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1

Echinococcosis in Tibetan Populations, Western Sichuan Province, China  

PubMed Central

We screened 3,199 people from Shiqu County, Sichuan Province, China, for abdominal echinococcosis (hydatid disease) by portable ultrasound combined with specific serodiagnostic tests. Both cystic echinococcosis (CE) (Echinococcus granulosus infection) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) (E. multilocularis) were co-endemic in this area at the highest village prevalence values recorded anywhere in the world: 12.9% were infected with one or the other form (6.8% CE and 6.2% AE). Prevalences of both CE and AE were significantly higher in female than male patients and increased with the age of the person screened. Pastoral herdsmen were at highest risk for infection (prevalence 19.0%). Prevalence of CE varied in 5 townships from 0% to 12.1%, whereas AE prevalence ranged from 0% to 14.3%. Risk factors associated with both infections included the number of owned dogs, frequency of contact with dogs, and sources of drinking water.

Tiaoying, Li; Wen, Yang; Craig, Philip S.; Xingwang, Chen; Ning, Xiao; Ito, Akira; Giraudoux, Patrick; Wulamu, Mamuti; Wen, Yu; Schantz, Peter M.

2005-01-01

2

Modelling and spatial discrimination of small mammal assemblages: An example from western Sichuan (China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the relationship between landscape heterogeneity and the spatial distribution of small mammals in two areas of Western Sichuan, China. Given a large diversity of species trapped within a large number of habitats, we first classified small mammal assemblages and then modelled the habitat of each in the space of quantitative environmental descriptors. Our original two step “classify then

Amélie Vaniscotte; David R. J. Pleydell; Francis Raoul; Jean Pierre Quéré; Qiu Jiamin; Qian Wang; Li Tiaoying; Nadine Bernard; Michael Coeurdassier; Pierre Delattre; Kenichi Takahashi; Jean-Christophe Weidmann; Patrick Giraudoux

2009-01-01

3

Wet canopy evaporation rate of three stands in Western Sichuan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wet canopy evaporation rate (Er) was calculated by Penman-Monteith combination model based on three assumptions and with meteorological variables 2 m above\\u000a the canopy in three stands, dominated by spruce (SF), fir (FF) and birch (BF) trees, respectively, in the subalpine forests\\u000a in western Sichuan, China over a growing season. The total amount of theE was 44.5 mm for

Yang Wanqin; Wang Kaiyun; Seppo Kellomäki; Xiao Ling

2004-01-01

4

The Himalayan collision zone carbonatites in western Sichuan, SW China: Petrogenesis, mantle source and tectonic implication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major and trace element compositions, and Sr Nd Pb and O C isotope data for Cenozoic carbonatites (WSC) in western Sichuan, east Tibet, China are presented in this paper. The WSC occur in the eastern Indo-Asian collision zone (EIACZ), and occur as sills or dykes in the contemporaneous syenitic intrusions, which form a 270-km long, NS-trending belt of carbonatite alkalic complexes, controlled by strike-slip faults that accommodated and adjusted to the collision strain. These carbonatite alkalic complexes with Cenozoic potassic felsic rocks and calc-alkaline (shoshonitic) lamprophyres form a semi-continuous potassic igneous province with magmatism peaking at ˜35 Ma in the EIACZ. The WSC are characterized by low SiO2 (< 10.22 %), FeO (< 1.20 %) and MgO (< 0.73 %), and a wide range of CaO content (40.7˜55.4 %) that distinguish them from primary magnesiocarbonatites. Overlapping emplacement ages and Sr Nd isotopic compositions and similar mantle-normalized trace element patterns to spatially associated syenites suggest an origin for the carbonatites by liquid immiscibility. The WSC are extremely enriched in LILE (Sr, Ba) and light REE, but relatively depleted in high-field strength elements (Nb, Ta, P, Zr, Hf, Ti), suggesting a metasomatized mantle source. Their ?18OV-SMOW (6.4˜10.5‰) and ?13CV-PDB (- 3.9 to - 8.5‰) values are similar to those of primary, mantle-derived carbonatites, also suggesting a mantle genesis. However, they have extremely low åNd(t) of - 3.2 to - 18.7 and relative high (87Sr / 86Sr)i of 0.706020˜0.707923, as well as a wide range of 207Pb / 204Pb (15.362 ˜ 15.679) and 208Pb / 204Pb ratios (38.083˜39.202), which distinguish them from most carbonatites around the world. Their Sr Nd, Sr Pb and Nd Pb isotopic signatures indicate that some carbonatites underwent Sr Nd Pb contamination by crustal materials, but the least-contaminated carbonatites were derived from a transitional source between EMI and EMII components. The TDM and modeling on Sr Nd isotopic compositions indicate that the formation of this source probably was related to recycling of oceanic crust and pelagic/terrigenous sediments with various mass ratios. Partial melting of the mantle source was most likely triggered by a Cenozoic asthenospheric mantle diapir related to Indian Asian continent collision at 65 45 Ma. Rising and emplacement of carbonatitic magmas with coeval potassium-rich magmas took place in the tectonic regime of the transition from transpression to transtension at Eocene/Oligocene boundary in the EIACZ.

Hou, Zengqian; Tian, Shihong; Yuan, Zhongxin; Xie, Yuling; Yin, Shuping; Yi, Longsheng; Fei, Hongcai; Yang, Zhiming

2006-04-01

5

Selection of land cover by the Tibetan fox Vulpes ferrilata on the eastern Tibetan Plateau, western Sichuan Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat loss is one of the main factors impacting endangered wildlife in China. The Tibetan foxVulpes ferrilata Hodgson, 1842 is a characteristic species of the Tibetan Plateau. However, its habitat use is poorly known. We conducted\\u000a a project (2001–2003) to better understand habitat use by the Tibetan fox in Shiqu County, Sichuan Province, China. The research\\u000a site was classified into

Zhenghuan Wang; Xiaoming Wang; Qingbin Lu

2007-01-01

6

Drillstring failure analysis and its prevention in northeast Sichuan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the causes for drillstring failure encountered during drilling practice in northeast Sichuan region (China) are systematically investigated based on more than 130 failure cases. The fault tree of drillstring failure in northeast Sichuan (China) is then constructed with considering the drillstring failure as the top event of the fault tree. The minimal cut sets and the minimal

Rui-he Wang; Yan-bin Zang; Rui Zhang; Yu-huan Bu; Hua-zhou Li

2011-01-01

7

Three dimensional surface displacement of the Sichuan earthquake (Mw 7.9, China) from Synthetic Aperture Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sichuan earthquake, Mw 7.9, struck the Longmen Shan range front, in the western Sichuan province, China, on 12 May 2008. It severely affected an area where little historical seismicity and little or no significant active shortening were reported before the earthquake (e.g. Gu et al., 1989; Chen et al., 1994; Gan et al., 2007). The Longmen Shan thrust system

Marcello de Michele; Daniel Raucoules; Julia de Sigoyer; Manuel Pubellier; Cecile Lasserre; Erwan Pathier; Yann Klinger; Jerome van der Woerd; Nicolas Chamot-Rooke

2010-01-01

8

Echinococcus granulosus Infection and Options for Control of Cystic Echinococcosis in Tibetan Communities of Western Sichuan Province, China  

PubMed Central

Background Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) is highly endemic in the Tibetan regions of Sichuan where most families keep guard dogs and where there are considerable numbers of ownerless/stray dogs. Strong Buddhist beliefs do not allow for elimination of stray dogs, and many strays are actually fed and adopted by households or monasteries. On account of the high altitude (3900–5000 m), pasturage is the major agricultural activity in this area. The harsh mountainous climate often leads to many grazing animals dying on the pasture at the end of a hard winter. The skin and some meat are taken, and the rest of the animal is left for scavenging birds and animals. The poor sanitation and hygiene, the Buddhist doctrine of allowing old livestock to die naturally, plus the unrestricted disposal of animal viscera post-slaughter may be responsible for the high prevalence of human CE in this setting. Methods and Findings As part of a large collaborative control program for CE in Ganzi County, situated in the west of Sichuan Province, surveillance for Echinococcus infection in domestic dogs using a coproantigen method and necropsy of unwanted dogs was carried out prior to (in 2000) and after (in 2005) dog anthelminthic treatment (5 mg/kg oral praziquantal at 6 month intervals) to determine the efficacy of the treatment for control. The prevalence of E. granulosus only in dogs by necropsy was 27% and 22%, and prevalence of both Echinococcus spp. by necropsy was 63% and 38%; prevalence of both Echinococcus spp. by coproantigen analysis was 50% and 17%. Necropsy of sheep/goats (age <1 to 12 years) (prevalence of E. granulosus in 1–6-year-old animals was 38% and in 10–12-year-old animals was 70%) and yaks (age 4 years) (prevalence of E. granulosus was 38%) was undertaken to determine the baseline transmission pressure. Protoscoleces were only found in very old sheep/goats and yaks. Necropsy of dogs in the Datangma district indicated that there was no apparent significant change in the overall prevalence of E. granulosus in unwanted dogs after 5 years of 6-month praziquantel treatment. However, this was likely due to the number of dogs available for necropsy being too small to reflect the real situation prevailing. There was a highly significant decrease in Echinococcus prevalence after the 5-year treatment program shown by coproantigen-ELISA. This indicated a decreasing but continuing risk for re-infection of domestic and stray dogs. Genotyping of E. granulosus samples obtained from necropsied sheep/goats and yaks and from locally infected humans at surgery was carried out to determine the strain of parasite responsible for human infection. DNA genotyping indicated that only the sheep strain (G1) of E. granulosus was present in the study area. Conclusions Considerable re-infection rates of E. granulosus among dogs indicated a high infection pressure from infected livestock in this region, most likely from older animals dying on the pasture. A combination of livestock vaccination with the Eg95 vaccine, which is effective against the sheep strain of E. granulosus, and dog anthelmintic treatment, thus targeting two critical points of the parasite life-cycle, would avoid the conflicts of religion or local culture and could achieve the goal of hydatid control in the long term.

Yang, Yu Rong; McManus, Donald P.; Huang, Yan; Heath, David D.

2009-01-01

9

[Effects of snow cover on the decomposition and nutrient dynamics of Sibiraea angustata leaf litter in western Sichuan plateau, Southwest China].  

PubMed

Soil-borne bag method was adopted to study the decomposition and nutrient dynamics of Sibiraea angustata leaf litter under different depths (0, 30 and 100 cm) of snow cover in western Sichuan plateau in January-May, 2010. In snow-free plot, the mass loss rate of the litter over the five months was 29.9%; in the plots with 30 and 100 cm snow cover, the litter mass loss rate was 33.8% and 35.2%, respectively. During the decomposition, definite N enrichment in the litter was observed, while the P enrichment fluctuated. The C content and C/N ratio of the litter decreased sharply at the early stage of decomposition, but increased gradually after then. Snow cover greatly contributed to the rapid decomposition of litter and the N enrichment in the litter, but had little effects on the litter C and P contents. In western Sichuan plateau, durable snow cover with a depth of > 30 cm could alter the litter decomposition pattern, and substantially affect the soil nutrient turnover and plant community composition. PMID:22919831

Hu, Xia; Wu, Ning; Wu, Yan; Zuo, Wan-Qing; Guo, Hai-Xia; Wang, Jin-Niu

2012-05-01

10

Structural and thermal characters of the Longmen Shan (Sichuan, China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Longmen Shan (Sichuan, China) is characterised by an unusual morphology which results from a Triassic prism tectonics and a more recent Neogene thick-skin thrusting. Among its specific features is the high elevation of the internal zones in continuity with the Songpan Garze fold-and-thrust belt (SG), which is associated with an abrupt 20km Moho offset between the Sichuan Basin and

A. Robert; M. Pubellier; J. de Sigoyer; J. Vergne; A. Lahfid; R. Cattin; N. Findling; J. Zhu

2010-01-01

11

[Effects of simulated warming on the growth, leaf phenology, and leaf traits of Salix eriostachya in sub-alpine timberline ecotone of western Sichuan, China].  

PubMed

By using open-top chamber (OTC), the effects of simulated warming on the growth, leaf phenology, and leaf traits of Salix eriostachya in sub-alpine timberline ecotone of Western Sichuan were studied. The results showed that comparing with the control, the mean air temperature at 1.2 m above the ground throughout S. eriostachya growth season in OTC increased by 2.9 degrees C, while the soil temperature at the depth of 5 cm only increased by 0.4 degrees C. The temperature increase in OTC made S. eriostachya budding advanced and defoliation postponed obviously, and the leaf life-span longer. The leaf and branch growth rates as well as the specific leaf area in OTC increased obviously, whereas the leaf nitrogen concentration decreased significantly. In OTC, the stomata conductance, net photosynthetic rate, photorespiration, and dark respiration rate of S. eriostachya all exhibited an increasing trend. It was suggested that S. eriostachya had stronger capability to adapt to warming, and, under the background of future global climate change, the elevation of S. eriostachya distribution in the timberline ecotone would be likely to ascend. PMID:19449558

Xu, Zhen-feng; Hu, Ting-xing; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yuan-bin; Xian, Jun-ren; Wang, Kai-yun

2009-01-01

12

Induced abortion among unmarried women in Sichuan province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the social and demographic characteristics of 457 unmarried women who underwent a first trimester induced abortion at hospitals and family planning clinics in Sichuan province, China. The data show a very low level of medical complications. However, improved access to contraception for unmarried women is needed in order to reduce the incidence of unintended pregnancies and induced

Luo Lin; Wu Shi-Zhong; Chen Xiao-Qing; Li Min-Xiang; Thomas W. Pullum

1995-01-01

13

Study on the Effect of Source-Contacting Gas Accumulations upon Abnormal Pressures in Western Sichuan Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The migration and accumulation of typical source-contacting gas, also called basin-centered gas, follow the piston principle that it generates superpressures essentially. In the tight sand reservoir, the formation water cannot exchange sufficiently, which maintains higher pressure in gas reservoirs compared with conventional reservoirs during tectonic uplift or subsidences. The western Sichuan depression is one of the earliest basins in China

Jinchuan ZHANG; Lifang LIU; Xuan TANG; Xiaowei SONG; Shengling JIANG; Bo XU; Ruikang BIAN

2008-01-01

14

Breastfeeding Practices in Chengdu, Sichuan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barriers to increased breastfeeding rates in Chengdu, Sichuan were investigated in 1992 and 1993. Responses of focus groups showed that ignorance about breastfeeding and belief that the mother's milk was inadequate, and lack of support from their families, places of employment, and the health system acted as barriers to the women's breastfeeding their infants up to the age of four

Georgia S. Guldan; Zhang Maoyu; Zeng Guo; Hong Junrong; Yang Yi

1995-01-01

15

Characterization of Vegetative Insecticidal Protein vip Genes of Bacillus thuringiensis from Sichuan Basin in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip), the second generation of insecticides, are produced during the vegetative growth stage\\u000a of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). To perform a systematic study of vip genes in Bt strains from different ecological regions of Sichuan Basin, 1,789 soil samples were collected from this basin,\\u000a which is situated in the western region of China. The basin has a complicated

Xiumei YuAiping; Aiping Zheng; Jun Zhu; Shiquan Wang; Lingxia Wang; Qiming Deng; Shuangcheng Li; Huainian Liu; Ping Li

2011-01-01

16

Epidemiology of human hookworm infections among adult villagers in Hejiang and Santai Counties, Sichuan Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hookworm infection as well as other intestinal nematodiases are endemic to Sichuan Province in China. In order to research the prevalence and intensity of these infections we visited two villages in Hejiang County (southern Sichuan Province) and Santai County (northwestern Sichuan Province) between July and October of 1997. Fecal examinations were performed on adult villagers over the age of 15

Liu Changhua; Zhang Xiaorong; Qiu Dongchuan; Xiao Shuhua; P. J. Hotez; Zhen Defu; Zhen Hulian; Li Mingden; Ren Hainan; Zhan Bing; Xue Haichou; J. Hawdon; Feng Zheng

1999-01-01

17

New discovery on dinosaur fossils from Early Jurassic, Sichuan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

An early and primitive sauropod dinosaur,Gongxianosaurus shibeiensis (gen. et sp. nov.), from Lower Jurassic Dongyuemiao Member of Ziliujing Formation in Shibei Village, Gongxian County, Sichuan\\u000a Province, China is described, which is among Gongxian dinosaur fossils discovered in 1997. Except for skull incomplete, fossils\\u000a were well-preserved. It has concurrently some features of both sauropod and prosauropds. It is an intermediate type

Yaonan Luo; Changsheng Wang

1999-01-01

18

Hydrological studies of schistosomiasis transport in Sichuan Province, China.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis is a water-bourne parasitic disease endemic to Sichuan Province of China. Long-term studies of infection and disease ecology in catchments in Sichuan have been supplemented by detailed hydrometric measurements to produce a model of water velocity and flow in an irrigation system. The model provides a means of estimating travel times of two infectious stages of the parasite from source sites to water contact exposure sites for individuals of both the human population and the intermediate vector snail populations. The hydrological transport model will be part of an overall model of schistosomiasis transmission in the catchments. A GIS system is used to manage spatial data of the drainage network, land use, infection sources and population centres. The development of the Three Gorges Dam in China will increase marshlands and irrigation in areas currently free of schistosomiasis. The potential for the spread of schistosomiasis into these new areas is a major concern. Hydrological models can be of particular importance in assessing future environmental risk. PMID:9646528

Maszle, D R; Whitehead, P G; Johnson, R C; Spear, R C

1998-05-27

19

Architecture of basin-mountain systems and their influences on gas distribution: A case study from the Sichuan basin, South China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basin-mountain systems in the Sichuan basin exert major control on today's oil/gas distribution, chiefly through their controlling influence on petroleum reservoirs preservation, the thickness of deposited terrestrial formations and degree of uplift and denudation. The composite basin-mountain system in the Sichuan basin and its peripheral mountains can be classified as two types - margin-plate systems and interior-plate systems. The margin-plate basin-mountain systems include the Sichuan basin and its surrounding Longmen Mountains, Micang Mountains and Daba Mountains, which are not only the western and northern marginal area of the Sichuan basin, but also represent the western margin of the Yangtze plate (South China Block). The margin-plate basin-mountain systems, with binary units of large-scale thrust belts and foreland basins, have different deep lithospheric structures, abrupt boundaries and great contrast in today's geomorphology between the basin and the mountains. On the contrary, the interior-plate basin-mountain systems comprised by the Sichuan basin and its adjacent interior-plate Qiyue Mountains, Dalou Mountains and Daliang Mountains; represent the eastern and southern marginal area of the Sichuan basin located within the Yangtze plate. They have similar lithospheric structure and gradual boundaries between the basin and the adjacent mountains, lacking foreland basins. Today's medium-large scale natural gas accumulations in the Sichuan basin are mainly distributed in the areas influenced by the margin-plate basin-mountain systems, and are located especially in the foreland basins.

Liu, Shugen; Deng, Bin; Li, Zhiwu; Sun, Wei

2012-03-01

20

Study on the Effect of Source-Contacting Gas Accumulations upon Abnormal Pressures in Western Sichuan Depression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The migration and accumulation of typical source-contacting gas, also called basin-centered gas, follow the piston principle that it generates superpressures essentially. In the tight sand reservoir, the formation water cannot exchange sufficiently, which maintains higher pressure in gas reservoirs compared with conventional reservoirs during tectonic uplift or subsidences. The western Sichuan depression is one of the earliest basins in China being researched for source-contacting gas, where the regional overpressure is the direct product and the sign of the accumulation of source-contacting gas. Besides the effect from the accumulation of source-contacting gas, the regional overpressure in the western Sichuan depression is also directly related with undercompaction and regional tectonic uplift before and after the accumulation of source-contacting gas, respectively. Present regional overpressure in the western Sichuan depression is attributed to three phases of tectonic movements and generations of abnormal pressure thrice due to the preferable obturation of the unconventional gas accumulation systems. The multiple pressures were believed to cumulate from undercompaction and hydrocarbon generation before the Late Jurassic period, from gas generation and accumulation of source-contacting gas in the Late Jurassic to Eogene period, and cumulation of multiple pressures after the Late Eogene is attributed to regional uplift. Using section configuration and calculation, the coefficients of abnormal pressures in the western Sichuan depression can be divided as follow: the coefficients of abnormal pressure due to undercompaction and regional uplift is 1.42 and the rest over-pressures is attributed to the accumulation of source-contacting gas. According to the isolines 1.42 of pressure coefficients, the distribution of source-contacting gas accumulations can be approximately predicted.

Zhang, Jinchuan; Liu, Lifang; Tang, Xuan; Song, Xiaowei; Jiang, Shengling; Xu, Bo; Bian, Ruikang

21

Ambient noise Rayleigh wave tomography in western Sichuan and eastern Tibet  

Microsoft Academic Search

We perform Rayleigh wave tomography in western Sichuan and eastern Tibet by applying the ambient noise method to broadband data recorded at 49 stations from the Sichuan digital seismic network. Cross-correlations of vertical-component ambient noise data are computed in one-hour segments and stacked over 7 months from June to December 2007. Then Rayleigh wave group dispersion curves from 6 to 48 s

Hongyi Li; Wei Su; Chun-Yong Wang; Zhongxian Huang

2009-01-01

22

Outpatient prescription practices in rural township health centers in Sichuan Province, China  

PubMed Central

Background Sichuan Province is an agricultural and economically developing province in western China. To understand practices of prescribing medications for outpatients in rural township health centers is important for the development of the rural medical and health services in this province and western China. Methods This is an observational study based on data from the 4th National Health Services Survey of China. A total of 3,059 prescriptions from 30 township health centers in Sichuan Province were collected and analyzed. Seven indicators were employed in the analyses to characterize the prescription practices. They are disease distribution, average cost per encounter, number of medications per encounter, percentage of encounters with antibiotics, percentage of encounters with glucocorticoids, percentage of encounters with combined glucocorticoids and antibiotics, and percentage of encounters with injections. Results The average medication cost per encounter was 16.30 Yuan ($2.59). About 60% of the prescriptions contained Chinese patent medicine (CPM), and almost all prescriptions (98.07%) contained western medicine. 85.18% of the prescriptions contained antibiotics, of which, 24.98% contained two or more types of antibiotics; the percentage of prescriptions with glucocorticoids was 19.99%; the percentage of prescriptions with both glucocorticoids and antibiotics was 16.67%; 51.40% of the prescriptions included injections, of which, 39.90% included two or more injections. Conclusions The findings from this study demonstrated irrational medication uses of antibiotics, glucocorticoids and injections prescribed for outpatients in the rural township health centers in Sichuan Province. The reasons for irrational medication uses are not only solely due to the pursuit of maximizing benefits in the township health centers, but also more likely attributable to the lack of medical knowledge of rational medication uses among rural doctors and the lack of medical devices for disease diagnosis in those township health centers. The policy implication from this study is to enhance professional training in rational medication uses for rural doctors, improve hardware facilities for township health centers, promote health education to rural residents and establish a public reporting system to monitor prescription practices in rural township health centers, etc.

2012-01-01

23

Characterization of vegetative insecticidal protein vip genes of Bacillus thuringiensis from Sichuan Basin in China.  

PubMed

Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip), the second generation of insecticides, are produced during the vegetative growth stage of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). To perform a systematic study of vip genes in Bt strains from different ecological regions of Sichuan Basin, 1,789 soil samples were collected from this basin, which is situated in the western region of China. The basin has a complicated geomorphology and contains mountains, forests, highlands, hursts, and plains. A total of 2,134 Bt strains have been screened from the 1,789 soil samples. According to the results, three vip-type genes were found in this basin, namely the vip1, vip2, and vip3-type genes. Strains containing vip3-type genes were the most abundant in our collection (67.4%), followed by vip2-type genes (14.6%) and vip1-type genes (8.1%). The three types of vip genes were distributed in most of the regions, but E Mei Mountain and the Ba Lang Mountains only contained vip3 genes in environments with high elevation, low temperature, insufficient oxygen, and abundant snow. Moreover, five novel vip3 genes were found, and these Vip proteins were toxic for Chilo suppressalis. All the results mentioned above suggest that Sichuan Basin is a rich resource for vip genes. PMID:20963416

Yu, Xiumei; Zheng, Aiping; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Shiquan; Wang, Lingxia; Deng, Qiming; Li, Shuangcheng; Liu, Huainian; Li, Ping

2010-10-21

24

A qualitative study on commercial sex behaviors among male clients in Sichuan Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males who seek commercial sex have been identified as an important “bridging population” in the transmission of HIV. There is little information on the HIV-related risk perceptions and behaviors among commercial sex male clients (CSMCs) in China. This study reports qualitative findings from six focus groups and 41 in-depth interviews with CSMCs in Sichuan Province, China. Commercial sex visits were

Cui Yang; Carl A. Latkin; Peng Liu; Kenrad E. Nelson; Cunlin Wang; Rongsheng Luan

2010-01-01

25

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE TRANSMISSION OF SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM IN THE MOUNTAINS OF SICHUAN PROVINCE OF CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty villages in the Anning River Valley of southwestern Sichuan China were surveyed for Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans and domestic animals. Also surveyed were human water contact patterns, snail popu- lations, cercarial risk in irrigation systems, and agricultural land use. Few animals were infected, while village prevalence of infection in humans ranged from 3% to 68% and average village

ROBERT C. SPEAR; EDMUND SETO; SONG LIANG; MERRILL BIRKNER; ALAN HUBBARD; DONGCHUAN QIU; CHANGHONG YANG; BO ZHONG; FASHEN XU; XUEGUANG GU; GEORGE M. DAVIS

2004-01-01

26

Borehole Strain Observation Array in WFSD at Longmen Shan Faults, Sichuan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes that the Borehole Array observation system has been layout along the Longmen Shan fault zone in the WFSD project, at Sichuan, China. The instrument is composed of 3 strainmeters (horizontal), 2 tiltmeters, 3 seismometers, 3 magnetometers, 1 thermometer, 1 pore pressure , and A\\/D conversion unit for each (Fig.1). These instruments are installed at a depth of

H. Peng; X. Ma; J. Jiang; Z. Li

2010-01-01

27

Soil development along primary succession sequences on moraines of Hailuogou Glacier, Gongga Mountain, Sichuan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil properties related to soil development were measured in six profiles over approximately 180 years of soil development on recessional moraines of the Hailuogou Glacier, Sichuan of southwestern China. It is hypothesized that soil development is strictly time-dependent. Field and laboratory work indicate that as soil develops from initially coarse gravel outwash, the properties undergo a progressive physical and chemical change

Lei He; Ya Tang

2008-01-01

28

Shale gas reservoir characterisation: A typical case in the southern Sichuan Basin of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation is an organic-rich (black) mudrock that is widely considered to be a potential shale gas reservoir in the southern Sichuan Basin (the Yangtze plate) in Southwest China. A case study is presented to characterise the shale gas reservoir using a workflow to evaluate its characteristics. A typical characterisation of a gas shale reservoir was determined using

Shangbin Chen; Yanming Zhu; Hongyan Wang; Honglin Liu; Wei Wei; Junhua Fang

2011-01-01

29

Analysis of land use and cover change in Sichuan province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of environmental policies in Sichuan province was executed to restore the grassland and forestland on some degraded lands after 2000. But the effectiveness on land use and cover change (LUCC) has not yet been systematically investigated. We undertook a detailed analysis about land use and cover change between 2000 and 2005 in Sichuan province. Our study mainly utilized remotely sensed data of 2005 China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite II (CBERS II) and 2000 Landsat 5 thematic mapper (TM) data. Land use and cover change between 2000 and 2005 was visually interpreted by CBERS II with ArcInfo Workstation based on land use and cover database interpreted from TM. Then LUCC was validated by ground truth with global positioning system receivers. Our analysis illustrates that the conservation policies to restore the grassland and forestland were successful to a lesser extent. But more measures to restore the grassland and forestland of Sichuan province have to be taken further in the future.

Zheng, Zezhong; Yang, Wunian; Zhou, Guoqing; Wang, Xiaoting

2012-01-01

30

Taeniasis/cysticercosis in a Tibetan population in Sichuan Province, China.  

PubMed

The results of a preliminary survey of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Yajiang County, Ganze Tibetan Prefecture in southwest Sichuan Province, China, indicated a very high prevalence of taeniasis (22.5%), with Taenia saginata as the dominant species. There was also a significant occurrence of late-onset epilepsy (8.5% prevalence and 16.4% seropositive for Taenia solium antibodies) attributable in large part to probable neurocysticercosis caused by T. solium. The poor sanitation and hygiene in this Tibetan community likely contributed to a high risk of human cysticercosis despite a low level of T. solium taeniasis (actually no T. solium carriers were detected amongst the 21 proven Taenia carriers). In addition, three taeniasis cases were confirmed by DNA genotyping as Taenia asiatica, which is the first report of this tapeworm in Tibetans, the first report for Sichuan Province and only the third report for mainland China. PMID:17166477

Li, Tiaoying; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira; Chen, Xingwang; Qiu, Dongchuan; Qiu, Jiamin; Sato, Marcello O; Wandra, Toni; Bradshaw, Helen; Li, Li; Yang, Yun; Wang, Qian

2006-12-12

31

China–Australia Training on Psychosocial Crisis Intervention: Response to the Earthquake Disaster in Sichuan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This paper describes the AusAID-funded psychosocial training program conducted jointly by Chinese and Australian mental health facilitators in the wake of the devastating earthquake disaster in Sichuan.Conclusions: A total of 280 professional and volunteer leaders in disaster mental health response from across China took part in the national disaster mental health training program. A comprehensive, evidence-based and practical program

Chee Ng; Hong Ma; Beverley Raphael; Xin Yu; Julia Fraser; Denghua Tang

2009-01-01

32

Social organization of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys ( Rhinopithecus roxellana ) in the Qinling Mountains, Central China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys were observed for 197 days from 2000 to 2003 in the Qinling Mountains, Central China. The study group was provisioned in 2001 allowing detailed observations of social organization based on individual identification. The group was composed of 45–82 monkeys, all of which belonged to one of 6–8 one-male units (OMU) that foraged to form one big group. The

Peng Zhang; Kunio Watanabe; Baoguo Li; Chia L. Tan

2006-01-01

33

Geology of Sedimentary Rock-Hosted Disseminated Gold Deposits in Northwestern Sichuan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen sedimentary rock-hosted disseminated gold deposits (e.g., Dongbeizhai, Qiuluo, Manaoke, Laerma, Gala and Lianhecun) and about 50 prospects have been discovered in northwestern Sichuan Province, China since the late 1970s. They are hosted in complex rock series such as fine-grained clastic rocks, subvolcanic rocks, and ophiolitic melange, mainly of Triassic age. Mineral associates include pyrite, arsenopyrite, marcasite, realgar, orpiment, stibnite,

Xiao-Chun Wang; Zhe-Ru Zhang

2001-01-01

34

HIV, syphilis, hepatitis C and risk behaviours among commercial sex male clients in Sichuan province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesCommercial sex male clients (CSMC) are at risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI) including HIV. This study reports the prevalence of HIV, syphilis and hepatitis C virus (HCV), a history of STI and HIV-related risk behaviours in a sample of 600 CSMC in three urban areas in Sichuan province, China. The risk factors for prevalent syphilis infection are also examined.MethodsA

Cui Yang; Carl Latkin; Rongsheng Luan; Cunling Wang; Kenrad Nelson

2010-01-01

35

[Emergy evaluation and dynamic measurement analysis of agro-ecosystems in Sichuan Province of Southwest China].  

PubMed

Agro-ecosystem is the most basic system for human beings survival, while the analysis of the structure and function of the system is the key to solve the problems of agro-ecological environment. In this paper, emergy theory and related economic measurement methods including data envelopment analysis, cointegration test, and error correction model were applied to quantitatively analyze the operation dynamics, environmental loading, operation efficiency, and input-output relation of the agro-ecosystems in Sichuan Province and its 21 cities in 1997-2009. In the study period, Sichuan Province was in the transition period from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. The agricultural mechanization level of the Province improved constantly, resources utilization efficiency enhanced continually, overall structural dominant degree was better, but the over-reliance on economic emergy input caused the sustainability of the system weakened gradually. The development status of the agro-ecosystems in the Province varied among regions. Chengdu Plain and Western Sichuan Highland were either in overexploited or in underutilized, while the hilly areas were full of vitality and development potential, tended to be the important areas for the future development of Sichuan agriculture. Generally, the operation efficiency of the agro-ecosystems in the Province was relatively low, with the situation differed in different regions due to the lower technical efficiency or improper scale. There was a long-term equilibrium between the economic emergy indices and output emergy, but the short-term emergy input didn't reach the ideal output. PMID:22720632

Zhang, Ying-Cong; Du, Shou-Hu

2012-03-01

36

Natural and artificial radionuclide measurements and radioactivity assessment of soil samples in eastern Sichuan province (China).  

PubMed

The activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides were measured in the eastern region of Sichuan province (China). One hundred and ninety-three soil samples from this region were collected and analysed by high-purity germanium gamma spectrometry. The measured results show that the average radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in the soil samples are 26, 49, 440 and 6 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The calculated average radium equivalent activity is 130 Bq kg(-1), which is less than the recommended limit of 370 Bq kg(-1). The absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose are 60 nGy h(-1) and 74 µSv, respectively. This is the first time the absorbed dose rate in the east region of Sichuan has been mapped. Overall, the environmental radiation background is greater in the southern part of the area studied than in the northern. PMID:22128351

Wang, Zhonghai; He, Jun; Du, Yu; He, Yang; Li, Zhiqian; Chen, Zhihua; Yang, Chaowen

2011-11-28

37

Molecular Epidemiology of Porcine Cytomegalovirus (PCMV) in Sichuan Province, China: 2010-2012  

PubMed Central

Porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) is an immunosuppressive virus that mainly inhibits the immune function of the macrophage and T-cell lymphatic systems, and has caused huge economic losses to the porcine breeding industry. Molecular epidemiological investigation of PCMV is important for prevention and treatment, and this study is the first such investigation in Sichuan Province, Southwest China. A PCMV positive infection rate of 84.4% (865/1025) confirmed that PCMV is widely distributed in Sichuan Province. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the PCMV glycoprotein B gene (gB) nucleotide and amino acid sequences from 24 novel Sichuan isolates and 18 other PCMV gB sequences from Genbank. PCMV does not appear to have evolved into different serotypes, and two distinct sequence groups were identified (A and B). However, whether PCMV from this region has evolved into different genotypes requires further research. Analysis of the amino acid sequences confirmed the conservation of gB, but amino acid substitutions in the major epitope region have caused antigenic drift, which may have altered the immunogenicity of PCMV.

Xu, Zhiwen; Zhou, Yuancheng

2013-01-01

38

An aberrant species of Nipponocercyon from Sichuan, China (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Sphaeridiinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract A detailed examination of specimens of Cryptopleurum sichuanicum Ryndevich, 2005 from high altitudes of Sichuan Province, China, revealed that the species belongs in the genus Nipponocercyon Satô, 1963 previously endemic to Japan. The species is here transferred in Nipponocercyon, and Nipponocercyon sichuanicus (Ryndevich, 2005), comb. n. is redescribed and compared with Nipponocercyon shibatai Satô, 1963. The male genitalia of Nipponocercyon sichuanicus is described for the first time. An adapted diagnosis of Nipponocercyon is provided, and reasons for the inclusion of Nipponocercyon sichuanicus into Nipponocercyon and the general distribution of the genus are discussed.

Fikacek, Martin; Ryndevich, Sergey; Jia, Fenglong

2012-01-01

39

Three dimensional surface slip partitioning of the Sichuan earthquake from Synthetic Aperture Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sichuan earthquake, Mw 7.9, struck the Longmen Shan range front, in the western Sichuan province, China, on 12 May 2008. It severely affected an area where little historical seismicity and little or no significant active shortening were reported before the earthquake (e.g. Gu et al., 1989; Chen et al., 1994; Gan et al., 2007). The Longmen Shan thrust system

M. de Michele; D. Raucoules; J. de Sigoyer; M. Pubellier; C. Lasserre; E. Pathier; Y. Klinger; J. van der Woerd

2009-01-01

40

Community-based survey of HCV and HIV coinfection in injection drug abusers in Sichuan Province of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of HCV\\/HIV coinfection in injection drug abusers (IDAs) in Lianshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan province, China. METHODS: From November 8, 2002 to November 29, 2002, a community-based survey was conducted to investigate the demographic characteristics, patterns of shared injectors devices and sexual behaviors in IDAs. Blood samples were also collected to

Yu-Hua Ruan; Kun-Xue Hong; Shi-Zhu Liu; Yi-Xin He; Feng Zhou; Guan-Ming Qin; Kang-Lin Chen; Hui Xing; Jian-Ping Chen; Yi-Ming Shao

41

The pollination ecology of Pedicularis rex subsp . lipkyana and P. rex subsp. rex (Orobanchaceae) from Sichuan, southwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pedicularis is one of few genera for which pollination ecology has been studied extensively. Although over half of the species of Pedicularis are found in the mountains of southwestern China, pollination ecology has been studied there on a few species only. The present paper reports pollination ecology of Pedicularis rex subsp. lipskyana and P. rex subsp. rex from Sichuan, southwestern

Ya Tang; Jia-Sui Xie; Hui Sun

2007-01-01

42

Equitable utilisation and effective protection of sharing transboundary water resources: international rivers of western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western China includes 12 provincial divisions (the 7 provinces of Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai and;\\u000a 5 autonomous regions of Tibet, Ningxia, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia and Guangxi; and one city of Chongqing), which comprise 71.4%\\u000a of the national land area, 28.5% of the national population and produce 17.5% of the national GDP in China. There are 17 countries\\u000a that

He Da-ming; Liu Xiu-juan

2001-01-01

43

PTSD in a one year old girl after the Wenchuan earthquake in Sichuan, China.  

PubMed

On May 12, 2008, at 2:28 PM, an earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter Scale struck Southwest China, with the epicenter in Wenchuan, a county about 92 km (about 58 miles) north-west of the Sichuan provincial capital of Chengdu. The earthquake destroyed about 6.5 million homes, leaving 4.8 million people homeless. Official figures stated that 69,196 are confirmed dead, including some 5,335 school children, while an additional 18,379 are listed as missing (Sina.com, 2009). An epidemiological survey conducted 2.5 months after the earthquake in two counties affected by the earthquake found the prevalence of post-traumatic disorder (PTSD) to be 45.5% in the heavily damaged county and 9.4% in the moderately damaged one (Kun et al., 2009). PMID:21463173

Ren, Z J; Deng, Hong; Hsu, L K George

2011-01-01

44

Analysis of runoff in ungauged mountain watersheds in Sichuan, China using kinematic-wave-based GIUH model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floods are one of the most common natural hazards occurring all around the world. However, the knowledge of the origins of\\u000a a food and its possible magnitude in a given region remains unclear yet. This lack of understanding is particularly acute\\u000a in mountainous regions with large degrees in Sichuan Province, China, where runoff is seldom measured. The nature of streamflow

Shuyou Cao; Kwan Tun Lee; Juiyi Ho; Xingnian Liu; Er Huang; Kejun Yang

2010-01-01

45

Coexistence mechanisms of evergreen, deciduous and coniferous trees in a mid-montane mixed forest on Mt. Emei, Sichuan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structure and regeneration of a mid-montane (2200 m a.s.l.)mixed forest codominated by evergreen (Lithocarpuscleistocarpus), deciduous (Acer flabellatum)andconiferous (Tsuga chinensis, Abies fabri, andTaxus chinensis) trees were analyzed in a 40m× 60 m plot on Mt. Emei, Sichuan, China. Plant communitystructure and composition varied depending on topographic micro-habitat withinthe plot. Four topographic communities (topo-communities) were distinguishedwith dominant species corresponding to topography: (1)Abies

Cindy Q. Tang; Masahiko Ohsawa

2002-01-01

46

Three-dimensional imaging of Longmenshan fault using aftershocks of Wenchuan 8.0 earthquake, Sichuan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a three-dimensional (3D) compressional wave speed (Vp), shear wave speed (Vs) and Vp\\/Vs model for the Longmenshan fault region, Sichuan China, using aftershocks associated with the 2008 Wenchuan 8.0 earthquake. The velocity and ratio models are obtained by a new version of the double- difference seismic tomography method (Zhang, 2003) to simultaneously solve for Vp, Vs, Vp\\/Vs and

S. Pei; J. Su; H. Zhang; Y. Sun; N. Toksoz; J. Zhao; H. Liu

2008-01-01

47

Diversity and infectivity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in agricultural soils of the Sichuan Province of mainland China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge about the presence and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in a specific area is an essential first\\u000a step for utilizing these fungi in any application. The community composition of AMF in intensively managed agricultural soil\\u000a in the Sichuan Province of southwest China currently is unknown. In one set of samples, AMF were trapped in pot cultures from\\u000a 40

Yuan Yuan Wang; Mauritz Vestberg; Christopher Walker; Timo Hurme; Xiaoping Zhang; Kristina Lindström

2008-01-01

48

Establishment of land use/cover change database and eco-environment decisions in Sichuan Province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the cause of frequent drought and rainy-flood disasters in Sichuan province in recent years, a method based on remote sensing (RS), geographic information system (GIS) and global positioning system (GPS) is presented to establish land use/cover change (LUCC) database of Sichuan province. Firstly, LUCC was interpreted interactively with the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS-02) images in 2005, in the light of the database from Landsat-Thematic Mapper (TM) in 2000. Secondly, the interpreted result was validated in the field with GPS hand-held receiver and the database was updated subsequently. Thirdly, LUCC was extracted from the interpreted database with GIS software. The result reveals that the achievement of "grain for green" project was very little, and more farmland? were being occupied; the cities were overspreading at the same time. Therefore, the eco-environment of Sichuan province became worse. Some decisions were provided to improve the eco-environment of Sichuan province at last.

Zheng, Zezhong; Fan, Dongming; Yang, Wunian; Li, Yuxia

2009-06-01

49

Gender and HIV risk behavior among intravenous drug users in Sichuan Province, China.  

PubMed

Using data from a community-based study of injection drug users (IDUs) in Sichuan Province in China, this study compared the level of HIV risk behavior (needle sharing and unsafe sex) amongst female and male IDUs, and examined the risk factors separately for these two groups. Five risk factors were examined in the analysis, including a lack of family support, having an IDU primary sex partner, economic pressure, lack of access to a methadone program, and younger age. Regression results showed that male and female IDUs had different risk factors. For male IDUs, younger age and a lack of family support increased their level of HIV risk behavior. For female IDUs, having an IDU primary sex partner and economic pressure were predictive of their HIV risk behavior. Sex differences in risk factors are explained with respect to gender norms surrounding HIV risk behavior in the context of social relations. Female IDUs who were sex workers suffered additional HIV risk due to their powerlessness in negotiating safe sex with male customers. Practical implications of the findings for HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention work in China are discussed. PMID:16185801

Choi, Susanne Y P; Cheung, Yuet Wah; Chen, Kanglin

2005-09-26

50

Toward sustainable and comprehensive control of schistosomiasis in China: lessons from Sichuan.  

PubMed

Triggered by a fascinating publication in the New England Journal of Medicine detailing China's new multi-pronged strategy to control and eventually interrupt the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum, this PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases Debate critically examines the generalizability and financial costs of the studies presented from the marshlands of the lake region. Edmund Seto from the University of California and colleagues emphasize that the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis varies according to the social-ecological context. They conjecture that the successful intervention packages piloted in the lake region is not fully fit for the hilly and mountainous environments in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces, and hence call for more flexible, setting-specific, and less expensive control strategies. In response, Xiao-Nong Zhou from the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases at the Chinese Center of Disease Control and Prevention and colleagues explain the steps from designing pilot studies to the articulation and implementation of a new national control strategy through a careful process of scaling-up and adaptations. Finally, the two opponents converge. The need for integrated, intersectoral, and setting-specific control measures is stressed, supported by rigorous surveillance and continuous research. Experiences and lessons from China are important for shaping the schistosomiasis elimination agenda. PMID:22039563

Seto, Edmund Y W; Remais, Justin V; Carlton, Elizabeth J; Wang, Shuo; Liang, Song; Brindley, Paul J; Qiu, Dongchuan; Spear, Robert C; Wang, Long-De; Wang, Tian-Ping; Chen, Hong-Gen; Dong, Xing-Qi; Wang, Li-Ying; Hao, Yang; Bergquist, Robert; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

2011-10-25

51

Three-dimensional imaging of Longmenshan fault using aftershocks of Wenchuan 8.0 earthquake, Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a three-dimensional (3D) compressional wave speed (Vp), shear wave speed (Vs) and Vp/Vs model for the Longmenshan fault region, Sichuan China, using aftershocks associated with the 2008 Wenchuan 8.0 earthquake. The velocity and ratio models are obtained by a new version of the double- difference seismic tomography method (Zhang, 2003) to simultaneously solve for Vp, Vs, Vp/Vs and event locations. The data used in inversion include 73,013 P arrival times, 62,287 S arrival times and 61,823 S-P travel times recorded by 63 stations on both permanent network and temporary stations in a region 400 km northeast-southwest by 200 km northwest-southeast. The tomographic results show that: (1) in southern segment of Longmenshan fault, the fault is a clear boundary in velocity and Vp/Vs ratio. High P and S velocity and low Vp/Vs ratio exist in western region to the fault, while low velocity and high Vp/Vs ratio in eastern region to the fault, and the Longmenshan fault extends to near 30 km in depth; (2) in northern segment, the general pattern looks like the southern segment, but the Longmenshan fault cuts off a small block with high velocity and low Vp/Vs ratio from western region to the fault with low Vp/Vs ratio; (3) the earthquakes relocated by the joint tomographic inversion collapse to a thin line along the Longmenshan fault, consistent with ground surface ruptures.

Pei, S.; Su, J.; Zhang, H.; Sun, Y.; Toksoz, N.; Zhao, J.; Liu, H.

2008-12-01

52

Hydrochemical Variations of the Huanglong Spring-Fed Travertine-Depositing Stream in the Huanglong Ravine, Sichuan, SW China, a World Natural Heritage Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Huanglong Ravine belongs to the transition zone that separate the Qinghai Highland from the Sichuan Basin, Sichuan province,\\u000a SW China. Travertine deposits over a width of ?250 m for a length of 3.5 km from some springs uprive along the ravine. Methods\\u000a of automatic hydrochemical logging and in-situ titrating combined with indoor analysis were used to understand the dynamic\\u000a hydrochemical

H. Wang; Z. Liu

53

Use of mobile phones in an emergency reporting system for infectious disease surveillance after the Sichuan earthquake in China  

PubMed Central

Abstract Problem Quick detection and response were essential for preventing outbreaks of infectious diseases after the Sichuan earthquake. However, the existing public health communication system in Sichuan province, China, was severely damaged by the earthquake. Approach The Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention set up a mobile phone emergency reporting system. In total, 495 light-powered mobile phones were delivered to local health-care agencies in earthquake affected areas. All phones were loaded with software designed for inputting and transmitting cases of infectious disease directly to a national database for further analysis. Local setting The emergency reporting system was set up in 14 counties hit hardest by the earthquake in Sichuan province, China. Relevant changes One week after delivering mobile phones to earthquake-affected areas, the number of health-care agencies at the township level that had filed reports returned to the normal level. The number of cases reported by using mobile phones accounted for as much as 52.9% of the total cases reported weekly from 19 May to 13 July in those areas Lessons learned The mobile phone is a useful communication tool for infectious disease surveillance in areas hit by natural disasters. Nevertheless, plans must be made ahead of time and be included in emergency preparedness programmes.

Yang, Changhong; Luo, Xiangshu; Gong, Peng

2009-01-01

54

The occurrence of synthetic musks in human breast milk in Sichuan, China.  

PubMed

Human breast milk samples collected from mothers (n=110) who lived in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, southwestern China in 2009 were analyzed to determine the concentrations of 13 musk compounds. Possible relationships between musk concentrations and some personal characteristics were also studied. Only five target analytes were detected in the milk samples analyzed, with median concentration values of 16.5, 11.5, 7.85, <1.5 and <1.4ngg(-1)lipid weight for AHTN (7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene), HHCB (1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[?]-2-benzopyran), HHCB-lactone (1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[?]-2-benzopyran-1-one), OTNE ([1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-2,3,8,8-tetramethylnaphthalen-2yl]ethan-1-one) and musk ketone (4-tert-butyl-2,6-dimethyl-3,5-dinitroacetophenone, MK), respectively. Mothers who reported high use of hand-cleaning agents, body-cleaning agents, shampoo and hair conditioners, hair dyes and hair gels had significantly elevated milk concentrations of HHCB whereas elevated milk concentrations of AHTN were observed among mothers reporting high use of body-cleaning agents, body lotions, shampoos, hair dyes and hair gels. Younger age showed a significantly positive effect on milk concentrations of both HHCB and AHTN whereas BMI after delivery, the number of children nursed and place of residence (urban or rural) had no significant effect. The estimated median daily intakes of synthetic musks for breast-fed infants were considerably lower than the current provisional tolerable daily intake amounts suggested for adults. PMID:22196088

Yin, Jie; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Naiyuan; Gao, Fudie; Wu, Yongning; Xiang, Jie; Shao, Bing

2011-12-21

55

Three-dimensional surface displacement of the 2008 May 12 Sichuan earthquake (China) derived from Synthetic Aperture Radar: evidence for rupture on a blind thrust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sichuan earthquake, Mw 7.9, struck the Longmen Shan (LMS) range front, China, on 2008 May 12, affecting an area of moderate historical seismicity where little active shortening has been previously reported. Recent studies based on space geodesy have succeeded in retrieving the far field surface displacements caused by the earthquake, but the near field (+\\/-25km from the faults) coseismic

Marcello de Michele; Daniel Raucoules; Julia de Sigoyer; Manuel Pubellier; Nicolas Chamot-Rooke

2010-01-01

56

High-Resolution Seismic Velocity and Attenuation Structure of the Sichuan-Yunnan Region, Southwest China, Using Seismic Catalog and Waveform Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Sichuan-Yunnan region in southwestern China lies in the transition zone between the uplifted Tibetan plateau to the west and the Yangtze continental platform to the east. This region has a very complicated geological structure and is one of the most a...

C. H. Thurber H. Zhang X. Song Y. Liu Z. Xu

2007-01-01

57

A new species of Amara (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Zabrini) from Sichuan Province, China, with additional records for other Amara species from the region  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species, Amara (Bradytulus) shalulishanica Hieke & Kavanaugh, sp. n. (type locality: Haizishan Yakou, 29.47366°N, 100.21921°E, 4623 m, Shalulishan, Zhuosang Township, Litang County, Sichuan Province, China) is described and diagnosed. Additional records are provided for 16 other Amara species, each of which represents one of five different geographical distribution types, which are discussed.

Hieke, Fritz; Kavanaugh, David H.; Liang, Hongbin

2012-01-01

58

Case 3. "Jiang Tao v. Chengdu Branch, People's People's Bank of China": Opinion by the People's Court in Wuhou District, Chengdu, Sichuan Province  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents the decision of the People's Court in Wuhou District, Chengdu, Sichuan Province on the Jiang Tao v. Chengdu Branch, People's People's Bank of China case. Jiang Tao, the plaintiff, claimed that the defendant Chengdu Branch placed an announcement in the "Chengdu Business Daily" to "recruit tellers for Chengdu Branch" on…

Chinese Education and Society, 2006

2006-01-01

59

Automated Hazard Assessment Techniques Using Satellite Images Following the 2008 Sichuan China Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid seismic hazard assessment is crucial for accurate damage estimation right after earthquakes. New technologies provide faster damage detection compared to the traditional, manual assessments. One of the new technologies includes using satellite images. Pre- and post-earthquake satellite images can be used to identify damage patterns. One of the recent disastrous earthquakes occurred in Sichuan (Mw = 7.9) on May 12,

K. Armagan Korkmaz; M. Emin Kutay

2010-01-01

60

Regional location in western China  

SciTech Connect

Accurately locating seismic events in western China using only regional seismic stations is a challenge. Not only is the number of seismic stations available for locating events small, but most stations available to researchers are often over 10{degree} distant. Here the authors describe the relocation, using regional stations, of both nuclear and earthquake sources near the Lop Nor test site in western China. For such relocations, they used the Earthquake Data Reports provided by the US Geological Survey (USGS) for the reported travel times. Such reports provide a listing of all phases reported to the USGS from stations throughout the world, including many stations in the People`s Republic of China. LocSAT was used as the location code. The authors systematically relocated each event int his study several times, using fewer and fewer stations at reach relocation, with the farther stations being eliminated at each step. They found that location accuracy, judged by comparing solutions from few stations to the solution provided using all available stations, remained good typically until fewer than seven stations remained.With a good station distribution, location accuracy remained surprisingly good (within 7 km) using as few as 3 stations. Because these relocations were computed without good station corrections and without source-specific station corrections (that is, path corrections), they believe that such regional locations can be substantially improved, largely using static station corrections and source-specific station corrections, at least in the Lop nor area, where sources have known locations. Elsewhere in China, one must rely upon known locations of regionally-recorded explosions. Locating such sources is clearly one of the major problems to be overcome before one can provide event locations with any assurance from regional stations.

Cogbill, A.H.; Steck, L.K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Earth and Environmental Sciences Div.

1996-10-01

61

Spatial distribution as a measure of conservation needs: an example with Asiatic black bears in south-western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To create ane-scale map of the distribution of Asiatic black bears, identify landscape variables affecting the spatial range of this species and assess population trends using presence-absence data and opinions of local villagers. Location Sichuan Province, south-western China. Methods We divided the province into 15 · 15 km cells, stratied them by forest cover, elevation and road density and

Fang Liu; William McShea; David Garshelis; Xiaojian Zhu; Dajun Wang; Ji’en Gong; Youping Chen

2009-01-01

62

Isotopic evidence of TSR origin for natural gas bearing high H 2 S contents within the Feixianguan Formation of the northeastern Sichuan Basin, southwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northeastern area of Sichuan Basin, southwestern China, is the area with the maximal reserve of natural gas containing\\u000a higher hydrogen sulphide (H2S) that has been found among the petroliferous basins of China, with the proven and controlled gas reserve of more than 200\\u000a billion cubic meters. These gas pools, with higher H2S contents averaging 9%, some 17%, are mainly

Guangyou Zhu; Shuichang Zhang; Yingbo Liang; Jinxing Dai; Jian Li

2005-01-01

63

Problems of Ecological Environment in Western China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Western China is vast, expansive, sparsely populated, and economically underdeveloped, but it plays an important role in economic and social development in China. While the west is a crucial base of power resources, it is also rich in fauna and flora resources and the major habitat for China's many rare wildlife species. Therefore, protecting its…

Wenjuan, Zhang; Jixi, Gao

2004-01-01

64

Infrared absorption spectra of serpentine cat’s eye from Sichuan Province of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared (IR) absorption spectra and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns of serpentine cat’s eye from Sichuan Province\\u000a have been investigated, and infrared absorption bands of the serpentine have been assigned in this paper. The results indicate\\u000a that the bands near 3 600–3 700 cm?1 belong to the stretching absorption band ?\\u000a OH, the bands in 948–1100 cm?1 are assigned to

Bao-qi Lu; Yi-ben Xia; Li-jian Qi

2005-01-01

65

Geomorphic constraints on Middle Yangtze River reversal in eastern Sichuan Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yangtze, the longest river in Asia, was hypothesized to be assembled through a series of Cenozoic capture events, such as the reversal of Middle Yangtze River and the capture of Upper Yangtze River, but the history remains largely unknown. Here, we present new geomorphic observations in the structural context of the eastern Sichuan Basin, namely the Eastern Sichuan fold belt, and identify an important drainage divide along the "midline" of this arc-shape fold belt. Based on longitudinal profile analysis, we find that the river capture events more likely occurred in the syncline valleys of low-relief landscape. Our results yield a new perspective on Middle Yangtze River reversal, and we propose that the "midline" drainage divide, rather than the Three Gorges, was the starting site of Middle Yangtze River reversal. In this manner, the reversal could have been accomplished by a sequence of river reversal over range-parallel segments in syncline valleys with less impact on the pre-existing drainage system in eastern Sichuan Basin.

Wang, Ping; Zheng, Hongbo; Liu, Shaofeng

2013-06-01

66

Use of Ultrasonography to Evaluate Schistosoma japonicum-Related Morbidity in Children, Sichuan Province, China, 2000-2007  

PubMed Central

Liver ultrasonography is a convenient way to evaluate Schistosoma japonicum-related morbidity; however, no consensus standards exist, and data on use in Chinese children are scant. We describe 7 years of ultrasound findings in a prospective cohort of 151 children from an endemic area in Sichuan Province, China and evaluate technical aspects of the ultrasound methodology. Although prevalence of infection decreased over time, prevalence of hepatomegaly increased, which was likely caused by re-infections. The prevalence of late findings such as parenchymal fibrosis and splenomegaly were rare and did not increase over time; however, when present, they were associated with stunting. The use of adult thresholds versus height-adjusted standards underestimated pathology in children. Reliability of all measures except parenchymal grade was poor to fair. Our findings highlight the importance of early intervention and screening. We also suggest methodological refinements to improve reliability of ultrasonography for large-scale assessment of S. japonicum-related subclinical morbidity in children.

Hsiang, Michelle S.; Carlton, Elizabeth J.; Zhang, Yi; Zhong, Bo; Dongchuan, Qiu; Cohen, Pierre-Alain; Stewart, Christopher C.; Spear, Robert C.

2010-01-01

67

Human immunodeficiency virus/human parvovirus B19 co-infection in blood donors and AIDS patients in Sichuan, China  

PubMed Central

Background Human parvovirus B19 (B19) is a common pathogen which causes a variety of diseases. Persistent B19 infection is related to the degree of host immunodeficiency in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, the existence, loading, virus evolution and distribution of B19 in Chinese HIV-positive patients have not been determined. Materials and methods. We investigated 573 HIV-positive blood donors and AIDS patients in Sichuan, China in the last two decades. Bl9-specific serology and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the prevalence of B19/HIV co-infection. Viral genome fragments were subjected to phylogeny and haplotype analysis. Results B19 genomic DNA was found in 26 of 573 (4.5%) HIV-positive individuals, a higher prevalence than in blood donors. DNA levels ranged from 5.3×102–1.1×105 copies/mL. The seroprevalence of IgG was significantly lower in HIV-positive samples than in HIV-negative blood donors, indicating deficient production of B19-specific IgG in the former. The B19 isolates were genotype-1 subtype B19-1A which formed a monophyletic group; seven distinct haplotypes were discovered with 60% of the B19/HIV co-infected variants sharing one central haplotype. Discussion. This study on the prevalence, phylogeny and distribution of human parvovirus B19 in Sichuan, China, demonstrates the persistence of B19 in the circulation of both immunocompetent and immunocompromised subjects, with implications for blood safety.

He, Miao; Zhu, Jiang; Yin, Huimin; Ke, Ling; Gao, Lei; Pan, Zhihong; Yang, Xiuhua; Li, Wuping

2012-01-01

68

Regional characterization of Western China  

SciTech Connect

Geological, geophysical, and seismic data are being assembled and organized into a knowledge base for Western China as part of the CTBT Research and Development regional characterization effort. We have begun our analysis using data from the station WMQ of the Chinese Digital Seismic Network (CDSN). Regional seismograms are being analyzed to construct travel time curves, velocity models, attenuation characteristics, and to quantify regional propagation effects such as phase blockages. Using locations from the USGS Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) we have identified Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg phases, constructed travel time curves, and estimated apparent velocities using linear regression. Surface wave group velocities will be measured and inverted for regional structure. Preliminary noise spectra for WMQ have been obtained from the IRIS DMC. Chinese seismicity catalogs from the USGS and SSB are being used to identify and obtain seismic data (including mine seismicity) and information for lower magnitude events. We have identified the locations of nearly 500 mines in China for inclusion in the knowledge base. Future work will involve expanding the data collection and analysis efforts to a larger region using data from additional CDSN, IRIS and portable stations.

Randall, G.E.; Weaver, T.A.; Hartse, H.E.; Taylor, S.R.; Warren, R.G.; Cogbill, A.H.

1995-09-01

69

CH/sub 4/ flux from biogas generators and rice paddies as measured in Sichuan, China. (Annual progress report)  

SciTech Connect

We report methane release rates from several biogas generators and from rice paddies in Sichuan, China, during four different stages of growth, using chamber techniques. The release rates from biogas generators vary greatly from pit to pit, ranging between 0.037 and 50 g/day/pit, very much depending on the seal characteristics of the pits. If this result was representative for the whole year round and all the biogas pits in China, it would result in a total annual CH/sub 4/ release of 1 x 10/sup 8/ to 1.5 x 10/sup 11/ g for the 8 million biogas pits now used in China. CH/sub 4/ flux from rice paddies varies significantly from place to place and from time to time. The measured CH/sub 4/ fluxes are larger during the seedling stage and shortly before harvest, ranging from 3.1 to 2889 mg/m/sup 2//day. During the seedling stage transport through air bubbles may have a significant contribution to the total CH/sub 4/ emission, as air bubbles are commonly seen in the seedling beds and the measured CH/sub 4/ flux is much higher at a spot with air bubbles than at a spot without air bubbles.

Wang, M.; Khalil, M.A.K.; Rasmussen, R.A.

1986-01-01

70

Relationship Between Heat Flows and Geological Structures in the Sichuan Basin, P.R. China  

SciTech Connect

Based on an extensive data collection and analysis, this research has provided reliable representations of the features of the geothermal fields, their heat flow, and relationships with geological structures in the Sichuan Basin. The isotherms below a depth of 1,000 m show high values in the Central Uplift and the Southwest Uplift, and low values in the Northwest and Southeast Depressions. These features probably indicate undulation of crystalline basement and structural depression. At depths greater than 3,000 m, the isotherms tend to become simpler and regionalized. The mean heat flow in the basin is 69.1 mW/m{sup 2}. In the Central Uplift, the Northwest Depression and the East of the basin, heat-flow values range from 58.6 to 71.2 mW/m{sup 2}, with a mean value of 66.1 mWE/m{sup 2}. In the south and southwest, it varies from 76.6 to 100.5 mW/m{sup 2}, with a mean value of 86.2 mW/m{sup 2}. High heat-flow values occur within the uplift of the crystalline basement in the southwest Sichuan, and the heat flow decreases from the south, through the central area, to the northwest.

Zeng, Y.; Yu, H.; Wang, X.

1995-01-01

71

Crustal Structure Of Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Western China is a showcase of complex geological and geophysical features, includ- ing sedimentary basins, regimes of continental collisional tectonics, and the thickest crust found on Earth. Here, we present new results of a 2700-km-long seismic re- fraction profile across northwest China and the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Seismic energy for this profile was provided by twelve chemical explosive shots fired in bore- holes. The charge size ranged from 1500 to 4000 kg, sufficient to provide clear first arrivals to a maximum distance of 300 km. The distance between shotpoints ranged from 63 to 205 km, and the interval between portable seismographs was between 2 and 4 km. The profile was recorded along existing roads, and provided nearly straight profile segments. We have divided the seismic profile into two segments- the northern segment from the Altai mountains to the Altyn Tagh fault, and the southern segment from the Altyn Tagh fault to the Longmen Shan. The crustal velocity structure and Poissons ratio (sigma) for the transect, which provide a constraint on crustal composi- tion, were determined from P- and S-wave data. The crustal thickness along the profile was determined, and the crust was found to have three layers with P-wave velocities (Vp) of 6.0-6.3 km/s, 6.3-6.6 km/s, and 6.9-7.0 km/s, respectively. We interpret the consistent three-layer stratification of the crust to indicate that the crust has undergone partial melting and differentiation after Paleozoic terrane accretion. Pn velocities were found to be about 7.7 to 7.8 km/s.

Wang, Y.; Yuan, X.; Mooney, W. D.; Coleman, R. G.

72

Mechanical transport of metallogenic materials in endogenic hydrothermal solutions: evidence from the microspherules in micro-disseminated gold deposits, northwestern Sichuan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous steel-gray microspherules were recently unexpectedly discovered in ore and rock samples from several disseminated gold deposits hosted in Middle–Upper Triassic turbidites in northwestern Sichuan Province, China. Both nature surfaces and part sections of 227 microspherules have been observed by reflected light microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron microprobe analyses, X-ray energy spectra, X-ray powder patterns, the results reveal them

Jiajun Liu; Minghua Zheng; Jianming Liu; Xuexiang Gu; Yufeng Zhou; Caixia Feng

2003-01-01

73

Evaluation of an educational intervention on villagers' knowledge, attitude and behaviour regarding transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in Sichuan province, China.  

PubMed

Health education is an important component of efforts to control schistosomiasis. In China, while education programmes have been implemented intensively, few articles in recent years in either the Chinese or English literature report randomised, controlled interventions of the impacts on knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. Thus, we designed and carried out a cluster-randomised controlled education intervention trial that targeted 706 adults from rural areas in 28 villages in Sichuan, China. We evaluated the effects of the intervention on five endpoints: (1) schistosomiasis knowledge, (2) attitudes towards infection testing and treatment, (3) use of personal protective equipment (PPE), (4) reducing defecation in the field, and (5) reducing dermal contact with potentially contaminated water sources. The results indicated that people in both the intervention and control groups showed improvement in knowledge, attitudes and reduction in field-defecation in the follow-up surveys. However, there was little evidence that suggested statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding any endpoint. Participation in intervention classes was associated with age, gender, occupation and education level. Our study suggests short-term health education interventions may not be effective in improving schistosomiasis knowledge or in the adoption of health-protective behaviours. This might be partially due to the spontaneous learning process of people subject to repeated surveys and other disease control activities. Considering the difficulties of occupation-associated behaviour change and knowledge reinforcement in general, longer-term education programmes should be considered in the future. PMID:23711611

Wang, Shuo; Carlton, Elizabeth J; Chen, Lin; Liu, Yang; Spear, Robert C

2013-05-24

74

The e-transformation of western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western China is a vast area of just over four million square kilometers traditionally associated with the historic Silk Road connecting traders, manufacturers, and consumers in Europe and Asia. But for the past few hundred years, the Silk Road has largely been forgotten. Today, however, China's opening to the outside world and general trend toward technological modernization is starting to

Robert M. Davison; Douglas R. Vogel; Roger W. Harris

2005-01-01

75

Perceived family functioning and depression in bereaved parents in China after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake.  

PubMed

This study examined perceived family functioning and depression in bereaved parents 18 months after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. This was a cross-sectional study with 190 bereaved parents sampled using a multistage stratified sampling method. The instruments used in the study included Family APGAR Index and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17. The results indicated that the prevalence of family dysfunction was 59.5%. All the respondents experienced depression with 79.5% of the respondents reporting very severe depression. Being female, being at an advanced age, being divorced or widowed, being directly exposed to the death of their children, not having another baby after the earthquake, and poorer family functioning were significant predictors for more severe depression. Strategies can be designed in post-disaster recovery programs for bereaved parents at high risk for more severe depression, particularly for those with poorer family functioning. PMID:23915699

Cao, Xiaoyi; Jiang, Xiaolian; Li, Xiaolin; Lo, Man-chun Jenny Hui; Li, Rong; Dou, Xinman

2013-05-14

76

Application of the Waiting Time Method (WTM) in Predicting and Classification of strong aftershocks of Wenchuan Earthquake, Sichuan China (M=8.0,14:28:04.0, May 12, 2008)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strong earthquake with magnitude of 8.0 occurred at Wenchuan (31.00N, 103.4E) , Sichuan Prov. China at 4:28:04.0, on May 12. This earthquake caused great devastation to Sichuan and Yunan provinces, and aftershocks continue to rage in this region. The regularity of the aftershocks demands fast and effective prediction methods. This study focuses on the performance of the Waiting Time

J. Gu; Z. Luo

2008-01-01

77

Evaluation Criteria for Implementation of a Sustainable Sanitation and Wastewater Treatment System at Jiuzhaigou National Park, Sichuan Province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The administration of Jiuzhaigou National Park in Sichuan Province, China, is in the process of considering a range of upgrades to their sanitation and wastewater treatment systems. Their case history involves an ongoing series of engineering design flaws and management failures. The administration of the Park identified sustainability, environmental protection, and education goals for their sanitation and wastewater treatment system. To meet the goal of sustainability, environmental and economic concerns of the Park’s administration had to be balanced with socio-cultural needs. An advanced reconnaissance method was developed that identified reasons for previous failures, conducted stakeholder analysis and interviews, determined evaluation criteria, and introduced innovative alternatives with records of successful global implementations. This evaluation also helped the Park to better define their goals . To prevent future failures, the administration of the Park must commit to a balanced and thorough evaluation process for selection of a final alternative and institute effective long-term management and monitoring of systems. In addition, to meet goals and achieve energy efficient, cost-effective use of resources, the Park must shift their thinking from one of waste disposal to resource recovery. The method and criteria developed for this case study provides a framework to aid in the successful implementation of sanitation projects in both underdeveloped and developed areas of the world, incorporating socio-cultural values and resource recovery for a complex group of stakeholders.

Gaulke, Linda S.; Weiyang, Xiao; Scanlon, Andrew; Henck, Amanda; Hinckley, Tom

2010-01-01

78

Observation of elevated fungal tracers due to biomass burning in the Sichuan Basin at Chengdu City, China.  

PubMed

Fungal material (i.e., spores and fragments) is an important component of atmospheric aerosols. In order to examine the variability of fungal abundance in fine particles (PM(2.5)) during a biomass burning season, an intensive measurement campaign was conducted in the Sichuan Basin at Chengdu, a megacity in southwest China, in spring 2009. The aerosol samples were analyzed for carbonaceous species, including molecular tracers for biomass burning and fungal material, and water soluble ions. The results were interpreted with the help of principle component analysis, fire count maps, and the WRF model. Elevated concentrations of arabitol and mannitol were found with average concentrations of 21.5±16.6 ng m(-3) and 43.9±19.3 ng m(-3), respectively, which were unexpectedly higher than those measured in fine particles in any other study reported previously. Even higher concentrations were observed in cases with simultaneous enhancements in the biomass burning tracers levoglucosan and K(+). In the case of influence by pollution plumes from biomass burning regions, the fungal tracer concentrations reached maximum values of 79.6 ng m(-3) and 121.8 ng m(-3), coinciding with peak levels of levoglucosan and K(+). Statistically significant correlations were found between the simultaneously observed fungal tracers (arabitol and mannitol) and biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan and K(+)), suggesting that these species were emitted by co-located sources, and hence the elevated fungal tracers were likely associated with biomass burning activities. PMID:22664540

Yang, Yihong; Chan, Chuen-yu; Tao, Jun; Lin, Mang; Engling, Guenter; Zhang, Zhisheng; Zhang, Ting; Su, Lin

2012-06-03

79

Distribution and features of landslides induced by the 2008 Wengchuan Earthquake, Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2008 Sichuan earthquake with a magnitude of Mw 7.9 induced numerous mass movements around the fault surface ruptures of which maximum separations we observed were 3.6 m vertical and 1.5 m horizontal (right lateral). The affected area was mountainous areas with elevations from 1000 m to 4500 m on the west of the Sichuan Basin. The NE-trending Longmenshan fault zone runs along the boundary between the mountains on the west and the Sichuan basin (He and Tsukuda, 2003), of which Yinghsiuwan-Beichuan fault was the main fault that generated the 2008 earthquake (Xu, 2008). The basement rocks of the mountainous areas range from Precambrian to Cretaceous in age. They are basaltic rocks, granite, phyllite, dolostone, limestone, alternating beds of sandstone and shale, etc. There were several types of landslides ranging from small, shallow rockslide, rockfall, debris slide, deep rockslide, and debris flows. Shallow rockslide, rock fall, and debris slide were most common and occurred on convex slopes or ridge tops. When we approached the epicentral area, first appearing landslides were of this type and the most conspicuous was a failure of isolated ridge-tops, where earthquake shaking would be amplified. As for rock types, slopes of granitic rocks, hornfels, and carbonate rocks failed in wide areas to the most. They are generally hard and their fragments apparently collided and repelled to each other and detached from the slopes. Alternating beds of sandstone and mudstone failed on many slopes near the fault ruptures, including Yinghsiuwan near the epicenter. Many rockfalls occurred on cliffs, which had taluses on their feet. The fallen rocks tumbled down and mostly stopped within the talus surfaces, which is quite reasonable because taluses generally develop by this kind of processes. Many rockslides occurred on slopes of carbonate rocks, in which dolostone or dolomitic limestone prevails. Deep-seated rockslide occurred on outfacing slopes and shallow rockslide and rockfall occurred on infacing slopes. Infacing slopes generally are steeper than outfacing slopes and hence surface rocks on infacing slopes tend to be loosened by gravity. Detachment surfaces of carbonate rocks are generally not smooth surfaces but are rough surfaces with dimple-like depressions, which are made by dissolution of these rocks. This feature is one of the most important causes to induce landslide in carbonate rocks. Many gravitational deformations were observed on phyllite slopes. Landslides on the west of Beichuan city is probably of weathered phyllite, which had been preceded by gravitational deformation beforehand. Taochishan landslide in Beichuan occurred on probable outfacing slope of phyllite. The Formosat II images on Google earth indicated that this landslide was also preceded by gravitational deformation, which appeared as spur-crossing depressions with upslope-convex traces on plan. Satellite images indicated that some landslides had long lobate forms, suggesting that they were flow. One of them was Shechadientsu landslide 34 km northeast of Dujiangyan, occurring across the probable earthquake fault rupture. It was 1.5 km long with a maximum width of 250 m and an apparent friction angle of 22°. The top of this landslide area was a steep cliff of Precambrian granite, which failed to go down a small valley. The volume of the slope failure was estimated much less than the volume of the deposit. The small valley had sporadic patches of bedrock consisting of alternating beds of sandstone and mudstone of Triassic in age. The bedrock was covered by bluish grey, clayey, water-saturated debris, which was not disturbed and in turn covered by water-saturated brownish debris with rubbles. The landslide deposits had wrinkles on the surface and streaks of same color rock fragments. In addition, cross section near the distal part had clearly defined reverse grading, in which larger rubbles with a maximum diameter of 5 m concentrated at the surface part. These characteristics strongly suggest that valley-fill sediments mobilized by the earthquake and flowed down

Chigira, M.; Xiyong, W.; Inokuchi, T.; Gonghui, W.

2009-04-01

80

Spatial variation in Meso-Cenozoic exhumation history of the Longmen Shan thrust belt (eastern Tibetan Plateau) and the adjacent western Sichuan basin: Constraints from fission track thermochronology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NE-trending Longmen Shan thrust belt, marking the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau adjacent to the Sichuan basin, is characterized by the paradox of high topographic gradients but low convergence rates, and thus critical for understanding of geodynamic processes involved in the eastward growth of the plateau. Many low-temperature thermochronological studies focused on the central and southern portions of the Longmen Shan and western Sichuan basin to investigate the Cenozoic exhumation history of the eastern Tibetan Plateau, but little work has been done on their northern portions. Furthermore, the spatial variation in both Cenozoic and Mesozoic thermal histories of this region has been poorly documented. In this paper, zircon (ZFT) and apatite (AFT) fission track analyses for samples collected from three transects and three boreholes covering the northern, central and southern Longmen Shan and the western Sichuan basin provide new data demonstrating several cooling events in this region since the Indosinian deformation. They occurred during the late Triassic (˜200 Ma), at the end of early Cretaceous (˜100 Ma), during the early Cenozoic (60-40 Ma), the early Miocene (20-25 Ma) and the late Miocene (9-14 Ma), respectively. On regional scale the Longmen Shan experienced a slow cooling between the Mesozoic and early Cenozoic, followed by a rapid cooling during the late Cenozoic, when the rapid regional exhumation began at ˜10 Ma, with a sharp increase in exhumation rate from <0.1 mm/yr to >0.2 mm/yr, up to 0.9 mm/yr locally. Comparison of ZFT and AFT ages shows that during the Mesozoic the northern segment of the Longmen Shan belt cooled more rapidly than the central and southern segments, while younger AFT ages indicate more rapid exhumation in central and southern segments of the belt during the late Cenozoic. Similar trend is demonstrated within the western Sichuan basin, where the onset of exhumation changes from ˜45 Ma in the northern portion to 20-25 Ma in the central and southern portions of the basin. The thermochronological data reveal that the Yingxiu-Beichuan and Guanxian-Anxian faults have accommodated significant differential exhumation by thrusting activity and associated denudation, with a greater amount of differential exhumation from north to south. We propose that the major cause for the rise in topography and rapid exhumation in the Longmen Shan thrust belt during the late Cenozoic is the thrusting activities integrated with the regional uplift of the eastern Tibetan Plateau, a process unrelated to the channel flow within the lower crust.

Li, Zhi-Wu; Liu, Shugen; Chen, Hongde; Deng, Bin; Hou, Mingcai; Wu, Wenhui; Cao, Junxing

2012-03-01

81

Migration as a rural development strategy and the migrants involved : an account of a migrants' hometown in Sichuan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to describe part of the history of Chinese rural migration to urban industrial areas. Using a case study of a township in Sichuan, the author examines a type of rural development which she defines as a \\

Mami Yamaguchi

2012-01-01

82

Effects of terracing and agroforestry on soil and water loss in hilly areas of the Sichuan Basin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil erosion in hilly areas of the Sichuan Basin is a serious concern over sustainable crop production and sound ecosystem.\\u000a A 3-year experiment was conducted using the method of runoff plots to examine the effects of terracing and agroforestry in\\u000a farmland systems on soil and water conservation of slope fields in the hilly areas in Jianyang County, Sichuan Province, Southwestern

J. H. Zhang; Z. A. Su; G. C. Liu

2008-01-01

83

A detailed view of the injection-induced seismicity in a natural gas reservoir in Zigong, southwestern Sichuan Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

at a gas reservoir located in the relatively stable Sichuan Basin, China, mirrors the injection pressure of unwanted water, suggesting that the seismicity is injection induced. Injection under high pressure on a routine basis began on 9 January 2009 and continued to July 2011. During the injection period, over 120,000 m3 of water was pumped under a wellhead pressure of up to 6.2 MPa into the limestone formation of Permian 2.45 to 2.55 km beneath the surface. The injection induced more than 7000 surface-recorded earthquakes, including 2 M4+ (the largest one was ML4.4), 20 M3+, and more than 100 M2+ events. Data observed by a nearby local seismic network and five temporal stations provide a detailed view of the spatiotemporal distribution of the induced earthquakes. Most events were limited to depths ranging from 2.5 to 4 km, which is consistent with the limestone formation of Permian. In a map view, hypocenters are concentrated in a NNW extended ellipsoidal zone approximately 6 km long and approximately 2 km wide centered approximately at the injection well. Multisources of evidence such as the shear mechanism, pattern of hypocenter distribution, and small elevated pore pressure as compared with the least principal stress in the region show that the induced earthquakes occurred as a result of lowering of the effective normal stress on known or unknown preexisting blind faults which are critically loaded under the regional stress field. Epidemic-type aftershock sequence modeling results indicate that injection inducing and earthquake triggering are both important during earlier periods of injection, while later periods are dominated by forced (injection-induced) seismicity.

Lei, Xinglin; Ma, Shengli; Chen, Wenkang; Pang, Chunmei; Zeng, Jie; Jiang, Bing

2013-08-01

84

Regulation of Civil Society in China: Necessary Changes after the Olympic Games and the Sichuan Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article will address the following topics with regard to the regulation of civil society in China: (1)Making the existing regulations for social organizations (shehui tuanti, “SOs”), nonprofit non-commercial entities (minban fei qiye danwe, “NCEs”),and foundations (jijin hui) more user-friendly, including making it possible for de facto networks that provide and coordinate disaster relief to be recognized, perhaps as semi-legal

Karla W. Simon

2008-01-01

85

Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China  

PubMed Central

Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected) in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19–42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) within the normal range (18.5 ? BMI < 25), 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas), while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ?30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs) the women’s overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%), was low in carbohydrates (49.6%), and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%). Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI) fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%), fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%), protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%), vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%), Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%), Fe (56.3% vs. 48%), Ca (55.1% vs. 41%) and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%). The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80%) than in urban (65.1%) areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both urban and rural women. The prevalence of underweight before conception and an insufficient supply of important micronutrients were more pronounced in rural areas. Therefore, attention must be given to the nutritional status, especially of rural women before, or at the latest, during pregnancy.

Gao, Haoyue; Stiller, Caroline K.; Scherbaum, Veronika; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Wang, Qi; Hormann, Elizabeth; Bellows, Anne C.

2013-01-01

86

Interferograms of Coseismic Deformation from the May 12, 2008, Sichuan, China, Earthquake obtained by ALOS/PALSAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A devastating earthquake hit southern China on May 12, 2008, and claimed more than 80,000 casualties. This event is the first M8 earthquake in history in and around the Sichuan basin. The epicenter is located near the Sichuan basin, and aftershocks are aligned in the NE-SW direction parallel to the Longmen Shan fault zone, which suggests that this active fault zone bounding the basin and mountain ranges is the source of this event. It is important to reveal the fault movement from the viewpoints of future earthquake hazard evaluation and tectonics of collision zone. Japan's Advanced Land Observing Satellite (hereafter ALOS) has been conducting observation of the earth's surface since its launch on Jan. 24, 2006. ALOS is equipped with an L-band synthetic aperture radar, Phased Array L-band SAR (hereafter PALSAR), which is suitable for the observation of heavily vegetated areas. We analyzed ALOS/PALSAR images along 8 paths acquired before and after the mainshock and revealed entire features of coseismic deformation using the Gamma software and hole-filled SRTM DEM by Jarvis et al.(2008). We observe fringes around the Longmen Shan fault zone. In spite of different period and timing of acquisition of SAR images, several fringes can be traced across the interferograms. These continuous fringes can be recognized in an about 100km wide region surrounding the fault zone and regarded as coseismic deformations. We can count 8-9 fringes, i.e. 90-100cm LOS displacements, between the fault zone and Chengdu located about 50km away from the Pengguan fault, southern most trace of the Longmen Shan fault zone. On the other hand, we could not obtain correlation high enough in the source region due to large displacements. This low correlation zone can be traced nearly 240km along the surface faults. It is worth noting that numbers of fringes are almost the same on the both sides of the source region. This pattern suggests right-lateral motion on a steeply dipping fault plane. On the other hand, 6-7 broad concentric fringes are recognized in the image where the epicenter is located. This pattern corresponds to about 70-80cm LOS displacements away from the satellite around the epicenter and implies a low-angled thrust. We also performed pixel matching to estimate offsets in the region of low correlation. Positive and negative range offsets larger than 2m are found on the north and south sides of the Beichuan fault, central trace of the Longmen Shan fault zone, respectively. Clear difference in offsets cannot be seen along other faults such as Pengguan fault. This observation implies that the coseismic rupture is concentrated on the Beichuan fault. We calculated a theoretical interferogram with three segment fault model with total length of 240km. In this model, southwestern part is assumed to dip toward northwest by 33° with purely thrust motion, while central and northeastern part has a much steeper dip angle and large strike-slip component of slip. Coseismic slip may be concentrated in the shallower part of faults than 15km, especially in central and northeastern parts. The geodetic moment is estimated to be 7.31x1020Nm (Mw=7.84).

Hashimoto, M.; Enomoto, M.; Fukushima, Y.; Fukahata, Y.

2008-12-01

87

Seismicity changes prior to the Ms8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Region-Time-Length (RTL) method was adopted in analyzing the characteristics of the seismicity changes prior to the M s8.0 Wenchuan earthquake occurred on May 12, 2008. After the pre-analyses (completeness analysis and aftershock declustering) of the earthquake catalog in China, the RTL parameters in the investigated region were calculated. The temporal variations of the RTL parameters at the epicenter of the M s8.0 Wenchuan earthquake showed that a seismic quiescence anomaly appeared during 2006-2007. The close investigation indicated that the above quiescence anomaly is unlikely an artifact due to the selections of the model parameters. The investigation of the spatial distribution of seismic quiescence also showed that the quiescence anomaly appeared around the epicenter of the mainshock during 2006-2007, consistent with the results obtained from the temporal variations of the RTL parameters. The above characteristics of the seismicity changes may give better understanding of the seismogenic process of the Wenchuan earthquake.

Huang, Qinghua

2008-12-01

88

Post-Treatment Follow-Up Study of Abdominal Cystic Echinococcosis in Tibetan Communities of Northwest Sichuan Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHuman cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, with the liver as the most frequently affected organ, is known to be highly endemic in Tibetan communities of northwest Sichuan Province. Antiparasitic treatment with albendazole remains the primary choice for the great majority of patients in this resource-poor remote area, though surgery is the most common approach

Tiaoying Li; Akira Ito; Renqing Pengcuo; Yasuhito Sako; Xingwang Chen; Dongchuan Qiu; Ning Xiao; Philip S. Craig

2011-01-01

89

Spatio-temporal modeling with GIS and remote sensing for schistosomiasis control in Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Schistosomiasis is a water-borne parasitic disease endemic in tropical and subtropical areas. Its transmission requires certain kind of snail as the intermediate host. Some efforts have been made to mapping snail habitats with remote sensing and schistosomiasis transmission modeling. However, the modeling is limited to isolated residential groups and does not include spatial interaction among those groups. Remotely sensed data are only used in snail habitat classification, not in estimation of snail abundance that is an important parameter in schistosomiasis transmission modeling. This research overcomes the above two problems using innovative geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing technology. A mountainous environment near Xichang, China, is chosen as the test site. Environmental and epidemiological data are stored in a GIS to support modeling. Snail abundance is estimated from land-cover and land-use fractions derived from high spatial resolution IKONOS satellite data. Spatial interaction is determined in consideration of neighborhoods, group areas, relative slopes among groups, and natural barriers. Land-cover and land-use information extracted from 4 m high resolution IKONOS data is used as reference in scaling up to the regional level. The scale-up is done with coarser resolution satellite data including Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), EO-1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Hyperion data all at 30 m resolution. Snail abundance is estimated by regressing snail survey data with land-cover and land-use fractions. An R2 of 0.87 is obtained between the average snail density predicted and that surveyed at the group level. With such a model, a snail density map is generated for all residential groups in the study area. A spatio-temporal model of schistosomiasis transmission is finally built to incorporate the spatial interaction caused by miracidia and cercaria migration. Comparing the model results with and without spatial interaction has revealed a number of advantages of the spatio-temporal model. Particularly, with the inclusion of spatial interaction, more effective control of schistosomiasis transmission over the whole study area can be achieved.

Xu, Bing

90

Three-dimensional surface displacement of the 2008 May 12 Sichuan earthquake (China) derived from Synthetic Aperture Radar: evidence for rupture on a blind thrust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sichuan earthquake, Mw 7.9, struck the Longmen Shan (LMS) range front, China, on 2008 May 12, affecting an area of moderate historical seismicity where little active shortening has been previously reported. Recent studies based on space geodesy have succeeded in retrieving the far field surface displacements caused by the earthquake, but the near field (+/-25km from the faults) coseismic surface displacement is still poorly constrained. Thus, shallow fault geometry and shallow coseismic slip are still poorly resolved. Here, for the first time for this earthquake, we combine C and L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar offsets data from ascending and descending tracks to invert for the 3-D surface displacement in the near coseismic field of the Sichuan earthquake. Our data, coupled with a simple elastic dislocation model, provide new results strongly suggesting the presence of a blind thrust striking along the range front and being active at depth during the earthquake. The presence of a rupture on a blind thrust brings new evidence for an out-of-sequence thrusting event and new elements for interpreting the tectonic strain partitioning in the LMS, which has important implications both for seismic hazard assessment and long-term evolution of the mountain belt.

de Michele, Marcello; Raucoules, Daniel; de Sigoyer, Julia; Pubellier, Manuel; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas

2010-12-01

91

Development stages of hazardous mountain lakes and simulation of their outbursts (Central Caucasus, Russia; Sichuan mountain region, China).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of mountain lakes studies is related to the increasing threat of natural disasters, associated with lake outbursts and debris flows formation, because of population growth on exposed areas. The outburst hazard has not been sufficiently researched, there is a lack of data because of the lakes inaccessibility and remote sensing data is usually not detailed enough. The main scientific topics include assessment of outburst possibility and further simulation of possible outbursts scenarios. There are two types of mountain lakes: glacial (cirque, cirque-moraine, barrier-moraine, glacial-barrier, etc.) lakes and barrier (landslide, rockfall, debris flow, etc.) lakes. The first type was studied in the Central Caucasus (Russia), and the second type - in the Sichuan mountain region (China). The group of scientists, including authors, has been monitoring glacial lakes in the Mnt. Elbrus area for more than ten years. The unique data were collected, including detailed hydrological characteristics of more than ten lakes (water level dynamics, temperature, morphometrical characteristics, water balance components, etc.). Outbursts of at least three glacial lakes were observed. Hydrological characteristics of landslide Tangjiashan Lake were collected with Chinese colleagues during field studies in 2010 and 2011 years. Analysis of the collected data was used to understand the outburst mechanisms, formation factors, dam breaking factors, development stages of mountain lakes. Statistical methods of analysis in this case can be applied with some limitations because of the lack of sufficient monitoring objects, and therefore the results has been verified by experts. All types of possible outbursts mechanisms were divided by the authors into five groups: geomorphologic (caused by changes in lake dams), seismic, or geodynamic (caused by seiches, waves from rockfalls, landslides), glacial (caused by breaks in impounding glaciers, ice floating and melting), water-balance (caused by changes in lakes water balance) and anthropogenic. Three development stages of mountain lakes were identified: 1) constant changes of lake hollows and rapid volume growth; 2) stable state, moderate changes; 3) outburst or overflow because of some external factors or gradual shallowing and disappearing. According to the type of outbursts mechanisms and stage of development, the authors assessed the risk of outburst and chose methods, models and scenarios for simulation. Analysis of the data (weighted estimation, graphoanalytical methods, etc.) showed that glacial lakes outburst possibility is influenced by (in order of importance): 1) water volume, 2) position of lake related to parent glacier, 3) characteristics of dam, 4) conditions of lake banks, 5) high water heat reserve and presence of ice lenses in dam. Barrier lakes outburst possibility is influenced by: 1) lake depth, 2) shape of lake hollow and coastline, 3) characteristics of dam, 4) conditions of lake banks. The most essential external factors are landslides, rockfalls, meteorological and seismic conditions. The most dangerous lakes in research areas were allocated, for them outbursts scenarios have been developed, depending on studied characteristics. These scenarios were simulated using the River and FLO-2D models. At the final stage, zoning of mountain valleys depending on the level of risk was conducted, which is the basis for further risk mitigation.

Kidyaeva, Vera; Krylenko, Inna; Chernomorets, Sergey; Petrakov, Dmitry

2013-04-01

92

A 5-year longitudinal study of schistosomiasis transmission in Shian village, the Anning River Valley, Sichuan Province, the Peoples' Republic of China  

PubMed Central

Background Schistosoma japonicum is a major public health concern in the Peoples' Republic of China (PRC), with over one million people infected and another 50 million living in areas at risk of infection. Based on ecological, environmental, population genetic and molecular factors, schistosomiasis transmission in PRC can be categorised into four discrete ecosystems or transmission modes. It is predicted that the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) will impact upon the transmission of schistosomiasis in the PRC, with varying degree across the four transmission modes. We undertook longitudinal surveillance from 2002 to 2006 in sentinel villages both above and below the TGD across five provinces (Hunan, Jiangxi, Hubei, Anhui and Sichuan) to determine whether there was any impact of the TGD on schistosomiasis transmission during its construction. Here we present the results from a schistosomiasis-endemic village located above the dam in Sichuan Province. Results Baseline results showed a human S. japonicum prevalence of 42.0% (95% CI: 36.6-47.5). At follow-up, results showed that the incidence of S. japonicum infection in the selected human cohort in Shian decreased by three quarters from 46% in 2003 to 11.3% in 2006. A significant (P < 0.01) downward trend was also evident in the yearly adjusted (for water contact) odds ratios. Over the four years of follow-up, the incidence of S. japonicum infection in bovines declined from 11.8% in the first year to zero in the final year of follow-up. Conclusions The substantial decrease in human (75%) and bovine (100%) incidence observed in Shian village can probably be attributed to the annual human and bovine PZQ treatment of positives; as seen in drug (PZQ) intervention studies in other parts of PRC. If an increase in schistosome transmission had occurred as a result of the TGD, it would be of negligible size compared to the treatment induced decline seen here. It appears therefore that the construction of the TGD had virtually no impact on schistosomiasis transmission in Shian village over the period of study. Furthermore, contrary to previous reports from Sichuan downplaying the role of animals in human schistosome transmission, bovines may indeed play a role.

2011-01-01

93

Nitrification and denitrification in subalpine coniferous forests of different restoration stages in western Sichuan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrification is the biological conversion of organic or inorganic nitrogen compounds from a reduced to a more oxidized state.\\u000a Denitrification is generally referred to as the microbial reduction of nitrate to nitrite and further gaseous forms of nitric\\u000a oxide, nitrous oxide and molecular nitrogen. They are functionally interconnected processes in the soil nitrogen cycle that\\u000a are involved in the control

Yi Liu; Jinsong Chen; Qing Liu; Yan Wu

2007-01-01

94

Reverse Tracing of Precursors Applied to the Annual Earthquake Forecast: Retrospective Test of the Annual Consultation in the Sichuan-Yunnan Region of Southwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Annual Consultation on the Likelihood of Earthquakes is regularly undertaken in continental China. It is a special kind of intermediate-term medium-range earthquake forecast and a practical service provided by seismological communities within the capability of modern seismology. One of the problems the Annual Consultation encounters is its false alarm rate, which has been higher than expected and has caused numerous controversies on the methodology and significance of the Annual Consultation. To tackle this problem we use the concept of reverse tracing of precursors (RTP) to analyze the long-term seismic activity in the alarm regions, or regions thought to have increased probability of earthquakes, as identified by the Annual Consultation. We apply the Pattern Informatics (PI) and relative intensity (RI) algorithms to the long-term estimation of seismic hazard in the RTP analysis. A retrospective study of the Sichuan-Yunnan region of southwest China, using the data from 1990 to 2003, shows that, by choosing the threshold proportion of overlapped areas between the long-term estimates and the Annual Consultation, the RTP analysis can correctly remove some of the false-alarm regions from the “black list’ and thus reduce the false-alarm rate of the Annual Consultation, without reducing the hit rate. Remarkably, the RTP approach, although originally proposed for short-term earthquake predictions, seems able to contribute to the Annual Consultation as well.

Zhao, Yizhe; Wu, Zhongliang; Jiang, Changsheng; Zhu, Chuanzhen

2010-06-01

95

A comparison between Bayes discriminant analysis and logistic regression for prediction of debris flow in southwest Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the high risk areas of Sichuan Province with debris flow, Panzhihua and Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, were taken as the studied areas. By using rainfall and environmental factors as the predictors and based on the different prior probability combinations of debris flows, the prediction of debris flows was compared in the areas with statistical methods: logistic regression (LR) and Bayes discriminant analysis (BDA). The results through the comprehensive analysis show that (a) with the mid-range scale prior probability, the overall predicting accuracy of BDA is higher than those of LR; (b) with equal and extreme prior probabilities, the overall predicting accuracy of LR is higher than those of BDA; (c) the regional predicting models of debris flows with rainfall factors only have worse performance than those introduced environmental factors, and the predicting accuracies of occurrence and nonoccurrence of debris flows have been changed in the opposite direction as the supplemented information.

Xu, Wenbo; Jing, Shaocai; Yu, Wenjuan; Wang, Zhaoxian; Zhang, Guoping; Huang, Jianxi

2013-11-01

96

Regional characterization of Western China-II  

SciTech Connect

As part of the CTBT Research and Development regional characterization effort, geological, geophysical, and seismic data are being assembled and organized for inclusion in a knowledge base for China. The authors have continued their analysis using data form the station WMQ of the Chinese Digital Seismic Network (CDSN) and the IRIS station AAK. They are also acquiring and analyzing data from stations that are designated as (or near a designated) primary or secondary CTBT monitoring station. Regional seismograms are being analyzed to construct travel time curves, velocity models, attenuation characteristics, and to quantify regional propagation effects such as phase blockages. Using locations from the USGS Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) they have identified Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg phases, constructed travel time curves, and estimated apparent velocities using linear regression. Amplitudes for the seismic phases have been measured using bandpassed waveforms and a series of magnitude relations have been determined for Western China. Studies of path specific propagation efficiency of the seismic phases have mapped blockages and also identified a possible set of observations that can be used to identify intermediate depth (> 100 im) seismic events in the Pamir-Hindu Kush seismic zone. Chinese seismicity catalogs from the USGS and Chinese State Seismological Bureau (SSB) are being used to identify and obtain seismic data (including mine seismicity) and information for lower magnitude events. Clustering analysis has been used to identify seismicity clusters in space with origin times that are distributed during daylight hours which suggest mining operations. These clusters are being investigated with imagery to attempt to identify precise mine locations.

Randall, G.E.; Hartse, H.E.; Phillips, W.S.; Taylor, S.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Geophysics Group

1996-10-01

97

Analysis of Regional Bodywave Phases from Earthquakes in Western China.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Broadband regional bodywave data have been collected and modeled for three profiles of earthquakes recorded at CDSN station WMQ in western China. The first profile is from earthquakes located to the southwest, within the Tienshan and Tarim basin. The seco...

J. S. Barker

1993-01-01

98

Geology and Petroleum Resources of Basins in Western China.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Western China contains 11 recognized petroliferous or potentially petroliferous basins. Despite their great difference in size, these basins have important common features: (1) their Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary sequences are composed of rocks of essenti...

G. Ulmishek

1984-01-01

99

SinoProbe deep seismic reflection profiling across the Sichuan basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sichuan basin lied in northwestern Yangtze block,is the late Mesozoic-Cenozoic foreland basin. Distribution of Marginal orogen around the basin margin is a prominent landscape feature. The basin affected by the marginal mountain thrusting toward the basin, was involved in numbers of times and multi-boundary structure deformation. So the Sichuan basin provides an ideal area for studying the basin-range coupling and tectonic superposition and complex relationship of multi-border.In order to obtain the deep fine structure, CAGS completed 200km long deep reflection profile across the Sichuan basin in 2009, with funding from project “SINOPROBE-02” and the China NSF (40830316). The profile lines in the gentle tectonic zone from the central Sichuan basin to the northwestern basin, extends northward the Longmen mountain foreland belt and stops southward the Huaying mountain. Three kinds of explosive-source of 4-6kg,40kg and 100kg are used for high resolution data. Data acquisition focused on experiments of 40kg and 100kg charge. Acquisition parameters are given in Table 1.Based on analysis of raw data and test of the method and parameters,we determined suitable processing methods and flow, and received preliminary section. The section shows structure of the crust and upper mantle cover in the basin and two distinct interfaces appear at 6s and 13.8s (TWT).1)In the upper crust from 0s to 6s,sets of nearly level continuous strong reflection waves appear,which are typical reflection characteristics of sedimentary strata.The sedimentary strata thicken to the northwest at the front of the Longmen Mountain,and gradually thin to the southeast.2) Reflection characteristics of the lower crust between 6s and 13.8s are different from that of the sedimentary strata. Nearly level strong reflection characteristics in the west and the arc-shaped reflection characteristics in the east, indicated that tectonic deformation are more intense under eastern than western Sichuan.3) Moho reflection characteristics in the western and eastern basin are different.The section showed the west of basin is mainly characteristic of nearly level Moho reflections at 13.8 s.Moho deepen before the fault zone of Huaying Mountain and occur dislocation. Lower crust and Moho reflection feature of the basin reveals that the Sichuan basin is not the same rigid block, the craton basement of the Sichuan basin was composed of east and west part,and rigidity of the western are stronger than eastern.The subduction and old collision structure were buried under Huaying Mountain fault.Table 1 data acquisition parameters

Wang, H.; Gao, R.; Wen, Z.; Li, Q.; Feng, S.; Lu, Z.; Deng, G.

2010-12-01

100

General Humid Little Ice Age In Westerly Dominated Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven major humidity proxy records and other supplementary evidence, including natural archives such as ice-cores, sedimentary records, river terraces, lake-level fluctuations, as well as historical documents, have been used to reconstruct the variability of humidity in the Westerly dominated Western China (WDWC) including Arid China and north part of the Tibet Plateau, over the last 1000 years. The results show

F. Chen; J. Chen

2008-01-01

101

Comparative study of bacterial status from conjunctival sac of the elder Qiang minority and Han people with dry eye in Sichuan, China  

PubMed Central

AIM To compare the status of bacteria in the conjunctival sac from the elder Qiang minority and Han people with dry eyes in Sichuan, China. METHODS Total of 54 elder Qiang people with dry eyes (108 eyes) were examined by cluster sampling. In the similar habitation region of Han people, 80 (160 dry eyes) Han people were analyzed as the control group. The bacteria was separated from the inferior palpebral conjunctiva, then inoculated on blood plate for 48 hours and identified. RESULTS Totally 24 strains of bacteria were cultured in either Qiang minority or Han c populations with 3 strains of them existed in both ethnic groups. The commonest bacteria in conjunctival sac in two ethnic groups were non-pathogenic bacterium. The composition of Corynebacterium in Han people (54.1%) was significantly higher than that in Qiang minority (27.4%) (?2=11.6721, P=0.0006). The percentage of Sphingomonas Paucimobilis in Qiang people was higher than that in Han people (?2=18.6442, P=0.0000). However, there was no significant difference between Qiang minority and Han people either in bacterial positive rate in conjunctival sac, or the composition of bacteria species and strains, or the composition of staphylococcus epidemids between two ethnic populations. CONCLUSION There was no significant difference of bacterial positive rate in conjunctival sac from the elder of Qiang minority and Han people with dry eye, but the species of bacteria were different.

Zhang, Yue; Liu, Zhi-Rong; Chen, Hui; Dong, Wan-Jiang; Fan, Ying-Chuan; Yu, Hua; Wang, Guang-Jin; Li, Yu-Chan; Cao, Kui

2012-01-01

102

Revised conodont zonation and conodont evolution across the Permian-Triassic boundary at the Shangsi section, Guangyuan, Sichuan, South China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large conodont samples (20 kg at most) have been collected from the uppermost Permian and the lowermost Triassic (beds 26-33) at Shangsi, northern Sichuan. These have enabled us to establish parallel hindeodid and gondolellid conodont zones through the section similar to previously recognized in the Meishan section. In ascending order, three newly established gondolellid zones at the Shangsi section are: Neogondolella yini Zone (bed 26), Neogondolella meishanensis Zone (beds 27a-27c), Neogondolella taylorae Zone (beds 28a-29 d). Also in ascending order, four revised or newly established hindeodid zones are: Hindeodus changxingensis Zone (beds 28a-29b) Hindeodus parvus Zone (beds 29c-30a), Isarcicella lobata Zone (beds 30b-31a), Isarcicella isarcica Zone (bed 31b and above). According to the new data, the first occurrence of H. parvus is about 2 m lower than the previously reported horizon. On the basis of both hindeodid and gondolellid taxa, the PTB is placed 22 cm above the base of bed 28a. This conodont zonation of the Shangsi section will help improve correlations of global Permian-Triassic boundary sections.

Jiang, Haishui; Lai, Xulong; Yan, Chunbo; Aldridge, Richard J.; Wignall, Paul; Sun, Yadong

2011-06-01

103

Buddhist Education in Sichuan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper is devoted to Buddhist education in Sichuan Province with a focus on Venerable Longlian's temple. It deals with the historical development of Chinese Buddhist education and makes statistic analysis of the available data. Venerable Longlian established the Sichuan Buddhist Institute for Nuns in the 1980s. It was the first modern school…

Long, Darui

2002-01-01

104

Buddhist Education in Sichuan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is devoted to Buddhist education in Sichuan Province with a focus on Venerable Longlian's temple. It deals with the historical development of Chinese Buddhist education and makes statistic analysis of the available data. Venerable Longlian established the Sichuan Buddhist Institute for Nuns in the 1980s. It was the first modern school…

Long, Darui

2002-01-01

105

Comparing prevalence of HIV-related behaviors among female injecting drug users (IDU) whose regular sexual partner was or was not IDU in Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces, China.  

PubMed

Injecting drug users made up a high percentage of HIV cases in China; partners of IDU are hence, at very high risk of HIV transmission. The goal of this study is to compare characteristics and prevalence of injecting drug use and sex-related risk behaviors among female IDU who were or were not having a regular sex partner (RSP) with concordant IDU status. Data were obtained from all female IDU respondents (n=1414) surveyed in the behavioral surveillance surveys as conducted during 2003 through 2006 in Sichuan and Yunnan, China. The findings from this research reveal that about half of the female IDU respondents belonged to the concordant group (50.4%). As compared to members of the discordant group, such concordant respondents were significantly more likely to have practiced different types of studied syringe sharing behaviors (adjusted odds ratios AOR=1.34-2.23, p<0.05), to have served as female sex workers in the last month (AOR=1.24, p<0.05), or to have used some particular types of HIV-related prevention services (AOR=1.36-1.60, p<0.05) but were less likely to be always using new needles for drug injection in the last month (AOR=0.54, p<0.05) or to have used a condom in the last episode of sex with their RSP (AOR=0.64, p<0.01). The findings suggest that concordant IDU status is very common among RSP of IDU. The risk for HIV transmission between concordant RSP seems to be very high and the prevention services seem unable to alleviate the risk. Specific programs targeting concordant IDU couples are greatly warranted. PMID:20024748

Lau, Joseph T F; Gu, Jing; Zhang, Linglin; Cheng, Feng; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Jianxin; Wang, Ning; Lan, Yajia

2009-07-01

106

Consumer preferences for western-style convenience foods in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand for western-style convenience foods is growing around the world, especially in the People's Republic of China, a likely result of the modernization of food consumption patterns. Proper targeting of consumers who exhibit preferences for western foods will be essential to companies wishing to successfully enter the Chinese market. Data from a 2002 survey of consumers in Beijing is

Thomas I. WAHLb

107

Late Jurassic salamandroid from western Liaoning, China.  

PubMed

A Jurassic salamander, Beiyanerpeton jianpingensis (gen. et sp. nov.), from a recently found site in western Liaoning Province, China is the earliest known record of Salamandroidea. As a Late Jurassic record of the group, it extends the range of the clade by ~40 Ma. The Late Jurassic taxon is neotenic and represented by exceptionally preserved specimens, including fully articulated cranial and postcranial skeletons and bony gill structures close to the cheek region. The fossil beds, consisting of dark-brown volcanic ash shales of the Upper Jurassic Tiaojishan (Lanqi) Formation (Oxfordian), underlie trachyandesite rocks that have yielded a SHRIMP zircon U-Pb date of 157 ± 3 Ma. The fossiliferous beds are substantially older than the Jehol Group, including the Yixian Formation ((40)Ar/(39)Ar dates of 122-129 Ma), but slightly younger than the Middle Jurassic Daohugou horizon ((40)Ar/(39)Ar date of 164 ± 4 Ma). The early fossil taxon shares with extant salamandroids derived character states, including: separated nasals lacking a midline contact, angular fused to the prearticular in the lower jaw, and double-headed ribs on the presacral vertebrae. In contrast to extant salamandroids, however, the salamander shows a discrete and tooth-bearing palatine, and unequivocally nonpedicellate and monocuspid marginal teeth in large and presumably mature individuals. The finding provides insights into the evolution of key characters of salamanders, and also provides direct evidence supporting the hypothesis that the split between Cryptobranchoidea and Salamandroidea had taken placed before the Late Jurassic Oxfordian time. In this aspect, both paleontological and molecular data now come to agree. PMID:22411790

Gao, Ke-Qin; Shubin, Neil H

2012-03-12

108

Late Jurassic salamandroid from western Liaoning, China  

PubMed Central

A Jurassic salamander, Beiyanerpeton jianpingensis (gen. et sp. nov.), from a recently found site in western Liaoning Province, China is the earliest known record of Salamandroidea. As a Late Jurassic record of the group, it extends the range of the clade by ~40 Ma. The Late Jurassic taxon is neotenic and represented by exceptionally preserved specimens, including fully articulated cranial and postcranial skeletons and bony gill structures close to the cheek region. The fossil beds, consisting of dark-brown volcanic ash shales of the Upper Jurassic Tiaojishan (Lanqi) Formation (Oxfordian), underlie trachyandesite rocks that have yielded a SHRIMP zircon U-Pb date of 157 ± 3 Ma. The fossiliferous beds are substantially older than the Jehol Group, including the Yixian Formation (40Ar/39Ar dates of 122–129 Ma), but slightly younger than the Middle Jurassic Daohugou horizon (40Ar/39Ar date of 164 ± 4 Ma). The early fossil taxon shares with extant salamandroids derived character states, including: separated nasals lacking a midline contact, angular fused to the prearticular in the lower jaw, and double-headed ribs on the presacral vertebrae. In contrast to extant salamandroids, however, the salamander shows a discrete and tooth-bearing palatine, and unequivocally nonpedicellate and monocuspid marginal teeth in large and presumably mature individuals. The finding provides insights into the evolution of key characters of salamanders, and also provides direct evidence supporting the hypothesis that the split between Cryptobranchoidea and Salamandroidea had taken placed before the Late Jurassic Oxfordian time. In this aspect, both paleontological and molecular data now come to agree.

Gao, Ke-Qin; Shubin, Neil H.

2012-01-01

109

Post-Treatment Follow-Up Study of Abdominal Cystic Echinococcosis in Tibetan Communities of Northwest Sichuan Province, China  

PubMed Central

Background Human cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, with the liver as the most frequently affected organ, is known to be highly endemic in Tibetan communities of northwest Sichuan Province. Antiparasitic treatment with albendazole remains the primary choice for the great majority of patients in this resource-poor remote area, though surgery is the most common approach for CE therapy that has the potential to remove cysts and lead to complete cure. The current prospective study aimed to assess the effectiveness of community based use of cyclic albendazole treatment in Tibetan CE cases, and concurrently monitor the changes of serum specific antibody levels during treatment. Methodology/Principal Findings Ultrasonography was applied for diagnosis and follow-up of CE cases after cyclic albendazole treatment in Tibetan communities of Sichuan Province during 2006 to 2008, and serum specific IgG antibody levels against Echinococcus granulosus recombinant antigen B in ELISA was concurrently monitored in these cases. A total of 196 CE cases were identified by ultrasound, of which 37 (18.9%) showed evidence of spontaneous healing/involution of hepatic cyst(s) with CE4 or CE5 presentations. Of 49 enrolled CE cases for treatment follow-up, 32.7% (16) were considered to be cured based on B-ultrasound after 6 months to 30 months regular albendazole treatment, 49.0% (24) were improved, 14.3% (7) remained unchanged, and 4.1% (2) became aggravated. In general, patients with CE2 type cysts (daughter cysts present) needed a longer treatment course for cure (26.4 months), compared to cases with CE1 (univesicular cysts) (20.4 months) or CE3 type (detached cyst membrane or partial degeneration of daughter cysts) (9 months). In addition, the curative duration was longer in patients with large (>10 cm) cysts (22.3 months), compared to cases with medium (5–10 cm) cysts (17.3 months) or patients with small (<5 cm) cysts (6 months). At diagnosis, seven (53.8%) of 13 cases with CE1 type cysts without any previous intervention showed negative specific IgG antibody response to E. granulosus recombinant antigen B (rAgB). However, following 3 months to 18 months albendazole therapy, six of these 7 initially seronegative CE1 cases sero-converted to be specific IgG antibody positive, and concurrently ultrasound scan showed that cysts changed to CE3a from CE1 type in all the six CE cases. Two major profiles of serum specific IgG antibody dynamics during albendazole treatment were apparent in CE cases: (i) presenting as initial elevation followed by subsequent decline, or (ii) a persistent decline. Despite a decline, however, specific antibody levels remained positive in most improved or cured CE cases. Conclusions This was the first attempt to follow up community-screened cystic echinococcosis patients after albendazole therapy using ultrasonography and serology in an endemic Tibetan region. Cyclic albendazole treatment proved to be effective in the great majority of CE cases in this resource-poor area, but periodic abdominal ultrasound examination was necessary to guide appropriate treatment. Oral albendazole for over 18 months was more likely to result in CE cure. Poor drug compliance resulted in less good outcomes. Serology with recombinant antigen B could provide additional limited information about the effectiveness of albendazole in CE cases. Post-treatment positive specific IgG antibody seroconversion, in initially seronegative, CE1 patients was considered a good indication for positive therapeutic efficacy of albendazole.

Li, Tiaoying; Ito, Akira; Pengcuo, Renqing; Sako, Yasuhito; Chen, Xingwang; Qiu, Dongchuan; Xiao, Ning; Craig, Philip S.

2011-01-01

110

Where is China heading? An analysis of China’s foreign policy and how it affects the Western world  

Microsoft Academic Search

China’s growing international importance puzzles not only political scientists but also journalists, politicians and others.\\u000a Apparently, it is possible that an autocratic regime which has opened itself only on the economic level can still survive.\\u000a The new foreign policy of China affects the liberal democratic Western world in several ways. China, with impressive economic\\u000a growth, questions the US dollar as

Martin H. Heinemeyer

2011-01-01

111

The Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary (LAB) in China observed with Receiver Functions and Comparison with Western US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the term LAB for a global discontinuity marking the upper boundary of a seismic low velocity zone in the uppermost mantle, although lithosphere and asthenosphere are not seismic definitions. We apply the S receiver function technique which uses S-to-P converted waves beneath temporary or permanent seismic stations and which is perfectly suited for LAB observations. Around Tibet we observed the LAB in the Tarim and Sichuan Basins and in India near 100km depth. The Indian LAB is subducting down to about 250km depth below southern-central Tibet and the Asian LAB shows a flat subduction at 200km depth underneath the Tibetan LAB in north-east Tibet. That means we see in northern Tibet the Tibetan LAB overriding the Asian LAB. The Tibetan LAB is thickening at the contact with the Tarim Basin, but thinning at the contact with the Sichuan Basin. This thinning might be due to delamination of the lowest part of the lithosphere below eastern Tibet. In eastern China the transition from the shallow (~80km) oceanic LAB to the deeper cratonic LAB (~110-140km) is observed. In the western US the LAB is located near 60-80km using USArray data. It deepens to ~150km along a stripe from Texas, over the Colorado Plateau further north, interrupted by the Yellowstone plume chain. The cratonic LAB in the US is similarly to the LAB in cratonic parts of China located surprisingly shallow near 100km depth. Such a shallow cratonic LAB is not in agreement with results from surface wave tomography.

Kind, R.; Kumar, P.; Yuan, X.; Sodoudi, F.; Heit, B.; Mechie, J.

2011-12-01

112

Phenolics from the culms of five bamboo species in the Tangjiahe and Wolong Giant Panda Reserves, Sichuan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic compounds were studied in the culms of five bamboo species collected in China: Yushania chungii, Fargesia robusta, Fargesia denudata, Fargesia rufa and Fargesia scabrida. All the species are eaten by giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). The culms contained phenolic acids and flavonoids in small concentrations, except for F. robusta, which did not contain flavonoids in detectable amounts. The species differed

Sarita Keski-Saari; Vladimir Ossipov; Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto; Jingbo Jia; Kjell Danell; Timo Veteli; Zhang Guiquan; Xiong Yaowu; Pekka Niemelä

2008-01-01

113

A study on eco-environmental vulnerability of mining cities: a case study of Panzhihua city of Sichuan province in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large-scale and super-strength development of mineral resources in mining cities in long term has made great contributions to China's economic construction and development, but it has caused serious damage to the ecological environment even ecological imbalance at the same time because the neglect of the environmental impact even to the expense of the environment to some extent. In this study, according to the characteristics of mining cities, the scientific and practical eco-environmental vulnerability evaluation index system of mining cities had been established. Taking Panzhihua city of Sichuan province as an example, using remote sensing and GIS technology, applying various types of remote sensing image (TM, SPOT5, IKONOS) and Statistical data, the ecological environment evaluation data of mining cities was extracted effectively. For the non-linear relationship between the evaluation indexes and the degree of eco-environmental vulnerability in mining cities, this study innovative took the evaluation of eco-environmental vulnerability of the study area by using artificial neural network whose training used SCE-UA algorithm that well overcome the slow learning and difficult convergence of traditional neural network algorithm. The results of ecoenvironmental vulnerability evaluation of the study area were objective, reasonable and the credibility was high. The results showed that the area distribution of five eco-environmental vulnerability grade types was basically normal, and the overall ecological environment situation of Panzhihua city was in the middle level, the degree of eco-environmental vulnerability in the south was higher than the north, and mining activities were dominant factors to cause ecoenvironmental damage and eco-environmental Vulnerability. In this study, a comprehensive theory and technology system of regional eco-environmental vulnerability evaluation which included the establishment of eco-environmental vulnerability evaluation index system, processing of evaluation data and establishing of evaluation model. New ideas and methods had provided for eco-environmental vulnerability of mining cities.

Shao, Huaiyong; Xian, Wei; Yang, Wunian

2009-07-01

114

Modeling of the 3d Wave Propagation of the Sichuan Ms 7.9 Earthquake of 12 05 08  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic potential of southern China is manifested in the Western Sichuan Plateau (eastern Tibetan Plateau) by among others, the seismic activity of the Longmenshan fault. The seismicity observed on the latter includes recent historical events with magnitudes up to 6.5, and the one of the 12 05 2008 Ms 7.9 (Mo 1.15 1028 dyne/cm) thrust mechanism, the so-called Sichuan earthquake. Herewith, a hybrid procedure, combining long period (obtained a recently optimized 3D seismic wave propagation parallel finite difference code) and high frequency (by using the empirical Green fuction approach) simulations was used to obtain 3D synthetics seismograms for the mentioned Sichuan earthquake. The modeling included the USGS web- site, 40 x 315 km2 kinematic description of the earthquake's rupture. The comparisons between observed and synthetic seismograms for stations sites of the Seismological Network of China, such as CD2 (Chengdu), GYA, LHZ and TIY at about 90, 500, 600 and 1200 Km from the epicenter of the Sichuan event, respectively, are satisfactory. Assuming rock sites, maximum synthetic accelerations, velocities and displacements, and permanent displacements of: 1.70 m/s2 , 1.90 m/s, 3.30 m, and 1.25 m; were obtained for Beichuan and 0.625 m/s2 , 0.092 m/s, 0.10 m, and 0.0 m, were computed for Chengdu, which partially explains the modification of the topography, and the extensive damage observed on the infrastructure and towns located on top of the Sichuan earthquake rupture zone, as well as the slight damage observed at Chengdu located at an epicentral distance of 90 km.

Chavez, M.; Cabrera, E.; Chen, H.; Perea, N.; Emerson, D.; Ashworth, M.; Moulinec, C.; Wu, M.; Salazar, A.; Zhao, G.

2008-12-01

115

Geology and petroleum resources of basins in western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western China contains 11 recognized petroliferous or potentially petroliferous basins. Despite their great difference in size, these basins have important common features: (1) their Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary sequences are composed of rocks of essentially terrestrial orgin; and (2) they experienced predominantly compressional stress during the late stages of their geologic history. The topics discussed for each basin include the stratigraphic and

G. Ulmishek

1984-01-01

116

Epipaleolithic\\/early Neolithic settlements at Qinghai Lake, western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transitions from terminal Pleistocene Upper Paleolithic foraging to Holocene Neolithic farming and pastoralist economic orientations in the northern Tibetan Plateau are examined from the perspective of Epipaleolithic sites located near Qinghai Lake, Qinghai Province, western China. Jiangxigou 2 is an artifact-rich, multicomponent midden site with the main period of occupation dating ca. 9000–5000 cal yr BP, containing abundant flaked stone

David Rhode; Zhang Haiying; David B. Madsen; Gao Xing; P. Jeffrey Brantingham; Ma Haizhou; John W. Olsen

2007-01-01

117

Fenced pasture: a possible risk factor for human alveolar echinococcosis in Tibetan pastoralist communities of Sichuan, China.  

PubMed

Alveolar echinococcosis, infection caused by the parasitic helminth Echinococcus multilocularis, is a zoonosis strongly linked to climatic and ecological factors. Cross-sectional survey data were used to test a hypothesis that partial fencing of pastures could promote alveolar echinococcosis transmission in semi-nomadic pastoral communities of the Tibetan plateau, PR China. Using multiple stepwise logistic regression with consideration of factors of age and gender, it was shown that partial fencing around the settlements in winter pasture was significantly and independently associated with the risk of human alveolar echinococcosis in the surveyed villages (P = 0.021). The underlying reason may lie in overgrazing, an assumed cause of population outbreaks of small mammal intermediate hosts of the parasite on the Tibetan plateau. Overgrazing may have been exacerbated by the reduction of communal pastures nearby the settlements due to introduction of partial fencing around group tenure pastures acquired by Tibetan pastoralist families. PMID:15099816

Wang, Qian; Vuitton, Dominique A; Qiu, Jiamin; Giraudoux, Patrick; Xiao, Yongfu; Schantz, Peter M; Raoul, Francis; Li, Tiaoying; Yang, Wen; Craig, Philip S

2004-05-01

118

Widespread co-endemicity of human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis on the eastern Tibetan Plateau, northwest Sichuan/southeast Qinghai, China  

PubMed Central

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) or hydatid disease is known to be cosmopolitan in its global distribution, while alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a much rarer though more pathogenic hepatic parasitic disease restricted to the northern hemisphere. Both forms of human echinococcosis are known to occur on the Tibetan Plateau, but the epidemiological characteristics remain poorly understood. In our current study, abdominal ultrasound screening programs for echinococcosis were conducted in thirty-one Tibetan townships in Ganze and Aba Tibetan Autonomous Prefectures of northwest Sichuan Province during 2001-2008. Hospital records (1992-2006) in a major regional treatment centre for echinococcosis in Sichuan Province were also reviewed. Of 10,186 local residents examined by portable ultrasound scan, 645 (6.3%) were diagnosed with echinococcosis: a prevalence of 3.2% for CE, 3.1% for AE and 0.04% for dual infection (both CE and AE). Human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis in pastoral areas was highly co-endemic, in comparison to much lower prevalences in semi-pastoral or farming regions. The high ultrasound prevalence in these co-endemic areas in northwest Sichuan Province was also reflected in the hospital study, and hospital records furthermore indicated another possible highly co-endemic focus in Guoluo Prefecture of Qinghai Province, located at the border of northwest Sichuan. These chronic cestode zoonoses constitute an unparalleled major public health problem for pastoral Tibetan communities, and pose great difficulties for adequate treatment access and effective transmission control in such remote regions.

Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Zhen, Ren; Qiu, Jiamin; Qiu, Dongchuan; Xiao, Ning; Ito, Akira; Wang, Hu; Giraudoux, Patrick; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Craig, Philip S

2010-01-01

119

Crustal structures in the area of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake from seismologic and gravimetric data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 12 May 2008 the Sichuan earthquake was one of the worst natural disasters in China. Here, we present a detailed picture of the epicentral area inferred geophysical data. Based on the analysis of teleseismic data acquired by a dense seismic network, we highlight an abrupt 20km Moho offset between the Sichuan Basin and the Tibetan plateau and a horizontal

A. Robert; J. Zhu; J. Vergne; R. Cattin; L. S. Chan; G. Wittlinger; G. Herquel; J. de Sigoyer; M. Pubellier; L. D. Zhu

2010-01-01

120

Excavating the Nation: Archaeology and Control of the Past and Present in Republican Sichuan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation considers whether or not archaeology was an effective tool for nation-building elites in Republican China (1912-1949), by looking at the discipline's fortunes in the off-center locale of Sichuan province. Through consideration of the multiplicity of agents and motives involved in archaeological enterprise in Republican Sichuan,…

Kyong-McClain, Jeffrey

2009-01-01

121

The development of Western philosophy in China and dialogue between Chinese, Western and Marxist philosophies  

Microsoft Academic Search

?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????: ??????????????????????????Dialogue between Chinese, Western and Marxist philosophies reflects the openness of China's philosophical community. The mutual interpretation of philosophies with different cultural backgrounds and theoretical approaches will inevitably bring about new philosophy. Oriented to problems facing the entire humanity and listing on top of Chinese people's concerns, such dialogue aims to offer solutions from respective cultural perspective and mode

Feng Jun

2009-01-01

122

Nutrient Release from Weathering of Purplish Rocks in the Sichuan Basin, China 1 1 Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2003CB415202) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 40571093 and 49601009)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purplish soils having high fertility with mineral nutrients inherited from the parent rock are widely distributed in the hills along the Yangtze River, especially in the Sichuan Basin. Pot and field weathering experiments were conducted to mimic rock weathering and nutrient release processes in order to better understand soil fertility and nutrient compensation. Three types of purplish rock formations formed

Bo ZHU; Tao WANG; Xiang YOU; Mei-Rong GAO

2008-01-01

123

Psychological Distress among Adolescents in Chengdu, Sichuan at 1 Month after the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

A devastating earthquake occurred on May 12, 2008 in Sichuan, China. This study investigated the prevalence and factors in\\u000a association with psychological problems among secondary school students living in Chengdu (90 km away from the disaster epicenter)\\u000a in June 2008. In a cross-sectional survey, 3,324 secondary students self-administered a structured questionnaire in classroom\\u000a setting. Validated scales were used in this study.

Joseph T. F. Lau; Xiaonan Yu; Jianxin Zhang; Winnie W. S. Mak; Kai Chow Choi; Wacy W. S. Lui; Emily Y. Y. Chan

2010-01-01

124

The First Western-Style Hospital in China  

PubMed Central

Peter Parker (1804–1888), a Yale University–trained missionary and physician, founded the first Western-style hospital in China, the Ophthalmic Hospital in Canton (now known as Guangzhou), on November 4, 1835. During its first 3 months, Parker treated 1061 patients, of whom 1020 (96.1%) had ocular illnesses. Since then, the Ophthalmic Hospital in Canton has become a comprehensive institution that is affiliated with Sun Yat-sen University and is one of the largest hospitals in China. In 1965, the Department of Ophthalmology, which originally employed only 2 ophthalmologists, expanded to become an ophthalmic hospital. In 1983, it joined the Eye Research Institute and the Office of Prevention of Blindness to form the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center. The center currently employs nearly 800 staff members and provides care to more than 500 000 patients annually. The first Western-style hospital in China has survived and thrived; it is now one of the most prestigious ophthalmic institutes in the world.

Chan, Chi-Chao; Liu, Melissa M.; Tsai, James C.

2011-01-01

125

Characteristics of crush syndrome caused by prolonged limb compression longer than 24 h in the Sichuan earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTo assess the characteristics, treatment and outcome of patients with crush syndrome caused by prolonged limb compression longer than 24 h in the Sichuan earthquake.MethodsFollowing the Sichuan earthquake, 2728 patients were transferred to the West China Hospital of Sichuan University and 157 of those were admitted to the intensive care unit. The medical records of nine severe crush syndrome patients

Zhou Chunguang; Chen Rigao; Huang Fuguo; Tu Chongqi; Song Yueming; Wang Guanglin; Zhang Hui; Pei Fuxing; Kang Yan; Liang Peng; Fu Ping; Tao Ye

2010-01-01

126

Three Dimension Construction and Magnetic Fabric Analysis of the Yanjinggou Fault-propagation Fold in Western Sichuan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, there is a transition trend of the research on the fault-related fold from 2D to 3D. Based on ARCGIS, DISCOVERY and GOCAD software platform, we built a 3D geological model of the Yanjinggou anticline using 3D seismic data in the area. It was found that Yanjinggou anticline was a typical trishear fault-propagation fold. Because the structural interpretation of the

Yiquan LI; Dong JIA; Liang LUO; Qiupeng JIA; Zhuxin CHEN; Fei DENG; Shengsi SUN; Yuanyuan ZHANG

2007-01-01

127

Sociological Consideration on the Development of Ecological Agriculture in Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of ecological agriculture is the mainstream of the world's agricultural development, as well as the only way to change from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. This paper expatiates the connotation of ecological agriculture and its significance to the development of western China. There are problems in the development of ecological agriculture in western China, manifested mainly in insufficient subsequent

Guiting Zhao

2009-01-01

128

Regional seismic discrimination in central Asia with emphasis on western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In support of an anticipated Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the authors have started to evaluate regional seismic event discrimination capabilities for central Asia, emphasizing western China. The authors have measured noise and seismic phase amplitudes of over 250 earthquakes and 18 underground nuclear explosions recorded at the broadband, digital station WMQ in western China and over 100 earthquakes and 5

H. E. Hartse; S. R. Taylor; W. S. Phillips; G. E. Randall

1996-01-01

129

Notice on Implementing the Plan of College Graduate Volunteer Service in Western China (2003)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Western China Program, initiated through this policy jointly issued in 2003 by the several ministries of the government and the Central Committee of the Communist Youth League, organizes 5,000 college students annually to engage in full-time volunteer services in western China. The document states details about the recruitment and preservice…

Chinese Education and Society, 2008

2008-01-01

130

On Financial Support System for Compulsory Education in China's Western Minority Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|China's Western Development is a policy adopted to boost its less developed Western regions, that is, a systematic project and a longterm and arduous task. The development of compulsory education in China's minority areas is the key to it. This paper attempts to use the beneficial experience of developing compulsory education support system of…

Jinyu, Qi

2008-01-01

131

A Comparative Study of Child Temperament and Parenting in Beijing, China and the Western United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this investigation was to examine comparable dimensions and linkages between child temperament and parenting styles with samples from Beijing, China and the western United States. Participants included 404 mothers and fathers from Beijing, China and 325 mothers and fathers from the western United States. Both mothers and fathers…

Porter, Christian L.; Hart, Craig H.; Yang, Chongming; Robinson, Clyde C.; Olsen, Susanne Frost; Zeng, Qing; Olsen, Joseph A.; Jin, Shenghua

2005-01-01

132

The Chinese connection? Adjustment of Western vs. overseas Chinese expatriate managers in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western multinationals often assign overseas Chinese expatriate managers (OCEMs) to the People's Republic of China (PRC) in the belief that the cultural distance will be less for them than in the case of Western expatriates, making the former adjust easier than the latter. However, as incidental evidence indicates that overseas Chinese expatriates in China can encounter considerable adjustment problems, the

Jan Selmer

2002-01-01

133

Grassland dynamics and its driving forces in western Northeast China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study area including Kerqin Pasture and the farming-pastoral ecotone of Songnen Plain, is located in the western Northeast China. It is a natural protective screen for the Northeast Plain, which is the most important one of national food bases, to ensure the food supply security and ecological security. Based on the Landsat5/TM and ETM remote sensed images of 1986, 1996 and 2000, the grassland dynamic characteristics of the above two parts of the study area, including change area, transformation, change velocity, are analyzed respectively by land use/land cover spatial change models. The results show that, the grassland area of Kerqin Pasture decreased by 3,200 km2, while that of the western Songnen Plain decreased by 4,800 km2. It was mainly due to grassland reclamation activities driven by rapid population expansion. According to the results of regional differences got by GIS technique, in Kerqin Pasture, the dynamic degree in Shuangliao county of Jilin province is the largest, up to 2.7%, while the value of Alukerqin Banner is much smaller, and the grassland is well protected. In the western Songnen Plain, the dynamic degree in Baicheng and Taonan of Jilin province is more than 4%, primarily caused by grassland reclamation as well. By contrast, the grassland in Anda city and Qinggang county of Heilongjiang province took a turn for the better with active protection and improvement measures.

Chang, Liping; Yang, Jiuchun; Zhang, Shuwen; Zhang, Yangzhen

2009-07-01

134

Landslide-dammed lake at Tangjiashan, Sichuan province, China (triggered by the Wenchuan Earthquake, May 12, 2008): Risk assessment, mitigation strategy, and lessons learned  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Landslides and rock avalanches triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake produced 257 landslide dams, mainly situated along the eastern boundary of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where rivers descend approximately 3,000 m into the Sichuan Basin. The largest of these dams blocked the Tongkou River (a tributary of the Fujiang River) at Tangjiashan. The blockage, consisting of 2. 04 ?? 10 7 m 3 of landslide debris, impounded a lake with a projected maximum volume of 3. 15 ?? 10 8 m 3, potentially inundating 8. 92 km 2 of terrain. Its creation during the rainy season and the possibility of an uncontrolled release posed a serious, impending threat to at least 1. 3 million people downstream that could add substantially to the total of 69,200 individuals directly killed by the earthquake. Risk assessment of the blockage indicated that it was unlikely to collapse suddenly, and that eventual overtopping could be mitigated by notching the structure in order to create an engineered breach and achieve safe drainage of the lake. In addition to the installation of monitoring and warning instrumentation, for emergency planning we estimated several outburst scenarios equivalent to 20, 25, 33, and 50% of the dam failing suddenly, creating, respectively, 3. 35, 3. 84, 4. 22, and 4. 65 km 2 of flooded area, and overbank water depths of 4. 6, 5. 1, 5. 7, and 6. 2 m, respectively, in Mianyang, the second largest city in Sichuan Province, 48 km downstream from the blockage. Based on these scenarios, recommendations and plans for excavating a sluiceway, draining the lake, and downstream evacuation were proposed and later were implemented successfully, with the blockage breached by overtopping on June 10, less than a month after dam emplacement. The peak discharge of the release only slightly exceeded the flood of record at Mianyang City. No lives were lost, and significant property damage was avoided. Post-breaching evaluation reveals how future similar mitigation can be improved. Although initial breach erosion was slow, later erosion was judged uncontrollably rapid; increased slope of the engineered channel and adoption of a compound, trapezoid-triangular cross-section can be considered, as can other measures to control the rate of breach incision. Evacuees from Mianyang City spent an unnecessarily long time (12 days) in temporary settlements; more precise risk management planning can reduce this time in the future. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Cui, P.; Dang, C.; Zhuang, J.; You, Y.; Chen, X.; Scott, K. M.

2012-01-01

135

Detecting One-Hundred-Year Environmental Changes in Western China Using Seven-Year Repeat Photography  

PubMed Central

Due to its diverse, wondrous plants and unique topography, Western China has drawn great attention from explorers and naturalists from the Western World. Among them, Ernest Henry Wilson (1876 –1930), known as ‘Chinese’ Wilson, travelled to Western China five times from 1899 to 1918. He took more than 1,000 photos during his travels. These valuable photos illustrated the natural and social environment of Western China a century ago. Since 1997, we had collected E.H. Wilson's old pictures, and then since 2004, along the expedition route of E.H. Wilson, we took 7 years to repeat photographing 250 of these old pictures. Comparing Wilson's photos with ours, we found an obvious warming trend over the 100 years, not only in specific areas but throughout the entire Western China. Such warming trend manifested in phenology changes, community shifts and melting snow in alpine mountains. In this study, we also noted remarkable vegetation changes. Out of 62 picture pairs were related to vegetation change, 39 indicated vegetation has changed to the better condition, 17 for degraded vegetation and six for no obvious change. Also in these photos at a century interval, we found not only rapid urbanization in Western China, but also the disappearance of traditional cultures. Through such comparisons, we should not only be amazed about the significant environmental changes through time in Western China, but also consider its implications for protecting environment while meeting the economic development beyond such changes.

Chen, Huai; Yin, Kaipu; Wang, Haiyan; Zhong, Shenxian; Wu, Ning; Shi, Fusun; Zhu, Dan; Zhu, Qiuan; Wang, Weifeng; Ma, Zhihai; Fang, Xiuqin; Li, Weizhong; Zhao, Pengxiang; Peng, Changhui

2011-01-01

136

Integration of remote sensing, GIS and GPS techniques for dynamic monitoring of land resources in mountainous areas: a case study of Renhe district, Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geometric and radiometric correction, image processing, information extraction and the integration of remote sensing, GIS and GPS in the specific approach for dynamic monitoring of land resources in mountainous areas are discussed. A synthesized method combining the image difference approach with comparison post classification is employed and a monitoring system based on remote sensing, GIS and GPS are set up. Different illumination conditions are key factors influencing the spectral features in mountainous areas, thus the comprehensive analysis of DEM and NDVI are employed to restrain the influence of terrain. Errors also commonly generate in the registration of different temporal images and much change information is usually lost when the mean-value smoothing template is employed in the image processing in mountainous areas. To reduce the information lost, a regional auto-adaptive smoothing template is employed. As a case study, according to the specific characteristics of mountainous areas, the TM images acquired from both 1994 and 1996 are processed for land change detection in Renhe District, Sichuan. Field experiments for radiometric correction are conducted in the areas of 25 Km2 in this district. The changed areas are precisely surveyed and validated after the fieldwork in which the database of detailed land survey is acquired. Combined with Geological Information System (GIS) technology and Global Position System (GPS), a 3S-based dynamic monitoring system of land resources change information in Renhe District is established, which helps the data renewal and daily management. Finally, the key factors influencing the accuracy of information extracting in mountainous areas are discussed.

Wang, Ziyu; Chen, Xiuwan; Zhao, Shuhe; Luo, Yuanhua

2005-01-01

137

Urban drought: a potential environmental hotspot in the western region development of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large-scale economic development program in western China has begun since 1999. Fast urbanization is expected with urban population increasing dramatically. Western China is mostly in arid and semi-arid climate zone and water resources are very limited. It suggests that an early warning system specifically designed to deal with urban droughts should be developed. Thresholds on identifying the water related hotspots must be determined based on different regions and economic sectors.

Ye, Qian; Glantz, Michael H.; Song, Lianchun; Sun, Guowu; Pan, Xiaoling

2003-07-01

138

The Western Ordos Plateau as a Biodiversity Center of Relic Shrubs in Arid Areas of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The western Ordos plateau in the central-north of China is abundant in relic shrub species. Totally 54 shrub species belonging to 31 genera in 16 families are found in 10 desert shrub communities,including 10 local endemic species, five relic shrub species, and seven threatened species defined by the China Red Data Book. The percentage of the threatened shrub species to

Guo-hong Wang

2005-01-01

139

Assessment of dietary intake among pregnant women in a rural area of western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Adequate maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy is important to ensure satisfactory birth outcomes. There are no data available on the usual dietary intake among pregnant women in rural China. The present study describes and evaluates the dietary intake in a cohort of pregnant women living in two counties of rural Shaanxi, western China. METHODS: 1420 pregnant women were recruited

Yue Cheng; Michael J Dibley; Xueli Zhang; Lingxia Zeng; Hong Yan

2009-01-01

140

Contending Approaches and Models for Rationalizing Chinese Public Organizations: The Case of Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports our field study findings about the efforts of the Communist Party of China (CPC) to rationalize Chinese\\u000a public organizations. Our focus here is on public organizations in western China. Classifying the development of China into\\u000a the strategizing, politicizing, and pragmatizing eras, with each era having its unique historical events, reflecting CPC’s\\u000a basic logic in organization and management

King W. Chow; Laura Q. Luo

2007-01-01

141

Geology and petroleum resources of basins in western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Western China contains 11 recognized petroliferous or potentially petroliferous basins. Despite their great difference in size, these basins have important common features: (1) their Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary sequences are composed of rocks of essentially terrestrial orgin; and (2) they experienced predominantly compressional stress during the late stages of their geologic history. The topics discussed for each basin include the stratigraphic and lithologic composition of the sedimentary cover, the major stages of tectonic development and the present-day structural framework, known oil and gas fields, probable source rocks, reservoir rocks, traps and seals, and potentially important exploration plays. The basins occupy 800,000 sq km of land and contain over 4,000,000 cubic km of prospective sedimentary rocks. The most probable amounts of undiscovered petroleum resources in all these basins are estimated at 19.5 billion barrels of oil and 78 trillion cubic feet of gas. The Tarim, Zhungaer, and Chaidamu basins possess the great majority of these resources.

Ulmishek, G.

1984-11-01

142

Vegetation evolution in arid land of western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NDVI Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values range from -1.0 to +1.0, areas with NDVI < 0 rarely contain any vegetation, while NDVI >0.6, vegetation cover reaches 100%. The FVC (Fractional Vegetation Cover) values range from 0 to +1.0. Above this threshold the fractional vegetation cover increases approximately as the square of the NDVI, and reaches 100% at an upper NDVI threshold, which is considerably less than 1.0. In arid and semi-arid regions, FVC is superior to NDVI. In this article we got the classification rules by using the resolution 1km FVC combining with DEM (Digital Elevation Model) to classify the vegetation types in arid parts of western China. This classification system was used to classify all FVC images of the resolution 8km*8km from 1982a to 2000a, in this way, we got the classification maps of vegetation for every year. From these classification maps we calculated three majority maps from 1982-1989a, 1990-1995a and 1996-2000a. Supported by software ARC/INFO allowed us to decided wheter cells were degraded or improved after comparing every cell value at same location in three serial maps and then getting the evolution map of vegetation. The main results are as follows: 1) the vegetation in all of arid west China has increased; 2) the vegetation was increased and the rate is higher than in all study area; cells showing improvement in mountainous areas are almost equal to cells showing degradation3) there were two types of improvement patches; the oasis patch increases around old oases and the plain sparse desert patch has also increased; 4) degradation patches appear more frequently in the lower reaches of the Tarim River, in all reaches of Cherchen River, the Jungger basin and to the south of Alxa Right County of Inner Mongolia; 5) in mountainous areas, most of the improvement cells took place in the south of the Tianshan mountains and Pamir high plain, degradation cells are located on the slope of the north Kunlun mountains as a long narrow region and big patch assembled in the Aljin Mountains and the north slope of the Qilian Mountains.

Shi, Qingdong; Lu, Guanhui; Xiao, Jidong; Pan, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jie; Ji, Liang; Chang, Shunli

2003-07-01

143

CEO background and the adoption of Western-style human resource practices in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops and tests an institutional explanation of how chief executive officer (CEO) characteristics affect the adoption of Western-style human resource (HR) practices in China's transitional economy. It was predicted that: (1) CEO exposure to HR ideology would positively relate to firm adoption of Western-style HR practices, and (2) CEO embeddedness in the Chinese institutional environment would negatively relate

Katherine A. Frear; Yang Cao; Wei Zhao

2012-01-01

144

Preliminary strategic environmental assessment of the Great Western Development Strategy: safeguarding ecological security for a new western China.  

PubMed

The Great Western Development Strategy (GWDS) is a long term national campaign aimed at boosting development of the western area of China and narrowing the economic gap between the western and the eastern parts of China. The Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedure was employed to assess the environmental challenges brought about by the western development plans. These plans include five key developmental domains (KDDs): water resource exploitation and use, land utilization, energy generation, tourism development, and ecological restoration and conservation. A combination of methods involving matrix assessment, incorporation of expert judgment and trend analysis was employed to analyze and predict the environmental impacts upon eight selected environmental indicators: water resource availability, soil erosion, soil salinization, forest destruction, land desertification, biological diversity, water quality and air quality. Based on the overall results of the assessment, countermeasures for environmental challenges that emerged were raised as key recommendations to ensure ecological security during the implementation of the GWDS. This paper is intended to introduce a consensus-based process for evaluating the complex, long term pressures on the ecological security of large areas, such as western China, that focuses on the use of combined methods applied at the strategic level. PMID:22190169

Li, Wei; Liu, Yan-ju; Yang, Zhifeng

2011-12-22

145

Grassland degradation and livelihoods in China's western pastoral region : A framework for understanding and refining China's recent policy responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – China has embarked on a major concerted strategy to arrest grassland degradation and livelihood problems in the western pastoral region. The paper aims to provide a framework through which this strategy can be understood and refined into the future. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is based on a typology of grassland policies – technical, administrative, and management – and

Scott Waldron; Colin Brown; John Longworth

2010-01-01

146

[Summarization of Chinese rhubarb recorded by the Westerners in China in the Ming and Qing dynasties].  

PubMed

The westerners in China in the Ming and Qing dynasties, such as travellers, missionaries, archaeologists and explorers etc., left many records of Chinese rhubarb, among which included botanical characteristics, rhubarb trade and the preparation method and usage of rhubarb. These records reflected the evolution of cognition on Chinese rhubarb of the Westerners in China as well as the constant in-depth cognition on Chinese rhubarb, and also reflected the situation of sino-foreign medical exchange from one angle. Sifting the records of Chinese rhubarb by the Westerners who came to China in the Ming and Qing dynasties will contribute to further relevant research on rhubarb as well as sino-foreign medical exchanges. PMID:20510094

Lin, Ri-zhang

2010-03-01

147

Geology and geochemistry of telluride-bearing Au deposits in the Pingyi area, Western Shandong, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Telluride-bearing gold deposits of the Pingyi area, western Shandong, China, are located on the southeastern margin of the\\u000a North China Craton. There are two main types of deposits: (i) mineralized cryptoexplosive breccia, e.g., Guilaizhuang; and\\u000a (ii) stratified, finely-disseminated mineralization hosted in carbonate rocks, e.g., Lifanggou and Mofanggou deposits. In\\u000a Guilaizhuang, the cryptoexplosive breccia is formed within rocks of the Tongshi

H.-B. Hu; J.-W. Mao; S.-Y. Niu; Y.-F. Li; M.-W. Li

2006-01-01

148

Symbiotic efficiency and phylogeny of the rhizobia isolated from Leucaena leucocephala in arid-hot river valley area in Panxi, Sichuan, China.  

PubMed

In search of effective nitrogen-fixing strains for inoculating Leucaena leucocephala, we assessed the symbiotic efficiency of 41 rhizobial isolates from root nodules of L. leucocephala growing in the arid-hot river valley area in Panxi, China. The genetic diversity of the isolates was studied by analyzing the housekeeping genes 16S rRNA and recA, and the symbiotic genes nifH and nodC. In the nodulation and symbiotic efficiency assay, only 11 of the 41 isolates promoted the growth of L. leucocephala while the majority of the isolates were ineffective in symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Furthermore, one fourth of the isolates had a growth slowing effect on the host. According to the 16S rRNA and recA gene analyses, most of the isolates were Ensifer spp. The remaining isolates were assigned to Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium and Bradyrhizobium. The sequence analyses indicated that the L. leucocephala rhizobia had undergone gene recombination. In contrast to the promiscuity observed as a wide species distribution of the isolates, the results implied that L. leucocephala is preferentially nodulated by strains that share common symbiosis genes. The symbiotic efficiency was not connected to chromosomal background of the symbionts and isolates carrying a similar nifH or nodC showed totally different nitrogen fixation efficiency. PMID:22767181

Xu, Kai Wei; Penttinen, Petri; Chen, Yuan Xue; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaoping

2012-07-06

149

The influence of western banks on corporate governance in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study draws on in-depth qualitative interviews to investigate the variety of institutional forces which influence the adoption of western corporate governance mechanisms in Chinese banks. Following path dependency models of institutional change it was shown that cognitive and normative institutions, including a ‘who you know’ or guanxi credit culture, mean that the practical influence of western banks on corporate

Jane Nolan

2010-01-01

150

Theoretical Exploration on the Development Path of Sports Industrial Clusters in the Western Cities of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Based on the circumstances of the economy, regional and sports industry development of the city circle, belt and group in\\u000a western. By using the methods of literature, expert interview and logic analysis etc. on the theory and practice exploration\\u000a of the development of sports industry cluster general ideas, space layout, classification and regulation in the western cities\\u000a of China. This

Liang Li

151

Geology, distribution, and classification of gold deposits in the western Qinling belt, central China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold deposits of the western Qinling belt occur within the western part of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogen, which is located between the Precambrian North China and Yangtze cratons and east of the Songpan-Ganzi basin. The early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic orogen can be divided into northern, central, and southern zones, separated by the Shangdan and Lixian-Shanyang thrust fault systems. The northern

Jingwen Mao; Yumin Qiu; Richard J. Goldfarb; Zhaochong Zhang; Steve Garwin; Ren Fengshou

2002-01-01

152

Left-Behind Children in Rural Primary Schools: The Case of Sichuan Province  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|During China's economic transformation, much of the rural population migrated to urban areas in search of employment opportunities. "Left-behind children" are the product of this phenomenon and need significant attention. Our study adopted elementary school students in Sichuan province as the subjects. After carefully studying their academic…

Liang, Wenyan; Hou, Longlong; Chen, Wentao

2008-01-01

153

Usefulness of pumpkin seeds combined with areca nut extract in community-based treatment of human taeniasis in northwest Sichuan Province, China.  

PubMed

Taeniasis refers to the infection with adult tapeworms of Taenia spp. in the upper small intestine of humans, which is also a cause of cysticercosis infection in either both humans and/or animals. Currently the most commonly applied anthelminthics for treatment of taeniasis are praziquantel and niclosamide. Praziquantel is very effective, but has the risk of induction of epileptic seizures or convulsions in carriers with asymptomatic concurrent neurocysticercosis. In contrast, niclosamide is safe and effective, but is not readily available in many endemic countries including China. In the current community-based study, we assessed the curative effect of either pumpkin seeds or areca nut extract alone in taeniasis, and also looked at synergistic effects of these two herb drugs on tapeworms. In the study group with the pumpkin seed/areca nut extract treatment, 91 (79.1%) of 115 suspected taeniasis cases (with a history of expulsion of proglottids within the previous one year) released whole tapeworms, four (3.5%) expelled incomplete strobila, and no tapeworms or proglottids were recovered in the remaining 20 cases. In these 115 persons, 45 were confirmed as taeniasis before treatment by microscopy and/or coproPCR. Forty (88.9%) of 45 confirmed cases eliminated intact worms following treatment. The mean time period for complete elimination of tapeworms in 91 taeniasis cases was 2 h (range 20 min to 8 h 30 min), and 89.0% (81) of 91 patients discharged intact worms within 3h after drug administration. In Control Group A with treatment of pumpkin seeds alone, 75.0% (9/12) of confirmed taeniasis cases expelled whole tapeworms, but the mean time period for complete elimination was about 14 h 10 min (range 3 h 20 min to 21 h 20 min), which was much longer than that (2 h) for the study group, whereas in Control Group B treated with areca nut extract alone, only 63.6% (7/11) of taeniasis cases discharged whole tapeworms, and the mean time period was 6 h 27 min (range 1-22 h). Mild side effects included nausea and dizziness in about 46.3% of patients with the pumpkin seeds/areca nut extract treatment, but all discomforts were transient and well tolerated. In conclusion, a synergistic effect of pumpkin seed and areca nut extract on Taenia spp. tapeworms was confirmed in the current study, primarily in producing an increased rate of effect on tapeworm expulsion (average time 2 h for combination vs 6-21 h for individual extracts). The pumpkin seed/areca combined treatment was indicated to be safe and highly effective (89%) for human taeniasis. PMID:22910218

Li, Tiaoying; Ito, Akira; Chen, Xingwang; Long, Changping; Okamoto, Munehiro; Raoul, Francis; Giraudoux, Patrick; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Xiao, Ning; Craig, Philip S

2012-08-11

154

China's Western Development Strategy and Nature versus Nurture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current trend of rising inequalities in industrial development between East and West China has resulted from a combination of nature and nurture. Given the natural tendency for firms to agglomerate in a developing, market economy, and the numerous geographical and historical factors that have long favoured the Eastern region, it is hardly surprising that this is where Chinese industry

Jane Golley

2007-01-01

155

The Transfer of Management Knowledge to China: Building Learning Communities Rather than Translating Western Textbooks?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The attempt to transfer Western management knowledge to China is unlikely to be effective if a cognitive model of management knowledge is used. A community model or socially constructed model is better aligned with the Chinese cultural and business environment. (SK)|

Newell, Sue

1999-01-01

156

Education Management and Performance after Rural Education Finance Reform: Evidence from Western China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a survey of rural school districts in Western China, this essay explores the effects of fiscal centralisation on the relationship between local governance and school district management, most particularly on how managerial power is distributed in the rural education sector. The essay also examines some of the possible effects that changes…

Liu, Mingxing; Murphy, Rachel; Tao, Ran; An, Xuehui

2009-01-01

157

Factors Associated with the Utilization and Quality of Prenatal Care in Western Rural Regions of China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The paper seeks to identify key features of prenatal care utilization and quality in western regions of China and to determine the factors affecting the quality of prenatal care. Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted. The instrument for the study was a 10-stem respondent-administered, structured…

Dongxu, Wang; Yuhui, Shi; Stewart, Donald; Chun, Chang; Chaoyang, Li

2012-01-01

158

Practicing Participatory Teaching Methodology in Western China's Rural Areas: Classroom Teaching Observations and Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We adopted the method of classroom observation and carried out research on five elementary school teachers in western China's rural areas who have shown enormous transformation after receiving training on participatory teaching to investigate the strengths and weaknesses in teachers' practice of participatory teaching. Results indicate that (a)…

Zhao, Decheng; Zhu, Fujian; Liu, Jun

2008-01-01

159

Kitchenware design improvement based on contrast of dietetic Cultures between China and western countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kitchenware design is becoming and will always be the focus of the modern society since it is one of the typical aspects that represent life level. Along with developing technology, Chinese cuisine is changing. This paper intends to discuss the design trends of kitchenware in modern Chinese families based on contrast of dietetic cultures between China and western countries as

Gaoyan Shi; Lufang Zhang; Huina Qian

2008-01-01

160

Environmental crisis management in rural poverty-stricken regions of western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental crises and poverty are usually believed to act as a source of disturbance. Environmental crisis management seeks to minimize the impact of these events. The paper gives an overview of the results of a serious of disturbances between human social economic development and protection of natural resources in the rural poverty-stricken regions of western China. Characteristics of environmental crisis

Wang Zhonghua

2010-01-01

161

A new enantiornithine bird from the Lower Cretaceous of western Liaoning, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new enantiornithine bird, Bohaiornis guoi, gen. et sp. nov., is described in this paper. The holotype, presumably a sub-adult, is a complete, fully articulated skeleton from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of western Liaoning, northeastern China. Bohaiornis exhibits some similarity in morphology to Eoenantiornis, but Bohaiornis is much larger than Eoenantiornis and differs from all previously known enantiornithine birds

Dongyu Hu; Li Li; Lianhaim Hou; Xing Xu

2011-01-01

162

On Understanding the Movement to Send College Graduates as Volunteer Teachers to Western China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Western China University Graduates Volunteer Teaching Program (VTP) is a government-oriented social movement aimed at the advancement of social equity and the establishment of a harmonious society. University students, as the undertakers of volunteer teaching, serve as a vital part of this program. The participation of university students has…

Qiao, Xiang; A'rong, Yun

2008-01-01

163

Building Empire through Argumentation: Debating Salt and Iron in Western Han China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The history of American imperialism, as well as China's strong presence on the contemporary global scene, should encourage American scholars of rhetoric to look beyond the nation-state and study other rhetorical traditions such as Chinese practices of argument. A debate during the Western Han dynasty over the country's economic policies…

You, Xiaoye

2010-01-01

164

Determinants for High Maternal Mortality in Multiethnic Populations in Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our purpose of this study was to investigate determinants and patterns of associations with high maternal mortality in poor and multiethnic populations from the Xinjiang Uigur autonomous region of Western China. The researcher found that the maternal mortality ratio of Xinjiang was very high; almost half of the participants delivered at home without clean delivery, and nearly one-fifth of the

Qing Du; Oyvind Nass; Per Bergsjo; Bernadette Nirmal Kumar

2009-01-01

165

Student Performance and Family Socioeconomic Status: Results from a Survey of Compulsory Education in Western China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study used fifteen-year-old ninth-grade students from rural areas of five provinces in western China as samples to carry out research on the relationship between the socioeconomic status of Chinese families and student academic performance. Based on parents' educational background, occupation, family economic conditions, and other factors,…

Liu, Xiaofei; Lu, Ke

2008-01-01

166

Anthropometric study of the upper lip of 1500 healthy children in Chengdu, Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to measure and analyse morphological data about the upper lips of healthy children in Chengdu, Western China. The characteristics and patterns of growth and development of the upper lip may be helpful in guiding the treatment of cleft lip. A total of 1500 healthy children aged between 2 and 12 were divided into 11

Lu-ying Zhu; Tian Meng; Bing Shi; Dian-zhi Deng

2008-01-01

167

Fern ecological implications from the Lower Jurassic in Western Hubei, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lower Jurassic Hsiangchi Formation in western Hubei, China is well known for its abundant and diverse fossil ferns, including Marattiaceae, Osmundaceae, Matoniaceae, Dipteridaceae and Dicksoniaceae. Through recent collections and investigation of the fossil plants in this area, an autochthonous\\/hypoautochthonous fern community has been recognised from the upper part of the Hsiangchi Formation in Zigui, Hubei. This community is dominated

Yongdong Wang

2002-01-01

168

Mirror-image thrusting in the South China Orogenic Belt: tectonic evidence from western Fujian, southeastern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mesozoic orogenic belt in south China is readily divided into two fold and thrust belts and a central multiply-deformed zone of ductile deformation dominated by folds with steeply dipping axial planes. Southeast-directed thrusting in the eastern belt and northwest-directed thrusting in the western belt resulted in a mirror image of one another during the Mesozoic. The eastern fold and

A. Chen

1999-01-01

169

Cenozoic to active deformation in Western Yunnan (Myanmar China border)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northward movement of India induces a right-lateral shear band from the Sunda trench to the easternmost Himalaya, where wrenching between India and Sunda plates, interfere with a clockwise flow of material around the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis. We describe brittle and ductile deformation styles in Western Yunnan and Northern Myanmar, using field data and Landsat 7 imagery for Cenozoic structures

A. Socquet; M. Pubellier

2003-01-01

170

Cenozoic deformation in western Yunnan (China–Myanmar border)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, we describe ductile and brittle deformation styles in western Yunnan and NE Myanmar, using field data and Landsat 7 imagery. We show that this complex area located at the northern termination of Sunda Plate (Three Rivers area) was wedged during the Tertiary between the left-lateral Ailao Shan\\/Chong Shan metamorphic belts to the east and the right-lateral

Anne Socquet; Manuel Pubellier

2005-01-01

171

Factors associated with the utilization and quality of prenatal care in western rural regions of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper seeks to identify key features of prenatal care utilization and quality in western regions of China and to determine the factors affecting the quality of prenatal care. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted. The instrument for the study was a 10-stem respondent-administered, structured questionnaire, designed in Chinese, composed of two segments: general information on

Wang Dongxu; Shi Yuhui; Donald Stewart; Chang Chun; Li Chaoyang

2012-01-01

172

Organochlorine micropollutants in the Jiulong River Estuary and Western Xiamen Sea, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine contaminants including 12 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 18 insecticides were determined in water, pore water and sediments of the Jiulong River Estuary and Western Xiamen Sea, China. The results showed that the levels of the total PCBs ranged from non-detectable to 1500ngl?1 in water, from 209 to 3870ngl?1 in pore water, and from 2.78 to 14.8ngg?1 dry weight

K. Maskaoui; J. L. Zhou; T. L. Zheng; H. Hong; Z. Yud

2005-01-01

173

[Research progress on molecular identification and biologic behavior of Taenia saginata in Western China].  

PubMed

This article reviews the epidemiological investigation of taeniasis saginata in 10 counties of 7 provinces/ autonomous regions in western China. The morphological observation of adult worms, molecular identification of 10 isolates of the worms, experimental infection on pigs and cattle with Taenia saginata and T. asiatica, observation on development and biology behavior of cysticercus, and pathological changes in the intermediate host pig and cattle revealed that T. asiatica is a new species, instead of a subspecies of T. saginata. PMID:20232638

Bao, Huai-En; Mou, Rong

2009-12-01

174

Clinical features of convulsive status epilepticus: a study of 220 cases in western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

aetiology, clinical charac- teristic, convulsive status epilepticus, prognosis, treatment gap, western China Results: The average age of CSE patients (n = 220) was 37.5 years (SD 20.31), 50% of the patients had a history of epilepsy. The primary cause of CSE was central nervous system infection (32.7%), followed by discontinuation or reduction of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs; 15.5%). The median duration

L. Chen; B. Zhou; J. M. Li; Y. Zhu; J. H. Wang; J. W. Sander; H. Stefan; D. Zhou

2009-01-01

175

Effect of Mesozoic volcanic eruptions in the western Liaoning Province, China on paleoclimate and paleoenvironment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well-preserved Mesozoic vertebrate fossils were found from lacustrine deposits interbedded with tuff and tuffites in the lower\\u000a part of the Yixian Formation, western Liaoning Province, China. The fossil-rich layers were preserved in the intermediate-acid\\u000a volcanic deposits in Sihetun excavating profile. Based on the petrographic studies of samples of the tuff and tuffites collected\\u000a from the profile, this paper determines major

Zhengfu Guo; Jiaqi Liu; Xiaolin Wang

2003-01-01

176

Western Political Science Theories and the Development of Political Theories in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article outlines the recent development of Chinese political studies spawned by the transformation of Chinese politics\\u000a in the post-Mao era, with its focus mainly on contributions from the Chinese scholarship. After a close examination of the\\u000a applicability of the western theories on the transforming politics in China, it reviews the indigenous methodologies, the\\u000a theorizations on the Chinese Communist Party,

Guangbin Yang; Miao Li

2009-01-01

177

Fuzzy Model of Regional Economic Competitiveness in GIS Spatial Analysis: Case Study of Gansu, Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

After more than 20 years of impressive development since the economic reforms in 1978, today western China is facing an increasing\\u000a development gap between its regions, particularly between urban and rural areas. Using the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation\\u000a model, this paper aims to demonstrate the evolution of the economic competitiveness levels base on two categories of geographical\\u000a unity in the province of

Shengquan Ma; Jing Feng; Huhua Cao

2006-01-01

178

Contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Jiulong River Estuary and Western Xiamen Sea, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was determined in water, sediment and pore water of the Jiulong River Estuary and Western Xiamen Sea, China. Total PAH concentrations varied from 6.96 to 26.9 ?g\\/l in water, 59–1177 ng\\/g dry weight in surficial sediments, and 158–949 ?g\\/l in pore water. The PAHs were present in higher levels in pore water

K Maskaoui; J. L Zhou; H. S Hong; Z. L Zhang

2002-01-01

179

Geology and timing of mineralization at the Cangshang gold deposit, north-western Jiaodong Peninsula, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cangshang gold deposit of the north-western Jiaodong Peninsula contains reserves of greater than 50 tonnes (t) and is developed by the largest open pit gold mine in China. This deposit is a Jiaojia-style (i.e. disseminated-and-veinlet) deposit. It is controlled by the San-Cang fault zone, which trends ~040° and dips 40-75°SE at the mine site. The main (no. 1) orebody

Xiao'ou Zhang; Peter A. Cawood; Simon A. Wilde; Ruqi Liu; Hailin Song; Wen Li; Lawrence W. Snee

2003-01-01

180

Western Political Research Approaches and the Development of Political Science Methodology in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The restoration and development of political science as a discipline in China since 1980 benefits from its methodological\\u000a improvements that were made largely by introducing research approaches from western academia. The aim of this paper is to\\u000a examine the evolution of the introduction based on articles published in Chinese academic journals since 1990. There exists\\u000a a wide diversity in research

Yuejin Jing; Guoqin Wang

2009-01-01

181

Efficacy trial of Vi polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid fever in south-western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To test the efficacy of locally produced Vi vaccine over a time period of longer than one year. Methods A double-blinded, randomized field trial was performed in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in south-western China, using 30mg doses of locally produced Vi. Enrolled subjects were 3-50 years of age, although the majority (92%) were school-aged children, who have the highest

H. H. Yang; C. G. Wu; G. Z. Xie; Q. W. Gu; B. R. Wang; L. Y. Wang; H. F. Wang; Z. S. Ding; Y. Yang; W. S. Tan; W. Y. Wang; X. C. Wang; M. Qin; J. H. Wang; H. A. Tang; X. M. Jiang; Y. H. Li; M. L. Wang; S. L. Zhang; G. L. Li

2001-01-01

182

Kinetics investigation on the combustion of waste capsicum stalks in Western China using thermogravimetric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion kinetics of waste capsicum stalk (WCS) in Western China is investigated through thermogravimetric analysis\\u000a compared with sawdust and coal, and co-combustion of WCS with coal is also investigated. Results show that the ignition characteristics\\u000a of WCS is better than that of sawdust and coal, and the activation energy E of WCS-volatile combustion and WCS-char combustion are 78.55 kJ mol?1 and

Xuebin Wang; Jipeng Si; Houzhang Tan; Yanqing Niu; Chao Xu; Tongmo Xu

183

Regional seismic discrimination in central Asia with emphasis on western China  

SciTech Connect

In support of an anticipated Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the authors have started to evaluate regional seismic event discrimination capabilities for central Asia, emphasizing western China. The authors have measured noise and seismic phase amplitudes of over 250 earthquakes and 18 underground nuclear explosions recorded at the broadband, digital station WMQ in western China and over 100 earthquakes and 5 nuclear explosions at station AAK in Kyrgyzstan. The explosions are from the Kazakh Test Site (KTS) and Lop Nor, China. The earthquakes are mostly from northwest China. They have also evaluated a single suspected chemical explosion. Event magnitudes (m{sub b}) range between 2.5 and 6.5 and maximum event-station distance is about 1,700 km. Using these measurements the authors formed phase, spectral, cross-spectral, short-period/long-period, and long-period ratios to test many possible event discriminants. All ratios were corrected for distance effects before forming ratio-versus-magnitude discrimination plots. The authors found that all five classes of these discriminants are useful for separating earthquakes from explosions in central Asia, provided the right combinations of frequency bands and phases are selected. Results are described.

Hartse, H.E.; Taylor, S.R.; Phillips, W.S.; Randall, G.E.

1996-09-01

184

Good guanxi and bad guanxi: Western bankers and the role of network practices in institutional change in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an assumption in some neo-institutional theories of organization that China's integration into the global economy will inevitably lead to a reduction in the influence of guanxi on business practices. Drawing on in-depth qualitative interviews, the study shows that while the network practices of many Western managers may contribute to the adoption of international business norms in China, there

Jane Nolan

2011-01-01

185

Paleozoic plate-tectonic evolution of the Tarim and western Tianshan regions, western China  

SciTech Connect

The plate-tectonic evolution of the Tarim basin and nearby western Tianshan region during Paleozoic time is reconstructed in an effort to further constrain the tectonic evolution of Central Asia, providing insights into the formation and distribution of oil and gas resources. The Tarim plate developed from continental rifting that progressed during early Paleozoic time into a passive continental margin. The Yili terrane (central Tianshan) broke away from the present eastern part of Tarim and became a microcontinent located somewhere between the Junggar ocean and the southern Tianshan ocean. The southern Tianshan ocean, between the Tarim craton and the Yili terrane, was subducting beneath the Yili terrane from Silurian to Devonian time. During the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous, the Tarim plate collided with the Yili terrane by sinistral accretional docking that resulted in a late Paleozoic deformational episode. Intracontinental shortening (A-type subduction) continued through the Permian with the creation of a magmatic belt. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Yangshen, S.; Huafu, L.; Dong, J. [Nanjing Univ. (China)] [and others

1994-11-01

186

Fluoride content and distribution pattern in groundwater of eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou, China.  

PubMed

For study, the fluoride (F) content and distribution pattern in groundwater of eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou fluorosis area in southwestern China, the F content of 93 water samples [groundwater (fissure water, cool spring, and hot springs), rivers water] and 60 rock samples were measured. The result shows the F content of the fissure water and cold spring water is 0.027-0.47 mg/L, and river water is 0.048-0.224 mg/L. The F content of hot spring water is 1.02-6.907 mg/L. The drinking water supplied for local resident is mainly from fissure water, cool spring, and river water. And the F content in all of them is much lower than the Chinese National Standard (1.0 mg/L), which is the safe intake of F in drinking water. The infected people in eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou fluorosis area have very little F intake from the drinking water. The hot spring water in fluorosis area of eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou, southwest China has high F content, which is not suitable for drinking. PMID:21626135

Luo, Kunli; Liu, Yonglin; Li, Huijie

2011-05-28

187

Rekindling hearts with art: A community arts project for the young survivors of the Sichuan earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

A devastating earthquake of magnitude 7.9 struck Sichuan in China on 12 May 2008, resulting in over 69,000 deaths, leaving 37,000 people injured and 4.8 million people homeless. Immediately after the catastrophe, many of the young survivors were confused and lost, and experienced difficulty in expressing their inner emotions. In the past two years, Art for All, a non-profit-making community

Sophia Suk Mun Law

2011-01-01

188

Rekindling hearts with art: A community arts project for the young survivors of the Sichuan earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

A devastating earthquake of magnitude 7.9 struck Sichuan in China on 12 May 2008, resulting in over 69,000 deaths, leaving 37,000 people injured and 4.8 million people homeless. Immediately after the catastrophe, many of the young survivors were confused and lost, and experienced difficulty in expressing their inner emotions. In the past two years, Art for All, a non-profit-making community

Sophia Suk Mun Law

2012-01-01

189

Terrestriality and tree stratum use in a group of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological characters allow the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) to use multiple tree levels, but very few studies have quantified the terrestriality and tree stratum use of the species.\\u000a I investigated the terrestriality and tree stratum use in a group of the monkeys from July 2003 to September 2004 (except\\u000a February) in the Qianjiaping area of Shennongjia Nature Reserve, China.

Yiming Li

2007-01-01

190

Damage analysis of 12 May 2008 Sichuan earthquake with satellite data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The devastating earthquake (Ms=8.0) of 12 May 2008 in Sichuan, China struck the whole world. To detect the large damaged area in less time and identify seismogenic structure, remote sensing technology is strongly recommended. This paper attempts to focus on seismic area to analyze the earthquake damage from different aspects. Firstly, pre- and post-earthquake Landsat TM\\/ETM images, CBERS-02B CCD images,

Xiaoqian Cheng; Wen Wang; Tao Yu; Zhuyan Ren

2008-01-01

191

Impact of Illness and Medical Expenditure on Household Consumptions: A Survey in Western China  

PubMed Central

Background The main goal of this study is to examine the associations between illness conditions and out-of-pocket medical expenditure with other types of household consumptions. In November and December of 2011, a survey was conducted in three cities in western China, namely Lan Zhou, Gui Lin and Xi An, and their surrounding rural areas. Results Information on demographics, income and consumption was collected on 2,899 households. Data analysis suggested that the presence of household members with chronic diseases was not associated with characteristics of households or household heads. The presence of inpatient treatments was significantly associated with the age of household head (p-value 0.03). The level of per capita medical expense was significantly associated with household size, presence of members younger than 18, older than 65, basic health insurance coverage, per capita income, and household head occupation. Adjusting for confounding effects, the presence of chronic diseases was negatively associated with the amount of basic consumption (p-value 0.02) and the percentage of basic consumption (p-value 0.01), but positively associated with the percentage of insurance expense (p-value 0.02). Medical expenditure was positively associated with all other types of consumptions, including basic, education, saving and investment, entertainment, insurance, durable goods, and alcohol/tobacco. It was negatively associated with the percentage of basic consumption, saving and investment, and insurance. Conclusions Early studies conducted in other Asian countries and rural China found negative associations between illness conditions and medical expenditure with other types of consumptions. This study was conducted in three major cities and surrounding areas in western China, which had not been well investigated in published literature. The observed consumption patterns were different from those in early studies, and the negative associations were not observed. This study may complement the existing rural studies and provide useful information on western Chinese cities.

Fang, Kuangnan; Jiang, Yefei; Shia, BenChang; Ma, Shuangge

2012-01-01

192

Eye health is everyone's responsibility: China's first Western-style eye hospital improves in the prevention of blindness  

PubMed Central

AIM To investigate the relationship between China's first Western-style eye hospital development and the prevention of blindness in China and determine the main factor influencing eye health today. METHODS Data about eye health, blindness and cataract surgery rate of China from public website of World Health Organization (WHO), ORBIS International, Ministry of Health (MOH) of China, Pubmed center and Historical Archives of Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center (ZOC) were reviewed and analyzed. RESULTS ZOC is China's first Western-style eye hospital. In 2012, the ORBIS Flying Eye Hospital has chosen ZOC once again as one of its destinations, 30 years after ORBIS expanded internationally to train eye care professionals and treat underserved patients in developing countries in 1982. During the past 30 years, cataract surgery rate and public awareness of blindness prevention were improved greatly in China, in which ZOC plays a very important role. CONCLUSION ZOC, as China's first Western-style eye hospital, has improved in the prevention of blindness. Eye health has become everyone's responsibility.

Lin, Hao-Tian; Luo, Li-Xia; Chen, Wei-Rong; Liu, Yi-Zhi

2012-01-01

193

The sense of familial responsibility of PLHIVs in the rural areas of western China.  

PubMed

In this paper, we explore the strong familial responsibility sense of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in rural western China, based on the data obtained from in-depth interviews. The data show that PLHIV were coping positively with a poor family economic status, caring for their family more than themselves, and taking concrete steps to fulfill their familial obligations. However, unique economic, cultural, and social factors exert negative impact on their ability to achieve their aims. The findings from our study illustrate that proper governmental and social interventions should be launched based on the actual situation and needs of local PLHIV and their families. PMID:23402363

Zhang, Shaoru; Wei, Chao; Lu, Dandan; Li, Xiaohong; Shao, Li; Li, Yingqun; Ruan, Wei

2013-02-12

194

Genetic variation of Vp1 in Sichuan wheat accessions and its association with pre-harvest sprouting response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) in bread wheat is a major abiotic constraint reducing yield and influencing the production of\\u000a high quality grain. In China both spring and winter wheat regions are affected by PHS. Sichuan lies in southwest China, where\\u000a the most of rainfall occurs during April to September when wheat is harvested. The present investigation was conducted to\\u000a identify the

Jirui Wang; Yaxi Liu; Yan Wang; Zhenhong Chen; Shuai Dai; Wenguang Cao; George Fedak; Xiujing Lan; Yuming Wei; Dengcai Liu; Youliang Zheng

2011-01-01

195

Contrasting nature of petroliferous Mesozoic-Cenozoic basins in eastern and western China  

SciTech Connect

Onshore petroliferous basins of Mesozoic-Cenozoic age in China include two distinct geographic-geotectonic groups: eastern extensional (rifted) basins and western compressional (orogenic) basins. Eastern basins are faulted depressions and crustal sags that formed where incipient intracontinental rifting thinned the crust and developed tilted fault blocks and half grabens bounded by normal faults. Western basins are flexural downbows that were depressed under the tectonic load of adjacent thrust sheets associated with the folded mountain ranges of central Asia. Source beds in both groups of basins are dominantly dark lacustrine mudstones of terrestrial facies associations, and reservoirs are mainly fluviodeltaic sandstones. Hydrocarbon traps in the eastern basins include extensional rollover anticlines, compactional drape anticlines, diapiric salt domes, buried-hill highs in the substratum, and stratal pinch-outs on the flanks of buried highs. Simple or faulted anticlinal traps are dominant in the western basins. Multiple reservoir horizons are characteristic of oil fields in both groups of basins. Orogenic compression, which developed the western basins, is attributed to the successive collision of microcontinents with the southern edge of the composite Eurasian continental mass. Crustal extension, which developed the eastern basins, is attributed to incipient rifting within and behind magmatic arcs along the margin of the Pacific Ocean basin. 15 figures.

Quanmao, C.; Dickinson, W.R.

1986-03-01

196

Geochemistry and geodynamic implications of the Triassic bimodal magmatism from Western Kunlun Orogen, northwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Western Kunlun Orogen occupies a key tectonic position at the junction between the Tarim block and the Tethyan domain. However, the late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic, especially the middle to late Triassic tectonic evolution history of the Western Kunlun Orogen remains controversial. This study reports SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages and geochemical as well as Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data for middle to late Triassic Taer pluton in Western Kunlun Orogen, Northwest China. The Taer pluton shows a strong bimodal distribution of compositions, with the felsic rocks dominant and the mafic rocks subordinate. Zircon U-Pb dating reveals that the coexisting mafic and felsic rocks are coeval, both emplacing in a period between 234 and 225 Ma. Most of the studied rocks are potassium rich and can be classified into high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic series. They are also strongly enriched in LREE, LILE and depleted in HFSE with strong negative Ti and Nb anomalies, and characterized by enriched Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic signatures. Detailed geochemical and isotopic studies indicate that the Taer pluton was emplaced in a post-collisional extensional setting, with the mafic rocks derived from partial melting of the enriched continental lithospheric mantle in the spinel facies field, and the felsic rocks formed by anatexis of newly underplated basaltic rocks. The existence of middle to late Triassic post-collisional magmas in Western Kunlun region suggests that the final closure of Paleo-Tethys and the initial collision between the Western Kunlun and the Qiangtang terranes may have happened before ~234 Ma, most probably in late Permian, rather than in late Triassic or early Jurassic. In assistance with other geological evidences, such as the presence of early Triassic to late Triassic/early Jurassic S-type magmatism, terrestrial molasse depositions, regional unconformities, and strong deformation, we propose that the Western Kunlun Orogen may have undergone a long post-collisional intracontinental process from early Triassic to late Triassic/early Jurassic.

Liao, Shiyong; Jiang, Yaohui; Zhou, Qin; Yang, Wanzhi; Jin, Guodong; Zhao, Peng

2012-03-01

197

[Development of integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine and change of medical policy in China].  

PubMed

"Sect of Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine" came into the world four hundred years ago when Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) contacted Western Medicine (WM) at the beginning of the 17th century. It collected historical experiences showing that the cooperation of TCM and WM is more efficient for the cure and prevention of disease than each of them separately. Now the recognition that the cooperation of eastern and western medicine is more efficient to cure disease is spreading widely. This study will help Korean eastern and western medicine to find their directions. First, the concept of "sect of Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine" which was established between the beginning of the 17th century and the middle of the 20th century, and Integration of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine (ITCWM) which was formed after the middle of the 20th century will be discussed. The relationship of "sect of Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine" and ITCWM and political consideration for the establishment of ITCWM will also be discussed. Finally, the current status of ITCWM in China will be discussed. New trends of thought appeared in Chinese medicine, owing to the cultural background of modern China, the development of WM, and the academic background of the intellectual class. "Sect of Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine" and ITCWM are different in historical and social background. However, purpose, foundation of thoughts and logical idea are fundamentally the same. It can be said that "sect of Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine" provided academic mood to open the way for ITCWM and ITCWM is a succession of "sect of Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine". The concept of ITCWM has many ways of explanation. However, it can be said to build up the foundation of new medical area including Chinese special way of medical treatment and new methods of modern medicine, succeeding a legacy of TCM. ITCWM began before the establishment of People's Republic of China. Mao Ze-dong (1893-1976), a powerful politician, and Li Ding-ming (1881-1947) who had many experiences and insight for TCM and WM played important roles at this stage. The period from the New China to the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (1966-1975) is the term for the establishment of the shape of ITCWM. "The effort of research and development on TCM-WM integration" was adapted as one of hygienic policies for curing of epidemic disease and succession and development of the heritage of TCM to establish new medical area. TCM class for western medical doctors was opened and mass media was used to spread out ITCWM throughout China. During the period of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, ITCWM had to be stepped back and stagnant. Only the TCM class of western medical doctors and some clinical applications were barely kept moving on and alive. From the period of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution to the end of the 1980s, there are the movement of re-preparation of ITCWM, education of successors, and the establishment of the Institute of ITCWM. Hospitals began to establish department of ITCWM. Furthermore, it was clearly indicated in the constitutional law that "We not only have to develop modern medicine but also traditional medicine". The equality of TCM and WM was legally established in this time. From the 1990s, "equality of TCM and WM" was adapted as one of the hygienic policies, and department of ITCWM was opened in traditional Chinese medical school and western medical school. ITCWM has been settled down as a new academic field through education, training, research, academic activity, and publishing text books. In conclusion, the motive of the development of ITCWM was the policy such as "the effort of research and development on TCM-WM integration" abd "equality of TCM and WM" aimed at the development of Chinese medical area. It is no doubt helpful to organize systems and policy-making for the cooperation o

Shin, S S

1999-01-01

198

Saline-alkali land classification using MODIS data In Western Jilin Province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing technology can extract useful information from observation areas, meanwhile provide effective data for land monitoring, which is widely used in dynamic monitoring and resources research of saline alkali land. Through using MODIS spectral remote sensing data, a case study of Western Jilin Province of China mainly covered by typical saline alkali land was carried out in this paper. After using the proposed optimal band combination method, the main distribution positions of the observed saline alkali land were roughly determined based on the colors and shapes of MODIS images derived from deferent seasons. After analyzing the time series of NDVI observations, the decision tree classification of land cover was designed to determine the land cover types and the degree of salinity-alkalinity. Through obtaining and analyzing of the spectral characteristics of each saline alkali land type, the relationship between the spectral characteristics and saline alkali land type was deduced. The research results demonstrated that the saline alkali lands located in Western Jilin Province, China were effectively classified based on the spectral characteristics of MODIS data, which provided the moderate spatial resolution classification results for a wide range of saline alkali land monitoring.

Gu, Lingjia; Ren, Ruizhi; Cao, Junsheng; Sun, Jian

2013-09-01

199

Episodic tectonothermal events of the western North China Craton and North Qinling Orogenic Belt in central China: Constraints from detrital zircon U–Pb ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detrital zircon U–Pb geochronology serves as a proxy to study of crustal evolution and provenance discrimination. In order to unravel episodic tectonothermal events and their tectonic relationship between the North China Craton (NCC) and North Qinling Orogenic Belt (NQOB), detrital zircons from modern river sands and metasedimentary rocks were collected and dated by LA-ICPMS. Although the western NCC (Ordos block)

Chunrong Diwu; Yong Sun; Hong Zhang; Qian Wang; Anlin Guo; Longgang Fan

200

Western-Led Press Coverage of Mainland China and Vietnam during the SARS Crisis: Reassessing the Concept of ‘Media Representation of the Other’  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of ‘media representation of the other’ proposes that Western-led media tend to be biased against third world countries and communist others—portraying them as a bad other. Traditionally, Western media present China and Vietnam in negative Cold War frames. By identifying the media frames and tones used to communicate about China and Vietnam, our study examined the national images

Yu Huang; Christine Chi Mei Leung

2005-01-01

201

Integrated geophysical evidence for a new style of continent-continent collision beneath the western Kunlun in the northwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along the western Kunlun-Tarim-Tianshan geoscience transect in the northwestern China, an integrated geophysical investigation\\u000a was carried out. Owing to the abominable natural conditions there, the sounding profile could not cross the whole transect,\\u000a consequentially, a variety of velocity structures in the transverse and vertical orientations beneath the whole transect were\\u000a not obtained, such as the case within the western Kunlun

Rizheng He; Rui Gao; Qiusheng Li; Ye Guan

2009-01-01

202

Variations of the Last Glacial Warm Pool: Sea surface temperature contrasts between the open western Pacific and South China Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution paleoceanographic records from the southern South China Sea (SCS) and the tropical open western Pacific reveal multicentennial- to millennial-scale variations of the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) over the last 40 kyr. During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), in marine isotope stage (MIS) 2, planktonic Globigerinoides sacculifer delta18O in core NS93-5 from the southern SCS and in core WP92-5

Muhong Chen; Qianyu Li; Fan Zheng; Xianzan Tan; Rong Xiang; Zhimin Jian

2005-01-01

203

Variations of the Last Glacial Warm Pool: Sea surface temperature contrasts between the open western Pacific and South China Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution paleoceanographic records from the southern South China Sea (SCS) and the tropical open western Pacific reveal multicentennial- to millennial-scale variations of the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) over the last 40 kyr. During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), in marine isotope stage (MIS) 2, planktonic Globigerinoides sacculifer ?18O in core NS93-5 from the southern SCS and in core WP92-5

Muhong Chen; Qianyu Li; Fan Zheng; Xianzan Tan; Rong Xiang; Zhimin Jian

2005-01-01

204

Psychological distress among adolescents in Chengdu, Sichuan at 1 month after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake.  

PubMed

A devastating earthquake occurred on May 12, 2008 in Sichuan, China. This study investigated the prevalence and factors in association with psychological problems among secondary school students living in Chengdu (90 km away from the disaster epicenter) in June 2008. In a cross-sectional survey, 3,324 secondary students self-administered a structured questionnaire in classroom setting. Validated scales were used in this study. Among all respondents, 22.3% reported post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); 22.6% were probable depression cases; 10.6% reported suicidal ideation; and 14.1% would like to receive psychological counseling. No gender differences were found. While social/emotional support from teachers or peers (OR from 0.40 to 0.78) and exposure to positive news reports (OR from 0.59 to 0.62) were found protective, prior experience of severe mental distress (OR from 1.60 to 2.68) and corporal punishment (OR from 1.31 to 1.58), worry about future aftershocks (OR from 1.64 to 3.11), absence from school when it was not closed (OR from 1.38 to 1.48), exposures to scary or sorrowful disaster media coverage (OR from 1.39 to 2.07), post-disaster visits to affected sites (OR from 1.51 to 1.59), separation from parents (OR = 1.61), etc., were risk factors predictive of some of the aforementioned psychological problems. Negative mental health impacts were prevalent among the respondents. Teachers, parents, and the mass media are all important in maintaining good mental health among adolescents that are indirectly affected by the severe earthquake. The results have important implications for earthquake preparedness and relief work in the future. PMID:20405226

Lau, Joseph T F; Yu, Xiaonan; Zhang, Jianxin; Mak, Winnie W S; Choi, Kai Chow; Lui, Wacy W S; Zhang, Jianxin; Chan, Emily Y Y

2010-05-01

205

Psychological Distress among Adolescents in Chengdu, Sichuan at 1 Month after the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake  

PubMed Central

A devastating earthquake occurred on May 12, 2008 in Sichuan, China. This study investigated the prevalence and factors in association with psychological problems among secondary school students living in Chengdu (90 km away from the disaster epicenter) in June 2008. In a cross-sectional survey, 3,324 secondary students self-administered a structured questionnaire in classroom setting. Validated scales were used in this study. Among all respondents, 22.3% reported post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); 22.6% were probable depression cases; 10.6% reported suicidal ideation; and 14.1% would like to receive psychological counseling. No gender differences were found. While social/emotional support from teachers or peers (OR from 0.40 to 0.78) and exposure to positive news reports (OR from 0.59 to 0.62) were found protective, prior experience of severe mental distress (OR from 1.60 to 2.68) and corporal punishment (OR from 1.31 to 1.58), worry about future aftershocks (OR from 1.64 to 3.11), absence from school when it was not closed (OR from 1.38 to 1.48), exposures to scary or sorrowful disaster media coverage (OR from 1.39 to 2.07), post-disaster visits to affected sites (OR from 1.51 to 1.59), separation from parents (OR?=?1.61), etc., were risk factors predictive of some of the aforementioned psychological problems. Negative mental health impacts were prevalent among the respondents. Teachers, parents, and the mass media are all important in maintaining good mental health among adolescents that are indirectly affected by the severe earthquake. The results have important implications for earthquake preparedness and relief work in the future.

Yu, Xiaonan; Zhang, Jianxin; Mak, Winnie W. S.; Choi, Kai Chow; Lui, Wacy W. S.; Zhang, Jianxin; Chan, Emily Y. Y.

2010-01-01

206

Sedimentary facies, depositional processes and climatic controls in a Triassic Lake, Tanzhuang Formation, western Henan Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Middle to Upper Triassic Tanzhuang Formation represents part of the infill of the early Mesozoic Jiyuan-Yima Basin. The upper part of this stratigraphic unit records deposition within prevailing shallow lake conditions. Well-developed sequences crop out near Jiyuan, western Henan Province, central China. Six sedimentary facies clustered into two facies assemblages were recognized in the lacustrine section. Facies assemblage 1

María Gabriela Mángano; Luis Alberto Buatois; Xiantao Wu; Junmin Sun; Guocheng Zhang

1994-01-01

207

The New Curriculum and the Urban-Rural Literacy Gap: The Case of One County in Western China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article aims to explore the impact of the new curriculum reform launched in 2001 urban-rural achievement disparities. It documents a pilot study on teachers' experiences in teaching literacy to children in primary one in a poverty-stricken county in western China. Interviews with teachers in various types of schools indicate that the…

Wang, Dan

2011-01-01

208

The effects and prospects of the integration of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine on andrology in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Andrology has a long history in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) discussions concerning andropathies, and documentation of relevant therapeutic methods abound in the ancient literature on TCM. Integrated treatment combining TCM and Western medicine has seen both broad and in-depth development, with formidable status in the field of modern andrology in China. This article attempts to demonstrate the unique advantage of

Wei-Guo Ma; Jin-Ming Jia

2011-01-01

209

Analysis on the Future Policy Tendency of Ecotourism Management Based on the Appropriation of Benefits in Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trend of mass-oriented development modes to ignore community and environmental interests in Western China has put ecotourism areas into a nonsustainable development state. This policy involves internal governmental interest sharing and balance issues. In reference to the debate on the unified management and property rights transfer management modes of ecotourism resources, this article builds a complete information dynamic game

Li Cheng; Tingzhi Wang

2009-01-01

210

Two new species of Itagonia Reitter (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Blaptini) from China  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two new species of Itagonia Reitter, 1887, Itagonia tibialis sp. n. and Itagonia litangensis sp. n. are described from Sichuan, China. A key to the known species of Itagonia from China is given.

Shi, Ai-min

2013-01-01

211

Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ruminants, rodents and ticks in Gansu, north-western China.  

PubMed

The zoonotic rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum has a broad geographical distribution and a high degree of biological and clinical diversity. To determine the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Gansu Province, north-western China, four ruminant species, one rodent and one tick species were examined for Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. DNA from Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected by nested PCR in blood samples from 21/49 sheep (42.9?%), 35/91 goats (38.5?%), 51/158 yaks (32.3?%) and 7/20 cattle-yaks (35.0?%), and in spleen samples from 2/12 rodents (16.7?%). For samples from tick larvae and nymphs, 105 pools were tested; one of 46 larval tick pools was positive and seven of 59 nymphal tick pools were positive. For adult ticks, 40/598 female ticks (6.7?%) and 26/528 male ticks (4.9?%) were positive. The prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in female ticks was higher than that in males, although the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Sequences analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the strains in the study area were distinct from previously reported Anaplasma phagocytophilum in other continents. These results add new information on the epidemiology of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and indicate the tick-animal cycle of anaplasmosis in the area. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in Gansu Province in north-western China. PMID:23105025

Yang, Jifei; Liu, Zhijie; Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Qing; Li, Youquan; Chen, Ze; Ma, Miling; Liu, Aihong; Ren, Qiaoyun; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

2012-10-25

212

Geology, distribution, and classification of gold deposits in the western Qinling belt, central China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gold deposits of the western Qinling belt occur within the western part of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogen, which is located between the Precambrian North China and Yangtze cratons and east of the Songpan-Ganzi basin. The early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic orogen can be divided into northern, central, and southern zones, separated by the Shangdan and Lixian-Shanyang thrust fault systems. The northern zone consists of an early Paleozoic arc accreted to the North China craton by ca. 450 Ma. The central zone, which contains numerous orogenic gold deposits, is dominated by clastic rocks formed in a late Paleozoic basin between the converging cratonic blocks. The southern zone is characterized by the easternmost exposure of Triassic sedimentary rocks of the Songpan-Ganzi basin. These Early to Late Triassic turbidities, in part calcareous, of the immense Songpan-Ganzi basin also border the western Qinling belt to the west. Carlinlike gold deposits are abundant (1) along a westward extension of the southern zone defined by a window of early Paleozoic clastic rocks extending into the basin, and (2) within the easternmost margin of the basinal rocks to the south of the extension, and in adjacent cover rocks of the Yangtze craton. Triassic and Early Jurassic synkinematic granitoids are widespread across the western Qinling belt, as well as in the Songpan-Ganzi basin. Orogenic lode gold deposits along brittle-ductile shear zones occur within greenschist-facies, highly deformed, Devonian and younger clastic rocks of the central zone. Mainly coarse-grained gold, along with pyrite, pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, and minor base metal sulfides, occur in networks of quartz veinlets, brecciated wall rock, and are dissminated in altered wall rock. Isotopic dates suggest that the deposits formed during the Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic as the leading edge of the Yangtze craton was thrust beneath rocks of the western Qinling belt. Many gold-bearing placers are distributed along the river systems that flow south from the lode-bearing central zone. Carlin-like gold deposits have only been identified during the last decade in the southern zone of the western Qinling and in the northeastern corner of the Songpan-Ganzi basin. The deposits mainly contain micron-diameter gold in arsenical pyrite; are characterized by the common occurence of cinnabar, stibnite, realgar, and orpiment; exhibit strong silicification, carbonatization, pyritization, and decalcification dissolution textures; and are structurally controlled. The lack of reactive host lithologies may have prevented development of large (> 100 tones of gold), stratigraphically-controlled orebodies, which are typical of the Carlin deposits in the western USA. These deposits are hosted by Triassic turbidities and shallow-water carbonates, and an early Paleozoic inlier in the Songpan-Ganzi basin that extends in an east-west belt for about 300 km. Rather than true "Carlin" deposits, these Carlin-like deposits may be some type of shallow-crustal (i.e., epithermal) hybrid with features intermediate to Nevada-style Carlin deposits and the orogenic gold deposits to the immediate north. These Carlin-like deposits also overlap in age with the early Mesozoic orogenic gold deposits and, therefore, also formed during the final stages of collision between the cratons and intermediate basin closure.

Mao, J.; Qiu, Y.; Goldfarb, R. J.; Zhang, Z.; Garwin, S.; Fengshou, R.

2002-01-01

213

Efficacy trial of Vi polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid fever in south-western China.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy of locally produced Vi vaccine over a time period of longer than one year. METHODS: A double-blinded, randomized field trial was performed in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in south-western China, using 30 micrograms doses of locally produced Vi. Enrolled subjects were 3-50 years of age, although the majority (92%) were school-aged children, who have the highest rate of typhoid fever in this setting. A total of 131,271 people were systematically allocated a single dose of 30 micrograms of Vi polysaccharide or saline placebo. The study population was followed for 19 months, with passive surveillance conducted in the Ministry of Health and the Regional Health and Anti-epidemic Centre (HAEC). Clinically suspected cases of typhoid fever were confirmed by blood culture, or by serological reaction with O-antigen (Widal tests). FINDINGS: After 19 months, there were 23 culture-confirmed cases of typhoid fever in the placebo group versus 7 cases in the Vi group (Protective efficacy (PE) = 69%; 95% CI = 28%, 87%). Most of the isolates were from school-aged children: 22 cases in the placebo group versus 6 in the Vi group (PE = 72%; 95% CI = 32%, 82%). No serious post-injection reactions were observed. The locally produced Vi polysaccharide vaccine showed levels of protective efficacy similar to those for Vi vaccine produced in industrial countries. CONCLUSION: The slightly higher dose of vaccine did not seem to alter efficacy significantly in China.

Yang, H. H.; Wu, C. G.; Xie, G. Z.; Gu, Q. W.; Wang, B. R.; Wang, L. Y.; Wang, H. F.; Ding, Z. S.; Yang, Y.; Tan, W. S.; Wang, W. Y.; Wang, X. C.; Qin, M.; Wang, J. H.; Tang, H. A.; Jiang, X. M.; Li, Y. H.; Wang, M. L.; Zhang, S. L.; Li, G. L.

2001-01-01

214

Breastfeeding rates in central and western China in 2010: implications for child and population health  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To describe breastfeeding practices in rural China using globally recommended indicators and to compare them with practices in neighbouring countries and large emerging economies. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional survey of 2354 children younger than 2 years in 26 poor, rural counties in 12 central and western provinces was conducted. Associations between indicators of infant and young child feeding and socioeconomic, demographic and health service variables were explored and rates were compared with the most recent data from China and other nations. Findings Overall, 98.3% of infants had been breastfed. However, only 59.4% had initiated breastfeeding early (i.e. within 1 hour of birth); only 55.5% and 9.4% had continued breastfeeding for 1 and 2 years, respectively, and only 28.7% of infants younger than 6 months had been exclusively breastfed. Early initiation of breastfeeding was positively associated with at least five antenatal clinic visits (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 3.48; P?China, rates are very low. A commitment to improve infant and young child feeding is needed to reduce mortality and morbidity.

Guo, Sufang; Fu, Xulan; Scherpbier, Robert W; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Hong; Wang, Xiaoli

2013-01-01

215

Mosquitoes of Western Yunnan Province, China: Seasonal Abundance, Diversity, and Arbovirus Associations  

PubMed Central

Objective The western borderland between Yunnan Province, China, and Myanmar is characterized by a climate that facilitates year-round production of mosquitoes. Numerous mosquito-transmitted viruses, including Japanese encephalitis virus circulate in this area. This project was to describe seasonal patterns in mosquito species abundance and arbovirus activity in the mosquito populations. Methods Mosquitoes were collected in Mangshi and Ruili cities of Dehong Prefecture near the border of China and Burma in Yunnan Province, the Peoples Republic of China in 2010. We monitored mosquito species abundance for a 12-month period using ultraviolet light, carbon dioxide baited CDC light and gravid traps; and tested the captured mosquitoes for the presence of virus to evaluate mosquito-virus associations in rural/agricultural settings in the area. Results A total of 43 species of mosquitoes from seven genera were collected, including 15 Culex species, 15 Anopheles spp., four Aedes spp., three Armigeres spp., one Mimomyia spp., two Uranotaenia spp. and three Mansonia spp.. Species richness and diversity varied between Mangshi and Ruili. Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles sinensis and Anopheles peditaeniatus were the most abundant species in both sampling sites. Ultraviolet light traps collected more specimens than CDC light traps baited with dry ice, though both collected the same variety of mosquito species. The CDC gravid trap was the most effective trap for capture of Culex quinquefasciatus, a species underrepresented in light trap collections. A total of 26 virus strains were isolated, which included 13 strains of Japanese encephalitis virus, four strains of Getah virus, one strain of Oya virus, one strain from the orbivirus genus, and seven strains of Culex pipien pallens densovirus. Conclusions The present study illustrates the value of monitoring mosquito populations and mosquito-transmitted viruses year-round in areas where the climate supports year-round adult mosquito activity.

Yang, Wei-Hong; Feng, Yun; Nasci, Roger S.; Yang, Jie; Liu, Yong-Hua; Dong, Chao-Liang; Li, Shi; Zhang, Bao-Sen; Yin, Zheng-Liu; Wang, Pi-Yu; Fu, Shi-Hong; Li, Ming-Hua; Liu, Fen; Zhang, Juan; Sun, Jie; Li, Can-Wei; Gao, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Hong; Wang, Huan-Yu; Petersen, Lyle R.; Liang, Guo-Dong

2013-01-01

216

Altered development and reproduction in western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) found in the Hanxi River, southern China.  

PubMed

The current study investigated the development and reproductive health of western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) in the Hanxi River, which has been heavily contaminated by municipal wastewaters from towns in Dongguan of southern China. Western mosquitofish collected from four study sites, Songmu (SM), Yangwu (YW), Hengli (HL), and Zhangcun (ZC) of the Hanxi River, as well as a reference site (LX) of the Liuxi River, were dissected and analyzed for development parameters (total length, wet body mass, liver mass, gonad index, and population composition), reproductive parameters (oocyte count and weight of females, and sperm count and viability of males), and morphology (anal fin in males and females, and hemal spines in males). With the exception of the origin site (SM), mosquitofish from the Hanxi River exhibited significantly decreasing development and reproduction levels. Significant correlations were found for the collected mosquitofish between the morphological and reproductive indexes (ratio of perpendicular distance to tip to vertical distance from the tip on the 16th hemal spine) versus the sperm count of males; ratio 16P:16D versus sperm viability of males; segments of anal fin ray 3 versus oocyte count of females; and segments of anal fin ray 3 versus average oocyte mass of females. The results demonstrated that both male and female mosquitofish in the Hanxi River were affected by the discharged wastewaters, as reflected in their morphological changes in comparison with those of mosquitofish from the reference site. PMID:20853458

Xie, Yong-Ping; Fang, Zhan-Qiang; Hou, Li-Ping; Ying, Guang-Guo

2010-11-01

217

Remains of Holocene giant pandas from Jiangdong Mountain (Yunnan, China) and their relevance to the evolution of quaternary environments in south-western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two subfossil partial skeletons of male giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) were recovered, along with remains of 16 other mammalian species, from a natural sinkhole on Jiangdong Mountain (south-western Yunnan, China). The panda and other mammalian bones from the sinkhole's upper chamber yielded tightly clustered accelerator mass spectrometry corrected radiocarbon ages of 8470–8250 yr BP, and the panda remains from the lower chamber

Nina G. Jablonski; Ji Xueping; Liu Hong; Li Zheng; Lawrence J. Flynn; Li Zhicai

2011-01-01

218

Present-day Focal Mechanisms and Stress Field of the Sichuan-Yunnan Active Block and Its Adjacent Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Focal mechanism solutions together with the depths of 66 M 3.5 moderate earthquakes occurred in the Sichuan Yunnan active block and its adjacent regions from Aug.1st, 2007 to Sep.15th, 2012was obtained by CAP method. Furthermore, by combining the results with the focal mechanism solutions from Harvard University, we investigated the characteristics of the stress field in the study area. We discussed the spatial distribution of the focal mechanisms and the focal depths, and then analyzed its dynamics. Four conclusions are drawn as follows. (1)Focal mechanism solutions show zoning characteristic. Along the ANH-ZMH-XJ faults(the eastern border of Sichuan-Yunnan block), the earthquakes are mostly left-lateral strike-slip mechanism. Along the HSH fault, the earthquakes are mostly right-lateral strike-slip mechanism. Around the XGLL block and in its interior, there exists remarkable normal fault mechanism with different fault striking and direction of P and T stress axis. Along the arc boundary of Sichuan-Yunnan block with the Sichuan basin, the earthquakes are reverse fault mechanism. (2) The inversed regional stress field shows complicated local feature. On and to the east side of the eastern border of Sichuan-Yunnan block, the stress field is similar with the stress field of the Eastern China block, which is from the relative motion of Philippine plate towards the Urasia plate. Whereas to the west side of the eastern border of Sichuan-Yunnan block, the stress field is much more complicated, indicting the strong influence of local structures to the stress field, especially the NE striking of JPS-YL over-thrusting tectonic structure located in the interior of Sichuan-Yunnan block.(3)The moment center depths of events occurred in the Sichuan-Yunnan active block are within 15km deep, and mostly among 5~15km, suggesting that the brittle seismic layer is among the depth of 5~15km in the upper and middle crust.

zhao, cuiping; luo, jun; zhou, lianqing

2013-04-01

219

Remote sensing land use and land cover dynamics of Zhangye region in Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substantial changes in land use and land cover dynamics have occurred during the last several decades in western China, which include deforestation, desert expansion and intensified land use due primarily to an increasing population, industrialization and agricultural development. These changes have had great impact on ecosystem functions at both local and regional scales. The Gobi Desert area near Zhangye City, Gansu Province, P.R. China has been blamed for the frequent occurrence of dust and sand storms in remote areas such as the Beijing and HuaBei regions. A study was conducted to quantify the land cover dynamics using remotely sensed images from the Landsat MSS, TM and ETM+ sensors for the region near Zhangye city within the Heihe River watershed. The regional landscape ecology for 1977, 1989 and 2002 was quantified using both traditional classification techniques as well as the continuous field method, the latter being a measure of land degradation severity. These remote sensing products were used to quantify the magnitude of the land use and land cover changes over 25 years. The results indicate that agricultural areas increased from 6% to 15% due to increased human activities. At the same time, other land use areas decreased because of conversion into agriculture lands. Land degradation in the region was obvious as evidenced by the increase in lower vegetative areas (0 to 10% fractional vegetation cover) and disappearance of high vegetative areas (90% or more). One of the most noticeable changes is that Zhangye city expanded rapidly during the last 25 years and practically doubled its urban territory.

Zhao, Suling; Qi, Jiaguo; Baumeister, Richard; Gao, Wei; Gao, Zhiqiang; Pan, Xiaoling; Ma, Yingjun

2003-07-01

220

Glacier change and glacier runoff variation in the Tuotuo River basin, the source region of Yangtze River in western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glaciers in the Tuotuo River basin, western China, have been monitored in recent decades by applying topographical maps and\\u000a high-resolution satellite images. Results indicate that most of glaciers in the Tuotuo River basin have retreated in the period\\u000a from 1968\\/1971 to 2001\\/2002, and their shrinkage area is 3.2% of the total area in the late 1960s. To assess the influence

Yong Zhang; Shiyin Liu; Junli Xu; Donghui Shangguan

2008-01-01

221

Stable isotopes of lake and fluid inclusion brines, Dabusun Lake, Qaidam Basin, western China: Hydrology and paleoclimatology in arid environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Qaidam Basin, underlain by salt, is the largest (120,000 km2) on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, western China. Numerous shallow to ephemeral saline lakes and dry saline pans are present on the Qarhan Salt Plain. Dabusun Lake, the largest (about 200 km2), contains high salinity Na?Mg?Cl brines. Whereas it precipitates halite, it is fringed by a potash salt flat.The dominant inflow

Wenbo Yang; Ronald J. Spencer; H. Roy Krouse; Tim K. Lowenstein; E. Casas

1995-01-01

222

When Western HRM constructs meet Chinese contexts: validating the pluralistic structures of human resource management systems in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study takes a contextualized approach to examine the structures, measures and predictive value of four human resource management (HRM) systems in China. Synthesizing the established concepts in the Western literature with the indigenous practices in the Chinese workplace, we contextually adapt the conceptual components of commitment-based, collaboration-based, controlled-based and contract-based HRM systems. Using data from 224 organizations, we found

Yu Zhou; Xiao-Yu Liu; Ying Hong

2012-01-01

223

Population of Chengdu Military Region, People's Republic of China.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study provides population data for Chengdu Military Region in the People's Republic of China and is based on the latest Chinese population census of July 1982. The Chengdu Military Region's area includes the provinces of Guizhou, Sichuan, and Yunnan ...

L. Burnham

1986-01-01

224

Urban–Rural Income Disparity and Urbanization: What Is the Role of Spatial Distribution of Ethnic Groups? A Case Study of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cao H. Urban–rural income disparity and urbanization: what is the role of spatial distribution of ethnic groups? A case study of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in Western China, Regional Studies. Since economic reforms in 1978, China's economic growth and urbanization has occurred alongside dramatic increases in regional inequality, and a corollary threat to sustainable development and social cohesion. Using the

Huhua Cao

2010-01-01

225

Environmental effects on parasitic disease transmission exemplified by schistosomiasis in western China  

PubMed Central

Environmental effects on the transmission of many parasitic diseases are well recognized, but the role of specific factors like climate and agricultural practices in modulating transmission is seldom characterized quantitatively. Based on studies of Schistosoma japonicum transmission in irrigated agricultural environments in western China, a mathematical model was used to quantify environmental impacts on transmission intensity. The model was calibrated by using field data from intervention studies in three villages and simulated to predict the effects of alternative control options. Both the results of these interventions and earlier epidemiological findings confirm the central role of environmental factors, particularly those relating to snail habitat and agricultural and sanitation practices. Moreover, the findings indicate the inadequacy of current niclosamide-praziquantel strategies alone to achieve sustainable interruption of transmission in some endemic areas. More generally, the analysis suggests a village-specific index of transmission potential and how this potential is modulated by time-varying factors, including climatological variables, seasonal water-contact patterns, and irrigation practices. These time-variable factors, a village's internal potential, and its connectedness to its neighbors provide a framework for evaluating the likelihood of sustained schistosomiasis transmission and suggest an approach to quantifying the role of environmental factors for other parasitic diseases.

Liang, Song; Seto, Edmund Y. W.; Remais, Justin V.; Zhong, Bo; Yang, Changhong; Hubbard, Alan; Davis, George M.; Gu, Xueguang; Qiu, Dongchuan; Spear, Robert C.

2007-01-01

226

Zr-in-rutile thermometry in HP/UHP eclogites from Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four Zr-in-rutile thermometry calibrations are applied to eclogites from Western China. Here, we show that if rutile grows in equilibrium with Qtz and Zrn, and is isolated inside garnet, it preserves its Zr composition and does not undergo compositional change due to cation exchange with the host garnet. It thus preserves the composition for the P- T conditions of its formation and the growth zoning of the host garnet. For the HP/UHP metamorphic temperature, the Tomkins et al. (J Metamorph Geol 25:703-713, 2007) calibration yields temperatures that agree well with previous studies, whereas the other three calibrations (Zack et al. in Contrib Mineral Petrol 148:471-488, 2004; Watson et al. in Contrib Mineral Petrol 151:413-433, 2006; Ferry and Watson in Contrib Mineral Petrol in 154:429-437, 2007), which do not include a pressure correction, give systematically lower temperatures. Zr contents of rutile inclusions within garnet show systematic decrease from garnet core to rim. The rutile inclusions in garnet rims contain the lowest Zr content, similar to that in the matrix. Analyses confirm that the pressure plays a significant role in modifying the primary temperature dependence of the Zr content of rutile. Rutiles trapped in garnets are unable to re-equilibrate easily during retrogression, but those in the matrix can do so, providing retrograde P- T path information.

Zhang, Guibin; Ellis, David J.; Christy, Andrew G.; Zhang, Lifei; Song, Shuguang

2010-09-01

227

Mapping of alpine grassland cover in western China from normalized Landsat TM image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grassland cover near Lake Qinghai in western China was mapped into nine percentage classes from a TM-derived Normalised Difference Bareness Index (NDBI) image based on 178 in situ samples collected within 1 m2 sites. Their ground coordinates logged with a GPS unit were used to locate their pixel values on the NDBI image. A new method, in which the in situ samples and their pixel NDBI values were independently ranked prior to the establishment of their linear regression relationship, was applied to converting the NDBI image into a map of grass coverage. This relationship enabled the NDBI image to be translated into a map of grassland cover with a meaningful spatial pattern. Assessed against visually interpreted results, grassland cover was mapped at an overall accuracy of 80%. In order for this method to generate satisfactory results, image pixel NDBI values have to be normalized so that they have the same standard deviation as that of the ground samples. This proposed method should be applicable to any grassland where grassland cover varies subtly at the pixel scale of the image used.

Zha, Yong; Gao, Jay

2008-05-01

228

Crustal structure beneath the eastern Kunlun and the western Qingling, the Central Orogenic Belt in China continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central orogenic belt (or Qingling-Qilian-Kunlun) in China continent with length of about 4000km as one of world's great collision orogenic belts extends from the Pamirs-West Kunlun Qilian, Kunlun, Qinling, Dabie, and finally to the Korean Peninsula. The belt, considered as the important boundary between the south and the north China, are treated as one key belt of studying Paleo-Tethyan Ocean finally suturing with China continent. The contact relationship between the Kunlun and the west Qingling is the key for the understanding of the extension of the central mountain ranges in China continent. In 2003, one wide-angle seismic profile was acquired in the contact geographic region of the eastern Kunlun and the western end of Qingling orogeneic belt. Here, we present the interpretation of wide-angle seismic profile between Qinggenhe and Lanmusi in Qinghai, the tectonic contact zone between the Kunlun block and the west Qingling. Combining the previous seismic interpretation of crustal structure in other segments, we construct a 3400 km long cross section along the central orogenic belt. The crustal velocity cross-section demonstrates abruptly variation of crustal thickness along the belt, and provides crustal constrains to understand the collision between the southern and the northern China.

Zhang, Zhongjie; Bai, Zhiming

2010-05-01

229

Geology and geochemistry of telluride-bearing Au deposits in the Pingyi area, Western Shandong, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Telluride-bearing gold deposits of the Pingyi area, western Shandong, China, are located on the southeastern margin of the North China Craton. There are two main types of deposits: (i) mineralized cryptoexplosive breccia, e.g., Guilaizhuang; and (ii) stratified, finely-disseminated mineralization hosted in carbonate rocks, e.g., Lifanggou and Mofanggou deposits. In Guilaizhuang, the cryptoexplosive breccia is formed within rocks of the Tongshi complex and Ordovician dolomite. The mineralization is controlled by an E-W-trending listric fault. Stratified orebodies of the Lifanggou and Mofanggou deposits are placed along a NE-trending, secondary detachment zone. They are hosted within dolomitic limestone, micrite and dolomite of the Early-Middle Cambrian Changqing Group. The mineralization in the ore districts is considered to be related to the Early Jurassic Tongshi magmatic complex that formed in a continental arc setting on the margin of the North China Craton. The host rocks are porphyritic and consist predominantly of medium- to fine-grained diorite and pyroxene (hornblende)-bearing monzonite. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of diorites give a 206Pb/238U weighted mean age of 175.7 ± 3.8 Ma. This is interpreted as representing the crystallization age of the Tongshi magmatic complex. Considering the contact relationships between the magmatic and host sedimentary rocks, as well as the genetic link with the deposits, we conclude that this age is relevant also for the formation of mineralization in the Pingyi area. We hence consider that the deposits formed in the Jurassic. The principal gold minerals are native gold, electrum and calaverite. Wall-rock alteration comprises pyritization, fluoritization, silicification, carbonatization and chloritization. Fluid inclusion studies indicate that all the analyzed inclusions are of two-phase vapor-liquid NaCl-H2O type. Homogenization temperatures of the fluid inclusions vary from 103 °C to 250 °C, and the ice melting temperatures range from -2.5 °C to -13.5 °C, corresponding to a salinity range of 4.65 to 17.26 wt.% NaCl equiv. The ?34S values of pyrite associated with gold mineralization exhibit a narrow range of -0.71 to + 2.99‰, implying that the sulfur was probably derived from the mantle and/or dioritic magma. The ?13CPDB values of the fluid inclusions in calcite range from -7.3 to 0.0‰. The ?18OSMOW values of vein quartz and calcite range from 11.5 to 21.5‰, corresponding to ?18Ofluid values of -1.1 to 10.9‰; ?D values of the fluid inclusions vary between -70 and -48‰. The isotope data for all three deposits suggest mixing of ore-forming fluids derived from the mantle and/or magma with different types of fluids at shallow levels. Pressure release and boiling of the fluids, as well as fluid-rock interaction (Lifanggou and Mofanggou) and mixing of magmatically-derived fluids with meteoritic waters (Guilaizhuang) played an important role in the ore-forming processes.

Hu, H.-B.; Mao, J.-W.; Niu, S.-Y.; Li, Y.-F.; Li, M.-W.

2006-07-01

230

An evaluation of generalized likelihood Ratio Outlier Detection to identification of seismic events in Western China  

SciTech Connect

The Generalized Likelihood Ratio Outlier Detection Technique for seismic event identification is evaluated using synthetic test data and frequency-dependent P{sub g}/L{sub g} measurements from western China. For most seismic stations that are to be part of the proposed International Monitoring System for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, there will be few or no nuclear explosions in the magnitude range of interest (e.g. M{sub b} < 4) on which to base an event-identification system using traditional classification techniques. Outlier detection is a reasonable alternative approach to the seismic discrimination problem when no calibration explosions are available. Distance-corrected P{sub g}/L{sub g} data in seven different frequency bands ranging from 0.5 to 8 Hz from the Chinese Digital Seismic Station WMQ are used to evaluate the technique. The data are collected from 157 known earthquakes, 215 unknown events (presumed earthquakes and possibly some industrial explosions), and 18 known nuclear explosions (1 from the Chinese Lop Nor test site and 17 from the East Kazakh test site). A feature selection technique is used to find the best combination of discriminants to use for outlier detection. Good discrimination performance is found by combining a low-frequency (0.5 to 1 Hz) P{sub g}/L{sub g} ratio with high-frequency ratios (e.g. 2 to 4 and 4 to 8 Hz). Although the low-frequency ratio does not discriminate between earthquakes and nuclear explosions well by itself, it can be effectively combined with the high-frequency discriminants. Based on the tests with real and synthetic data, the outlier detection technique appears to be an effective approach to seismic monitoring in uncalibrated regions.

Taylor, S.R.; Hartse, H.E.

1996-09-24

231

Characteristics of damage to buildings by debris flows on 7 August 2010 in Zhouqu, Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A debris-flow catastrophe hit the city of Zhouqu, Gansu Province, western China, at midnight on 7 August 2010 following a local extreme rainfall of 77.3 mm h-1 in the Sanyanyu and Luojiayu ravines, which are located to the north of the urban area. Eight buildings damaged in the event were investigated in detail to study the characteristics and patterns of damage to buildings by debris flows. It was found that major structural damage was caused by the frontal impact of proximal debris flows, while non-structural damage was caused by lateral accumulation and abrasion of sediment. The impact had a boundary decreasing effect when debris flows encountered a series of obstacles, and the inter-positioning of buildings produced so-called back shielding effects on the damage. Impact, accumulation, and abrasion were the three main patterns of damage to buildings in this event. The damage scale depended not only on the flow properties, such as density, velocity, and depth, but also on the structural strength of buildings, material, orientation, and geometry. Reinforced concrete-framed structures can effectively resist a much higher debris-flow impact than brick-concrete structures. With respect to the two typical types of structure, a classification scheme to assess building damage is proposed by referring to the Chinese Classification System of Earthquake Damage to Buildings. Furthermore, three damage scales (major structural, minor structural, and non-structural damage) are defined by critical values of impact pressure. Finally, five countermeasures for effectively mitigating the damage are proposed according to the on-site investigation.

Hu, K. H.; Cui, P.; Zhang, J. Q.

2012-07-01

232

Possible association of the western Tibetan Plateau snow cover with the decadal to interdecadal variations of northern China heatwave frequency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern China has been subject to increased heatwave frequency (HWF) in recent decades, which deteriorates the local droughts and desertification. More than half a billion people face drinking water shortages and worsening ecological environment. In this study, the variability in the western Tibetan Plateau snow cover (TPSC) is observed to have an intimate linkage with the first empirical orthogonal function mode of the summer HWF across China. This distinct leading mode is dominated by the decadal to inter-decadal variability and features a mono-sign pattern with the extreme value center prevailing over northern China and high pressure anomalies at mid- and upper troposphere over Mongolia and the adjacent regions. A simplified general circulation model is utilized to examine the possible physical mechanism. A reduced TPSC anomaly can induce a positive geopotential height anomaly at the mid- and upper troposphere and subsequently enhance the climatological high pressure ridge over Mongolia and the adjacent regions. The subsidence associated with the high pressure anomalies tends to suppress the local cloud formation, which increases the net radiation budget, heats the surface, and favors more heatwaves. On the other hand, the surface heating can excite high pressure anomalies at mid- and upper troposphere. The latter further strengthens the upper troposphere high pressure anomalies over Mongolia and the adjacent regions. Through such positive feedback effect, the TPSC is tied to the interdecadal variations of the northern China HWF.

Wu, Zhiwei; Jiang, Zhihong; Li, Jianping; Zhong, Shanshan; Wang, Lijuan

2012-11-01

233

Structural differences between the western and eastern Qiongdongnan Basin: evidence of Indochina block extrusion and South China Sea seafloor spreading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located at the intersection between a NW-trending slip system and NE-trending rift system in the northern South China Sea, the Qiongdongnan Basin provides key clues for us to understand the proposed extrusion of the Indochina Block along with Red River Fault Zone and extensional margins. In this paper we for the first time systematically reveal the striking structural differences between the western and eastern sector of the Qiongdongnan Basin. Influenced by the NW-trending slip faults, the western Qiongdongnan Basin developed E-W-trending faults, and was subsequently inverted at 30-21 Ma. The eastern sector was dominated by faults with NE orientation before 30 Ma, and thereafter with various orientations from NE, to EW and NW during the period 30-21 Ma; rifting display composite symmetric graben instead of the composite half graben or asymmetric graben in the west. The deep and thermal structures in turn are invoked to account for such deformation differences. The lithosphere of the eastern Qiongdongnan Basin is very hot and thinned because of mantle upwelling and heating, composite symmetric grabens formed and the faults varied with the basal plate boundary. However, the Southern and Northern Uplift area and middle of the central depression is located on normal lithosphere and formed half grabens or simple grabens. The lithosphere in the western sector is transitional from very hot to normal. Eventually, the Paleogene tectonic development of the Qiongdongnan Basin may be summarized into three stages with dominating influences, the retreat of the West Pacific subduction zone (44-36 Ma), slow Indochina block extrusion together with slab-pull of the Proto-South China Sea (36-30 Ma), rapid Indochina block extrusion together with the South China Sea seafloor spreading (30-21 Ma).

Zhang, Cuimei; Wang, Zhenfeng; Sun, Zhipeng; Sun, Zhen; Liu, Jianbao; Wang, Zhangwen

2013-08-01

234

China in the Eyes of Western Travelers as Represented in Travel Blogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Travel blogs provide a new way of understanding consumers' perceptions on destination and its associated products. The purpose of this study was to examine international tourists' destination image of China as represented in travel blog discourse. Data were obtained from blog entries relating to trips to China posted on three dominant travel blog websites. Content analysis facilitated by Atlas.ti 6.0

Xu Li; Youcheng Wang

2011-01-01

235

Paleoenvironments and Paleoecologies of Cenozoic Mammals from Western China based on Stable Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three main objectives in this study were: 1) to examine climate variability throughout the Late Cenozoic and test hypotheses regarding the development of C4 ecosystems and the dynamics of the Asian monsoons in NW China; 2) to reconstruct the diets, habitats, and paleoclimates of fossil rhinocerotoids from the Linxia Basin, Gansu, China; and 3) to examine paleodiets, paleoecologies, and paleoclimates

Dana Michelle Biasatti

2009-01-01

236

Coping strategies applied by Western vs overseas Chinese business expatriates in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mail surveys were directed at overseas Chinese and Western business expatriates currently working on the Chinese mainland. The Western expatriates were mainly from the USA, France and Germany while the overseas Chinese expatriates were mostly from Hong Kong. It was found that overseas Chinese expatriates less often than the Western expatriates used problem-focused coping strategies, such as showing tolerance and

Jan Selmer

2002-01-01

237

Precise U-Pb zircon-baddeleyite age of the Jinchuan sulfide ore-bearing ultramafic intrusion, western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion in western China hosts the third-largest magmatic Ni-Cu deposit in the world. The crystallization age of the intrusion has long been debated. Here, we present a U-Pb ID-TIMS zircon age of 831.8 ± 0.6 Ma obtained on thermally annealed and chemically etched zircons from a lherzolite sample. The coexisting baddeleyite in the sample is indistinguishable from the age of zircon. Our new results confirm that the emplacement of the Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion was temporally related to the breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent.

Zhang, Mingjie; Kamo, Sandra L.; Li, Chusi; Hu, Peiqing; Ripley, Edward M.

2010-01-01

238

The effects and prospects of the integration of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine on andrology in China.  

PubMed

Andrology has a long history in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) discussions concerning andropathies, and documentation of relevant therapeutic methods abound in the ancient literature on TCM. Integrated treatment combining TCM and Western medicine has seen both broad and in-depth development, with formidable status in the field of modern andrology in China. This article attempts to demonstrate the unique advantage of integrated treatment in the therapy of andropathies through a review of the ancient literature on andrology in the field of TCM and on the integrative treatment of prostatic diseases, sexual dysfunction, male infertility and late-onset hypogonadism. There is a need for the advancement of a medical theory that integrates TCM and Western medicine practices to create a new therapeutic system with standardized therapeutic and evaluative protocols for diseases involving male sexual health. PMID:21642998

Ma, Wei-Guo; Jia, Jin-Ming

2011-06-06

239

Environmental change and cultural response between 8000 and 4000 cal. yr BP in the western Loess Plateau, northwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two ancient swamps in the western Loess Plateau, northwest China record the climate history between 8000 and 4000 cal. yr BP. Grain size, CaCO3, organic matter, mollusc fauna and pollen assemblages show that climate was wet between 8300 and 7400 cal. yr BP, distinctly humid and warm between 7400 and 6700 cal. yr BP, semi-humid from 6700 to 6300 cal. yr BP, and semi-arid between 6300 and 4000 cal. yr BP. The temporal and spatial distribution of archaeological sites shows that the prosperity of the neolithic cultures in the western part of the Chinese Loess Plateau did not appear until the climate changed to semi-arid, implying that the semi-arid climate was more favourable than wet and humid climate to neolithic peoples, whose subsistence was based on cereals adapted to arid environments. Copyright

An, Chengbang; Feng, Zhaodong; Tang, Lingyu

2004-09-01

240

Geology of the North Qaidam HP-UHP Terrane, Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Early Paleozoic North Qaidam ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic belt is a recently discovered UHP terrane, located along the southwestern boundary of the Qilian Shan orogenic belt, Western China. It preserves Precambrian to Mesozoic rocks with continuous exposure over tens of kilometers. Pre-Mesozoic rocks can be divided into two units: epidote-amphibolite grade late Proterozoic rocks (Dakendaben gneiss) which include heterogeneous biotite gneiss, amphibolite, and quartzo-feldspathic gneiss containing eclogite and minor garnet peridotite. The second major unit is a suite of early Cambrian (545.5±6.0 Ma) epidote-amphibolite facies ophiolitic rocks: vari-textured gabbro, plagiogranite, mafic dikes, vesicular basalt, and metasediments (marble, chert and flysch). The contact between the ophiolite and UHP gneiss is folded and strongly transposed by later ductile folding, making it approximately parallel to the pervasive regional foliation (N10-45° W), with top to N and top-NE sense kinematic indicators which become subhorizonital when the effects of Cenozoic thrusting are removed. Serpentinized ultramafic bodies commonly occur close to this contact. Middle Paleozoic granites (510-400 Ma) intrude the belt placing a lower bound on the cessation of the ductile phase of deformation. Regional muscovite cooling ages of 460-360 Ma indicate that the metamorphic complex reached the middle crust in the Ordovician and unmetamorphosed near-source Devonian and Carboniferous sediments lie unconformably on the ophiolite indicating that the metamorphic complex was at the surface by 360 Ma. Early Cenozoic imbricate thrust faults placed UHP gneiss over unlithified Tertiary sediments of the Qaidam Basin and generated broad regional folding and repetition of UHP units. Preliminary data indicate regional variations in age and peak metamorphic pressure within the eclogite-bearing gneisses. U/Pb dating of metamorphic zircon from individual eclogite blocks yields statistically different ages of UHP metamorphism, ranging from 425±7 (MSWD = 0.26) to 523±8 Ma (MSWD = 3.9). Preliminary regional thermobarometry also indicates spatial variation in peak pressure ranging from 25 to 20 kbar. No regional variation in peak T has been identified. A random spatial distribution of peak pressure and metamorphic zircon age implies mixing of blocks within the eclogite-bearing gneiss during the early stages of exhumation. Whereas, a systematic spatial variation in pressure and time imply a coherent unit which preservation of geometric relationships developed during UHP metamorphism. Preliminary data in the North Qaidam support the former and predicts regionally variable pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) paths.

Menold, C. A.; Manning, C. E.; Yin, A.; Chen, X.

2004-12-01

241

Invasion Genetics of the Western Flower Thrips in China: Evidence for Genetic Bottleneck, Hybridization and Bridgehead Effect  

PubMed Central

The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is an invasive species and the most economically important pest within the insect order Thysanoptera. F. occidentalis, which is endemic to North America, was initially detected in Kunming in southwestern China in 2000 and since then it has rapidly invaded several other localities in China where it has greatly damaged greenhouse vegetables and ornamental crops. Controlling this invasive pest in China requires an understanding of its genetic makeup and migration patterns. Using the mitochondrial COI gene and 10 microsatellites, eight of which were newly isolated and are highly polymorphic, we investigated the genetic structure and the routes of range expansion of 14 F. occidentalis populations in China. Both the mitochondrial and microsatellite data revealed that the genetic diversity of F. occidentalis of the Chinese populations is lower than that in its native range. Two previously reported cryptic species (or ecotypes) were found in the study. The divergence in the mitochondrial COI of two Chinese cryptic species (or ecotypes) was about 3.3% but they cannot be distinguished by nuclear markers. Hybridization might produce such substantial mitochondrial-nuclear discordance. Furthermore, we found low genetic differentiation (global FST?=?0.043, P<0.001) among all the populations and strong evidence for gene flow, especially from the three southwestern populations (Baoshan, Dali and Kunming) to the other Chinese populations. The directional gene flow was further supported by the higher genetic diversity of these three southwestern populations. Thus, quarantine and management of F. occidentalis should focus on preventing it from spreading from the putative source populations to other parts of China.

Yang, Xian-Ming; Sun, Jing-Tao; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Li, Jin-Bo; Hong, Xiao-Yue

2012-01-01

242

OH in zoned amphiboles of eclogite from the western Tianshan, NW-China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemically-zoned amphibole porphyroblast grains in an eclogite (sample ws24-7) from the western Tianshan (NW-China) have been analyzed by electron microprobe (EMP), micro Fourier-transform infrared (micro-FTIR) and micro-Raman spectroscopy in the OH-stretching region. The EMP data reveal zoned amphibole compositions clustering around two predominant compositions: a glaucophane end-member ( B Na{2/ C }M2+ 3 M3+ 2 T Si8(OH)2) in the cores, whereas the mantle to rim of the samples has an intermediate amphibole composition ( A 0.5 B Ca1.5Na0.5 C M 2+ 4.5 M {0.5/3+} T Si7.5Al0.5(OH)2) ( A = Na and/or K; M 2+ = Mg and Fe2+; M 3+ = Fe3+ and/or Al) between winchite (and ferro-winchite) and katophorite (and Mg-katophorite). Furthermore, we observed complicated FTIR and Raman spectra with OH-stretching absorption bands varying systematically from core to rim. The FTIR/Raman spectra of the core amphibole show three lower-frequency components (at 3,633, 3,649-3,651 and 3,660-3,663 cm-1) which can be attributed to a local O(3)-H dipole surrounded by M(1) M(3)Mg3, M(1) M(3)Mg2Fe2+ and M(1) M(3) Fe2+ 3, respectively, an empty A site and T Si8 environments. On the other hand, bands at higher frequencies (3,672-3,673, 3,691-3,697 and 3,708 cm-1) are observable in the rims of the amphiboles, and they indicate the presence of an occupied A site. The FTIR and Raman data from the OH-stretching region allow us to calculate the site occupancy of the A, M(1)- M(3), T sites with confidence when combined with EPM data. By contrast M(2)- and M(4) site occupancies are more difficult to evaluate. We use these samples to highlight on the opportunities and limitations of FTIR OH-stretching spectroscopy applied to natural high pressure amphibole phases. The much more detailed cation site occupancy of the zoned amphibole from the western Tianshan have been obtained by comparing data from micro-chemical and FTIR and/or Raman in the OH-stretching data. We find the following characteristic substitutions Si( T-site) (Mg, Fe)[ M(1)- M(3)-site] ? Al( T-site) Al[ M(1)- M(3)-site] (tschermakite), Ca( M4-site)? ( A-site) ? Na( M4-site) Na + K( A-site) (richterite), and Ca( M4-site) (Mg, Fe) [ M(1)- M(3)-site] ? Na( M4-site) Al[ M(1)- M(3)-site] (glaucophane) from the configurations observed during metamorphism.

Su, Wen; Zhang, Ming; Redfern, Simon A. T.; Gao, Jun; Klemd, Reiner

2009-09-01

243

A General Study of the Channels of Communication Between Communist China and the Western World.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper is a general but comprehensive survey of all major media about foreign countries existing in Communist China. The paper first describes the regular mass media (press, periodicals, and radios) and analyzes their content with emphasis on foreign n...

V. V. S. King

1964-01-01

244

Seroprevalence of Chlamydia psittaci infection in market-sold adult chickens, ducks and pigeons in north-western China.  

PubMed

Chlamydia psittaci, the agent of psittacosis in humans, infects a wide range of avian species. To assess the risk of psittacosis posed by domestic birds in the urban environment, the prevalence of C. psittaci antibodies in 413 chickens (Gallus domesticus; 305 caged and 108 free-range), 334 ducks (Anas spp.; 111 caged and 223 free-range) and 312 pigeons (Columba livia) in Lanzhou, north-western China, was detected using the indirect haemagglutination assay. The specific antibodies were found in sera of 55 (13.32?%) chickens, 130 (38.92?%) ducks and 97 (31.09?%) pigeons. Statistical analysis showed that the seroprevalence of C. psittaci infection in chickens was significantly lower than that in ducks and pigeons (P<0.05). The C. psittaci seroprevalence in caged and free-range chickens was 7.54?% and 29.63?%, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The C. psittaci seroprevalence in caged and free-range ducks was 26.13?% and 45.29?%, respectively (P<0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating the presence of C. psittaci infection in market-sold chickens, ducks and pigeons in north-western China. Close contact with these birds is associated with a risk of zoonotic transmission of C. psittaci. Public education should be implemented to reduce the risk of avian to human transmission of such a pathogenic agent. PMID:23699067

Cong, W; Huang, S Y; Zhang, X Y; Zhou, D H; Xu, M J; Zhao, Q; Song, H Q; Zhu, X Q; Qian, A D

2013-05-22

245

Episodic tectonothermal events of the western North China Craton and North Qinling Orogenic Belt in central China: Constraints from detrital zircon U-Pb ages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology serves as a proxy to study of crustal evolution and provenance discrimination. In order to unravel episodic tectonothermal events and their tectonic relationship between the North China Craton (NCC) and North Qinling Orogenic Belt (NQOB), detrital zircons from modern river sands and metasedimentary rocks were collected and dated by LA-ICPMS. Although the western NCC (Ordos block) is covered by Paleozoic-Cenozoic basin sediments, the U-Pb dating results show that the age populations of detrital zircons from the western NCC present prominent U-Pb age peaks at 2475 Ma and 1850 Ma, which indicates the western NCC (Ordos block) also has early Precambrian basement similar to the eastern and central craton. In addition, a significant number of early Paleozoic (520-400 Ma) zircons have been found in the western NCC, which is quite different from the eastern NCC and is considered to be related to the collision between the NQOB and the NCC.The age spectra of detrital zircons from the NQOB presents a complex age pattern, which reveals four major age groups of Neoarchean (2.6-2.4 Ga), Neoproterozoic (1.0-0.85 Ga), early-middle Paleozoic (450-350 Ma) and early Mesozoic (250-170 Ma). As indicated by the U-Pb isotopic data that the NQOB could be an independent terrane at least prior to the Neoproterozoic and once a portion of the Grenville orogenic belt during the 1.2-0.8 Ga with a peak of ˜1.0 Ga. In other words, the NQOB has its unique geological evolution history obviously different from those of the NCC and the Yangtze Craton. The complete collision between the NQOB and the NCC perhaps took place at Paleozoic (450-400 Ma).

Diwu, Chunrong; Sun, Yong; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Qian; Guo, Anlin; Fan, Longgang

2012-03-01

246

Thoughts on "Two Exemptions and One Subsidy" (TEOS) in China's Western Region  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The policy of "two exemptions and one subsidy" (TEOS), which is a "popular sentiment" project, has brought life to the western region's rural education and light to impoverished families. In addition to launching the battle for the "two basics" in the western region, the overall popularization of distance education for rural schools in the…

Xiangyang, Tian

2008-01-01

247

Are western community psychiatric models suitable for China? An examination of cultural and socio-economic foundations of western community psychiatry models using assertive community treatment as an example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western community psychiatry models, such as Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) and Case Management, are well-studied and considered to be effective and cost-effective; in particular, ACT is perceived as a gold standard for community treatment of severe and persistently mentally ill patients. With China's recent rapid economic reform and attendant cultural and healthcare system changes, it is timely to examine the

Samuel F. Law

2008-01-01

248

Lithospheric thermal structure and rheology of the eastern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature distributions of the lithosphere beneath the eastern China were estimated by local isostasy equilibrium constrained geothermal calculation in this study. Maps of the lateral temperature variation at depths of 50 and 100 km as well as Moho boundary are presented for the eastern China continent, and the 600 °C and 1100 °C isotherm depth maps are also given. Meanwhile, the thermal thickness of lithosphere is calculated as the depth of 1350 °C isotherm. The rheological strength of lithosphere is calculated based on a four-layer model, which consists of the upper, lower, lowermost crust layers and a wet lithospheric mantle layer. The results show that, the lithosphere of 160-180 km thick exists under Sichuan basin in the western part of Yangtze Craton, but keel is absent beneath the entire North China Craton. It is notable that the lithospheric thickness is only 130-140 km beneath Ordos basin in the western part of North China Craton; accordingly, there is no lithospheric keel beneath Ordos basin. These geothermal modeling results are in good agreement with those of seismic tomography and other geothermal studies. The temperatures in the lower crust of the North China Craton estimated are in range of 500-600 °C. Consequently, the composition of lower crust of the North China Craton should be more mafic than that of previous estimation based on much cooler geotherms. The spatial variation of lithospheric rheology in the eastern China is influenced by local geotherms and crustal compositions. The "crème brûlée" model, which is represent by a strong crust portion but a weak lithospheric mantle portion in vertical strength profile, approximates the lithospheric rheological layering for the regions of the western half of North China Craton and the northern part of NE China, which has thicker crust or moderate-to-high geotherm. On the other hand, the "jelly sandwich" model demonstrates the rheological layering of the western part of the Yangtze Craton and the eastern half of the North China Craton, which has low-to-moderate geotherm and/or thinner crust. In general, thermal age of the tectonic province controls the present-day thermal structure and rheology of the lithosphere of the eastern China.

Wang, Yang; Cheng, Su-Hua

2012-03-01

249

First evidence on foot preference during locomotion in Old World monkeys: a study of quadrupedal and bipedal actions in Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys ( Rhinopithecus roxellana )  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first report of foot preference during locomotion in Old World monkeys. Foot preferences during the quadrupedal\\u000a walking action and the bipedal shifting action of a naturalistic group of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Zhouzhi National Nature Reserve in the Qinling Mountains of China were investigated. Twelve of 21 individuals tested\\u000a on quadrupedal action and all 21

Dapeng Zhao; Baoguo Li; Kunio Watanabe

2008-01-01

250

Species identification of human echinococcosis using histopathology and genotyping in northwestern China  

PubMed Central

Summary Human cystic echinococcosis, caused by infection with the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, and alveolar echinococcosis, caused by the larval form of E. multilocularis, are known to be important public health problems in western China. Echinococcus shiquicus is a new species of Echinococcus recently described in wildlife hosts from the eastern Tibetan plateau and its infectivity and/or pathogenicity in humans remain unknown. In the current study, parasite tissues from various organs were collected post-operatively from 68 echinococcosis patients from Sichuan and Qinghai provinces in eastern China. The tissues were examined by histopathology and genotyped using DNA sequencing and PCR-RFLP. Histopathologically, 38 human isolates were confirmed as E. granulosus and 30 as E. multilocularis. Mitochondrial cob gene sequencing and PCR-RFLP with rrnL as the target gene confirmed 33 of 53 of the isolates to have the G1 genotype of sheep/dog strain of E. granulosus as the only source of infection, while the remaining 20 isolates were identified as E. multilocularis. No infections were found to be caused by E. shiquicus. Additionally, 5 of 20 alveolar echinococcosis patients were confirmed to have intracranial metastases from primary hepatic alveolar echinococcosis lesions. All these cases originated from four provinces or autonomous regions but most were distributed in Sichuan and Qinghai provinces, where high prevalence rates of human alveolar echinococcosis and cystic echinococcosis were previously documented.

Li, Tiaoying; Ito, Akira; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Qiu, Jiamin; Nakao, Minoru; Zhen, Ren; Xiao, Ning; Chen, Xingwang; Giraudoux, Patrick; Craig, Philip S.

2008-01-01

251

Postgraduate Educational Aspirations and Policy Implications: A Case Study of University Students in Western China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

China's educational reform from the late 1990s, has substantially increased university capacity. This has been most evident in undergraduate enrolments. As an increasingly large cohort of university graduates enters the job market yearly, the demand for university graduates has not caught up with supply. Some university students plan to pursue…

Li, Peter S.; Li, Liming; Zong, Li

2007-01-01

252

Effects of Inclusive Village Level Public Agricultural Extension Service: Policy Reform Experiment in Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The top down public agricultural extension system in China and its early reforms during the 1990’s has left millions of farmers without access to extension services. An inclusive agricultural extension system was introduced in 2005 to better meet the diverse technology needs of small farmers. Three key features of the experiment are 1) inclusion of all farmers as target beneficiaries,

Ruifa Hu; Yaqing Cai; Kevin Z. Chen; Ynogwei Cui; Jikun Huang

2009-01-01

253

Microbiotic crusts and their interrelations with environmental factors in the Gurbantonggut desert, western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Located in the Junggar Basin in Xinjiang, the Gurbantonggut Desert is the second largest desert in China. Microbiotic crusts consisting of animalcule, lichen, moss, and algae species develop extensively in the region. Their formation, species composition and distribution pattern are closely related to the environmental conditions along the different parts of sand dune. Analysis of microbiotic crust distribution and relationship

Y. N. Chen; Q. Wang; W. H. Li; X. Ruan

2007-01-01

254

A shallow ice core re-drilled on the Dunde Ice Cap, western China: recent changes in the Asian high mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 51 m deep ice core was re-drilled on the Dunde Ice Cap of western China in 2002, 15 years after the previous ice core drilling in 1987. Dating by seasonal variations in delta18O and particle concentration showed that this 51 m deep ice core covered approximately the last 150 years. The stratigraphy and density showed that more than 90%

Nozomu Takeuchi; Takayuki Miyake; Fumio Nakazawa; Hideki Narita; Koji Fujita; Akiko Sakai; Masayoshi Nakawo; Yoshiyuki Fujii; Keqin Duan; Tandong Yao

2009-01-01

255

Use of Multispectral Data Extracting Information of Gold Ore Bearing Rocks by MPH Technique in Hatu Gold Occurrence Area in Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent five years there are extensive gold exploration activities and some ores bodies are discovered in Gold occurrence area in Western China, which shows the great potential for finding new mines in the surrounding areas. The multispecral TM data are used in order to find some new clues in the vast rock bearing areas for field reconnaissance. The more

Fangyan Yuan; Jianwen Ma; Yijin Chen; Xue Chen

2008-01-01

256

Contribution of water soluble organic nitrogen to total nitrogen in marine aerosols over the East China Sea and western North Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents information on concentrations, size distributions, geographical distributions and sources of water soluble organic nitrogen (ONws) in aerosols over the East China Sea and western North Pacific to understand its impact on the atmospheric processes and the oceanic ecosystems in the autumn and spring in the East Asian region. Results revealed ONws contributions to the total nitrogen in

Tokuhiro Nakamura; Hiroshi Ogawa; Dileep Kumar Maripi; Mitsuo Uematsu

2006-01-01

257

Late Mesoproterozoic to earliest Neoproterozoic basin record of the Sibao orogenesis in western South China and relationship to the assembly of Rodinia  

Microsoft Academic Search

New geochronological and geochemical constraints on the 5000–9000m thick Precambrian sedimentary and volcanic successions exposed along the western margin of the South China Block indicate the presence of two distinct tectonostratigraphic successions. The earliest, termed here the Laowushan Formation, comprises of volcanic rocks such as alkali basalts, breccias and tuff that are atypical of the sedimentary rocks in the previously

Matthew R. Greentree; Zheng-Xiang Li; Xian-Hua Li; Huaichun Wu

2006-01-01

258

Comparison of Handaxes from Bose Basin (China) and the Western Acheulean Indicates Convergence of Form, Not Cognitive Differences  

PubMed Central

Alleged differences between Palaeolithic assemblages from eastern Asia and the west have been the focus of controversial discussion for over half a century, most famously in terms of the so-called ‘Movius Line’. Recent discussion has centered on issues of comparability between handaxes from eastern Asian and ‘Acheulean’ examples from western portions of the Old World. Here, we present a multivariate morphometric analysis in order to more fully document how Mid-Pleistocene (i.e. ?803 Kyr) handaxes from Bose Basin, China compare to examples from the west, as well as with additional (Mode 1) cores from across the Old World. Results show that handaxes from both the western Old World and Bose are significantly different from the Mode 1 cores, suggesting a gross comparability with regard to functionally-related form. Results also demonstrate overlap between the ranges of shape variation in Acheulean handaxes and those from Bose, demonstrating that neither raw material nor cognitive factors were an absolute impediment to Bose hominins in making comparable handaxe forms to their hominin kin west of the Movius Line. However, the shapes of western handaxes are different from the Bose examples to a statistically significant degree. Moreover, the handaxe assemblages from the western Old World are all more similar to each other than any individual assemblage is to the Bose handaxes. Variation in handaxe form is also comparatively high for the Bose material, consistent with suggestions that they represent an emergent, convergent instance of handaxe technology authored by Pleistocene hominins with cognitive capacities directly comparable to those of ‘Acheulean’ hominins.

Wang, Wei; Lycett, Stephen J.; von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen; Jin, Jennie J. H.; Bae, Christopher J.

2012-01-01

259

Molecular, ethno-spatial epidemiology of leprosy in China: novel insights for tracing leprosy in endemic and non endemic provinces.  

PubMed

Leprosy continues to be detected at near stable rates in China even with established control programs, necessitating new knowledge and alternative methods to interrupt transmission. A molecular epidemiology investigation of 190 patients was undertaken to define Mycobacterium leprae strain types and discern genetic relationships and clusters in endemic and non-endemic regions spanning seventeen provinces and two autonomous regions. The findings support multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis as a useful tool in uncovering characteristic patterns across the multiethnic and divergent geographic landscape of China. Several scenarios of clustering of leprosy from township to provincial to regional levels were recognized, while recent occupational or remote migration showed geographical separation of certain strains. First, prior studies indicated that of the four major M. leprae subtypes defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), only type 3 was present in China, purportedly entering from Europe/West/Central Asia via the Silk Road. However, this study revealed VNTR linked strains that are of type 1 in Guangdong, Fujian and Guangxi in southern China. Second, a subset of VNTR distinguishable strains of type 3, co-exist in these provinces. Third, type 3 strains with rpoT VNTR allele of 4, detected in Japan and Korea were discovered in Jiangsu and Anhui in the east and in western Sichuan bordering Tibet. Fourth, considering the overall genetic diversity, strains of endemic counties of Qiubei, Yunnan; Xing Yi, Guizhou; and across Sichuan in southwest were related. However, closer inspection showed distinct local strains and clusters. Altogether, these insights, primarily derived from VNTR typing, reveal multiple and overlooked paths for spread of leprosy into, within and out of China and invoke attention to historic maritime routes in the South and East China Sea. More importantly, new concepts and approaches for prospective case finding and tracking of leprosy from county to national level have been introduced. PMID:23291419

Weng, Xiaoman; Xing, Yan; Liu, Jian; Wang, Yonghong; Ning, Yong; Li, Ming; Wu, Wenbin; Zhang, Lianhua; Li, Wei; Heiden, Jason Vander; Vissa, Varalakshmi

2013-01-04

260

China's Lunar Exploration Program: Present and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

China launched its first lunar probe, Chang’E-1, at 6:05p.m. (10:05 GMT), October 24, 2007. Chang’E-1 blasted off on a Long March 3A carrier rocket from the No. 3 launch tower in the Xichang Satellite Launch Center of southwestern Sichuan Province. China National Space Administration performed the lunar orbit injection maneuver for Chang’E-1 at 11:25a.m. on November 5, 2007 (China Standard

Yongchun Zheng; Ziyuan Ouyang; Chunlai Li; Jianzhong Liu; Yongliao Zou

2008-01-01

261

Helium isotope compositions of Machangqing copper deposit in western Yunnan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helium isotopic composition of inclusion fluid in pyrites from Machangqing copper deposit, China, has been measured. The measurements,\\u000a with3He\\/4He ratios ranging from 0.46–2.08 Ra, indicate that the helium in ore-forming fluid is a mixture of crust and mantle, and are\\u000a consistent with the fact that the parental magma responsible for the formation of ore-forming fluid of the deposit is of

Ruizhong Hu; G. Turner; P. G. Burnard; Xianwu Bi

1998-01-01

262

Towards global convergence: Emerging economies, the rise of China and western sunset?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The financial crisis indicates the underlying bankruptcy of the last of a series of attempts to restore sustained growth in advanced countries since the end of the post-war Golden Age: Italian flexible specialization, Japanese and Rhine-style lean production, the new economy and Anglo-American financialization. Over the same period a number of emerging economies and in particular China have sustained high

Michael Dunford; Godfrey Yeung

2011-01-01

263

Early Paleozoic paleomagnetic poles from the western part of the North China Block and their implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We collected 917 oriented drill-core samples (124 sites) from 22 units spanning the Early Cambrian to Middle Ordovician formations of the North China Block (NCB) to construct an apparent polar wander path (APWP) of the early Paleozoic for the NCB. Sampling areas are located in the Helanshan, Tongchuan-Hancheng and Yuncheng-Luliang regions along the margin of the Ordos Basin. Characteristic remanent

Baochun Huang; Zhenyu Yang; Yo-ichiro Otofuji; Rixiang Zhu

1999-01-01

264

Effects of inclusive public agricultural extension service: Results from a policy reform experiment in Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The top-down public agricultural extension system in China and its early commercialization reforms during the 1990s have left millions of farmers without access to extension services. A pilot inclusive agricultural extension system was introduced in 2005 to better meet the diverse needs of small-scale farmers. Three key features of the experiment are (1) inclusion of all farmers as target beneficiaries,

Ruifa Hu; Yaqing Cai; Kevin Z. Chen; Yongwei Cui; Jikun Huang

2010-01-01

265

Microbiotic crusts and their interrelations with environmental factors in the Gurbantonggut desert, western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Located in the Junggar Basin in Xinjiang, the Gurbantonggut Desert is the second largest desert in China. Microbiotic crusts\\u000a consisting of animalcule, lichen, moss, and algae species develop extensively in the region. Their formation, species composition\\u000a and distribution pattern are closely related to the environmental conditions along the different parts of sand dune. Analysis\\u000a of microbiotic crust distribution and relationship

Y. N. Chen; Q. Wang; W. H. Li; X. Ruan

2007-01-01

266

Have steering flows in the western North Pacific and the South China Sea changed over the last 50 years?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term trends in steering flows over the western North Pacific (WNP) and the South China Sea (SCS) are examined during the peak typhoon season. A nonparametric and robust trend detection method is employed. Both the NCEP and ERA reanalysis data sets suggest a statistically significant decreasing trend in steering flows in the subtropical region of the western WNP (between 120°E or near Taiwan and 145°E) and the northern SCS during 1958-2001. Over this period, the decrease in the WNP is quite large with a magnitude of 1.1 m s-1 given that the background mean steering flow is only 3.26 m s-1. This decrease corresponds approximately to one third of the mean flow. When the data are extended from 1958 to 2009 the long-term decrease in steering flows in the aforementioned subtropical region are still significant, although more modest at a rate of 0.7 m s-1. Time series of translational speeds averaged over the same subtropical region also exhibit a slow-down of storms' motion over the last 52 years. This is consistent with the weakening of easterly steering flows analyzed from independent data sets. Results of this study imply a longer life span for tropical cyclones and a greater tendency for storms along prevailing typhoon tracks to recurve.

Chu, Pao-Shin; Kim, Joo-Hong; Ruan Chen, Ying

2012-05-01

267

Studies of ice-snow melt debris flows in the western Tian Shan Mountains, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ice-snow melt debris flow in the west part of the Tian Shan Mountains is an important natural hazard. The sediment for the debris flows is derived from the thick Quaternary deposits which occur in the Tain Shan Mountains. Another cause of the debris flows is the ice- snow meltwater and the abundant precipitation in the western part of the

WEI WENSHOU; GAO CUNHAI

1992-01-01

268

Households Food Security in Poverty-Stricken Regions: Evidence from Western Rural China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food security of poor rural households has always been a policy concern. Based on a field survey on three western provinces, the paper finds that over two thirds of households achieved self-sufficiency in grain consumption, but the consumption of other major food items are all below recommended standard. Most households are unsatisfied with and expect to change this situation. Econometric

Yun Li; Wen Yu

2010-01-01

269

Urban growth in Chengdu, Western China: application of remote sensing to assess planning and policy outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of studies on Chinese urbanization have been focused on coastal areas, with little attention given to urban centers in the west. Western provinces, however, will unquestionably undergo significant urban change in the future as a result of the 'Go West' policy initiated in the 1990s. In this paper the authors examine the relationship between drivers of urban growth

Annemarie Schneider; Karen C Seto; Douglas R Webster

2005-01-01

270

Marriage and migration in transitional China: a field study of Gaozhou, western Guangdong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marriage and marriage migration are often downplayed in the migration literature. The role of location in the decisionmaking underlying marriage migration, and the relations between marriage and labor migration, are little understood. Research that focuses on international marriages and on Western or capitalist economies has highlighted marriage as a strategy, but little attention is given to domestic marriage migration and

C Cindy Fan; Ling Li

2002-01-01

271

Description of two new species of Cossidae (Lepidoptera) from China  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two new Cossidaespecies from China‘s Zhejiang and Sichuan provinces are described. The new species Phragmataecia monika sp. n.and Patoptoformis rimsaite sp. n. superficially resemble related congeners but can be distinguished by differences in wing pattern, genitalia and distribution. Checklists of the genera Phragmataecia and Patoptoformis are presented.

Ivinskis, Povilas; Rimsaite, Jolanta; Saldaitis, Aidas; Yakovlev, Roman

2012-01-01

272

Geochemical characteristics of Tertiary saline lacustrine oils in the Western Qaidam Basin, northwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the systematic analyses of light hydrocarbon, saturate, aromatic fractions and C isotopes of over 40 oil samples along with related Tertiary source rocks collected from the western Qaidam basin, the geochemical characteristics of the Tertiary saline lacustrine oils in this region was investigated. The oils are characterized by bimodal n-alkane distributions with odd-to-even (C11–C17) and even-to-odd (C18–C28) predominance,

Zhu Yangming; Weng Huanxin; Su Aiguo; Liang Digang; Peng Dehua

2005-01-01

273

High Frequency Downhole Recordings of Sichuan Aftershocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On June 6th, 2008, during nine hours of downhole recording with a three component borehole seismic array tool put in place to monitor a hydraulic fracture stimulation, recordings were made of several dozen natural earthquakes. The duration, frequency content and S-P arrival time difference of these events indicated that they were not related to the anticipated microseismic activity from the hydraulic stimulation about 1km away; rather they were coming from a distance of about 300km, about the distance to the M=7.9 Sichuan event of May 12th, 2008. The tool used in the recordings was a commercial borehole seismic array tool composed (in this case) of seven shuttles separated by 50m, each equipped with three component (3C) sensor packages coupled to the well casing and thereby to the formation via annular cement. Acoustic isolation of the 3C sensor package from the main body of each shuttle is accomplished via a retractable spring system. This tool design and the exceptionally quiet recording environment at 1500-1800m depth below ground level provide a very low noise floor and excellent vector fidelity. The geophones themselves are omni-tilt accelerometers, with particle displacements obtained through response function removal and (twice) time integration. These nine hours of downhole 3C array data present a unique set of high frequency earthquake recordings. Bandwidth extends from 1Hz to greater than 60Hz with 40dB signal-to-noise ratio between 3-10Hz. Processing is being carried out using a new technique developed for hydraulic fracture monitoring. This technique (Leaney (2008)) employs least-squares time reversal with a ray-trace Green's function and waveform fitting. Data analysis will include anisotropic model calibration using selected master events from assumed known locations, events location and source function determination. Other possibilities include reduced or constrained moment tensor inversion and interferometric (relative S/P) Q estimation. It is not yet known whether deep crustal reflections are present in the data.

Leaney, S.; Voskamp, A.; Bennett, L.; Craven, M.; Li, Y. J.

2008-12-01

274

Transformative State Capacity in Post-Collective China: The Introduction of the New Rural Cooperative Medical System in Two Counties of Western China, 2006-2008.  

PubMed

In 2002, the Chinese leadership announced a turnaround in national welfare policy: Local insurance at county level, called the New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NRCMS), was to cover all counties by 2010. This paper addresses the main characteristics of NRCMS as an example of 'transformative state capacity' in decentralised policy fields and its feature 'responsiveness' as a market-based means of its introduction.Reviewing the modes of governance and comparing the introduction of local schemes based on two case studies of western China since 2006, this paper argues that the flexibility shown by local administrators in considering structural and procedural adjustments is the result not only of central directives but also of local initiatives. Forms of locally embedded responsiveness to the needs and perceptions of health care recipients are crucial in enhancing the accountability and responsiveness of local cadres. These new modes of 'responsiveness' or responsive regulation are important in understanding and conceptualising the transformative state capacity. Responsive settings using centrally defined local feedback loops are different from hierarchical control and the formal institutionalised representation of the interests of the local population, and are a rough but effective means of enhancing both flexibility and the efficiency of control and financing by the central state. These feedback loops, which are based on voluntary enrolment and on central state subsidies made dependent on contributions received from participants and local government, are complementary forms of governance at grassroots level. PMID:21984878

Klotzbücher, Sascha; Lässig, Peter

2009-06-01

275

Assessing the regional ecological security: methodology and a case study for the western Jilin Province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecological security can be investigated in both broad sense and narrow sense. Because of the wide area and regional discrepancy in influencing factors and ecological background, the investigation on regional environment hasn't been done systematically. Assessment on regional security in fragile region is important content of sustainable development. The western Jilin Province lines in the semi-arid agro-pastoral interweaving belt (APIB),within which agriculture and animal husbandry interplay or frequently alternate with each other. Study on the regional ecological security of this region offer the scientific support for protecting the regional environment and sustainability. This article set up the Pressure-State-Response model according to the interaction between human and environmental system, and assessed the ecological safety degree in the western part of Jilin Province in year 2000, using compound model and Grid method based on GIS and RS. The Ecological Security Index (ESI) was calculated by multilayer synthesis with liner weighting function method, which divided the area into the following five different conditions: highly damaged, moderately damaged, early stages of damage, relative safely, and safety, regarding change of environmental key point as the threshold value that varied under the stress of human activity. The results show that eco-environment in study area is at medial level. The early stage of damage and relative safely level occupies the largest area proportion accounting for 68.61%. Furthermore, the condition in the eastern part is better than that of the western part and the most serious degradation is found in the middle part of the study area. When talking about the ten counties in the region, highly damaged area accounts for a very small percentage. The county that has the widest area of relatively secured area is Qian'an, and that of the smallest is Da'an. The areas of highly damaged area in Tongyu, Zhenlai and Da'an have exceeded 10% and they become the region requiring urgent treatment. Regarding average security condition, sequence of the regions from the best to the worest is as follows: Qian'an, Qianguo, Zhenglai, Songyuan City, Changling, Baicheng City, Fuyu, Taonan, Da'an and Tongyu. In this study we also analysis the relationship between ESI and landuse change from 1980 to 2000 in order to find an improving method from landscape. The studying shows that decreasing of grassland is most import factor influencing the condition of the western Jilin province.

Li, Xiaoyan; Xue, Linfu; Wang, Xikui

2008-10-01

276

Prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behaviors among drug users in western China: implications for HIV transmission.  

PubMed

The prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behaviors among drug users in western China and the implications for HIV transmission in this population are described. A cross-sectional survey of male drug users was conducted in methadone maintenance therapy clinics and detoxification centers in three western provinces of China between September 2009 and December 2010. Participants in the study completed a questionnaire about demographics, HIV/AIDS knowledge, drug use history, sexual risk behaviors, and other psychosocial variables. Factors associated with HIV sexual risk behaviors were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. Of 1,304 drug users surveyed, nearly 54% never used condoms during sexual intercourse with a spouse or cohabitant, and this behavior was associated with coming from Chongqing (OR=1.86, p<0.05), being aged 36 and older (OR=5.03, p<0.05), being married or cohabiting (OR=1.68, p<0.05), having first taken drugs at age 30 and above (OR=1.80, p<0.05), and having received AIDS advice or detection from authorities in the past year (OR=1.95, p<0.05). Twenty-six percent had had sex with casual sexual partners in the past year, and this behavior was associated with being married or cohabiting (OR=0.30, p<0.05), first taking drugs at age 31 and above (OR=0.42, p<0.05), and receiving AIDS advice or HIV detection from authorities in the past year (OR=0.70, p<0.05). About 34% never used a condom when having sex with casual sexual partners, and this behavior was associated with coming from Guangxi (OR=2.81, p<0.05) or Chongqing (OR=2.73, p<0.05). Almost 14% had had commercial sex in the past year, and this behavior was associated with coming from Guangxi (OR=6.26, p<0.05) or Chongqing (OR=5.44, p<0.05) and having exchanged needles or received clean needles from the Needle Exchange Centers in the past year (OR=2.76, p<0.05). Nearly 23% had never used condoms when having commercial sex, and this behavior was associated with having received free condoms from authorities in the past year (OR=0.26, p<0.05). Sexual risk behaviors among drug users in Guangxi, Chongqing, and Xinjiang are common. Additional intervention strategies are needed to control the spread of HIV in this population. PMID:23210514

Huang, Jiegang; Jiang, Junjun; Li, Jonathan Z; Yang, Xiaobo; Deng, Wei; Abdullah, Abu S; Qin, Bo; Upur, Halmurat; Zhong, Chaohui; Wang, Qianqiu; Wang, Qian; Ruan, Yuhua; Zou, Yunfeng; Ye, Li; Xie, Peiyan; Wei, Fumei; Xu, Na; Wei, Bo; Liang, Hao

2013-02-13

277

Large-scale biogas in China  

SciTech Connect

Recent progress in China in the development and operation of large-scale biogas plants is described. These plants have been located in climatic regions where small digesters are impractical and they include heating and mixing devices. Systems located in or near Beijing; Hangzhou, Zhejiang; Sichuan; and Foshan, Guangdong are discussed. 3 references.

Not Available

1982-01-01

278

Relationship Among H-FABP Gene Polymorphism, Intramuscular Fat Content, and Adipocyte Lipid Droplet Content in Main Pig Breeds with Different Genotypes in Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

H-FABP (Heart fatty acid-binding protein), a member of FABP family, plays an essential role in long-chain fatty acid uptake and metabolic homeostasis. Its role in pig intramuscular fat content remains poorly understood, especially in local pig breeds in western China. In this study, the genetic variations of 5?-upstream region and the second intron in porcine H-FABP gene were investigated by

Wei-Jun PANG; Liang BAI; Gong-She YANG

2006-01-01

279

The occurrence and significance of C 25 HBI in Cenozoic saline lacustrine source rocks from the Western Qaidam Basin, NW China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The saline lacustrine deposit of the Oligocene Lower Ganchaigou Formation is the main source rock for the Western Qaidam Basin,\\u000a NW China. In this study, abundant highly branched isoprenoids with 25 carbon atoms (C25HBI) were detected in the upper section of the Lower Ganchaigou Formation. C25HBI is a biomarker for diatoms, and can provide information regarding biogeochemical processes during production

YongDong Zhang; YongGe Sun; LiuJuan Xie; AiZhu Jiang; PingXia Chai

2011-01-01

280

Screening high-fluoride and high-arsenic drinking waters and surveying endemic fluorosis and arsenism in Shaanxi province in western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to screen high-fluoride and high-arsenic drinking waters, to evaluate the effectiveness of fluoride-reducing projects and to assess the present condition of endemic fluorosis and arsenism in Shaanxi province in western China. For screening high-fluoride drinking waters, five water samples were collected from each selected village where dental fluorosis patients were detected in 8–12 year-old

Cansheng Zhu; Guanglu Bai; Xiaoli Liu; Yue Li

2006-01-01

281

Age and duration of eclogite-facies metamorphism, North Qaidam HP/UHP terrane, Western China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Amphibolite-facies para-and orthogneisses near Dulan, at the southeast end of the North Qaidam terrane, enclose minor eclogite and peridotite which record ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphism associated with the Early Paleozoic continental collision of the Qilian and Qaidam microplates. Field relations and coesite inclusions in zircons from paragneiss suggest that felsic, mafic, and ultramafic rocks all experienced UHP metamorphism and a common amphibolite-facies retrogression. SHRIMP-RG U-Pb and REE analyses of zircons from four eclogites yield weighted mean ages of 449 to 422 Ma, and REE patterns (flat HREE, no Eu anomaly) and inclusions of garnet, omphacite, and rutile indicate these ages record eclogite-facies metamorphism. The coherent field relations of these samples, and the similar range of individual ages in each sample suggests that the ???25 m.y. age range reflects the duration of eclogite-facies conditions in the studied samples. Analyses from zircon cores in one sample yield scattered 433 to 474 Ma ages, reflecting partial overlap on rims, and constrain the minimum age of eclogite protolith crystallization. Inclusions of Th + REE-rich epidote, and zircon REE patterns are consistent with prograde metamorphic growth. In the Lu??liang Shan, approximately 350 km northwest in the North Qaidam terrane, ages interpreted to record eclogite-facies metamorphism of eclogite and garnet peridotite are as old as 495 Ma and as young as 414 Ma, which suggests that processes responsible for extended high-pressure residence are not restricted to the Dulan region. Evidence of prolonged eclogite-facies metamorphism in HP/UHP localities in the Northeast Greenland eclogite province, the Western Gneiss Region of Norway, and the western Alps suggests that long eclogite-facies residence may be globally significant in continental subduction/collision zones.

Mattinson, C. G.; Wooden, J. L.; Liou, J. G.; Bird, D. K.; Wu, C. L.

2006-01-01

282

Serological and molecular evidence for natural infection of Bactrian camels with multiple subgenotypes of bovine viral diarrhea virus in Western China.  

PubMed

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infects both domestic and wild animals, causing substantial economic losses. In order to investigate possible infection in Bactrian camels in Western China, a total of 56 blood samples were collected from clinically healthy Bactrian camels and tested for BVDV antigens and antibodies using antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization test. The antigen-positive samples (n=17) were further tested for viral nucleic acids by species-specific real-time RT-PCR assays, which showed presence of BVDV-1, but not BVDV-2 nor atypical bovine pestivirus, in the camel samples. Twelve non-cytopathogenic viruses were isolated and genetically typed by sequencing of the 5'untranslated region (5'UTR) and N(pro) coding sequences. Phylogenetic analysis divided the isolates into six known subgenotypes: BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, BVDV-1c, BVDV-1m, BVDV-1o, BVDV-1p and a putative subgenotype, BVDV-1q. This study provides, for the first time, serological and molecular evidence for natural infection of Bactrian camels in Western China with highly divergent BVDV-1 strains. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the possible roles of Bactrian camels in the epidemiology of BVD in Western China. PMID:23313538

Gao, Shandian; Luo, Jihuai; Du, Junzheng; Lang, Yifei; Cong, Guozheng; Shao, Junjun; Lin, Tong; Zhao, Furong; Belák, Sándor; Liu, Lihong; Chang, Huiyun; Yin, Hong

2012-12-22

283

Environmental contamination of heavy metals from zinc smelting areas in Hezhang County, western Guizhou, China.  

PubMed

Total heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) concentrations were evaluated in smelting waste, soil, crop and moss samples collected from the Hezhang artisanal zinc smelting areas, Guizhou, China. Soil samples from the cornfield near the smelting sites contained extremely high Cd (5.8-74 mg kg(-1)), Pb (60-14,000 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (260-16,000 mg kg(-1)) concentrations. Elevated heavy metal concentrations were also found in corn plants and total Pb (0.80-1.5 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (0.05-0.76 mg kg(-1)) concentrations in corn grain have totally or partially exceeded the national guidance limits for foodstuff. Thus, the soil-to-crop transfer of heavy metals might pose a potential health risk to the local residents. Similar to the high heavy metal levels in soil and corn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in moss samples collected from the smelting sites ranged from 10 to 110, 10 to 55, 26 to 51, 400 to 1200 and 330 to 1100 mg kg(-1), respectively, exhibiting a local spatial pattern of metals deposition from the atmosphere. Based on examination of Zn/Cd and Pb/Cd ratios of the analyzed samples, we have distinguished between the flue gas dust derived and smelting waste derived metals in different environmental compartments. PMID:16806473

Bi, Xiangyang; Feng, Xinbin; Yang, Yuangen; Qiu, Guangle; Li, Guanghui; Li, Feili; Liu, Taoze; Fu, Zhiyou; Jin, Zhisheng

2006-06-27

284

Microbiotic crusts and their interrelations with environmental factors in the Gurbantonggut desert, western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located in the Junggar Basin in Xinjiang, the Gurbantonggut Desert is the second largest desert in China. Microbiotic crusts consisting of animalcule, lichen, moss, and algae species develop extensively in the region. Their formation, species composition and distribution pattern are closely related to the environmental conditions along the different parts of sand dune. Analysis of microbiotic crust distribution and relationship to environmental factors shows that average microbiotic crust thickness is 0.05 0.1 cm at the tops dunes, 0.2 1.5 cm in the upper part, 1.5 2.5 cm in middle and lower parts of dunes, and 1.5 5.0 cm in interdune areas, while areal coverage is 30.5, 48.5, 55.5, and 75.5%, respectively. Microbiotic crust differentiation along dune slopes is a result of the development stage and converse-succession resistance of the different microbiotic crusts. The numbers of species, thickness and degree of development of microbiotic crusts increase from the upper part to the middle and lower parts of dune slopes. The development and differentiation of microbiotic crusts at various dune slope positions are a reflection of the ecological expression of the comprehensive adaptability and natural selection of different microbiotic crust species to the local environmental conditions, and are closely related to such ecological conditions as the physiochemical properties of soils and topsoil textural stability.

Chen, Y. N.; Wang, Q.; Li, W. H.; Ruan, X.

2007-04-01

285

Paragneiss zircon geochronology and trace element geochemistry, North Qaidam HP/UHP terrane, western China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the southeastern part of the North Qaidam terrane, near Dulan, paragneiss hosts minor peridotite and UHP eclogite. Zircon geochronology and trace element geochemistry of three paragneiss samples (located within a ???3 km transect) indicates that eclogite-facies metamorphism resulted in variable degrees of zircon growth and recrystallization in the three samples. Inherited zircon core age groups at 1.8 and 2.5 Ga suggest that the protoliths of these rocks may have received sediments from the Yangtze or North China cratons. Mineral inclusions, depletion in HREE, and absence of negative Eu anomalies indicate that zircon U-Pb ages of 431 ?? 5 Ma and 426 ?? 4 Ma reflect eclogite-facies zircon growth in two of the samples. Ti-in-zircon thermometry results are tightly grouped at ???660 and ???600 ??C, respectively. Inclusions of metamorphic minerals, scarcity of inherited cores, and lack of isotopic or trace element inheritance demonstrate that significant new metamorphic zircon growth must have occurred. In contrast, zircon in the third sample is dominated by inherited grains, and rims show isotopic and trace element inheritance, suggesting solid-state recrystallization of detrital zircon with only minor new growth. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

Mattinson, C. G.; Wooden, J. L.; Zhang, J. X.; Bird, D. K.

2009-01-01

286

Attitudes toward HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among men who have sex with men in western China.  

PubMed

Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), as demonstrated in recently published clinical trials, is one promising approach for controlling the emerging epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). We evaluated the attitudes towards use of PrEP among MSM in western China. A total of 1402 participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Overall, 22% of the participants reported that they had heard of PrEP, <1% had ever used medicine to prevent HIV, and 64% reported that they were absolutely willing to use PrEP if it were proven to be safe and effective. The predictors of willingness to use PrEP included lower education, moderate income compared with the lowest income, never or rarely finding sexual partners through the Internet in the past 6 months, sexually transmitted infection (STI) history, more knowledge of AIDS, worrying about HIV as a threat to themselves and their family, having previously heard of PrEP, and believing that PrEP was effective in preventing HIV. This study demonstrates that Chinese MSM have moderate awareness of PrEP and a high interest in using it. PMID:23425017

Zhang, Yan; Peng, Bin; She, Ying; Liang, Hao; Peng, Hong-Bin; Qian, Han-Zhu; Vermund, Sten H; Zhong, Xiao-Ni; Huang, Ailong

2013-02-20

287

Seasonal-to-interannual variability of chlorophyll in central western South China Sea extracted from SeaWiFS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using 10-year (January 1998-October 2007) dataset of Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), we extracted the dominant spatial patterns and temporal variations of the chlorophyll distribution in the central western South China Sea (SCS) through Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis. The results show that the first EOF mode is characterized by a high chlorophyll concentration zone along the Vietnam coast. We found two peaks in summer (July-August) and in winter (December), respectively, in normal years. The second EOF mode is characterized by a jet-shaped tongue of high chlorophyll concentration extending seaward to the northeast in summer (July-August). To investigate the interannual variability of the chlorophyll concentration, we extracted the first non-seasonal (annual cycle removed) EOF mode, which shows high spatial variability off the southeast Vietnam coast. Both spatial pattern and time coefficients correspond well with those of sea surface temperature mode, and are closely correlated to ENSO events, with a lag of 7 months.

Qiu, Fuwen; Fang, Wendong; Fang, Guohong

2011-01-01

288

Platform margins, reef facies, and microbial carbonates; a comparison of Devonian reef complexes in the Canning Basin, Western Australia, and the Guilin region, South China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Devonian reef complexes were well developed in Western Australia and South China, but no detailed direct comparison has been made between reef building in the two regions. The regions differ in several respects, including tectonic, stratigraphic and palaeoceanographic-palaeogeographic settings, and the reef building styles reflect minor differences in reef builders and reef facies. Similarities and differences between the two reef complexes provide insights into the characteristics of platform margins, reef facies and microbial carbonates of both regions. Here we present a comparison of platform margin types from different stratigraphic positions in the Late Devonian reef complex of the Canning Basin, Western Australia and Middle and Late Devonian margin to marginal slope successions in Guilin, South China. Comparisons are integrated into a review of the reefal stratigraphy of both regions. Reef facies, reef complex architecture, temporal reef builder associations, 2nd order stratigraphy and platform cyclicity in the two regions were generally similar where the successions overlap temporally. However, carbonate deposition began earlier in South China. Carbonate complexes were also more widespread in South China and represent a thicker succession overall. Platforms in the Canning Basin grew directly on Precambrian crystalline basement or early Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks, but in South China, carbonate complexes developed conformably on older Devonian siliciclastic strata. Pre-Frasnian reef facies in South China had more abundant skeletal frameworks than in Canning Basin reefs of equivalent age, and Famennian shoaling margins containing various microbial reefs may have been more common and probably more diverse in South China. However, Late Devonian platform margin types have been documented more completely in the Canning Basin. Deep intra-platform troughs (deep depressions containing non-carbonate pelagic sediments — Nandan-type successions) that developed along syndepositional faults characterize Devonian carbonate platforms in South China, but have no equivalent on the Lennard Shelf, Canning Basin where inter-reef areas were more shallow. The South China platform-to-depression pattern was generally continuous from the Lower to Upper Devonian, indicating that many pre-Devonian tectonic features continued to exercise considerable effect through deposition. Localized, fault-controlled subsidence was an important factor in both regions, but similarities in 2nd order aggradation-progradation cycles suggest that eustasy was also an important control on the larger scale stratigraphic development of both regions.

Shen, Jian-Wei; Webb, Gregory E.; Jell, John S.

2008-05-01

289

Preliminary study on PAH degradation by bacteria from contaminated sediments in Xiamen Western Sea, Fujian, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to estimate the biodegradation of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds, bacterial strains were isolated from marine sediments in three heavily contaminated sites (Yuandang Lake, Dongdu Port and Aquacultural zones in Maluan Bay) in Xiamen Western Sea. The results show three bacterial strains, which used pyrene as the sole carbon source, were identified as strains of Aureobacterium sp., Arthrobacter sp., Rhodococcus sp. The PAH-degrading bacteria isolated had a strong ability to degrade phenanhrene, fluoranthene and pyrene at different degradation rates. The highest degradation rate was observed when three PAH compounds were mixed with an individual strain in the medium. The three PAHs were degraded after one week with a degradation rate of 89.94% for phenanthrene and 93.4% for both of fluoranthene and pyrene. In addition, after 25 days of incubation, the degradation rate was 99.98% for phenanthrene and 99.97% for both of fluoranthene and pyrene. Optical density was measured to estimate bacterial growth during the degradation of PAHs. Highest levels of bacterial growth were observed with a three PAH mixture in the culture, suggesting that the concentration of PAHs influenced bacterial growth and the highest levels of degradation for most series were detected after one week of incubation.

Khalid, Maskaoui; Zheng, Tianling; Hong, Huasheng; Yu, Zhiming; Yuan, Jianjun; Hu, Zhong

2004-12-01

290

The Good Person of Sichuan and the Chinese cultural tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among 20th century German writers, Brecht was the most actively interested in the research and adaptation of Chinese culture. Via a\\u000a series of comparisons, this article reveals that his play The Good Person of Sichuan (Der gute Mensch von Sezuan) was in fact based on the Yuan poetic drama A Sister Courtesan Comes to the Rescue (Zhao Pan’er fengyue jiu

Li Zhang

2009-01-01

291

Socio-hydrologic Perspectives of the Co-evolution of Humans and Water in the Tarim River Basin, Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Socio-hydrology studies the co-evolution of coupled human-water systems, which is of great importance for long-term sustainable water resource management in basins suffering from serious eco-environmental degradation. Process socio-hydrology can benefit from the exploring the patterns of historical co-evolution of coupled human-water systems as a way to discovering the organizing principles that may underpin their co-evolution. As a self-organized entity, the human-water system in a river basin would evolve into certain steady states over a sufficiently long time but then could also experience sudden shifts due to internal or external disturbances that exceed system thresholds. In this study, we discuss three steady states (also called stages in the social sciences, including natural, human exploitation and recovery stages) and transitions between these during the past 1500 years in the Tarim River Basin of Western China, which a rich history of civilization including its place in the famous Silk Road that connected China to Europe. Specifically, during the natural stage with a sound environment that existed before the 19th century, shifts in the ecohydrological regime were mainly caused by environmental changes such river channel migration and climate change. During the human exploitation stages in the 5th and again in the 19th-20th centuries, however, humans gradually became the main drivers for system evolution, during which the basin experienced rapid population growth, fast socio-economic development and intense human activities. By the 1970s, after 200 years of colonization, the Tarim River Basin evolved into a new regime with vulnerable ecosystem and water system, and suffered from serious water shortages and desertification. Human society then began to take a critical look into the effects of their activities and reappraise the impact of human development on the ecohydrological system, which eventually led the basin into a treatment and recovery stage. Since then, the basin has shown a reverse trend of regime shift towards healing of the environmental damage that was inflicted in the previous stage of human development. In this paper we analyze the recasting effect of human activities on the water system and provide explanations on how human activities influence the co-evolution of human-water system from a broader perspective.

Liu, Ye; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Heping; Liu, Dengfeng; Sivapalan, Murugesu

2013-04-01

292

Crustal flow in western Yunnan, China, and along the Mogok belt, Myanmar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mode of deformation along the eastern boundary of the northward moving Indian block during the Cenozoic is still controversial. Models considered are: (i) southward lateral extrusion of a single crustal block bounded by the right lateral Sagaing fault in Myanmar and the left-lateral Aialo-Shan shear zone (ASSZ) in Yunnan; (ii) southward lateral extrusion of at least two different crustal blocks between the right-lateral S(W)-striking Gaoligong Shan shear zone (GSSZ), the NW-trending Chong Shan shear zone (CSSZ), and the ASSZ. We present a radically different new model: the GSSZ and CSSZ constitute a folded sub-horizontal detachment separating the brittle upper crust from the middle-lower crust represented by the Mogok igneous and metamorphic belt. The kinematics of flow along the detachment was dominantly top-to-S. Folding of the detachment was coeval with and followed top-to-S flow. In the brittle crust, ~E-W shortening is expressed by a fold-thrust belt, and in the ductile crust by L>S tectonites. The deformation pattern is preliminary interpreted as reflecting gravitationally driven flow of upper crustal material from Tibet towards SE-Asia, reminiscent to what is observed by GPS geodesy today. New Mogok-belt granitoid U-Pb zircon dates span the Early to Late Cretaceous (peaks at ~125; 115; 90, and 65 Ma) and tie the Mogok belt to the Gangdese arc of the Lhasa block. New Tertiary magmatic and metamorphic U-Pb zircon dates are 40-30 Ma, similar to magmatism observed across SE-Asia and similar to the monazite age of dikes that we interpret as pre-tectonic along CSSZ [1]. Published and new 40Ar/39Ar dates show that rapid cooling, that we relate to onset of high-strain deformation along the shear zones, started at 20-15 Ma [2, 3]. Fission-track and (U-Th)/He thermochronology indicates that its activity continued at least to 6-3 Ma. References: [1] Akciz, S., Burchfiel, B. C., Crowley, J. L., Jiyun, Y., and Liangzhong, C. (2008): Geometry, kinematics, and regional significance of the Chong Shan shear zone, Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis, Yunnan, China: Geosphere, Febr. 2008, v. 4, p. 292-314. [2] Lin, T.-H., Lo, S.-L., Hsu, F.-J., Yeh, M.-W., Lee, T.-Y., Ji, J.-Q., Wang, Y.-Z., and Liu, D. (2009): 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Jiali and Gaoligong shear zones: Implications for crustal deformation around the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis: Journal of Asian Earth Science, v. 34, p. 674-685. [3] Zhang, B., Zhang, J, Zhong, D., Yang, L., Yue, Y., and Yan, S. (2012): Polystage deformation of the Gaoligong metamorphic zone: Structures, 40Ar/39Ar mica ages, and tectonic implications: Journal of Structural Geology v. 37, p. 1-18.

Sonntag, Benita-Lisette; Min, Myo; Enkelmann, Eva; Kornfeld, Daniela; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Pfänder, Jörg; Jonckheere, Raymond; Dunkl, István

2013-04-01

293

Provenance of sediments from Mesozoic basins in western Shandong: Implications for the evolution of the eastern North China Block  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dates and in situ Hf isotope analyses of detrital zircons from the Mesozoic basins in western Shandong, China, with the aim to constrain the depositional ages and provenances of the Mesozoic strata as well as the Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the eastern North China Block (NCB). The Mesozoic strata in western Shandong, from bottom to top, include the Fenghuangshan, Fangzi, Santai and Wennan formations. Most of the analyzed zircon grains exhibit oscillatory growth zoning and have relatively high Th/U ratios (generally 0.2-3.4), suggesting a magmatic origin. Zircons from the Fenghuangshan Formation in the Zhoucun Basin yield six main age populations (2489, 1854, 331, 305, 282, and 247 Ma). Zircons from the Fangzi Formation in the Zhoucun and Mengyin basins yield eight main age populations (2494, 1844, 927, 465, 323, 273, 223, and 159 Ma) and ten main age populations (2498, 1847, 932, 808, 540, 431, 315, 282, 227, and 175 Ma), respectively, whereas zircons from the Santai Formation in the Zhoucun and Mengyin basins yield nine main age populations (2519, 1845, 433, 325, 271, 237, 192, 161, and 146 Ma) and six main age populations (2464, 1845, 853, 277, 191, and 150 Ma), respectively. Five main age populations (2558, 1330, 609, 181, and 136 Ma) are detected for zircons from the Wennan Formation in the Pingyi Basin. Based on the youngest age, together with the contact relationships among formations, we propose that the Fenghuangshan Formation formed in the Early-Middle Triassic, the Fangzi Formation in the Middle-Late Jurassic, the Santai Formation after the Late Jurassic, and the Wennan Formation after the Early Cretaceous. These results, together with previously published data, indicate that: (1) the sediments of the Fenghuangshan Formation were sourced from the Precambrian basement and from late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic igneous rocks in the northern part of the NCB; (2) the sediments of the Fangzi and Santai formations were sourced from the Precambrian basement, late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic igneous rocks in the northern part of the NCB, and the Sulu terrane, as well as from Middle-Late Jurassic igneous rocks in the southeastern part of the NCB; and (3) the Wennan Formation was sourced from the Tongshi intrusive complex, the Sulu terrane, and minor Precambrian basement and Early Cretaceous igneous rocks. The evolution of detrital provenance indicates that in the Early-Middle Triassic, the northern part of the NCB was higher than its interior; during the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, the eastern NCB was uplifted, resulting in a period of non-deposition; and an important transition from a compressional to an extensional tectonic regime occurred during the Middle-Late Jurassic. The presence of Neoproterozoic and Triassic detrital zircons in the Fangzi Formation sourced from the Sulu terrane suggests that large-scale sinistral strike-slip movement along the Tan-Lu Fault Zone did not occur after the Middle Jurassic (ca. 175 Ma).

Yang, De-Bin; Xu, Wen-Liang; Xu, Yi-Gang; Pei, Fu-Ping; Wang, Feng

2013-10-01

294

Gracilimonas mengyeensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from a salt mine in Yunnan, south-western China.  

PubMed

A facultatively anaerobic, Gram-staining-negative, pale red-pigmented, non-motile, rod-shaped, moderately halophilic bacterium, designated strain YIM J14T, was isolated from a sediment sample of a salt mine in Yunnan, south-western China. Growth occurred at NaCl concentrations of between 2 % and 15 % (w/v) and optimally with 5-9 % NaCl. The optimum temperature and pH of the strain were 28 °C and pH 7.5. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C17:1?9c/10-methyl-C16:0. The polar lipid profile was composed predominantly of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and one unknown phospholipid. Minor amounts of other lipids were also detectable. The genomic DNA G + C content was 47.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons that strain YIM J14T was related to Gracilimonas tropica in the phylum Bacteroidetes. Level of 16S rRNA gene sequences similarity between strain YIM J14T and Gracilimonas tropica CL-CB462T was 96.9 %. The DNA-DNA hybridization experiment between strain YIM J14T and Gracilimonas tropica indicated levels of relatedness of 28 %. Chemotaxonomic data supported the placement of strain YIM J14T in the genus Gracilimonas. DNA-DNA hybridization study and biochemical and physiological characterization allowed strain YIM J14T to be differentiated from Gracilimonas tropica. It is therefore considered to represent a novel species of the genus Gracilimonas, for which the name Gracilimonas mengyeensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain YIM J14T (=ACCC 10717T=DSM 21985T). PMID:23710054

Wang, Yong-Xia; Li, Ya-Ping; Liu, Ji-Hui; Xiao, Wei; Lai, Yong-Hong; Li, Zhi-Ying; Ding, Zhang-Gui; Wen, Meng-Liang; Cui, Xiao-Long

2013-05-24

295

Maturity effect on carbazole distributions in source rocks from the saline lacustrine settings, the western Qaidam Basin, NW China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbazole distributions and biomarker compositions have been investigated in a series of source rocks from the Tertiary strata in the western Qaidam Basin, NW China. Typical biomarker signatures, high gammacerane, high C35 hopane and low Pr/Ph, indicate a saline lacustrine environment. Maturity parameter C29 sterane ??? S/S + R ranges from 0.06 to 0.58, indicating immature (ca. <0.35) and mature (ca. >0.35) stages. Significant variations were observed for carbazole distributions with maturation. As for C1-carbazoles, the relative amounts of 1-MC (methylcarbazole) show a decrease trend in the immature stage and an increase trend in the mature stage, while the other three isomers (2-, 3- and 4-MCs) show a generally opposite change, indicating a "two-stage" variation. As for C2-carbazole isomers, complex variations were observed for their relative amounts, an overall increase for 1,7-DMC (dimethylcarbazole), a slight "two-stage" change for 1,8- and 1,3-DMCs and a marked "two-stage" variation for 2,4-, 2,5- and 2,6-DMCs. Comparison of the distributions of carbazole and benzocarbazoles revealed a preferential generation for benzocarbazoles at high maturity levels. Benzocarbazole ratio a/a + c varies only in a narrow range 0.52-0.61 in the entire maturity range, suggesting limited maturity dependence. The results here support the idea that carbazole distributions have strong maturity effect in a wide maturity range and the "two-stage" variations for some pyrrolic nitrogen isomers may indicate their different geochemical controls between the immature and mature stages.

Zhang, Chunming; Zhang, Yuqing; Cai, Chunfang

2011-11-01

296

The Changes in Maternal Mortality in 1000 Counties in Mid-Western China by a Government-Initiated Intervention  

PubMed Central

Background Since 2000, the Chinese government has implemented an intervention program to reduce maternal mortality and eliminate neonatal tetanus in accordance with the Millennium Development Goals 5. To assess the effectiveness of this intervention program, we analyzed the level, trend and reasons defining the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in the 1,000 priority counties before and after implementation of the intervention between 1999 and 2007. Methodology/Principal Findings The data was obtained from the National Maternal and Child Health Routine Reporting System. The intervention included providing basic and emergency obstetric equipment and supplies to local medical hospitals, and also included providing professional training to local obstetric doctors, development of obstetric emergency centers and “green channel” express referral networks, reducing or waiving the cost of hospital delivery, and conducting community health education. Based on the initiation time of the intervention and the level of poverty, 1,000 counties, containing a total population of 300 million, were categorized into three groups. MMR significantly decreased by about 50%, with an average reduction rate of 9.24%, 16.06%, and 18.61% per year in the three county groups, respectively. The hospital delivery rate significantly increased. Obstetric hemorrhage was the leading cause of maternal deaths and significantly declined, with an average decrease in the MMR of 11.25%, 18.03%, and 24.90% per year, respectively. The magnitude of the MMR, the average reduction rate of the MMR, and the occurrence of the leading causes of death were closely associated with the percentage of poverty. Conclusions/Significance The intervention program implemented by the Chinese government has significantly reduced the MMR in mid-western China, suggesting that well-targeted interventions could be an efficient strategy to reducing MMR in resource-poor areas. Reduction of the MMR not only depends on conducting proven interventions, but also relies on economic development in rural areas with a high burden of maternal death.

Dai, Li; Zeng, Weiyue; Li, Qi; Li, Mingrong; Zhou, Rong; He, Chunhua; Wang, Yanping; Zhu, Jun

2012-01-01

297

Remote sensing, paleoecology, and the archaeology of human migration during the Pleistocene in central Asia and western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing used in the context of global information systems has enormous applications within archaeology. This technology enables the discovery of new archaeological features and promotes an understanding of the relationship between ecosystem and cultural dynamics. Archaeologists are able to add a time dimension to 'creeping environmental changes' that other areas of scientific inquiry concerned with climate change often lack. Remote sensing and other aerial prospecting has been used successfully to model land use and population expansions during relatively recent archaeological eras, such as the Bronze and Iron Ages. Although satellite image databases exist for numerous areas of the New and Old World, very little research has been conducted in Central Asia or western China. This region is historically significant because of its position along the important trading route called the Silk Road. The purpose of the present research is to investigate another poorly understood period of human history that would benefit from the application of remote sensing and associated ground truthing techniques. The migration of hominids out of Africa during the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene and their subsequent colonization of north-central, east, and south-east Asia is relatively well documented in the archaeological record and marks the beginning of the long-term process of human impacts on the region. However, the trajectory of dispersal of Homo erectus, Neandertals, and early modern humans and the ways by which ecosystem vagaries affected this dispersal across Eurasia is unknown. Our purpose is to summarize what is currently known about the geological indicators of ecosystem changes that remote sensing techniques provide and how ecosystem variables may allow us to model human migration as that of an invasive species through this important geographic crossroads of the Old World.

Glantz, Michelle M.; Todd, Lawrence

2003-07-01

298

Soil Degradation and Soil Productivity Restoration and Maintenance in Hilly Land of Southern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil fertility degeneration and land productivity loss caused by soil erosion are severe problems in hilly land of southern China. A long term field experiment was conducted during 1984 to 1993 to determine soil productivity in a typical degraded hilly area of purple soil (orthic Entisol) in Yanting, Sichuan, China. Results showed that a conservation tillage system with ridge-furrow cropping

Bo Zhu; Meirong Gao; Gangcai Liu; Jianhui Zhang; Shi Chen; Xianwan Zhang

2002-01-01

299

China's \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that China may be on the verge of a “Green Leap Forward” that could make it a global environmental leader. This article argues that two principal forces have contributed to this development. First, Chinese officials now realize that a global shift away from fossil fuels will create enormous business opportunities on a global scale. Chinese companies are

Robert V. Percival

2011-01-01

300

Comparison of Three Intervention Models for Promoting Circumcision among Migrant Workers in Western China to Reduce Local Sexual Transmission of HIV  

PubMed Central

Objective Three models for promoting male circumcision (MC) as a preventative intervention against HIV infection were compared among migrant worker populations in western China. Methods A cohort study was performed after an initial cross-sectional survey among migrant workers in three provincial level districts with high HIV prevalence in western China. A total of 1,670 HIV seronegative male migrants were cluster-randomized into three intervention models, in which the dissemination of promotional materials and expert- and volunteer-led discussions are conducted in one, two, and three stage interventions. Changes in knowledge of MC, acceptability of MC, MC surgery uptake, and the costs of implementation were analyzed at 6-month and 9-month follow-up visits. Results All three models significantly increased the participants’ knowledge about MC. The three-stage model significantly increased the acceptability of MC among participants and led to greatest increase in MC uptake. At the end of follow-up, 9.2% (153/1,670) of participants underwent MC surgery; uptake among the one-, two-, and three-stage models were 4.9%, 9.3%, and 14.6%, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that three-stage model was the most effective method to scale up MC, with RR = 2.0 (95% CI, 1.3-3.1, P=0.002) compared to the on-site session model. The two-stage intervention model showed no significant difference with either the on-site session model (RR=1.5, 95% CI, 0.92-2.4, P=0.12) or three-stage model (P=0.10). Conclusions A three-stage intervention with gradual introduction of knowledge led to the significantly increase in MC uptake among migrant workers in western China, and was also the most cost-effective method among the three models.

Ye, Li; Yang, Xiaobo; Wei, Bo; Deng, Wei; Wei, Suosu; Huang, Jiegang; Qin, Bo; Upur, Halmurat; Zhong, Chaohui; Wang, Qianqiu; Wang, Qian; Ruan, Yuhua; Wei, Fumei; Xu, Na; Xie, Peiyan; Hsi, Jenny H.; Shao, Yiming; Liang, Hao

2013-01-01

301

Formal system and farmers' system: the impact of CIMMYT maize germplasm in South-western China1  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has followed a modern technology oriented approach and has relied predominantly on its public agricultural research system to ensure the national food security. However, national food security not necessary mean food security for all. Poverty and food insecurity are still issues in China. The impact of agricultural research on poverty alleviation has increasingly drawn attention from the International Agricultural

Yiching Song

302

Effect of household and village characteristics on financial catastrophe and impoverishment due to health care spending in Western and Central Rural China: A multilevel analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The study aimed to examine the effect of household and community characteristics on financial catastrophe and impoverishment\\u000a due to health payment in Western and Central Rural China.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A household survey was conducted in 2008 in Hebei and Shaanxi provinces and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region using a multi-stage\\u000a sampling technique. Independent variables included village characteristics, household income, chronic illness status,

Wuxiang Shi; Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong; Alan Geater; Junhua Zhang; Hong Zhang; Daniele Brombal

2011-01-01

303

Analytical and finite element modeling of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake from DInSAR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnitude Mw = 8.0 earthquake that struck China's Sichuan region on 12 May 2008 has been imaged by X, C, and L-band SAR satellites (ASI's Cosmo-Skymed, ESA's ENVISAT, and NASDA's ALOS, respectively), allowing to attempt the recovering of the ground deformation associated to the fault dislocation. We analyzed all the available Cosmo stripmap images (3-m resolution), some ENVISAT frames, and more than sixty ALOS-PALSAR scenes. The X and C band interferograms show good coherence only in the lowland, near the city of Chengdu, but the coherence decreases dramatically in the strong relief areas. Moreover their spatial coverage is limited with respect to the large extent of the fault (~ 300 km long). The best coverage is provided by PALSAR interferograms which maintain very good coherence also in the mountain areas, thanks to the long wavelength of the L band (23.8 cm). We calculated ~ 45 differential PALSAR interferograms across time spans of a few months, obtaining a good view of the co-seismic surface deformation along the fault. We observe over 2.5 m of Line of Sight ground displacement. We use the displacement field to infer the geometry and the slip distribution of the seismogenic fault, by means of a linear and non-linear inversion of an analytic elastic source; an additional modelling is then performed by means of a finite element approach.

Atzori, S.; Bignami, C.; Brunori, C.; Chini, M.; Tolomei, C.; Trasatti, E.; Stramondo, S.; Salvi, S.

2008-12-01

304

Description of two new species of Cossidae (Lepidoptera) from China.  

PubMed

Two new Cossidaespecies from China's Zhejiang and Sichuan provinces are described. The new species Phragmataecia monikasp. n.and Patoptoformis rimsaitesp. n. superficially resemble related congeners but can be distinguished by differences in wing pattern, genitalia and distribution. Checklists of the genera Phragmataecia and Patoptoformis are presented. PMID:22639538

Ivinskis, Povilas; Rimsaite, Jolanta; Saldaitis, Aidas; Yakovlev, Roman

2012-05-08

305

A new Stenoloba Staudinger species from China (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Bryophilinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of Stenoloba, Stenoloba viridicollar sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) is described from Sichuan, China. Illustrations of adults and the genitalia of both sexes are provided. A diagnostic comparison is made with Stenoloba rufosagitta Kononenko & Ronkay, 2001 and S. rufosagittoides Han & Kononenko, 2009.

Pekarsky, Oleg

2011-01-01

306

Application of satellite remote sensing and eco-hydrodynamic model in environmental and fisheries research in western part of South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South China Sea (SCS), one of the largest sea in the western part of the Pacific Ocean. This region is most important heat storage of the World Ocean with the highest value of the mean SST. The hydrological and Biological conditions of the South China Sea is principally determined by reversing monsoon winds and has fort seasonal variations. During the south-west monsoon period, from June to September, the upwelling phenomenon is developed and expanded in the western part of SCS. Due to upwelling development, the vulnerability and catch ability of fish stocks in this region is considerably changed. Using AVHRR data (JPL PO.DAAC) and 3D hydrodynamic primitive equation model demonstrated the variation of the upwelling conditions and the role of oceanic structure in the habitat and migration patterns of high migratory pelagic fishes and tuna and tuna-liked species in waters off the coast of Vietnam. The AVHRR data are currently used in research mode to determine possible improvements in prediction of fishing zones by combining these data with CZCS, SeaWiFS data and model simulations.

van Uu, D.

307

Intron polymorphism (EPIC-PCR) reveals phylogeographic structure of Zacco platypus in China: a possible target for aquaculture development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims at a phylogeographic description of Zacco platypus from southeast China, in order to detect subdivisions within the nominal species. Two main basins were sampled: the Chang Jiang (Yangstze River) in central and east China (Hunan and Sichuan provinces) and the Xi Jiang, the more southern main tributary of the Zhu Jiang (Pearl River, Guangxi province). A

P Berrebi; E Boissin; F Fang; G Cattaneo-Berrebi

2005-01-01

308

The quasi-stationary feature of nocturnal precipitation in the Sichuan Basin and the role of the Tibetan Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nocturnal precipitation in the Sichuan Basin in summer has been studied in many previous works. This paper expands the study on the diurnal cycle of precipitation in the Sichuan Basin to the whole year. Results show that the nocturnal precipitation has a specific quasi-stationary feature in the basin. It occurs not only in summer but also in other three seasons, even more remarkable in spring and autumn than in summer. There is a prominent eastward timing delay in the nocturnal precipitation, that is, the diurnal peak of precipitation occurs at early-night in the western basin whereas at late-night in the center and east of the basin. The Tibetan Plateau plays an essential role in the formation of this quasi-stationary nocturnal precipitation. The early-night peak of precipitation in the western basin is largely due to strong ascending over the plateau and its eastern lee side. In the central and eastern basin, three coexisting factors contribute to the late-night peak of precipitation. One is the lower-tropospheric southwesterly flow around the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, which creates a strong cyclonic rotation and ascendance in the basin at late-night, as well as brings abundant water vapor. The second is the descending motion downslope along the eastern lee side of the plateau, together with an air mass accumulation caused by the warmer air mass transport from the southeast of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, creating a diabatic warming at low level of the troposphere in the central basin. The third is a cold advection from the plateau to the basin at late-night, which leads to a cooling in the middle troposphere over the central basin. All these factors are responsible for precipitation to occur at late-night in the central to eastern basin.

Jin, Xia; Wu, Tongwen; Li, Laurent

2013-08-01

309

This research brief was produced as part of the China Environment Forum's partnership with Western Kentucky University on the USAID-supported China Environmental Health Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of China's environmental crises—from industrial contamination to desertification— have become government priorities and made news around the world. One serious pollution issue that is not yet heavily prioritized or making headlines is the waste produced in the country's 14,000 factory farms (a.k.a. concentrated animal feeding operations, CAFOs) that threaten the environment and human health.(1) In 2003, it was estimated

Linden Ellis; Jennifer L. Turner

310

A GROUND-TRUTH DATABASE FOR CENTRAL CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have constructed a ground-truth database consisting of phase-picks data and other geological and geophysical information in Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces in central China. The database includes 1,600 regional seismic events with over 40,000 phase picks recorded by the regional seismic network in central China from 1985 to 1994. The distribution of the seismic events covers the area 97oE to

W. Winston Chan; Xiaoxi Ni

311

Concentration, distribution and variation of polar organic aerosol tracers in Ya'an, a middle-sized city in western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 ?m) and TSP (total suspended particulates) aerosol samples were collected in Ya'an, a middle-sized city with extensive wood resources in Southwestern China, to characterize the contribution of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) to the regional troposphere, the composition of the organic tracers as well as factors affecting their concentrations. A total of 34 samples were gathered on the Campus of Sichuan Agricultural University (SAU, urban site, in the city zone of Ya'an), while 49 samples were collected at Baima Spring Scenic Area (BSSA, forest site, situated about 30 km to the northeast of SAU) during June to July, 2010. Using GC/MS analysis with prior trimethylsilylation, organic tracers including isoprene oxidation products (2-methyltetrols, C5-alkene triols and 2-methylglyceric acid), ?-/?-pinene oxidation products (norpinic acid, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, 3-hydroxy-4,4-dimethylglutaric acid, and 3-methyl-1,2,3- butanetricarboxylic acid), a sesquiterpene oxidation product (?-caryophyllinic acid), sugars (glucose and fructose), sugar alcohols (arabitol, mannitol, erythritol, sorbitol and xylitol), anhydrosugars (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan) and malic acid were determined. The factors that could potentially affect the SOA tracer concentrations, i.e. trace gases (SO2, NOx, O3, NH3), aerosol acidity and meteorological parameters, were monitored. The results showed that the concentrations of total isoprene oxidation products were 72 and 82 ng/m3 at the two sampling locations, with 29 ± 18, 37 ± 9, 6 ± 2 ng/m3 at SAU and 57 ± 34, 33 ± 33, 4 ± 2 ng/m3 at BSSA for 2-methyltetrols, C5-alkene triols and 2-methylglyceric acid respectively. Compared with the concentrations of isoprene oxidation products, those of ?-/?-pinene oxidation products and ?-caryophyllinic acid were much lower, being 6 ± 33 and 0.5 ± 1.9 ng/m3 at SAU, and 9 ± 14 and 1.0 ± 1.2 ng/m3 at BSSA, respectively. The unique composition of isoprene oxidation products, particularly, the high concentrations of the C5-alkene triols and their relative abundances comparable to those of the 2-methyltetrols, are possibly due to the fact that they are formed through acid-catalyzed reactions of C5-epoxydiols on weak acidic aerosols. Moreover, sugars and sugar alcohols were measured in important fractions at the two study areas, with the median concentrations of 309.7 and 465.7 ng/m3 at SAU and BSSA, respectively. The high abundances of sugar and sugar alcohols in the study area are explained by the robust metabolism of microorganism in the fertile soil under the warm and moist climate as well as vigorous physiological activities of vegetations in the exuberant subtropical areas. The detected organic tracers accounted in total for 1.5-1.8% of organic carbon (OC) in the study atmosphere, and about 15-21% of the OC could in total be apportioned to biogenic aerosol sources and source processes.

Li, Li; Dai, Dongjue; Deng, Shihuai; Feng, Jialiang; Zhao, Min; Wu, Jun; Liu, Lu; Yang, Xiaohui; Wu, Sishi; Qi, Hui; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Wang, Yingjun; Zhang, Yanzong

2013-02-01

312

Shear-wave splitting of Sichuan Regional Seismic Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using seismic data recorded by the Chengdu Digital Seismic Network from May 1, 2000 to December 31, 2006, we obtain the dominant polarization directions of fast shear-waves at eight digital seismic stations adopting the SAM technique. The results show that the dominant directions of polarizations of fast shear-waves at most of stations are mainly in nearly NE-SW or NW-SE direction in Sichuan. The dominant polarization directions of the fast shear-waves at stations located at the active faults or intersection of several active faults are consistent with the strikes of active faults which control the earthquakes used in the analysis, and are basically consistent with the directions of regional compression axis. However, several stations show that the fast shear-waves are not consistent with the strikes of active faults and the directions of regional compression axis, due to the influence of local complicated crustal structure.

Zhang, Yong-Jiu; Gao, Yuan; Shi, Yu-Tao; Cheng, Wan-Zheng

2008-03-01

313

How China utilizes biogas in rural areas  

SciTech Connect

An outline is presented of how China utilizes biogas in rural areas. Already, 7,140,000 small biogas digesters have been built. Sichuan province has 4,160,000 digesters including about 20,000 large digesters which operate diesel engines to generate electricity. This is seen as the key area for further research and development. In rural areas, biogas is used principally for cooking and to power stationary units such as grinding mills, electric generators and crop driers.

Ji, M.

1981-05-01

314

Oral rehydration salt use and its correlates in low-level care of diarrhea among children under 36 months old in rural Western China  

PubMed Central

Background Since 2000, there has been a decline in the proportion of oral rehydration salts (ORS) therapy in childhood diarrhea. How to sustain and achieve a high level of ORS therapy continues to be a challenge. Methods The data of 14112 households and 894 villages in 45 counties across 10 provinces of Western China were collected in 2005. Generalized estimated equation logistic regression models were used to identify the determinants of ORS use in home-based and village-level care. Results The therapy rate of ORS was 34.62%. This rate in home-based care (HBC) was significantly lower than that in village-level care (VLC), township-level care or county-level-or-above care. The children in the families with several pre-school-aged children (OR = 0.29 95% CI: 0.10, 0.86) or of the smaller age (12 vs 36?months: OR = 0.10 95% CI 0.02, 0.41; 24 vs 36?months: OR = 0.26 95% CI 0.09, 0.77) were less likely to receive ORS therapy against diarrhea in HBC. The children whose family had the habit of drinking boiled water (OR = 2.77 95% CI 1.30-5.91), or whose caretakers received educational materials about childhood diseases (OR = 3.08 95% CI 1.54, 6.16), or who were living in the villages in which village clinics had the available ORS packages (OR = 3.94 95% CI 2.25, 6.90) were more likely to receive ORS therapy against diarrhea in VLC. Conclusion There thus, ORS promoting program should give the highest priority to home care. ORS promoting strategies for low-level care could be strengthened based on children characteristics, the habit of drinking water and the situation of receiving educational material in the families and on the availability of ORS packages in village clinics in rural Western China.

2013-01-01

315

Species-level phylogeographical history of Myricaria plants in the mountain ranges of western China and the origin of M. laxiflora in the Three Gorges mountain region.  

PubMed

Myricaria species in China occur mostly in the major high-altitude mountain areas in and around the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The one major exception to this is M. laxiflora which is restricted to the Three Gorges mountain region. In this study, we investigate species-level phylogeographical patterns of Myricaria species in western China and the origin of M. laxiflora. The results show that most chloroplast haplotypes are species-specific, except for one haplotype which is shared by three widespread species. Higher haplotype diversity within the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau region supports the hypothesis that the Himalayas are the centre of origin for Myricaria. The phylogeny of Myricaria was geographically structured, and an estimated Bayesian chronology suggested the main divergence events occurred during the Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene (approximately 1.46-2.30 million years ago). The overall phylogeographical pattern was characterized by vicariance events and regional demographical expansion, reflecting a major influence of geological and climatic events on the evolution of Myricaria species. Our data suggest that M. laxiflora has an ancient origin, but has experienced recent population expansion through the Three Gorges Valley. The origin of M. laxiflora was estimated to be during the Early Pleistocene but its demographical expansion was more recent at about 0.015 million years ago. This highlights the unique phylogeographical history of the Three Gorges mountain region, and the deep imprint of the watercourse connections of the Yangtze River Valley on the phylogeographical structure of the species in this region. PMID:19457193

Liu, Yifei; Wang, Yong; Huang, Hongwen

2009-05-05

316

Trace element chemostratigraphy of two Ediacaran–Cambrian successions in South China: Implications for organosedimentary metal enrichment and silicification in the Early Cambrian  

Microsoft Academic Search

A trace element study is presented of two Ediacaran–Early Cambrian sedimentary successions in South China: the Shatan section, Sichuan Province, which represents a shallow platform setting, and the Songtao section, Guizhou Province, which corresponds to a more basinal, depositional environment. Across South China, sedimentary strata of this age exhibit characteristic trace metal enrichments in generally organic-rich, stratigraphically correlative, transgressive units.

Qingjun Guo; Graham A. Shields; Congqiang Liu; Harald Strauss; Maoyan Zhu; Daohui Pi; Tatiana Goldberg; Xinglian Yang

2007-01-01

317

Terrestriality and tree stratum use in a group of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys.  

PubMed

Morphological characters allow the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) to use multiple tree levels, but very few studies have quantified the terrestriality and tree stratum use of the species. I investigated the terrestriality and tree stratum use in a group of the monkeys from July 2003 to September 2004 (except February) in the Qianjiaping area of Shennongjia Nature Reserve, China. I collected data on the vertical position of individual monkeys in forest in relation to behavior types, diet, age/sex classes, vegetation types, tree height, and distribution of predators. The monkeys were much more arboreal than they were thought to be. They spent 97.1% of their time in trees (n=21,234 records) and 2.9% on the ground, and mainly used the middle (74.4%) and upper strata (17.4%). The monkeys displayed all behavioral types except searching in the middle and upper strata. The percentage of use of a stratum (except the low stratum) varied among months, and there was a difference in the percentage of use of a stratum among age/sex classes and between vegetation types. Approximately 94.2% of trees used by the monkeys were >6 m tall. They mainly fed on lichens, young leaves, mature leaves, flowers, fruits or seeds, and buds in the middle and upper strata, bark in the low and middle strata and herbs on the ground. Wolf (Canis lupus), leopard (Panthera pardus), and golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) are predators threatening the survival of individual monkeys in the study site. The results suggested that the seasonal vertical distribution of food items eaten in forest, predators, and vegetation types had important effects on the terrestriality and tree stratum use of the monkeys. PMID:17265009

Li, Yiming

2007-01-31

318

Intermediate period surface waves from mining explosions for crustal structure and source studies: Application in the western United States and northeast China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of intermediate period surface waves from mining explosions in Western USA (Wyoming) and Northeast China (QianAn) provides constraints on the crustal structure in these regions and the source mechanism of the explosions. Large-scale mining explosions as a result of their long time duration and large spatial extent can generate short- to intermediate-period (1--20 s) surface waves. Regional surface waves observed in the Western US were generated by four large-scale cast blasts in a Wyoming coal mine. Intermediate-period surface waves in Northeast China were generated by a mining explosion in an iron mine. Fundamental mode Rayleigh wave group velocities were estimated using multiple filter analysis and refined by phase matched filtering. Station specific velocity models were determined by linear inversion of the dispersion curves and found to complement known shallow crustal structure in each area. Synthetics based on mining source models and the inverted velocity structure suggest that some combination of mine free face orientation, blasting direction and material casting contribute to the observations. The Wyoming and China studies are presented at Paper I and Paper II, respectively. Assessment of surface wave dispersion provides the opportunity to make intermediate period Ms estimates with path correction. These surface wave magnitude estimates are combined with regional body wave magnitude estimates, mb, and compared to M s:mb data from explosions and earthquakes for purposes of identifying the source type. These results suggest that mining explosions are different from simultaneously detonated explosions and may appear earthquake like. This work is discussed in Paper III. The surface wave inversions used in the first part of the study utilized common linearized inversion procedures. In order to assess the effect of the linearization, a niching genetic algorithm (NGA) was introduced, developed and tested for crustal shear-wave velocity inversion in Paper IV. This procedure maintains the ability to locate multiple solutions to the inversion problem. Application of this new technique to regional surface wave observations from the Powder River Basin illustrates the methodology and identifies multiple models that can then be checked for consistency with other geological and geophysical constraints.

Zhou, Rongmao

319

Performance of Euroline Western Blot Assay in the Detection of Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 Antibody in Uganda, China, and the United States  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection is one of the most commonly sexually transmitted infections worldwide. While glycoprotein G-2 ELISA based assays are commonly used for the serologic detection of HSV-2 infections, they have low specificity in developing countries. Euroline Western blot (WB) is a commercially available assay that is easy to perform; however, little is known about its performance characteristics. This study evaluated Euroline WB for the detection of HSV-2 antibodies compared to University of Washington Western blot in three geographically different regions, Baltimore, Maryland, Rakai, Uganda, and Kunming, China. Among the 135 American men attending an STD clinic in Baltimore, Maryland, 72% (n=97) were HSV-2 positive by Euroline WB. The Euroline WB had a sensitivity of 97.8% and a specificity of 81.8%. Among the 273 commercial sex workers in Kunming, 62.3% were HSV-2 positive by Euroline WB. The Euroline WB had a sensitivity of 96.9% and a specificity of 89.1%. Among the 437 Ugandans in Rakai, 67.3% were HSV-2 positive by Euroline WB. The Euroline WB had a sensitivity of 98.7% and a specificity of 65.4%. The Euroline WB has a consistently high sensitivity, but specificity varied significantly among the different locations.

Neal, Jessica D.; Tobian, Aaron A. R.; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Ngo, Thoai D.; Redd, Andrew D.; Reynolds, Steven J.; Morrow, Rhoda Ashley; Gamiel, Jordyn L.; Serwadda, David; Gray, Ronald H.; Quinn, Thomas C.

2012-01-01

320

Geological and geochemical constraints on genesis of the Liziyuan gold-dominated polymetal deposit, western Qinling orogen, central China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Liziyuan gold deposit, located on the northern margin of the western Qinling orogen (WQO), consists of five mineralized sites hosted by metavolcanic rocks, and one hosted by the Tianzishan monzogranite. Orebodies mainly occur as lenticular veins along NW-striking dextral ductile strike–slip shear zones. Major wall rock alteration includes silicification, pyritization, and carbonation, progressively increasing in intensity towards the orebodies.

Tao Yang; Laimin Zhu; Guowei Zhang; Fei Wang; Rukun Lu; Jichao Xia; Yongqiang Zhang

2012-01-01

321

In the office vs. outside the office: supervisor–subordinate guanxi maintenance among Chinese and Western managers in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated differences between Chinese and Western supervisors regarding the fundamental Chinese construct of guanxi, or “personal connection”. We explored differences in behavior and values regarding guanxi through certain of its elements: ganqing (emotional attachment), renqing (reciprocal favors), face (outward appearance), and orientation to task vs. relationships. Applied to responses from an online survey of 134 Chinese employees, discriminant

Jian Wang; Priscilla Murphy

2010-01-01

322

Late Paleozoic vertical crustal growth of Western Junggar, Xinjiang in China: evidence from petrology and Nd isotope in charnockites and alkaline granites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This abstract reports our new petrographic, mineralogical, geochemical and Nd isotope studies on the charnockites and alkaline granites in the western Junggar of Xinjiang, China. During the 1997 field excursion, we for the first time discovered charnockites in the Miaergou alkaline granite batholith, one of the six largest intrusive A-type bodies in the western Junggar of Xinjiang, Northwest China. The batholith is located in the southwestern part of the East-Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which is characterized by the presence of voluminous Paleozoic to Mesozoic granitoids with positive ?Nd(t) values. In spatial distribution, the batholith occurs as a ring-like igneous complex, which intrudes the early-Carboniferous volcanic sedimentary rocks of low-grade metamorphism. It is mainly composed of charnockite, quartz diorite, alkaline granite, potash feldspar granite, syenite and rare tourmaline-bearing intermediate-mafic dykes. Charnockites occur only within the diorite. A large amount of gabbroic, dioritic and leucogranitic enclaves are found in a zone between the alkaline granite and diorite. Petrographic and mineralogical studies indicate that the charnockites were derived from partial melting of the lower crust and crystallized under P-T conditions of 5.44˜5.63 ± 1.0 kbar and 700˜800^oC. Zircons from a charnockite sample and an alkaline granite sample yielded concordant U-Pb TIMS ages of 305.3 ± 1. 1 Ma and 274.1 ± 2.9 Ma, respectively, interpreted as the age of the emplacement of the charnockites and alkaline granites. Two-pyroxene granulites, biotite-spinel-cordierite gneisses and sillimanlite-biotite gneisses occur as enclaves within the charnockites. The two-pyroxene granulite enclaves are considered to be restites of partial melting of the previous lower crust at ˜845^oC, whereas the xenoliths of biotite-spinel-cordierite and sillimanlite-biotite gneisses were metamorphosed at low-pressure amphibolite- to granulite-facies, which were related to the underplating of mantle-derived magmas. Laser Raman microspectrometer studies indicate that the fluid inclusions in quartz crystals of charnockites are exclusively C0_2-rich, suggesting that C0_2 may have played an important role in the petrogenesis of charnockites. Nd isotopic data reveal a juvenile nature of the lower crust in the studied area. ?Nd(t) values increase from the granulite enclaves through the charnockites and alkaline granites to the latest intermediate dykes, indicating that more and more mantle components were involved during the formation and evolution of the western Junggar granitoid complex. Based on this study and our previous data, we propose the following scenario for the vertical growth of the crust in the western Junggar area during the late Paleozoic. At ˜305 Ma, the western Junggar area (probably in the whole Central Asian Orogen) underwent an extensional event and large amounts of mantle-sourced magmas (basaltic magmas) were underplated beneath the bottom of the lower crust, which resulted in the partial melting of the lower crust to form the charnockites. Subsequently, at ˜274Ma, the newly-formed lower crust from underplating basalts was heated and partially melted to produce granitic magmas that formed numerous alkaline granites in the area. This conclusion is further supported by the presence of fine-grained, myrmekitic clinopyroxenes within coarse-grained othopyroxene in the charnockites, which we interpret as an anatectic texture that formed during the emplacement of alkaline granitic magmas with higher temperature (e.g. 900^oC). Therefore, we believe that the understating of basaltic magmas has played an important role in the formation of the charnockites and alkaline granite, that has resulted in a significant vertical growth of the western Junggar crust in the late Paleozoic time.

Xian, W. S.; Sun, M.; Zhang, L. F.; Zhao, G. C.; Malpas, J.

2003-04-01

323

Modeling the atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Euler atmospheric transport model CanMETOP (Canadian Model for Environmental Transport of Organochlorine Pesticides) was applied to the atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in China in 2003 based on a square kilometer resolution emission inventory. The reaction with OH radical, gas/particle partition by considering the adsorption onto total aerosol surface area, and dynamic soil/ocean-air exchange of PAHs were also considered. The results show that the spatial distribution of PAH concentration levels in the atmosphere is greatly controlled by emission and meteorological conditions. Elevated concentration levels are predicted in Shanxi, Guizhou, North China Plain, Sichuan Basin and Chongqing metropolitan areas due to the high emission densities at those locations. High concentrations are also modeled in environments offshore of China and in the western Pacific Ocean. The model also predicts a slightly decreasing vertical profile in the planetary boundary layer (lower than ˜1 km), but concentration decreases ˜2 orders of magnitude in the free atmosphere. The Westerlies as well as the East Asian Monsoon and local topographical forcings are identified as key factors influencing the transport pattern of PAHs in China. In 2003, ˜3800°tons of the sixteen parent PAHs listed on USEPA priority control list were transported out of China with about 80% transported through the eastern boundary. The outflow concentrates near 30°N, signifying a slight discrepancy from the position of emission density peaks. The center of the outflow plume is located at a height of ˜1 km at 120°E, and climbs to 3.5 km and 5 km at 130°E and 140°E, respectively. A seasonal variation of 5-6 fold is also found for the outflow flux with greatly elevated transport flux in spring and winter.

Zhang, Yanxu; Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu; Ma, Jianmin

2011-06-01

324

Late Carboniferous collision between the Tarim and Kazakhstan-Yili terranes in the western segment of the South Tian Shan Orogen, Central Asia, and implications for the Northern Xinjiang, western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tian Shan of Central Asia is located in the southwestern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB, also known as the Central Asian Orogenic System or CAOS). Formation of the South Tian Shan Orogen is a diachronous, scissors-like process during the Paleozoic and its western segment in China-Kyrgyzstan contiguous regions is accepted as the site of the final collision zone between the Tarim craton to the south and the Kazakhstan-Yili terrane to the north in the Late Paleozoic. However, when the final collision occurred is still in hot debate. Particularly, an end-Permian to Triassic collisional model is recently proposed for the western segment of the South Tian Shan Orogen. This even leads to the speculation that the complicated accretion-collision processes in the Northern Xinjiang of western China, which involved the terrane amalgamation in the East and West Junggar and the collision between the Altai and Kazakhstan terranes and between the Yili-Central Tian Shan and Junggar terranes, were finally terminated during the end-Permian to mid-Triassic, rather than the Late Paleozoic as usually accepted. Obviously, the western segment of the South Tian Shan Orogen also presents the key issue associated with the termination time of accretion-collision processes in the Northern Xinjiang. A collisional model that is derived from the knowledge of the Himalayan Orogen is helpful for establishing a sequence of major tectonothermal events in the western segment of the South Tian Shan Orogen and constraining the time of collision between the Tarim craton and the Kazakhstan-Yili terrane. For the western segment of the South Tian Shan Orogen, the end-Permian to Triassic collisional model is mainly based on Triassic zircon U-Pb ages of 234 to 226 Ma from the West Tian Shan eclogite and two suspected Late Permian radiolarian specimens Albaillella excelsa Ishiga, Kito and Imoto (?) from the Baleigong ophiolitic mélange. Actually, the poor preservation of the two radiolarian specimens and the lack of a ventral wing make their identifications difficult. Furthermore, the Baleigong ophiolitic mélange was intruded by one granite pluton with a zircon age of 273 Ma, and this provides geological evidence against the reliability of the Late Permian radiolarian specimens. Because the Triassic zircons contain no index mineral inclusions such as omphacite and coesite grown under high to ultrahigh pressure conditions, it is difficult to link their ages to high to ultrahigh pressure peak metamorphism. In addition, this model is not compatible with extensive Permian plutonism and molasse sedimentation and Triassic to Jurassic tectonomagmatic quiescence and continental deposits in the collisional zone and adjacent tectonic units. In contrast, new U-Pb ages of the zircon domains containing omphacite and phengite inclusions and Sm-Nd and rutile U-Pb ages of eclogite samples from the western segment of the South Tian Shan Orogen consistently indicate that high pressure peak metamorphism of subducted oceanic material occurred at ~ 319 Ma (the end of the Early Carboniferous). This and the youngest Early Carboniferous radiolarian and conodonts fossils from ophiolitic mélanges show that the collision must have taken place after the Early Carboniferous, whereas the oldest stitching granitic plutons in the collisional zone place an upper-age bound of ~ 300 Ma (the end of the Late Carboniferous) for the collision. These specify that the final collision in the western segment of the South Tian Shan took place in the Late Carboniferous rather than the end-Permian to Triassic. Noticeably, syn-collisional granitoids are rare, but Permian post-collisional plutonism and molasse sedimentation are widespread in the western segment of the South Tian Shan and adjacent tectonic units, and the oldest post-collisional plutons were nearly concurrent with low pressure, high temperature metamorphism in the south edge of the Kazakhstan-Yili terrane. All these suggest a significant geodynamic change at ~ 300 Ma, which may be caused by delamination of the thickened lithos

Han, Bao-Fu; He, Guo-Qi; Wang, Xue-Chao; Guo, Zhao-Jie

2011-12-01

325

Sources and photochemistry of volatile organic compounds in the remote atmosphere of western China: results from the Mt. Waliguan Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemistry of the natural atmosphere and the influence by long-range transport of air pollution are key issues in the atmospheric sciences. Here we present two intensive field measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in late spring and summer of 2003 at Mt. Waliguan (WLG, 36.28° N, 100.90° E, 3816 m a.s.l.), a baseline station in the northeast part of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Most VOC species exhibited higher concentrations in late spring than in summer. A typical diurnal variation was observed with higher nighttime levels, in contrast to results from other mountainous sites. Five different air masses were identified from backward trajectory analysis showing distinct VOC speciation. Air masses originating from the central Eurasian continent contained the lowest VOC levels compared to the others that were impacted by anthropogenic emissions from China and the Indian sub-continent. The data were compared with the TRACE-P (Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific) data to examine the inflow and outflow of air pollution over the China sub-continent. The results show that the free troposphere over China may be affected by the inflow from the Eurasian continent in spring, and the emissions in China may not have a significant influence on the free tropospheric outflow. A photochemical box model based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (version 3.2) and constrained by a full suite of measurements was developed to probe the photochemistry of atmosphere at WLG. Our results show net ozone production from in-situ photochemistry during both late spring and summer. Oxidation of nitric oxide (NO) by the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) dominates the ozone production relative to the oxidation by the organic peroxy radicals (RO2), and the ozone is primarily destroyed by photolysis and reactions with the HOx(HOx = OH + HO2) radicals. Ozone photolysis is the predominant primary source of radicals (ROx = OH + HO2 + RO2), followed by the photolysis of oxygenated VOCs and hydrogen peroxides. The radical losses are governed by the self and cross reactions among the radicals. The findings can provide insights into the background chemistry and the impacts of pollution transport on the pristine atmosphere over the Eurasian continent.

Xue, L. K.; Wang, T.; Guo, H.; Blake, D. R.; Tang, J.; Zhang, X. C.; Saunders, S. M.; Wang, W. X.

2013-05-01

326

Deep Seismic Imaging of Crustal Structures in the Northern South China Sea and the Western Philippine Sea Between TAICRUST and TAIGER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several deep seismic surveys, by using portable ocean-bottom seismometers (MicrOBS) and small air-gun shots, in the northern South China Sea (SCS) and the western Philippine Sea were conducted after 1995 TAICRUST experiment. In 2007, 30 MicrOBS data along three NW-SE lines were acquired in the continental slope of the northern SCS. The results show that west of 117 E along the continental slope, transitional crust consisted of mainly the extended and thinned continental crust was imaged. However, east of 117 E, both extended continent northwest of the continent-oceanic boundary (COB) and thick (13 km) oceanic crust between the COB and the Manila Trench were found. We observed that thickness of the igneous body (7-7.5 km/s) in the thick oceanic crust is from about 1 km at COB southeastward increasing to 7 km below the Manila Trench. Therefore, the transitional crust along the continental slope of the northern SCS may have not resulted only from volcanism or magmatism of post seafloor spreading in the South China Sea but also due to subduction of Eurasian Plate beneath the Philippine Sea Plate. Tectonic setting of the transitional crust with subduction and volcanism appeared in the northern SCS is similar to those in the Central Asian orogenic belt and the Moroccan Atlantic Margin. In 2006, 24 MicrOBS stations along one E-W and two S-N lines were retrieved in the western Philippine Sea. OBS imaging indicated that the crustal thickness of the Huatung Basin decreases northward from 10-11 km to 7 km whereas the crustal thickness of the western Philippine Basin increases northward from 7 km to 9 km. The thick oceanic crust in both regions is associated with a high P-wave velocity of 6.6-7.5 km/s and a low Poisson's ratio of 0.28 imaged in the middle and lower crust. However, the difference of the crustal thickness resulted from the formation of Gagua Ridge between the Huatung Basin and the western Philippine Basin. We found that three old fracture zones, one below the summit of the Gagua Ridge and the others beneath two edges of the Gagua Ridge, are observed from a large lateral variation of P-wave velocity of about 5.5-6.4 km/s and a low Poisson's ratio of 0.29 in the upper crust. Therefore, Gagua Ridge had been generated by compression, shearing and uplifting (or transpression) due to the eastward convergence of the Eurasia Plate and the northwestward convergence of the Philippine Sea Plate. 2009 TAIGER experiment, by providing strong air-guns and more OBS deployment, will enable us to enhance the imaging of the lower crustal and the upper mantle covering from the northern SCS, Manila subduction zone and the western Philippine Sea.

Wang, T.; Lee, C.; Yang, B.; Deng, J.; Chen, T.

2008-12-01

327

Atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from China  

SciTech Connect

A potential receptor influence function (PRIF) model, based on air mass forward trajectory calculations, was applied to simulate the atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from China. With a 10 day atmospheric transport time, most neighboring countries and regions, as well as remote regions, were influenced by PAH emissions from China. Of the total annual PAH emission of 114 Gg, 92.7% remained within the boundary of mainland China. The geographic distribution of PRIFs within China was similar to the geographic distribution of the source regions, with high values in the North China Plain, Sichuan Basin, Shanxi, and Guizhou province. The Tarim basin and Sichuan basin had unfavorable meteorological conditions for PAH outflow. Of the PAH outflow from China (8092 tons or 7.1% of the total annual PAH emission), approximately 69.9% (5655 tons) reached no further than the offshore environment of mainland China and the South China Sea. Approximate 227, 71, 746, and 131 tons PAHs reached North Korea, South Korea, Russia-Mongolia region, and Japan, respectively, 2-4 days after the emission. Only 1.4 tons PAHs reached North America after more than 9 days. Interannual variation in the eastward PAH outflow was positively correlated to cold episodes of El Nino/Southern Oscillation. However, trans-Pacific atmospheric transport of PAHs from China was correlated to Pacific North America index (PNA) which is associated with the strength and position of westerly winds. 38 refs., 4 figs.

Chang Lang; Shu Tao; Wenxin Liu; Yanxu Zhang; Staci Simonich [Peking University, Beijing (China). Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences

2008-07-15

328

Two new species of the genera Mysmena and Trogloneta (Mysmenidae, Araneae) from Southwestern China.  

PubMed

Two new spider species of the family Mysmenidae Petrunkevitch, 1928 are reported from Southwestern China, i.e., Mysmena wawuensis sp. n. (male and female) from Sichuan and Trogloneta yuensis sp. n. (male) from Chongqing. Diagnoses and illustrations of the new species are provided. PMID:23794902

Lin, Yucheng; Li, Shuqiang

2013-05-21

329

Current distribution, status and conservation of wild red pandas Ailurus fulgens in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The red panda is classed as a category II species under the Wild Animal Protection Law in China. Both subspecies, Ailurus fulgens fulgens and A. f. styani can be found there. However, the styani subspecies is more typical of the region. According to the survey conducted from 1994 to 1996, red pandas now can only be found in Sichuan, Yunnan

Fuwen Wei; Zuojian Feng; Zuwang Wang; Jinchu Hu

1999-01-01

330

Complete Genome Sequence of a Nephropathogenic Infectious Bronchitis Virus Strain Isolated in China  

PubMed Central

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes tremendous economic losses to the poultry industry. Here, we report the complete genome analysis results for a new natural recombination nephropathogenic IBV strain named SAIBK, which was isolated in the Sichuan province of China in 2005.

Yang, Jing-tian

2013-01-01

331

Two new species of the genera Mysmena and Trogloneta (Mysmenidae, Araneae) from Southwestern China  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two new spider species of the family Mysmenidae Petrunkevitch, 1928 are reported from Southwestern China, i.e., Mysmena wawuensis sp. n. (male and female) from Sichuan and Trogloneta yuensis sp. n. (male) from Chongqing. Diagnoses and illustrations of the new species are provided.

Lin, Yucheng; Li, Shuqiang

2013-01-01

332

[Soil faunal diversity under typical alpine vegetations in West Sichuan].  

PubMed

In order to understand the variations of soil faunal diversity under different natural alpine vegetations in West Sichuan, an investigation was made on the soil faunal communities under alpine coniferous forest, shrub, and meadow from August 2008 to June 2009. A total of 48343 individuals were collected, belonging to 7 phyla, 16 classes, 31 orders and 117 families. There was a great difference in the dominant groups of soil macro-fauna, and a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the number of soil faunal groups under different vegetations. Both the individual density and the group number of soil fauna decreased obviously with increasing soil depth, and were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in moss layer than in litter layer in coniferous forest. Significant difference (P < 0.01) was also observed in the density-group index among the three vegetations. The maximum biomass of soil macro-fauna was found in June. Jacard indices indicated that disturbed meadow had the lowest similarity of soil faunal community with the other vegetations. It was suggested that vegetation type had significant effects on the community structure of soil fauna, while aspect, altitude, and disturbance also had definite effects. PMID:20387441

Huang, Xu; Wen, Wei-Quan; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Wan-Qin; Liu, Yang; Yan, Bang-Guo; Huang, Yu-Mei

2010-01-01

333

On the origin of surface ozone and reactive nitrogen observed at a remote mountain site in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of surface ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and total reactive nitrogen (NOy) were made, in conjunction with other trace gases and fine aerosols, at Mount Waliguan (WLG, 36.28°N, 100.90°E, 3816 m above sea level) in the late spring and summer of 2003 in order to better understand the source(s) of ozone and other chemically active gases over the remote highlands of western China. The average mixing ratio (plus or minus standard deviation) was 58 (±9) ppbv for O3, 155 (±41) ppbv for CO, and 3.83 (±1.46) ppbv for NOy in the spring phase, compared to a summer average value of 54 (±11) ppbv for O3, 125 (±36) ppbv for CO, and 3.60 (±1.13) ppbv for NOy. The daytime (0800-1759 local time) average NO mixing ratios were 72 (±79) pptv and 47 (±32) pptv in the spring and summer, respectively. The ozone mixing ratios exhibited a minimum in late morning, while CO (and NOy in spring) showed enhanced concentrations at night. The latter is in contrast to the diurnal behaviors observed in many remote mountain sites. Analysis of 10-day back trajectories using output from Fifth-Generation National Center for Atmospheric Research/Penn State University Mesoscale Model (MM5) simulations shows that air masses from the remote western regions contained the lowest level of CO (121-129 ppbv) but had the highest O3 (60 ppbv), compared to the other three air mass groups that were impacted by anthropogenic emissions in eastern/southern China and in the Indian subcontinent. Ozone correlated negatively with CO (and water vapor content), particularly during summer in air originating in the west, suggesting that the high-ozone events were mostly derived from the downward transport of the upper tropospheric air and not from anthropogenic pollution. An examination of in situ chemical measurements (CO-NOy correlation, ethyne/propane, and benzene/propane) as well as Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) and Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote-sensing data revealed some impacts from forest fires in central Asia in the late spring of 2003 on the background concentrations of trace gases over western China. While the O3 and CO levels at WLG are comparable to those at remote continental sites in Europe and North America, the NOy concentrations were substantially higher at WLG. The possible reasons for the abnormally high NOy levels are discussed. While more studies are needed to pin down these sources/causes, including a possible contribution from long-range transport, we believe that microbial processes in soils and animal wastes associated with animal grazing were an important cause of the elevated NOy. The observed daytime NO concentrations imply a net photochemical production of O3 at WLG, suggesting a positive contribution of photochemistry to the ozone budget.

Wang, T.; Wong, H. L. A.; Tang, J.; Ding, A.; Wu, W. S.; Zhang, X. C.

2006-04-01

334

Properties and dissemination of H5N1 viruses isolated during an influenza outbreak in migratory waterfowl in western China.  

PubMed

H5N1 influenza A viruses are widely distributed among poultry in Asia, but until recently, only a limited number of wild birds were affected. During late April through June 2005, an outbreak of H5N1 virus infection occurred among wild birds at Qinghai Lake in China. Here, we describe the features of this outbreak. First identified in bar-headed geese, the disease soon spread to other avian species populating the lake. Sequence analysis of 15 viruses representing six avian species and collected at different times during the outbreak revealed four different H5N1 genotypes. Most of the isolates possessed lysine at position 627 in the PB2 protein, a residue known to be associated with virulence in mice and adaptation to humans. However, neither of the two index viruses possessed this residue. All of the viruses tested were pathogenic in mice, with the exception of one index virus. We also tested the replication of two viruses isolated during the Qinghai Lake outbreak and one unrelated duck H5N1 virus in rhesus macaques. The Qinghai Lake viruses did not replicate efficiently in these animals, producing no evidence of disease other than transient fever, while the duck virus replicated in multiple organs and caused symptoms of respiratory illness. Importantly, H5N1 viruses isolated in Mongolia, Russia, Inner Mongolia, and the Liaoning Province of China after August 2005 were genetically closely related to one of the genotypes isolated during the Qinghai outbreak, suggesting the dominant nature of this genotype and underscoring the need for worldwide intensive surveillance to minimize its devastating consequences. PMID:16731936

Chen, Hualan; Li, Yanbing; Li, Zejun; Shi, Jianzhong; Shinya, Kyoko; Deng, Guohua; Qi, Qiaoling; Tian, Guobin; Fan, Shufang; Zhao, Haidan; Sun, Yingxiang; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2006-06-01

335

Cenozoic tectonic activity of the Longmen Shan, Eastern Tibet, and the context of the May 2008 Sichuan earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The destructive May 2008 Sichuan earthquake has pointed out the seismic potential of the Longmen Shan region in Eastern Tibet. Prior to that event, this area has intrigued researchers due to the lake of active shortening, as seen by geodetic measurements, despite the existence of a major topographic escarpment between the low-elevated Sichuan basin and the Tibetan Plateau. Due to

V. Godard; J. Lavé; R. Pik; R. Cattin; J. de Sigoyer; M. Pubellier

2008-01-01

336

A Juvenile Sichuan Golden Monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) Predated by a Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) in the Qinling Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that hawks, panthers, jackals, lynxes and wolves may prey on Sichuan golden monkeys in the wild [1, 2], but all these assumptions were based on observations of dead monkeys eaten by predators, and no direct attack of a living individual has been witnessed. During our field study on the behavioural ecology of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys in

Shuyi Zhang; Baoping Ren; Baoguo Li

1999-01-01

337

Continental ultra-deep drilling locating research status and progress in the Jinchuan Ni-Cu ore-concentrated area,Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abstract is the initial achievements of "Continental ultra-deep drilling locating pre-study in the Jinchuan nickel-copper ore-concentrated area,Western China". 1 Some scientific problems faced by Jinchuan scientific drilling 1.1 Tectonic research of plates convergent margins Jinchuan ore-concentrated area locate in intersection of the south China plate, the north China plate, the tarim plate and convergent orogenic belts. Carrying out deep drilling could obtain informations such as deep material composition, fluid composition, rock fabric, structural features of the special region,etc.Then we can discuss tectonic evolution of the area between the plates. 1.2 Metallogenic theory research Ore-forming material source and extension of the deep rock situation are the key of resolving and verifying metallogenic theory. Carrying out scientific drilling research which will make some issues, that reasons of the huge amount of metal accumulation, formation mechanism of Cu-Ni-PGE sulfide deposits, relationships of metals accumulation process and the crust-mantle interaction and geological background, in particular, fluid role in this process, be resolved. And we could research mantle-derived magmatism and mineralization. 1.3 Perfect Jinchuan metallogenic model Jinchuan deposit is typical for the world's "formation of large deposit in a small intrusion". That establishing the metallogenic model is predominant in international field of mafic-ultramafic magmatic sulfide deposits. Scientific deep drilling could obtain informations which will enrich the theory system. 2 New achievements of continental ultra-deep drilling locating pre-study (1) Previous studies shown that Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic strata,to south of Ore-bearing rock, are monoclines, but this research reveals that which are incomplete complex anticlines, which controlled and destructed by several major regional faults. And there are several ductile shear zones in Sinian strata that increased complexity of regional structure,deformation and metamorphism. These findings have a significant impact on studies of regional diagenesis, mineralization,magmation and tectonic evolution. (2) Systematic sampling analysis revealed that the formation of copper-rich,,PGE-rich ore bodies related to the latest magma (Su et al.,2010). The magma mineralization concentrated in the midwestern portion of No.1 ore body, this part was probably the location of the occurrence of magma channel. It's worthy of exploring at depth with other factors. (3)The application of controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric sounding shown that spatial distribution of electromagnetic geological bodies of the mining area over 3200m under the surface.

Yan, H.; Tang, Z.; Yang, J.

2010-12-01

338

Using the CENTURY model to assess the impact of land reclamation and management practices in oasis agriculture on the dynamics of soil organic carbon in the arid region of North-western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale reclamation of arid land in North-western China over the past 50 years has converted the natural desert landscape into anthropogenic oasis, particularly in the lower part of watersheds. Drastic human activities may have caused the change of soil organic carbon (SOC) in anthropogenic oasis. This study employs the CENTURY model (Version 4.0) to investigate the effects of land reclamation

Wenqiang Xu; Xi Chen; Geping Luo; Qing Lin

2011-01-01

339

Different mechanisms controlling interannual phytoplankton variation in the South China Sea and the western North Pacific subtropical gyre: A satellite study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A time series of remotely-sensed chlorophyll a (chl a) in 1997–2010 was evaluated to determine mechanisms of phytoplankton variation in recent decade in the South China Sea (SCS) and the western North Pacific subtropical gyre (WNPSG). Satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) were used as proxies for vertical nutrient supply and atmospheric aerosol, respectively. Chl a in the WNPSG was not significantly correlated with SST (r = 0.18, p > 0.05), but was with AOT (r = 0.31, p < 0.05), indicating the chl a was influenced by atmospheric deposition. Chl a in the SCS was negatively correlated with SST (r = ?0.60, p < 0.05) and was positively with AOT (r = 0.20, p < 0.05). The correlation between AOT and chl a in the SCS does not reflect a major contribution from atmospheric deposition to chl a; instead, the relationship resulted from concurrence of the peaks of AOT and wind speed, which drive water mixing and nutrient supply. Consequently, chl a in the SCS would be regulated primarily by the nutrient supply from deep waters. Because SST was controlled by the ENSO teleconnection in the SCS, the chl a was coupled with ENSO events. The present study demonstrated that interannual phytoplankton variation could be controlled by different factors even in neighboring oligotrophic regions.

Shiozaki, Takuhei; Chen, Yuh-ling Lee

2013-08-01

340

Active surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis in poliomyelitis high-risk areas in southern China.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: On 29 October 2000 poliomyelitis was officially declared to have been eradicated from the Western Pacific Region. This article describes the results of surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in China during the final phase of the eradication effort. METHODS: We conducted hospital-based active surveillance in high-risk areas for poliomyelitis in 5 provinces of southern-China (Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi and Jiangxi) between 1995 and 1997 to determine the adequacy of reporting and laboratory diagnosis of cases of AFP. FINDINGS: A total of 1069 AFP cases occurring since 1993 were identified in 311 hospital visits. Less than 50% of AFP cases occurring in 1993 and 1994 had been reported by AFP surveillance, and laboratory diagnosis had been carried out on only a small proportion of these. However, improved cooperation between hospital sectors increased the rate of case reporting and laboratory diagnosis to 85% and 78%, respectively, in 1997. Despite this overall improvement, these two indicators were approximately 10-20% lower in Yunnan Province. Epidemiological analysis revealed that cases of clinical poliomyelitis accounted for as much as one-third of all AFP in 1993 and that some of these cases were clustered. Clusters were rarely observed after 1994. Active surveillance in the China-Myanmar border areas of Yunnan over 1995-96 detected 9 cross-border cases of clinical poliomyelitis, including 2 of wild poliomyelitis. Import of poliomyelitis was thus considered to have occurred frequently until 1996 in this border area of Yunnan. These data were important for the outbreak response immunization carried out in 1996 in the border prefectures of Yunnan. CONCLUSION: Our investigation confirmed a high level of AFP surveillance in poliomyelitis high-risk areas of the five provinces and provided valuable information on the interruption of wild poliovirus circulation in southern China that will be of use to countries in other regions that have yet to eradicate poliomyelitis.

Chiba, Y.; Hikita, K.; Matuba, T.; Chosa, T.; Kyogoku, S.; Yu, J.; Wang, Z.

2001-01-01

341

Sources and photochemistry of volatile organic compounds in the remote atmosphere of western China: results from the Mt. Waliguan Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemistry of the natural atmosphere and the influence by long-range transport of air pollution are key issues in the atmospheric sciences. Here we present two intensive field measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in late spring and summer of 2003 at Mt. Waliguan (WLG, 36.28° N, 100.90° E, 3816 m a.s.l.), a baseline station in the northeast part of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Most VOC species exhibited higher concentrations in late spring than in summer. A typical diurnal variation was observed with higher nighttime levels, in contrast to results from other mountainous sites. Five different air masses were identified from backward trajectory analysis showing distinct VOC speciation. Air masses originating from the central Eurasian continent contained the lowest VOC levels compared to the others that were impacted by anthropogenic emissions from China and the Indian subcontinent. A photochemical box model based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (version 3.2) and constrained by a full suite of measurements was developed to probe the photochemistry of atmosphere at WLG. Our results show net ozone production from in situ photochemistry during both late spring and summer. Oxidation of nitric oxide (NO) by the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) dominates the ozone production relative to the oxidation by the organic peroxy radicals (RO2), and the ozone is primarily destroyed by photolysis and reactions with the HOx (HOx = OH + HO2) radicals. Ozone photolysis is the predominant primary source of radicals (ROx = OH + HO2 + RO2), followed by the photolysis of secondary oxygenated VOCs and hydrogen peroxides. The radical losses are governed by the self and cross reactions among the radicals. Overall, the findings of the present study provide insights into the background chemistry and the impacts of pollution transport on the pristine atmosphere over the Eurasian continent.

Xue, L. K.; Wang, T.; Guo, H.; Blake, D. R.; Tang, J.; Zhang, X. C.; Saunders, S. M.; Wang, W. X.

2013-09-01

342

The Permian Huangshanxi Cu-Ni deposit in western China: intrusive-extrusive association, ore genesis, and exploration implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Permian Huangshanxi Cu-Ni deposit is the second largest magmatic sulfide deposit discovered to date in a major Ni-Cu province related to protracted basaltic magmatism in eastern Xinjiang, China. It is hosted by a small mafic-ultramafic intrusion comprised predominantly of lherzolites, olivine websterites, gabbronorites, and gabbros. The Huangshanxi intrusion is coeval with Permian basalts of tholeiitic and alkaline affinities in the Tuha and Tarim basins, respectively. To evaluate a possible genetic relationship between the Huangshanxi intrusion and a specific type of coeval basalt in the region, as well as ore genesis in the intrusion, we have carried out an integrated mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical study. Our data reveal that the Huangshanxi intrusive rocks are characterized by relatively flat chondrite-normalized REE patterns, depletion in Nb and Ta, and elevated ?Nd values varying between 6 and 10. These features are similar to those of coeval tholeiitic basalts in the nearby Tuha basin, but are significantly different from those of coeval alkaline basalts in the relatively remote Tarim basin. The geochemical similarities and differences suggest that the Huangshanxi intrusion is genetically related to the tholeiitic basalts in the Tuha basin, not to the alkaline basalts in the Tarim basin, as suggested previously by some researchers. This implies that regional exploration for the Huangshanxi-type Cu-Ni deposits should be centered in the Tuha basin instead of the Tarim basin. More specifically, the uplifted areas around the Tuha basin where similar intrusions may have been brought close to the surface should be carefully examined for mineralization potential. Intrusive relations and mass balance constraints from incompatible trace elements and sulfide abundances suggest that the Huangshanxi intrusion represents a dynamic magma conduit through which multiple pulses of magma ascended to higher levels or to the surface. Numerical simulation of magma evolution and mixing calculations using Sr-Nd isotopes indicate that selective assimilation of S-bearing crustal materials is important for sulfide saturation during the early stages of magma evolution when lherzolites formed. Fractional crystallization may have also played a role in the attainment of sulfide saturation during the later stages of magma evolution when olivine websterites and gabbronorites formed. In both cases, immiscible sulfide droplets were retained in the conduit to form disseminated sulfide lenses while the fractionated silicate liquids and buoyant phases such as plagioclase continued to ascend. Extremely low PGE tenors in the sulfide ores of the Huangshanxi deposit suggest that the parental magma was highly depleted in chalcophile elements possibly due to previous sulfide segregation at depth.

Zhang, Mingjie; Li, Chusi; Fu, Piaoer; Hu, Peiqing; Ripley, Edward M.

2011-02-01

343

A new species of Frontodendroidopsis (Coleoptera: Pyrochroidae: Pyrochroinae) from China, with a key to males of the two known species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frontodendroidopsis gibbiceps, a new species of fire-colored beetle, is described from a single male taken in the Xiling Snow Mountains, in central Sichuan Province, China at an elevation of 1300–2100 meters. This is the second described Frontodendroidopsis, the other being the Japanese F. ocularis. A somewhat similar cranial modification, enlarged compound eyes, and strongly pectinate antennae with an elongate antennal

Daniel K. Young

2006-01-01

344

New species of the tenebrionid-beetle genera Tagonoides Fairm., Gnaptorina Rtt. and Agnaptoria Rtt. (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six new species Tagonoides belousovi sp. n., T. yunnana sp. n., Gnaptorina australis sp. n., Agnaptoria elongata sp. n. (Yunnan), A. lecta sp. n., and A. ruida sp. n. (Sichuan), and a new subspecies Gnaptorina potanini minxiana subsp. n. are described from China. Morphological adaptations of tenebrionids of the tribe Blaptini associated with phytophagous\\u000a habit are discussed.

G. S. Medvedev

2008-01-01

345

China, Peoples Republic of: Agricultural Situation. Chengdu: Untapped Emerging City Market, 2008. GAIN Report No. CH8913.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The city of Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan province, is one of the most prosperous and affluent cities in China's interior. The residents of Chengdu have a passion for food and are very receptive to U.S. foods and food ingredients. Rising incomes are cre...

N. Hutsell

2008-01-01

346

This research brief was produced as part of the China Environment Forum's partnership with Western Kentucky University on the U.S. AID-supported China Environmental Health Project (CEHP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is difficult to understate the influence of China's atmospheric pollution on the Asia Pacific region and beyond. Prevailing winds carry pollutants such as ozone, fine particulate matter, and mercury from continent to continent, and in this case, from Asia to North America. Although statistics on China's dismal air quality are dated, anecdotal, or limited in scope (e.g., China has

Juli S. Kim

347

Dissecting the Matrilineal Components of Tongjiang Cattle from Southwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tongjiang cattle are a local cattle population of Sichuan Province, China, numbering approximately half a million in 2005.\\u000a They have long been grouped into the Bashan breed, although they have a unique breeding history and phenotypic characteristics,\\u000a as well as a restricted geographic distribution. Morphologically, they can be divided into two groups based on the basic coat\\u000a color (black and

Shi-Yi Chen; Yi-Ping Liu; Wei Wang; Cheng-Zhong Gao; Yong-Gang Yao; Song-Jia Lai

2008-01-01

348

Non-Beijing Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in China? †  

PubMed Central

In a 2-year prospective study of tuberculosis (TB) patients in China, the prevalences of non-Beijing strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis varied between Shandong Province (20.6%), Shanghai (27.6%), and Sichuan Province (45.9%) (P < 0.005). These differences may be due to factors such as human migration, transmission, or diversification and adaptation of the mycobacteria to different hosts.

Li, Xia; Xu, Peng; Shen, Xin; Qi, Lihong; DeRiemer, Kathryn; Mei, Jian; Gao, Qian

2011-01-01

349

NC-ERP Rapid Implementation in Sichuan Post-earthquake for Relief Material Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In earthquake relief, the broad effects of humanitarian relief include delivery medical material to victims. Scientific relief need quick response of logistics supply chain, which include tracking situational urgency at various locations such as lack of food and medical supplies. The paper introduced the rapid adoption of NC-ERP in Sichuan post-earthquake which was donated by UFIDA. With the rapid implementation

Wang Huifen; Cui Lei

2009-01-01

350

Institutionalizing public relations: A case study of Chinese government crisis communication on the 2008 Sichuan earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research is needed on the “institutionalization” of public relations as a strategic-management function. How and why public relations ought to be institutionalized certainly remains highly debatable. This study, thus, engages the current debate on the necessity and advantages of the institutionalization of public relation by taking on Chinese government crisis communication in the 2008 Sichuan earthquake as a test case.This

Ni Chen

2009-01-01

351

GIS-based climatic regionalization of potato late blight in mountain areas of Southwest Sichuan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the geographic insemination test in installments on five phases of potato late blight in four areas of Mianning and Zhaojue with the altitude of 1,600m, 1,800m, 2,100m and 2,500m respectively, this paper researches the meteorological causes, leading factors and climatic indexes for potato late blight in mountain areas of southwest Sichuan in detail. Based on that, short-term section climatic inspection data of mountain areas, observation data from meteorological post and latest data from automatic weather station are extensively collected, organized and processed by extension, based on which the Spatial Distribution Model of climatic indexes for potato late blight in mountain areas of southwest Sichuan is established in association with the routine surface observation data, y=f(h,?,l,?). With the geographic information data of 1:250000 and GIS technology, southwest Sichuan is divided into climatic liable region of potato blight, climatic secondary liable region and climatic non-liable region by factor setting and optimization method. Providing scientific basis for selection, distribution and prevention decision making for late blight resistant species of potato in southwest Sichuan, it has important value for production and application.

Luo, Qing; Peng, Guozhao; Ruan, Jun; Cao, Yanqiu; Fang, Peng; Li, Dazhong; Armuzhong, .; Huang, Doumin; Hu, Qiaojuan; Chen, Yuanzhi

2008-10-01

352

Long-term Petrological Evolution of the Wenchuan and Beichuan Fault Zones (Longmen Shan, Sichuan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epicentre of the May 12 2008 (M7.9) Sichuan Earthquake seems to be near the junction between two main faults, the Wenchuan fault to the west and the Beichuan fault to the east. The rupture mainly propagated along the Beichuan fault over more than 250 km, with thrusting toward the East in the southern part becoming more dextral slip in

J. de Sigoyer; A. Carrier; X. Wu; A. Billerot; A. Robert; M. Pubellier

2008-01-01

353

Petrogenesis of gold-mineralized magmatic rocks of the Taerbieke area, northwestern Tianshan (western China): Constraints from geochronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic compositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many Late Paleozoic Cu-Au-Mo deposits occur in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). However, their tectonic settings and associated geodynamic processes have been disputed. This study provides age, petrologic and geochemical data for andesites and granitic porphyries of the Taerbieke gold deposit from the Tulasu Basin, in the northwestern Tianshan Orogenic Belt (western China). LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the granitic porphyries have an Early Carboniferous crystallization age (349 ± 2 Ma) that is broadly contemporaneous with the eruption age (347 ± 2 Ma) of the andesites. The andesites have a restricted range of SiO2 (58.94-63.85 wt.%) contents, but relatively high Al2O3 (15.39-16.65 wt.%) and MgO (2.51-6.59 wt.%) contents, coupled with high Mg# (57-69) values. Geochemically, they are comparable to Cenozoic sanukites in the Setouchi Volcanic Belt, SW Japan. Compared with the andesites, the granitic porphyries have relatively high SiO2 (72.68-75.32 wt.%) contents, but lower Al2O3 (12.94-13.84 wt.%) and MgO (0.10-0.33 wt.%) contents, coupled with lower Mg# (9-21) values. The andesites and granitic porphyries are enriched in both large ion lithophile and light rare earth elements, but depleted in high field strength elements, similar to those of typical arc magmatic rocks. They also have similar Nd-Hf-Pb isotope compositions: ?Nd(t) (+0.48 to +4.06 and -0.27 to +2.97) and zircons ?Hf(t) (+3.4 to +8.0 and -1.7 to +8.2) values and high (206Pb/204Pb)i (18.066-18.158 and 17.998-18.055). We suggest that the Taerbieke high-Mg andesitic magmas were generated by the interaction between mantle wedge peridotites and subducted oceanic sediment-derived melts with minor basaltic oceanic crust-derived melts, and that the magmas then fractionated to produce the more felsic members (i.e., the Taerbieke granitic porphyries) during late-stage evolution. Taking into account the Carboniferous magmatic record from the western Tianshan Orogenic Belt, we suggest that the formation of the Early Carboniferous andesites and granitic porphyries in the Taerbieke area were related to the Paleo-Junggar Oceanic plate southward subduction under the Yili-Central Tianshan plate. The close association of the Early Carboniferous magmatic rocks and Au mineralization in the Taerbieke area suggests that the arc magmatic rocks in the Tulasu basin may have a high potential for Au mineralization.

Tang, Gong-Jian; Wang, Qiang; Wyman, Derek A.; Sun, Min; Zhao, Zhen-Hua; Jiang, Zi-Qi

2013-09-01

354

Decision Support System for Drinking Water Safety in Rural Area in Ya'an of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In consideration of the drinking water safety in rural areas in the western mountainous regions of Sichuan Province, the author adopts the module technique to integrate the GIS with the specialized application function to develop a drinking water safety spatial analysis system. The system provides the Ya'an's seven counties with each kind of function the daily management of drinking water

Ni Fu-quan; Liu Guodong; Ye Jian; Yang Shang-chuan; Zheng cai-xia

2009-01-01

355

Field-scale spatial variation of saline-sodic soil and its relation with environmental factors in Western Songnen Plain of China.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to investigate the degree of spatial variability and variance structure of salinization parameters using classical and geostatistical method in Songnen Plain of China, which is one of largest saline-sodic areas in the World, and to analyze the relationship between salinization parameters, including soil salinity content (SC), electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), and pH, and seven environmental factors by Pearson and stepwise regression analysis. The environmental factors were ground elevation, surface ponding time, surface ponding depth, and soil moistures at four layers (0-10 cm, 10-30 cm, 30-60 cm, and 60-100 cm). The results indicated that SC, EC, and SAR showed great variations, whereas pH exhibited low variations. Four salinization parameters showed strongly spatial autocorrelation resulting from the compound impact of structural factors. The empirical semivariograms in the four parameters could be simulated by spherical and exponential models. The spatial distributions of SC, EC, SAR and pH showed similar patterns, with the coexistence of high salinity and sodicity in the areas with high ground elevation. By Pearson analysis, the soil salinization parameters showed a significant positive relationship with ground elevation, but a negative correlation with surface ponding time, surface ponding depth, and soil moistures. Both correlation and stepwise regression analysis showed that ground elevation is the most important environmental factor for spatial variation of soil sanilization. The results from this research can provide some useful information for explaining mechanism of salinization process and utilization of saline-sodic soils in the Western Songnen Plain. PMID:21556192

Yang, Fan; Zhang, Guangxin; Yin, Xiongrui; Liu, Zhijun

2011-01-31

356

Controls on variations of platinum-group element concentrations in the sulfide ores of the Jinchuan Ni-Cu deposit, western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ongoing underground exploration in the giant Jinchuan Ni-Cu sulfide deposit in western China is beginning to emphasize the potential for Cu-, Pt-, and Pd-rich sulfide ores that may have formed by sulfide liquid fractionation. The success of such an effort relies on whether or not fractional crystallization of sulfide occurred in the Jinchuan system. In this paper, we used available PGE data to evaluate such a process. We found that about two thirds of the 126 samples analyzed to date exhibit significant decoupling not only between Pt and Pd but also between Ru, Rh, and Ir. The best explanation for the decoupling is postmagmatic hydrothermal alteration, which affected not only silicates but also sulfides. The effects of postmagmatic alteration must be considered when using metal and isotopic ratios to evaluate primary mineralization. PGE variations in the remaining one third of the samples with Ir/(Ir + Ru) = 0.3-0.7, Ir/(Ir + Rh) = 0.4-0.8, and Pt/(Pt + Pd) = 0.3-0.7 indicate variable R-factors within individual ore bodies as well as the entire deposit, consistent with the interpretation that multiple sulfide-bearing magmas from depth were involved in the formation of the Jinchuan deposit. The mantle-normalized PGE patterns of the least-altered samples from the Jinchuan deposit are similar to the picrite-related Pechenga Ni-Cu sulfide deposit in Russia. PGE variations that can be related to sulfide liquid fractionation are observed in orebody-1 and orebody-24 but not in orebody-2 at Jinchuan. Exploration for Cu-, Pt-, and Pd-rich sulfide ores that may have been expelled into fractures in the footwalls of orebody-1 and orebody-24 appears to be justified.

Su, Shangguo; Li, Chusi; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Ripley, Edward M.; Qi, Liang

2008-08-01

357

Application of the Geo-Anomaly Unit Concept in Quantitative Delineation and Assessment of Gold Ore Targets in Western Shandong Uplift Terrain, Eastern China  

SciTech Connect

A number of large and giant ore deposits have been discovered within the relatively small areas of lithospheric structure anomalies, including various boundary zones of tectonic plates. The regions have become the well-known intercontinental ore-forming belts, such as the circum-Pacific gold-copper, copper-molybdenum, and tungsten-tin metallogenic belts. These belts are typical geological anomalous areas. An investigation into the hydrothermal ore deposits in different regions in the former Soviet Union illustrated that the geologic structures of ore fields of almost all major commercial deposits have distinct features compared with the neighboring areas. These areas with distinct features are defined as geo-anomalies. A geo-anomaly refers to such a geologic body or a combination of bodies that their composition, texture-structure, and genesis are significantly different from those of their surroundings. A geo-anomaly unit (GU) is an area containing distinct features that can be delineated with integrated ore-forming information using computer techniques on the basis of the geo-anomaly concept. Herein, the GU concept is illustrated by a case study of delineating the gold ore targets in the western Shandong uplift terrain, eastern China. It includes: (1) analyses of gold ore-forming factors; (2) compilation of normalized regional geochemical map and extraction of geochemical anomalies; (3) compilation of gravitational and aeromagnetic tectonic skeleton map and extraction of gravitational and aeromagnetic anomalies; (4) extraction of circular and linear anomalies from remote-sensing Landsat TM images; (5) establishment of a geo-anomaly conceptual model associated with known gold mineralization; (6) establishment of gold ore-forming favorability by computing techniques; and (7) delineation and assessment of ore-forming units. The units with high favorability are suggested as ore targets.

Chen Yongqing, E-mail: ydonglai@mail.cgs.gov.cn; Zhao Pengda; Chen Jianguo; Liu Jiping [China University of Geosciences, Institute of Mathematical Geology and Remote Sensing Geology (China)

2001-03-15

358

Trichoderma biodiversity in China.  

PubMed

In the present study, we made further investigation into the diversity of Trichoderma in China than previous ones utilizing comprehensive approaches of morphological microscopic observation and phylogenetic analysis by detecting molecular markers. One thousand nine hundred ten Trichoderma strains were isolated from soil or other materials in China: East (Anhui, Fujian, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shandong, Zhejiang province and Shanghai municipality), South-West (Guizhou, Qinghai, Shanxi, Sichuan and Yunnan province, Tibet Autonomous Region and Chongqing municipality), South-East (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan province), and Middle China (Henan, Hubei and Hunan province). Representative isolates were verified at the species level by morphological characters and the oligonucleotide barcode program TrichoOKey v.10 and the custom BLAST server TrichoBLAST, using sequence of the ITS 1 and 2 region of the rDNA cluster and partial sequences of translation elongation factor 1-alpha(tef1-?). A total of 23 Trichoderma species were identified : T.asperellum, T.atrioviride, T.aureovriride, T.brevicompactum, T.citrioviride, T.erinaceum, T.gamsii, T.hamatum, T.harzianum (H.1ixii), T.intricatum, T.koningii (H.koningii), T.koningiopsis, T.longibranchiatum, T.pleuroticola, T.reeseii (H.jecorina), T.sinensis, T.spirale, T.stromaticum, T.tomentosum, T.velutinum, T.vermipilum, T.virens (H.virens), T.viride. Among them, 3 species: T.intricatum, T.stromaticum, T.vermipilum were first reported in China; T.harzianum (H,1ixii) was the most widely distributed species in China. This study further shows that, the highest biodiversity of Trichoderma population appeared in South-West China. PMID:22528042

Sun, Rui-yan; Liu, Zhi-cheng; Fu, Kehe; Fan, Lili; Chen, Jie

2012-04-21

359

Human influence on the population decline and loss of genetic diversity in a small and isolated population of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana).  

PubMed

Human activities have caused worldwide loss and fragmentation of natural habitats, resulting in the decline and isolation of wild populations, consequently increasing their risks of extinctions. We investigated the genetic consequences of anthropogenic effects on the Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in the Shennongjia Nature Reserve (SNR), which is a small and isolated distribution of R. roxellana in China and would continue to be threatened by habitat degradation and loss, using extensive sampling and 16 microsatellite loci. High level of genetic variation was observed from 202 individuals collected from three R. roxellana populations (SNR population, Sichuan-Gansu population and Shaanxi population). However, R. roxellana in SNR showed the lowest genetic diversity. The likelihood analysis of migration/drift equilibrium indicated that the SNR population suffered much stronger effect of drift than the other two populations, indicating that small populations are prone to be affected by drift. The STRUCTURE analysis identified two clusters, separating the SNR population from the other two populations, suggesting an increasing drift-induced differentiation between SNR and the other two populations. Bottleneck tests revealed that R. roxellana in SNR experienced a severe population decline (37-fold) during the past 500 years as a consequence of human population expansion. The current effective population size (Ne) in SNR is less than 100 and the ratio of Ne to the census population size is approximately 0.08. Based on our findings, we suggest that the SNR population should be monitored systematically and considered as an important conservation and management unit. PMID:22714009

Chang, Zong Fei; Luo, Mao Fang; Liu, Zhi Jin; Yang, Jing Yuan; Xiang, Zuo Fu; Li, Ming; Vigilant, Linda

2012-06-20

360

Diurnal variation of MCSs over Asia and the western Pacific Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) are severe disaster-producing weather systems. Radar data and infrared satellite image are useful tools in MCS surveillance. The previous method of MCS census is to look through the printed infrared imagery manually. This method is not only subjective and inaccurate, but also inefficient. Different from previous studies, a new automatic MCS identification (AMI) method, which overcomes the above disadvantages, is used in the present study. The AMI method takes three steps: searching potential MCS profiles, tracking the MCS, and assessing the MCS, so as to capture MCSs from infrared satellite images. Finally, 47468 MCSs are identified over Asia and the western Pacific region during the warm seasons (May-October) from 1995 to 2008. From this database, the geographical distribution and diurnal variation of MCSs are analyzed. The results show that different types of MCSs have similar geographical distributions. Latitude is the main control factor for MCS distribution. MCSs are most frequent over the central Tibetan Plateau; meanwhile, this area also has the highest hail frequency according to previous studies. Further, it is found that the diurnal variation of MCSs has little to do with MCSs' size or shape; MCSs in different areas have their own particular diurnal variation patterns. Based on the diurnal variation characteristics, MCSs are classified into four categories: the whole-day occurring MCSs in low latitude, the whole-day occurring MCSs in high latitude, the nocturnal MCSs, and the postmeridian MCSs. MCSs over most places of mainland China are postmeridian; but MCSs over the Sichuan basin and its vicinity are nocturnal. This conclusion is coincidental with the hail climatology of China.

Shu, Yu; Pan, Yinong; Wang, Jinxin

2013-06-01

361

Teaching about Ethnicities in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A unit on China's ethnicities provides students rich opportunities to explore multiple themes in the social studies while helping them to develop a deeper understanding of recent events in western China. Studying China's ethnic minorities encompasses such topics as stereotyping, cultural diversity, the creation of ethnic identities, and key…

Stedman, Caryn White

2010-01-01

362

Y-chromosome distributions among populations in Northwest China identify significant contribution from Central Asian pastoralists and lesser influence of western Eurasians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northwest China is closely adjacent to Central Asia, an intermediate region of the Eurasian continent. Moreover, the Silk Road through the northwest of China once had a vital role in the east–west intercommunications. Nevertheless, little has been known about the genetic makeup of populations in this region. We collected 503 male samples from 14 ethnic groups in the northwest of

Wei-Hua Shou; En-Fa Qiao; Chuan-Yu Wei; Yong-Li Dong; Si-Jie Tan; Hong Shi; Wen-Ru Tang; Chun-Jie Xiao; C-J Xiao

2010-01-01

363

Seismic signature of the collision between the east Tibetan escape flow and the Sichuan Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GPS displacement vectors show that the crust in east Tibet is being squeezed in an easterly direction by the northward motion of the Indian plate, and the Sichuan Basin is resisting this stream and redirecting it mainly towards Indochina. The Longmen Shan, containing the steepest rise to the high plateau anywhere in Tibet, results from the strong interaction between the east Tibetan escape flow and the rigid Yangtze block (Sichuan Basin), but the kinematics and dynamics of this interaction are still the subject of some debates. We herein present results from a dense passive-source seismic profile from the Sichuan Basin into eastern Tibet in order to study the deep structure of this collision zone. Using P and S receiver function images we observe a sudden rise of the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary (LAB) from 120 to 150 km beneath the Sichuan Basin and from 70 to 80 km beneath eastern Tibet. In contrast, the depth of the crust-mantle boundary (Moho) increases from 36 to 40 km beneath the Sichuan Basin and from 55 to 60 km beneath eastern Tibet. The 410 km discontinuity is depressed below eastern Tibet by about 30 km, although the 660 remains at nearly the same depth throughout the LMS. From these observations, we conclude that the mode of collision that occurs between Tibet and the Sichuan Basin is very different to that found between India and Tibet. In southern Tibet, we observe in essence the subduction of the Indian plate, which penetrates northwards for several hundred kilometers under central Tibet. The very thin mantle part of the lithosphere beneath eastern Tibet may indicate delamination or removal of the bottom of the lithosphere by hot asthenospheric escape flow. This process leads to the exceptionally steep topography at the eastern Tibetan margin as a result of gravitational buoyancy. This view is supported by the very unusual depression of the 410 km discontinuity beneath eastern Tibet, which could be caused by the dynamics of the sub-vertical downward asthenospheric flow.

Zhang, Zhongjie; Yuan, Xiaohui; Chen, Yun; Tian, Xiaobo; Kind, Rainer; Li, Xueqing; Teng, Jiwen

2010-04-01

364

Teaching West in the East: An American University in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Having closed its door to Western ideas for centuries, China has always presented itself as a puzzle both for academicians and politicians. Westerners, though, have always been attracted by the natural resources and human power that China offers to the capitalistic world. This study explores the entrance of Western ideas in China from an…

Ozturgut, Osman

2007-01-01

365

High Genetic Diversity vs. Low Genetic Differentiation in Nouelia insignia (Asteraceae), a Narrowly Distributed and Endemic Species in China, Revealed by ISSR Fingerprinting  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Background and Aims Nouelia insignis Franch., a monotypic genus of the Asteraceae, is an endangered species endemic in Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces of China. Most of the populations are seriously threatened. Some of them are even at the brink of extinction. In this study, the genetic diversity and differentiation between populations of this species were examined in two drainage

SHANSHAN L UAN; T ZEN-YUH C HIANG

2006-01-01

366

Tin-carrier minerals in metaluminous granites of the western Nanling Range (southern China): Constraints on processes of tin mineralization in oxidized granites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Huashan, Guposhan and Qitianling are three similar and representative metaluminous A-type tin granites in the western Nanling Range, China. They all have a high oxidization state with magnetite as the dominant Fe-Ti oxide. This study presents an understanding of systematic mineralogy of Sn-bearing minerals (biotite, titanite, magnetite and cassiterite) in the three granites. Biotite has an annite composition and both electron-microprobe and LA-ICP-MS analyses indicate trace amounts of tin in biotite (approximately 100-20 ppm). Chloritization of biotite is accompanied by formation of Sn-rich rutile and cassiterite. Titanite has a long history of crystallization from the early-magmatic stage through the late-magmatic stage to the hydrothermal stage. Owing to its solid-solution relationship with malayaite (CaSnSiO5), titanite always contains tin to various extents. Early-magmatic titanite contains about 0.5 wt.% SnO2, while the late-magmatic titanite is markedly enriched in tin (on average 14.8 and 3.4 SnO2 in titanite from the Qitianling and Huashan granites, respectively). Magnetite grains typically display a trellis structure with ilmenite lamellae, where microinclusions of cassiterite (<1 ?m in size) are present. This is likely consistent with features of the "oxy-exsolution" process of Sn-bearing titanomagnetite precursor. Cassiterite may be observed as late-magmatic phase, but most commonly appears as an alteration product of other primary minerals. All tin-bearing minerals in the three granites record a complete process of tin mineralization in granite. The features of tin in primary biotite, titanite and magnetite reflect an initial enrichment during the early stage of magmatic crystallization of the Huashan, Guposhan and Qitianling granites. Association of interstitial Sn-titanite and cassiterite suggests further tin enrichment related to fractional crystallization of granitic magmas. Fluids and alteration of primary minerals play an important role in the leaching, concentration and transportation of Sn during hydrothermal processes, which favors vein-type Sn mineralization.

Wang, Ru Cheng; Xie, Lei; Chen, Jun; Yu, Apeng; Wang, Lubin; Lu, Jianjun; Zhu, Jinchu

2013-09-01

367

Magmatic switch-on and switch-off along the South China continental margin since the Permian: Transition from an Andean-type to a Western Pacific-type plate boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detrital zircon provenance data for the Tananao schist in eastern Taiwan is consistent with its protolith being deposited on the South China continental margin at around, or soon after, 150 Ma, rather than being of an exotic origin and much older as previously suggested. The absence of ca. 200 Ma zircons agrees with the presence of a magmatic gap in the region after the orogenic and magmatic front migrated to central South China, due to a flat-slab subduction. The characteristic lack of input from interior South China (i.e., the lack of 1100-750 Ma and 470-420 Ma populations), and the immature nature of some of the schist units, suggest that they were sourced from the nearby coastal regions. On the other hand, they exhibit a dominant 190-150 Ma magmatic zircon population, suggesting the presence of abundant magmatic rocks of that age along the coastal regions. This, along with our newly discovered ca. 180 Ma I-type granites from eastern Zhejiang and other ca. 190-180 Ma magmatic rocks recently reported from the coastal regions, led us to propose that a new continental arc was initiated after ca. 190 Ma along the coastal region after a magmatic gap due to flat-slab subduction. This newly initiated arc likely persisted until ca. 90 Ma, and is represented by the I-type granitic rocks in eastern Taiwan. Slab roll-back likely caused the arc system to retreat towards the Pacific Ocean after 90 Ma, and ca. 60-17 Ma bimodal magmatism adjacent to the South China Sea signifies continental margin extension in the lead-up to, and during, the opening of the South China Sea. We thus argue that the continental margin of East Asia was transformed from an Andean-type plate margin at 280-90 Ma, to the present-day Western Pacific-type plate margin soon after 90 Ma.

Li, Zheng-Xiang; Li, Xian-Hua; Chung, Sun-Lin; Lo, Ching-Hua; Xu, Xisheng; Li, Wu-Xian

2012-04-01

368

Mantle anisotropy across the southwestern boundary of the Ordos block, North China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located at the northeastern margin of the Tibetan plateau, the Ordos block is a stable tectonic unit in North China. With its active boundary fault zones, the Ordos block played an important role in the eastward extrusion mechanism of the Tibetan plateau. Peking University deployed a linear array of 15 portable broadband seismometers across the western Weihe graben during September 2005 to August 2006 and later a 2-D seismic array (Southwest Ordos Array) of 14 portable broadband seismometers during 2007-2008 at its southwestern boundary. Analyses of shear wave splitting of SKS and SKKS phases at these stations show that the fast directions trend ˜110° with an average delay time of 0.9 s in the southwestern margin of the Ordos block. The agreement between the lithosphere deformation indicated by GPS data and Quaternary fault slip-rate observations and the mantle flow represented by shear wave splitting implies that accordant deformation patterns from lithosphere to asthenosphere in relation to the eastward extrusion of the Tibetan plateau could extend at least to 200 km depth. Spatial distribution of splitting polarization directions indicates that the mantle flow driven by the Tibetan plateau is blocked by the Ordos block and locally restricted in a narrow channel along the Qinling-Dabie fault zones between the Ordos block and Sichuan basin.

Tang, Yongcai; Chen, Yongshun John; Fu, Yuanyuan V.; Wang, Haiyang; Zhou, Shiyong; Sandvol, Eric; Ning, Jieyuan; Feng, Yongge; Liu, Mian

2010-12-01

369

Spatio-temporal modeling with GIS and remote sensing for schistosomiasis control in Sichuan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schistosomiasis is a water-borne parasitic disease endemic in tropical and subtropical areas. Its transmission requires certain kind of snail as the intermediate host. Some efforts have been made to mapping snail habitats with remote sensing and schistosomiasis transmission modeling. However, the modeling is limited to isolated residential groups and does not include spatial interaction among those groups. Remotely sensed data

Bing Xu

2003-01-01

370

FIRE BLIGHT RESISTANCE MALUS SPECIES FROM SICHUAN (CHINA), RUSSIAN CAUCASUS, TURKEY AND GERMANY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The United States National Plant Germplasm System has sponsored several explorations to collect a diversity of apple germplasm from Asia and Europe, in order to conserve it for posterity, and after evaluation, to make it available to breeders and geneticists worldwide. Germplasm was acquired from Si...

371

Eco-geochemical Assessment of Agroecosystems: Cd in the Chengdu Economical Region, Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cadmium (Cd) in the Chengdu Economic Region was studied as an example of eco-geochemical assessment on agroecosystems. Dry and wet atmospheric deposition samples, chemical fertilizers, irrigation water, and plants were collected. The concentrations of Cd and other elements in these samples were analyzed and the fluxes of input and output of the agroecosystem were calculated. The results indicated that the Cd was more concentrated in the surface soil than in the deep soil, and Cd concentration in some rice samples exceeded the upper limit of the pollution-free agricultural products. The input of Cd into the agroecosystem was 17.8 g·hm -2·y -1 on average, which accounted for 85.2% of the total input. Infiltration (2.34 g·hm -2·y -1) and harvest (1.87 g·hm -2·y -1) were the two most important Cd outputs. The average increase of Cd content in soil was 0.006 mg·kg -1·y -1, which was a result of sources outside of the agroecosystem. In the next 20 years, the area of the grade III soil will increase 2-3 times under the current input and output condition of Cd, which will lead to significant decrease of the arable land. The decrease of the pH in the study area was 0.106 y -1 because of fertilization and acid rain, of which 89.6% was from the contribution of chemical fertilizers. The present study indicates that, even though 95% of the rice production is safe, after 20 years, 70% of the safe soil will degrade, and the area of alarming soil will increase rapidly from 4% to 27% of the total cultivated area in the region.

Yang, Zhongfang; Hou, Qingye; Yu, Tao; Chen, Jiawei; Xia, Xueqi; Huang, Yong; Li, Kuo

372

A numerical simulation of dust storms in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind erosion occurs in many arid, semiarid and agricultural areas of the world. The desert areas of China, which occupy approximately 13% of China’s total surface area, are major sources of Asian dust. The major wind-erosion areas are the sandy lands in western and northwestern China together with the extensive regions of the Gobi desert in northern and northeastern China,

Zhenxin Song

2004-01-01

373

Effective Elastic Thickness of the Lithosphere in Continental China from Heat Flow: Implications for the Lithospheric Rheology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effective elastic thickness (Te) of lithosphere is one parameter describing the responses of the lithosphere to long term forces, and is still controversial in estimation by different methods. Here we present the effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere in continental China from heat flow data by the method proposed by Burov et al, J.G.R., 1995,100(B3):3905-3927. Our results show that Te varies much in different sub-areas in continental China due to different geological evolution and associated thermal regimes. Te is much greater than the crustal thickness in the area where the heat flow is really low and the lithosphere is really thick, indicating much more contribution from the lithospheric mantle and the dominative control of the mantle with olivine on the rheology of the lithosphere, and the major basins (Tarim, Junggar, Ordos and Sichuan basins) in central-western China share this characteristic. For instance, the Te of the Tarim basin is 66km with crustal thickness of 45km. Te is less than the crustal thickness in the region where the heat flow is relatively high, and approximates to the crustal brittle-ductile transition depth, suggesting more contribution from the crust and the dominative control of the felsic crust on the rheology of the lithosphere, and this phenomenon is obvious in the SE coastal China, eastern North China and the orogenic belts. Compared the estimated Te with the seismogenic layer thickness (Ts) available in China, it is also found that the Te is much greater than Ts in the major basins with low heat flow, and is similar to Ts in the active zones with high heat flow, which is inconsistent with that Te is usually smaller than Ts proposed by Maggi et al., Geology,2000,28(6):495-498. Generally, two end elements rheological modes for continental lithosphere of the strong crust-weak mantle and the weak crust-strong mantle are all available in continental China considering different thermal regime, composition and geological evolution.

Liu, S.; Wang, L.

2006-12-01

374

Petrology of HP metamorphic veins in coesite-bearing eclogite from western Tianshan, China: Fluid processes and elemental mobility during exhumation in a cold subduction zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A petrological study was carried out for high pressure (HP) veins which cut through the host coesite-bearing eclogites at Habutengsu-Kebuerte in western Tianshan, China. The results place constraints on the origin and property of metamorphic fluids during subduction-zone metamorphism. Omphacite-, clinozoisite- and quartz-dominated veins occur on centimeter to meter scales within lens-shaped and layered eclogites, or cutting into the country rocks of garnet phengite schists. Coesite-bearing eclogites mainly consist of fibrous fine-grained omphacite and porphyroblastic garnet, with minor amounts of amphibole (mainly barroisite), clinozoisite, white mica (mainly paragonite) and rutile. The veins are pronouncedly coarse-grained compared to the host eclogites and commonly consist of quartz, clinozosite, rutile, white mica (phengite and paragonite) and garnet, with or without omphacite, titanite, apatite, carbonate (mainly dolomite) and glaucophane. Fluid inclusions are abundant in vein omphacite, titanite and apatite, but are rare in the equivalent minerals of host eclogites. Rounded vein garnets usually occur close to the sharp interface of vein and host eclogite. Omphacite in the veins is characterized by its euhedral form surrounded by quartz, or coarse bladed aggregates in contrast to the fibrous or patchy one, suggesting dynamic recrystallization in the host rocks. Omphacite in both veins and host eclogites has similar jadeite contents (Jd40-50), indicating formation at eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions. Vein phengite uniformly contains certain amounts of Ba with maximum BaO content of 3.16-4.25 wt.%, suggesting that Ba was mobilized during the exhumation of UHP rocks. Specific textures of vein minerals, such as the enclosure of magnesite (or calcite) in dolomite, rutile in titanite, and the occurrence of zoned Ba-rich phengite, indicate the chemical variability of channelized fluids over time. Based on Zr content in rutile and the presence of paragonite, omphacite, phengite, glaucophane as well as the little deformed textures of HP veins, it is estimated that the vein-forming fluids would flow at about 1.3-2.1 GPa and 540-580 °C, corresponding to the stage of retrograde eclogite-facies recrystallization during exhumation of the UHP eclogites that formed at peak P-T conditions of > 2.7 GPa and 460-520 °C. The HP veins occur as a consequence of a regional tectonothermal event, triggering breakdown of lawsonite within the UHP eclogites. Based on the petrology of vein minerals, it is inferred that the HP fluids were enriched in Si, Ca, Na, Al and Ba. This suggests that these elements could be mobilized during the retrograde metamorphism of UHP eclogites in a cold subduction zone. Coeval pervasive flow of HP metamorphic fluids through the UHP eclogites at this stage may be an important process to eliminate most mineralogical evidence of the UHP metamorphism.

Lü, Zeng; Zhang, Lifei; Du, Jinxue; Yang, Xin; Tian, Zuolin; Xia, Bin

2012-04-01

375

Y-chromosome distributions among populations in Northwest China identify significant contribution from Central Asian pastoralists and lesser influence of western Eurasians.  

PubMed

Northwest China is closely adjacent to Central Asia, an intermediate region of the Eurasian continent. Moreover, the Silk Road through the northwest of China once had a vital role in the east-west intercommunications. Nevertheless, little has been known about the genetic makeup of populations in this region. We collected 503 male samples from 14 ethnic groups in the northwest of China, and surveyed 29 Y-chromosomal biallelic markers and 8 short tandem repeats (STRs) loci to reconstruct the paternal architecture. Our results illustrated obvious genetic difference among these ethnic groups, and in general their genetic background is more similar with Central Asians than with East Asians. The ancestors of present northwestern populations were the admixture of early East Asians peopling northwestward and later Central Asians immigrating eastward. This population mixture was dated to occur within the past 10 000 years. The J2-M172 lineages likely entered China during the eastward migration of Central Asians. The influence from West Eurasia through gene flows on the extant ethnic groups in Northwest China was relatively weak. PMID:20414255

Shou, Wei-Hua; Qiao, En-Fa; Wei, Chuan-Yu; Dong, Yong-Li; Tan, Si-Jie; Shi, Hong; Tang, Wen-Ru; Xiao, Chun-Jie

2010-04-23

376

Speculations on the Mesozoic Plate Tectonic Evolution of Eastern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several orogenic belts transecting eastern China are the sites of former convergent plate margins, although there have been varying views on the collisional framework of individual continental blocks, styles of convergence at these zones, and the timing of respective collisions. A tectonic study of eastern China, Mongolia and the southern Soviet Far East indicates the collision of the South China Block with a combined North China-Northeast China Fold Zone Block in the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic, their collective suturing to Eurasia in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, followed by the Sikhote Alin-Japan Block in the Mid to Late Cretaceous. The evidence is as follows: (1) A linear belt of Late Triassic-Early Cretaceous granites and granodiorites trends east from the Qinlingshan through the Dabieshan to the Huaiyang massif. Ophiolites, flysch, subduction zone mélange, a paired metamorphic belt indicating north dipping subduction and marine strata of Carboniferous to Late Triassic age from the Qinlingshan define the suture between the North and South China Blocks, (2) A sinuous belt of ultramafics, blueschists, silicic to intermediate magmatism and west and north vergent folds and thrusts trend from the west margin of the Ordos Basin through central Inner Mongolia and along the east Great Khingan Range to the Amur River. Coupled with a Mid Jurassic-Early Creataceous unconformity a suturing of eastern Chinese blocks to Eurasia along this zone is suggested, (3) A fold and thrust belt with ultramafics, flysch, blueschists and subduction zone mélange along the Ussuri River in northeast China indicates the suturing of the Sikhote Alin-Japan Block to Eurasia along a west dipping subduction zone in the Mid to Late Cretaceous. Similarly, a tectonic study of southern China and Southeast Asia has revealed a complex regional mosaic of suture-bounded terrains which nucleated about the eastern, western and southern margins of the Yangtze Craton during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic. The evidence is as follows: (4) A north-south trending belt of ophiolites, blueschists, calc-alkaline volcanics and subduction zone mélange, including granites, granodiorites and strongly deformed marine strata all of Late Triassic age exposed in the Longmenshan of Sichuan merge with the Kekexilishan ophiolite zone into the Ailaoshan-Tengtiaohe ophiolite and blueschist belt in central Yunnan along which the Songban-Ganzi Complex and the Shan-Thai-Malaya Block join the Craton, and (5) A southeastern prolongation of the Ailaoshan-Tengtiaohe belt bifurcates into the southeast trending Konvoi zone of northern Vietnam and the north-south trending Pak Lay-Luang Prabang zone of Laos and eastern Thailand. Zones of ophiolite, calc-alkaline volcanics and strong Late Triassic deformation, they separate the Indosinia and Shan-Thai-Malaya Blocks from the Craton respectively. These findings differ significantly from previous interpretations of a Late Paleozoic consolidation of South-Eastern Asia as well as disputing the existence of a true Pangea.

Klimetz, Michael P.

1983-04-01

377

Seismic structure of the Longmen Shan region from S-wave tomography and its relationship with the Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake on 12 May 2008, southwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using arrival time data, we determined seismic structure of the Longmen Shan by S-wave tomography and studied its relations with the Ms 8.0 earthquake in Wenchuan, southwestern China. Our results suggest that the Longmen Shan fault belt is a rheologic boundary between the eastern Tibetan plateau and the Sichuan basin, and the deep crust of the entire Longmen Shan is

Yi Xu; Zhiwei Li; Runqiu Huang; Ya Xu

2010-01-01

378

The Application of InSAR to the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 12 May 2008 a Mw 7.9 earthquake occurred near Wenchuan in Sichuan Province, China. More than 69,000 people were killed and over 4.8 million became homeless. Based on initial seismological reports, the earthquake was generated by slip one or more thrust faults within the Longmen Shan mountain belt, where oblique crustal shortening is taking place the Tibetan Plateau and

M. Huang; Y. Kuo; J. E. Suppe; Y. Chen; J. Hu

2008-01-01

379

Impacts of the Wenchuan Earthquake on the giant panda nature reserves in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wenchuan Earthquake that occurred in May of 2008 caused damages to large areas of Sichuan, Gansu, and Shaanxi provinces\\u000a in China. Reports from local governments and related management agencies show that the giant panda nature reserves in the\\u000a earthquake-hit areas were heavily damaged. Our estimates in this paper of the impacts of the earthquake on the giant panda\\u000a in

Xiangzheng Deng; Qunou Jiang; Quansheng Ge; Linsheng Yang

2010-01-01

380

Structural heterogeneities in the source area of the Mw 7.9 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake occurred on May 12, 2008 (06:28:01 UTC) in the Longmen-Shan fault zone at the eastern margin of Tibet and adjacent to the Sichuan foreland basin, where as much as 9 m of coseismic slip was observed. This is the most significant earthquake to have struck China since the 1976 Tangshan Earthquake (Mw 7.6). Chinese authorities

Z. Wang; Y. Fukao; S. Pei

2008-01-01

381

Drivers of Echinococcus multilocularis Transmission in China: Small Mammal Diversity, Landscape or Climate?  

PubMed Central

Background Human alveolar echinococcocosis (AE) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic disease caused by the larval stage of the cestode E. multilocularis. Its life-cycle includes more than 40 species of small mammal intermediate hosts. Therefore, host biodiversity losses could be expected to alter transmission. Climate may also have possible impacts on E. multilocularis egg survival. We examined the distribution of human AE across two spatial scales, (i) for continental China and (ii) over the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We tested the hypotheses that human disease distribution can be explained by either the biodiversity of small mammal intermediate host species, or by environmental factors such as climate or landscape characteristics. Methodology/findings The distributions of 274 small mammal species were mapped to 967 point locations on a grid covering continental China. Land cover, elevation, monthly rainfall and temperature were mapped using remotely sensed imagery and compared to the distribution of human AE disease at continental scale and over the eastern Tibetan plateau. Infection status of 17,589 people screened by abdominal ultrasound in 2002–2008 in 94 villages of Tibetan areas of western Sichuan and Qinghai provinces was analyzed using generalized additive mixed models and related to epidemiological and environmental covariates. We found that human AE was not directly correlated with small mammal reservoir host species richness, but rather was spatially correlated with landscape features and climate which could confirm and predict human disease hotspots over a 200,000 km2 region. Conclusions/Significance E. multilocularis transmission and resultant human disease risk was better predicted from landscape features that could support increases of small mammal host species prone to population outbreaks, rather than host species richness. We anticipate that our study may be a starting point for further research wherein landscape management could be used to predict human disease risk and for controlling this zoonotic helminthic.

Giraudoux, Patrick; Raoul, Francis; Pleydell, David; Li, Tiaoying; Han, Xiuming; Qiu, Jiamin; Xie, Yan; Wang, Hu; Ito, Akira; Craig, Philip S.

2013-01-01

382

Cultural and Gender Differences in Perceptions of Stressors and Coping Skills: A Study of Western and African College Students in China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Tests the universal nature of stress and coping behavior among overseas college students in China and provides basic information towards understanding the problems that result from stress and coping which can best be defined in cultural terms. Results indicated that academic and interpersonal sources of stress were the most common Stressors…

Hashim, Ismail Hussein

2003-01-01

383

Oligo-Miocene magnetostratigraphy and rock magnetism of the Xishuigou section, Subei (Gansu Province, western China) and implications for shallow inclinations in central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetostratigraphy of 222 remanent directions together with late Oligocene to early Miocene mammal and charophyte paleontology suggest that 2179 m of the Xishuigou section (Subei, Gansu Province, China) were deposited from ~26 to ~19 Ma. Stratigraphic patterns of bulk susceptibility, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility parameters, and natural and anhysteretic remanent magnetization intensities demonstrate that (1) faulting does not significantly affect

Stuart Gilder; Yan Chen; Sevket Sen

2001-01-01

384

Cultural and Gender Differences in Perceptions of Stressors and Coping Skills: A Study of Western and African College Students in China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests the universal nature of stress and coping behavior among overseas college students in China and provides basic information towards understanding the problems that result from stress and coping which can best be defined in cultural terms. Results indicated that academic and interpersonal sources of stress were the most common Stressors…

Hashim, Ismail Hussein

2003-01-01

385

Distinct Genetic Diversity of Oncomelania hupensis, Intermediate Host of Schistosoma japonicum in Mainland China as Revealed by ITS Sequences  

PubMed Central

Background Oncomelania hupensis is the unique intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, which causes schistosomiasis endemic in the Far East, and especially in mainland China. O. hupensis largely determines the parasite's geographical range. How O. hupensis's genetic diversity is distributed geographically in mainland China has never been well examined with DNA sequence data. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we investigate the genetic variation among O. hupensis from different geographical origins using the combined complete internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. 165 O. hupensis isolates were obtained in 29 localities from 7 provinces across mainland China: lake/marshland and hill regions in Anhui, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi and Jiangsu provinces, located along the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, and mountainous regions in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. Phylogenetic and haplotype network analyses showed distinct genetic diversity and no shared haplotypes between populations from lake/marshland regions of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and populations from mountainous regions of Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. The genetic distance between these two groups is up to 0.81 based on Fst, and branch time was estimated as 2–6 Ma. As revealed in the phylogenetic tree, snails from Sichuan and Yunnan provinces were also clustered separately. Geographical separation appears to be an important factor accounting for the diversification of the two groups of O. hupensis in mainland China, and probably for the separate clades between snails from Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. In lake/marshland and hill regions along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, three clades were identified in the phylogenetic tree, but without any obvious clustering of snails from different provinces. Conclusions O. hupensis in mainland China may have considerable genetic diversity, and a more complex population structure than expected. It will be of significant importance to consider the genetic diversity of O. hupensis when assessing co-evolutionary interactions with S. japonicum.

Zhao, Qin Ping; Jiang, Ming Sen; Littlewood, D. Timothy J.; Nie, Pin

2010-01-01

386

Seroprevalence of Entamoeba histolytica Infection in China  

PubMed Central

The seroprevalence of Entamoeba histolytica infection in the residents of seven provinces in China was examined by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with a crude antigen and a recombinant surface antigen, C-Igl, of the parasites. A total of 1,312 serum samples were investigated. The positivity rates for these two antigens were 11.05% and 6.25%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the seropositivity to E. histolytica between men and women. We used a logistic regression model and maximal-likelihood methods to estimate the prevalence of E. histolytica infection from sequential serologic data. Seropositivity in Sichuan, Guizhou, and Sinkiang Provinces was higher than that in Beijing, Shanghai, and Qinghai Provinces. The present study provides an overview of seropositivity to E. histolytica infection in seven provinces in China and use the logistic regression model estimation method to achieve a more accurate measure of amebiasis incidence.

Yang, Bin; Chen, Yingdan; Wu, Liang; Xu, Longqi; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Cheng, Xunjia

2012-01-01

387

Fault zone evolution and its controls on ore-grade distribution at the Jian Cha Ling gold deposit, western Qinling region, central China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Jian Cha Ling gold deposit is sited in folded and faulted Palaeoproterozoic rocks of the uplifted Mian-Lue-Yang block, adjacent to the Mianlue suture zone within the West Qinling mineral province, along the northern margin of the South China craton. Early Mesozoic gold mineralization at Jian Cha Ling, which has a pre-mined resource of about 536,000 oz Au, is controlled by

Richard M. Vielreicher; Noreen M. Vielreicher; Steffen G. Hagemann; Greg Jones

2002-01-01

388

Evidence of Arid to Semi-arid Climate Near Western Pacific Warm Pool During Sea-Level Lowstands: Caliche Surfaces in Late Cenozoic Carbonates of Nansha Islands, South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whether the climate of tropical seas during glacial periods became cold and dry has been an open debate. Models by different authors proposed the tropical sea-surface temperature (SST) during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to be about 2\\deg lower, or 5-6\\deg lower than present. The controversy partly arise from disparate reconstructions of temperature from stable oxygen isotope archives of marine sediments. In this paper, we provide field evidence of semi-arid or arid climate during late Cenozoic sea-level lowstands from an atoll located in central South China Sea near the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP). Lower rainfall and higher evaporation associated with the dry conditions might have resulted in less meteoric water component in the surface sea-water, and this factor should be taken into considerations in deciphering temperature from isotopic records. Taiping Islet (Itu Aba), located at N10\\deg 23' and E114\\deg 22' is part of the Nansha (Spratly) Islands near the northwestern margin of the Western Pacific Warm Pool. Rock cores of a borehole at Taiping became accessible to the authors in the recent years. We identified at least four subaerial exposure surfaces (SES) in the late Cenozoic carbonates. Caliche deposits are recognized on each of the four surfaces on the basis of alveolar texture, micro-rhizolith, caliche glaebules and corroded limestone nodules in reddish matrix (terra-rossa). Caliche developed on limestones typically forms in semi-arid to arid areas with annual precipitation from about 500 to 1000mm, while the modern annual rainfall of Nansha Island is 1800-2100mm. The occurrence of the Nansha caliche suggests the climate was much drier than present during the sea-level lowstands represented by the four SES. During the sea-level falls, reduced surface area of South China Sea with continental shelves exposed might have resulted in less moistures in the atmosphere and therefore less precipitation and higher evaporation rates. As a result, the reduced amount of meteoric fresh water in the surface sea-water may yield heavier oxygen isotopic compositions. We suggest that paleo-SST interpretations based on oxygen isotope archives in or near South Chine Sea should take the precipitation factor into consideration. Previous studies in Southeast Asian land regions and offshore northern Australia have proposed a scenario of a drier WPWP during LGM. Our data suggest such dry condition may not only occur in LGM but also in the previous glacial periods or sea-level lowstands; may not only in lands, but also in the central South China Sea.

Gong, S.; Mii, H.; Horng, C.; Huang, F.; Chi, W.; Yui, T.; Torng, P.; Huang, S.; Wang, S.; Wu, J.; Yang, K.

2003-12-01

389

Seismic signature of the mantle transition zone beneath eastern Tibet and Sichuan Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strong interaction between the eastward flow escaping from Tibet and the rigid Sichuan Basin resulted in the rise of the Longmenshan. However, the detailed dynamics in the mantle remains controversial. In this study, the structure of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) beneath eastern Tibet and Sichuan Basin is investigated using 5080 receiver functions from 51 broadband stations. The depth of the 410 km discontinuity is close to the global average, except for the Longmenshan where the 410 and 660-km discontinuities are found to be depressed by up to 10-25 km and 5-10 km, respectively. The observed simultaneous depressions of the 410 and 660-km discontinuities distributed along the LMS, together with proofs from tomography and regional tectonics, suggest that asthenospheric flow sinks into the MTZ, resulting in a high velocity zone, as well as variation in the MTZ thickness. The depressions are not from the traditional Clapeyron slopes or temperature variation. Also, the depression of the 410 km discontinuity and the dehydration of wadsleyite are syngenetic, both of which originate from the dry mantle flow traveling across the old 410 km interface.

Hu, Jiafu; Yang, Haiyan; Li, Guangquan; Wen, Limin

2013-01-01

390

International Law and the Rise of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rise of China raises questions about the future of international law. The current system of international law depends largely on American hegemony, along with the dominance of western European states that share America's general goals and values. It is possible that China in the future will not threaten this system, either because China comes to share these goals and

Eric A. Posner

2006-01-01

391

Development Potentials and Policy Options of Biomass in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to106 tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts’ energy distribution also varies from province to province in China. Based on the analysis of the market scale and industry development, the article argues that China’s biomass energy industry is still at a very early stage of development and that Feed-in Tariffs (FIT) might be the best policy option for China to promote its development of biomass energy. A successful enforcement of FIT in China needs some policy combination of special capital subsidies, R&D funding, tax incentives and pricing.

Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

2010-10-01

392

Tertiary evolution of the western Tarim basin, northwest China: A tectono-sedimentary response to northward indentation of the Pamir salient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ABSTRACTThis paper deals with the Tertiary tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the western Tarim basin based on an integrated stratigraphic, sedimentary, structural, and tectonic analyses. Basin evolution is divided into three stages: Paleogene, Miocene, and Pliocene. The western Tarim basin was the easternmost part of the Tethyan realm from Late Cretaceous to Paleogene, and marine sedimentation continued into the Early Miocene. Miocene development of the western Tarim basin was chiefly governed by West Kunlun right-slip faulting and the simultaneous northward thrusting of the Pamir salient and Tianshuihai terrane. Yecheng subbasin developed as a pull-apart basin owing to synchronous activity of the West Kunlun and the Shache-Yangdaman right-slip faults. Hotan foreland basin formed in response to northward displacement of the Tianshuihai terrane, and another might have developed in front of the advancing Pamir salient in the Miocene. Basinward thrusting became predominant in the orogenic belts adjacent to the western Tarim basin in the Pliocene. North-directed displacement and uplift of the Tiklik thrust terrane fragmented the preexisting Hotan foreland basin, and collision of the Pamir with the southern Tian Shan deformational fronts caused complete destruction of the Miocene Pamir foreland basin. Eastward displacement of the Qimugen fold-thrust system led to flexural subsidence of the Yecheng subbasin in the Pliocene. Kashi subbasin developed as part of the southern Tian Shan foreland basin, and was controlled by the eastern Pamir as well. A tectonic scenario is proposed to illustrate complicated interplay of the western Tarim basin with its peripheral orogens in the Tertiary.

Wei, Hong-Hong; Meng, Qing-Ren; Ding, Lin; Li, Zhen-Yu

2013-06-01

393

Understanding China?s historical development: The profit and the risk that China?s stock market provides investors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to describe China?s unique historical development that transformed the Celestial Empire into the largest economy in the world in the beginning of the nineteenth century, with a GDP that exceeded that of Western Europe, Japan, the US and Russia combined, and the decline during the ?Century of Humiliation?, and Mao Zedong?s communism that culminated

Ronald Jean Degen

2009-01-01

394

Hand preference for spontaneously unimanual and bimanual coordinated tasks in wild Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys: Implication for hemispheric specialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateralized behaviour has been studied as an observable measure of cerebral functional asymmetry for many years, and interest in the evolutionary origins of lateralized behaviour in humans has prompted research into the study of manual laterality in nonhuman primates. The Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) is a rarely studied species as far as laterality research is concerned. In this study,

Dapeng Zhao; Xiang Gao; Baoguo Li

2010-01-01

395

Willingness to Help Following the Sichuan Earthquake: Modeling the Effects of Media Involvement, Stress, Trust, and Relational Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examining individuals’ TV and Internet involvement following the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, this study demonstrates that involvement with disaster media renders positive and negative effects on viewers. Although TV involvement increases perceived stress, TV and Internet involvement predict perceived gains of social-relational resources (e.g., companionship and intimacy with friends and family) and social trust. Media involvement, in general, is also positively

Mihye Seo; Shaojing Sun; Andy J. Merolla; Shuangyue Zhang

2012-01-01

396

Dynamic Analysis of Consumption Structure of Rural Residents in Sichuan Province Based on Fuzzy Matter Element Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on per capita consumption expenditure of households, the model of Fuzzy Matter Element is used to evaluate the consumption structure of residents. Taking Sichuan province as an example, this paper analyzes the dynamic changes of consumption structure of rural residents during 1995 to 2008. The result shows that residents' consumption structure has been improved obviously during these 14 years,

Li Hong; Zhai Youlong; Zhou Bo

2010-01-01

397

Coseismic Faults and Crust Deformation Accompanied the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China by Field Investigation and InSAR Interferogram  

Microsoft Academic Search

The devastated Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake occurred along the steep eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau in Sichuan, China, on 12 May 2008. Over 86,592 people were dead or missing, 374159 injured, and more than 4.8 million homeless. The ruptures possibly occurred over a length of 285 km along the northeast striking Longmen Shan (LMS) thrust belt. In order to

K. Hao; H. Si; H. Fujiwara; T. Ozawa

2008-01-01

398

The Diversity and AntiMicrobial Activity of Endophytic Actinomycetes Isolated from Medicinal Plants in Panxi Plateau, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional Chinese medicinal plants are sources of biologically active compounds, providing raw material for pharmaceutical,\\u000a cosmetic and fragrance industries. The endophytes of medicinal plants participate in biochemical pathways and produce analogous\\u000a or novel bioactive compounds. Panxi plateau in South-west Sichuan in China with its unique geographical and climatological\\u000a characteristics is a habitat of a great variety of medicinal plants. In

Ke Zhao; Petri Penttinen; Tongwei Guan; Jing Xiao; Qiang Chen; Jun Xu; Kristina Lindström; Lili Zhang; Xiaoping Zhang; Gary A. Strobel

2011-01-01

399

Who Do You Trust? Comparing People-Centered Communications in Disaster Situations in the United States and China  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a theoretical sampling approach to investigate and compare communications in two crisis situations – the Sichuan earthquake in China and Hurricane Katrina in the US. We propose to re-conceptualize crisis communications, with the possibility of recognizing non-hierarchical and reciprocal interactions between authorities, traditional and social media, and individuals in crisis planning policy. We bring the issues of political and social

James D. White; King-Wa Fu

2012-01-01

400

Further studies on the Pselaphodes complex of genera from China (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract New data on the Pselaphodes complex of genera (Pselaphitae: Tyrini) from China is presented. The generic limits of Labomimus Sharp and Pselaphodes Westwood are discussed and expanded. A revised key to the genera of the Pselaphodes complex is provided. New geographic evidence suggests that previously believed wide-spread species Pselaphodes tianmuensis Yin, Li & Zhao contains a number of related species, resulting in a division of the species to nine separate taxa. Fourteen new species belonging to three genera are diagnosed, described and illustrated: Dayao emeiensis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Sichuan), Labomimus fimbriatus Yin & Hlavá?, sp. n. (Yunnan), Labomimus jizuensis Yin & Hlavá?, sp. n. (Yunnan), Labomimus simplicipalpus Yin & Hlavá?, sp. n. (Sichuan), Pselaphodes anhuianus Yin & Li, sp. n. (Anhui), Pselaphodes daii Yin & Hlavá?, sp. n. (Sichuan), Pselaphodes grebennikovi Yin & Hlavá?, sp. n. (Yunnan), Pselaphodes hainanensis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Hainan), Pselaphodes kuankuoshuiensis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Guizhou), Pselaphodes longilobus Yin & Hlavá?, sp. n. (Hunbei, Yunnan), Pselaphodes monoceros Yin & Hlavá?, sp. n. (Xizang), Pselaphodes pengi Yin & Li, sp. n. (Sichuan), Pselaphodes tiantongensis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Zhejiang) and Pselaphodes wrasei Yin & Li, sp. n. (Yunnan). Labomimus sichuanicus Hlavá?, Nomura & Zhou (Sichuan) is redescribed and illustrated based on a paratype and the material from the type locality. Two recently described species, Pselaphodes tibialis Yin & Li (Yunnan), and Pselaphodes venustus Yin & Li (Yunnan), are transferred to Labomimus (comb. n.) due to the presence of a median metaventral fovea. New locality data is provided for Pselaphodes aculeus Yin, Li & Zhao (Anhui, Fujian, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan), Pselaphodes maoershanus Yin & Li (Guangxi, Guizhou), Pselaphodes tianmuensis (Zhejiang, Anhui, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi) and Pselaphodes pectinatus Yin, Li & Zhao (Hainan), with the aedeagus newly illustrated for the latter species.

Yin, Zi-Wei; Hlavac, Peter; Li, Li-Zhen

2013-01-01

401

Confined pyrolysis of Tertiary lacustrine source rocks in the Western Qaidam Basin, Northwest China: Implications for generative potential and oil maturity evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parameter S1+S2 (genetic potential) of Rock-Eval analysis is widely used as an evaluation of the genetic potential for the source rocks. Oligocene–Miocene saline lacustrine source rocks in the western Qaidam basin have low total organic C contents (TOC), most around 0.5% with a few exceptions >1.0%. Mineral matrix effects are substantial for source rocks with low TOC, resulting in

Changchun Pan; Min Zhang; Dehua Peng; Linping Yu; Jinzhong Liu; Guoying Sheng; Jiamo Fu

2010-01-01

402

Geodynamical Evolution and Tectonic Framework of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we show that the tectonic framework of mainland China consists of "three latitudinal strips", namely, Tianshan-Yinshan-Yanshan, Qinling-Dabie, and Nanling; "two longitudinal strips" namely, Daxing'anling Taihangshan Wulingshan, Helanshan-Longmenshan; and "two triangles", Songpan-Ganzi, and Chaidamu. The geodynamic evolution of China can be considered in five-stages, which can be summarised as a kind of "teeterboard-like" process. The evolutionary process is that in the Palaeozoic era, the China mainland had lower elevation in the west and higher in the east, with OrdosSichuan as an axis. After the Mesozoic era, because the blocks of Qiangtang, Gangdese, and India collided and sutured with the Tarim block. During this time closure of the Tethys ocean occurred, and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau formed. In the Cenozoic subduction of the Pacific plate northwestwards under the Philippine Sea began, and the Philippine Sea block converged towards the Eurasian plate. This was associated with extension and thinning of the crust in East China, which resulted in the uplift of the land in the west and subsidence in the east of China. Finally, we point out that research on the geodynamic evolution of the terranes is of practical significance in prospecting for mineral deposits and hydrocarbon resources.

LIU, Guangding

403

Comparative analysis of Chinese and western sporting goods enterprises' growth pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

After 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, sports industry is becoming an investment hotspot in China. And 2008 Beijing Olympic Games become a powerful springboard for China's domestic sporting goods enterprises to sprint world-class brand. In western countries sporting goods industry is mature industry, but in China it belongs to emerging industry. Big gaps exist between Chinese and western sporting goods enterprises.

Dong Qinqin

2011-01-01

404

Family planning legislation and policy in China.  

PubMed

This article summarizes China's general state of family planning (FP) legislation and FP policy. Article 25 of the Chinese Constitution and Article 12 of the Marriage Law require that F¿ must be promoted by the State. There was only one national law on FP: "Measures for Management of FP of the Floating Population," which was established on December 26, 1991. The text of this law was reported in "China Population Today," Number 1, February, 1992. This law authorized provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities under central government control to establish their own FP regulations according to the conditions of their regions. The first province with regulations was Guangdong in 1980, followed by Qinghai, Shaanxi, and Ningxia in 1986. Sichuan regulations were published in 1987, followed by Guizhou, Hubei, Liaoning, Fujian, Shandong, Jilin, and Anhui in 1988. In 1989, the following states published regulations: Guangxi, Tianjin, Hebei, Hainan, and Zhejiang. The remaining 11 provinces and autonomous regions passed regulations in 1990 and 1991 to complete the total 28 administrative units for provinces with FP regulations. Only Tibet and Xianjiang do not have regulations. Regulations promote deferred marriage and deferred childbearing, fewer and healthier births, the practice of one couple and one child, and birth spacing for those suffering with only one child; genetic defects were to be prevented. Minorities, in general, ascribed to the following conditions: 1) one-child family, unless difficulties would arise as a result. This provision applied to Beijing, Tianjin, and Shanghai municipalities and Jiangsu and Sichuan provinces. Allowing a second birth for families with only daughters was allowed in 18 provinces and regions. 2) Two-child families were allowed in Ningxia, Yunnan, Qinghai, guangdong, and Hainan provinces. 3) Ethnic populations (8% or 90 million in 1990) have special policies, which are more lenient than policies governing the Han majority. The exception was Zhuang nationality, which has the same policy as the Han. FP policy in China is not unified as a "one-child policy." PMID:12286963

1992-10-01

405

Geometry and timing of Mesozoic deformation in the western part of the Xuefeng Tectonic Belt, South China: Implications for intra-continental deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Xuefeng Tectonic Belt is an important intraplate structural system in the South China Block. Its west margin is up to 1300 km away the present-day continental margin, and the Mesozoic structural trends in this belt are perpendicular to and have no correlation with the Triassic Qinling-Dabie Orogenic Belt. This belt provides important clues for understanding the mechanism of intraplate deformation and the tectonic history of South China. We identified two generations of folding with different strike directions in the Xuefeng Tectonic Belt based on the youngest folding-involved strata and their overprinting relationship. The early one is NE-striking, overprinted by the N-S-striking folds both during Late Jurassic and Late Cretaceous. Thrust faults in the Xuefeng Tectonic Belt mainly show top-to-west thrust movement, which is approximately coeval with the N-S-striking folding. The thrust fault system can be divided into three zones: the root zone with steep thrusts, the middle zone characterized by imbricate thrusts, and the frontal zone with a few shallow thrusts. In addition, two generations of strike-slip faults with different structural trends have been identified: E-W-striking strike-slip faults showing dextral transpression, and NE-striking strike-slip faults with sinistral offset and controlling the upper Cretaceous basins. According to regional geological relationship and structural overprinting, we interpret that the E-W trending strike-slip faults formed in the first stage, whereas the NE-striking strike-slip faults formed later during an E-W-oriented compressional event. Therefore, the principal stress direction varies from NW-SE to E-W.

Liu, Liping; Li, Sanzhong; Dai, Liming; Suo, Yanhui; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Guowei; Wang, Yuejun; Liu, Enshan

2012-04-01

406

China?s challenges to future sustainable economic growth and the implications for the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ?stunning comeback? of China after almost two centuries is one of the most significant trends affecting Western economies, particularly the United States (US). None of the key drives that have promoted China?s growth are really at risk if the Chinese government does not deviate from its present economic policy and keeps up gradual refinement of its unique and effective

Ronald Degen

2009-01-01

407

Thriving in the shadow of the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake: Two studies on resilience in adolescents.  

PubMed

The objective of the current study was to explore the relationship between resilience and psychological adjustment in Chinese adolescents who experienced the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. Study 1 compared the scores and factor structures on the Resilience Scale for Chinese Adolescents for 1436 adolescents, who were divided into a high-adversity group and a low-adversity group. The results showed that resilience following exposure to an earthquake included cognitive and emotive components. In Study 2, 311 Chinese adolescents who resided in the most severely affected areas were surveyed at 15 months (T1) and 20 months (T2) following the earthquake. The results revealed that resilience mediated the relationship between positive future expectations at T1 and adjustment at T2. PMID:23129832

Gan, Yiqun; Xie, Xiaofei; Wang, Ting; Rodriguez, Marcus A; Tang, Catherine S

2012-11-05

408

Hypermethylated SFRP1, but none of other nine genes “informative” for western countries, is valuable for bladder cancer detection in mainland China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  A 11-gene set by methylation-specific PCR in urine sediments for sensitive\\/specific detection of bladder cancer has been identified\\u000a previously. In this study, we have evaluated 10 DNA methylation biomarkers that have been reported informative in western\\u000a countries for bladder cancer diagnosis for a better set.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  The promoter CpG Islands of the following 10 genes: CDH1, FANCF, LOXL1, LOXL4,

Jinfeng Sun; Zhou Chen; Tongyu Zhu; Jian Yu; Kelong Ma; Hongyu Zhang; Yinghua He; Xiaoying Luo; Jingde Zhu

2009-01-01

409

A polyphase metamorphic evolution for the Xitieshan paragneiss of the north Qaidam UHP metamorphic belt, western China: In-situ EMP monazite- and U-Pb zircon SHRIMP dating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-situ electron microprobe (EMP) U-Th-Pb monazite-, sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) zircon analyses, metamorphic phase equilibrium (Domino/Theriak)- and geothermobarometric calculations are performed on kyanite/sillimanite-bearing garnet biotite gneisses forming part of the dominant rock association in the Xitieshan ultra-high pressure metamorphic belt, north Qaidam, western China. Results are consistent with the following complex polyphase tectono-metamorphic evolution.The kyanite/sillimanite bearing garnet biotite gneisses contain monazite ages of 938 ± 23 Ma and zircon SHRIMP ages of 945 ± 7 Ma, referring to a Neoproterozoic metamorphism, i.e. similar to the age of the Jinning orogeny in the Yangtze block of southern China. This correlation suggests that the paragneiss has affinities with the Yangtze block (South China block). The Neoproterozoic monazites were found inside coarse grained porphyroblastic garnets containing amphibolite facies mineral inclusion assemblages.The kyanite/sillimanite-bearing garnet biotite gneisses also contain early Paleozoic monazite ages of 422-425 Ma and 455-460 Ma, detected in amphibolite facies mineral assemblages associated with matrix minerals. Using phase equilibrium- and geothermobarometric calculations, PT conditions of 560-610 °C/5.8-7.0 kbar and 610-675 °C/4.6-6.5 kbar were calculated respectively for both amphibolite facies assemblages. The early Paleozoic ages of 422-425 Ma and 455-460 Ma were detected in 8 monazite grains from the investigated paragneiss samples. Based on the Y and Eu contents variation of the early Paleozoic monazite domains (measured by EMP), the 422-425 Ma monazite ages are interpreted to have formed during an amphibolite facies tectono-metamorphic overprint that post-dates (U)HP metamorphism and can thus be related to exhumation of previously deeply subducted rocks. Alternatively, the 455-460 Ma monazite ages are interpreted to represent the age of the prograde subduction zone metamorphism.We conclude therefore that the mineral assemblage of the kyanite/sillimanite-bearing garnet-biotite gneiss (and associated retro-eclogite) was formed during an early Paleozoic subduction/collision event, which involved late Proterozoic (938-945 Ma) crystalline basement inliers of minimal mid amphibolite facies grade. Early Paleozoic deep subduction towards (U)HP depths occurred around 455-460 Ma followed by retrograde amphibolite facies metamorphism at 422-425 Ma during exhumation.

Zhang, Cong; van Roermund, Herman; Zhang, Lifei; Spiers, Chris

2012-04-01

410

Born in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

International adoption has been presented in the literature almost exclusively from a dominant western perspective with little consideration for that of the sending countries. This study seeks to capture Chinese perceptions of international adoption. The inextricable relationship between China's family planning policies and the placing of orphans in the diaspora for adoption led to a sample which included government officials

Nili Luo; Kathleen Ja Sook Bergquist

2005-01-01

411

Contemporary Tectonics of China.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seismic data and LANDSAT imagery in western China have been investigated in detail. Fault plane solutions of earthquakes that occurred in the past ten years were derived from polarities of first motions of P waves and S waves. Numerous faults and fault sy...

J. Ni J. E. Oliver B. L. Isacks

1978-01-01

412

The China Connection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the cooperative economic development program developed between the Maricopa Community Colleges, Arizona, and Chengdu, China. The colleges are assisting Chinese policy leaders in restructuring needed training for newer, modern, and usually western economic approaches, aided by U.S. community college training program models. Reports on…

Elsner, Paul A.

2003-01-01

413

[The relationship between soil respiration and the temperature at different soil depths in subalpine coniferous forest of western Sichuan Province].  

PubMed

By using closed chamber IRGA technique, a continuous measurement of soil respiration rate was conducted in the subalpine natural coniferous forest mainly composed of Abies faxoniana in the eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, with the temperature at different soil depths (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm) measured simultaneously. Base on the measurements, the quantitative relationships between soil respiration rate and the temperature at different soil depths were explored, and the results showed that the soil respiration rate in the forest had remarkable diurnal and seasonal changes, being the highest at 12:00-14:00 and in August, and the lowest at 8:00-10:00 and in November, which were accorded with the dynamics of soil temperature. Soil respiration rate had a significant exponential correlation with the temperature at different soil depths, and the highest correlation occurred at the soil depth of 15 cm (R2 =0.82, P <0.01). The Q10, value at soil depths of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm was 2. 36, 4.75, 4.90, 6.27 and 5.46, respectively, indicating that the Q10 value of soil respiration tended to be larger at high elevation with low temperature. PMID:17763719

Chen, Bao-yu; Liu, Shi-rong; Ge, Jian-ping; Wang, Hui; Chang, Jian-guo; Sun, Tian-tian; Ma, Jiang-ming; Shi, Gong-jian

2007-06-01

414

Ca. 1.5 Ga mafic magmatism in South China during the break-up of the supercontinent Nuna/Columbia: The Zhuqing Fe-Ti-V oxide ore-bearing mafic intrusions in western Yangtze Block  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) zircon and baddeleyite U-Pb ages, elemental, and Nd isotopic data are reported for the Zhuqing Fe-Ti-V oxide ore-bearing mafic intrusions in western Yangtze Block, South China. The mafic intrusions are dated at 1494 ± 6 Ma (zircon U-Pb), 1486 ± 3 Ma (baddeleyite U-Pb) and 1490 ± 4 Ma (baddeleyite U-Pb). The intrusions are dominantly gabbros that experienced variable degrees of alteration. All the studied rocks are high-Ti and alkaline in composition, and exhibit light rare earth element enrichment and "humped" incompatible trace-element patterns with no obvious Nb-Ta depletion, similar to intraplate alkali basaltic rocks in continental flood basalt (CFB) and ocean island basalt (OIB) provinces. Negative ?Nd(T) values (- 0.97 to - 3.58) and fractionation of the HREE of these rocks indicate that they were derived from a time-integrated, slightly enriched asthenospheric mantle source with minor crustal contamination. Like other Fe-Ti oxide mineralized rocks in plume-related layered intrusions or large igneous provinces around the world, the Zhuqing gabbros likely occurred in an intraplate setting. The ~ 1.5 Ga mafic magmatism was likely part of the global 1.6-1.2 Ga anorogenic magmatism related to the break-up of the supercontinent Nuna/Columbia, suggesting that the Yangtze Block may have been a component of the supercontinent.

Fan, Hong-Peng; Zhu, Wei-Guang; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Zhong, Hong; Bai, Zhong-Jie; He, De-Feng; Chen, Cai-Jie; Cao, Chong-Yong

2013-05-01

415

Social health assistance schemes: the case of Medical Financial Assistance for the rural poor in four counties of China  

PubMed Central

Background Economic transition which took place in China over the last three decades, has led to a rapid marketization of the health care sector. Today inequity in health and poverty resulting from major illness has become a serious problem in rural areas of China. Medical Financial Assistance (MFA) is a health assistance scheme that helps rural poor people cope with major illness and alleviate their financial burden from major illness, which will definitely play a significant role in the process of rebuilding Chinese new rural health system. It mainly provides assistance to cover medical expenditure for inpatient services or the treatment of major illnesses, with joint funding from the central and local government. The purpose of this paper is to review the design, funding, implementation and to explore the preliminary effects of four counties' MFA in Hubei and Sichuan province of China. Methods We used an analytical framework built around the main objective of any social assistance scheme. The framework contains six 'targeting' procedural 'steps' which may explain why a specific group does not receive the assistance it ought to receive. More specifically, we explored to what extent the targeting, a key component of social assistance programs, is successful, based on the qualitative and quantitative data collected from four representative counties in central and western China. Results In the study sites, the budget of MFA ranged from 0.8 million Yuan to 1.646 million Yuan in each county and the budget per eligible person ranged from 32.67 Yuan to 149.09 Yuan. The preliminary effects of MFA were quite modest because of the scarcity of funds dedicated to the scheme. The coverage rate of MFA ranged from 17.8% to 24.1% among the four counties. MFA in the four counties used several ways to ration a restricted budget and provided only limited assistance. Substantial problems remained in terms of eligibility and identification of the beneficiaries, utilization and management of funds. Conclusions MFA needs to be improved further although it evidences the concern of the government for the poor rural people with major illness. Some ideas on how to improve MFA are put forward for future policy making.

2011-01-01

416

Indigenous knowledge and traditional conservation of hulless barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) germplasm resources in the Tibetan communities of Shangri-la, Yunnan, SW China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. s. l.) is the staple food crop of Tibetan communities in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, covering Tibet, Qinghai, Gansu, Sichuan\\u000a and Yunnan provinces in China. Participatory Rural Appraisal methodolgies were employed in twenty-seven villages that were\\u000a randomly selected in Shangri-la region, or Diqing Prefecture of Yunnan Province to document the ethnobotanical and indigenous\\u000a knowledge related to

Yali Li; Chunlin Long; Kenji Kato; Chunyan Yang; Kazuhiro Sato

2011-01-01

417