisers and the successors showed significant positive correlation at a scale of 0–1 m and significant negative correlation at a scale of 2 m; significant negative correlations between the groups with strong and weak sand-burial tolerance in the early stage of sand expansion at scales of 3–6 m, and significant positive correlation in the later stage of sand expansion at a scale of 13 m, were found. Seed-dispersal strategy is a reasonable mechanism to explain the shrub community pattern formation in the earlier stages, whereas sand burial is the primary reason for the disappearance of shrubs with weak sand-burial tolerance, this irreversible disturbance causes homogenisation of the community structure and produces aging populations of shrub species. This has an important influence on the succession direction of desert shrub communities. PMID:23922877

  12. Structure and tectonic geomorphology of the Qujiang fault at the intersection of the Ailao Shan-Red River fault and the Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault system, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Bo; Hou, Jianjun; Xu, Xiwei

    2014-11-01

    The northwest-striking Qujiang fault is located at the southeastern tip of the Sichuan-Yunnan block, which is bounded by the Ailao Shan-Red River fault and the Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault system. The Qujiang fault is one of the most seismically active faults in western Yunnan, China and is considered to be the seismogenic fault of the 1970 Ms 7.7 Tonghai earthquake. In this study, we examine the geometry, kinematics, and geomorphology of this fault through field observations, satellite images, and DEMs. It is a Holocene active fault characterized by dextral strike-slip movements with dip-slip components. It can be divided into northwest and southeast segments depending on different kinematics. The northwest segment from Baiyizhai to Wujie shows right-lateral strike slip with normal components, whereas it is characterized by dextral movements with the northeast wall thrusting over the opposite in the southeast segment from Wujie to Miaobeishan. The geophysical data combined with our investigations indicate that the fault dips steeply to the NE at depth, while secondary faults with different dip directions developed at shallow surface owing to fault bifurcation. During the Tonghai earthquake, a blind fault may have developed on the southwest wall, resulting in aftershocks concentrated to the southwest of the surface raptures. Multiple tectonic landforms are developed along the fault. The right-lateral Holocene slip rate was determined to be 2.84-3.27 mm/year based on radiometrically dated offset gullies. Our analyses show that the present deformation at the intersection of the Ailao Shan-Red River fault and the Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault system is partitioned into a shortening distributed over a region ~ 150 km wide and a right-lateral strike slip localized on the Qujiang and Jianshui faults. Since the late Pleistocene, the Qujiang fault has been playing an important role in accommodating the ongoing SE-directed movements of the Sichuan-Yunnan block, creating strong earthquakes to release strain energy.

  13. China Today IAS 2123.001

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    China Today IAS 2123.001 Kevin Carrico Tuesdays & Thursdays 10:30 am -11:45 am Approved for Non-Western culture credit Everyone knows that China today is a "rising superpower," but the real story of China's modern history is considerably more complex. This course looks beyond the headlines to rediscover China

  14. Analysis of activity intensity for landslides triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan Province, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Wu; J. S. Shi; H. B. Wang

    Activity intensity for swarms of landslides is a key issue in geohazard predictions and assessment at a regional scale. From\\u000a reviewed literatures, little work has been carried out on the description of activity intensity and its evaluation indicator\\u000a system. On May, 12, 2008, the great Wenchuan earthquake triggered numerous landslides and debris flows. To evaluate the activity\\u000a intensity of coseismic

  15. Structural and thermal characters of the Longmen Shan (Sichuan, China) A. Robert a,

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    in continuity with the Songpan Garze fold-and-thrust belt (SG), which is associated with an abrupt 20 km Moho acquired by a dense seismic network. The jump in crustal thickness is located at the apex of the Wenchuan

  16. Prevalence of Mental Disorders in 6–16-Year-Old Students in Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yuan; Jiang, Hongyun; Zhang, Ni; Wang, Dahai; Guo, Lanting

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the point prevalence of mental disorders in school students, multistage cluster stratified random sampling and two-phase survey methods were used to identify 40 primary and middle schools. The students were screened using the Chinese version of the Child Behavior Checklist and diagnosed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The prevalence of behavioral problems was 19.13%. The prevalence of behavioral problems significantly differed by sex, age, city of residence, and caretaker. The six-month prevalence of any mental disorder was 15.24% (95% CI: 15.49%–16.97%). Psychiatric disorders were more prevalent in boys (17.33%) relative to girls (13.11%; p < 0.01). The prevalence of mental disorders significantly differed by community and caretaker, and 36.46% of students exhibited comorbidity. Results demonstrated important mental health issues, with a high incidence of comorbidities, in this population. Students’ mental health requires increased attention, particularly in poverty-stricken areas and left-behind children and adolescents. PMID:25985310

  17. Traditional Livelihoods, Conservation and Meadow Ecology in Jiuzhaigou National Park, Sichuan, China

    PubMed Central

    Urgenson, Lauren; Schmidt, Amanda H.; Combs, Julie; Harrell, Stevan; Hinckley, Thomas; Yang, Qingxia; Ma, Ziyu; Yongxian, Li; Hongliang, Lü; MacIver, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Jiuzhaigou National Park (JNP) is a site of global conservation significance. Conservation policies in JNP include the implementation of two national reforestation programs to increase forest cover and the exclusion of local land-use. We use archaeological excavation, ethnographic interviews, remote sensing and vegetation surveys to examine the implications of these policies for non-forest, montane meadows. We find that Amdo Tibetan people cultivated the valley for >2,000 years, creating and maintaining meadows through land clearing, burning and grazing. Meadows served as sites for gathering plants and mushrooms and over 40 % of contemporary species are ethnobotanically useful. Remote sensing analyses indicate a substantial (69.6 %) decline in meadow area between 1974 and 2004. Respondents report a loss of their “true history” and connections to the past associated with loss of meadows. Conservation policies intended to preserve biodiversity are unintentionally contributing to the loss of these ecologically and culturally significant meadow habitats. PMID:26097267

  18. Growth Dynamics of Equisetum fluviatile at Lakeshore Swamps in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Lan Peng; Xin-Fen Gao; Ning Wu; Wei-Kai Bao; Feng-Qun Guo; Li-Jun Jiang

    2009-01-01

    The shoot density, shoot length, and above-ground biomass of Equisetum fluviatile communities were characterized during the growing season at six lakes in the Jiuzhaigou wetland system during 2007. Shoot length, shoot density, and above-ground biomass of E. fluviatile showed significant seasonal changes in all sites. The shoot length increased significantly from April to August except in seasonally flooded sites in

  19. Atmospheric wet deposition of sulfur and nitrogen in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Xiao, Weiyang; Jaffe, Daniel; Kota, Sri Harsha; Ying, Qi; Tang, Ya

    2015-04-01

    In the last two decades, remarkable ecological changes have been observed in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR). Some of these changes might be related to excessive deposition of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N), but the relationship has not been quantified due to lack of monitoring data, particularly S and N deposition data. In this study, we investigated the concentrations, fluxes, and sources of S and N wet deposition in JNNR from April 2010 to May 2011. The results show that SO4(2-), NO3-, and NH4+ concentrations in the wet deposition were 39.4-170.5, 6.2-34.8, and 0.2-61.2 ?eq L(-1), with annual Volume-Weighted Mean (VWM) concentrations of 70.5, 12.7, and 13.4 ?eq L(-1), respectively. Annual wet deposition fluxes of SO4(2-), NO3-, and NH4+ were 8.06, 1.29, and 1.39 kg S(N)ha(-1), respectively, accounting for about 90% of annual atmospheric inputs of these species at the monitoring site. The results of Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis show that fossil fuel combustion, agriculture, and aged sea salt contributed to 99% and 83% of annual wet deposition fluxes of SO4(2-) and NO3-, respectively. Agriculture alone contributed to 89% of annual wet deposition flux of NH4+. Although wet deposition in JNNR was polluted by anthropogenic acids, the acidity was largely neutralized by the Ca2+ from crust and 81% of wet deposition samples had a pH higher than 6.00. However, acid rain mainly caused by SO4(2-) continued to occur in the wet season, when ambient alkaline dust concentration was lower. Since anthropogenic emissions have elevated S and N deposition and caused acid rain in JNNR, further studies are needed to better quantify the regional sources and ecological effects of S and N deposition for JNNR. PMID:25525712

  20. Groundwater pollution of post-mined phosphate rock in Tuojiang watershed (Sichuan, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    changwen, ye

    2014-05-01

    Phosphate rock is the source of phosphorus used to make phosphatic fertilizers, essential for growing the food needed by humans in the world today and in the future. The erosion and eluviation on exposed phosphrite layer and overburden in the phosphate rock areas result in the releasing of fluoride and phosphorus and groundwater polluting. Meanwhile, the waste water and untreated mineral waste residue in the beneficiation and mining operations are also main source of pollution. The un-restored post-mined phosphate rock areas in Tuojiang watershed is large scale. The investigation of the amounts of pollutants releasing from mined lands and transporting by runoffs was conducted. The releasing and transporting amounts of pollutants were calculated according to the results of column leaching studies and acreages of exposed phosphrite layers and overburdens. In conclusion, phosphorus mining activity is an important non-point source of groundwater contamination of Tuojiang watershed.Study about the management and engineering measurement can be carried out according to the non-point source: agriculture, Pollution, Phosphorous mine and chemical plant. The study can provide the practical consultation and help making the decision about the management and treatment of groundwater resource in Tuojiang watershed. Keywords: Tuojiang watershed; Groundwater pollution; Losing process; Fluorine; Phosphorus

  1. Environmental geochemistry and ecological risk of vanadium pollution in Panzhihua mining and smelting area, Sichuan, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanguo Teng; Shijun Ni; Chengjiang Zhang; Jinsheng Wang; Xueyu Lin; Yi Huang

    2006-01-01

    Vanadium is a trace element widely distributed in the Earth’s crust. Naturally high levels of vanadium are recognized mainly\\u000a in basic rocks and minerals, particularly in titaniferous magnetite. And the anthropogenic sources of vanadium include fossil\\u000a fuel combustion and wastes including steel-industry slags. In the last few years, the authors have made investigations and\\u000a assessments on the environmental geochemistry and

  2. Precambrian oil and gas in China

    SciTech Connect

    Sisheng Hao; Guangdi Liu

    1989-03-01

    Abundant Precambrian oil and gas occurring mainly in two large basins, Sichuan basin in southwestern China and Bohai Bay basin in northern China, account for a considerable portion of the reserves and production in China. The Precambrian producing formations are all carbonates. Weiyuan gas field in Sichuan basin is one of the large gas fields in China. Its gas is produced primarily from the dolomite of the Dengying Formation (Sinian System) and was generated chiefly in the algal dolomite of the same system. However, a deeper origin for the gas cannot be ruled out. Renqiu oil field in Bohai Bay basin, a buried-hill oil field, is also one of the largest oil fields in China. The oil is produced primarily from the dolomite of the Wumishan Formation of the middle-upper Proterozoic and was generated chiefly in the Oligocene Shahejie Formation. It is also possible that the oil was partly sourced by middle-upper Proterozoic rocks. In addition, many oil and gas shows have been found in the middle-upper Proterozoic of the Yanshan fold-belt at the northern margin of the Bohai Bay basin. According to an organic geochemical study, the middle-upper Proterozoic in the area has a good potential for hydrocarbon generation, and formation conditions for indigenous hydrocarbon accumulation should exist in the Bohai Bay basin and nearby Yanshan foldbelt. From the analyses of hydrocarbon generation, reservoir, cap rock, trapping, and preservation, the presentation systematically describes the petroleum geological features and hydrocarbon prospects of the Precambrian in China.

  3. Potential geographical distributions of the fruit flies Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis cosyra, and Ceratitis rosa in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Baini; Ma, Jun; Hu, Xuenan; Liu, Haijun; Zhang, Runjie

    2009-10-01

    There have been relatively few attempts to model the distributions of the fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Ceratitis cosyra (Walker), and Ceratitis rosa Karsch in China, but the geographic distributions of these species are of considerable concern in terms of biosecurity. In this study, two different modeling methods (genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction [GARP] and maximum entropy species distribution modeling [Maxent]) were used to predict the potential distributions of these three fly species in China, by using distribution records and a set of environmental predictor variables. The results showed that Maxent performed well, compared with modeling by GARP, at each test threshold. For all three species, the results predicted by Maxent agreed with the observed distributions in Africa and in other parts of the world. In China, C. capitata seems to have the highest number of favorable habitat areas, relative to C. cosyra and C. rosa, i.e., Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Guangdong, Hainan, Fujian, Sichuan and Chongqing, whereas C. cosyra has the smallest range of suitable areas, i.e., Yunnan, some parts of Hainan and Sichuan. The suitable areas for C. rosa are mainly restricted to Yunnan, Hainan, southern Guangdong, and a few areas of Sichuan. The indications are that on the whole, Southwest and South China are the areas with the highest risk for establishment from these three fly species. Jackknife tests reveal that environmental variables associated with temperature have the strongest influence on the potential distributions of all three species relative to other variables. PMID:19886442

  4. Epidemiological Feature of Visceral Leishmaniasis in China, 2004-2012

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, Shuqing; LI, Zhongjie; ZHOU, Sheng; ZHENG, Canjun; MA, Huilai

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) remains an important public health problem in China. It is essential to elucidate the current epidemiological characteristics of VL for designing control policy. Methods The data were obtained from China Disease Prevention and Control Information System from 2004 to 2012. Characteristics by major variables, such as age, gender, season and geography were analyzed using SPSS13.0. Results The incidence of VL in China remained at a lower level in recent years. The outbreak appeared in xinjiang kashgar region in 2008. A total of 3337 VL cases were reported in China from 2004 to 2012, 97.03% of cases were concentrated in Xinjiang, Gansu and Sichuan provinces. The cases under 5 year-old accounted for 59.21%. concentrated in 3 ~ 5 months each year and annual December to January of next year The ratio of males to females was 1.67:1(2088:1249). The lag time between symptom onset and diagnosis of VL appeared a marked decrease after 2008, and were shorter in endemic provinces of Xinjiang, Gansu and Sichuan than non-endemic provinces. The case fatality rate was 2.99% (10/3337) during the study period. Conclusion The reported cases of VL were concentrated in Xinjiang, Gansu, Sichuan provinces in China, 2004-2012. The onset was given priority to children. The lag time between symptom onset and diagnosis of VL were difference among years and provinces. Therefore, prevention and control measures should be focused on improving awareness and capacities of diagnosis and treatment, targeting high-risk people in high-risk areas.

  5. Effective Elastic Thickness of the Lithosphere in Continental China from Heat Flow: Implications for the Lithospheric Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Wang, L.

    2006-12-01

    The effective elastic thickness (Te) of lithosphere is one parameter describing the responses of the lithosphere to long term forces, and is still controversial in estimation by different methods. Here we present the effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere in continental China from heat flow data by the method proposed by Burov et al, J.G.R., 1995,100(B3):3905-3927. Our results show that Te varies much in different sub-areas in continental China due to different geological evolution and associated thermal regimes. Te is much greater than the crustal thickness in the area where the heat flow is really low and the lithosphere is really thick, indicating much more contribution from the lithospheric mantle and the dominative control of the mantle with olivine on the rheology of the lithosphere, and the major basins (Tarim, Junggar, Ordos and Sichuan basins) in central-western China share this characteristic. For instance, the Te of the Tarim basin is 66km with crustal thickness of 45km. Te is less than the crustal thickness in the region where the heat flow is relatively high, and approximates to the crustal brittle-ductile transition depth, suggesting more contribution from the crust and the dominative control of the felsic crust on the rheology of the lithosphere, and this phenomenon is obvious in the SE coastal China, eastern North China and the orogenic belts. Compared the estimated Te with the seismogenic layer thickness (Ts) available in China, it is also found that the Te is much greater than Ts in the major basins with low heat flow, and is similar to Ts in the active zones with high heat flow, which is inconsistent with that Te is usually smaller than Ts proposed by Maggi et al., Geology,2000,28(6):495-498. Generally, two end elements rheological modes for continental lithosphere of the strong crust-weak mantle and the weak crust-strong mantle are all available in continental China considering different thermal regime, composition and geological evolution.

  6. Y-chromosome distributions among populations in Northwest China identify significant contribution from Central Asian pastoralists and lesser influence of western Eurasians.

    PubMed

    Shou, Wei-Hua; Qiao, En-Fa; Wei, Chuan-Yu; Dong, Yong-Li; Tan, Si-Jie; Shi, Hong; Tang, Wen-Ru; Xiao, Chun-Jie

    2010-05-01

    Northwest China is closely adjacent to Central Asia, an intermediate region of the Eurasian continent. Moreover, the Silk Road through the northwest of China once had a vital role in the east-west intercommunications. Nevertheless, little has been known about the genetic makeup of populations in this region. We collected 503 male samples from 14 ethnic groups in the northwest of China, and surveyed 29 Y-chromosomal biallelic markers and 8 short tandem repeats (STRs) loci to reconstruct the paternal architecture. Our results illustrated obvious genetic difference among these ethnic groups, and in general their genetic background is more similar with Central Asians than with East Asians. The ancestors of present northwestern populations were the admixture of early East Asians peopling northwestward and later Central Asians immigrating eastward. This population mixture was dated to occur within the past 10 000 years. The J2-M172 lineages likely entered China during the eastward migration of Central Asians. The influence from West Eurasia through gene flows on the extant ethnic groups in Northwest China was relatively weak. PMID:20414255

  7. Mitochondrial genome of the Sichuan field mouse (Apodemus latronum).

    PubMed

    Yue, Hao; Liu, Shaoying; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Xiuyue; Fan, Zhenxin

    2014-06-25

    Abstract Wood mice of the genus Apodemus are the most common small rodents in fields and broad-leaf forests in the temperate zone. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Apodemus latronum. It was endemic species to China, which mainly inhabited at the high land of the eastern Tibetan Plateau. The complete mitochondrial genome sequences of A. latronum was estimated to be 16,288 bases. Its organization and order were similar to that of typical vertebrate and other rodents' mitochondrial genomes, which consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 control region. Most protein-coding genes used ATG as the initiation codon. However, ND1, ND2 and ND5 began with ATA, whereas ND3 initiated with ATT. The termination codon also showed some degree of variation, and three types of stop codons were observed. The mitogenome sequence of A. latronum could provide helpful data to study the phylogeny of Apodemus. PMID:24963761

  8. Minisauripus?the track of a diminutive dinosaur from the Cretaceous of China and South Korea: implications for stratigraphic correlation and theropod foot morphodynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin G. Lockley; Jeong Yul Kim; Kyung Soo Kim; Sam Hyang Kim; Masaki Matsukawa; Li Rihui; Li Jianjun; Seong-Young Yang

    2008-01-01

    The diminutive (2.5–3.0cm long), Cretaceous dinosaur track ichnogenus Minisauripus, previously known only from the type ichnospecies, M. chuanzhuensis, from a single locality in Sichuan Province China, is here reported from two new localities in South Korea and one in China. Material from the new Chinese locality is assigned to the new ichnospecies M. zhenshuonani on the basis of its distinctive

  9. SCOPE CHINA SCOPE CHINA

    E-print Network

    Wang, Wei Hua

    SCOPE CHINA SCOPE CHINA 92030006 86-351-7010700 86-351-7010700 E-mail: scope #12;SCOPE-ZHONGYU ENvirONmENtal FOrUm 2012 October 11-14, 2012 Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, China Chair of Environmental Development Dr. Shu Sun, Academician, President of SCOPE CAST China Former Vice President

  10. Cultural and Gender Differences in Perceptions of Stressors and Coping Skills: A Study of Western and African College Students in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Ismail Hussein

    2003-01-01

    Tests the universal nature of stress and coping behavior among overseas college students in China and provides basic information towards understanding the problems that result from stress and coping which can best be defined in cultural terms. Results indicated that academic and interpersonal sources of stress were the most common Stressors…

  11. Trade-Offs between the Top-Down and Bottom-Up School Education Management Models: The Implementation of School Development Planning in Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Zhiyong

    2008-01-01

    In the 1990s, numerous primary and secondary schools in China began experimental exploration and research on the implementation of school development planning (SDP). However, there has been a lack of self-criticism and reflection on the actual implementation situations and changes in SDP's concepts in the participating schools. This study assessed…

  12. Early Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the Xing-Meng Orogenic Belt: constraints from detrital zircon geochronology of western Erguna-Xing'an Block, North China

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Early Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the Xing-Meng Orogenic Belt: constraints from detrital zircon zircon U-Pb dating on the Ordovician to Devonian sedimentary strata along the southeastern China-Mongolia border. Most of the zircons from all five sedimentary samples display fine-scale oscillatory growth

  13. Migration, Education and Rural Development: Evidence from China 2000 Population Census Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anqing Shi; Shuming Bao

    2007-01-01

    There has been a concern that the growth of towns has been stalled recently and with it, the creation of non-farm jobs in rural industries. This study uses 2000 census tabulations to look at this issue by examining in-migration in towns in three provinces in China, Zhejiang, Henan, and Sichuan. In addition to the diversified patterns of town in-migrants revealed

  14. Structural heterogeneities in the source area of the Mw 7.9 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Wang; Y. Fukao; S. Pei

    2008-01-01

    The Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake occurred on May 12, 2008 (06:28:01 UTC) in the Longmen-Shan fault zone at the eastern margin of Tibet and adjacent to the Sichuan foreland basin, where as much as 9 m of coseismic slip was observed. This is the most significant earthquake to have struck China since the 1976 Tangshan Earthquake (Mw 7.6). Chinese authorities

  15. Hu Huanyong: father of China's population geography.

    PubMed

    She, W

    1998-08-01

    Professor Hu Huanyong died of an illness on April 30, 1998, in Shanghai, China. The professor was a forefather of modern Chinese demography and the founder of China's population geography. He drew the "Aihui-Tengchong Line," which was known internationally as the "Hu Line," in 1934; the line marked a striking difference in the distribution of China's population. He was born in 1901, in Yixing, Jiangsu Province. He studied literature, history, and geography at Nanjing Normal School (later named the Southeast University of China); he continued his education at the University of Paris from 1926 to 1928. Upon his return to China, he began teaching at the Nanjing Central University and was later appointed dean of the Department of Geography and president of the China Geographical Association. During this time, he wrote "Distribution of China's Population," a paper in which he drew China's first population density contour chart based on the 1933 national census data by county; this produced the "Hu Line." The professor began teaching at East-China Normal University in Shanghai in 1953; in 1957, he became director of the research office of population geography (which he helped to establish), the first demographic research institution in China. In 1958, he focused on the population geography of Jiangsu Province. In 1983, the office expanded to become a population research institute; Professor Hu became its president. During the 1980s, he described a geographic division of China's population based on differences in population density, ecological environment, socioeconomic conditions, and historical development. This resulted in 8 regions: 1) the lower parts of the Yellow River region; 2) the Liaoning-Jilin-Heilongjiang region; 3) the middle and lower parts of the Yangtze River region; 4) the southeast coastal region; 5) the Shanxi-Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia region; 6) the Sichuan-Guizhou-Yunnan region; 7) the Inner Mongolia-Xinjiang region; and 8) the Qinghai-Tibet region. This provided the basis for Chinese demographic policy-making and planning. PMID:12294257

  16. Sediment dispersal system in the Taiwan-South China Sea collision zone along a convergent margin: A comparison with the Papua New Guinea collision zone of the western Solomon Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiung, Kan-Hsi; Yu, Ho-Shing

    2013-01-01

    Through a large-scale examination of the morpho-sedimentary features on sea floors in the Taiwan-Luzon convergent margin, we determined the main sediment dispersal system which stretches from 23°N to 20°N and displays as an aligned linear sediment pathway, consisting of the Penghu Canyon, the deep-sea Penghu Channel and northern Manila Trench. The seafloor of South China Sea north of 21°N are underlain by a triangle-shaped collision marine basin, resulting from oblique collision between the Luzon Arc and Chinese margin, and are mainly occupied by two juxtaposed slopes, the South China Sea and Kaoping Slopes, and a southward tilting basin axis located along the Penghu Canyon. Two major tributary canyons of the Formosa and Kaoping and small channels and gullies on both slopes join into the axial Penghu Canyon and form a dendritic canyon drainage system in this collision marine basin. The canyon drainage system is characteristic of lateral sediment supply from flank slopes and axial sediment transport down-canyon following the tilting basin axis. The significance of the collision marine basin in term of source to sink is that sediments derived from nearby orogen and continental margins are transported to and accumulated in the collision basin, serving as a temporary sediment sink and major marine transport route along the basin axis. The comparison of the Taiwan-South China Sea collision zone with the Papua New Guinea collision zone of the western Solomon Sea reveals remarkable similarities in tectonic settings and sedimentary processes that have resulted in similar sediment dispersal systems consisting of (1) a canyon drainage network mainly in the collision basin and (2) a longitudinal sediment transport system comprising a linear connection of submarine canyon, deep-sea channel and oceanic trench beyond the collision marine basin.

  17. ‘But when you are doing your exams it is the same as in China’ – Chinese students adjusting to western approaches to teaching and learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lihong Wang; Michael Byram

    2011-01-01

    Investigations of Chinese students and their approaches to learning have emphasised a dichotomy in ‘western’ and ‘Confucian’ approaches to education but in a longitudinal study of Chinese postgraduate students’ academic adjustment to a British university the dichotomy is less than real. The focus of this research was on an in-depth study of students’ own conceptualisation of their learning and the

  18. LGM lake records from China and an analysis of climate dynamics using a modelling approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Yu; Bin Xue; Jian Liu; Xing Chen

    2003-01-01

    Lake-geological studies in China have reported that there were much higher lake levels and much fresher water than today at the last glacial maximum (LGM) in western China. A compilation of lake data in this study showed LGM conditions much drier than today in eastern China but somewhat wetter in western China. These E–W differential patterns of climate conditions were

  19. Transcriptome profiling of the hypothalamus during prelaying and laying periods in Sichuan white geese (Anser cygnoides).

    PubMed

    Gao, Guangliang; Li, Qin; Zhao, Xianzhi; Ding, Ning; Han, Qing; Su, Jian; Wang, Qigui

    2015-08-01

    The Sichuan White goose is a Chinese breed well known for the quality of its meat. However, reproductive performance in this goose is not ideal, and little information is available regarding the abundance of transcripts. To better understand the molecular mechanism(s) underpinning prelaying and laying periods in the Sichuan white goose, high-throughput RNA sequencing was performed to analyze the transcriptome in the hypothalamus. After sequencing and annotation, 26?921 unigenes were obtained, with 48 transcripts up-regulated in the prelaying period and 180 transcripts up-regulated during the laying period. These transcripts were primarily related to diseases, cancers, signaling molecules and interactions, the nervous system and the immune system. Eight transcripts were selected for further analyses with quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The qRT-PCR results were mostly consistent with those from the high-throughput RNA sequencing. Among these transcripts, serine/threonine-protein kinase (AMPK), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1) were differentially expressed during the prelaying and laying periods. The results of this study provide a useful resource for future studies examining the hypothalamus in geese. PMID:25601520

  20. Interpersonal psychotherapy versus treatment as usual for PTSD and depression among Sichuan earthquake survivors: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Without effective treatment, PTSD and depression can cause persistent disability in disaster-affected populations. Methods Our objective was to test the efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) delivered by trained local personnel compared with treatment as usual (TAU) for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) among adults affected by the Sichuan 2008 earthquake. A small randomized controlled trial of IPT?+?TAU versus TAU alone was delivered by local mental health personnel in Shifang, China. Between July 2011 and January 2012, 49 adults???18 years with PTSD, MDD or both were enrolled and randomized to 12 weekly sessions of IPT?+?TAU (27) or TAU (22) alone x 12 weeks. IPT was then offered to the TAU group. Unblinded follow up assessments were conducted at three and six months. IPT was a 12 session, weekly one hour treatment delivered by local personnel who were trained and supervised in IPT. TAU was continuation of prescribed psychotropic medication (if applicable) and crisis counseling, as needed. Main Outcome(s) and Measures (s): Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) PTSD diagnosis; Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) for MDD diagnosis. Secondary measures included PTSD/depression symptoms, interpersonal conflict/anger, social support, self-efficacy and functioning. Results Using an intent-to-treat analysis, 22 IPT?+?TAU and 19 TAU participants were compared at three months post-baseline. A significantly greater reduction of PTSD and MDD diagnoses was found in the IPT group (51.9%, 30.1%, respectively) versus the TAU group (3.4%, 3.4%, respectively). Despite the small sample, the estimates for time-by-condition analyses of target outcomes (2.37 for PTSD (p?=?.018) and 1.91 for MDD (p?=?.056)) indicate the improvement was better in the IPT?+?TAU condition versus the TAU group. Treatment gains were maintained at 6 months for the IPT group. A similar treatment response was observed in the TAU group upon receipt of IPT. Conclusions This initial study shows that IPT is a promising treatment for reducing PTSD and depression, the two major mental health disorders affecting populations surviving natural disaster, using a design that builds local mental health care capacity. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.Gov number, NCT01624935. PMID:25254070

  1. Crustal Structure of China and Surrounding Regions from P and S Wave Travel-time Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Toksoz, N.; Lei, J.; Zhao, D.

    2004-12-01

    We have constructed a 3-D P and S velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle of China and surrounding areas using high quality first arrivals extracted from the Annual Bulletin of Chinese Earthquakes (ABCE). We used 345,000 P wave, and 230,000 shear wave arrivals. A preliminary 3-D model has been generated by combining 2400 1-D models (Sun et al., 2004). By applying the tomography method (Zhao et al., 1992), we obtain a detailed 3-D P and S wave velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle in China with a spatial resolution of 1° × 1° in horizontal direction and 10 km in depth. This method is adaptable to a velocity structure which includes several complex-shaped velocity discontinuities and allows 3-D velocity variations everywhere in the model. Velocity discontinuities represent known geological boundaries such as the Moho and/or a subducting slab boundary, etc. A 3D grid net is set up in the model to express the 3D structure. Velocity perturbations at the grid nodes are taken as unknown parameters. The velocity perturbation at any point in the model is calculated by linearly interpolating the velocity perturbations at the eight grid nodes surrounding that point. To calculate travel times and ray paths accurately and rapidly, an efficient 3D ray-tracing technique is employed to iteratively use the pseudo-bending technique (Um and Thurder, 1987) and Snell's law. Station elevations and the sediment layers are taken into account in the ray tracing. The LSQR algorithm (Paige and Saunders, 1982) with a damping regularization is used to solve the large and sparse system of observation equations. Our tomographic model provides new insights into the geological structure and tectonics of the region, such as the lithological variations and large fault zones across the major geological terrenes. The velocity images of the upper crust represent the surface geological and topographic features accurately. Basins and the Tibetan Plateau are clearly depicted in our model. The crust beneath the Precambrian regions (Tarim Basin, Ordos Basin, Sichuan Basin and western half of Songliao Basin) shows high velocity anomalies. The highest velocity anomaly is beneath the Sichuan Basin. The Bohai Gulf shows both high and low velocity anomalies due to a major Cenozoic rift system through it. P velocities are lower in the lower crust beneath the northern part of the South China Block than that beneath the southern part of the South China Block. The Indochina Block demonstrates low velocities both in the crust and uppermost mantle due to volcanism. The Pn velocities in the Tibet area are higher than those in other areas largely due to thicker crust thickness. Both 3-D travel time and broadband seismogram fits show that our model is well determined and can be applied to determine the source parameters of earthquakes and to generate synthetic travel times.

  2. Vertical distribution and impact factors of soil organic carbon in an alpine-cold zone of Northwest Sichuan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Hua-Jing; Xu Liu-Xing; Ning Long-Mei; Du Juan; Huang Hui

    2011-01-01

    s: This paper studied organic carbon content, water content, pH value, available nitrogen content and available phosphorus content in different soil depths, and explored the correlations between organic carbon content and water content, pH value, available nitrogen content, or available phosphorus content of three typical soils (subalpine meadow soil, turfy meadow soil and alluvial soil) in Hongyuan County, Northwest Sichuan.

  3. Source parameters of the 2013 Lushan, Sichuan, Ms7.0 earthquake and estimation of the near-fault strong ground motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, L.; Zhou, L.; Liu, J.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract: The April 20, 2013 Ms 7.0 earthquake in Lushan city, Sichuan province of China occurred as the result of east-west oriented reverse-type motion on a north-south striking fault. The source location suggests the event occurred on the Southern part of Longmenshan fault at a depth of 13km. The Lushan earthquake caused a great of loss of property and 196 deaths. The maximum intensity is up to VIII to IX at Boxing and Lushan city, which are located in the meizoseismal area. In this study, we analyzed the dynamic source process and calculated source spectral parameters, estimated the strong ground motion in the near-fault field based on the Brune's circle model at first. A dynamical composite source model (DCSM) has been developed further to simulate the near-fault strong ground motion with associated fault rupture properties at Boxing and Lushan city, respectively. The results indicate that the frictional undershoot behavior in the dynamic source process of Lushan earthquake, which is actually different from the overshoot activity of the Wenchuan earthquake. Based on the simulated results of the near-fault strong ground motion, described the intensity distribution of the Lushan earthquake field. The simulated intensity indicated that, the maximum intensity value is IX, and region with and above VII almost 16,000km2, which is consistence with observation intensity published online by China Earthquake Administration (CEA) on April 25. Moreover, the numerical modeling developed in this study has great application in the strong ground motion prediction and intensity estimation for the earthquake rescue purpose. In fact, the estimation methods based on the empirical relationship and numerical modeling developed in this study has great application in the strong ground motion prediction for the earthquake source process understand purpose. Keywords: Lushan, Ms7.0 earthquake; near-fault strong ground motion; DCSM; simulated intensity

  4. Development Potentials and Policy Options of Biomass in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to106 tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts’ energy distribution also varies from province to province in China. Based on the analysis of the market scale and industry development, the article argues that China’s biomass energy industry is still at a very early stage of development and that Feed-in Tariffs (FIT) might be the best policy option for China to promote its development of biomass energy. A successful enforcement of FIT in China needs some policy combination of special capital subsidies, R&D funding, tax incentives and pricing.

  5. Taxonomic study of the genus Halolaguna Gozmány (Lepidoptera, Lecithoceridae) from China, with descriptions of two new species

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Kaijian; Liu, Shurong; Wang, Shuxia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Halolaguna Gozmány, 1978 is studied in China. Two new species, Halolaguna flabellata sp. n. from Guangxi and Halolaguna discoidea sp. n. from Chongqing, Guangxi and Sichuan are described. The female of Halolaguna guizhouensis Wu, 2012 is reported for the first time. Photographs of adults and genitalia are provided. A checklist of all known Halolaguna species is included, along with a key to the Chinese species. PMID:25589871

  6. Geodynamical Evolution and Tectonic Framework of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIU, Guangding

    In this paper, we show that the tectonic framework of mainland China consists of "three latitudinal strips", namely, Tianshan-Yinshan-Yanshan, Qinling-Dabie, and Nanling; "two longitudinal strips" namely, Daxing'anling Taihangshan Wulingshan, Helanshan-Longmenshan; and "two triangles", Songpan-Ganzi, and Chaidamu. The geodynamic evolution of China can be considered in five-stages, which can be summarised as a kind of "teeterboard-like" process. The evolutionary process is that in the Palaeozoic era, the China mainland had lower elevation in the west and higher in the east, with OrdosSichuan as an axis. After the Mesozoic era, because the blocks of Qiangtang, Gangdese, and India collided and sutured with the Tarim block. During this time closure of the Tethys ocean occurred, and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau formed. In the Cenozoic subduction of the Pacific plate northwestwards under the Philippine Sea began, and the Philippine Sea block converged towards the Eurasian plate. This was associated with extension and thinning of the crust in East China, which resulted in the uplift of the land in the west and subsidence in the east of China. Finally, we point out that research on the geodynamic evolution of the terranes is of practical significance in prospecting for mineral deposits and hydrocarbon resources.

  7. The emission density and trend of ammonia over China

    SciTech Connect

    Wen-Xing Wang; Xiao-Feng Lu; Yan-Bo Pang [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing (China); Tao Wang [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    1996-12-31

    Nationwide, province-based and gridded anthropogenic NH{sub 3} emissions in China have been made based on the number of livestock, poultry, fertilizer application, NH{sub 3} production and human beings. The total annual emissions have been calculated to be 89194.4 kt in 1991. In which livestock, fertilizer application, human beings, poultry and NH{sub 3} production account for 56.8%, 17.5%, 16.7% and 0.9% respectively. The gridded emission densities show that the high densities have appeared in the Middle Eastern China and Sichuan Basin. The average emission density over China is 0.9 t/km{sup 2} a in 1991. Which is just less than that of Europe (1.1 t/km{sup 2} a). The emission trends of NH{sub 3} have also been calculated from 1991 to 1992.

  8. Impacts of the North India Ocean SST on the extremely cold winters of 2011 and 2012 in the region of Da Hinggan Mountains and its western areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tao; Han, Jingwei; Gao, Lian; Yan, Wei

    2014-08-01

    The study of the winter temperatures, averaged from the records of 11 observatories in the Da Hinggan Mountains and its western areas in China (DHM-WA), identified 11 extremely cold (? - 1.5 °C) and 13 extremely warm winters (? + 1.5 °C) during the past 60 years (1951-2010). The winters of 2011 and 2012 are another two extremely cold events. Aimed at exploring the climate causes, a comprehensive investigation is carried out on variations of some major atmospheric circulation components. Additionally, opposite circulation regimes are verified by examining the mean 500-hPa circulation patterns and sea level pressure (SLP) corresponding to 14 warm and 18 cold sea surface temperature (SST) phases over the North India Ocean (NIO) during the period of 1951-2010. Composite of an extremely cold winter usually includes a large and strong Siberian High, a deep East Asian trough to the west, an small and weak western Pacific Subtropical High to the east, a large North Polar vortex and a weakened westerly stream over Eurasia continent accompanied by a strong meridional winds from the polar region to lower latitude. Moreover, it has been found that a favorable circulation condition associated with the extremely cold winters to DHM-WA is mainly controlled by the SST over NIO in the previous warm season (June-September); This is primarily related to changes in the intensity of the Walker and Anti-Walker circulations, which subsequently influence the major circulation components and result in an extremely cold winter in DHM-WA.

  9. The Financial Impact of the ‘Zero-Markup Policy for Essential Drugs’ on Patients in County Hospitals in Western Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhongliang; Su, Yanfang; Campbell, Benjamin; Zhou, Zhiying; Gao, Jianmin; Yu, Qiang; Chen, Jiuhao; Pan, Yishan

    2015-01-01

    Objective With a quasi-experimental design, this study aims to assess whether the Zero-markup Policy for Essential Drugs (ZPED) reduces the medical expense for patients at county hospitals, the major healthcare provider in rural China. Methods Data from Ningshan county hospital and Zhenping county hospital, China, include 2014 outpatient records and 9239 inpatient records. Quantitative methods are employed to evaluate ZPED. Both hospital-data difference-in-differences and individual-data regressions are applied to analyze the data from inpatient and outpatient departments. Results In absolute terms, the total expense per visit reduced by 19.02 CNY (3.12 USD) for outpatient services and 399.6 CNY (65.60 USD) for inpatient services. In relative terms, the expense per visit was reduced by 11% for both outpatient and inpatient services. Due to the reduction of inpatient expense, the estimated reduction of outpatient visits is 2% among the general population and 3.39% among users of outpatient services. The drug expense per visit dropped by 27.20 CNY (4.47 USD) for outpatient services and 278.7 CNY (45.75 USD) for inpatient services. The proportion of drug expense out of total expense per visit dropped by 11.73 percentage points in outpatient visits and by 3.92 percentage points in inpatient visits. Conclusion Implementation of ZPED is a benefit for patients in both absolute and relative terms. The absolute monetary reduction of the per-visit inpatient expense is 20 times of that in outpatient care. According to cross-price elasticity, the substitution between inpatient and outpatient due to the change in inpatient price is small. Furthermore, given that the relative reductions are the same for outpatient and inpatient visits, according to relative thinking theory, the incentive to utilize outpatient or inpatient care attributed to ZPED is equivalent, regardless of the 20-times price difference in absolute terms. PMID:25790443

  10. East Asian Monsoon and EL NIÑO-SOUTHERN Oscillation Activities Since the Mid-Holocene Evidences from Massive Corals in the the Central Vietnamese Coast, Western South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, A. D.; Zhao, J.; Feng, Y.; Yu, K.; Gasparon, M.; U-Series Dating Technique Team

    2011-12-01

    The climate of the Vietnamese coast, western South China Sea (SCS), is driven by the annually reversing East Asian Monsoon (EAM) system which is also related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) through teleconnection. Our understanding of EAM activity and its connection with global climate is not fully established. In this study high resolution Sr/Ca and ?18O records derived from four fossil Porites sp. corals with U-series ages ranging from ~7000 to 1800 years (yrs) were used to characterise the EAM-ENSO activities since the mid-Holocene. The results show that both the summer and winter monsoons were stronger than present ~ 7000 yrs ago, as evidenced by the higher-than-present amplitudes of annual cycles in SST (9.1 °C) and seawater ?18O (1.4%). The strengthened summer monsoon is considered to result from higher Northern Hemispheric insolation during the mid-Holocene, while the enhanced winter monsoon could be attributed to a reduction/shutdown of North Atlantic Meridional Overturning (NAMOC), leading to a prevailing "cold tongue" off the Vietnamese coast, and an amplified east-west SST gradient in the northern SCS. The EAM was weakened ca. 4200 yrs ago, as reflected by the lower amplitude of SST (4.3 °C) and seawater ?18O (0.57%) annual cycles. The downturn of the EAM is correlated in timing with the cold phase or the Bond event of the high-latitude climate, the Neolithic cultural collapse in China, and the strengthened ENSO in the Pacific. After this downturn, the EAM was slightly strengthened ~3600 and 1800 yrs ago as shown by larger amplitudes of SST (~ 5 °C) and seawater ?18O (1.0-1.2%) annual cycles. The enhanced EAM at these times are out of phase with the high-latitude climate, but are consistent with evidence from historical documents in Vietnam and China. The waxing/waning of the EAM appear to match with the waning/waxing of the ENSO intensity throughout the records since the mid-Holocene. The changes in EAM activity were accompanied by corresponding variations in the annual rainfall pattern, demonstrated by the difference in the timing of the onset and withdrawal of the rainy season. For instance, around 4200 yrs ago, the rainy season started 5.5 months earlier, compared with other times, including the present.

  11. Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 12, EGU2010-3555, 2010

    E-print Network

    ) limiting the role of earthquakes in relief building and leaving the mechanism of long term strain distribu(s) 2010 Three dimensional surface displacement of the Sichuan earthquake (Mw 7.9, China) from Synthetic, Strasbourg, France. The Sichuan earthquake, Mw 7.9, struck the Longmen Shan range front, in the western

  12. Family Structure, Marital Fertility and Premarital Sex among Married and Never-Married Women in Contemporary China

    E-print Network

    He, Lei 1984-

    2012-11-20

    in China, research still shows that family structure in China is relatively stable compared to western countries. This dissertation investigates the effects of family structure on fertility in contemporary China. This dissertation had two main objectives...

  13. [Community structure of phycophyta and evaluation of water quality in Sichuan section of Jialing River].

    PubMed

    Yong-Hong, Ma; Zeng, Yu; Ren, Li-Ping; Zhou, Cai-Quan

    2012-09-01

    In order to understand the characteristics of the phycophyta community structure and water quality in Sichuan section of Jialing River, water samples were collected from 12 sites along the section in dry season (January) and rainy season (September), with the phycophyta species composition, Shannon diversity index (H'), Pielou evenness index (E), and Margalef richness index (d) analyzed. A total of 171 phycophyta species (including variety) were collected, belonging to 8 phyla, 42 families, and 95 genera, among which, Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, and Cyanophyta were the dominant groups. In dry season, the mean cell density of the phycophyta was 14.71 x 10(4) ind x L(-1), being the highest at sites JX (28.33.4 x 10(4) ind x L(-1)) and HYZ (25.40 x 10(4) ind x L(-1)), and diatom species had a higher richness than the others. In rainy season, the mean cell density was only 10.78 x 10(4) ind x L(-1), being the lowest (3.31 x 10(4) ind x L(-1)) at site QJ, and the species richness of chlorophyta and cyanobateria had somewhat increase. In the whole section, the mean d, H', and E of the phycophyta were 2.35, 1.60, and 0.31 in dry season, and 2.57, 2.09, and 0.39 in rainy season, respectively. Our results indicated that there were significant differences in the spatiotemporal distribution patterns of the community structure, cell density, diversity index, and evenness index of phycophyta in Sichuan section of Jialing River. The water quality of this section was overall belonged to mesosaprobic, being better at sites JX and SX (belonged to oligosaprobic or beta-mesosaprobic), but worse at sites CX, HYZ, XZ, and QJ (belonged to alpha-mesosaprobic). PMID:23286018

  14. Two new species of the genus Platambus Thomson, 1859 from China (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Agabinae).

    PubMed

    Hendrich, Lars; Przewo?ny, Marek

    2015-01-01

    One new species of the genus Platambus Thomson, 1859 from Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province (P. brancuccii sp. n.) and one from Chengdu, Sichuan Province (P. korgei sp. n.) are described. They belong to the Platambus semenowi-group sensu Nilsson (2000). Important species characters (median lobes and colour patterns) of the two new species are figured, and notes on their distribution are given. Altogether seven species of the semenowi-group are now known from higher mountain regions in Central Asia, northern India, Nepal, Bhutan, Pakistan and China. Six of them are illustrated with habitus photos and a modified key to all species of the semenowi-group is presented. PMID:25947729

  15. Drug addiction in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lin; Wang, Xi

    2008-10-01

    Drug addiction in China began with the importation of Indian opium by the British in the 16th century and brought severe social and health problems. While drug abuse abated following the establishment of People's Republic of China, modernization and Westernization in the 1980s led to the reemergence of this problem. Drug abuse in China became epidemic, facilitating the spread of HIV/AIDS. The Chinese government has made great efforts to address these problems, focusing both on treatments of drug addiction and on harm-reduction programs. Although the new trends of drug addiction in China pose great public health challenges, these government interventions are likely to successfully stem the problem of drug abuse in the future. PMID:18991965

  16. Chemical compositions and reconstructed light extinction coefficients of particulate matter in a mega-city in the western Yangtze River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Guofeng; Xue, Miao; Yuan, Siyu; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Qiuyue; Li, Bing; Wu, Haisuo; Ding, Aijun

    2014-02-01

    Ambient particulate matter was collected in a megacity, Nanjing in western YRD during the spring and summer periods. Chemical compositions of fine PM including organic carbon, elemental carbon, elements and water soluble ions were analyzed. The light extinction coefficients were reconstructed following the IMPROVE formula. Organic matter was the most abundant composition in PM2.5 (20-25% of total mass), followed by the inorganic ions. During the spring time, geological materials contributed 25% of the total PM2.5. Estimated light extinction coefficient ranged from 133 to 560 Mm-1 with the deciview haze index value of 26-40 dv, indicating strong light extinction by PM and subsequently low visibility in the city. Reconstructed ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, organic matter and light absorption carbon in fine PM contributed significantly (37 ± 10, 16 ± 6, 15 ± 4 and 10 ± 3%, respectively) to the total light extinction of PM, while soil (5-7%) and sea salt fractions (2-4%) in fine PM and coarse PM (6-11%) had relatively minor influences. The results of backward air trajectory showed that the site was strongly influenced by the air from the eastern (39%) and southeastern (29%) areas during the sampling period. Air plumes from the Southeastern had both high PM mass pollution and large light extinction, while the air mass originating from the Northwestern resulted in high PM mass loading but relatively lower light extinction.

  17. Carboniferous-Triassic subduction and accretion in the western Kunlun, China: Implications for the collisional and accretionary tectonics of the northern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao Xiao, Wen; Windley, Brian F.; Chen, Han Lin; Zhang, Guo Cheng; Li, Ji Liang

    2002-04-01

    A newly defined, 250 km by 500 km, Carboniferous-Triassic subduction-accretion complex, the Mazar accretionary prism in the western Kunlun, comprises two subduction complexes and a forearc-basin succession. (1) The Bazar Dara subduction complex contains imbricated blocks of sandstone, arenite, limestone, and metavolcanic rocks in a matrix of weakly metamorphosed Triassic deep-sea turbidites. The metavolcanic rocks include basalt, diabase, spilite, and andesitic porphyry. Trace element geochemistry shows that pillow and amygdaloidal basalts are oceanic-island tholeiites. This zone has Ordovician to Permian fossils and is situated on the older, more highly deformed and metamorphosed side of the prism adjacent to the Sailiyak magmatic arc. (2) The Heweitan subduction complex is composed of blocks of limestone, turbidite, and radiolarite in a slate-phyllite matrix intercalated with calc-alkalic volcanic rocks. This complex has Permian to Triassic fossils and is situated on the younger, less deformed, and metamorphosed side of the prism adjacent to the suture zone. (3) The Qitai forearc basins are infilled with turbidites (Late Triassic) intercalated with carbonates; these rocks overlie the accretionary prism. The accretion-related structure is dominated by large-scale northeast-dipping thrusts and subvertical cleavage stitched by 215 190 Ma granites. There is an overall decrease in metamorphic grade and deformation intensity from the arc to the suture zone across the Bazar Dara and Heweitan subduction complexes. The Mazar accretionary prism formed by subduction-accretion processes during closure of the Paleotethyan Ocean and the final docking of the Gondwanan Karakoram-Qiangtang block to the Cathaysian (Eurasian) Kunlun block.

  18. Elevation-dependent variations of tree growth and intrinsic water-use efficiency in Schrenk spruce (Picea schrenkiana) in the western Tianshan Mountains, China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guoju; Liu, Xiaohong; Chen, Tuo; Xu, Guobao; Wang, Wenzhi; Zeng, Xiaomin; Zhang, Xuanwen

    2015-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration (Ca) is expected to accelerate tree growth by enhancing photosynthesis and increasing intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE). However, the extent of this effect on long-term iWUE and its interactions with climate remains unclear in trees along an elevation gradient. Therefore, we investigated the variation in the radial growth and iWUE of mature Picea schrenkiana trees located in the upper tree-line (A1: 2700 m a.s.l.), middle elevation (A2: 2400 m a.s.l.), and lower forest limit (A3: 2200 m a.s.l.), in relation to the rising Ca and changing climate in the Wusun Mountains of northwestern China, based on the basal area increment (BAI) and tree-ring ?13C chronologies from 1960 to 2010. We used the CRU TS3.22 dataset to analyze the general response of tree growth to interannual variability of regional climate, and found that BAI and ?13C are less sensitive to climate at A1 than at A2 and A3. The temporal trends of iWUE were calculated under three theoretical scenarios, as a baseline for interpreting the observed gas exchange at increasing Ca. We found that iWUE increased by 12–32% from A1 to A3 over the last 50 years, and showed an elevation-dependent variation in physiological response. The significant negative relationship between BAI and iWUE at A2 and A3 showed that tree growth has been decreasing despite long-term increases in iWUE. However, BAI remained largely stable throughout the study period despite the strongest iWUE increase [at constant intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) before 1980] at A1. Our results indicate a drought-induced limitation of tree growth response to rising CO2 at lower elevations, and no apparent change in tree growth and diminished iWUE improvement since 1980 in the upper tree-line. This study may contradict the expectation that combined effects of elevated Ca and rising temperatures have increased forest productivity, especially in high-elevation forests. PMID:25999973

  19. Developmental and reproductive characteristics of western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) exposed to paper mill effluent in the Dengcun River, Sihui, South China.

    PubMed

    Hou, Liping; Xie, Yongping; Ying, Guangguo; Fang, Zhanqiang

    2011-06-01

    The study reported in this paper tested the hypothesis that the developmental and reproductive health of mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) exposed to pulp and paper effluent in the Dengcun River would differ from that of mosquitofish living in a reference site. We also studied whether morphological characteristics such as the anal fin and hemal spines of mosquitofish could serve as indicators for evaluating the androgenic effect and mosquitofish population security in the Dengcun River. Male and female mosquitofish were captured at three sites contaminated by pulp and paper effluent in the Dengcun River in Sihui, South China, and at a nearby uncontaminated reference site. Samples were collected from the sampling sites on the same day in August 2009. We compared the populations by total length, wet body and liver mass, gonad mass, and population composition. We also compared the populations according to number of anal fin segments, oocyte and embryo count, anal fin and hemal spine morphology among females, and by sperm count and viability among males, and observed the gonadal and liver histology of both males and females. Female mosquitofish exposed to pulp and paper effluent in the Dengcun River were generally smaller in length and mass, had a greater number of anal fin segments and more embryos, but had significantly fewer oocytes in comparison with those living at the reference site. The higher number of anal fin ray 3 segments and the increased ray 4:6 length ratio observed among fish taken from the Dengcun River sites indicated that they might be subject to the androgenic effect. Furthermore, the significantly different hemal spine morphology of the effluent-affected females also indicated the pulp and paper mills effluents in Dengcun River might contain androgenic substance(s). Male mosquitofish at the sites exposed to effluent had a higher number of anal fin segments and greater testis mass in comparison with those living at the reference site. No evidence of intersex was found in either males or females, although histopathological tests on females revealed histologic abnormalities in the liver and gonads. It can be concluded that pulp and paper effluent contamination in the Dengcun River has affected a number of developmental parameters and reproductive characteristics in mosquitofish, with possible adverse effects on reproduction in this population. PMID:21458407

  20. Western Skink

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Western skink (Plestiodon skiltonianus) is a relatively common and widespread lizard in Southern California. It is more secretive and prefers more grassy habitat than the Western fence lizard or the side-blotched lizard, yet USGS and National Park Service biologists are finding signs of genetic ...

  1. Medical Education in Peoples's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, John A. D.; Yingang, Lin

    1987-01-01

    The three types of physicians trained in the People's Republic of China (practitioners in Chinese medicine, traditional Mongolian medicine, and western-style medicine) and the design of the medical schools and programs are discussed. (MSE)

  2. Geology, geochronology, and geochemistry of the Yinachang Fe-Cu-Au-REE deposit of the Kangdian region of SW China: Evidence for a Paleo-Mesoproterozoic tectono-magmatic event and associated IOCG systems in the western Yangtze Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lin; Ding, Jun; Deng, Jun; Peng, Hui-juan

    2015-05-01

    Numerous Fe-Cu-Au-rare earth element (REE) deposits have been identified within the Paleoproterozoic Dongchuan Group of the Kangdian region of SW China. This region hosts the Yinachang deposit, which contains more than 16.8 Mt Fe, 682.6 kt Cu, and significant amounts of Au and the REEs. Both the Haizi dolerite and a magmatic breccia in the central part of the Kangdian region are thought to be related to the Dongchuan dolerite in the northern part of this region; all three of these units provide evidence of the tectono-magmatic history of the Kunyang Rift and are closely spatially and temporally related to Fe-Cu-Au-REE mineralization in this region. Here, we present a new zircon U-Pb age for the Haizi dolerite (1764.7 ± 5.7 Ma), which is consistent with the known age of the Dongchuan dolerite (1765 ± 57 Ma), allowing the determination of the precise timing of Paleo-Mesoproterozoic intraplate mafic magmatism in this region (1.72-1.77 Ga). The breccia in this region formed during magmatism at around 1.73-1.74 Ga, as documented by zircon U-Pb dating of matrix material within the Yinachang magmatic breccia (1739 ± 13 Ma). The geochemistry of Haizi and Dongchuan dolerite samples provides evidence of intraplate extension in the Kangdian region, the majority of which was concentrated along the Kunyang Rift. The Kangdian region underwent variable degrees of extension, as evidenced by the fact that break-up in the central part of this region occurred earlier than in the north. This also led to the emplacement of deeper-sourced alkaline magmas (usually OIB-type magmas) in the central part of this region. The iron-oxide copper gold (IOCG) mineralization in the Kangdian region is associated with the upwelling of mantle material. A chalcopyrite Re-Os age of 1648 ± 14 Ma from the Yinachang Fe-Cu-Au-REE deposit obtained during this study is some 50-100 Myr younger than the timing of emplacement of the deeply sourced Haizi and Dongchuan dolerites. The Yinachang deposit is a typical IOCG-type deposit, and the presence of this and other deposits in the Kangdian region indicates that this region hosts an intraplate extension-related IOCG system within the western edge of the Yangtze Block, China.

  3. Regional Gradients in Shortening and Rates in a Foreland Basin due to Oblique Collision: Late Cenozoic Evolution of the Northwest Tarim Basin, Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heermance, R. V.; Chen, J.; Scharer, K.

    2006-12-01

    The Kashi Basin is located in the northwesternmost Tarim Basin between the north-vergent Kongur Shan and south-vergent Chinese Tian Shan; to the west both ranges have completely collided. Cross-section analyses from five sub-parallel transects across the Kashi Basin indicate that shortening magnitude decreases westward from >20 km to <10 km over ~80 km along strike, and similar 2-fold decreases are apparent along several individual structures as well. Typically, horizontal tectonic forces deforming collisional mountain ranges drive shortening within the proximal foreland basin while the distal foreland remains undeformed or "pinned." When two oppositely verging ranges converge, however, their forelands combine, and the resultant shortening rates will integrate deformation rates from both ranges. We suggest that decreased shortening magnitudes observed within the Kashi Basin are the result of the oblique collision of the wedge- shaped Pamir with the Tian Shan, and the most shortening has occurred where the forelands of both ranges have been amalgamated for the longest time. A simple geometric model predicts how strain should vary across an impinged foreland with a wedge-shaped indenter (125° margin: Kongur Shan) penetrating north into an 80°-trending (Tian Shan) mountain front. Using 23 mm/year of convergence between the Pamir and Tian Shan (Riegbar et al., 2001, EPSL, 191, 157-165), lateral propagation of the combined foreland zone should occur at ~20 mm/yr, consistent with field observations. Cross-section data indicate that shortening magnitude and rates increase toward the west beginning at ~76.5° E longitude near the easternmost nose of the Kashi Anticline, suggesting that this point is the eastern limit of the "Pamir effect" despite the geographic confluence of the 2 ranges >100 km west at ~75° E. Our field and modeling results are consistent with observations of greater shortening magnitudes in the western than in the eastern Tian Shan, and highlight the complexity and far-field extent of deformation resulting from convergence of the Pamir indenter.

  4. Long-term change of wet and dry climatic conditions in the southwest karst area of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bingjun; Chen, Cuiliu; Lian, Yanqing; Chen, Junfan; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-04-01

    Using the daily precipitation and temperature data at 153 stations in the karst area of Southwest China from 1959 to 2009, the long-term change characteristics of wet and dry climatic conditions are analyzed by the Mann-Kendall test. This study shows that: 1) the annual average temperature has increased at 88% of the stations with an average rate of + 0.16 °C/10-year. This increase rate is greater than + 0.30 °C/10-year in the southeastern, northeastern, and western parts of the study region. Very warm days and abnormally warm days were seen increased at 47% and 63% of the stations, respectively. Very cool days and abnormally cool days in a year have reduced at respectively 94% and 95% of the stations; 2) no clear change trend was found for average annual precipitation over the entire area as a whole, but regional and seasonal changes were quite obvious. The annual total precipitation has decreased by - 22.5 mm/10-year in the central part but increased by + 8.9 mm/10-year in the western part of the region, and summer and winter seemed to become wetter while spring and autumn became drier. Although the number of rainy days in a year has decreased at almost 53% of the total stations with an average rate of - 3.9 days/10-year over the entire area, the number of extremely heavy rainy days has increased by + 0.2, + 0.4 and + 0.4 days/10-year in the southern Sichuan Province, the central part of Yunnan Province, and the northeastern Hubei Province, respectively; and 3) the extreme drought became more serious. The consecutive dry days has increased significantly at nearly 46% of the stations, especially in the western Guangxi Autonomous Region, the southern Guizhou Province, and the eastern Chongqing Municipality. The extreme drought remained at a high frequency at the beginning of the 21st century. It has shifted gradually from the eastern and western parts to the south-central part which is characterized by medium-high rocky desertification. Hopefully findings from this study will help for a better understanding of the impacts to some eminent geological hazards such as rocky desertification, increased frequency of drought and storms, and landslides in recent years.

  5. ULF Magnetic Ionosphere Precursor of Sichuan Earthquake Detected by [SQUID]2 System in LSBB-Rustrel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waysand, G.; Barroy, P.; Blancon, R.; Bois, J.; Gaffet, S.; Marfaing, J.; Pozzo di Borgo, E.; Pyée, M.; Auguste, M.; Boyer, D.; Cavaillou, A.

    2008-12-01

    One hour before the Sichuan earthquake (Mw=7.9, 2008 May 12, 06:28~TU), amplified, recurrent and well-defined ionosphere excitations at the resonance frequency of the ionosphere floor were observed by the [SQUID]2 system, an ultra low-noise magnetometer with a rejection rate better than 3fT/?Hz over 40~Hz installed within the LSBB underground laboratory of Rustrel, France, 60~km on the East of Avignon (43°56'26.04~N, 05°29'04.11~E), buried 550~m in a carbonate platform. The period of this resonance is about 80 seconds. At such extreme ULF frequency whatever is the distance from a signal source on Earth, one is in a near-field electromagnetic proximity. As a result, this non-invasive instrument detects world-wide ULF ionosphere emissions, as demonstrated by the detection of P waves arrival at the ionosphere floor for world-wide quakes M>3. The persistent excitation of May 12th started just after a magnetic jump. Two additional jumps of almost one nanoTesla were observed before the quake. These three jumps are in rather good time coincidence with appearances of luminous clouds colored like rainbows and documented by amateur videos taken in the Shaanxi Province at 500~km from epicenter, at the start of the excited regime, in the Gansu Province thirty minutes before the quake at Tian-Shui 450~km from epicenter for the second one, and again ten minutes before the quake at Mei-Xian in the Shaanxi Province. The extinction of the excited regime occurred 300 seconds after the quake, the delay it takes for a P wave to reach the ionosphere floor. The first aftershock, at 06:41, was marked by an instantaneous magnetic pulse, confirming the presence of strong electric fields associated to the quake. Comparing with similar manifestations (San Juan Bautista 1998, Kobe 1995) one can conclude that an ionosphere magnetic precursor of the Sichuan earthquake has been observed by remote sensing with much better sensitivity and time resolution than in previous cases.

  6. Territorial Competition in China and the West

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiuh-Shen Chien; Ian Gordon

    2008-01-01

    Chien S.-S. and Gordon I. Territorial competition in China and the West, Regional Studies. In modern western societies, and most other economies to which it has spread, territorial economic competition is associated with a combination of competitive electoral politics and private land-ownership. In mainland China, however, a very strong form of this competition has emerged without either of these supports.

  7. ORGANISATIONAL COMMITMENT OF EXPATRIATE MANAGERS IN CHINA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel W Lund; Michelle C. Barker

    In response to the problem of high expatriate failure rates in China, this study investigates organisational commitment issues in relation to a community of Western expatriate managers working in a private, Chinese-owned, academic college in China. Through individual interviews, the study examines the various processes, experiences, and interactions of six expatriate managers in order to gain a deeper insight into

  8. [Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in Tibetan and Yi adolescents' hair from Liangshan Prefecture, Sichuan Province].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Sun, Yi-ming; Jin, Jun; Lei, Jian-rong; Qin, Gui-ping; He, Xue-zhu; Lin, You-jing

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' (11-19 years old) hair samples (n =39) collected from Liangshan prefecture, Sichuan Province were analyzed for 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl(DL-PCBs) congeners by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). The levels and distribution characteristics of DL-PCBs in Tibetan and Yi Adolescents' hair were studied, meanwhile, the relationships between the levels of DL-PCBs and the nationalities, eating habits and genders were addressed. The results indicated that the average concentration of PCBs was (102.2 +/- 14. 3) pg x g(-1) with the range from 9.6 pg x g(-1) to 991.6 pg x g(-1). The concentration levels of this region were relatively low. PCB-77, PCB-105 and PCB-118 were the major congeners, contributing to 84.7% of the total. The levels of PCBs in Yi teenagers' hair were higher than those in Tibetan, and the concentration in hair was related to the frequency of eating meats and drinking milk per week. It might be attributed to the different eating habits of these two nationalities. When gender was considered, significantly higher concentrations were found in female than in male (P < 0.05). PMID:25898675

  9. Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder in temporary settlement residents 1 year after the Sichuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Ma, Ning; Yang, Lei; Agho, Kingsley; Stevens, Garry; Raphael, Beverley; Cui, Lijun; Liu, Yongqiao; Yan, Baoping; Ma, Hong; Yu, Xin

    2015-03-01

    The authors sought to determine the prevalence and risk factors for major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among survivors living in temporary accommodation in the Yongxing settlement in Mianyang city 1 year after the Sichuan earthquake for further interventions. They interviewed 182 residents, using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and a self-report questionnaire. The 12-month prevalence of depressive disorder and PTSD were 48.9% and 39.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that bereaved survivors were 5.51 times (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 5.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.14-14.22) more likely to report PTSD and 2.42 times (AOR = 2.42; 95%CI =1.00-5.48) more likely to report depressive disorder than nonbereaved survivors. Older age and receipt of government financial support were significantly associated with 12-month PTSD. Depressive disorder 12 months after the earthquake was associated with receipt of government financial support, pre-earthquake physical illness, single marital status, being currently employed, and Han ethnicity. PMID:23666829

  10. Sun, 26 Oct 2003 11:24:38 -0800 (PST) Sichuan -Four (si) Rivers (chuan)

    E-print Network

    Beimel, Amos

    and it deserves few words and many pictures. The Yangtse, China's largest river, starts its way in the snow mountains, north of eastern Tibet, and does a long way across China until it empties its waters moving clouds, the amazing stream, the roar of the waters that crescendoed as we came closer and closer

  11. China Textile in Global Value Chain Jean RUFFIER

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 China Textile in Global Value Chain Jean RUFFIER CNRS searcher, CEFC, Centre d'Etudes Français, local governments, traders and westerns companies. China's industrial take-off surprised economists, but it now lasted for twenty years with the industrial growth rate still higher than 10%. China has changed

  12. Studies of Natural Products on Treating Neurological Disorders in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hai Yan Zhang; Xi Can Tang

    2008-01-01

    China is well known for its long history of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which has endured for thousands of years. The use of TCM requires complex recipes and formulae derived from historical and anecdotal evidence of Chinese medicinal practitioners. Although western drugs were brought into China over a hundred years ago, TCM is still widely used in China based on

  13. Two novel reassortants of avian influenza A (H5N6) virus in China.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yuhai; Mei, Kun; Shi, Weifeng; Liu, Di; Yu, Xiaolan; Gao, Zhimin; Zhao, Lihua; Gao, George F; Chen, Jianjun; Chen, Quanjiao

    2015-05-01

    Eight avian influenza A (H5N6) viruses were isolated from live poultry markets (LPMs) in Sichuan and Jiangxi Provinces in China in 2014, including those close to the county where the human H5N6 infection occurred. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that these H5N6 viruses were novel reassortants between H5N1 clade 2.3.4 and H6N6 viruses, and had evolved into two distinct lineages (Sichuan and Jiangxi). Moreover, the human H5N6 virus was closely related to the avian-source viruses of Sichuan lineage. Notably, H5N6 viruses contained a T160A substitution in the haemagglutinin protein and an 11 aa deletion in the neuraminidase stalk, which may aid in enhancing viral affinity for human-like receptors and virulence in mammals. As the H5N1 virus infects humans through direct contact, infection with the novel H5N6 virus raised significant concerns that the H5 subtype was a likely candidate for a pandemic. Therefore, extensive and long-term surveillance of avian influenza viruses in LPMs is essential. PMID:25604926

  14. Maize rhizosphere in Sichuan, China, hosts plant growth promoting Burkholderia cepacia with phosphate solubilizing and antifungal abilities.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ke; Penttinen, Petri; Zhang, Xiaoping; Ao, Xiaoling; Liu, Maoke; Yu, Xiumei; Chen, Qiang

    2014-01-20

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria promote plant growth by direct and indirect mechanisms. We isolated twelve bacterial strains showing different degrees of phosphate solubilizing activity from maize rhizosphere. Four isolates solubilized over 300 ?g mL?¹ phosphate from insoluble Ca?(PO?)?, with isolate SCAUK0330 solubilizing over 450 ?g mL?¹. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis SCAUK0330 was identified as Burkholderia cepacia. SCAUK0330 grew at 10-40 °C and pH 4.0-10.0, tolerated up to 5% NaCl, and showed antagonism against nine pathogenic fungi. SCAUK0330 promoted the growth of both healthy and Helminthosporium maydis infected maize plants, indicating that the isolate was a good candidate to be applied as a biofertilizer and a biocontrol agent under a wide range of environmental conditions.The expression of a single SCAUK0330 gene gave E. coli a pH decrease linked ability to solubilize phosphate. The nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequences of this phosphate solubilization linked gene showed high degree of sequence identity with B. cepacia E37gabY. The production of gluconic acid is considered as the principle mechanism for phosphate solubilization. In agreement with the proposed periplasmic location of the gluconic acid production, the predicted signal peptide and transmembrane regions implied that GabY is membrane bound. PMID:23932330

  15. Improvised Lives: Individualization, Youth, and the Transition to Adulthood in Rural China

    E-print Network

    Strickland, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Challenges in China’s Move to Mass Higher Education. ” TheChina’s Universities and Western Academic Models. ” Higher Educationhigher education, nationwide Adapted from Ministry of Education data (2012a) From 1998 to 2010, the number of enrolled college students in China

  16. Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence of High Homocysteine Levels Among Low-Income Rural Kazakh and Uyghur Adults in Far Western China and Its Implications for Preventive Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shuxia; Pang, Hongrui; Guo, Heng; Zhang, Mei; He, Jia; Yan, Yizhong; Niu, Qiang; Muratbek; Rui, Dongsheng; Li, Shugang; Ma, Rulin; Zhang, Jingyu; Liu, Jiaming; Ding, Yusong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Homocysteine (Hcy) is a relevant biomarker of vascular disease: serum Hcy concentrations will increase the risk of systolic hypertension, whereas hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) has a synergistic effect with hypertension and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, information has primarily been gathered from high-income and urban settings, and little is known regarding low-income rural settings. This study focused on a low-income rural and nomadic minority residing in far western China. Hcy levels were tested, and the prevalences of HHcy and H-type hypertension were investigated in this population. Methods: This study used a stratified cluster random sampling method, selecting 2,180 individuals as subjects from Kazakh and Uyghur inhabitants (?25 years old) of 18 villages in Xinjiang, China, which is approximately 4407 km from the capital, Beijing. Hcy levels were determined using a double reagent enzymatic cycling method. HHcy (Hcy > 10 ?mol/L) was defined by the criteria of the American Heart Association. Results: The Kazakh geometrical mean of Hcy was 13.34 ?mol/L, and the Uyghur mean was 13.75 ?mol/L; the mean values were higher in males than in females of both ethnicities (15.99 ?mol/L vs. 11.63 ?mol/L; 15.71 ?mol/L vs. 11.91 ?mol/L, respectively, p < 0.01). The serum levels of Hcy increased with increasing age in both ethnicities, and except for Kazakh individuals >65 years old, Hcy serum levels were higher in males than in females in all age groups of both ethnicities, with a p value less than 0.01. The Kazakh prevalence of HHcy was 80.0%, and the Uyghur prevalence was 78.2%; the male prevalence was higher than that in females for both ethnicities (93.5% vs. 69.6%; 90.8% vs. 64.6%, respectively, p < 0.05). Among the Kazakh, the prevalence of hypertension was 35.1%, and the prevalence was higher in males than in females (44.3% vs. 28.1%, p < 0.001); 87.6% of the Kazakh individuals had H-type hypertension, and the prevalence was higher in males than in females (95.0% vs. 80.0%, p < 0.05). In Uyghur, the prevalence of hypertension was 30.6%, and the prevalence was higher in males than in females (37.9% vs. 22.8%, p < 0.001); 88.0% of the Uyghur individuals had H-type hypertension, and the prevalence was higher in males than in females (93.9% vs. 79.1%, p < 0.05). Conclusions: HHcy was found to be common among the Kazakh and Uyghur. The prevalences of HHcy and H-type hypertension were high among both ethnicities and differed depending on gender and age. Community interventions should be conducted to improve public health conditions among the Kazakh and Uyghur in Xinjiang. PMID:25996889

  17. Two new species of the stonefly genus Amphinemura (Insecta, Plecoptera, Nemouridae) from China

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xiao-Yu; Du, Yu-Zhou; Wang, Zhi-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of the genus Amphinemura Ris from China are described and illustrated, i.e. A. annulata Du & Ji, sp. n. from Zhejiang, Shanxi, Shaanxi and Guizhou Province, and A. lingulata Du & Wang, sp. n. from Shaanxi and Sichuan Province. A. annulata is similar to A. tricintusidens Wang & Zhu in having an apical cavity of the epiproct, but the epiproct ventral sclerite and the median paraproct lobe of the two species are different. A. lingulata is related to A. didyma Zhu & Yang in having the similar epiproct, but they differ mostly in paraproct median and outer lobes. PMID:24843269

  18. Three new species of Quedius elpenor group (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Staphylinini: Quediina) from China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yan-Peng; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of the subgenus Distichalius Casey, 1915 of the genus Quedius Stephens, 1829 are described based on specimens collected in China: Q. (Distichalius) biprominulus sp. nov., Yunnan; Q. (Distichalius) fusus sp. nov., Beijing; and Q. (Distichalius) paululus sp. nov., Sichuan. The new species belong to the Quedius elpenor group and increase the number of species of this group to 10. Line drawings and color illustrations of adults and genitalia of the new species are given. A key to all species of this group is provided and their geographical distribution is mapped. PMID:25947732

  19. Psychotherapy Integration in Modern China

    PubMed Central

    LI, MING-GAO; DUAN, CHANGMING; DING, BAO - KUENG; YUE, DONG - MEI; BEITMAN, BERNARD D.

    1994-01-01

    Since the end of the cultural revolution (1966-78), China has opened itself to Western influence and ideas, including those of Western psychotherapy theory and practice. The faster pace of life under the new market economies has been associated with increased psychological problems and a greater need for psychotherapy. Psychotherapy integration, which fits well both with basic Chinese beliefs and the collectivist orientation, is likely to continue to grow in influence and importance in China. Remaining obstacles to the development of psychotherapy in China include lack of psychotherapy skills within the medical profession, lack of potential profit from doing psychotherapy, stigma attached to mental problems by the masses, and failure to define basic requirements for psychotherapy training and practice. PMID:22700195

  20. Western Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. W. Hay; D. C. Robertson

    1981-01-01

    In 1980, a third successive all-time drilling record was set in western Canada, with 8865 wells being drilled, up 20% since 1979. Exploratory drilling increased 30%, to 3744 wells, and development drilling increased 14%, to 5121 wells. The exploratory success rate increased to 66% in 1980, based on 1017 oil discoveries and 1463 gas discoveries. The development success rate increased

  1. Origin and spread of wheat in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson, John R.; Li, Xiaoqiang; Zhou, Xinying; Zhao, Keliang; Sun, Nan; Atahan, Pia

    2013-07-01

    Wheat was added as a new crop to the existing millet and rice based agricultural systems of China. Here we present 35 radiocarbon ages from wheat seeds collected from 18 sites between western (Xinjiang Province) and eastern (Henan Province) China. The earliest wheat ages cluster around 2100-1800 BCE in northern China's Hexi corridor of Gansu Province, where millet was already a well-established crop. Wheat first appears in Xinjiang and Henan about 300-400 years later, and perhaps a little earlier than this in Xinjiang, and we hypothesize that the likely route of wheat into China was via Russia through Gansu.

  2. Western EFL Teachers and East-West Classroom-Culture Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Steven T.

    2008-01-01

    This article surveys some of the conflicts endemic to foreigners teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) in China. Though learning English is very popular in China now and China is one of the most popular destinations for Western EFL teachers, neither the teaching nor learning of English comes without certain clashes in the classroom. These…

  3. Organochlorine pesticide residues in surface water from Sichuan Basin to Aba Prefecture profile, east of the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongxia; Hu, Ying; Qi, Shihua; Xing, Xinli; Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Dan; Qu, Chengkai

    2015-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) found in rivers from the Sichuan Basin to Aba Prefecture profile were analyzed to assess possible health risks to adults and children who use the river as a source of drinking water. OCP concentrations in surface water ranged between 22.29-274.28 ng·L-1. Compared with other published data around the world, OCP levels in this study were moderate. Among all OCPs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the predominant compounds. Higher concentrations of OCPs were attributed close to the agricultural fields of the Sichuan Basin, current OCPs inputs, and long-range atmospheric transport from abroad. Various spatial patterns of OCPs in the profile might be affected by the usage and physicochemical properties of the pesticides, in addition to the adjacent geographical environment. The health risk assessment indicated that most OCPs had little impact on human health according to the acceptable risk level for carcinogens (10-6) recommended by the US EPA. However, carcinogenic effects caused by heptachlor, Aldrin, HCB, and ?-HCH might occur in drinking water. The risk of negative impacts caused by OCPs is much higher for children than for adults.

  4. Mapping the earthquake rupture and displacement field using correlation of ALOS PALSAR amplitude images: Application to the Mw 7.9 Sichuan earthquake, 12 May 2008

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Raucoules; M. de Michele; H. Aochi; C. Carnec

    2008-01-01

    This study concerns with the mapping of earthquake rupture in the presence of a high magnitude earthquake using remote sensing techniques. In particular, we focus on the Sichuan 2008 earthquake where large surface deformation field hampers the precise localisation of the earthquake rupture using InSAR techniques, even with L-band radar system. If radar interferometry is able to precisely map the

  5. Assessing Soil Erosion Rates on Manually-tilled Hillslopes in the Sichuan Hilly Basin Using 137Cs and 210Pbex Radionuclides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purple soils are widely distributed in the Sichuan Hilly Basin and are highly susceptible to erosion, especially on the cultivated slopeland. But quantitative assessment of the erosion rate is difficult due to the manually-tilled small patches of lands, sophistic structure of land use, and steep hil...

  6. An automated analysis of DEMETER ionospheric plasma waves observations and its application to the search for anomalous emissions over the Great Sichuan EQ region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuo Onishi; Jean-Jacques Berthelier

    2010-01-01

    Electric field observations in the VLF range from the ICE experiment onboard the CNES DEMETER micro-satellite have been analyzed to search for anomalies possibly related to the Great Sichuan Earthquake of May 12, 2008. This work was undertaken using results from a dedicated data processing that has been recently developed at LATMOS to perform an automated recognition and characterization of

  7. Nationalities of China Province of China

    E-print Network

    Li, Xiang

    Outline Nationalities of China Province of China Language of China #12;Nationalities of China 56 of China A province is an administrative division of China. 33 province level divisions. 22 Provinces 4-level cities in China direct- controlled by the central government Beijing Tianjin Shanghai Chongqing #12

  8. Western Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, P.W. (Canadian Stratigraphic Service Ltd., Calgary, Alberta); Robertson, D.C.

    1981-10-01

    In 1980, a third successive all-time drilling record was set in western Canada, with 8865 wells being drilled, up 20% since 1979. Exploratory drilling increased 30%, to 3744 wells, and development drilling increased 14%, to 5121 wells. The exploratory success rate increased to 66% in 1980, based on 1017 oil discoveries and 1463 gas discoveries. The development success rate increased marginally to 89%, with 1774 oil discoveries and 2778 gas discoveries. Average well depth increased in all four western provinces, and total land sales reached the record $1 billion mark in Alberta and a record $78 million in Saskatchewan. British Columbia land sales declined slightly to $181 million. Alberta drilling activity continued in the deeper portions of the Alberta basin and foothills, with major gas discoveries at Hanlan, Big Mountain, Blackstone, and Elmworth. Significant oil discoveries were made in the West Pembina Nisku pinnacle reefs, in the Upper Devonian at Del Bonita and Eaglesham, and in the Lower Cretaceous glauconite river channels in southern Alberta between Countess and Grand Forks. British Columbia successes occurred as the Elmworth Deep Basin play spilled over into British Columbia with gas discoveries at Tupper and Steeprock. Gas finds were also made at West Sierra and Murray. The Arctic Islands continued to yield the largest discoveries. Two major successes occurred in the Beaufort Sea, in an oil and gas discovery by Esso at Issungnak and a reentry oil discovery by Dome at Tarsuit. However, 1980 will especially be remembered for the introduction of the federal government's National Energy Program during October, with new taxes on revenue, lower than expected wellhead price increases, and major emphasis on increasing Canadian ownership and self-sufficiency. Industry and provincial government reaction was highly critical, and a major downturn in exploration is expected in western Canada in 1981. 3 figures, 8 tables.

  9. Dental laboratory technology education in China: current situation and challenges.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Liwei; Yue, Li; Zhou, Min; Yu, Haiyang

    2013-03-01

    Modern dentistry and dental education in China were first introduced from abroad by Dr. Lindsay in 1907. However, advancements in the field of dental laboratory technology did not occur to the same degree in specialties such as prosthodontics and orthodontics. Since the 1990s, orders from abroad demanding dental appliances surged as the image of China as the "world's factory" strengthened. The assembly line model, in which technicians work like simple procedure workers, was rapidly applied to denture production, while the traditional education system and apprenticeship systems demonstrated little progress in these years. The lack of advancement in dental laboratory technology education caused insufficient development in China's dental technology industry. In order to alter the situation, a four-year dental laboratory technology undergraduate educational program was established in 2005 by West China School of Stomatology, Sichuan University (WCSS, SCU). This program was based on SCU's undergraduate education and WCSS's junior college education systems. The program introduced scientific methods in relevant subjects into laboratory technicians' training and made many improvements in the availability of trained faculty, textbooks, laboratory facilities, and curriculum. PMID:23486899

  10. Experience from the 300 MWe CFB Demontration Plant in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauvillé, P.; Semedard, J.-C.; Darling, S.

    This paper will describe the background and current status of the 300MWe CFB Demonstration Project located at the Baima Power Plant in Sichuan Province. This project was the first 300MWe class CFB in China and the first project built under the Transfer of Technology from Alstom. The plant entered commercial operation in early 2006. The fuel is a high-ash anthracite which has presented significant challenges in terms of higher-than-expected ash content and top size. While this fuel has been problematic for the adjacent suspension-fired boilers, performance in the CFB boiler has been excellent, with low carbon content in the ash, low turndown and low emissions. Key boiler performance parameters will be described along with a comparison of design and actual performance and the operational experience will be addressed. Finally, the paper will describe Alstom's process for scaling the CFB technology from 300MWe to 600MWe, and our supercritical CFB design.

  11. Impact of the National Hearing Screening Programme in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Ying Nie

    China has a large population with different levels of medical care among the eastern, central and western areas. The national universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) programme was initiated in 1999 and then progressively implemented nationwide. A \\

  12. Chinese haze versus Western smog: lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution in many Chinese cities has been so severe in recent years that a special terminology, the “Chinese haze”, was created to describe China’s air quality problem. Historically, the problem of Chinese haze has developed several decades after Western high-income countries have significantly improved their air quality from the smog-laden days in the early- and mid-20th century. Hence it is important to provide a global and historical perspective to help China combat the current air pollution problems. In this regard, this article addresses the followings specific questions: (I) What is the Chinese haze in comparison with the sulfurous (London-type) smog and the photochemical (Los Angeles-type) smog? (II) How does Chinese haze fit into the current trend of global air pollution transition? (III) What are the major mitigation measures that have improved air quality in Western countries? and (IV) What specific recommendations for China can be derived from lessons and experiences from Western countries? PMID:25694813

  13. Review of the millipede genus Eutrichodesmus Silvestri, 1910, in China, with descriptions of new cavernicolous species (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Haplodesmidae)

    PubMed Central

    Golovatch, Sergei I.; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Mauriès, Jean-Paul; VandenSpiegel, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Eutrichodesmus fauna of mainland China, by far the largest genus in the Indo-Australian family Haplodesmidae, is reviewed and shown to encompass 23 species (of a total of 45), all keyed. The following nine new species, all presumed troglobites, are described: Eutrichodesmus triangularis sp. n., from Sichuan, Eutrichodesmus lipsae sp. n., from Guangxi, Eutrichodesmus tenuis sp. n., Eutrichodesmus trontelji sp. n., Eutrichodesmus latellai sp. n., Eutrichodesmus obliteratus sp. n. and Eutrichodesmus troglobius sp. n., all from Guizhou, Eutrichodesmus sketi sp. n., from Hunan, and Eutrichodesmus apicalis sp. n., from Hubei.

  14. Review of the millipede genus Eutrichodesmus Silvestri, 1910, in China, with descriptions of new cavernicolous species (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Haplodesmidae).

    PubMed

    Golovatch, Sergei I; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Mauriès, Jean-Paul; VandenSpiegel, Didier

    2015-01-01

    The Eutrichodesmus fauna of mainland China, by far the largest genus in the Indo-Australian family Haplodesmidae, is reviewed and shown to encompass 23 species (of a total of 45), all keyed. The following nine new species, all presumed troglobites, are described: Eutrichodesmustriangularis sp. n., from Sichuan, Eutrichodesmuslipsae sp. n., from Guangxi, Eutrichodesmustenuis sp. n., Eutrichodesmustrontelji sp. n., Eutrichodesmuslatellai sp. n., Eutrichodesmusobliteratus sp. n. and Eutrichodesmustroglobius sp. n., all from Guizhou, Eutrichodesmussketi sp. n., from Hunan, and Eutrichodesmusapicalis sp. n., from Hubei. PMID:26052236

  15. The feasibility of concentrated rural settlement in a context of post-disaster reconstruction: a study of China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yi; Shen, Liyin; Zhang, Xiaoling; Ochoa, J Jorge

    2014-01-01

    There is growing appreciation of the use of concentrated rural settlement as an effective means of implementing infrastructure projects and helping to achieve sustainable development in rural areas. This occurs in China through the exchange of rural residential land for urban construction. However, this policy has not been effective under normal circumstances (called development-driven conditions) as frequently farmers are reluctant to accept such an exchange. By contrast, in a time of disaster, such as after the 2008 earthquake in Sichuan Province, China, rural victims have accepted this policy of rural residential land exchange. Employing game theory, this paper identifies the reasons for the different outcomes and it contends that the implementation of concentrated rural settlement practice under disaster-induced conditions is more effective than its introduction under development-driven conditions. The results of the analysis indicate that, in China, concentrated rural settlement is feasible in a context of post-disaster reconstruction. PMID:24325241

  16. Lake records and LGM climate in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ge Yu; Bin Xue; Sumin Wang; Jian Liu

    2000-01-01

    Chinese lake status database has provided systematic geological records of much higher lake level and fresher water than today\\u000a at the LGM from western China. This wet condition was significant contrast with very dry conditions in eastern China. Together\\u000a with lake studies from Eurasian continents, there was a wet-condition belt from the Mediterranean and the Middle East, Central\\u000a Asia to

  17. Petroleum geology of Giant oil and gas fields in Turpan Basin Xinjiang China

    SciTech Connect

    Boliang, Hu; Jiajing, Yang, [Lanzhou, Gansu (China)

    1995-08-01

    Turpan Basin is the smallest and the last development basin in three big basins of Xinjiang autonomous region, P.R. China. Since April, 1989, the Shanshan oilfield was discovered, the Oinling, Wenjisang, Midang, Baka, Qiudong and North Putaogou fields were discovered. In 1994, the crude oil productivity of Turpan Basin was a Million tons, with an estimated output of 3 million tons per year by 1995; obviously a key oil productive base in the west basins of China, Tarim, Jungar, Chaidam, Hexi, Erduos and Sichuan Basins. The Turpan Basin is an intermontane basin in a eugeosyncline foldbelt of the north Tianshan Mountains. The oil and gas was produced from the payzone of the Xishanyao, Sanjianfang and Qiketai Formatiosn of the Middle Jurassic series. The geochemical characteristics of the crude oil and gas indicate they derive from the Middle to Lower Jurassic coal series, in which contains the best oil-prone source rocks in the basin.

  18. [Effects of straw returning on the integrated soil fertility and crop yield in southern China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Dong, Yan; Xu, Ming-Gang; Bao, Yao-Xian

    2012-11-01

    Based on the data from 94 experiments of straw returning in Anhui, Jiangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Guangxi, Sichuan, and Chongqing, and by using mathematic modeling approach, this paper evaluated the effects of straw returning on the soil fertility and crop yield in southern China. Obvious regional differences were observed in the soil fertility index (SFI) and crop yield response. In study area, the croplands with the SFI of Grade III and Grade IV were predominant, occupying 69.1% and 21.3% of the total, respectively. Averagely, straw returning increased the SFI and crop yield by 6.8% and 4.4%, respectively, as compared with the control (no straw returning). The SFI was significantly linearly correlated with rice yield, and could well reflect the integrated soil fertility in study area. At present, straw returning with decomposing agent added is one of the most important measures to improve the integrated soil fertility in southern China, which should be widely popularized. PMID:23431788

  19. Review of the genus platystethus mannerheim (coleoptera: staphylinidae: oxytelinae) in china.

    PubMed

    Lü, Liang; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Platystethus Mannerheim, currently comprising 53 species, is a widespread genus of the subfamily Oxytelinae in Northern Hemisphere. Platystethus species are most commonly found in dung and other decaying plant materials, occasionally on stream banks. In this paper, we reviewed all 12 species currently known from China. Three species are described as new to science: P. bucerus sp. nov. (from Xizang and Sichuan), P. subnitens sp. nov. (from Xinjiang), and P. vicinior sp. nov. (from Xinjiang). A synonymy is re-proposed: P. cornutus (Gravenhorst) = P. operosus Sharp. The lectotype is designated for P. operosus Sharp, 1874. All previously known Chinese species are redescribed and a key is provided to the species from China and adjacent regions. Diagnostic details of the treated taxa are illustrated by color photographs and by line drawings.  PMID:25662119

  20. Teaching of psychology to university students in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Houcan Zhang; Yan Xu

    2006-01-01

    Psychology was first introduced into China from the Western world in the beginning of the 20th century. After the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, psychology was a subdiscipline under education; only after 1960 did psychology became an independent discipline. With the onset of the “Cultural Revolution” (1966–1976), when all universities were closed, psychology was severely attacked

  1. Farming systems of the Loess Plateau, Gansu Province, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharna Nolan; Murray Unkovich; Shen Yuying; Li Lingling; William Bellotti

    2008-01-01

    Gansu Province in north western China contains a large portion of China's rural poor. Within this province we compared extant farming systems in lower and higher rainfall areas of the Loess Plateau. The farming systems were dominated by subsistence winter wheat production in the higher rainfall more productive area (Qingyang), and subsistence spring wheat in the lower rainfall less productive

  2. Asynchronous Holocene climatic change across China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Y.; Theakstone, Wilfred H.; Zhonglin, Zhang; Dian, Zhang; Tandong, Yao; Tuo, Chen; Yongping, Shen; Hongxi, Pang

    2004-01-01

    A review of Holocene climatic variations in different parts of China shows that they were asynchronous. Proxy data from ice cores, pollen, loess, lacustrine sediments, and changes of sea and lake levels demonstrate that many warm and cold oscillations have occurred in China during the Holocene, including a most important climatic event known as the "Holocene optimum," a milder and wetter period, and that the duration and amplitude of the optimum period, as well as its start and end times, differed in different parts of China. Uplift of the Tibetan plateau over the past millions of years led to the development of the monsoon climate and to complex atmospheric circulation over continental China during the Holocene. As a result, the Holocene optimum began and terminated earlier in high-altitude regions of western China than at lower elevations in eastern China, and the amplitude of the variations was lower in the east. This suggests that the western higher-altitude areas were more sensitive to climatic change than were the eastern lower-altitude areas. Holocene climatic records in the Dunde and Guliya ice cores do not correspond. Inverse ? 18O variations between the two cores indicate that the effects of climate and atmospheric processes on the stable isotopes at the two sites differed. The correlation between the isotopic composition of carbonates in lake deposits in western China and climatic variations is similar to that in the ice cores. The climatic resolution in ice cores and lake sediments is higher than that in other media. The lack of precise correspondence of climatic records constructed on the basis of proxy data from different parts of China is a result of the different locations and elevations of the sampling sites, the different resolutions of the source material, and the varied climatic conditions within China. Further work is needed to confirm both the conclusions and the inferences presented here.

  3. Toward an improved data stewardship and service for environmental and ecological science data in West China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Li; Zhuotong Nan; Guodong Cheng; Yongjian Ding; Lizong Wu; Liangxu Wang; Jian Wang; Youhua Ran; Hongxing Li; Xiaoduo Pan; Zhongming Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Sharing of scientific data can help scientific research to flourish and facilitate more widespread use of scientific data for the benefit of society. The Environmental and Ecological Science Data Center for West China (WestDC), sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), aims to collect, manage, integrate, and disseminate environmental and ecological data from western China. It also

  4. Vegetable Seedling Breeding with Biochar Produced from Invasive Plant Biomass in South West of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guitong; Tian, Yanfang; Liu, Cheng; Cao, Jianhua; Lin, Qimei; Zhao, Xiaorong

    2015-04-01

    Crofton Weed (Ageratina adenophora) is an invasive plant widely colonized in the southwest part of China, such as Yunnan, Guizhou, and Sichuan. It is estimated that the total biomass of this small shrub in China can be as much as 30 million tones. Many methods have been developed to control its malignant expansion, mostly by using its leaves as feed for livestock. Its stem is difficult to use, although it accounts for more than 90% of its total biomass. A biochar production system, using the stems of Crofton Weed as feedstock, was established at Xi-Yu Biological Science and Technology Company, Pan-Zhi-hua, Sichuan Province, China. The system is composed of feeder, hot-air dryer, pyrolyser, activator, steam producer, and biochar-based fertilizer producer. The energy for producing hot-air to pre-dry the feedstock and steam to activate the carbonized material comes from the re-use of the heat yielded from the pyrolysis process. The whole system is in a high level of automation and energy efficiency. With this system, local farmers can improve their income by collecting stems of Crofton Weed and selling them to the producer. It is a practical way to control this kind of invasive plant by offering economic value for the local people. The biochar can be used to produce new seedling substrate by replacing peat to protect wetland resource. The biochar seedling media was produced in a simple way and the effects on growth of vegetable seedlings was evaluated. Results showed that the response of vegetable seeds to the biochar seedling media was different, meaning more detailed studies need to done to find the reasons for some kinds of seeds failed to germinate in the tested biochar seedling media. This research was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China under the Public Industry Science and Technology Project (201103027).

  5. Spatiotemporal variations of precipitation extremes of China during the past 50 years (1960-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Xiaoxiao; Yin, Zhan'e.; Wang, Xuan; Sun, Yuke

    2015-04-01

    Extreme weather events have become more frequent and intense under global warming in recent years, which has attracted much attention of scholars at home and abroad. In this paper, we used data sets of daily precipitation recorded at 499 meteorological stations to analyze the temporal and spatial variations of precipitation extremes in China over the past 50 years (1960-2009). Through the comparison of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and the percentile method, DFA was selected to define the thresholds of precipitation extremes in China. Temporal variations of extreme precipitation amount, frequency, and intensity were analyzed in four major regions: Northwest China, the Qinghai-Tibet region, North China, and South China. Spatial distributions were obtained by the Kriging interpolation method, and then, we examined the varying tendencies of extreme precipitation amount, frequency, and intensity by the Mann-Kendall test. The results show that increasing trends are dominant for all indices over China; extreme precipitation amount and frequency appear to have risen since 1970-1979, but there are some regional differences. The Qinghai-Tibet region and South China have an ascending trend, and Northwest China maintains balance while North China has a descending trend. The amount and intensity of precipitation extremes are decreasing from southeastern coastal areas to northwestern inlands, and the frequency of precipitation extremes is randomly distributed. However, they are all high in the Sichuan Basin, the middle and lower Yangtze River, and the southern part of South China. Trends of most stations are statistically insignificant, but the percentage of stations with a significant increased trend in the Qinghai-Tibet region is larger than that of other regions.

  6. China’s Innovative Past

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2010-02-12

    This audio segment from PRI's The World Science Podcast explores the roots of China's creative past and examines why China, a country that over 1500 years came up with some of the most important inventions the world had ever seen, might have lost its innovative edge to the West.

  7. The effect of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Sichuan earthquake on regional landslide patterns between 2001 and 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leith, Kerry; Krammel, Lisa; Krautblatter, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Large earthquakes have a major impact on patterns of regional landsliding. Here, we utilise a twelve-year record of forest cover change in the region of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake in order to assess geomorphic factors contributing to slope instability in years prior to, during, and after the earthquake. The satellite-based catalogue of forest cover change developed by Hansen et al. (2013) compares favourably with results from a study of earthquake-induced slope instability undertaken by Parker et al. (2011), indicating that our correlation of tree loss with regional landsliding is reasonable. While we cannot account for slope stability on unvegetated slopes, the temporal nature of the dataset allows us to account for the presence of pre-existing landslides or barren rock slopes which have complicated previous studies. We assess a number of geomorphic factors including slope, aspect, curvature, ruggedness, height and distance from river channels, and the hydrological slope (calculated using the downslope distance to river channels). In order to account for spatial distributions as a result of local seismicity, interpreted landslide locations were normalised against a randomly generated distribution of points seeded using observed landslide concentrations within 1 km x 1 km cells. We find that while few metrics allow us to distinguish the 2008 data from the random dataset, aspect played an important role in determining susceptibility, and slopes with a greater hydrological slope demonstrate a greater susceptibility for failure. In addition, we observe a notable decrease in the elevation of landslides in the year of the earthquake, and progressive increase in elevations in successive years following. This may either be a result of retrogressive slope failure, or a return to 'normal' stability conditions in the four years following the earthquake. Hansen, M. C., Potapov, P. V., Moore, R., Hancher, M., Turubanova, S. A., Tyukavina, A., Thau, D., Stehman, S. V., Goetz, S. J., Loveland, T. R., Kommareddy, A., Egorov, A., Chini, L., Justice, C. O., and Townshend, J. R. G., 2013, High-Resolution Global Maps of 21st-Century Forest Cover Change: Science, v. 342, no. 6160, p. 850-853. Parker, N. Robert; Densmore, Alexander, L.; Rosser, Nicholas J. et. al., 2011. Mass wasting triggered by the 2008 Sichuan earthquake is greater than orogenic growth. Nature Geoscience 4, 339-452.

  8. Western Meridiani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 22 January 2004

    Long before the MER landers were named or launched, the two orbiters at Mars were asked to examine landing sites. Both the Odyssey and Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft have been collecting landing site data for the past two years. The MGS and ODY data were used as part of the decision making process in the final selection of the two landing sites. The types of data collected by the two orbiters included not only images of the surface but also thermal data about the surface composition, atmospheric data about the climate at each location, and the tracking of major dust storms in the region prior to landing. The presence of, and data collected by, the MGS and ODY orbiters have proven invaluable in MER mission planning.

    This image, collected on 16 January 2003, covers an area in Western Meridiani.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 1.9, Longitude 354.7 East (5.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Western Gusev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 7 January 2004

    Long before the MER landers were named or launched, the two orbiters at Mars were asked to examine landing sites. Both the Odyssey and Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft have been collecting landing site data for the past two years. The MGS and ODY data were used as part of the decision making process in the final selection of the two landing sites. The types of data collected by the two orbiters included not only images of the surface but also thermal data about the surface composition, atmospheric data about the climate at each location, and the tracking of major dust storms in the region prior to landing. The presence of, and data collected by, the MGS and ODY orbiters have proven invaluable in MER mission planning.

    This image shows some of the far-western areas of Gusev Crater, and was captured on 27 June 2003, while Spirit was en-route to Mars.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -14, Longitude 174.8 East (185.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Tectonics of China: Continental scale cataclastic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, John J., Jr.

    Stratigraphic, structural, and earthquake evidence indicates that cataclastic flow, that is, flow by brittle mechanisms (e.g., fracture and slip), was dominant in China from late Paleozoic. This process has operated over a range of scales including the continental scale. China is made up of large brittle basement elements immersed in ductile zones which are analogous to porphyroclasts (large, often brittle fragments) surrounded by fluxion (foliation or flow) structures in cataclastic rocks, respectively. This basement fabric for China is seen on Landsat imagery and on tectonic maps and is comparable to cataclastic rock fabrics seen in fault zones, on outcrops, and in thin sections. Brittle basement elements are broken into two or more large rigid blocks, and the dimensions of elements and blocks are within 1 order of magnitude of each other. Ductile zones are made up of fragments which are many orders of magnitude smaller than the ductile zones. Rigid blocks and fragments are identified, and their dimensions are measured through earthquake, fault, and fracture patterns. Rigid basement blocks are surrounded by earthquakes. The sedimentary rocks over the basement faults at the block boundaries seem to be affected by fault movements because they are characterized by facies changes, thickness changes, high-angle faults, and forced folds. Ductile basement zones are earthquake prone, and deformation of the ductile basement affects the overlying sedimentary rocks, as is demonstrated by unconformities and by a wide variety of structures. Thrust faults, buckle folds, and strike slip faults are common in and adjacent to western ductile zones. Structures are most intensely developed where ductile zones abut brittle elements. Both brittle elements and ductile zones are rifted and cut by strike slip faults in eastern China. The mechanical fabric of China and the boundary conditions acting on China are now and always have been determined by its plate tectonic history. This inference is made from recently published plate tectonic interpretations. Geologic maps show that there are six elements and that each element has a Precambrian, crystalline core which is surrounded by upper Paleozoic continental margin suites of rocks, including subduction complexes, among others. Geologic data on ophiolites demonstrate that the brittle elements and their margins were juxtaposed and then welded together along suture zones during Permian and Triassic time to make China. Cenofcoic plate motions affecting China resulted in the collision with India where it converges with southwest China and the extension in eastern China where island arcs move away from the mainland and where grabens are actively forming. The juxtaposition to Siberia, which acts as a buttress against northern China, explains the compression of western China, and the absence of a buttress in the Pacific Ocean explains why eastern China can extend. Furthermore, laboratory data on the mechanical behavior of rock under conditions analogous to the shallow crustal conditions of interest in China show that all rocks are weaker in extension than they are in compression. Basement rock in western China is strong because it is compressed, but this same basement rock is weak in eastern China because it is in extension. The tectonics of China or, in mechanistic terms, the way in which the mechanical framework of China responds to Cenozoic boundary forces was a result of China's previous plate tectonic history. Crystalline cores are the rigid blocks that form brittle elements. Both the continental margin suites and the sutures are the ductile zones. The sutures and sediment patterns seen in the basins and ranges of China can be explained in terms of this tectonic scenario.

  11. Decreasing Trends in Sunshine Duration Over China for 1954-1998: Indication of Increased Haze Pollution?

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, Dale P.; Qian, Yun

    2002-11-01

    Analysis of meteorological data made available by the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) reveals significant decreases in sunshine duration over the latter half of the 20th century over much of China, especially in the eastern half of the country. Most of the decrease has occurred since about 1980, and appears to be related to large increases in atmospheric anthropogenic aerosol loading that have increased the aerosol extinction coefficient (AEC), as calculated from observations of (decreasing) visual range. A finding of particular interest is a significant decrease in summertime maximum temperature over this time period for a large portion of southeastern China near the Sichuan Basin (while the rest of China-and indeed most of the northern hemisphere-has warmed). This same region of southeastern China shows the largest decreases in sunshine duration and largest increases in AEC. The consistent spatial and temporal patterns of change in these variables seem to support the theory that aerosol loading has decreased the duration and intensity of sunshine in this region and thus lowered summertime maximum temperatures.

  12. Continuous GPS Observations in the Sichuan Province from 2010-2013: Implications for strain accumulation and post-seismic slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, R.; Stamps, D.; Hager, B. H.; Bechor-Ben Dov, N.

    2013-12-01

    The May 12, 2008 M7.9 Wenchuen earthquake ruptured the Longmen Shan fault (LMS) with south to north propagation.Previous studies indicate reverse and right-lateral slip components of the event were similar in magnitude at the epicenter and switched to dominantly right-slip along the northeastern LMS. Post-seismic slip inversions of GPS observations up to 1 year after the earthquake suggest that slip occurred on a 60 km deep decollement along the southern LMS in addition to shallow, steeply dipping faults.In this work we use a new continuous GPS velocity solution from the Sichuan province that spans late 2010 to mid-2013. The velocity field shows continued along-strike surface deformation along the northern LMS and potentially a component of fault-normal convergence closer to the epicenter.We investigate the roles of post-seismic slip and visco-elastic relaxation using both dislocation modeling and kinematic modeling with internal strain. Kinematic constraints include GPS observations and earthquake slip vectors. We test decollement and shallow fault geometries with locked or freely slipping faults and estimate permanent strain rates within block interiors. Preliminary tests confirm eastern Tibet does not behave as a rigid block in the time since the earthquake.

  13. An Anatomy of China's Energy Insecurity and Its Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Bo

    2005-12-06

    China’s energy insecurity largely originates from its constrained availability, questionable reliability, and uncertain affordability of its oil supplies. The country’s fast industrialization and urbanization, together with demand for infrastructure and increasing popularity of automobiles, requires a lot of energy, but it consumes energy both intensively and inefficiently, threatening the environmental well-being of China and its neighbors. China’s risk aversion and poor energy policy making system further magnifies its perceptions of the low availability, reliability and affordability of oil imports, which further compounds its sense of energy insecurity. Distrustful of the market, and suspicious of other major energy players in the international market, the Chinese leadership relies on the state-centered approach, or economic nationalism, rather than a market approach to enhance its energy security. However, the country lacks not only an energy policy making system that can make and implement sound energy policies but also an energy market that relies on market prices to allocate energy resources efficiently. As a result of this domestic failure, China has pushed its national flagship companies to undertake a global scavenger hunt for energy while muddling along a messy road of energy reform at home. Setbacks in acquiring new sources of oil have validated the Chinese leadership’s belief that the international oil market is not free and China’s access to international oil is not guaranteed through the market. China’s problems in the international energy market are also perceived as evidence of attempts to prevent China from exerting international influence. China’s leadership is convinced that China should focus on areas where western capital is not heavily concentrated or where western influences are weak. With the recent revaluation of Chinese currency and growing economy, China has both the wherewithal and appetite to acquire more oil assets abroad. Both China and the United States stand at a critical juncture of history where China’s rise depends on reliable energy supplies which it increasingly imports from abroad and where the growing wealth of the United States is increasingly dependent upon China’s success. If China does not have energy security it’s 1.3 billion fuel-starved people will prevent the rest of the world from achieving energy security.

  14. Rheumatic Diseases in China

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qing Yu; Chen, Ren; Darmawan, John; Xiao, Zheng Yu; Chen, Su Biao; Wigley, Richard; Le Chen, Shun; Zhang, Nai Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiological studies of rheumatic diseases have been conducted during the past 20 years in China. The aim of this study was to clarify prevalence rates of common rheumatic diseases in China. Methods Relevant reports of population-based surveys conducted from 1980 to 2006 were retrieved. Studies using the World Health Organization-International League of Associations for Rheumatology COPCORD (Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases) protocol and those that did not employ this protocol but were published in recognized journals were identified and analyzed. Results Thirty-eight surveys including 241,169 adults from 25 provinces/cities were pooled for analysis. The prevalence of rheumatic complaints ranged from 11.6% to 46.4%, varying by locality, study protocol and age of the people surveyed. Prevalence of symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) varied from 5.1% to 20.8%, with common sites of involvement being the lumbar spine, knee joint and cervical spine. Compared with rates of radiographic and symptomatic knee OA in the USA, elderly men in Beijing exhibited similar prevalence rates and elderly women exhibited a higher prevalence. The prevalence of hip OA and hand OA was much lower in Chinese than in Caucasian populations, but both kinds of OA were more common in coal miners. The prevalence of ankylosing spondylitis ranged from 0.2% to 0.54% among Han ethnic Chinese and were lower among mixed ethnic populations. The prevalence of psoriatic arthritis ranged from 0.01% to 0.1%, and that of reactive arthritis was 0.02%; undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy was identified in 0.64% to 1.2% of the individuals included in the surveys. The prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) ranged from 0.2% to 0.93%, with the highest rate being reported from a Taiwan urban area. In mainland China there were no significant differences in prevalence of RA between the northern and southern parts of China, or between different ethnic groups. The prevalence of hyperuricemia increased after the 1980s. The prevalence of gout was found to have increased in recent decades from 0.15% to 1.98%, apart from in the Taiwan aborigines, among whom the highest prevalence rate of 11.7% was recorded. The prevalence of primary Sjögren's syndrome in Beijing was 0.77% by the Copenhagen criteria and 0.33% by the San Diego criteria. The prevalence of soft tissue rheumatism was 2.5% to 5.7%. Fibromyalgia was seldom observed in China. Conclusion Rheumatic diseases are common in China. The prevalence of rheumatic complaints varied with the locality surveyed. The prevalence of OA is comparable with that in Western countries but varies in terms of joint involvement. The prevalence of ankylosing spondylitis is similar to that in Caucasians. Except in Taiwan, the prevalence of RA in China is lower than that in developed countries. The prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout increased after the 1980s, but it remains lower than that in developed countries. More studies are required to evaluate prevalence rates among minority groups in the west and northwest parts of China, and further study is needed to address fibromyalgia in China. PMID:18237382

  15. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from pigs from different localities in China by PCR-RFLP

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii is a widely prevalent protozoan parasite that causes serious toxoplasmosis in humans and animals. The present study aimed to determine the genetic diversity of T. gondii isolates from pigs in Jiangxi, Sichuan, Guangdong Provinces and Chongqing Municipality in China using multilocous polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technology. Methods A total of 38 DNA samples were extracted from hilar lymph nodes of pigs with suspected toxoplasmosis, and were detected for the presence of T. gondii by semi-nested PCR of B1 gene. The positive DNA samples were typed at 11 genetic markers, including 10 nuclear loci, namely, SAG1, 5?-SAG2 and 3?-SAG2, alternative SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and an apicoplast locus Apico. Results Twenty-five of the 38 DNA samples were T. gondii B1 gene positive. Complete genotyping data for all loci could be obtained for 17 of the 25 samples. Two genotypes were revealed (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotypes #9 and #3). Sixteen samples belong to genotype #9 which is the major lineage in mainland China and one sample belongs to genotype #3 which is Type II variant. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of genetic typing of T. gondii isolates from pigs in Jiangxi, Sichuan Province and Chongqing Municipality, and the first report of ToxoDB #3?T. gondii from pigs in China. These results have implications for the prevention and control of foodborne toxoplasmosis in humans. PMID:23919620

  16. Couching for cataract: advanced medical achievements of China in 1976?

    PubMed

    Fan, Ka-wai

    2011-01-01

    Cataracts have been a common disease in China for centuries. As early as the Tang dynasty, physicians of Chinese medicine had developed 'jin pi shu', a method of couching, to cure the disease. In 1976, a new method, invented by Tang Youzhi, was acknowledged as one of the most advanced medical achievements in communist China. This paper explores the significance of Tang's method for Mao Zedong's China. Tang's method achieved two goals set by Chairman Mao for medical and health policies: to serve rural China and to integrate Chinese and Western medicine. PMID:21954497

  17. Western Pacific Regional Summary Western Pacific

    E-print Network

    ) of the Pacific-wide (western-central and eastern Pacific Ocean) total of Pacific bigeye tuna landings reported Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) is active in the western and central Pacific Ocean and the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) is active in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Species under the purview

  18. An interpretive comparison of Chinese and Western conceptions of relationships in construction project management work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Chen; David Partington

    2004-01-01

    Recent moves to introduce Western project management processes into China recall the need for caution in transferring management theories and practices across cultures. Not only are there a number of well-known contrasts between Chinese and Western cultural values that shape management beliefs in important ways, but also evidence shows that the cross-cultural transfer of management processes in general is not

  19. Western University Rehabilitation Services

    E-print Network

    Lennard, William N.

    1 Western University Rehabilitation Services Transitional Accommodation Program Western by Rehabilitation Services and is updated at frequent intervals in order to: 1. confirm progression toward treatment information is held in the strictest confidence within Rehabilitation Services. Only capabilities

  20. Bayesian geostatistical modelling of soil-transmitted helminth survey data in the People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminth infections affect tens of millions of individuals in the People’s Republic of China (P.R. China). There is a need for high-resolution estimates of at-risk areas and number of people infected to enhance spatial targeting of control interventions. However, such information is not yet available for P.R. China. Methods A geo-referenced database compiling surveys pertaining to soil-transmitted helminthiasis, carried out from 2000 onwards in P.R. China, was established. Bayesian geostatistical models relating the observed survey data with potential climatic, environmental and socioeconomic predictors were developed and used to predict at-risk areas at high spatial resolution. Predictors were extracted from remote sensing and other readily accessible open-source databases. Advanced Bayesian variable selection methods were employed to develop a parsimonious model. Results Our results indicate that the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections in P.R. China considerably decreased from 2005 onwards. Yet, some 144 million people were estimated to be infected in 2010. High prevalence (>20%) of the roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides infection was predicted for large areas of Guizhou province, the southern part of Hubei and Sichuan provinces, while the northern part and the south-eastern coastal-line areas of P.R. China had low prevalence (<5%). High infection prevalence (>20%) with hookworm was found in Hainan, the eastern part of Sichuan and the southern part of Yunnan provinces. High infection prevalence (>20%) with the whipworm Trichuris trichiura was found in a few small areas of south P.R. China. Very low prevalence (<0.1%) of hookworm and whipworm infections were predicted for the northern parts of P.R. China. Conclusions We present the first model-based estimates for soil-transmitted helminth infections throughout P.R. China at high spatial resolution. Our prediction maps provide useful information for the spatial targeting of soil-transmitted helminthiasis control interventions and for long-term monitoring and surveillance in the frame of enhanced efforts to control and eliminate the public health burden of these parasitic worm infections. PMID:24350825

  1. Anticounterfeit holograms in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Dahsiung; Zhou, Jing; Pei, Wen; Li, Qiang; Huang, Xuhuai; Cao, Yulin

    1995-02-01

    The Chinese holography industry has been given an enormous boost by the energetic sales and technology transfer of several western businesses. It is a fast growing industry which can keep up with domestic demand for anti-counterfeit embossed holograms because product counterfeiting is so rife internally. Tax papers, stamps, plastic cards, identification cards, and many packaged goods are authenticated with embossed holograms. Up to now, about 1,000 kinds of products in China have used holograms to protect themselves. Anti-counterfeit holograms with secret codes have also been used. After dependence on imports, China is rapidly developing its own sources of equipment, holographic materials, and embossing substrates. The quality of this equipment and materials is improving. The new Chinese Holography Association, a national industry association aiming to develop the application of holograms and to promote cooperation between organizations, was established in 1993. The CHA has requested affiliation to the International Hologram Manufacturers Association, a move which should improve the communication between the Chinese industry and the rest of the world industry.

  2. The First China Watchers: British Intelligence Officers in China, 1878–1900

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Setzekorn

    2012-01-01

    In 1878, Britain developed the first systematic intelligence collection and analysis of China by a Western nation. Undertaken in response to intelligence failure and military defeat, the British Army in India established an intelligence section in Beijing using small numbers of Chinese-speaking British military officers. Their reports reveal their struggles to understand a culture and government radically different than their

  3. Modeling the Geographic Spread of Rabies in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Zou, Lan; Jin, Zhen; Ruan, Shigui

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate how the movement of dogs affects the geographically inter-provincial spread of rabies in Mainland China, we propose a multi-patch model to describe the transmission dynamics of rabies between dogs and humans, in which each province is regarded as a patch. In each patch the submodel consists of susceptible, exposed, infectious, and vaccinated subpopulations of both dogs and humans and describes the spread of rabies among dogs and from infectious dogs to humans. The existence of the disease-free equilibrium is discussed, the basic reproduction number is calculated, and the effect of moving rates of dogs between patches on the basic reproduction number is studied. To investigate the rabies virus clades lineages, the two-patch submodel is used to simulate the human rabies data from Guizhou and Guangxi, Hebei and Fujian, and Sichuan and Shaanxi, respectively. It is found that the basic reproduction number of the two-patch model could be larger than one even if the isolated basic reproduction number of each patch is less than one. This indicates that the immigration of dogs may make the disease endemic even if the disease dies out in each isolated patch when there is no immigration. In order to reduce and prevent geographical spread of rabies in China, our results suggest that the management of dog markets and trades needs to be regulated, and transportation of dogs has to be better monitored and under constant surveillance. PMID:26020234

  4. Fbis report. Science and technology: China, August 18, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-08-18

    ;Contents: Impact of 1996-2010 World`s S&T Progress on China`s Social andEconomic Development; Microstructure of Nanocrystalline Materials; AFM Observation of Surface Nanoscale Lithography on Cadmium Stearate LB FilmStructure; Success in Inserting Anti-Bacteria Peptide Gene Into Rice; Achievements Made in Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences; ShanghaiCompletes Satellite/Computer Information Network System; Zhejiag University Holds International Virtual Reality Conference; China Develops First Domestic Automonous Underwater Robot; Reports on Diamond Thin Films; Beijing Telecom Expert Proposes Tactics for Developing `Capital Information Highway`; MPT To Build Jinan-Shijiazhuang- Taiyuan-Yinchuan Fiber Optic Cable; CAS Institute Unveils World-Class Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser; Tarium Oil Field Update; Three Largest Natural Gas Fields in Western China; World`s FirstS-Shaped Oil Well Goes Into Operation; China`s Largest Coastal Wind Power Gnerating Field--Nan`ao.

  5. A new species of Nemacerota Hampson, [1893] (Lepidoptera, Thyatiridae) from Tibet, China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhao-Hui; Ronkay, Gábor; Ronkay, László; Han, Hui-Lin

    2014-01-01

    The genus Nemacerota Hampson, [1893] includes 14 species worldwide, which are mainly distributed from Pakistan along the main Himalayan chain, the eastern frontier of the Tibetan plateau and the Central Chinese mountains to the northern Pacific regions. Ten species have been recorded from China. Among them, only N. tancrei (Graeser, 1888) occurs in NE China, whereas all other taxa inhabit mountainous areas in Central China, the eastern frontier of the Tibetan plateau or Tibet. N. igorkostjuki Laszlo, Ronkay, Ronkay & Witt, 2007 is found only in the southern edge of Tibet (Nyalam = Nielamu); N. mandibulata Laszlo, Ronkay, Ronkay & Witt, 2007, N. taurina Laszlo, Ronkay, Ronkay & Witt, 2007, N. stueningi Laszlo, Ronkay, Ronkay & Witt, 2007, N. pectinata (Houlbert, 1921), N. inouei Laszlo, Ronkay, Ronkay & Witt, 2007 and N. owadai Laszlo, Ronkay, Ronkay & Witt, 2007 are known from Mt. Taibaishan, Shaanxi Province; N. griseobasalis (Sick, 1941), N. decorata (Sick, 1941) and N. pectinata (Houlbert, 1921) occur in the northwestern parts of Yunnan Province (and, possibly, also in southern Sichuan).        Here we describe a new species from the Linzhi area, Autonomous Region Xizang (Tibet), China. Specimens were dissected and examined using standard methods; adult photographs were photographed with a Nikon D700; genitalic slides were photographed using the Qcapture pro system, and processed in Adobe Photoshop CS5 software. PMID:24869682

  6. Maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and perinatal outcomes in Inner Mongolia, China, Journal

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Bayingnormen is a region located in western Inner Mongolia China with a population that is exposed to a wide range of drinking water Arsenic concentrations. This study evaluated the relationship between maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and perinatal endpoints ...

  7. Where and how much : density scenarios for the residential build-out of Gaoming, China

    E-print Network

    Hu, Karen Jia Ying

    2005-01-01

    The author will use Gaoming District in the western part of China's Pearl River Delta (PRD) as an opportunity to examine the impact a range of residential densities along planned public transportation corridors can have ...

  8. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Technical Assistance to Beichuan Reconstruction: Creating and Designing Low- to Zero-carbon Communities in New Beichuan, Sichuan Province

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang; Wang, Chuang; Hong, Tianzhen; Levine, Mark

    2009-10-29

    Beichuan county, located in north of Sichuan Province, was the most severely damaged township in last May's Sichuan earthquake. Reconstruction of a new Beichuan is a high-profiled project by the governments. In addition to constructing structurally-sound, quake-safe buildings in the new development, rebuilding Beichuan presents an opportunity for constructing new low- to zero-carbon communities in the region. In fact, building up greener communities in the reconstruction has become a top priority for the county, which, at an estimated 7 square km, is expected to have 50,000 residents in 2015 and 70,000 in 2020. The recent focus of construction projects is on the east side of the river, while land on its west bank will be reserved for development in the mid- to long-term. In the near term, a number of new public buildings are scheduled to be constructed starting in November 2009. As indicated by the deputy county chief, Mr. He Wang, the construction timeframe is unusually tight. Many buildings, although in various stages of planning and design, will be constructed starting in November 2009. Timely expert advice on design improvement and planning considerations will benefit the integration of energy efficiency and environmental benign elements in Beichuan's reconstruction, and will help promoting integrated development of green communities with low- to zero-carbon emission from the region.

  9. China (CNSA) views of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, S.

    China's lunar objectives have widely attracted the world's attention since China National Space Administration (CNSA) chief Luan Enjie in October 2000 officially affirmed the nation plans to carry out lunar exploration. The success of the Shenzhou-3 mission last April, which indicates that China is on the eve to become the third nation to attain an independent ability to launch humans into space, coupled with Chinese president Jiang Zemin's announcement issued immediately after the launch of SZ-3 that China will develop its own space station, further prompted the mass media in the West to ponder whether "the next footsteps on the Moon will be Chinese." Although China's lunar intention is well publicized, no detail about the project has yet been unveiled in the Western space media because China's space program has been notoriously cloaked in state-imposed secrecy, while the available information is basically unreported by Western observers mainly due to the cultural and language barriers. Based on original research of both the unpublished documents as well as reports in China's space media and professional journals, this paper attempts to piece together the available material gathered from China, providing some insight into China's Moon project, and analyzing the Chinese activities in pursuit of their lunar dream in perspective of space policy. Motivations China's presence on the Moon, in the Chinese leadership's view, could help aggrandize China's international prestige and consolidate the cohesion of the Chinese nation. Lunar exploration, the science community consents, not only helps acquire knowledge about the Moon, but also deepen the understanding of the Earth. A lunar project is believed to be able to accelerate the development of launching and navigating technologies, preparing for future deep space exploration. The emergence of the return to the Moon movement in the world, and the presumption that NASA has plans to return to the Moon, as evidenced by prominent Chinese space scientists' remarks, are also the driving forces for China's determination to reach the Moon. Preliminary Studies Although China did not begin preliminary studies for lunar exploration seriously until the early 1990s, approximately the same time when the human spaceflight Project 921 started, lunar studies have been carried out in the nation for a few decades. The Advancement of Selenology, completed in 1977 by a team led by Ouyang Ziyuan at the CAS Institute of Geochemistry in Guiyang, is probably the most important work on the subject published in China. Under the direction of the Project 863 Experts Committee, a team of scientists led by Ouyang Ziyuan and Zhu Guibo of China Aerospace Industry Corporation in 1993 began to study the feasibility and necessity of lunar exploration by China. Based on a comprehensive survey of the nation's space technology and infrastructures, the feasibility study completed in 1995 believed it was possible to orbit a lunar satellite by 2000. In April 1997, CAS members Yang Jiachi, Wang Daheng and Chen Fangyun issued the "Proposal for Development of Our Nation's Lunar Exploration Technology" as part of the Project 863. The research and development of robotic rovers for lunar exploration began the following year. In May 2000 and January 2001, Tsinghua University organized two symposia on lunar exploration technology. The third lunar conference was held in March 2001 at Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (BUAA) to discuss China's lunar exploration and human spaceflight in the 21st century. A feasibility study for China's lunar adventure was unveiled at the conference for the first time. Objectives and Scenarios The primary objective of the first stage of lunar exploration, according to the feasibility study, will be a comprehensive survey of the lunar surface through remote sensing. Based on this survey, areas for soft landings will be selected. Lunar rovers will further explore these areas to identify an ideal site for the construction of a lunar base. To achieve this goal, a fi

  10. Impact of land use type conversion on carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems of China: A spatial-temporal perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Huang, Xianjin; Chuai, Xiaowei; Yang, Hong; Lai, Li; Tan, Junzhong

    2015-01-01

    Our work is the first study to explore the national and provincial composite carbon storage variations in terrestrial ecosystems of China caused by the entire flows of land use type conversion (LUTC). Only water body was excluded. The results indicated that terrestrial ecosystems of China lost 219?Tg-C due to LUTC from 1980 to 1995, and the amount was 60?Tg-C during the period 1995-2010. Despite the decrease in the total amount, carbon losses from LUTC intensified, but most of the losses were balanced by the opposite conversions. Our analyses also revealed that LUTCs in China were becoming detrimental to carbon reduction, mainly due to the insufficient increase of forest land to meet the growing demand for carbon absorption, the accelerating disappearance of grassland and the rapid expansion of settlements. More than 50% of the carbon storage variations for a single LUTC flow concentrated in several provinces. To improve China's LUTC status from the aspect of low-carbon, Heilongjiang, Sichuan, Inner Mongolia, Tibet, Qinghai, Xinjiang and coastal regions, such as Shandong, Jiangsu and Liaoning, should be dealt with first according to their conditions. This study can be helpful to planners, policy makers and scholars concerned about carbon reduction in China. PMID:25975282

  11. Phylogenetic Diversity and Ecological Pattern of Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea in the Surface Sediments of the Western Pacific

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huiluo Cao; Yiguo Hong; Meng Li; Ji-Dong Gu

    The phylogenetic diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) was surveyed in the surface sediments from the northern part\\u000a of the South China Sea (SCS). The distribution pattern of AOA in the western Pacific was discussed through comparing the SCS\\u000a with other areas in the western Pacific including Changjiang Estuary and the adjacent East China Sea where high input of anthropogenic\\u000a nitrogen

  12. Characteristics of water-soluble inorganic ions in PM2.5 and PM 2.5-10 in the coastal urban agglomeration along the Western Taiwan Strait Region, China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Liqian; Niu, Zhenchuan; Chen, Xiaoqiu; Chen, Jinsheng; Zhang, Fuwang; Xu, Lingling

    2014-04-01

    PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 aerosol samples were collected in four seasons during November 2010, January, April, and August 2011 at 13 urban/suburban sites and one background site in Western Taiwan Straits Region (WTSR), which is the coastal area with rapid urbanization, high population density, and deteriorating air quality. The 10 days average PM2.5 concentrations were 92.92, 51.96, 74.48, and 89.69 ?g/m(3) in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively, exceeding the Chinese ambient air quality standard for annual average value of PM2.5 (grade II, 35 ?g/m(3)). Temporal distribution of water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) in PM2.5 was coincident with PM2.5 mass concentrations, showing highest in spring, lowest in summer, and middle in autumn and winter. WSIIs took considerable proportion (42.2 ? 50.1 %) in PM2.5 and PM2.5-10. Generally, urban/suburban sites had obviously suffered severer pollution of fine particles compared with the background site. The WSIIs concentrations and characteristics were closely related to the local anthropogenic activities and natural environment, urban sites in cities with higher urbanization level, or sites with weaker diffuse condition suffered severer WSIIs pollution. Fossil fuel combustion, traffic emissions, crustal/soil dust, municipal constructions, and sea salt and biomass burnings were the major potential sources of WSIIs in PM2.5 in WTSR according to the result of principal component analysis. PMID:24385184

  13. Pet Dogs Benefit Owners’ Health: A ‘Natural Experiment’ in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce Headey; Fu Na; Richard Zheng

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports results from a ‘natural experiment’ taking place in China on the impact of dogs on owners’ health. Previous\\u000a Western research has reported modest health benefits, but results have remained controversial. In China pets were banned in\\u000a urban areas until 1992. Since then dog ownership has grown quite rapidly in the major cities, especially among younger women.\\u000a In

  14. Western Interior Seaway

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    U-Haul SuperGraphics

    The Western Interior Seaway is an ancient intracontinental seaway that occupied much of modern western North America and existed throughout much of the Cretaceous Period. This site discusses the physiography, origin, evolution and biologic significance of this intriguing geologic feature. Specific topics include sea level fluctuation, marine and non-marine life, and sedimentary rocks associated with the Western Interior Seaway. A paleogeographic map and discussion are provided with numerous links to additional information on related topics.

  15. Gene expression profiling of melatonin receptor subtypes in the ovarian hierarchical follicles of the Sichuan white goose.

    PubMed

    He, H; Jiang, D M; Kang, B; Ma, R; Bai, L; Wang, X; Zhao, L

    2014-02-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), an indole hormone, regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions related to circadian rhythms and reproduction through its specific receptor subtypes (Mel-1a, Mel-1b and Mel-1c). However, the expression profile of melatonin receptor genes (MTNR1A, MTNR1B and MTNR1C) in ovarian hierarchical follicles of geese remains to be clarified. In this study, the expression level of melatonin receptors in small white follicle (SWF), small yellow follicle (SYF), the largest follicle (F1), second largest (F2), third largest (F3), fourth largest (F4), fifth largest (F5), and postovulatory follicle (POF) in the Sichuan white goose were examined using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results showed that the expression levels of MTNR1A, MTNR1B and MTNR1C initially increased and later decreased. The highest levels of gene expression of these receptor subtypes were observed in F5 or F4 in all examined follicles. Furthermore, the expression of MTNR1A and MTNR1B mRNA was significantly greater in SYF compared with SWF (P<0.05), but MTNR1C was absent in SWF. The expression of MTNR1A, MTNR1B and MTNR1C mRNA was significantly greater in F5 compared with SYF (P<0.05), and the expression of MTNR1A and MTNR1C mRNA was higher in F1 compared with POF (P<0.05). In addition, the oestrogen concentration in SWF, SYF, F4, F3, F2, F1 and POF was measured using ELISA. The oestrogen concentration and melatonin receptor expression both were initially observed to increase and subsequently decrease. The oestrogen concentration in F4 and F3 was highest in all examined samples and was 1318.2pg/g and 1318.1pg/g, respectively. These results suggest that the melatonin receptor may be involved in the activation of the SWF and SYF to allow the SWF and SYF to develop into the subsequent follicles. Furthermore, follicles and the expression of the melatonin receptors may be regulated by the secretion of the oestrogen. PMID:24440434

  16. Outsourcing CO2 within China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Kuishuang; Davis, Steven J.; Sun, Laixiang; Li, Xin; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Hubacek, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the high standard of living enjoyed by people in the richest countries often comes at the expense of CO2 emissions produced with technologies of low efficiency in less affluent, developing countries. Less apparent is that this relationship between developed and developing can exist within a single country’s borders, with rich regions consuming and exporting high-value goods and services that depend upon production of low-cost and emission-intensive goods and services from poorer regions in the same country. As the world’s largest emitter of CO2, China is a prominent and important example, struggling to balance rapid economic growth and environmental sustainability across provinces that are in very different stages of development. In this study, we track CO2 emissions embodied in products traded among Chinese provinces and internationally. We find that 57% of China’s emissions are related to goods that are consumed outside of the province where they are produced. For instance, up to 80% of the emissions related to goods consumed in the highly developed coastal provinces are imported from less developed provinces in central and western China where many low–value-added but high–carbon-intensive goods are produced. Without policy attention to this sort of interprovincial carbon leakage, the less developed provinces will struggle to meet their emissions intensity targets, whereas the more developed provinces might achieve their own targets by further outsourcing. Consumption-based accounting of emissions can thus inform effective and equitable climate policy within China. PMID:23754377

  17. Kinetic-simulating experiment combined with GC-IRMS analysis: application to identification and assessment of coal-derived methane from Zhongba Gas Field (Sichuan Basin, China)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongqiang Xiong; Ansong Geng; Jingzhong Liu

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to model the ?13C values of methane derived from coal by combining kinetic-simulating experiment with the gas chromatography–isotope ratio mass spectrum (GC-IRMS) analysis. The stable carbon isotopic variation of methane in pyrolysates with heating temperature indicates that the assumptions for both a constant kinetic isotope effect (?) and a uniform initial isotopic composition

  18. Hydrochemical characteristics of hot spring waters in the Kangding district related to the Lushan MS = 7.0 earthquake in Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z.; Zhou, X.; Du, J.; Xie, C.; Liu, L.; Li, Y.; Yi, L.; Liu, H.; Cui, Y.

    2015-06-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of 10 hot springs in the Kangding district was investigated by analyzing cation and anion concentrations in the spring water. The water samples were collected in the 5 days after the Lushan MS = 7.0 earthquake, which occurred on 20 April 2013. The spring waters are classified into seven chemical types based on their hydrochemical compositions. Compared with hydrochemical data before the Lushan earthquake, concentrations of Ca2+, HCO3- and total dissolved solid (TDS) in water samples from the Guanding, Erdaoqiao, Gonghe, Erhaoying, Tianwanhe and Caoke springs significantly increased, which may be the result of a greater increase in groundwater from carbonate rocks, and water-carbonate rock interactions, enhanced by the increment of CO2. Concentrations of Na+, Cl- and SO42- in water samples from the Guanding, Zheduotang, Xinxing and Gonghe springs decreased, indicating a dilution of shallow waters. Concentrations of Na+ and SO42- in water samples from the Erhaoying spring water increased, which may be attributed to water-granite interactions enhanced by H2S. The results indicated that hydrochemical components of spring water could be used as an effective indicator for earthquakes.

  19. Steinernema sichuanense n. sp. (Rhabditida, Steinernematidae), a new species of entomopathogenic nematode from the province of Sichuan, east Tibetan Mts., China.

    PubMed

    Mrácek, Zdenek; Nguyen, Khuong B; Tailliez, Patrick; Boemare, Noël; Chen, Shulong

    2006-11-01

    Steinernema sichuanense n. sp. is characterized by male, female and IJ. For male, the spicules are robust with prominent rostrum; gubernaculum has blunt anterior end; cuneus is arrow-shaped, pointed posteriorly. Second-generation male has a prominent mucron. For female, tail usually has one to four papillae-like projections on tail tip; post anal swelling is absent. For IJ, body length is about 710 microm; lateral field has six ridges; the formula of lateral field is 2, 5, 6, 4, 2 with two prominent submarginal ridges; tail usually has a dorsal depression. In Steinernema affine/intermedium group, the IJ of S. sichuanense n. sp. differs from S. affine by its absence of the internal tail spine; differs from Steinernema beddingi by its six ridges in lateral field compared to 4 for S. beddingi. For male mucron is absent in both generations of S. affine, S. intermedium and S. beddingi, whereas it is present in the second-generation of S. sichuanense sp. n. Morphology and morphometrics of spicules and gubernacula of the four species in S. affine/intermedium group are quite different based on SEM photographs. For female, the postanal swelling is absent in the first-generation of S. sichuanense n. sp. whereas S. affine and S. intermedium have slight swelling and S. beddingi has conspicuous swelling. The new species is further recognized by characterization of sequences of ITS and D2/D3 regions of the ribosomal DNA. The symbiotic bacterium associated to S. sichuanense belongs to the species Xenorhabdus bovienii. PMID:16934830

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in yaks (Bos grunniens) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Gao, Jianfeng; Shahzad, Muhammad; Han, Zhaoqing; Nabi, Fazal; Liu, Mengyuan; Zhang, Ding; Li, Jiakui

    2014-09-15

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), a zoonotic parasite infects almost all warm-blooded animals and causes significant economic losses. To date, however, it is still unclear whether yaks from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau of China are exposed to T. gondii. On the present study, a survey was conducted for the first time, to investigate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in yaks (Bos grunniens) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (Qinghai, Tibet, Hongyuan area of Sichuan province). A total of 905 and 736 serum samples were collected from yaks in these areas in 2012 and 2013, respectively and assayed for T. gondii antibodies by an indirect hemagglutination test (IHA). The results showed that seroprevalence on plateau was 21.7% and 29.1% in 2012 and 2013, respectively with the prevalence of 22.4%, 19.4% and 25.5% in 2012 for Qinghai, Tibet and Hongyuan of Sichuan, respectively and of 26.4%, 27.0% and 33.7% for these three regions in 2013, respectively. The present survey indicated that the infection with T. gondii in yaks was widely spread in recent years on the plateau causing a high risk factor for animals and humans. PMID:25085769

  1. China’s Business Taxes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Devonshire-Ellis; Andy Scott; Sam Woollard

    \\u000a All foreign-invested enterprises in China are required to prepare annual financial statements, including balance sheets and\\u000a income statements for their annual Chinese audit. Such accounts must be in accordance with the Chinese accounting standards\\u000a for business enterprises, irregardless of if they are foreign or domestic companies. Foreign-invested enterprises, including\\u000a their legally responsible persons, must take full responsibility for the truthfulness,

  2. Petrogenesis of the Yaochong granite and Mo deposit, Western Dabie orogen, eastern-central China: Constraints from zircon U-Pb and molybdenite Re-Os ages, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Xu, Zhaowen; Qiu, Wenhong; Li, Chao; Yu, Yang; Wang, Hao; Su, Yang

    2015-05-01

    The Dabie orogen is among the most famous continent-continent collisional orogenic belts in the world, and is characterized by intensive post-collisional extension, magmatism and Mo mineralization. However, the genetic links between the mineralization and the geodynamic evolution of the orogen remain unresolved. In this paper, the Yaochong Mo deposit and its associated granitic stocks were investigated to elucidate this issue. Our new zircon U-Pb ages yielded an Early Cretaceous age (133.3 ± 1.3 Ma) for the Yaochong granite, and our molybdenite Re-Os dating gave a similar age (135 ± 1 Ma) for the Mo deposit. The Yaochong stock is characterized by high silica and alkali but low Mg, Fe and Ca. It is enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and large ion lithophile elements (LILEs: Rb, K, Th and U), but strongly depleted in heavy REEs, and high field strength elements (HFSEs: Nb, Ta, Ti and Y). The Yaochong granite has initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7087-0.7096, and Pb isotopic ratios of (206Pb/204Pb)i = 16.599-16.704, (207Pb/204Pb)i = 15.170-15.618 and (208Pb/204Pb)i = 36.376-38.248. The granite has ?Nd(t) of -18.0 to -16.3 and ?Hf(t) values of -26.5 to -20.0. All these data indicate that the Yaochong granite is a high-K calc-alkaline fractionated I-type granite, and may have originated from partial melting of the thickened Yangtze continental crust. The Mo ores also show low radiogenic Pb isotopes similar to the Yaochong stock. Medium Re content in molybdenite (21.8-74.8 ppm) also suggests that the ore-forming materials were derived from the thickened lower crust with possibly minor mixing with the mantle. Similar to the Eastern Dabie orogen, the thickened crust beneath the Western Dabie orogen may also have experienced tectonic collapse, which may have exerted fundamental geodynamic controls on the two-stage Mo mineralization in the region.

  3. Annual-to-decadal resolution speleothem records from Zhijin Cave in the central western Guizhou of China: Changes in climate, environment and human activity during the past 1200 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Li, H.; Shen, C.; Kuo, T.; Wan, N.; Luo, S.

    2008-12-01

    A 12.5-cm long stalagmite (ZJD-21) from Zhijin Cave (26.67°N, 105.77°E) in the central western Guizhou was dated by ICPMS 230Th/U method and 210Pb alpha counting method, revealing a growth history of 1200 years. A total of 490 samples (0.25mm sampling interval) were analyzed for oxygen and carbon isotopes. The ?18O values range from -10.60 to -7.56 permil (PDB) with an average of -9.00 permil, whereas the ?13C values range from -10.70 to -5.76 permil (PDB) with an average of - 8.43 permil. From the same cave, an 8-cm long soda-straw (ZJD-9C) was dated by 210Pb alpha counting method, providing a ?18O and ?13C record over the past 180 years. For the overlapping period, the two speleothem records have similar trends and features. The speleothem ?18O records in this monsoonal region can be used as a wet/dry indicator with lighter values reflecting wetter conditions, and vice versa. The speleothem ?13C records may be used for evaluating the vegetation changes above the cave, with heavier values indicating less vegetation coverage and intensity. The ?18O values of ZJD-21 are mostly heavier than the average value (-9.00 ‰) during AD1050-1270, AD1380-1460 and AD1780-1885, indicating drier climates were prevailing during these periods. Wetter climates were dominated during AD1010-1050, AD1460-1780 and AD1885-1960, reflected by the lighter ?18O values. The ?13C records from Zhijin Cave exhibit three intervals when the ?13C was strongly increased, which may be corresponding to deforestation events from AD1170 to AD1240, from AD1460 to AD1510 and since AD1800. These deforestation events were correlated to the population surges in South Song Dynasty, Ming Dynasty and Late Qing Dynasty in the area. After AD1900, all ?13C values are heavier than -6.6 permil, which indicates that the karst-desertification problem has been seriously developing in this region under human impacts.

  4. Sharing information for product quality and food safety in China: barriers and enablers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Zheng; Yuanfu Jiang; Tung-mou Yang; Theresa A. Pardo

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the technological, managerial, and political barriers as well as enablers for the success of an information sharing initiative in China. A case in the product quality and food safety policy domain is studied. Furthermore, it compares the results of the case study in China with prior research conducted mainly in the western countries to identify similarities and

  5. Teaching Political Science in China: Observations and Suggestions from a Foreign Visitor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petracca, Mark P.

    1990-01-01

    Describes teaching Western political theory at Beijing University (China) in 1987, a period of political modernization. Suggests changes to enhance education and scholarship in China concerning instructional pedagogy. Notes the need for critical writing skills, finds students limited in their ability to analyze scholarly writing, and recommends…

  6. China and the emerging Eurasian agenda: From special interests to strategic cooperation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. James Ferguson

    2001-01-01

    [extract] China remains a multinational and multi-ethnic state with diverse relations across its southern, northern and western borders. From the third century B.C. onwards trade contacts were made westwards along the ancient Silk Road, while by the Tang Dynasty China had established strong influence in Central Asia. Today a 'new Silk Road' is being developed, this time based on oil

  7. Myths of child abuse in China: findings based on a qualitative study in Beijing1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiao Dongping

    2008-01-01

    Based on interviews with 20 parent?child pairs and focus group discussion with another 20 children in Beijing, this article addresses the common myths of child abuse held among the Chinese. These myths include: (1) The Western concept of ‘child abuse’ does not fit China's national conditions, so China need not be concerned with the child abuse problem; (2) well?meant child

  8. Proposed program for scientific drilling in Western Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E.A.; Taylor, B.

    1986-07-01

    The Western Pacific Panel of the Ocean Drilling program recommends that the following scientific problems take highest priority for the next round of scientific drilling in the western Pacific region: (1) origin and development of marginal basins, and their implications for the tectonic history of western Pacific arc systems; (2) origin and tectonic history of oceanic forearcs, with implications for tectonic erosion and ophiolite emplacement; and (3) structure and mechanics of accretionary tectonics. High-priority marginal basins include Japan, south China, Banda, and Sulu Seas. Oceanic forearcs include the Bonin, Vanuatu, Okinawa-Ryukyu, and Lau forearcs. High-priority accretionary wedges include the Nankai and Sunda regions. Other problems have a high scientific merit, such as serpentine diapirism in forearcs and arc reversal in the Solomons, but as yet, the potential for solution by drilling is unclear. The panel encourages input on these and other objectives, especially from citizens of western Pacific countries.

  9. Analysis of Stimulating effect on civilian car consumption to economic development: Empirical research of Sichuan Province based on VAR model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Zhang-wei; Zheng Xun-gang

    2011-01-01

    Car consumption is becoming a new hot consumption, and automotive industry is positioned as the a pillar industry, therefore it will become a new driving force to boost economic with the health and stable development of China's national economy. This paper analyzes the stimulating effect on the civilian car consumption to economic development based on the VAR model using temporal

  10. Why should trade between Central Asia and China continue to expand?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaël Raballand; Agnès Andrésy

    2007-01-01

    Trade volume between Central Asia and China has tripled since 2002. This study, which is based on Chinese sources, explains\\u000a the reasons for this expansion in trade. Even if numerous obstacles remain, Government development policy in China’s western\\u000a regions has induced trade growth between Xinjiang and Central Asia. Trade flows mainly consist of three blocks: economic activities\\u000a of the Xinjiang

  11. Understanding China`s nuclear non-proliferation policy

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, P.J.

    1999-06-01

    China`s nuclear-export activities appear to contradict its official non-proliferation policy. Scrutiny of China`s nuclear exports and non- proliferation commitments indicate an adherence to strict `letter-of-the-law` obligations. Yet, China`s commitment to the norms and values of the non- proliferation regime is controversial. The difference between China`s legal obligations and the international norms of acceptable export behavior is a function of the ambiguity inherent in international treaties and agreements. Stephen Meyer`s motivational hypothesis is used to evaluate China`s nuclear-export decision-making process. China`s motivational profile created by the combination of 16 incentives and disincentives on one hand, and international and domestic conditions on the other. Two case studies are used to illustrate that this profile is not static. As environmental conditions and China`s national priorities change, so does China`s motivational profile. In the past, U. S. attempts to alter China`s nuclear-export activities were successful when the targeted changes were congruent with China`s national priorities. For the United States to influence China`s future nuclear-export activities, it must first understand China`s national priorities and determine the corresponding export motivations that influence China`s decision-making process. The United States should then work to change conditions, which would shift the balance of incentives and disincentives, thereby changing the outcome of China`s cost-benefit calculus.

  12. Pathways of sulfate enhancement by natural and anthropogenic mineral aerosols in China

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xin [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Nanjing Univ., Nanjing (China); Song, Yu [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Zhao, Chun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Mengmeng [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Zhu, Tong [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Zhang, Qiang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Zhang, Xiaoye [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, CMA, Beijing (China)

    2014-12-27

    China, the world’s largest consumer of coal, emits approximately 30 million tons of sulfur dioxide (SO?) per year. SO? is subsequently oxidized to sulfate in the atmosphere. However, large gaps exist between model-predicted and measured sulfate levels in China. Long-term field observations and numerical simulations were integrated to investigate the effect of mineral aerosols on sulfate formation. We found that mineral aerosols contributed a nationwide average of approximately 22% to sulfate production in 2006. The increased sulfate concentration was approximately 2 ?gm?³ in the entire China. In East China and the Sichuan Basin, the increments reached 6.3 ?gm?³ and 7.3 ?gm?³, respectively. Mineral aerosols led to faster SO? oxidation through three pathways. First, more SO? was dissolved as cloud water alkalinity increased due to water-soluble mineral cations. Sulfate production was then enhanced through the aqueous-phase oxidation of S(IV) (dissolved sulfur in oxidation state +4). The contribution to the national sulfate production was 5%. Second, sulfate was enhanced through S(IV) catalyzed oxidation by transition metals. The contribution to the annual sulfate production was 8%, with 19% during the winter that decreased to 2% during the summer. Third, SO? reacts on the surface of mineral aerosols to produce sulfate. The contribution to the national average sulfate concentration was 9% with 16% during the winter and a negligible effect during the summer. The inclusion of mineral aerosols does resolve model discrepancies with sulfate observations in China, especially during the winter. These three pathways, which are not fully considered in most current chemistry-climate models, will signi?cantly impact assessments regarding the effects of aerosol on climate change in China.

  13. Archean crustal evolution of the northern North China Craton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qian, Xianglin; Chen, Yaping; Liu, Jinzhong

    1988-01-01

    The Archean granultie facies rocks of the North China (Sino-Korean) Craton mostly occur inside the northern boundary forming a unique and spectacular granulite belt trending roughly E-W from eastern Hebei, North China in the east to Mt. Daqinchan, western Inner Mongolia in the west, ranging about 1,000 km long. Over the years in the middle portion of this Archean high-grade metamorphic belt a stratigraphic unconformity between the khondalite rock assemblage and the medium in composition granulite assemblage in Datong-Xinghe area is determined. The geological structural properties of the North China Craton are discussed.

  14. Financial compensation for deceased organ donation in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoliang; Fang, Qiang

    2013-06-01

    In March 2010, China launched a pilot programme of deceased donor organ donation in 10 provinces and cities. However, the deceased donor donation rate in China remains significantly lower than in Spain and other Western countries. In order to provide incentive for deceased donor organ donation, five pilot provinces and cities have subsequently launched a financial compensation policy. Financial compensation can be considered to include two main forms, the 'thank you' form and the 'help' form. The 'thank you' form is an expression of gratitude on behalf of the Red Cross Society of China for consenting to donation. The 'help' form is social welfare support for needy families. PMID:23322684

  15. Western White Pine

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A western white pine (Pinus monticola) in Kings Canyon National Park, Calif., towers over USGS ecologist Nathan Stephenson. Scientists analyzed data from 403 species of trees from around the world -- including western white pine (Pinus monticola), pictured here -- and learned that in general, a tre...

  16. Application of Landsat imagery to problems of petroleum exploration in Qaidam basin, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. B. Bailey; P. D. Anderson

    1982-01-01

    Tertiary and Quaternary nonmarine, petroleum-bearing sedimentary rocks in the Qaidam basin of remote western China have been extensively deformed by compressive forces. These forces created many folds which are current targets of Chinese exploration programs. Manual techniques of image analysis and interpretation were applied to computer-enhanced Landsat images of the western part of the Qaidam basin in an effort to

  17. Malnutrition in China's Rural Boarding Schools: The Case of Primary Schools in Shaanxi Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to document the nature of boarding schools and empirically analyse the difference in nutrition intake and malnutrition status between boarding and non-boarding students in western rural China. By using two data sets on boarding schools and boarding students in Shaanxi Province, a representative province in western

  18. Letting a Hundred Flowers Bloom: Counseling and Psychotherapy in the People's Republic of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doris F. Chang; Huiqi Tong; Qijia Shi; Qifeng Zeng

    2005-01-01

    Although the Chinese have been exposed to Western psychotherapies since the 1950s, the practice of counseling is a relatively new phenomenon. In this article, we trace the development of counsel- ing in China, examine its cultural and practical relevance, and review recent advances in training and practice. Although heavily influenced by Western models, contemporary Chinese approaches to counseling reflect the

  19. Western Pacific Regional Summary Western Pacific

    E-print Network

    Pacific Ocean) total of Pacific bigeye tuna landings reported in 2007. Currently, there are no catch share in the western and central Pacific Ocean and the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) is active in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Species under the purview of the WCPFC and IATTC migrate across international

  20. Western Pacific Regional Summary Western Pacific

    E-print Network

    -central and eastern Pacific Ocean) total of Pacific bigeye tuna landings reported in 2007. Currently (WCPFC) is active in the western and central Pacific Ocean and the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) is active in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Species under the purview of the WCPFC and IATTC

  1. Perceptions of Chinese Negotiation Behavior: A Quantitative Study of Differences in Perceptions between Chinese and Western Managers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helmut Kasper; Stefan Schilcher

    2011-01-01

    Chinese-Western business negotiations often fail because of cultural differences. Our research aims at investigating whether and how the self-perception of Chinese negotiation behavior differs to the perception of Western managers. This contributes to identifying possible areas of conflict. For this reason a quantitative survey was conducted among managers from German speaking countries and from China. Our results show that the

  2. Exploration potential of areas in onshore China third round

    SciTech Connect

    Post, P. [Post (Paul), Covington, LA (United States); Milne, A.; Li Bingjian [Edgehill Petroleum Consulting Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    1995-09-11

    Many oil exploration companies view China as a country of moderate upside potential with little opportunity for new giant discoveries. This view may be pessimistic given the structural complexity of some areas within certain basins in western, southern, and southwestern China and the lack of drilling in some peripheral basins onshore China. China`s tremendous economic modernization drive necessitates that companies be cognizant of its domestic exploration and production opportunities (the greatest of all dragons must be fed). This article reviews recent foreign involvement in onshore exploration and is a response to the June 1995 announcement by Chinese National Petroleum Corp. (CNPC) of the third onshore licensing round. The prospective licensing rounds are reviewed in turn, moving on to discuss exploration strategies.

  3. China's Organic Revolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Paull

    2007-01-01

    China is at the onset of an organic agriculture revolution. From 2000 to 2006, China has movedfrom 45th to second position in the world in number ofhectares under organic management. China now has more land under organic horticulture than any other country. In the year 200512006, China added12% to the world's organic area. This accounted for 63% ofthe world's annual

  4. Social Movement in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhibin Lin; Lixin Zhang

    China's recent history is formed by all kinds of social movements. In the early twentieth century, the New Cultural Movement in China introduced the concepts of democracy, equality and liberty. Now, after nearly 90 years of China's social change, the cause of seeking for democracy and equality is still far to be fulfilled. The founding of People's Republic of China

  5. SCIENCE CHINA Technological Sciences

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhong L.

    SCIENCE CHINA Technological Sciences © Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083, China; 2 Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China; 3 School of Material Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute

  6. . RESEARCH PAPER . SCIENCE CHINA

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . RESEARCH PAPER . SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences January 2013, Vol. 56 012104:1­012104:10 doi: 10.1007/s11432-012-4616-5 c Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012 info, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; 2Beijing Aerospace Control Center, Beijing 100094, China; 3

  7. SCIENCE CHINA Technological Sciences

    E-print Network

    Simons, Jack

    SCIENCE CHINA Technological Sciences © Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Density-functional-theory formulation of classical and quantum Hooke's law. Sci China Tech Sci, 2014, 57- sider an equilibrium lattice without strain (=0), but elec- #12;Hu H, et al. Sci China Tech Sci April

  8. Factors affecting regional per-capita carbon emissions in China based on an LMDI factor decomposition model.

    PubMed

    Dong, Feng; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Qingliang

    2013-01-01

    China is considered to be the main carbon producer in the world. The per-capita carbon emissions indicator is an important measure of the regional carbon emissions situation. This study used the LMDI factor decomposition model-panel co-integration test two-step method to analyze the factors that affect per-capita carbon emissions. The main results are as follows. (1) During 1997, Eastern China, Central China, and Western China ranked first, second, and third in the per-capita carbon emissions, while in 2009 the pecking order changed to Eastern China, Western China, and Central China. (2) According to the LMDI decomposition results, the key driver boosting the per-capita carbon emissions in the three economic regions of China between 1997 and 2009 was economic development, and the energy efficiency was much greater than the energy structure after considering their effect on restraining increased per-capita carbon emissions. (3) Based on the decomposition, the factors that affected per-capita carbon emissions in the panel co-integration test showed that Central China had the best energy structure elasticity in its regional per-capita carbon emissions. Thus, Central China was ranked first for energy efficiency elasticity, while Western China was ranked first for economic development elasticity. PMID:24353753

  9. Factors Affecting Regional Per-Capita Carbon Emissions in China Based on an LMDI Factor Decomposition Model

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Feng; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Qingliang

    2013-01-01

    China is considered to be the main carbon producer in the world. The per-capita carbon emissions indicator is an important measure of the regional carbon emissions situation. This study used the LMDI factor decomposition model–panel co-integration test two-step method to analyze the factors that affect per-capita carbon emissions. The main results are as follows. (1) During 1997, Eastern China, Central China, and Western China ranked first, second, and third in the per-capita carbon emissions, while in 2009 the pecking order changed to Eastern China, Western China, and Central China. (2) According to the LMDI decomposition results, the key driver boosting the per-capita carbon emissions in the three economic regions of China between 1997 and 2009 was economic development, and the energy efficiency was much greater than the energy structure after considering their effect on restraining increased per-capita carbon emissions. (3) Based on the decomposition, the factors that affected per-capita carbon emissions in the panel co-integration test showed that Central China had the best energy structure elasticity in its regional per-capita carbon emissions. Thus, Central China was ranked first for energy efficiency elasticity, while Western China was ranked first for economic development elasticity. PMID:24353753

  10. Particulate Matter Pollution and Population Exposure Assessment over Mainland China in 2010 with Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Ling; Lu, Ning

    2014-01-01

    The public is increasingly concerned about particulate matter pollution caused by respirable suspended particles (PM10) and fine particles (PM2.5). In this paper, PM10 and PM2.5 concentration are estimated with remote sensing and individual air quality indexes of PM10 and PM2.5 (IPM10 and IPM2.5) over mainland China in 2010 are calculated. We find that China suffered more serious PM2.5 than PM10 pollution in 2010, and they presented a spatial differentiation. Consequently, a particulate-based air quality index (PAQI) based on a weighting method is proposed to provide a more objective assessment of the particulate pollution. The study demonstrates that, in 2010, most of mainland China faced a lightly polluted situation in PAQI case; there were three areas obviously under moderate pollution (Hubei, Sichuan-Chongqing border region and Ningxia-Inner Mongolia border region). Simultaneously, two indicators are calculated with the combination of population density gridded data to reveal Chinese population exposure to PM2.5. Comparing per capita PM2.5 concentration with population-weighted PM2.5 concentration, the former shows that the high-level regions are distributed in Guangdong, Shanghai, and Tianjin, while the latter are in Hebei, Chongqing, and Shandong. By comparison, the results demonstrate that population-weighted PM2.5 concentration is more in line with the actual situation. PMID:24830453

  11. Particulate matter pollution and population exposure assessment over mainland China in 2010 with remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ling; Lu, Ning

    2014-05-01

    The public is increasingly concerned about particulate matter pollution caused by respirable suspended particles (PM10) and fine particles (PM2.5). In this paper, PM10 and PM2.5 concentration are estimated with remote sensing and individual air quality indexes of PM10 and PM2.5 (IPM10 and IPM2.5) over mainland China in 2010 are calculated. We find that China suffered more serious PM2.5 than PM10 pollution in 2010, and they presented a spatial differentiation. Consequently, a particulate-based air quality index (PAQI) based on a weighting method is proposed to provide a more objective assessment of the particulate pollution. The study demonstrates that, in 2010, most of mainland China faced a lightly polluted situation in PAQI case; there were three areas obviously under moderate pollution (Hubei, Sichuan-Chongqing border region and Ningxia-Inner Mongolia border region). Simultaneously, two indicators are calculated with the combination of population density gridded data to reveal Chinese population exposure to PM2.5. Comparing per capita PM2.5 concentration with population-weighted PM2.5 concentration, the former shows that the high-level regions are distributed in Guangdong, Shanghai, and Tianjin, while the latter are in Hebei, Chongqing, and Shandong. By comparison, the results demonstrate that population-weighted PM2.5 concentration is more in line with the actual situation. PMID:24830453

  12. The spatial distribution characteristics of a comprehensive drought risk index in southwestern China and underlying causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Lanying; Zhang, Qiang; Ma, Pengli; Jia, Jianying; Wang, Jinsong

    2015-03-01

    Drought is a serious problem in southwestern China, where drought risk exceeds the national average. Climate change is likely to exacerbate the problem, thereby endangering China's food security. In this paper, we used the analytic hierarchy process and meteorological, geographic, soil, and remote-sensing data to develop a drought risk assessment model based on the drought hazard, environmental vulnerability, sensitivity and exposure of the values at risk, and capacity to prevent or mitigate the problem. Using the model, we assessed the drought risk (defined using a comprehensive drought risk index, R) and its spatial distribution in southwestern China and revealed complex zonality. The eastern part of the study area had an extremely high risk, and risk was generally greater in the north than in the south, and increased from southwest to northeast. The comprehensive risk (R) was lowest in Yunnan province. It was highest in Sichuan Province and Chongqing Municipality. The contribution of the risk factors to R was highest for the capacity for prevention and mitigation, followed by the drought hazard, sensitivity and exposure, and environmental vulnerability.

  13. Dupla Graecensia Lichenum (2009, nos 581-680)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter OBERMAYER

    Dupla Graecensia Lichenum (2009, nos 581-680) comprises 100 collections of lichen duplicates from Albania (Tiranë district), Argen- tinia (prov. Misiones; prov. Buenos Aires), Armenia (prov. Syunik), Aus- tralia (Tasmania; Western Australia), Austria (Carinthia; Salzburg; Styria; Tirol; Upper Austria), Brazil (Minas Gerais), China (Tibet, prov. Sichuan), Czech Republic, France (Corse; Réunion), Germany (North Rhine- Westphalia), Greece (Crete; Makedonia), Ireland, Italy (Piedmont;

  14. Where is the North ChinaSouth China block boundary in eastern China?

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Where is the North China­South China block boundary in eastern China? Michel Faure, Wei Lin of the North China and South China blocks. The eastern extension of the belt (the Sulu area) consists and the lack of ocean-basin rock shows that the boundary between the North China block and South China block

  15. HANWEI ZHANG 19 Riley Ct. Skillman, NJ 08558

    E-print Network

    University M.Sc. 1990, Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University B.Sc. 1987, Chemical Metallurgy, Sichuan Research Associate 2002~2003 Research Assistant 1998~2002 Department of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University Chengdu, China Assistant Professor 1994 ~1998 Sichuan Institute of Light Industry Chengdu, China

  16. Renewable Energy Business Partnerships in China: Renewable Energy in China

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    China has rich potential for renewable energy development including wind energy, solar, biomass, hydropower, and geothermal. Fact sheet describes Chinas policy for attracting foreign investment, Chinas tax policy, import duties, currency exchange, and renewable joint ventures in China.

  17. Undergraduate Students in Part-Time Employment in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam Oi I, Betty; Morrison, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of undergraduates undertaking part-time employment are indicated from the western literature, together with discussion of the nature, amount and effects of part-time employment. A study is reported of a university in China, using a cross-sectional survey which investigates the characteristics of undergraduates holding…

  18. Strategies of Conflict in China during 1975-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberthal, Kenneth

    The pamphlet reviews political conflict in Peking from spring 1975 through spring 1976. During this period three political groups existed in The People's Republic of China: radicals (populists), moderates (Western-style modernizers), and the military (Chinese equivalent of the Pentagon). Most conflict traditionally occurred between radicals and…

  19. Making Education Equitable in Rural China through Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuaide, Shiling

    2009-01-01

    The Distance Education Project for Rural Schools (DEPRS) was implemented by the Chinese government between 2003 and 2007 to improve the quality of basic education in rural areas of China, especially in the poorer western provinces. It has been referred to as "the largest ICT project in the world up to now" because "it serves a larger population…

  20. Why Didn't China Discover the New World?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolla, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The rise of China, as well as any of the emerging economies, has much to offer students and teachers of social studies--especially in the fields of history and economics. Traditionally, history education in the United States has emphasized Western civilization and provided instruction for educators with that end in mind. In an era of increased…

  1. Exploring Models for Indigenizing Social Work Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhanghua, Wang; Liqun, Huang

    2013-01-01

    The article examines the theories of indigenization and examines the problems facing China's social work education. It shows that the quality of social work education and teaching staff is low. The curriculum emphasizes theory and overlooks practical training. "Using as is," not modifying Western theories, has remained strong. The…

  2. Moving Mountains Stone by Stone: Reforming Rural Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Andy

    2009-01-01

    The widely reported economic divide between the richer eastern provinces and the poorer western provinces in China has an exact parallel in the development of basic education. As a result of geographical, historical and social factors the quality and management of the education system lags considerably behind the east coast. A pioneering project…

  3. Geographical Detector-Based Risk Assessment of the Under-Five Mortality in the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yi; Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Xiaohong; Ren, Dan; Zhu, Jun

    2011-01-01

    On 12 May, 2008, a devastating earthquake registering 8.0 on the Richter scale occurred in Sichuan Province, China, taking tens of thousands of lives and destroying the homes of millions of people. Many of the deceased were children, particular children less than five years old who were more vulnerable to such a huge disaster than the adult. In order to obtain information specifically relevant to further researches and future preventive measures, potential risk factors associated with earthquake-related child mortality need to be identified. We used four geographical detectors (risk detector, factor detector, ecological detector, and interaction detector) based on spatial variation analysis of some potential factors to assess their effects on the under-five mortality. It was found that three factors are responsible for child mortality: earthquake intensity, collapsed house, and slope. The study, despite some limitations, has important implications for both researchers and policy makers. PMID:21738660

  4. Western Glacier Stonefly

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

     The rare western glacier stonefly (Zapada glacier) is native to Glacier National Park and is seeking habitat at higher elevations due to warming stream temperature and glacier loss due to climate warming. ...

  5. Western Glacier Stonefly

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The rare western glacier stonefly (Zapada glacier) is native to Glacier National Park and is seeking habitat at higher elevations due to warming stream temperature and glacier loss due to climate warming. ...

  6. Microfluidic Western blotting

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Alex J.; Herr, Amy E.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid, quantitative Western blotting is a long-sought bioanalytical goal in the life sciences. To this end, we describe a Western blotting assay conducted in a single glass microchannel under purely electronic control. The ?Western blot is comprised of multiple steps: sample enrichment, protein sizing, protein immobilization (blotting), and in situ antibody probing. To validate the microfluidic assay, we apply the ?Western blot to analyses of human sera (HIV immunoreactivity) and cell lysate (NF?B). Analytical performance advances are achieved, including: short durations of 10–60 min, multiplexed analyte detection, mass sensitivity at the femtogram level, high-sensitivity 50-pM detection limits, and quantitation capability over a 3.6-log dynamic range. Performance gains are attributed to favorable transport and reaction conditions on the microscale. The multistep assay design relies on a photopatternable (blue light) and photoreactive (UV light) polyacrylamide gel. This hydrophilic polymer constitutes both a separation matrix for protein sizing and, after brief UV exposure, a protein immobilization scaffold for subsequent antibody probing of immobilized protein bands. We observe protein capture efficiencies exceeding 75% under sizing conditions. This compact microfluidic design supports demonstration of a 48-plex ?Western blot in a standard microscope slide form factor. Taken together, the ?Western blot establishes a foundation for rapid, targeted proteomics by merging exceptional specificity with the throughput advantages of multiplexing, as is relevant to a broad range of biological inquiry. PMID:23223527

  7. Investing 101: Your Western Pension

    E-print Network

    Sinnamon, Gordon J.

    2/21/2013 1 Investing 101: Your Western Pension Western Staff & Leaders' Conference F b 21 2013 of the Western Retirement plans. It is not intended to constitute legal, tax, pension, or investment advice nor Contribution Pension Account Invested at your Deposit Invest Account y direction Contribution Made by Western

  8. Chinese perceptions of western-branded denim jeans: a Shanghai case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juanjuan Wu; Marilyn Delong

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – To provide marketing and managerial insights to western companies selling denim jeans in China, specifically in Shanghai. Understanding consumers' perceptions of Western-branded jeans in a cultural-specific marketplace is the primary focus. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Combined methods included observation of shoppers wearing jeans in two malls in Shanghai and an anonymous survey. A total of 219 surveys were analyzed and

  9. Primitive and modern: Two faces of Shanghai in Chinese and Western literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaolan Chen

    2007-01-01

    Many Chinese writers deem Shanghai of the early 20th century as the most westernized and the most modern city in China, while in the imagination of their Western counterparts\\u000a Shanghai is still oriental, primitive, barbarous and uncivilized. Despite such an irreconcilable difference, one point shared\\u000a by those writers, both at home and abroad, is that Shanghai is a chaotic and

  10. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-print Network

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Drill Stem Tests (EDST). Source: Yearbook of China's Economy, various years; China National Offshore OilDrill Stem Tests (EDST). Source: Yearbook of China's Economy, various years; China National Offshore OilDrill Stem Tests (EDST). Source: Yearbook of China's Economy, various years; China National Offshore Oil

  11. Concurrent heroin use among methadone maintenance clients in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Wan, Dai; Zhang, Linglin; Lai, Wenhong

    2011-01-01

    Background The study examined concurrent illicit heroin use among methadone maintenance clients in China and its association with clients’ demographic characteristics, treatment experience, and personal social network. Methods Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 178 clients randomly recruited from six methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics in Sichuan, China. Concurrent heroin use was measured based on self-report of heroin use during the past 30 days and a confirmatory urine morphine test. The participants’ demographic characteristics and treatment factors were measured and examined. The drug use status of their family members and friends was also assessed. Results A total of 80 participants (44.9%) who either reported illicit heroin use in the past 30 days or had a positive urine test were defined as using heroin concurrently. Having drug-using friends was significantly associated with increased concurrent heroin use. Longer length of treatment (2 years or longer) was associated with increased concurrent heroin use. Among those who had both drug-using family members and friends, more women (71.4%) than men (50.0%) used heroin. For those who had no drug-using family members or friends, more men (34.8%) than women (20.8%) used heroin. Discussion Study findings indicate an urgent need to address concurrent illicit heroin use among MMT clients. Further examination of the influence of social networks on concurrent drug abuse behavior is encouraged. Results also highlight the importance of understanding gender differences in treatment seeking and behavioral changes, which is crucial to the development of gender-specific treatment strategies. PMID:22100548

  12. China Dust and Sand

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Dust and Sand Sweep Over Northeast China     View Larger Image ... these views of the dust and sand that swept over northeast China on March 10, 2004. Information on the height of the dust and an ...

  13. Contemporary China Studies

    E-print Network

    Einmahl, Uwe

    · Daily life and business behaviour explained from a cultural perspective · Chinese strategic thinking: economy, law, domestic politics, international relations, society, culture and language. This training · China's political constellation and its impact on business life · Human resources issues for China

  14. Control of coupling among three major factors for formation of high-efficiency gas reservoir—A case study on the oolitic beach gas reservoir in Feixianguan Formation in the northeast Sichuan Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ZeCheng Wang; WenZhi Zhao; ShuiChang Zhang; HongJun Wang; Qian Yu

    2007-01-01

    Through a case study of the high-efficiency gas reservoir in Feixianguan Formation in the northeast Sichuan Basin, quantitative\\u000a and semi-quantitative analyses of key elements such as hydrocarbon generation, migration and accumulation, and reservoir evolution\\u000a as well as their interplay in the critical moment of reservoir formation controlled by the energy field were carried out,\\u000a by means of numerical modeling of

  15. the uva meets china the uva meets china6 7 The UvA meets China

    E-print Network

    van Rooij, Robert

    the uva meets china the uva meets china6 7 The UvA meets China Amsterdam University Press 9789089646156 The UvA meets China Collaboration with China has been designated a key strategic target contributions by various authors from both China and the Netherlands, particularly Amsterdam, on a wide range

  16. Modeling propagation effects from explosions in western China and India

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, C.R.; Jones, E.M.

    1998-12-31

    The authors report on the results of finite-difference simulations of regional seismic wave propagation from a 1995 explosion at the Chinese test site at Lop Nor and from the recent Indian test. These simulations provide insight into variations in explosion seismograms recorded for these events. Previous modeling efforts by App et al., 1996, and Jones et al., 1998, have shown that many features in seismograms from explosions and earthquakes received at various stations surrounding Lop Nor can be reproduced with simple descriptions of the geologic structure along each path. However, differences in detail between simulations and the earthquake-like seismograms recorded at Station TLY in the Baikal Rift for the Lop Nor explosion have motivated further study of propagation effects. Differences between the TLY data and the simulations indicate that the use of homogeneous materials within the basins, crust, and mantle is too simplistic to capture some of the important features of the observed seismograms. Current efforts involve simulations in which 1-D and 2-D lithosphere models are merged to mimic gradients and 2-D structure, features which produce Rayleigh-wave dispersion and an improved agreement in group velocity curves. Source models have been modified to include a component of tectonic release during the Lop Nor explosion. The recent nuclear tests in India have been modeled in a similar fashion. The propagation path crosses the Moho step beneath the southern edge of the Tibetan Plateau before being received at station NIL. Similarly, the path from Lop Nor to NIL crosses a Moho step beneath the northern edge of the Tibetan Plateau and, in both cases, the effect of a step when combined with surface basin attenuation effectively block the Lg phase. Simulations show that both attenuation and crustal thickening are important when modeling propagation near the Tibetan Plateau.

  17. Aging in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Harold L.; Streib, Gordon F.

    This document consists of facts and impressions gathered during 1984, in the course of an 18-day visit to the Peoples Republic of China by a team of epidemiologists and gerontologists from the United States. The major portion of the paper presents demographic, economic, and social perspectives on aging in China. It is noted that China remains a…

  18. Student Government in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klepper, William M.

    1988-01-01

    Provides information and observations on student governance in Chinese higher education, obtained through an interview with the Deputy General of the All-China Students' Federation, a federal body of student unions at universities, colleges, and secondary schools throughout China under the leadership of the Communist Party of China. (Author/NB)

  19. China reala Assinado protocolo

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Cavaco na China realça papel de emigrantes em Macau Assinado protocolo para promover trocas entre portugueses "é factor essencial para a valorização das relações" com a China. "Podemos teste- munhar o sucesso China. Para o Presidente, cada emigrante por- tuguês é "um verdadeiro embai- xador de Portugal, um

  20. Understanding china's economic performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey D. Sachs; Wing Thye Woo

    2001-01-01

    Broadly speaking, two schools of thought have emerged to interpret China's rapid growth since 1978: the experimentalist school and the convergence school. The experimentalist school attributes China's successes to the evolutionary, experimental, and incremental nature of China's reforms. Specifically, the resulting non-capitalist institutions are claimed to be successful in (a) agriculture where land is not owned by the fanners; (b)