Note: This page contains sample records for the topic western sichuan china from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Fertility assistance program following the Sichuan earthquake in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

On May 12, 2008 an earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter scale hit Wenchuan in Sichuan province, a mountainous region in western China, and rendered many parents childless. Doctors from the Women's Fertility Program of the Second West China Hospital in Sichuan carried out a post earthquake fertility assistance program in the following 3 months. The program included 3 parts: sociomedical

Lang Qin; Shan Luo; Xiaohong Li; Yan Wang; Shangwei Li

2009-01-01

2

Fertility assistance program following the Sichuan earthquake in China.  

PubMed

On May 12, 2008 an earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter scale hit Wenchuan in Sichuan province, a mountainous region in western China, and rendered many parents childless. Doctors from the Women's Fertility Program of the Second West China Hospital in Sichuan carried out a post earthquake fertility assistance program in the following 3 months. The program included 3 parts: sociomedical fertility health support; psychological counseling and intervention in reproductive health; and an assisted reproductive technology (ART) service. Couples whose children had died or were disabled in the earthquake were entitled to free fertility counseling and ART, if required. Some women are currently pregnant as a result of the program, which has been successful in helping some surviving couples achieve their reproductive desires. PMID:19121829

Qin, Lang; Luo, Shan; Li, Xiaohong; Wang, Yan; Li, Shangwei

2009-03-01

3

Genetic diversity and differentiation of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) population in western Sichuan, China, based on the second exon of the major histocompatibility complex class II DQB (MhcMamu-DQB1) alleles  

PubMed Central

Abstracts Background Rhesus macaques living in western Sichuan, China, have been separated into several isolated populations due to habitat fragmentation. Previous studies based on the neutral or nearly neutral markers (mitochondrial DNA or microsatellites) showed high levels of genetic diversity and moderate genetic differentiation in the Sichuan rhesus macaques. Variation at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci is widely accepted as being maintained by balancing selection, even with a low level of neutral variability in some species. However, in small and isolated or bottlenecked populations, balancing selection may be overwhelmed by genetic drift. To estimate microevolutionary forces acting on the isolated rhesus macaque populations, we examined genetic variation at Mhc-DQB1 loci in 119 wild rhesus macaques from five geographically isolated populations in western Sichuan, China, and compared the levels of MHC variation and differentiation among populations with that previously observed at neutral microsatellite markers. Results 23 Mamu-DQB1 alleles were identified in 119 rhesus macaques in western Sichuan, China. These macaques exhibited relatively high levels of genetic diversity at Mamu-DQB1. The Hanyuan population presented the highest genetic variation, whereas the Heishui population was the lowest. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and pairwise FST values showed moderate genetic differentiation occurring among the five populations at the Mhc-DQB1 locus. Non-synonymous substitutions occurred at a higher frequency than synonymous substitutions in the peptide binding region. Levels of MHC variation within rhesus macaque populations are concordant with microsatellite variation. On the phylogenetic tree for the rhesus and crab-eating macaques, extensive allele or allelic lineage sharing is observed betweenthe two species. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses confirm the apparent trans-species model of evolution of the Mhc-DQB1 genes in these macaques. Balancing selection plays an important role in sharing allelic lineages between species, but genetic drift may share balancing selection dominance to maintain MHC diversity. Great divergence at neutral or adaptive markers showed that moderate genetic differentiation had occurred in rhesus macaque populations in western Sichuan, China, due to the habitat fragmentation caused by long-term geographic barriers and human activity. The Heishui population should be paid more attention for its lowest level of genetic diversity and relatively great divergence from others.

2014-01-01

4

Three dimensional surface displacement of the Sichuan earthquake (Mw 7.9, China) from Synthetic Aperture Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sichuan earthquake, Mw 7.9, struck the Longmen Shan range front, in the western Sichuan province, China, on 12 May 2008. It severely affected an area where little historical seismicity and little or no significant active shortening were reported before the earthquake (e.g. Gu et al., 1989; Chen et al., 1994; Gan et al., 2007). The Longmen Shan thrust system

Marcello de Michele; Daniel Raucoules; Julia de Sigoyer; Manuel Pubellier; Cecile Lasserre; Erwan Pathier; Yann Klinger; Jerome van der Woerd; Nicolas Chamot-Rooke

2010-01-01

5

Echinococcus granulosus Infection and Options for Control of Cystic Echinococcosis in Tibetan Communities of Western Sichuan Province, China  

PubMed Central

Background Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) is highly endemic in the Tibetan regions of Sichuan where most families keep guard dogs and where there are considerable numbers of ownerless/stray dogs. Strong Buddhist beliefs do not allow for elimination of stray dogs, and many strays are actually fed and adopted by households or monasteries. On account of the high altitude (3900–5000 m), pasturage is the major agricultural activity in this area. The harsh mountainous climate often leads to many grazing animals dying on the pasture at the end of a hard winter. The skin and some meat are taken, and the rest of the animal is left for scavenging birds and animals. The poor sanitation and hygiene, the Buddhist doctrine of allowing old livestock to die naturally, plus the unrestricted disposal of animal viscera post-slaughter may be responsible for the high prevalence of human CE in this setting. Methods and Findings As part of a large collaborative control program for CE in Ganzi County, situated in the west of Sichuan Province, surveillance for Echinococcus infection in domestic dogs using a coproantigen method and necropsy of unwanted dogs was carried out prior to (in 2000) and after (in 2005) dog anthelminthic treatment (5 mg/kg oral praziquantal at 6 month intervals) to determine the efficacy of the treatment for control. The prevalence of E. granulosus only in dogs by necropsy was 27% and 22%, and prevalence of both Echinococcus spp. by necropsy was 63% and 38%; prevalence of both Echinococcus spp. by coproantigen analysis was 50% and 17%. Necropsy of sheep/goats (age <1 to 12 years) (prevalence of E. granulosus in 1–6-year-old animals was 38% and in 10–12-year-old animals was 70%) and yaks (age 4 years) (prevalence of E. granulosus was 38%) was undertaken to determine the baseline transmission pressure. Protoscoleces were only found in very old sheep/goats and yaks. Necropsy of dogs in the Datangma district indicated that there was no apparent significant change in the overall prevalence of E. granulosus in unwanted dogs after 5 years of 6-month praziquantel treatment. However, this was likely due to the number of dogs available for necropsy being too small to reflect the real situation prevailing. There was a highly significant decrease in Echinococcus prevalence after the 5-year treatment program shown by coproantigen-ELISA. This indicated a decreasing but continuing risk for re-infection of domestic and stray dogs. Genotyping of E. granulosus samples obtained from necropsied sheep/goats and yaks and from locally infected humans at surgery was carried out to determine the strain of parasite responsible for human infection. DNA genotyping indicated that only the sheep strain (G1) of E. granulosus was present in the study area. Conclusions Considerable re-infection rates of E. granulosus among dogs indicated a high infection pressure from infected livestock in this region, most likely from older animals dying on the pasture. A combination of livestock vaccination with the Eg95 vaccine, which is effective against the sheep strain of E. granulosus, and dog anthelmintic treatment, thus targeting two critical points of the parasite life-cycle, would avoid the conflicts of religion or local culture and could achieve the goal of hydatid control in the long term.

Yang, Yu Rong; McManus, Donald P.; Huang, Yan; Heath, David D.

2009-01-01

6

Human Streptococcus suis Outbreak, Sichuan, China  

PubMed Central

From mid-July to the end of August 2005, a total of 215 cases of human Streptococcus suis infections, 66 of which were laboratory confirmed, were reported in Sichuan, China. All infections occurred in backyard farmers who were directly exposed to infection during the slaughtering process of pigs that had died of unknown causes or been killed for food because they were ill. Sixty-one (28%) of the farmers had streptococcal toxic shock syndrome; 38 (62%) of them died. The other illnesses reported were sepsis (24%) and meningitis (48%) or both. All isolates tested positive for genes for tuf, species-specific 16S rRNA, cps2J, mrp, ef, and sly. A single strain of S. suis caused the outbreak, as shown by the identification of a single ribotype. The high death ratio was of concern; prohibiting backyard slaughtering ended the outbreak.

Yu, Hongjie; Jing, Huaiqi; Chen, Zhihai; Zheng, Han; Zhu, Xiaoping; Wang, Hua; Wang, Shiwen; Liu, Lunguang; Zu, Rongqiang; Luo, Longze; Xiang, Nijuan; Liu, Honglu; Liu, Xuecheng; Shu, Yuelong; Lee, Shui Shan; Chuang, Shuk Kwan; Wang, Yu; Xu, Jianguo

2006-01-01

7

Characterization of Vegetative Insecticidal Protein vip Genes of Bacillus thuringiensis from Sichuan Basin in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip), the second generation of insecticides, are produced during the vegetative growth stage\\u000a of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). To perform a systematic study of vip genes in Bt strains from different ecological regions of Sichuan Basin, 1,789 soil samples were collected from this basin,\\u000a which is situated in the western region of China. The basin has a complicated

Xiumei YuAiping; Aiping Zheng; Jun Zhu; Shiquan Wang; Lingxia Wang; Qiming Deng; Shuangcheng Li; Huainian Liu; Ping Li

2011-01-01

8

Tectonic Background of the 2008 Sichuan, China, Earthquake as Seen From GPS Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the tectonic background of the 2008 Sichuan, China, Earthquake based on the GPS data in China. There are four subjects to be discussed: (1) Deformation field of China continent based on plate tectonic framework, (2) Eastward extrusion of China tectonic block and the Sichuan-Yunnan tectonic belt, (3) Block convergence at the Longmenshan fault, and (4) Stress change and

T. Kato; M. Iwakuni; W. Qi; K. Hikima; K. Koketsu

2008-01-01

9

High-resolution Shear Wave Velocity Structure beneath the Western Sichuan from Ambient Noise Array Tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2006, the State Key Laboratory of Earthquake Dynamics, Institute of Geology, China Earthquake Administration, has deployed a dense seismograph array in SW China in order to understand the earthquake dynamics in this region. Using about one year continuous recordings at 156 stations over western Sichuan(100°~105°E, 29°~32°N), we obtained the surface wave empirical Green’s functions from ambient noise cross-correlation, and then measured about 10,000 Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion curves. Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps (2-35s) are constructed using the generalized linear inversion method with lateral resolution about 20-30 kilometers. Finally, we invert for the 3-D shear wave velocity structure in the crust using the Neighborhood Algorithm with constraints (e.g., Moho depth) from the receiver function inversions (Liu et al., 2008). The results show significant differences of the crustal structure among the blocks of Chuandian, Songpan-Garze and Sichuan basin. The phase velocity maps at short periods also show clear boundaries around the Longmenshan faults and Xianshuihe faults. The Sichuan basin shows significant higher velocity feature than the Chuandian and Songpan-Garze block at the middle and lower crustal depth, and appears much slower in the upper crust, suggesting the existence of a thick sediment layer. And the crust thickness of Sichuan basin becomes thinner from south to north. In the Songpan-Garze block, a low-velocity layer exists in the middle and lower crust. In the Chuandian block exists a high-velocity layer in the middle crust near the Xianshuihe faults, but a low-velocity layer in the lower crust. Our study manifests that Sichuan basin vertically contacts with the Songpan-Garze block without obvious westward subduction, although the crust of the Songpan-Garze block seems mechanically much weaker as inferred from the widespread crustal low-velocity zone (Liu et al, 2008).

Li, Y.; Yao, H.; Chen, J.; Huang, H.; Liu, Q.; van der Hilst, R. D.

2009-12-01

10

Fluoride and aluminium concentrations of tea plants and tea products from Sichuan Province, PR China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some Tibetans in Sichuan Province in southwestern China have been suffering from fluorosis, due to drinking and eating tea with high fluoride (F) and aluminium (Al) contents. Tea plants, soils of tea plantations and tea products from Yaan, Gaoxian and Yibin Cities in Sichuan Province were investigated to evaluate the factors affecting F and Al contents in tea products. The

W. S. Shu; Z. Q. Zhang; C. Y. Lan; M. H. Wong

2003-01-01

11

Three new species of Lathrobium Gravenhorst (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae) from Sichuan, Southwest China  

PubMed Central

Abstract Three new species of the genus Lathrobium Gravenhorst, 1802 from Sichuan Province, Southwest China are described and illustrated: Lathrobium acutissimum sp. n., Lathrobium hailuogouense sp. n. and Lathrobium labahense sp. n. A checklist of Chinese Lathrobium is provided.

Peng, Zhong; Li, Li-Zhen; Zhao, Mei-Jun

2012-01-01

12

Two new species of the genus Gonioctena Chevrolat (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Chrysomelinae) from Sichuan, China.  

PubMed

Two new species of Gonioctena Chevrolat, G. sichuana sp. n. and G. metallica sp. n., are described from Sichuan Province, China. Diagnostic characters and illustrations are provided. Ovoviviparity is recorded in G. metallica sp. n. PMID:24870902

Cho, Hee-Wook; Borowiec, Lech

2014-01-01

13

Annual and Monthly Variations in Litter Macronutrients of Three Subalpine Forests in Western China 1 1 Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 30471378, 90202010 and 30211130504), the Applied and Basic Research Program of Sichuan Province, and the Talent-Recruiting Program of Sichuan Agricultural University  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S) in litter of three primarily spruce (Picea purpurea Masters) (SF), fir (Abies faxoniana Rehder & E. H. Wilson) (FF), and birch (Betula platyphylla Sukaczev) (BF) subalpine forests in western China were measured to understand the monthly variations in litter nutrient concentrations and annual and monthly nutrient returns via litterfall. Nutrient concentration in

Wan-Qin YANG; Kai-Yun WANG; S. KELLOMÄKI; Jian ZHANG

2006-01-01

14

Study on the Effect of Source-Contacting Gas Accumulations upon Abnormal Pressures in Western Sichuan Depression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The migration and accumulation of typical source-contacting gas, also called basin-centered gas, follow the piston principle that it generates superpressures essentially. In the tight sand reservoir, the formation water cannot exchange sufficiently, which maintains higher pressure in gas reservoirs compared with conventional reservoirs during tectonic uplift or subsidences. The western Sichuan depression is one of the earliest basins in China being researched for source-contacting gas, where the regional overpressure is the direct product and the sign of the accumulation of source-contacting gas. Besides the effect from the accumulation of source-contacting gas, the regional overpressure in the western Sichuan depression is also directly related with undercompaction and regional tectonic uplift before and after the accumulation of source-contacting gas, respectively. Present regional overpressure in the western Sichuan depression is attributed to three phases of tectonic movements and generations of abnormal pressure thrice due to the preferable obturation of the unconventional gas accumulation systems. The multiple pressures were believed to cumulate from undercompaction and hydrocarbon generation before the Late Jurassic period, from gas generation and accumulation of source-contacting gas in the Late Jurassic to Eogene period, and cumulation of multiple pressures after the Late Eogene is attributed to regional uplift. Using section configuration and calculation, the coefficients of abnormal pressures in the western Sichuan depression can be divided as follow: the coefficients of abnormal pressure due to undercompaction and regional uplift is 1.42 and the rest over-pressures is attributed to the accumulation of source-contacting gas. According to the isolines 1.42 of pressure coefficients, the distribution of source-contacting gas accumulations can be approximately predicted.

Zhang, Jinchuan; Liu, Lifang; Tang, Xuan; Song, Xiaowei; Jiang, Shengling; Xu, Bo; Bian, Ruikang

15

Outpatient prescription practices in rural township health centers in Sichuan Province, China  

PubMed Central

Background Sichuan Province is an agricultural and economically developing province in western China. To understand practices of prescribing medications for outpatients in rural township health centers is important for the development of the rural medical and health services in this province and western China. Methods This is an observational study based on data from the 4th National Health Services Survey of China. A total of 3,059 prescriptions from 30 township health centers in Sichuan Province were collected and analyzed. Seven indicators were employed in the analyses to characterize the prescription practices. They are disease distribution, average cost per encounter, number of medications per encounter, percentage of encounters with antibiotics, percentage of encounters with glucocorticoids, percentage of encounters with combined glucocorticoids and antibiotics, and percentage of encounters with injections. Results The average medication cost per encounter was 16.30 Yuan ($2.59). About 60% of the prescriptions contained Chinese patent medicine (CPM), and almost all prescriptions (98.07%) contained western medicine. 85.18% of the prescriptions contained antibiotics, of which, 24.98% contained two or more types of antibiotics; the percentage of prescriptions with glucocorticoids was 19.99%; the percentage of prescriptions with both glucocorticoids and antibiotics was 16.67%; 51.40% of the prescriptions included injections, of which, 39.90% included two or more injections. Conclusions The findings from this study demonstrated irrational medication uses of antibiotics, glucocorticoids and injections prescribed for outpatients in the rural township health centers in Sichuan Province. The reasons for irrational medication uses are not only solely due to the pursuit of maximizing benefits in the township health centers, but also more likely attributable to the lack of medical knowledge of rational medication uses among rural doctors and the lack of medical devices for disease diagnosis in those township health centers. The policy implication from this study is to enhance professional training in rational medication uses for rural doctors, improve hardware facilities for township health centers, promote health education to rural residents and establish a public reporting system to monitor prescription practices in rural township health centers, etc.

2012-01-01

16

Characterization of vegetative insecticidal protein vip genes of Bacillus thuringiensis from Sichuan Basin in China.  

PubMed

Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip), the second generation of insecticides, are produced during the vegetative growth stage of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). To perform a systematic study of vip genes in Bt strains from different ecological regions of Sichuan Basin, 1,789 soil samples were collected from this basin, which is situated in the western region of China. The basin has a complicated geomorphology and contains mountains, forests, highlands, hursts, and plains. A total of 2,134 Bt strains have been screened from the 1,789 soil samples. According to the results, three vip-type genes were found in this basin, namely the vip1, vip2, and vip3-type genes. Strains containing vip3-type genes were the most abundant in our collection (67.4%), followed by vip2-type genes (14.6%) and vip1-type genes (8.1%). The three types of vip genes were distributed in most of the regions, but E Mei Mountain and the Ba Lang Mountains only contained vip3 genes in environments with high elevation, low temperature, insufficient oxygen, and abundant snow. Moreover, five novel vip3 genes were found, and these Vip proteins were toxic for Chilo suppressalis. All the results mentioned above suggest that Sichuan Basin is a rich resource for vip genes. PMID:20963416

Yu, Xiumei; Zheng, Aiping; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Shiquan; Wang, Lingxia; Deng, Qiming; Li, Shuangcheng; Liu, Huainian; Li, Ping

2011-03-01

17

ALOS Emergency Observations of 2008 Sichuan Earthquake in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) carries two high-resolution optical sensors, AVNIR-2 and PRISM, and an L-band synthetic aperture radar, PALSAR. They have several operational modes and are well-suited for disaster monitoring like the 2008 Sichuan earthquake occurred in remote part of China where it is difficult to perform field investigations and there have been few geophysical observations. JAXA had performed emergency observations since right after the main shock, and it was possible to quickly detect surface changes using a large number of data in the areas accumulated since the launch of ALOS on January 26, 2006. The differential interferometric SAR (DInSAR) technique of PALSAR data is a powerful tool for detecting geodetic information associated with seismogenic faulting and the precise geodetic data over a wide area is helpful for understanding earthquake mechanisms. In the case of the Sichuan Earthquake, entire length of the fault is estimated about 300km and areas afflicted by crustal deformation are estimated about 400"~400km, so 7 or 8 tracks are needed to cover the study area. All PALSAR data before and after the earthquake were acquired from 34.3"E#8249; off-nadir angle in ascending orbit, and the perpendicular baseline distances of image pairs were enough short for DInSAR processing. Despite the fact that the study areas include precipitous mountains area, the interferometric coherence of image pairs is well due to a long wave length of PALSAR (23.6cm). Resultant interferograms reveal significant surface deformations caused by the faulting, although the coherence is significantly reduced by the large displacement and surface collapses in the area of just above the estimated fault. The surface collapses caused by many landslides or debris avalanches in the area were confirmed by the data from optical sensors. Preliminary result from a simple fault modeling with several fault segments can roughly explain the regional deformation patterns, however it can not explain local deformation patterns close to the low-coherence area. To improve the fault modeling, we need more geodetic information in the low-coherence area using not DInSAR but pixel offset method or Multiple Aperture InSAR method, and we should try to estimate a slip distribution of the fault.

Miyagi, Y.; Shimada, M.

2008-12-01

18

Continued spread of HIV among injecting drug users in southern Sichuan Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To estimate HIV prevalence among injecting drug users (IDUs) in a drug trafficking city in southwest Sichuan Province, China. METHODS: A total of 314 IDUs was invited to participate in the cross-sectional survey in 2004 through community outreach recruitment and peer referrals. Blood sample was taken for HIV antibody testing and a structured questionnaire was administered to collect information

Lu Yin; Guangming Qin; Han-Zhu Qian; Yu Zhu; Wei Hu; Li Zhang; Kanglin Chen; Yunxia Wang; Shizhu Liu; Feng Zhou; Hui Xing; Yuhua Ruan; Ning Wang; Yiming Shao

2007-01-01

19

Using Satellite Data to Investigate the 12 May 2008 Sichuan Earthquake, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The M 8.0 earthquake that struck Sichuan Province in southwestern China on 12 May 2008 was the most devastating earthquake in that country in the past 5 decades. At least 69,000 deaths have been confirmed and more than 374,000 people were injured, according to China's Ministry of Civil Affairs. Overall, more than 45.5 million people in 10 provinces and regions

Gang Pan; DanLing Tang

2009-01-01

20

Eight new apterous Lathrobium species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) from Sichuan, Southwest China  

PubMed Central

Abstract Eight apterous species of the paederine genus Lathrobium Gravenhorst, 1802 from the Chinese province Sichuan are described, illustrated, and distinguished from closely related and/or geographically close congeners: Lathrobium erlangense Peng & Li sp. n. (Erlang Shan), Lathrobium blandum Peng & Li sp. n. (Labahe N. R.), Lathrobium yelense Peng & Li sp. n. (Yele), Lathrobium obscurum Peng & Li sp. n. (Yele), Lathrobium yinziweii Peng & Li sp. n. (Yele), Lathrobium illustre Peng & Li sp. n. (Yele), Lathrobium micangense Peng & Li sp. n. (Micang Shan) and Lathrobium agglutinatum Assing & Peng sp. n. (Qingcheng Shan). The total number of described Lathrobium species from Sichuan now stands at 39, that of mainland China at 165.

Peng, Zhong; Li, Li-Zhen; Zhao, Mei-Jun

2013-01-01

21

Analysis of land use and cover change in Sichuan province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of environmental policies in Sichuan province was executed to restore the grassland and forestland on some degraded lands after 2000. But the effectiveness on land use and cover change (LUCC) has not yet been systematically investigated. We undertook a detailed analysis about land use and cover change between 2000 and 2005 in Sichuan province. Our study mainly utilized remotely sensed data of 2005 China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite II (CBERS II) and 2000 Landsat 5 thematic mapper (TM) data. Land use and cover change between 2000 and 2005 was visually interpreted by CBERS II with ArcInfo Workstation based on land use and cover database interpreted from TM. Then LUCC was validated by ground truth with global positioning system receivers. Our analysis illustrates that the conservation policies to restore the grassland and forestland were successful to a lesser extent. But more measures to restore the grassland and forestland of Sichuan province have to be taken further in the future.

Zheng, Zezhong; Yang, Wunian; Zhou, Guoqing; Wang, Xiaoting

2012-01-01

22

Five new CRF07_BC near full-length sequences isolated from Sichuan, China.  

PubMed

The main heroine traffic from Yunnan province to the Xinjiang Autonomous Region is believed to initiate the transmission of CRF07_BC which is the predominant strain in intravenous drug users (IDUs) in China. However, the great distances between Yunnan and Xinjiang lead to an unclear and elusive diffusion process of CRF07_BC due to the absence of an important middle site such as Sichuan province. Moreover, in recent years the rapidly increasing infection rate among IDUs in the Liangshan region of Sichuan made it necessary to characterize the genetic character of the circulating strain of Sichuan IDUs. In this study, we characterized the genetic character of seven newly isolated CRF07_BC genomes (five from Sichuan and two from Xinjiang) and analyzed the transmission linkage among strains from IDUs in different regions. By conducting Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis and reconstruction of neighbor-joining trees and maximum-likelihood trees, our results revealed the genetic variation and important role of Sichuan-derived CRF07_BC strains during the transmission of CRF07_BC. PMID:22931113

Meng, Zhefeng; Xin, Ruolei; Abubakar, Yassir F; Sun, Jun; Wu, Huanmei; Lu, Jianxin; Ni, Ya; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Xu, Jianqing

2013-01-01

23

Five New CRF07_BC Near Full-Length Sequences Isolated from Sichuan, China  

PubMed Central

Abstract The main heroine traffic from Yunnan province to the Xinjiang Autonomous Region is believed to initiate the transmission of CRF07_BC which is the predominant strain in intravenous drug users (IDUs) in China. However, the great distances between Yunnan and Xinjiang lead to an unclear and elusive diffusion process of CRF07_BC due to the absence of an important middle site such as Sichuan province. Moreover, in recent years the rapidly increasing infection rate among IDUs in the Liangshan region of Sichuan made it necessary to characterize the genetic character of the circulating strain of Sichuan IDUs. In this study, we characterized the genetic character of seven newly isolated CRF07_BC genomes (five from Sichuan and two from Xinjiang) and analyzed the transmission linkage among strains from IDUs in different regions. By conducting Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis and reconstruction of neighbor-joining trees and maximum-likelihood trees, our results revealed the genetic variation and important role of Sichuan-derived CRF07_BC strains during the transmission of CRF07_BC.

Meng, Zhefeng; Xin, Ruolei; F. Abubakar, Yassir; Sun, Jun; Wu, Huanmei; Lu, Jianxin; Ni, Ya

2013-01-01

24

Temporal and spatial visibility trends in the Sichuan Basin, China, 1973 to 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visibility in the Sichuan Basin of China has long been at low levels due to topographic features and high pollution. This study produced trend maps tracking the spatial patterns and temporal trends of visibility in the Sichuan Basin based on 38 years of daily visibility data. Three major fluctuations in the visibility pattern were found: a period of decreasing visibility from 1973 to 1990, a period in which the visibility pattern remained stable from 1991 to 2000, and a period of the visibility recovery from 2001 to 2010. Data from 12 stations in the Sichuan Basin were further analyzed using cumulative percentiles, ridit analysis and days of visibility > 19 km and < 10 km. Hazy conditions were most prevalent in Chengdu and Chongqing, which had visibility less than 10 km and more than 200 low visibility days per year after 2000. Fengjie, Youyang and Langzhong showed consistent declines in visibility and in the number of days with visibility > 19 km whereas Liangping, Nanchong and Wanyuan experienced relatively small decreases but much variation. Upturn trends were observed in Daxian, Mianyang, Ya'an and Yibin after 1995. Although the specific trends differed among stations, a general trend of reduced visibility was found over Sichuan basin. Median visibilities in 2000s were approximately 4 to 38% lower than those during the 1970s, indicating that more efforts are needed for recovery. This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of long-term visibility patterns in the Sichuan Basin.

Chen, Yuan; Xie, Shaodong

2012-08-01

25

Using Satellite Data to Investigate the 12 May 2008 Sichuan Earthquake, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The M 8.0 earthquake that struck Sichuan Province in southwestern China on 12 May 2008 was the most devastating earthquake in that country in the past 5 decades. At least 69,000 deaths have been confirmed and more than 374,000 people were injured, according to China's Ministry of Civil Affairs. Overall, more than 45.5 million people in 10 provinces and regions in China were affected by the earthquake. Landslides and rockfalls damaged or destroyed several mountain roads and railways and buried buildings in the Beichuan-Wenchuan area of Sichuan Province, cutting off access to the region for several days (Figures 1a and 1b). Landslides also dammed several rivers, and the resultant creation of 36 barrier lakes (dangerous earthquake lakes) threatened about 700,000 people downstream.

Pan, Gang; Tang, DanLing

2009-04-01

26

Carnian (upper triassic) sponge mounds of the Northwestern Sichuan Basin, China: Stratigraphy, facies and paleoecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Carnian reef mounds with abundant and highly diverse siliceous sponges (Lyssacinosa and “Lithistida”) occur at the northwestern\\u000a margin of the Sichuan Basin (Anxian and Mianzhu counties), Southern China. Triassic sediments comprise Ladinian to early Norian\\u000a deposits. Sponge mounds are confined to the Upper Member of the Carnian Hanwang Formation, being late Carnian in age.\\u000a \\u000a The mounds correspond to elliptical carbonate

Wu Xichun

1989-01-01

27

Chemical constituents of Ligularia virgaurea and its diversity in southwestern Sichuan of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical constituents of root extract and the nucleotide sequences of the atpB–rbcL intergenic region and the internal transcribed spacers (ITSs) of the ribosomal RNA gene were studied for Ligularia virgaurea var. virgaurea collected in southwestern Sichuan Province of China. Eleven samples were collected. Four of them were found to contain four new furanoeremophilanes, virgaurenones A–D, as well as a new

Motoo Tori; Kaori Honda; Hiromi Nakamizo; Yasuko Okamoto; Misato Sakaoku; Shigeru Takaoka; Xun Gong; Yuemao Shen; Chiaki Kuroda; Ryo Hanai

2006-01-01

28

Interferograms of Coseismic Deformation from the May 12, 2008, Sichuan, China, Earthquake obtained by ALOS\\/PALSAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A devastating earthquake hit southern China on May 12, 2008, and claimed more than 80,000 casualties. This event is the first M8 earthquake in history in and around the Sichuan basin. The epicenter is located near the Sichuan basin, and aftershocks are aligned in the NE-SW direction parallel to the Longmen Shan fault zone, which suggests that this active fault

M. Hashimoto; M. Enomoto; Y. Fukushima; Y. Fukahata

2008-01-01

29

Preliminary investigation of some large landslides triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan Province, China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The M s 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake or "Great Sichuan Earthquake" occurred at 14:28 p.m. local time on 12 May 2008 in Sichuan Province, China. Damage by earthquake-induced landslides was an important part of the total earthquake damage. This report presents preliminary observations on the Hongyan Resort slide located southwest of the main epicenter, shallow mountain surface failures in Xuankou village of Yingxiu Town, the Jiufengchun slide near Longmenshan Town, the Hongsong Hydro-power Station slide near Hongbai Town, the Xiaojiaqiao slide in Chaping Town, two landslides in Beichuan County-town which destroyed a large part of the town, and the Donghekou and Shibangou slides in Qingchuan County which formed the second biggest landslide lake formed in this earthquake. The influences of seismic, topographic, geologic, and hydro-geologic conditions are discussed. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.

Wang, F.; Cheng, Q.; Highland, L.; Miyajima, M.; Wang, H.; Yan, C.

2009-01-01

30

Surveillance of risk factors from imported cases of falciparum malaria in Sichuan, China.  

PubMed

With a sharp increase of the number of imported cases of falciparum malaria, the potential risk of the reemergent transmission of this kind of malaria is approaching imminently in Sichuan Province, China, where falciparum malaria had completely been eliminated by the 1960s. It has been of concern whether the epidemic would appear again, because there still exist malaria vectors and vulnerable populations in Sichuan. By undertaking surveillance on 31 cases returning from the endemic areas with falciparum malaria, and on their family members and neighbors, we have not found out any introduced case of falciparum malaria who was contracted from the imported ones. The vector monitoring results suggested that the use of insecticide-impregnated bednets interfered with malaria vectorial capacity and expectation of infective life. The epidemiological characteristics of the imported cases and reasons why no consequent malaria case was detected were analysed at dynastic level in detail. PMID:10774684

Ning, X; Qin, L; Jinchuan, Y; Jiuping, Y; Xintian, L

1999-06-01

31

Euxinia prior to end-Permian main extinction at Xiaojiaba section, Sichuan Province, South China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Redox conditions in the global ocean prior to, during, and following the end-Permian mass extinction at 252.28 Ma remain contentious. Previous studies in western Australia, South China, and East Greenland have shown that photic-zone euxinia was present at least intermittently from the early Changhsingian through the Dienerian1-3. Here we report a study of organic carbon isotopes, pyrite sulfur isotopes, TOC, pyritic sulfur content, REE, and major and trace elements from the Upper Permian Xiaojiaba section in the Chaotian district of Guangyuan City, Sichuan Province, China. During the Permian-Triassic transition, this section was located on the northwestern margin of the South China Block, facing the Paleo-Tethys Ocean. Our results indicate that suboxic conditions prevailed during the Wuchiapingian and suboxic to anoxic conditions with several pulses of euxinia during the Changhsingian. ?13Corg values are mostly -28‰ to -26‰ but show three positive excursions (to -22‰) prior to the end-Permian mass extinction horizon. These positive excursions are associated with higher Spy concentrations (to ~1%). ?34Spy values are variable (from -41‰ to +5‰) but show a sharp negative excursion in the late Changhsingian (to -43.4‰) that coincided with the most positive ?13Corg values. This horizon is also associated with increases in Eu/Eu*, Baxs, ?REE, Si, and redox-sensitive metals such as V. These patterns reflect linkage of the C and S cycles during the latest Permian, possibly in response to redox controls. The observed positive excursions in ?13Corg may be due to organic inputs from green sulfur bacteria, which exhibit a smaller photosynthetic fractionation (-12.5‰4) than eukaryotic algae. The pronounced negative excursion of ?34Spy corresponds to a sulfate-sulfide S isotope fractionation of about -60‰, suggesting a large flux of syngenetic framboidal pyrite, which would be indicative of euxinic water-column conditions. We infer that the euxinia prior to the main extinction horizon may have been caused by oceanic oxygen-minimum zone expansion and upward movement of the chemocline5. The coupled increases in Eu/Eu* and Baxs may record hydrothermal influence, possibly accompanied by increased ocean acidity and high seawater temperatures. Collectively, our results document major changes in seawater chemistry during the Changhsingian prior to the main end-Permian crisis.

Wei, H.; Algeo, T. J.; Chen, D.; Yu, H.

2013-12-01

32

Linked sequence stratigraphy and tectonics in the Sichuan continental foreland basin, Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation, southwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intracontinental subduction of the South China Block below the North China Block in the Late Triassic resulted in formation of the transpressional Sichuan foreland basin on the South China Block. The Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation was deposited in this basin and consists of an eastward-tapering wedge of predominantly continental siliciclastic sedimentary rocks that are up to 3.5 km thick in the western foredeep depocenter and thin onto the forebulge and into backbulge depocenters. Five facies associations (A-E) make up the Xujiahe Formation and these are interpreted, respectively, as alluvial fan, transverse and longitudinal braided river, meandering river, overbank or shallow lacustrine, and deltaic deposits. This study establishes a sequence stratigraphic framework for the Xujiahe Formation which is subdivided into four sequences (SQ1, 2, 3 and 4). Sequence boundaries are recognized on the basis of facies-tract dislocations and associated fluvial rejuvenation and incision, and systems tracts are identified based on their constituent facies associations and changes in architectural style and sediment body geometries. Typical sequences consist of early to late transgressive systems tract deposits related to a progressive increase in accommodation and represented by Facies Associations A, B and C that grade upwards into Facies Association D. Regionally extensive and vertically stacked coal seams define maximum accommodation and are overlain by early highstand systems tract deposits represented by Facies Associations D, E and C. Late highstand systems tract deposits are rare because of erosion below sequence boundaries. Sequence development in the Xujiahe Formation is attributed to active and quiescent phases of thrust-loading events and is closely related to the tectonic evolution of the basin. The Sichuan Basin experienced three periods of thrust loading and lithospheric flexure (SQ1, lower SQ2 and SQ3), two periods of stress relaxation and basin widening (upper SQ 2 and SQ3) and one phase of isostatic rebound (SQ4). Paleogeographic reconstruction of the Sichuan Basin in the Late Triassic indicates that the Longmen Mountains to the west, consisting of metamorphic, sedimentary and pre-Neoproterozoic basement granitoid rocks, was the major source of sediment to the foredeep depocenter. Subordinate sediment sources were the Xuefeng Mountains to the east to backbulge depocenters, and the Micang Mountains to the northwest during the late history of the basin. This study has demonstrated the viability of sequence stratigraphic analysis in continental successions in a foreland basin, and the influence of thrust loading on sequence development.

Li, Yingjiao; Shao, Longyi; Eriksson, Kenneth A.; Tong, Xin; Gao, Caixia; Chen, Zhongshu

2014-07-01

33

Three dimensional surface displacement of the Sichuan earthquake (Mw 7.9, China) from Synthetic Aperture Radar.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sichuan earthquake, Mw 7.9, struck the Longmen Shan range front, in the western Sichuan province, China, on 12 May 2008. It severely affected an area where little historical seismicity and little or no significant active shortening were reported before the earthquake (e.g. Gu et al., 1989; Chen et al., 1994; Gan et al., 2007). The Longmen Shan thrust system bounds the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau and is considered as a transpressive zone since Triassic time that was reactivated during the India-Asia collision (e.g., Tapponnier and Molnar, 1977, Chen and Wilson 1996; Arne et al., 1997, Godard et al., 2009). However, contrasting geological evidences of sparse thrusting and marked dextral strike-slip faulting during the Quaternary along with high topography (Burchfiel et al., 1995; Densmore et al., 2007) have led to models of dynamically driven and sustained topography (Royden et al., 1997) limiting the role of earthquakes in relief building and leaving the mechanism of long term strain distribution in this area as an open question. Here we combine C and L band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) offsets data from ascending and descending paths to retrieve the three dimensional surface displacement distribution all along the earthquake ruptures of the Sichuan earthquake. For the first time on this earthquake we present near field 3D co-seismic surface displacement, which is an important datum for constraining modelled fault geometry at depth. Our results complement other Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and field analyses in indicating that crustal shortening is one of the main drivers for topography building in the Longmen Shan (Liu-Zeng, 2009; Shen et al., 2009; Hubbard and Shaw, 2009). Moreover, our results put into evidence a small but significant amount of displacement in the range front that we interpret as due to slip at depth on a blind structure. We verify this hypothesis by inverting the data against a simple elastic dislocation model. We discuss this result and its implications for understanding strain partitioning during the Sichuan earthquake.

de Michele, Marcello; Raucoules, Daniel; de Sigoyer, Julia; Pubellier, Manuel; Lasserre, Cecile; Pathier, Erwan; Klinger, Yann; van der Woerd, Jerome; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas

2010-05-01

34

Molecular epidemiology of Porcine torovirus (PToV) in Sichuan Province, China: 2011-2013  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine torovirus (PToV) is a member of the genus Torovirus which is responsible for gastrointestinal disease in both human beings and animals with particular prevalence in youth. Torovirus infections are generally asymptomatic, however, their presence may worsen disease consequences in concurrent infections with other enteric pathogens. Methods A total of 872 diarrheic fecal samples from pigs of different ages were collected from 12 districts of Sichuan Province in the southwest of China. RT-PCR was done with PToV S gene specific primers to detect the presence of PToV positive samples. M gene specific primers were used with the PToV positive samples and the genes were sequenced. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the M gene nucleotide sequences from the 19 selected novel Sichuan strains and 21 PToV and BToV M gene sequences from GenBank. Results A total of 331 (37.96%, 331/872) samples were found to be positive for PToV and the highest prevalence was observed in piglets aged from 1 to 3 weeks old. Through phylogenetic inference the 40 PToV M gene containing sequences were placed into two genotypes (I & II). The 19 novel Sichuan strains of genotype I showed strong correlations to two Korean gene sequences (GU-07-56-11 and GU-07-56-22). Amino-acid sequence analysis of the 40 PToV M gene strains revealed that the M gene protein was highly conserved. Conclusions This study uncovered the presence of PToV in Sichuan Province, and demonstrated the need for continuous surveillance PToV of epidemiology.

2014-01-01

35

Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder among adult survivors three months after the Sichuan earthquake in China.  

PubMed

The study investigated the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and associated risk factors among adult survivors 3 months after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake in China. One thousand five hundred sixty-three earthquake survivors in two communities participated in the study. The prevalence of probable PTSD was 37.8% and 13.0%, respectively, in the two communities that were affected differently by the earthquake. The significant predictive factors for the severity of PTSD symptoms were female gender, subnationality, lower educational level, lower social support, and higher initial exposure level. The results indicate that PTSD is also a common mental health problem among earthquake survivors in China. Given inadequate knowledge and practices concerning the mental health of disaster victims in China, the information provided by this study is useful for directing, strengthening, and evaluating disaster-related mental health needs and interventions after the earthquake. PMID:19718756

Wang, Li; Zhang, Yuqing; Wang, Wenzhong; Shi, Zhanbiao; Shen, Jianhua; Li, Ming; Xin, Yong

2009-10-01

36

Factors associated with drinking alcohol before visiting female sex workers among men in Sichuan Province, China  

PubMed Central

Alcohol use in commercial sex is highly prevalent globally and alcohol use in conjunction with sexual activity might increase the probability of risky behaviors, and. In the current study, we explored individual and contextual factors associated with drinking alcohol before visiting female sex workers (FSWs) among 560 male clients in Sichuan province, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Sichuan province, China. Over one-fifth (21.1%) of the participants reported always using alcohol before having sex with FSWs. As compared to those who reported not always drinking alcohol before having sex with FSWs, male clients who reported always drinking alcohol before having sex with FSWs had higher income, were more likely to have main sex partners, to drink alcohol daily, to report minor depressive symptoms and were more likely to visit FSWs with friends rather than by themselves. Results from this study highlight the importance of addressing alcohol use among men who pay for sex in China. Future interventions should promote alcohol-related norms in reducing the harms associated with consuming alcohol.

Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl; Luan, Rongsheng; Nelson, Kenrad

2014-01-01

37

Three dimensional surface slip partitioning of the Sichuan earthquake from Synthetic Aperture Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sichuan earthquake, Mw 7.9, struck the Longmen Shan range front, in the western Sichuan province, China, on 12 May 2008. It severely affected an area where little historical seismicity and little or no significant active shortening were reported before the earthquake (e.g. Gu et al., 1989; Chen et al., 1994; Gan et al., 2007). The Longmen Shan thrust system

M. de Michele; D. Raucoules; J. de Sigoyer; M. Pubellier; C. Lasserre; E. Pathier; Y. Klinger; J. van der Woerd

2009-01-01

38

Earthquake-induced Landslides and Quake Lakes during the great Sichuan Earthquake of May 12, 2008 (Sichuan, China)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mw 8.0 R earthquake on the 12th of May 2008 that stroke the Sichuan Prefecture of the People's Republic of China caused tenths of thousands of casualties and significant social and economic consequences. The earthquake was triggered by a reverse fault approximately 100 km in length, of NE-SW strike, dipping towards the NW with a reverse-lateral slip character and focal depth of 18 Km. Due to the great height and steepness of the slopes and their loose geotechnical characteristics in the mountainous terrain, thousands of landslides and collapses occurred in the Longmenshan fault zone during the earthquake, resulting in a large amount of geotechnical damages, such as the destruction the roads, villages, towns and bridges. A total of more than 9000 geological disasters occurred, among which there were approximately 4000 landslides, 2300 slop collapses, 800 debris flows, 1700 unstable slopes and more than 80 locations with hidden danger of geological hazard. Approximately 1.000.000 people and their properties in the affected area were under a directly serious threat. Landslides mobilized millions of cubic meters of rock and soil that slid across adjacent rivers, creating large landslide dams. The blockage of rivers was accompanied by the formation of quake lakes that were flooding the upstream river valleys. As water rises, there is potential of overtopping and downstream flooding. In the affected area 32 quake lakes were formed of various scales. ?he largest one , and most dangerous, is located in Beichuan County. The lake was formed because massive landslide partially blocked Qianjiang River upstream of the devastated Beichuan County seat. It is 40 m deep and contains about 30-40 million m3 of water. The landslide dam had a height of 60 m, the quake lake in the Shitingjiang River direction is more than 900 m long, its largest width is more than 600 m, and its area at the dam crest level is about 300.000 m2. As of June 7, 2008 the reservoir capacity of the quake lake was 240 million cubic meters, which posed a threat to a significantly large area of the down-stream zone, however the hidden danger was relieved by dredging and water drainage.

Lekkas, E.

2009-04-01

39

China, Peoples Republic of: Agricultural Situation. Sichuan Earthquake Shakes-Up Local Agriculture 2008. GAIN Report Number CH8904.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On May 12, 2008, China's Sichuan Province experienced a massive earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter scale. Official news reports are that 69,000 died and almost 20,000 are still missing. The total loss in agriculture is estimated at $1.5 billion. Acco...

R. Zhang

2008-01-01

40

Mental Health Problems among Children One-Year after Sichuan Earthquake in China: A Follow-up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundOn May 12, 2008, a destructive earthquake registering 8.0 on the Richter scale struck Sichuan Province, southwest China. Beichuan County was the epicenter which was one of the areas nearly completely destroyed by the earthquake. In Beichuan, about 15000 people died and 3000 people were missing. Specially, the earthquake took 1587 students' and 214 teachers' lives from the elementary and

Mingxin Liu; Li Wang; Zhanbiao Shi; Zhen Zhang; Kan Zhang; Jianhua Shen; Jeremy Miles

2011-01-01

41

Factors determining soil nutrient distribution in a small-scaled watershed in the purple soil region of Sichuan Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining soil nutrient distribution is critical to identify sites which are at risk of N and P loading. Equally important are determining factors that influence such distribution (e.g. land use, land management, topography, etc.). In this research, soil nutrient distribution and its influencing factors were studied in a small-scaled watershed in the purple soil region of Sichuan Province, China. The

H. J. Wang; X. Z. Shi; D. S. Yu; David C. Weindorf; B. Huang; W. X. Sun; Coen J. Ritsema; Eleanor Milne

2009-01-01

42

Large-scale spraying of bednets to control mosquito vectors and malaria in Sichuan, China.  

PubMed Central

Since 1987, up to 2.42 million bednets owned by rural householders in over 40 counties in seven prefectures of Sichuan Province, China, have been sprayed annually with deltamethrin at a dose of about 10 mg/m2. Data for the years 1987-89 indicate that there were marked reductions in the biting populations and survival of the two vector species Anopheles anthropophagus and A. sinensis. Extensive tests in 1992 in areas where bednet spraying had been carried out for 5 years showed that mortality was 100% with the WHO-recommended discriminating dose of deltamethrin, i.e., there was no indication of resistance. Malaria data obtained by passive surveillance of reported cases, mass blood surveys of schoolchildren, and active surveillance of reported blood slides from fever cases all indicated marked reductions after introduction of the net spraying. In contrast, in the control areas, where the nets were not treated, the situation remained static or deteriorated slightly.

Cheng, H.; Yang, W.; Kang, W.; Liu, C.

1995-01-01

43

Natural Hazard Public Policy Implications of the May 12, 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake, Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The May 12, 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake in Sichuan Province, China killed almost 90,000 people and affected a population of over 45.5 million throughout western China. Shaking caused the destruction of five million buildings, many of them homes and schools, and damaged 21 million other structures, inflicting devastating impacts to communities. Landslides, a secondary effect of the shaking, caused much of the devastation. Debris flows buried schools and homes, rock falls crushed cars, and rockslides, landslides, and rock avalanches blocked streams and rivers creating massive, unstable landslide dams, which formed “quake lakes” upstream of the blockages. Impassable roads made emergency access slow and extremely difficult. Collapses of buildings and structures large and small took the lives of many. Damage to infrastructure impaired communication, cut off water supplies and electricity, and put authorities on high alert as the integrity of large engineered dams were reviewed. During our field reconnaissance three months after the disaster, evidence of the extent of the tragedy was undeniably apparent. Observing the damage throughout Sichuan reminded us that earthquakes in the United States and throughout the world routinely cause widespread damage and destruction to lives, property, and infrastructure. The focus of this poster is to present observations and findings based on our field reconnaissance regarding the scale of earthquake destruction with respect to slope failures, landslide dams, damage to infrastructure (e.g., schools, engineered dams, buildings, roads, rail lines, and water resources facilities), human habitation within the region, and the mitigation and response effort to this catastrophe. This is presented in the context of the policy measures that could be developed to reduce risks of similar catastrophes. The rapid response of the Chinese government and the mobilization of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army to help the communities affected by the earthquake have allowed survivors to begin rebuilding their lives. However, the long-term impact of the earthquake continues to make headlines. Post-earthquake landslides and debris flows initiated by storm events have continued to impart devastation on the region. Events such as the Wenchuan Earthquake provide unique opportunities for engineers, scientists, and policy makers to collaborate for purposes of exploring the details of natural hazards and developing sound policies to protect lives and property in the future.

Cydzik, K.; Hamilton, D.; Stenner, H. D.; Cattarossi, A.; Shrestha, P. L.

2009-12-01

44

Ground deformation associated with the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake in China, estimated using a SAR offset-tracking method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: A catastrophic earthquake struck China"fs Sichuan area on May 12, 2008, with the moment magnitude of 7.9 (USGS). The hypocenter and their aftershocks are distributed along the western edge of the Sichuan Basin, suggesting that this seismic event occurred at the Longmeng Shan fault zone which is constituted of major three active faults (Wenchuan-Maowen, Beichuan, and Pengguan faults). However, it is unclear whether these faults were directly involved in the mainshock rupture. An interferometry SAR (InSAR) analysis generally has a merit that we can detect ground deformation in a vast region with high precision, however, for the Sichuan event, the surface deformation near the fault zone has not been satisfactorily detected from the InSAR analyses due to a low coherency. An offset-tracking method is less precise but more robust for detecting large ground deformation than the interferometric approach. Our purpose is to detect the detail ground deformation immediately near the faults involved in the Sichuan event with applying the offset-tracking method. Analysis Method: We analyzed ALOS/PALSAR images, which have been taken from Path 471 to 476 of ascending track, acquired before and after the mainshock. We processed SAR data from the level-1.0 product, using a software package from Gamma Remote Sensing. For offset-tracking analysis we adopt intensity tracking method which is performed by cross-correlating samples of backscatter intensity of a master SAR image with samples from the corresponding search area of a slave image in order to estimate range and azimuth offset fields. We reduce stereoscopic effects that produce apparent offsets, using SRTM3 DEM data. Results: We have successfully obtained the surface deformation in range (radar look direction) component, while in azimuth (flight direction) no significant deformation can be detected in some orbits due to "gazimuth streaks"h that are errors caused by ionospheric effects. Some concluding remarks are as follows: On the Beichuan F. and its northeastward extension, a clear boundary of a motion toward and away from the satellite can be recognized just along the fault, which is almost consistent with a right-lateral fault motion. On the other hand, in the southwestern region from the Beichuan city where the three major faults are running almost parallel, two boundaries of motions can be recognized; On the Beichuan F. there are a clear displacement boundary in range component, while on the Pengguan F. a boundary can be identified in azimuth component rather than in range, suggesting that the seismic ruptures proceeded with different fault motions at each fault. For the Wenchuan-Maowen F., no significant displacement boundary can be recognized. Acknowledgments: PALSAR data are provided from Earthquake Working Group and PIXEL (PALSAR Interferometry Consortium to Study our Evolving Land surface) under a cooperative research contract with JAXA. The ownership of PALSAR data belongs to METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) and JAXA.

Kobayashi, T.; Takada, Y.; Furuya, M.; Murakami, M.

2008-12-01

45

Fault Trace and Slip in the 2008 Mw 7.9 Sichuan, China Earthquake From InSAR Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2008 Mw 7.9 Sichuan, China earthquake was one of the most devastating events in recent times, and claimed more than 80000 lives. Six adjacent pairs of ascending ALOS PALSAR images and three independent pairs of descending ENVISAT ASAR images were processed for both interferograms and SAR pixel offsets. Three additional pairs of ENVISAT ASAR wide-swath (ScanSAR) interferograms were also

Z. Li; E. Fielding; B. Parsons; T. Wright; W. Feng

2008-01-01

46

Characteristics and formation mechanism of a catastrophic rainfall–induced rock avalanche–mud flow in Sichuan, China, 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

A catastrophic rock avalanche–mud flow was triggered by the heavy rainfall in Sichuan, China, on July 27, 2010. A mass of\\u000a strongly weathered basalts with a volume of ?480,000 m3 was initiated from a valley side slope and then moved downstream along the valley, entraining a large amount of unconsolidated\\u000a substrate and bilateral materials and colluviums. The entrainment increased the volume

Qiang Xu; Xuanmei Fan; Xiujun Dong

47

Deep source CO 2 in natural waters and its role in extensive tufa deposition in the Huanglong Ravines, Sichuan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aqueous geochemistry of Huanglong Ravine, Sichuan, China, where tufa is being deposited extensively, is discussed using chemical composition data together with the carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios. The water quality of tufa-depositing surface streams in this area is basically controlled by the mixing of two source waters—fault-bounded spring water and snow and\\/or glacier melt water. The spring water

K. Yoshimura; Z. Liu; J. Cao; D. Yuan; Y. Inokura; M. Noto

2004-01-01

48

Diversity and infectivity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in agricultural soils of the Sichuan Province of mainland China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge about the presence and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in a specific area is an essential first\\u000a step for utilizing these fungi in any application. The community composition of AMF in intensively managed agricultural soil\\u000a in the Sichuan Province of southwest China currently is unknown. In one set of samples, AMF were trapped in pot cultures from\\u000a 40

Yuan Yuan Wang; Mauritz Vestberg; Christopher Walker; Timo Hurme; Xiaoping Zhang; Kristina Lindström

2008-01-01

49

Molecular investigation of Torque teno sus virus in geographically distinct porcine breeding herds of Sichuan, China  

PubMed Central

Background Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV), infecting domestic swine and wild boar, is a non-enveloped virus with a circular, single-stranded DNA genome. which has been classified into the genera Iotatorquevirus (TTSuV1) and Kappatorquevirus (TTSuV2) of the family Anelloviridae. A molecular study was conducted to detect evidence of a phylogenic relationship between these two porcine TTSuV genogroups from the sera of 244 infected pigs located in 21 subordinate prefectures and/or cities of Sichuan. Results Both genogroups of TTSuV were detected in pig sera collected from all 21 regions examined. Of the 244 samples, virus from either genogroup was detected in 203 (83.2%), while 44 animals (18.0%) were co-infected with viruses of both genogroups. Moreover, TTSuV2 (186/244, 76.2%) was more prevalent than TTSuV1 (61/244, 25%). There was statistically significant difference between the prevalence of genogroups 1 infection alone (9.4%, 23/244) and 2 alone (64.8%, 158/244), and between the prevalence of genogroups 2 (76.2%, 186/244) and both genogroups co-infection (18.0%, 44/244). The untranslated region of the swine TTSuV genome was found to be an adequate molecular marker of the virus for detection and surveillance. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that both genogroups 1 and 2 could be further divided into two subtypes, subtype a and b. TTSuV1 subtype b and the two TTSuV2 subtypes are more prevalent in Sichuan Province. Conclusions Our study presents detailed geographical evidence of TTSuV infection in China.

2013-01-01

50

Bouguer gravity anomaly and isostasy at western Sichuan Basin revealed by new gravity surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

dense relative gravity and Global Positioning System observation network with 302 stations was measured in the western Sichuan Basin (SB) to study gravity and isostasy. Bouguer Gravity Anomalies are negative in the study area, and change gradually from about -110 mGal (10- 5m s- 2) in the southeast to -220 mGal in the northwest. The new data reveal that the Moho beneath the western SB changes gradually from 39.5 km in the southeast to 43.7 km in the northwest and is inclined slightly to the northwest beneath the Chengdu Plain. The isostatic crustal thickness calculated by Airy isostatic theory varies between 39.5 and 42.0 km. The Longquan Shan (LQS) marks a clear boundary in the state of isostastic compensation in the study area. The Moho depth is almost identical to the Airy isostatic crustal thickness east of the LQS, where the crust is in isostatic balance. However, on the Chengdu Plain west of the LQS, differences between the Moho depth and Airy isostatic crustal thickness became larger from east to west, where the crust is out of isostatic balance. This indicates that the load of the Longmen Shan (LMS) on the west part of the crust of SB is mainly borne by the crust beneath the Chengdu Plain, and does little influence the crust east of the LQS. As a result we deduce that the LQS fault zone is a deeply rooted high angle fault zone that was broken by the load of the LMS.

Fu, Guangyu; Gao, Shanghua; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Zhang, Guoqing; Zhu, Yiqing; Yang, Guangliang

2014-04-01

51

Implication of fault interaction to seismic hazard assessment in Sichuan-Yunnan provinces of Southeastern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong seismicity in China and adjacent regions is distributed over specific zones that configure rigid lithospheric subplates often bounded by active faults. Sichuan and Yunnan provinces correspond to a so-called rhombic shaped subplate that experiences the strongest intraplate seismicity in the territory of China. The region exhibits a complicated tectonic regime that consists of various rupture zones and different faulting types with strike slip prevailing, consistent with the regional stress field and geological background. During the 20th century, 35 devastating earthquakes with magnitude Ms?6.5 occurred nearby densely populated areas causing a majority of casualties and deaths. The fact that Sichuan and Yunnan provinces are densely populated and industrially developed urges the necessity for investigating the occurrence pattern of the region's stronger events through the stress evolutionary model and also identifying the structures that are apt to produce a potential strong seismic event in the future. The tectonic complexity reveals a real challenge for our investigation, since the interaction is sought among different faulting types. Stress transfer seems not to be restricted in a single however segmented fault but also expands over the adjacent faults or conjugate zones often bringing them toward rupture. The characteristic of the tectonic setting is that various long strike slip, normal and some thrust faults exist within the same area, interacting with each other. Such interaction of strong earthquakes has been proved by previous investigation concerning the Xianshuihe fault zone (Papadimitriou et al., 2004) and the stress evolution for the northeast Tibetan Plateau from 1920 till present for a viscoelastic model (Wan et al., 2007). A feature characterizing long fault zones is that they are found segmented and distinct parts of faults rupture each time until they complete a seismic cycle. Although fault surfaces are irregular and ruptures are more complicated, meaning that slip is not uniform but varies along its segments, it is believed that the approximate models are sufficient for identifying the areas of stress change, when they are computed for distances far from the causative fault. A subsequent event can be triggered on the faults having proper orientation and being close to failure, even if the stress change is only a few bars. Stress increment does not declare subsequent epicentre location but corresponds to the segment sufficient to fail because it has reached high stress level, in accordance with Coulomb Failure Criterion. Stress transfer among adjacent faults or fault segments, or conjugate faults is confirmed to dominate in this area. It is evidenced in the present study that strong earthquakes in a long fault zone undoubtedly encourage a second event along strike. In most of the cases triggering is evidenced and many events are located in bright zones where static stress changes have relatively high positive values. Most of them are concentrated in the places around fault tips or on the sites where fault changes its strike since there is a high stress increase. Characteristic examples are demonstrated in the case of Xianshuihe fault zones in northern Sichuan and Lancang-Gengma fault zone in southern Yunnan, where almost all the segments of the fault have ruptured in the last century. There are cases however, where epicentres are found in stress shadows before reloading. This behavior could be attributed to misfits in the stress computation due to the complexity and the existence of minor faults in this multi-segmented crust. The accumulated result of possible post seismic effects, such as viscoelastic relaxation beneath the brittle part of the crust and transient postseimic slip below the rupture zone are not incorporated in the evolutionary model. Stress diffusion in each case needs further study since there is a wide variation in the post seismic behaviour of rupture. As it is suggested (Jaum?, 1994) the postseismic slip when exists, will reinforce both regional stress and stress change

Gkarlaouni, C.; Papadimitriou, E. E.; Karakostas, V. G.; Wen, Xue–Ze; Jin, Xue–Shen; Kilias, A.; Pan, Hua

2009-04-01

52

Chronic health needs immediately after natural disasters in middle-income countries: the case of the 2008 Sichuan, China earthquake.  

PubMed

Few studies have focused on chronic health needs immediately after natural disasters in middle-income countries. This study examines chronic medical needs during the acute phase after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in an emergency triage clinic in Sichuan, China. Information on physical, social, and public health preparedness was collected in predesigned templates. Descriptive and Pearson's ? association analyses were conducted. One hundred and eighty-two evacuees were received at the triage site. Of these, 54% required trauma treatment and 77% of evacuated patients who required care had underlying chronic medical conditions. Tetanus immunizations and the possession of chronic health medication were low, particularly among older patients. Chronic health needs constituted a significant proportion of emergency care during the acute phase in the study population. Effective post-disaster assistance requires attention to demographic and epidemiological population profiles. PMID:20679898

Chan, Emily Y Y; Kim, Jackie

2011-04-01

53

Study on 3-D velocity structure of crust and upper mantle in Sichuan-yunnan region, China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Based on the first arrival P and S data of 4 625 regional earthquakes recorded at 174 stations dispersed in the Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces, the 3-D velocity structure of crust and upper mantle in the region is determined, incorporating with previous deep geophysical data. In the upper crust, a positive anomaly velocity zone exists in the Sichuan basin, whereas a negative anomaly velocity zone exists in the western Sichuan plateau. The boundary between the positive and negative anomaly zones is the Longmenshan fault zone. The images of lower crust and upper mantle in the Longmenshan fault, Xianshuihe fault, Honghe fault and others appear the characteristic of tectonic boundary, indicating that the faults litely penetrate the Moho discontinuity. The negative velocity anomalies at the depth of 50 km in the Tengchong volcanic area and the Panxi tectonic zone appear to be associated with the temperature and composition variations in the upper mantle. The overall features of the crustal and the upper mantle structures in the Sichuan-Yunnan region are the lower average velocity in both crust and uppermost mantle, the large crustal thickness variations, and the existence of high conductivity layer in the crust or/and upper mantle, and higher geothermal value. All these features are closely related to the collision between the Indian and the Asian plates. The crustal velocity in the Sichuan-Yunnan rhombic block generally shows normal.value or positive anomaly, while the negative anomaly exists in the area along the large strike-slip faults as the block boundary. It is conducive to the crustal block side-pressing out along the faults. In the major seismic zones, the seismicity is relative to the negative anomaly velocity. Most strong earthquakes occurred in the upper-mid crust with positive anomaly or normal velocity, where the negative anomaly zone generally exists below.

Wang, C.; Mooney, W. D.; Wang, X.; Wu, J.; Lou, H.; Wang, F.

2002-01-01

54

Landslides and the Fault Surface Ruptures during the 2008 Wengchuan Earthquake, Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2008 Sichuan earthquake with a magnitude of Mw 7.9 induced numerous mass movements around the fault surface ruptures of which maximum separations we observed were 3.6 m vertical and 1.5 m horizontal (right lateral). In order to clarify the distribution of these landslides and to characterize them, we interpreted satellite images and made field investigation for 3 weeks by using these images. We used satellite ALOS images taken by the sensors AVNIR II with a resolution of 10 m and PRISM with a resolution of 2.5 m, both of which were taken on 4th in June. We also used satellite images of before and after the earthquake provided by Google Earth. The affected area was mountainous areas with elevations from 1000 m to 4500 m on the west of the Sichuan Basin. Ridges and valleys are generally trending NE parallel to the trends of the geologic structures, while large rivers, such as the Minjiang River, and the Fujiang River are flowing from the north or northwest to the south or southeast, crossing these trends. The NE-trending Longmenshan fault zone runs along the boundary between the mountains and the Sichuan basin (He and Tsukuda, 2003), of which Yinghsiuwan-Beichuan fault was the main fault that generated the 2008 earthquake (Xu, 2008). The basement rocks of the mountainous areas range from Precambrian to Cretaceous in age. They are basaltic rocks, granite, phyllite, dolostone, limestone, alternating beds of sandstone and shale, etc. (Geologic map of China). Landslide distribution areas were mainly of two types: One was the area along the fault that generated this earthquake, and another was along the steep slopes of inner valleys along the Minjian River. Landslides were concentrated on the hanging wall of the earthquake fault, which appeared for more than 180 km along the Longmenshan fault zone. The distribution area of landslides was wider around the middle and the southwest parts of the surface rupture trace and became narrower to the northeast. The directions of the landslides were controlled by the fault: Landslides moving normal to the fault ruptures were most prevailing probably due to the directivity of the seismic wave. The most common landslides were of carbonate rocks, which could be attributable to the decrease in shear strength because of its dissolution by subsurface water. Relatively shallow landslides were concentratedly induced on the slopes in the valley of the Mingjian River from Yinghsiuwa through Wengchan to Maoxian. These slopes seem to be the inner gorges (Kelsey, 1998), which are formed by the acceleration of erosion, leading to the destabilization of valley slopes (Chigira, 2006). The inner valleys are as steep as 35 to 40 degrees with about 500 m height. Largest landslide in the history occurred in the middle of the affected area. It was 1.3 km wide and 5 km long with an area of 7 million m2 and its volume may be 1 billion m3 from the images of the satellite ALOS. This landslide was preceded by gravitational deformation, which was represented by a ridge-top depression. More than 30 landslide dams were made; dams consisting of large carbonate rubbles apparently stable and dams consisting of weathered marlstone or phyllite less stable.

Chigira, M.; Xiyong, Wu; Takashi, Inokuchi; Gonghui, Wang

2009-04-01

55

Problems of Ecological Environment in Western China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Western China is vast, expansive, sparsely populated, and economically underdeveloped, but it plays an important role in economic and social development in China. While the west is a crucial base of power resources, it is also rich in fauna and flora resources and the major habitat for China's many rare wildlife species. Therefore, protecting its…

Wenjuan, Zhang; Jixi, Gao

2004-01-01

56

Posttraumatic stress disorder and depression among new mothers at 8 months later of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake in China.  

PubMed

On May 12, 2008, a magnitude 8.0 earthquake struck China's southwestern Sichuan province. Recent studies have identified mental health problems among the survivors, but little is known about the impact of the Sichuan earthquake on the mental health of new mothers in the area. The main objective was to assess the impact of the Sichuan earthquake on the posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and depression of new mothers. A total of 317 new mothers were interviewed in the hospital from January 2009 to March 2009. Symptoms of PTSD were measured using the impact of event scale-revised, and symptoms of postpartum depression were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. The prevalence rates of PTSD and postpartum depression were 19.9% and 29.0%, respectively. Women with high earthquake exposure had higher risks of PTSD (odds ratio (OR), 5.91; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.75-19.97; P?

Qu, Zhiyong; Wang, Xiaohua; Tian, Donghua; Zhao, You; Zhang, Qin; He, Huan; Zhang, Xiulan; Xu, Fan; Guo, Suran

2012-02-01

57

Spatial distribution as a measure of conservation needs: an example with Asiatic black bears in south-western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To create ane-scale map of the distribution of Asiatic black bears, identify landscape variables affecting the spatial range of this species and assess population trends using presence-absence data and opinions of local villagers. Location Sichuan Province, south-western China. Methods We divided the province into 15 · 15 km cells, stratied them by forest cover, elevation and road density and

Fang Liu; William McShea; David Garshelis; Xiaojian Zhu; Dajun Wang; Ji’en Gong; Youping Chen

2009-01-01

58

Regional characterization of Western China  

SciTech Connect

Geological, geophysical, and seismic data are being assembled and organized into a knowledge base for Western China as part of the CTBT Research and Development regional characterization effort. We have begun our analysis using data from the station WMQ of the Chinese Digital Seismic Network (CDSN). Regional seismograms are being analyzed to construct travel time curves, velocity models, attenuation characteristics, and to quantify regional propagation effects such as phase blockages. Using locations from the USGS Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) we have identified Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg phases, constructed travel time curves, and estimated apparent velocities using linear regression. Surface wave group velocities will be measured and inverted for regional structure. Preliminary noise spectra for WMQ have been obtained from the IRIS DMC. Chinese seismicity catalogs from the USGS and SSB are being used to identify and obtain seismic data (including mine seismicity) and information for lower magnitude events. We have identified the locations of nearly 500 mines in China for inclusion in the knowledge base. Future work will involve expanding the data collection and analysis efforts to a larger region using data from additional CDSN, IRIS and portable stations.

Randall, G.E.; Weaver, T.A.; Hartse, H.E.; Taylor, S.R.; Warren, R.G.; Cogbill, A.H.

1995-09-01

59

Limited and localized outbreak of newly emergent type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus in sichuan, china.  

PubMed

From August 2011 to February 2012, an outbreak caused by type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) occurred in Aba County, Sichuan, China. During the outbreak, four type 2 VDPVs (?0.6% nucleotide divergence in the VP1 region relative to the Sabin 2 strain) were isolated from 3 patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and one close contact. In addition, a type 2 pre-VDPV (0.3% to 0.5% divergence from Sabin 2) that was genetically related to these type 2 VDPVs was isolated from another AFP patient. These 4 patients were all unimmunized children 0.7 to 1.1 years old. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that the 4 VDPV isolates differed from Sabin 2 by 0.7% to 1.2% in nucleotides in the VP1 region and shared 5 nucleotide substitutions with the pre-VDPV. All 5 isolates were closely related, and all were S2/S3/S2/S3 recombinants sharing common recombination crossover sites. Although the two major determinants of attenuation and temperature sensitivity phenotype of Sabin 2 (A481 in the 5' untranslated region and Ile143 in the VP1 protein) had reverted in all 5 isolates, one VDPV (strain CHN16017) still retained the temperature sensitivity phenotype. Phylogenetic analysis of the third coding position of the complete P1 coding region suggested that the cVDPVs circulated locally for about 7 months following the initiating oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) dose. Our findings reinforce the point that cVDPVs can emerge and spread in isolated communities with immunity gaps and highlight the emergence risks of type 2 cVDPVs accompanying the trivalent OPV used. To solve this issue, it is recommended that type 2 OPV be removed from the trivalent OPV or that inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) be used instead. PMID:24850620

Yan, Dongmei; Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Shuangli; Chen, Na; Li, Xiaolei; Wang, Dongyan; Ma, Xiaozhen; Zhu, Hui; Tong, Wenbin; Xu, Wenbo

2014-07-01

60

Crustal Structure Of Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Western China is a showcase of complex geological and geophysical features, includ- ing sedimentary basins, regimes of continental collisional tectonics, and the thickest crust found on Earth. Here, we present new results of a 2700-km-long seismic re- fraction profile across northwest China and the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Seismic energy for this profile was provided by twelve chemical explosive shots fired in bore- holes. The charge size ranged from 1500 to 4000 kg, sufficient to provide clear first arrivals to a maximum distance of 300 km. The distance between shotpoints ranged from 63 to 205 km, and the interval between portable seismographs was between 2 and 4 km. The profile was recorded along existing roads, and provided nearly straight profile segments. We have divided the seismic profile into two segments- the northern segment from the Altai mountains to the Altyn Tagh fault, and the southern segment from the Altyn Tagh fault to the Longmen Shan. The crustal velocity structure and Poissons ratio (sigma) for the transect, which provide a constraint on crustal composi- tion, were determined from P- and S-wave data. The crustal thickness along the profile was determined, and the crust was found to have three layers with P-wave velocities (Vp) of 6.0-6.3 km/s, 6.3-6.6 km/s, and 6.9-7.0 km/s, respectively. We interpret the consistent three-layer stratification of the crust to indicate that the crust has undergone partial melting and differentiation after Paleozoic terrane accretion. Pn velocities were found to be about 7.7 to 7.8 km/s.

Wang, Y.; Yuan, X.; Mooney, W. D.; Coleman, R. G.

61

Three-dimensional surface displacement of the 2008 May 12 Sichuan earthquake (China) derived from Synthetic Aperture Radar: evidence for rupture on a blind thrust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sichuan earthquake, Mw 7.9, struck the Longmen Shan (LMS) range front, China, on 2008 May 12, affecting an area of moderate historical seismicity where little active shortening has been previously reported. Recent studies based on space geodesy have succeeded in retrieving the far field surface displacements caused by the earthquake, but the near field (+\\/-25km from the faults) coseismic

Marcello de Michele; Daniel Raucoules; Julia de Sigoyer; Manuel Pubellier; Nicolas Chamot-Rooke

2010-01-01

62

Case 3. "Jiang Tao v. Chengdu Branch, People's People's Bank of China": Opinion by the People's Court in Wuhou District, Chengdu, Sichuan Province  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the decision of the People's Court in Wuhou District, Chengdu, Sichuan Province on the Jiang Tao v. Chengdu Branch, People's People's Bank of China case. Jiang Tao, the plaintiff, claimed that the defendant Chengdu Branch placed an announcement in the "Chengdu Business Daily" to "recruit tellers for Chengdu Branch" on…

Chinese Education and Society, 2006

2006-01-01

63

A new species of Amara (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Zabrini) from Sichuan Province, China, with additional records for other Amara species from the region  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species, Amara (Bradytulus) shalulishanica Hieke & Kavanaugh, sp. n. (type locality: Haizishan Yakou, 29.47366°N, 100.21921°E, 4623 m, Shalulishan, Zhuosang Township, Litang County, Sichuan Province, China) is described and diagnosed. Additional records are provided for 16 other Amara species, each of which represents one of five different geographical distribution types, which are discussed.

Hieke, Fritz; Kavanaugh, David H.; Liang, Hongbin

2012-01-01

64

Hydrochemistry of the Hot Springs in Western Sichuan Province Related to the Wenchuan MS 8.0 Earthquake  

PubMed Central

Hydrogeochemistry of 32 hot springs in the western Sichuan Province after the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake was investigated by analyzing the concentrations of cation and anion and the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen. The water samples of the hot springs were collected four times from June 2008 to April 2010. Hydrogeochemical data indicated the water samples can be classified into 9 chemical types. Values of ?D and ?18O indicated that the spring waters were mainly derived from meteoric precipitation and affected by water-rock interaction and mixture of deep fluids. Concentrations of K+and SO4? of the samples from the Kangding district exhibited evident increases before the Wenchuan earthquake, indicating more supplement of deep fluids under the increase of tectonic stress. The chemical and isotopic variations of the water samples from the area closer to the epicenter area can be attributed to variation of regional stress field when the aftershock activities became weak.

Chen, Zhi; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Yi, Li; Liu, Lei; Xie, Chao; Cui, Yueju; Li, Ying

2014-01-01

65

Hydrochemistry of the hot springs in Western sichuan province related to the wenchuan m s 8.0 earthquake.  

PubMed

Hydrogeochemistry of 32 hot springs in the western Sichuan Province after the Wenchuan M S 8.0 earthquake was investigated by analyzing the concentrations of cation and anion and the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen. The water samples of the hot springs were collected four times from June 2008 to April 2010. Hydrogeochemical data indicated the water samples can be classified into 9 chemical types. Values of ? D and ? (18)O indicated that the spring waters were mainly derived from meteoric precipitation and affected by water-rock interaction and mixture of deep fluids. Concentrations of K(+)and SO4 (-) of the samples from the Kangding district exhibited evident increases before the Wenchuan earthquake, indicating more supplement of deep fluids under the increase of tectonic stress. The chemical and isotopic variations of the water samples from the area closer to the epicenter area can be attributed to variation of regional stress field when the aftershock activities became weak. PMID:24892106

Chen, Zhi; Du, Jianguo; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Yi, Li; Liu, Lei; Xie, Chao; Cui, Yueju; Li, Ying

2014-01-01

66

Automated Hazard Assessment Techniques Using Satellite Images Following the 2008 Sichuan China Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid seismic hazard assessment is crucial for accurate damage estimation right after earthquakes. New technologies provide faster damage detection compared to the traditional, manual assessments. One of the new technologies includes using satellite images. Pre- and post-earthquake satellite images can be used to identify damage patterns. One of the recent disastrous earthquakes occurred in Sichuan (Mw = 7.9) on May 12,

K. Armagan Korkmaz; M. Emin Kutay

2010-01-01

67

Human immunodeficiency virus/human parvovirus B19 co-infection in blood donors and AIDS patients in Sichuan, China  

PubMed Central

Background Human parvovirus B19 (B19) is a common pathogen which causes a variety of diseases. Persistent B19 infection is related to the degree of host immunodeficiency in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, the existence, loading, virus evolution and distribution of B19 in Chinese HIV-positive patients have not been determined. Materials and methods. We investigated 573 HIV-positive blood donors and AIDS patients in Sichuan, China in the last two decades. Bl9-specific serology and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the prevalence of B19/HIV co-infection. Viral genome fragments were subjected to phylogeny and haplotype analysis. Results B19 genomic DNA was found in 26 of 573 (4.5%) HIV-positive individuals, a higher prevalence than in blood donors. DNA levels ranged from 5.3×102–1.1×105 copies/mL. The seroprevalence of IgG was significantly lower in HIV-positive samples than in HIV-negative blood donors, indicating deficient production of B19-specific IgG in the former. The B19 isolates were genotype-1 subtype B19-1A which formed a monophyletic group; seven distinct haplotypes were discovered with 60% of the B19/HIV co-infected variants sharing one central haplotype. Discussion. This study on the prevalence, phylogeny and distribution of human parvovirus B19 in Sichuan, China, demonstrates the persistence of B19 in the circulation of both immunocompetent and immunocompromised subjects, with implications for blood safety.

He, Miao; Zhu, Jiang; Yin, Huimin; Ke, Ling; Gao, Lei; Pan, Zhihong; Yang, Xiuhua; Li, Wuping

2012-01-01

68

Geomorphic constraints on Middle Yangtze River reversal in eastern Sichuan Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yangtze, the longest river in Asia, was hypothesized to be assembled through a series of Cenozoic capture events, such as the reversal of Middle Yangtze River and the capture of Upper Yangtze River, but the history remains largely unknown. Here, we present new geomorphic observations in the structural context of the eastern Sichuan Basin, namely the Eastern Sichuan fold belt, and identify an important drainage divide along the "midline" of this arc-shape fold belt. Based on longitudinal profile analysis, we find that the river capture events more likely occurred in the syncline valleys of low-relief landscape. Our results yield a new perspective on Middle Yangtze River reversal, and we propose that the "midline" drainage divide, rather than the Three Gorges, was the starting site of Middle Yangtze River reversal. In this manner, the reversal could have been accomplished by a sequence of river reversal over range-parallel segments in syncline valleys with less impact on the pre-existing drainage system in eastern Sichuan Basin.

Wang, Ping; Zheng, Hongbo; Liu, Shaofeng

2013-06-01

69

A Community Velocity Model (CVM) for the Sichuan basin and Longmen Shan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new three-dimensional velocity model of the crust and upper mantle for the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, developed using the concept of a Community Velocity Model (CVM) (Magistrale et al., 2000; Süss and Shaw, 2003). The model extends from 27.5°-34.5°N and 100°-110°E, and describes the velocity structure of the Sichuan basin and surrounding fold-and-thrust belt systems (including the Longmen Shan, Micang Shan, Daba Shan, Eastern Sichuan and Kangdian), as well as the Kunlun and Xianshuihe-Anninghe strike fault systems in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. The model consists of 3D surfaces representing major geologic unit contacts and faults, and is parameterized with velocity-depth curves (Boore and Joyner, 1997) calibrated using sonic logs from wells. The model incorporates data from 1166 oil wells, industry isopach maps, surface geological maps and digital elevation models. The model was developed in the program GoCAD, a geological computer-aided design application (Mallet, 1992). The geological surfaces were modeled based on industry isopach maps for various units augmented by stratigraphic picks in oil and gas wells and regional seismic reflection profiles. These surfaces include base Quaternary, Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic, and Paleozoic horizons. These surface are locally cut by major faults, which are compatible with the locations and displacements of major faults systems in the Sichuan Community Fault Model (CFM) (Hubbard et al., 2012). The velocity profiles for each layer are calibrated with high-resolution sonic log as well as stacking velocities from seismic reflection profiles and vertical seismic profiles. This upper crustal model extends down to ~10-15 km depth, and is embedded into a regional tomographic model (Xu and Song, 2010). The Sichuan basin is an atypical basin in terms of its velocity structure. The rocks exposed at the surface are primarily Mesozoic in age, with limited patch of Cenozoic rocks in the southwestern part of the basin. As a consequence, the velocities (Vp) in the basin are generally fast. They range from about 3000 to ~7500 m/s, exhibiting increasing velocities with age and depth. We divide the rock in the Sichuan basin and Longmen Shan region into five basic types: (1) Cenozoic alluvium; (2) Mesozoic sedimentary and metamorphic rocks; (3) Paleozoic sedimentary and metamorphic rocks; (4) Proterozoic sedimentary and metamorphic rocks and (5) granite. Cenozoic alluvium is thin (0~500 m) and limited primarily to the southwestern basin. Mesozoic sedimentary rocks are thick (2600-9800 m) and widely exposed at the surface and in boreholes in the basin. Their velocities vary from about 3000-6000 m/s. Paleozoic sedimentary and metamorphic rocks are also common, exposed primarily in the Longmen Shan and in regions to the north, east, and south of the basin. These units vary in thickness from 400-4100 m, and have velocities from about 5000-7000 m/s. Proterozoic sedimentary and metamorphic rocks crop out in narrow regions around the boundary of the basin, but are disturbed within the basin. Two exploration wells penetrate the base of Sinian, giving a velocity of about 6500-7500 m/s. The model will serve as a basic community resource for strong ground motion prediction and seismic hazard assessments in the densely populated Sichuan basin.

Wang, M.; Hubbard, J.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Jia, D.

2012-12-01

70

On the Lathrobium fauna of the Emei Shan, Sichuan, China (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Six species of Lathrobium Gravenhorst, 1802 from the Emei Shan, Sichuan, are described and illustrated: Lathrobium iunctum Assing & Peng sp. n., Lathrobium coniunctum Assing & Peng sp. n., Lathrobium conexum Assing & Peng sp. n., Lathrobium ensigerum Assing & Peng sp. n., Lathrobium hastatum Assing & Peng sp. n., and Lathrobium bisinuatum Assing & Peng sp. n. Based on their primary and secondary sexual characters, they represent two distinct lineages, each of them comprising three species. A key to the species recorded from the Emei Shan is provided.

Assing, Volker; Peng, Zhong; Zhao, Mei-Jun

2013-01-01

71

The May 12, 2008, (Mw 7.9) Sichuan Earthquake (China): Multiframe ALOS-PALSAR DInSAR Analysis of Coseismic Deformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A destructive (Mw 7.9) earthquake affected the Sichuan province (China) on May 12, 2008. The seismic event ruptured approximately 270 km of the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault and about 70 km of the Guanxian-Anxian fault. Surface effects were suffered over a wide epicentral area (about 300 km E-W and 250 km N-S). We apply the differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR) technique

Marco Chini; Simone Atzori; Elisa Trasatti; Christian Bignami; Christodoulos Kyriakopoulos; Cristiano Tolomei; Salvatore Stramondo

2010-01-01

72

Thermochemical sulphate reduction and the generation of hydrogen sulphide and thiols (mercaptans) in Triassic carbonate reservoirs from the Sichuan Basin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sichuan Basin in China is a sour petroleum province. In order to assess the origin of H2S and other sulphur compounds as well as the cause of petroleum alteration, data on H2S, thiophene and thiol concentrations and gas stable isotopes (?34S and ?13C) have been collected for predominantly gas phase petroleum samples from Jurassic, Triassic, Permian and Upper Proterozoic

Chunfang Cai; Richard H. Worden; Simon H. Bottrell; Lansheng Wang; Chanchun Yang

2003-01-01

73

Stratigraphy of the Middle-Upper Permian and Lowermost Triassic at Chaotian, Sichuan, China. Record of Late Permian double mass extinction event  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precise stratigraphic analysis of Middle-Upper Permian and Lower Triassic sequence at Chaotian in northern Sichuan, China, identified two remarkable mass extinction horizons, one at the Middle-Upper Permian (Guadalupian-Lopingian; G-L) boundary and the other at the Upper Permian-Lower Triassic (P-T) boundary. Across each of the boundaries, biodiversity declined sharply in fusulinid, rugose coral, brachiopod, ammonite, conodont, and radiolaria. Both boundaries are

Yukio ISOZAKI; Jianxin YAO; Tetsuo MATSUDA; Harutaka SAKAI; Zhansheng JI; Noriei SHIMIZU; Noritada KOBAYASHI; Hodaka KAWAHATA; Hiroshi NISHI; Masao TAKANO; Tomomi KUBO

2004-01-01

74

16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of halophilic and halotolerant bacteria isolated from a hypersaline pond in Sichuan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and twenty bacterial isolates were obtained from a hypersaline pond (c. 22% salinity) in Sichuan, China. Bacteria\\u000a were isolated from hypersaline water, sediment and soil samples using three culture media and an incubation temperature of\\u000a 37°C. Of these isolates, 47 were selected and examined by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences and by tests of\\u000a salt tolerance.

Jie Tang; Ai-ping Zheng; Eden S. P. Bromfield; Jun Zhu; Shuang-cheng Li; Shi-quan Wang; Qi-ming Deng; Ping Li

2011-01-01

75

Conodonts from the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary interval in the southeast margin of the Sichuan Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conodonts from the Cambrian-Ordovician transition at the Liangcun section in Xishui County, Guizhou and at the Huangcao section in Wulong County, Chongqing are examined for the first time. Both sections are located at the southeast margin of the Sichuan Basin. A total of 1367 specimens were recovered, representing 30 species and 15 genera. Based on the ranges of conodonts generalized from these two sections and another six sections previously studied in the same region, three conodont zones, Cordylodus proavus, Monocostodus sevierensis and Cordylodus angulatus zones are recognized. The index species of the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary at the global stratotype section and point (GSSP), Iapetognathus fluctivagus and its substitute in China Iapetognathus jilinensis are not observed in the study sections, therefore it is impossible to determine the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary exactly. However, it probably lies within the lower part of M. sevierensis zone (the upper part of the Loushanguan Group), correlating with the GSSP in Canada and the Dayangcha section in China. Chronological sequences of the FAD (First Appearance Datum) of C. angulatus, Chosonodina herfurthi and Rossodus manitouensis are not obvious in the study, so the C. angulatus zone here is correlated with zones defined by C. angulatus, Ch. herfurthi and R. manitouensis in the lower Yangtze Platform.

Fan, Ru; Lu, Yuan-zheng; Zhang, Xue-lei; Zhang, Shi-ben; Deng, Sheng-hui; Li, Xin

2013-03-01

76

Evaluation of an educational intervention on villagers' knowledge, attitude and behaviour regarding transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in Sichuan province, China.  

PubMed

Health education is an important component of efforts to control schistosomiasis. In China, while education programmes have been implemented intensively, few articles in recent years in either the Chinese or English literature report randomised, controlled interventions of the impacts on knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. Thus, we designed and carried out a cluster-randomised controlled education intervention trial that targeted 706 adults from rural areas in 28 villages in Sichuan, China. We evaluated the effects of the intervention on five endpoints: (1) schistosomiasis knowledge, (2) attitudes towards infection testing and treatment, (3) use of personal protective equipment (PPE), (4) reducing defecation in the field, and (5) reducing dermal contact with potentially contaminated water sources. The results indicated that people in both the intervention and control groups showed improvement in knowledge, attitudes and reduction in field-defecation in the follow-up surveys. However, there was little evidence that suggested statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding any endpoint. Participation in intervention classes was associated with age, gender, occupation and education level. Our study suggests short-term health education interventions may not be effective in improving schistosomiasis knowledge or in the adoption of health-protective behaviours. This might be partially due to the spontaneous learning process of people subject to repeated surveys and other disease control activities. Considering the difficulties of occupation-associated behaviour change and knowledge reinforcement in general, longer-term education programmes should be considered in the future. PMID:23711611

Wang, Shuo; Carlton, Elizabeth J; Chen, Lin; Liu, Yang; Spear, Robert C

2013-09-01

77

Perceived family functioning and depression in bereaved parents in China after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake.  

PubMed

This study examined perceived family functioning and depression in bereaved parents 18 months after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. This was a cross-sectional study with 190 bereaved parents sampled using a multistage stratified sampling method. The instruments used in the study included Family APGAR Index and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17. The results indicated that the prevalence of family dysfunction was 59.5%. All the respondents experienced depression with 79.5% of the respondents reporting very severe depression. Being female, being at an advanced age, being divorced or widowed, being directly exposed to the death of their children, not having another baby after the earthquake, and poorer family functioning were significant predictors for more severe depression. Strategies can be designed in post-disaster recovery programs for bereaved parents at high risk for more severe depression, particularly for those with poorer family functioning. PMID:23915699

Cao, Xiaoyi; Jiang, Xiaolian; Li, Xiaolin; Lo, Man-chun Jenny Hui; Li, Rong; Dou, Xinman

2013-08-01

78

Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among adult survivors of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake in China.  

PubMed

This study examined the estimated prevalence rate of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and associated risk factors among Chinese adult survivors 7 to 8 months after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. The sample was recruited from 2 areas close to the epicenter but of different distances. The estimated rate of PTSD symptoms was 55.6% and 26.4% respectively in the two areas. Loss of a child was a strong predictive factor for PTSD symptoms for the parents. Other predictive factors included female gender, loss of a parent, loss of friends or neighbors, residential house damage or collapse, and proximity to the epicenter. Effective and sustainable mental health services are needed and should be directed particularly to bereaved survivors. PMID:21608035

Chan, Cecilia Lai Wan; Wang, Chong-Wen; Qu, Zhiyong; Lu, Ben Qibin; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Ho, Andy Hau Yan; Yuan, Yin; Zhang, Braven Qiang; Wang, Xiying; Zhang, Xiulan

2011-06-01

79

Importance of Reactivation in the Thickening of the Eastern Tibetan Plateau (Longmen Shan, Sichuan, China)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modalities of thickening and uplift of the Tibetan plateau have been often debated. Ages of thickening and of uplift all over the plateau seem to vary with the geological inheritance and reactivation of each area. The Longmen Shan, located on the eastern edge of Tibet, presents an important topographic gradient (from 5000 m to 500 m along 50 km) that overhangs a sharp Moho offset of 20km between the thick Tibetan crust (the Songpan Garze unit) (~67 km-thick) and the resistant 45 km-thick South China crust. Paradoxically the convergence rate across the Longmen Shan measured from geodetic data remains very low (3×3 mm/yr), and this has led to an underestimation of the seismic hazard in this area, and difficulties to explain the thickness of the Tibetan crust underneath. We have documented the thickening processes of the eastern Tibetan border in the Longmen Shan area by unravelling its polyphase evolution via Pressure Temperature (PT) estimates. The first phase of thickening of the Songpan Garze unit and the Longmen Shan occurred by the end of Triassic time during the closure of the Paleotethys. Structural, microstructural, metamorphic observations, PT studies (graphitization of carbonaceous material, quantified X-ray images, chlorite-phengite-quartz-water multi-equilibrium and thermodynamic modelling of phases equilibrium) and U-Pb geochronology are used to describe the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the internal part of the Longmen Shan belt along the Xuelongbao crystalline massif. The Xuelongbao granite is dated 765×7 Ma (in situ U/Pb dating on zircon), suggesting it forms part of the Neoproterozoic South China basement. The intense deformation observed in the sedimentary cover above the Xuelongbao massif, with step cleavage, twisted fold axes and CS structures with top to the SE thrusting vergence are associated to the decollement of the sedimentary pile over the basement. Four stages of deformation are described; three of them being related to the thickening of the Mesozoic wedge, and the last one is attributed to the Cainozoic thick-skin deformation. The first three stages of deformation are characterized by an inverted metamorphic gradient in the western sedimentary cover from the chlorite zone close to the basement contact to the staurolite zone at 10 km over the basement. The PT conditions of the metamorphic peak in the staurolite zone are estimated at 620×30°C, 8-13 kbar, which corresponds to a depth close to 30 km. The thickening of the cover up to 30 km has been made possible by the stack of sedimentary slices during the propagation of the Songpan Garze accretionary wedge onto the South China margin during the Early Mesozoics. The Cainozoic reactivation involved the exhumation of the basement along the Wenchuan-Maowen thrust. This latter reactivation in turn created a metamorphic overprint under greenschist facies conditions at about 350×50°C 6×2kbar, suggesting an exhumation of the base of the Mesozoic wedge from 15 km depth up to the surface.

de Sigoyer, J.; Robert, A.; Pubellier, M. F.; Deldicque, D.; Li, Y.; Yi, Z.

2013-12-01

80

Observation of elevated fungal tracers due to biomass burning in the Sichuan Basin at Chengdu City, China.  

PubMed

Fungal material (i.e., spores and fragments) is an important component of atmospheric aerosols. In order to examine the variability of fungal abundance in fine particles (PM(2.5)) during a biomass burning season, an intensive measurement campaign was conducted in the Sichuan Basin at Chengdu, a megacity in southwest China, in spring 2009. The aerosol samples were analyzed for carbonaceous species, including molecular tracers for biomass burning and fungal material, and water soluble ions. The results were interpreted with the help of principle component analysis, fire count maps, and the WRF model. Elevated concentrations of arabitol and mannitol were found with average concentrations of 21.5±16.6 ng m(-3) and 43.9±19.3 ng m(-3), respectively, which were unexpectedly higher than those measured in fine particles in any other study reported previously. Even higher concentrations were observed in cases with simultaneous enhancements in the biomass burning tracers levoglucosan and K(+). In the case of influence by pollution plumes from biomass burning regions, the fungal tracer concentrations reached maximum values of 79.6 ng m(-3) and 121.8 ng m(-3), coinciding with peak levels of levoglucosan and K(+). Statistically significant correlations were found between the simultaneously observed fungal tracers (arabitol and mannitol) and biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan and K(+)), suggesting that these species were emitted by co-located sources, and hence the elevated fungal tracers were likely associated with biomass burning activities. PMID:22664540

Yang, Yihong; Chan, Chuen-yu; Tao, Jun; Lin, Mang; Engling, Guenter; Zhang, Zhisheng; Zhang, Ting; Su, Lin

2012-08-01

81

Study on Auto-Classification and Integration of Multi-Source Data with RS and GIS in Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

western parts of the country, and chose RS integrated GIS as the main tool to accomplish the task to learn the real ecological conditions of the West. Thus the problems about how to make best use of RS and GIS to deal with the great amount of data collected with them have to be resolved first. And the paper tries to do some study on the topic. geographic information system (GIS) and other related techniques, the paper studies the methodology and related technology of application of RS and GIS in the area with high altitude and complex terrain. With a case study of the Western Sichuan Province, China, the paper gives a detailed discussion on how to apply and integrate the techniques to the research of dynamic of vegetation. (1)New methods how to integrate multi-source data, including dynamic visualized 3D model of (2)Some auto-classification and integration results of the vegetation in the Western Sichuan techniques, the paper brings up a new method of application of RS and GIS to the research of the Western China, and achieves important results. But there are still some problems that have to be solved in the future and we can't do well now because of time and other factors, such as more application of 3D model in geo-analysis fields, construction of the visualized analyzing system and so on. Key words: data integration,auto-classification,three dimension(3D) model of landscape,visualized analyzing system,the Western China.

Lei, Liqing; Sun, Jiulin; Zhang, Jie

82

[Evaluation index system of swamp degradation in Zoige Plateau of Sichuan, Southwest China under drainage stress].  

PubMed

The evaluation index system of swamp degradation is one of the key scientific issues in the frontier field of international wetland science research. On the basis of long-term swamp field reconnaissance, and according to the fixed position ecological investigation of plant communities and the analysis of soil samples in 20 swamp plots in three belt transects of swamp degradation research under the stress of drainage in 2009, the swamps in the Zoige Plateau of Sichuan were classified into three groups with seven swamp communities, i. e., undisturbed (A type), disturbed by long-term and weak drainage (B-D type), and disturbed by short-term and strong drainage (E-G type), according to the species importance value and by Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN). The degradation degree of the swamps was graded by the method of Principal Components Analysis (PCA), and the swamp vegetation evaluation index (SVEI) and soil evaluation index (SSEI) were developed. Based on the SVEI, the swamps were classified as pristine swamp, lightly degraded swamp, moderately degraded swamp, and severely degraded swamp. Based on the SSEI, the swamps in Hongyuan County were divided into three grades, i. e. pristine swamp, lightly degraded swamp, and severely degraded swamp, while those in Ruoergai County were divided into lightly degraded swamp, moderately degraded swamp, and severely degraded swamp. The similarity of TWINSPAN classification results and SVEI/SSEI evaluation results was above 70%, indicating that both SVEI and SSEI were effective for the swamp degradation grading, and different classification methods should be combined to comprehensively evaluate the swamps in the Plateau. PMID:24175510

Yang, Yong-Xing; Li, Kei; Yang, Yang

2013-07-01

83

Suitability of IS6110-RFLP and MIRU-VNTR for Differentiating Spoligotyped Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates from Sichuan in China  

PubMed Central

Genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) vary with the geographic origin of the patients and can affect tuberculosis (TB) transmission. This study was aimed to further differentiate spoligotype-defined clusters of drug-resistant MTBC clinical isolates split in Beijing (n = 190) versus non-Beijing isolates (n = 84) from Sichuan region, the second high-burden province in China, by IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs. Among 274 spoligotyped isolates, the clustering ratio of Beijing family was 5.3% by 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs versus 2.1% by IS6110-RFLP, while none of the non-Beijing isolates were clustered by 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs versus 9.5% by IS6110-RFLP. Hence, neither the 24-locus MIRU-VNTR was sufficient enough to fully discriminate the Beijing family, nor the IS6110-RFLP for the non-Beijing isolates. A region adjusted scheme combining 12 highly discriminatory VNTR loci with IS6110-RFLP was a better alternative for typing Beijing strains in Sichuan than 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs alone. IS6110-RFLP was for the first time introduced to systematically genotype MTBC in Sichuan and we conclude that the region-adjusted scheme of 12 highly discriminative VNTRs might be a suitable alternative to 24-locus MIRU-VNTR scheme for non-Beijing strains, while the clusters of the Beijing isolates should be further subtyped using IS6110-RFLP for optimal discrimination.

Zheng, Chao; Zhao, Yuding; Zhu, Guoqiang; Li, Song; Sun, Honghu; Feng, Qin; Luo, Mei; Wu, Fanzi; Li, Xuefeng; Hill, Veronique; Rastogi, Nalin; Sun, Qun

2014-01-01

84

HIV incidence and factors contributed to retention in a 12-month follow-up study of injection drug users in Sichuan Province, China.  

PubMed

HIV-1 seroconversion and subtype were evaluated, and factors associated with cohort retention were analyzed for subjects' baseline sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics in a 12-month follow-up study of injection drug users (IDUs). In November 2002, a community-based baseline survey was conducted to recruit 333 HIV-seronegative IDUs for a prospective cohort study in Xichang County of Sichuan Province, China. During the 12-month follow-up period, HIV incidence was 3.17 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98, 5.37), and all subtypes of 8 HIV-1 seroconversions were CRF_07BC. The retention rate at the 12-month follow-up visit was 70.3% (234 of 333 subjects). In a multiple logistic regression model, ethnicity (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.34, 1.04) and appearing at the 6-month follow-up visit (OR = 9.03, 95% CI: 5.14, 15.89) were independently associated with retention. No drug-using or sexual behaviors were found to be associated with retention. This study confirmed one of drug-trafficking routes in mainland China, from Yunnan to Sichuan and then to Xinjiang. This study also suggested that HIV is spreading rapidly to more geographic areas along drug-trafficking routes in China, and a short-term follow-up rate may predict a long-term retention rate in this IDU cohort. PMID:16010170

Ruan, Yuhua; Qin, Guangming; Liu, Shizhu; Qian, Hanzhu; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Feng; He, Yixin; Chen, Kanglin; Yin, Lu; Chen, Xianhuang; Hao, Qinlin; Xing, Hui; Song, Yanhui; Wang, Yunxia; Hong, Kunxue; Chen, Jianping; Shao, Yiming

2005-08-01

85

Uppermost permian reefs and permo-triassic sedimentary facies from the southeastern margin of Sichuan Basin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A large-scale, gradual transition from an epicontinental marine regime, prevailing during most of the Paleozoic, to continental\\u000a (?molasse) red beds of Upper Triassic and younger age is documented within the Permo-Triassic sequence of marine carbonate\\u000a and siliciclastic rocks of the western Yangzi Platform in southern China. Large portions of the Yangzi Platform (along with\\u000a the Tarim and Sino-Korea Platforms, one

Joachim W. Reinhardt

1988-01-01

86

Mental Health Problems among Children One-Year after Sichuan Earthquake in China: A Follow-up Study  

PubMed Central

Background On May 12, 2008, a destructive earthquake registering 8.0 on the Richter scale struck Sichuan Province, southwest China. Beichuan County was the epicenter which was one of the areas nearly completely destroyed by the earthquake. In Beichuan, about 15000 people died and 3000 people were missing. Specially, the earthquake took 1587 students' and 214 teachers' lives from the elementary and middle schools there. The main purpose of the study was to provide a better understanding of mental health problems and associated risk factors among children after earthquake. Method Three hundred and thirty grades 3–5 children completed the questionnaire of disaster –related experience and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children-Alternate Version (TSCC-A). The first survey was carried out six months after the earthquake, and the second one was carried out six months later. The measurements and methodology applied in the two sessions were identical. Results The prevalence rates of the problems at two time-points were 23.3% and 22.7% for anxiety, 14.5% and 16.1% for depression, and 11.2% and 13.4% for PTSD, respectively. Among demographic variables, no significant age difference existed, while it was found that 6 months after the earthquake, symptoms of anxiety, depression and PTSD were significantly more common among students in grades 4 and 5 than those in grade 3, Initial exposure to death, bereavement and extreme fear were significant predictive factors for the occurrence of anxiety, depression and PTSD. Conclusions Findings of this study suggest that posttraumatic mental health problems after natural disaster in children may have reached epidemic proportions and remain high for a long period. Psychologist and social workers should pay more attention to children who experienced more traumatic stresses and provide appropriate mental health interventions. Implications and limitations of these findings were discussed.

Liu, Mingxin; Wang, Li; Shi, Zhanbiao; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Kan; Shen, Jianhua

2011-01-01

87

Seismicity changes prior to the Ms8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in Sichuan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Region-Time-Length (RTL) method was adopted in analyzing the characteristics of the seismicity changes prior to the Ms8.0 Wenchuan earthquake occurred on May 12, 2008. After the pre-analyses (completeness analysis and aftershock declustering) of the earthquake catalog in China, the RTL parameters in the investigated region were calculated. The temporal variations of the RTL parameters at the epicenter of the

Qinghua Huang

2008-01-01

88

Regulation of Civil Society in China: Necessary Changes after the Olympic Games and the Sichuan Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article will address the following topics with regard to the regulation of civil society in China: (1)Making the existing regulations for social organizations (shehui tuanti, “SOs”), nonprofit non-commercial entities (minban fei qiye danwe, “NCEs”),and foundations (jijin hui) more user-friendly, including making it possible for de facto networks that provide and coordinate disaster relief to be recognized, perhaps as semi-legal

Karla W. Simon

2008-01-01

89

Toward Sustainable and Comprehensive Control of Schistosomiasis in China: Lessons from Sichuan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background to the debateTriggered by a fascinating publication in the New England Journal of Medicine detailing China's new multi-pronged strategy to control and eventually interrupt the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum, this PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases Debate critically examines the generalizability and financial costs of the studies presented from the marshlands of the lake region. Edmund Seto from the University of

Edmund Y. W. Seto; Justin V. Remais; Elizabeth J. Carlton; Shuo Wang; Song Liang; Paul J. Brindley; Dongchuan Qiu; Robert C. Spear; Long-De Wang; Tian-Ping Wang; Hong-Gen Chen; Xing-Qi Dong; Li-Ying Wang; Yang Hao; Robert Bergquist; Xiao-Nong Zhou

2011-01-01

90

Dietary intake and food habits of pregnant women residing in urban and rural areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China.  

PubMed

Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected) in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19-42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) within the normal range (18.5 ? BMI < 25), 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas), while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ?30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs) the women's overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%), was low in carbohydrates (49.6%), and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%). Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI) fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%), fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%), protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%), vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%), Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%), Fe (56.3% vs. 48%), Ca (55.1% vs. 41%) and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%). The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80%) than in urban (65.1%) areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both urban and rural women. The prevalence of underweight before conception and an insufficient supply of important micronutrients were more pronounced in rural areas. Therefore, attention must be given to the nutritional status, especially of rural women before, or at the latest, during pregnancy. PMID:23912325

Gao, Haoyue; Stiller, Caroline K; Scherbaum, Veronika; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Wang, Qi; Hormann, Elizabeth; Bellows, Anne C

2013-08-01

91

Crustal Structure of the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau from the Southern Tarim Basin to the Sichuan Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new crustal cross section of the northeastern Tibetan plateau based on active-source seismic data recorded along a 1600-km-long profile crossing the southern Tarim basin, the western flank of the South-Qilian Shan, the northeastern margin of Qaidam basin, East-Kunlun Shan, Songpan-Ganzi terrane, and Sichuan basin. The crustal P- and S-wave velocity structure and Poisson's ratio outline the seismic characteristics of the crust and provide constraints on the crustal composition. The derived crustal cross section shows several significant features. (1) The crustal thickness varies considerably along this profile, from 48 km to 70 km. (2) North of the Kunlun fault variations in total crustal thickness are mainly caused by variations in lower crustal thickness, whereas south of the Kunlun fault they are caused by thickness variations throughout the crust. (3) North of the Kunlun fault we detect a mid-crustal low-velocity zone that is not apparent south of the fault. (4) The Kunlun fault seems to act as a compositional boundary for the lower crust, with a Poisson's ratio of 0.29 north of the fault (Kunlun-Qaidam terrane) and 0.26 south of the fault (Songpan-Ganzi terrane). Measured Poisson's ratio and P-wave velocity values suggest that the lower crust throughout the Tibetan plateau (South-Qilian Shan, margins of the Qaidam Basin, East-Kunlun Shan, Songpan-Ganzi terrane) is of intermediate composition. Thus the NE Tibetan plateau along our profile is missing a mafic lower crustal layer.

Wang, Youxue; Mooney, Walter D.; Yuan, Xuecheng; Okaya, Nihal

2013-01-01

92

Interferograms of Coseismic Deformation from the May 12, 2008, Sichuan, China, Earthquake obtained by ALOS/PALSAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A devastating earthquake hit southern China on May 12, 2008, and claimed more than 80,000 casualties. This event is the first M8 earthquake in history in and around the Sichuan basin. The epicenter is located near the Sichuan basin, and aftershocks are aligned in the NE-SW direction parallel to the Longmen Shan fault zone, which suggests that this active fault zone bounding the basin and mountain ranges is the source of this event. It is important to reveal the fault movement from the viewpoints of future earthquake hazard evaluation and tectonics of collision zone. Japan's Advanced Land Observing Satellite (hereafter ALOS) has been conducting observation of the earth's surface since its launch on Jan. 24, 2006. ALOS is equipped with an L-band synthetic aperture radar, Phased Array L-band SAR (hereafter PALSAR), which is suitable for the observation of heavily vegetated areas. We analyzed ALOS/PALSAR images along 8 paths acquired before and after the mainshock and revealed entire features of coseismic deformation using the Gamma software and hole-filled SRTM DEM by Jarvis et al.(2008). We observe fringes around the Longmen Shan fault zone. In spite of different period and timing of acquisition of SAR images, several fringes can be traced across the interferograms. These continuous fringes can be recognized in an about 100km wide region surrounding the fault zone and regarded as coseismic deformations. We can count 8-9 fringes, i.e. 90-100cm LOS displacements, between the fault zone and Chengdu located about 50km away from the Pengguan fault, southern most trace of the Longmen Shan fault zone. On the other hand, we could not obtain correlation high enough in the source region due to large displacements. This low correlation zone can be traced nearly 240km along the surface faults. It is worth noting that numbers of fringes are almost the same on the both sides of the source region. This pattern suggests right-lateral motion on a steeply dipping fault plane. On the other hand, 6-7 broad concentric fringes are recognized in the image where the epicenter is located. This pattern corresponds to about 70-80cm LOS displacements away from the satellite around the epicenter and implies a low-angled thrust. We also performed pixel matching to estimate offsets in the region of low correlation. Positive and negative range offsets larger than 2m are found on the north and south sides of the Beichuan fault, central trace of the Longmen Shan fault zone, respectively. Clear difference in offsets cannot be seen along other faults such as Pengguan fault. This observation implies that the coseismic rupture is concentrated on the Beichuan fault. We calculated a theoretical interferogram with three segment fault model with total length of 240km. In this model, southwestern part is assumed to dip toward northwest by 33° with purely thrust motion, while central and northeastern part has a much steeper dip angle and large strike-slip component of slip. Coseismic slip may be concentrated in the shallower part of faults than 15km, especially in central and northeastern parts. The geodetic moment is estimated to be 7.31x1020Nm (Mw=7.84).

Hashimoto, M.; Enomoto, M.; Fukushima, Y.; Fukahata, Y.

2008-12-01

93

Spatial patterns of the congenital heart disease prevalence among 0- to 14-year-old children in Sichuan Basin, P. R China, from 2004 to 2009  

PubMed Central

Background Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common type of major birth defects in Sichuan, the most populous province in China. The detailed etiology of CHD is unknown but some environmental factors are suspected as the cause of this disease. However, the geographical variations in CHD prevalence would be highly valuable in providing a clue on the role of the environment in CHD etiology. Here, we investigate the spatial patterns and geographic differences in CHD prevalence among 0- to 14-year-old children, discuss the possible environmental risk factors that might be associated with CHD prevalence in Sichuan Basin from 2004 to 2009. Methods The hierarchical Bayesian model was used to estimate CHD prevalence at the township level. Spatial autocorrelation statistics were performed, and a hot-spot analysis with different distance thresholds was used to identify the spatial pattern of CHD prevalence. Distribution and clustering maps were drawn using geographic information system tools. Results CHD prevalence was significantly clustered in Sichuan Basin in different spatial scale. Typical hot/cold clusters were identified, and possible CHD causes were discussed. The association between selected hypothetical environmental factors of maternal exposure and CHD prevalence was evaluated. Conclusions The largest hot-spot clustering phenomena and the CHD prevalence clustering trend among 0- to 14-year-old children in the study area showed a plausibly close similarity with those observed in the Tuojiang River Basin. The high ecological risk of heavy metal(Cd, As, and Pb)sediments in the middle and lower streams of the Tuojiang River watershed and ammonia–nitrogen pollution may have contribution to the high prevalence of CHD in this area.

2014-01-01

94

Risk analysis of spring low temperature and overcast rainy and its application in the rice production in Sichuan basin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The daily observations of 90 stations in Sichuan basin, between mid-March and early-May, were collected, and Selected the days of that daily average temperature below 12?? , the total days of that daily average temperature continuous below 12 ?? for 3-days or more, effective accumulated temperature, precipitation, rainy days, the total days of that continuous precipitation for 3 days or

Jinjian Li; Mingtian Wang; Chao You; Wenzhuo Pan

2011-01-01

95

Rapid sea-level change in the Late Guadalupian (Permian) on the Tethyan side of South China: litho- and biostratigraphy of the Chaotian section in Sichuan  

PubMed Central

The Capitanian (Late Guadalupian) Maokou Formation at Chaotian in northern Sichuan, South China, is composed mainly of shallow marine shelf carbonates deposited on the Tethyan side of South China. By detailed field mapping and scientific drilling, we newly found out unique fossil assemblages and a sharp lithologic change in the upper part of the Maokou Formation. The main part of the Maokou Formation (over 130 m thick) is composed of algal packstone with Wordian-Capitanian large-tested fusulines, rugose corals and other sessile benthos, whereas the Uppermost Member (13 m thick) is composed of black limy mudstone/chert with Capitanian offshore biota (ammonoids, radiolarians, and conodonts). The topmost Capitanian conodont zones are missing; however, the Maokou Formation is disconformably overlain by 260 ± 4 Ma volcanic ash (Wangpo bed) and the Early Lopingian Wujiaping Formation with plant-bearing coaly mudstone and shallow marine carbonates (packstone). The newly identified facies change indicates that northern Sichuan has experienced rapid sea-level changes in the late Guadalupian, i.e., first a transgression in the mid-Capitanian and then a regression across the Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary. As the end-Guadalupian is characterized by a global regression, such a volatile sea-level fluctuation, in particular the sea-level rise, is unique to the Tethyan side of South China. The newly recognized relatively deep-water late Guadalupian sequence adds new paleo-environmental information and further provides a paleotectonic interpretation of the low-latitude eastern Tethyan margin immediately before the end-Guadalupian mass extinction.

Isozaki, Yukio; Yao, Jianxin; Ji, Zhangshen; Saitoh, Masafumi; Kobayashi, Noritada; Sakai, Harutaka

2008-01-01

96

Three-dimensional surface displacement of the 2008 May 12 Sichuan earthquake (China) derived from Synthetic Aperture Radar: evidence for rupture on a blind thrust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sichuan earthquake, Mw 7.9, struck the Longmen Shan (LMS) range front, China, on 2008 May 12, affecting an area of moderate historical seismicity where little active shortening has been previously reported. Recent studies based on space geodesy have succeeded in retrieving the far field surface displacements caused by the earthquake, but the near field (+/-25km from the faults) coseismic surface displacement is still poorly constrained. Thus, shallow fault geometry and shallow coseismic slip are still poorly resolved. Here, for the first time for this earthquake, we combine C and L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar offsets data from ascending and descending tracks to invert for the 3-D surface displacement in the near coseismic field of the Sichuan earthquake. Our data, coupled with a simple elastic dislocation model, provide new results strongly suggesting the presence of a blind thrust striking along the range front and being active at depth during the earthquake. The presence of a rupture on a blind thrust brings new evidence for an out-of-sequence thrusting event and new elements for interpreting the tectonic strain partitioning in the LMS, which has important implications both for seismic hazard assessment and long-term evolution of the mountain belt.

de Michele, Marcello; Raucoules, Daniel; de Sigoyer, Julia; Pubellier, Manuel; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas

2010-12-01

97

Regional characterization of Western China-II  

SciTech Connect

As part of the CTBT Research and Development regional characterization effort, geological, geophysical, and seismic data are being assembled and organized for inclusion in a knowledge base for China. The authors have continued their analysis using data form the station WMQ of the Chinese Digital Seismic Network (CDSN) and the IRIS station AAK. They are also acquiring and analyzing data from stations that are designated as (or near a designated) primary or secondary CTBT monitoring station. Regional seismograms are being analyzed to construct travel time curves, velocity models, attenuation characteristics, and to quantify regional propagation effects such as phase blockages. Using locations from the USGS Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) they have identified Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg phases, constructed travel time curves, and estimated apparent velocities using linear regression. Amplitudes for the seismic phases have been measured using bandpassed waveforms and a series of magnitude relations have been determined for Western China. Studies of path specific propagation efficiency of the seismic phases have mapped blockages and also identified a possible set of observations that can be used to identify intermediate depth (> 100 im) seismic events in the Pamir-Hindu Kush seismic zone. Chinese seismicity catalogs from the USGS and Chinese State Seismological Bureau (SSB) are being used to identify and obtain seismic data (including mine seismicity) and information for lower magnitude events. Clustering analysis has been used to identify seismicity clusters in space with origin times that are distributed during daylight hours which suggest mining operations. These clusters are being investigated with imagery to attempt to identify precise mine locations.

Randall, G.E.; Hartse, H.E.; Phillips, W.S.; Taylor, S.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Geophysics Group

1996-10-01

98

Near full-length genomic characterization of a novel HIV type 1 CRF07_ BC/01_AE recombinant in men who have sex with men from Sichuan, China.  

PubMed

In recent years, the men who have sex with men (MSM) population has seen the fastest growing prevalence of HIV transmission in China. In addition, coinfection through sex and intravenous drug use is a major problem in HIV prevention and control. Recent studies have also revealed that three major viral strains (CRF07_BC, CRF01_AE, and subtype B) have been cocirculating among MSM in Sichuan, suggesting a high probability of generating new recombinants. This study reports a near full-length genome of a novel HIV-1 recombinant (MSM0720) between CRF07_BC and CRF01_AE. The analysis of MSM0720 shows that the genome is composed of at least 11 interlaced segments, including six CRF07_BC and five CRF01_AE segments, with CRF07_BC as the backbone; this is different from a previously identified CRF01_AE/07_BC recombinant strain in intravenous drug users from Jiangsu. PMID:23594292

Wei, Huamian; Su, Ling; Feng, Yi; He, Xiang; His, Jenny; Liang, Shu; Shao, Yiming

2013-08-01

99

Magnetostratigraphic and paleoclimatic studies on the Red Earth Formation from the Chengdu Plain in Sichuan Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two red earth sections from the Chengdu Plain in Sichuan Province are dated using geomagnetic methods. The Brunhes\\/Matuyama\\u000a (B\\/M) reversal boundary is recognized within the upper parts of the two sections, and the Jaramillo normal subzone occurs\\u000a in the middle-lower parts of the vermiculated red soil (VRS), which indicate that the parent material for the VRS deposited\\u000a in the middle

ZhiZhong Zhao; YanSong Qiao; Yan Wang; JianLi Fu; ShuBing Wang; ChaoZhu Li; HaiTao Yao; FuChu Jiang

2007-01-01

100

Process and mechanism for oil and gas accumulation, adjustment and reconstruction in Puguang Gas Field, Northeast Sichuan Basin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the discoveries of a series of large gas fields in the northeast of Sichuan Basin, such as Puguang and Longgang gas fields,\\u000a the formation mechanism of the gas reservoir containing high H2S in the ancient marine carbonate formation in superposition-basin becomes a hot topic in the field of petroleum geology.\\u000a Based on the structure inversion, numerical simulation, and geochemical

ChunGuo Du; Fang Hao; HuaYao Zou; YangMing Zhu; XunYu Cai; CunWu Wang

2009-01-01

101

Late Jurassic salamandroid from western Liaoning, China.  

PubMed

A Jurassic salamander, Beiyanerpeton jianpingensis (gen. et sp. nov.), from a recently found site in western Liaoning Province, China is the earliest known record of Salamandroidea. As a Late Jurassic record of the group, it extends the range of the clade by ~40 Ma. The Late Jurassic taxon is neotenic and represented by exceptionally preserved specimens, including fully articulated cranial and postcranial skeletons and bony gill structures close to the cheek region. The fossil beds, consisting of dark-brown volcanic ash shales of the Upper Jurassic Tiaojishan (Lanqi) Formation (Oxfordian), underlie trachyandesite rocks that have yielded a SHRIMP zircon U-Pb date of 157 ± 3 Ma. The fossiliferous beds are substantially older than the Jehol Group, including the Yixian Formation ((40)Ar/(39)Ar dates of 122-129 Ma), but slightly younger than the Middle Jurassic Daohugou horizon ((40)Ar/(39)Ar date of 164 ± 4 Ma). The early fossil taxon shares with extant salamandroids derived character states, including: separated nasals lacking a midline contact, angular fused to the prearticular in the lower jaw, and double-headed ribs on the presacral vertebrae. In contrast to extant salamandroids, however, the salamander shows a discrete and tooth-bearing palatine, and unequivocally nonpedicellate and monocuspid marginal teeth in large and presumably mature individuals. The finding provides insights into the evolution of key characters of salamanders, and also provides direct evidence supporting the hypothesis that the split between Cryptobranchoidea and Salamandroidea had taken placed before the Late Jurassic Oxfordian time. In this aspect, both paleontological and molecular data now come to agree. PMID:22411790

Gao, Ke-Qin; Shubin, Neil H

2012-04-10

102

The prevalence of canine Leishmania infantum infection in western China detected by PCR and serological tests  

PubMed Central

Background Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is endemic in western China, resulting in important public health problem. It is essential to evaluate the prevalence of canine Leishmania infantum infection for designing control policy. In the present study we report for the first time prevalence of Leishmania infection in dogs living in Jiuzhaigou County (Sichuan Provence, China), which is not only an important endemic area of CanL but also a tourism scenic spot, detected by PCR, ELISA and dipstick test. The results could provide key information for designing control programs against canine and human leishmaniasis. In addition, the complete sequence of the Leishmania isolate from Sichuan Province has not been reported to date and we present the sequences of 116 base-pair (bp) fragment of the conserved region in the minicircle kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) and the results of phylogenetic analyses based on the sequence of the amplified fragment. Results The proportion of dogs infected with Leishmania in Jiuzhaigou County was 36.79%, 9.43%, and 51.88% detected by ELISA, dipstick test, and PCR, respectively. The ELISA and PCR tests were more sensitive than dipstick test. The PCR method is the most sensitive way to detect dogs infected with Leishmania parasites. The total positive rate for infected dogs in the area was 59.43% by the three methods. The PCR products of 116-bp fragment amplified from the kDNA conserved region of dog blood samples and laboratory maintained L. infantum were DNA sequenced and the variation of the sequences was observed. The phylogenetic tree based on the sequences of 116-bp fragment reveals that L. infantum is more genetically related to visceralizing species L. donovani than to the Leishmania species associated with cutaneous disease. Conclusions More than half of dogs living in the endemic Jiuzhaigou County were infected by L. infantum. Control measures, such as treatment or eradication of infected dogs, or prohibition of maintaining dogs, must be taken against these infected dogs due to their role in the transmission of the infection to vectors. The phylogenetic tree based on the sequences of conserved region in kDNA of Leishmania can effectively distinguish species of Leishmania.

2011-01-01

103

Origins of natural gases from marine strata in Northeastern Sichuan Basin (China) from carbon molecular moieties and isotopic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To determine the origin, maturity, formation mechanism and secondary process of marine natural gases in Northeastern Sichuan area, molecular moieties and carbon isotopic data of the Carboniferous and Triassic gases have been analyzed. Typical samples of marine gas precursors including low-maturity kerogen, dispersed liquid hydrocarbons (DLHs) in source rocks, residual kerogen and oil have been examined in a closed system, and several published geochemical diagrams of gas origins have been calibrated by using laboratory data. Results show that both Carboniferous and Triassic gases in the study area have a thermogenic origin. Migration leads to stronger compositional and weak isotopic fractionation, and is path dependent. Carboniferous gases and low-H2S gases are mainly formed by secondary cracking of oil, whereas high-H2S gases are clearly related to the TSR (Thermal Sulfate Reduction) process. Gases in NE Sichuan show a mixture of heavy (13C-enriched) methane in comparison to the lower maturated ethane of Triassic gas samples, suggesting a similar source and maturity for ethane and propane of Carboniferous gases, and a mixture of heavy ethane to the propane for Triassic gases. Based on the data plotted in the diagram of Chung et al. (1988), the residual kerogen from Silurian marine shale and palaeo oil reservoirs are the main source for Carboniferous gases, and that the residual kerogen from Silurian and Permian marine rocks and Permian paleao oil reservoirs constitute the principal source of Triassic gases.

Wang, Yunpeng; Zhao, Changyi; Wang, Hongjun; Wang, Zhaoyun; Wang, Zecheng

2013-03-01

104

A comparison between Bayes discriminant analysis and logistic regression for prediction of debris flow in southwest Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the high risk areas of Sichuan Province with debris flow, Panzhihua and Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, were taken as the studied areas. By using rainfall and environmental factors as the predictors and based on the different prior probability combinations of debris flows, the prediction of debris flows was compared in the areas with statistical methods: logistic regression (LR) and Bayes discriminant analysis (BDA). The results through the comprehensive analysis show that (a) with the mid-range scale prior probability, the overall predicting accuracy of BDA is higher than those of LR; (b) with equal and extreme prior probabilities, the overall predicting accuracy of LR is higher than those of BDA; (c) the regional predicting models of debris flows with rainfall factors only have worse performance than those introduced environmental factors, and the predicting accuracies of occurrence and nonoccurrence of debris flows have been changed in the opposite direction as the supplemented information.

Xu, Wenbo; Jing, Shaocai; Yu, Wenjuan; Wang, Zhaoxian; Zhang, Guoping; Huang, Jianxi

2013-11-01

105

Epipaleolithic\\/early Neolithic settlements at Qinghai Lake, western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transitions from terminal Pleistocene Upper Paleolithic foraging to Holocene Neolithic farming and pastoralist economic orientations in the northern Tibetan Plateau are examined from the perspective of Epipaleolithic sites located near Qinghai Lake, Qinghai Province, western China. Jiangxigou 2 is an artifact-rich, multicomponent midden site with the main period of occupation dating ca. 9000–5000 cal yr BP, containing abundant flaked stone

David Rhode; Zhang Haiying; David B. Madsen; Gao Xing; P. Jeffrey Brantingham; Ma Haizhou; John W. Olsen

2007-01-01

106

Assessing the scalar moment of moderate earthquake and the effect of lateral heterogeneity on normal modes-An example from the 2013/04/20 Lushan earthquake, Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Medium-frequency normal modes in the frequency range of 2.0-6.0 mHz excited by moderate earthquakes (6.0 < Mw < 7.0) are weak seismic signals and seldom concerned in academic study. We show that the validity of predicted M0 (scalar seismic moment) for a complex moderate earthquake can be effectively assessed by a systematic comparison of observed and synthetic medium-frequency spheroidal modes, and the effect of lateral heterogeneity on normal-mode amplitudes can also be well assessed in the comparison. For a complex moderate earthquake, the differences between predicted M0 derived from different inversion methods are significant, in some cases as large as factors of 1.56-3.18. In this study we focus on the Lushan earthquake, a moderate thrust event on 20 April 2013 in the Western Sichuan, China. Five reported M0 for the earthquake differ significantly from 0.4 × 1019 to 1.06 × 1019 N m, up to about 2.5 times difference. To assess the validity of reported M0, we compare observed with synthetic modes corresponding to five centroid moment tensor solutions at 17 stations, which located within epicental distances of 5-30° and distributed in a wide range of source-receiver azimuths. Synthetic modes corresponding to moment tensor solutions derived from long-period waveforms show good agreement to observations. However, synthetics corresponding to moment tensor solutions derived from body waves display significant deviations of amplitudes from observations. We show underestimate of M0 is the main cause for such a large deviation. Another important result obtained from the comparison is that lateral heterogeneity has very little effects on the amplitudes of spherical modes at frequencies below 6.0 mHz. This observational result is inconsistent with previous theoretical result of lateral structure perturbations to normal modes.

Hu, Xiao Gang; Jiang, Ying; Sun, He Ping

2014-07-01

107

Factor structure of the Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale among children and adolescents who survived the 2008 Sichuan earthquake in China.  

PubMed

To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES) and its applicability among Chinese children and adolescents, a study was conducted on two samples, the first, 1 month after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, the second, 7 months after the earthquake. High levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms were found among both groups of children. The results also showed a decline of intrusion and arousal symptoms in accordance with the different periods of time elapsed since the earthquake; however, no difference was found in the avoidance symptoms between the two samples. Both the subscales and the CRIES total showed moderate to good reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of CRIES supported the presumed three inter-correlated factors model. However, the results of the second sample (with more than 6 months elapsed subsequent to the earthquake) are more likely to support this model than those of the first sample. This study generally justifies the use of CRIES as a screening instrument for probable PTSD victims among children and adolescents exposed to horrible natural disasters in China. Limitations of the present study and directions for future research are also discussed. PMID:21332484

Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Yuqing; Wu, Kankan; Zhu, Zhuohong; Dyregrov, Atle

2011-06-01

108

Effectiveness of a smart phone app on improving immunization of children in rural Sichuan Province, China: study protocol for a paired cluster randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Although good progress has been achieved in expanding immunization of children in China, disparities exist across different provinces. Information gaps both from the service supply and demand sides hinder timely vaccination of children in rural areas. The rapid development of mobile health technology (mHealth) provides unprecedented opportunities for improving health services and reaching underserved populations. However, there is a lack of literature that rigorously evaluates the impact of mHealth interventions on immunization coverage as well as the usability and feasibility of smart phone applications (apps). This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a smart phone-based app (Expanded Program on Immunization app, or EPI app) on improving the coverage of children’s immunization. Methods/Design This cluster randomized trial will take place in Xuanhan County, Sichuan Province, China. Functionalities of the app include the following: to make appointments automatically, record and update children’s immunization information, generate a list of children who missed their vaccination appointments, and send health education information to village doctors. After pairing, 36 villages will be randomly allocated to the intervention arm (n?=?18) and control arm (n?=?18). The village doctors in the intervention arm will use the app while the village doctors in the control arm will record and manage immunization in the usual way in their catchment areas. A household survey will be used at baseline and at endline (8 months of implementation). The primary outcome is full-dose coverage and the secondary outcome is immunization coverage of the five vaccines that are included in the national Expanded Program on Immunization program as well as Hib vaccine, Rotavirus vaccine and Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Multidimensional evaluation of the app will also be conducted to assess usability and feasibility. Discussion This study is the first to evaluate the effectiveness of a smart phone app for child immunization in rural China. This study will contribute to the knowledge about the usability and feasibility of a smart phone app for managing immunization in rural China and to similar populations in different settings. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trials Registry (ChiCTR): ChiCTR-TRC-13003960

2014-01-01

109

Post-Treatment Follow-Up Study of Abdominal Cystic Echinococcosis in Tibetan Communities of Northwest Sichuan Province, China  

PubMed Central

Background Human cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, with the liver as the most frequently affected organ, is known to be highly endemic in Tibetan communities of northwest Sichuan Province. Antiparasitic treatment with albendazole remains the primary choice for the great majority of patients in this resource-poor remote area, though surgery is the most common approach for CE therapy that has the potential to remove cysts and lead to complete cure. The current prospective study aimed to assess the effectiveness of community based use of cyclic albendazole treatment in Tibetan CE cases, and concurrently monitor the changes of serum specific antibody levels during treatment. Methodology/Principal Findings Ultrasonography was applied for diagnosis and follow-up of CE cases after cyclic albendazole treatment in Tibetan communities of Sichuan Province during 2006 to 2008, and serum specific IgG antibody levels against Echinococcus granulosus recombinant antigen B in ELISA was concurrently monitored in these cases. A total of 196 CE cases were identified by ultrasound, of which 37 (18.9%) showed evidence of spontaneous healing/involution of hepatic cyst(s) with CE4 or CE5 presentations. Of 49 enrolled CE cases for treatment follow-up, 32.7% (16) were considered to be cured based on B-ultrasound after 6 months to 30 months regular albendazole treatment, 49.0% (24) were improved, 14.3% (7) remained unchanged, and 4.1% (2) became aggravated. In general, patients with CE2 type cysts (daughter cysts present) needed a longer treatment course for cure (26.4 months), compared to cases with CE1 (univesicular cysts) (20.4 months) or CE3 type (detached cyst membrane or partial degeneration of daughter cysts) (9 months). In addition, the curative duration was longer in patients with large (>10 cm) cysts (22.3 months), compared to cases with medium (5–10 cm) cysts (17.3 months) or patients with small (<5 cm) cysts (6 months). At diagnosis, seven (53.8%) of 13 cases with CE1 type cysts without any previous intervention showed negative specific IgG antibody response to E. granulosus recombinant antigen B (rAgB). However, following 3 months to 18 months albendazole therapy, six of these 7 initially seronegative CE1 cases sero-converted to be specific IgG antibody positive, and concurrently ultrasound scan showed that cysts changed to CE3a from CE1 type in all the six CE cases. Two major profiles of serum specific IgG antibody dynamics during albendazole treatment were apparent in CE cases: (i) presenting as initial elevation followed by subsequent decline, or (ii) a persistent decline. Despite a decline, however, specific antibody levels remained positive in most improved or cured CE cases. Conclusions This was the first attempt to follow up community-screened cystic echinococcosis patients after albendazole therapy using ultrasonography and serology in an endemic Tibetan region. Cyclic albendazole treatment proved to be effective in the great majority of CE cases in this resource-poor area, but periodic abdominal ultrasound examination was necessary to guide appropriate treatment. Oral albendazole for over 18 months was more likely to result in CE cure. Poor drug compliance resulted in less good outcomes. Serology with recombinant antigen B could provide additional limited information about the effectiveness of albendazole in CE cases. Post-treatment positive specific IgG antibody seroconversion, in initially seronegative, CE1 patients was considered a good indication for positive therapeutic efficacy of albendazole.

Li, Tiaoying; Ito, Akira; Pengcuo, Renqing; Sako, Yasuhito; Chen, Xingwang; Qiu, Dongchuan; Xiao, Ning; Craig, Philip S.

2011-01-01

110

AMS investigation in the Pingluoba and Qiongxi anticlines, Sichuan, China: Implications for deformation mechanism of the Qiongxi structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stratigraphic attitude is one of the most important field data for structural geology research. However, it is difficult to measure directly sometimes, especially in weak deformed sediments with low dip angle. Pingluoba anticline, mainly consisting of medium-high dip angle strata, is located on the Longmen Shan fold-and-thrust belt front. Qiongxi anticline is located in the southwestern Sichuan Basin, and it is mainly composed of sub-horizontal to low dip angle strata. An investigation of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in 78 sites has been carried out in these two folds. Stepwise demagnetization of three orthogonal isothermal remanent magnetizations suggests that hematite is the main magnetic carrier mineral in the Qiongxi anticline, meanwhile, hematite and magnetite are both existing in the Pingluoba anticline. It reveals three types of magnetic fabrics: sedimentary magnetic fabric, initial deformation magnetic fabric and pencil structure magnetic fabric, which indicate weak deformation. Throughout AMS theoretical analysis and example test in the Pingluoba anticline, magnetic fabric is a suitable technique to confirm the stratigraphic attitude in weak compressional deformed sediments. For the sedimentary magnetic fabric, initial deformation magnetic fabric and one atypical initial deformation magnetic fabric developed in the weak deformed tectonic superposition region, dip direction of bedding plane = pitch direction of K3+(or -) 180°, and dip angle of bedding plane = 90°-pitch angle of K3. 38 stratigraphic attitudes with low dip angle in the Qiongxi anticline have been rectified by magnetic fabric results. Qiongxi structure is a weak tectonic superposition deformation anticline. The deformation mechanism of Qiongxi structure may contain two stages: NW-SE compression stage started from the latest Cretaceous-early Cenozoic and nearly E-W shortening stage in the Late Cenozoic.

Luo, Liang; Qi, Jiafu; Zhang, Mingzheng

2014-06-01

111

Modeling the production and uses of biological resources from the viewpoint of energy flow in a rural village in Sichuan, China.  

PubMed

This study aimed at clarifying the impact of deforestation and afforestation on the quality of life in a village in Sichuan Province, China. We devised a conceptual model of bioresource production and use based on quantified energy flow. The basic structure of the model has three sectors: production, use, and externals. We developed comprehensive methodology to quantify the model. Bioresource use per person in 1997 was 3.7 GJ for food, 10.2 GJ for fodder, 0.2-0.4 GJ for building material, 12.8 GJ for fuel, and 1.8 GJ for fertilizer, totaling 28.6-28.8 GJ. We used four environmental indicators to evaluate bioresource production and use: a biological productivity indicator, a use-efficiency indicator, a supply-demand balance indicator, and a self-sufficiency indicator. Use of these indicators showed that supply-demand balance of fuel was dramatically improved from 30% to 85% by afforestation, but 99% of bioresource use still depends on domestic products. Thus, it is necessary to improve biological productivity and promote the efficient use of bioresources to achieve sustainable living in the area. Massive deforestation in the 1950s caused a direct shortage of building material and fuel wood. The shortage of wood led to a stagnation in the rebuilding of houses, and fuel wood was substituted with crop residues. Because crop residues had been used for fertilizer and fodder, their use as fuel caused a shortage of fertilizer and fodder. This was an indirect impact of deforestation on people's quality of life. PMID:14703912

Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Saito, Chie; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko; Zhu, Bo; Abe, Kazuko

2003-07-01

112

A study on eco-environmental vulnerability of mining cities: a case study of Panzhihua city of Sichuan province in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large-scale and super-strength development of mineral resources in mining cities in long term has made great contributions to China's economic construction and development, but it has caused serious damage to the ecological environment even ecological imbalance at the same time because the neglect of the environmental impact even to the expense of the environment to some extent. In this study, according to the characteristics of mining cities, the scientific and practical eco-environmental vulnerability evaluation index system of mining cities had been established. Taking Panzhihua city of Sichuan province as an example, using remote sensing and GIS technology, applying various types of remote sensing image (TM, SPOT5, IKONOS) and Statistical data, the ecological environment evaluation data of mining cities was extracted effectively. For the non-linear relationship between the evaluation indexes and the degree of eco-environmental vulnerability in mining cities, this study innovative took the evaluation of eco-environmental vulnerability of the study area by using artificial neural network whose training used SCE-UA algorithm that well overcome the slow learning and difficult convergence of traditional neural network algorithm. The results of ecoenvironmental vulnerability evaluation of the study area were objective, reasonable and the credibility was high. The results showed that the area distribution of five eco-environmental vulnerability grade types was basically normal, and the overall ecological environment situation of Panzhihua city was in the middle level, the degree of eco-environmental vulnerability in the south was higher than the north, and mining activities were dominant factors to cause ecoenvironmental damage and eco-environmental Vulnerability. In this study, a comprehensive theory and technology system of regional eco-environmental vulnerability evaluation which included the establishment of eco-environmental vulnerability evaluation index system, processing of evaluation data and establishing of evaluation model. New ideas and methods had provided for eco-environmental vulnerability of mining cities.

Shao, Huaiyong; Xian, Wei; Yang, Wunian

2009-07-01

113

Retrospective Cohort Analysis of Chest Injury Characteristics and Concurrent Injuries in Patients Admitted to Hospital in the Wenchuan and Lushan Earthquakes in Sichuan, China  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to compare retrospectively the characteristics of chest injuries and frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients after earthquakes of different seismic intensity. Methods We compared the cause, type, and body location of chest injuries as well as the frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients admitted to our hospital after the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China. We explored possible relationships between seismic intensity and the causes and types of injuries, and we assessed the ability of the Injury Severity Score, New Injury Severity Score, and Chest Injury Index to predict respiratory failure in chest injury patients. Results The incidence of chest injuries was 9.9% in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake and 22.2% in the less intensive Lushan earthquake. The most frequent cause of chest injuries in both earthquakes was being accidentally struck. Injuries due to falls were less prevalent in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake, while injuries due to burial were more prevalent. The distribution of types of chest injury did not vary significantly between the two earthquakes, with rib fractures and pulmonary contusions the most frequent types. Spinal and head injuries concurrent with chest injuries were more prevalent in the less violent Lushan earthquake. All three trauma scoring systems showed poor ability to predict respiratory failure in patients with earthquake-related chest injuries. Conclusions Previous studies may have underestimated the incidence of chest injury in violent earthquakes. The distributions of types of chest injury did not differ between these two earthquakes of different seismic intensity. Earthquake severity and interval between rescue and treatment may influence the prevalence and types of injuries that co-occur with the chest injury. Trauma evaluation scores on their own are inadequate predictors of respiratory failure in patients with earthquake-related chest injuries.

Yuan, Yong; Zhao, Yong-Fan

2014-01-01

114

The First Western-Style Hospital in China  

PubMed Central

Peter Parker (1804–1888), a Yale University–trained missionary and physician, founded the first Western-style hospital in China, the Ophthalmic Hospital in Canton (now known as Guangzhou), on November 4, 1835. During its first 3 months, Parker treated 1061 patients, of whom 1020 (96.1%) had ocular illnesses. Since then, the Ophthalmic Hospital in Canton has become a comprehensive institution that is affiliated with Sun Yat-sen University and is one of the largest hospitals in China. In 1965, the Department of Ophthalmology, which originally employed only 2 ophthalmologists, expanded to become an ophthalmic hospital. In 1983, it joined the Eye Research Institute and the Office of Prevention of Blindness to form the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center. The center currently employs nearly 800 staff members and provides care to more than 500 000 patients annually. The first Western-style hospital in China has survived and thrived; it is now one of the most prestigious ophthalmic institutes in the world.

Chan, Chi-Chao; Liu, Melissa M.; Tsai, James C.

2011-01-01

115

Challenges to maternal health care utilization among ethnic minority women in a resource-poor region of Sichuan Province, China.  

PubMed

We present a simple descriptive study of maternal health care utilization among ethnic minority women in a remote region of China. Factors that affect women obtaining care and their decision-making are explored. Results show that utilization of maternal health care services is associated with a range of social, economic, cultural and geographic factors as well as the policies of the state and the delivery of services. Utilization is not necessarily increased through easy access to a health facility. We identify potential for improving utilization through developing the role of village-based health care workers, expanding mobile antenatal care clinics and changing the way township hospital services are provided and funded. This would include modifications to rural health insurance schemes. Several of these changes are achievable at the township or county level. The findings of this study provide insights that can be used by local health providers, planners and decision-makers to improve the provision of maternal health care services to ethnic minority women. PMID:20100776

Harris, Amanda; Zhou, Yun; Liao, Hua; Barclay, Lesley; Zeng, Weiyue; Gao, Yu

2010-07-01

116

Application of eco-economy regionalization in western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecological economics crossed extensively with some disciplines such as ecology, geography, economics, etc in China. And it is promoting the relevant disciplines to develop effectively in depth fields. The key research direction of eco-economic regionalizing is eco-economic space pattern, rule of territorial differentiation and eco-economic topological optimization. Based on GIS spatial analyze, the article elaborates the main characteristics and the problems of every eco-economic zones, districts and regions with the comprehensive geographical statistic data. The western eco-economic regionalizing was delimited by analyzing the superposition for ecological environment value and human actives value, refer to the topography and administrative boundary between provinces and the cities, the attachment of the regionalizing plans and territorial the continuity. There have several main indexes used in the regionalizing and the results to show the main character of each region, which comprise precipitation, temperature, primary production potential, while the population carrying capacity, and the index of water resources, land resources, landscape degradation, urbanization, and economic development, etc. To each type of eco-economic region, there are other analyzes respectively from the social, economic, and natural environment aspects. The result shows that there does now have serious economic development in western China, while the environmental problem still cannot be ignored.

Zhang, Xiaojun; Dong, Suocheng; Weihong, Yin

2008-08-01

117

The evaluation of maternal health in rural western China.  

PubMed

Objective: The double burden of undernutrition and overnutrition is recognized as a global devastating problem. However, few studies have investigated the maternal nutritional status among different ethnicities and the socio-demographic characteristics in rural areas of western China. This study attempted to fill this gap. Design: Data on 10,495 women with children under three years old were collected using a three-stage probability proportion to size sampling from 45 counties of 10 provinces in western China. Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) was used to assess the maternal nutrition conditions, including chronic energy deficiency (CED) and overweight/obesity. Results: According to the WHO BMI standard, the prevalences of CED and overweight/obesity were 12.3% (BMI ? 18.5 kg/m(2)) and 12.4% (BMI ? 25 kg/m(2)), respectively, while overweight/obesity rate was 18.5% (BMI ? 24 kg/m(2)) based on the Chinese standard. A significant difference in malnutrition between Han and Minority was not observed. The relationship between breastfeeding and CED was inverse (OR 0.64, 95%CI: 0.48, 0.87), but higher parity were positively correlated with CED (OR 1.57, 95%CI: 1.36, 1.82). The highest odds of CED were observed in the group with 1-5 years of education (OR 1.21, 95%CI: 1.03, 1.43). Higher parity was also associated with overweight/obesity (OR 0.78, 95%CI: 0.67, 0.91), and rural women aged 30-39 years old were more likely to be overweight/obese (OR 2.21, 95%CI: 1.47, 3.32). In addition, higher socioeconomic status was positively related to overweight women (OR 1.19, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.43), and inversely associated with CED (OR 0.83, 95%CI: 0.72, 0.97). Conclusion: The coexistence of undernutrition and overweight among women of reproductive age are determined in rural western China. It appears that socio-demographic factors considerably influence maternal nutritional status in the study. These findings have important policy implications for recommendations on maternal health intervention in China. PMID:23469986

Pei, Leilei; Ren, Lin; Wang, Duolao; Yan, Hong

2014-06-01

118

Three dimensional surface slip partitioning of the Sichuan earthquake from Synthetic Aperture Radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sichuan earthquake, Mw 7.9, struck the Longmen Shan range front, in the western Sichuan province, China, on 12 May 2008. It severely affected an area where little historical seismicity and little or no significant active shortening were reported before the earthquake (e.g. Gu et al., 1989; Chen et al., 1994; Gan et al., 2007). The Longmen Shan thrust system bounds the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau and is considered as a transpressive zone since Triassic time that was reactivated during the India-Asia collision (e.g., Tapponnier and Molnar, 1977, Chen and Wilson 1996; Arne et al., 1997, Godard et al., 2009). However, contrasting geological evidences of sparse thrusting and marked dextral strike-slip faulting during the Quaternary along with high topography (Burchfiel et al., 1995; Densmore et al., 2007) have led to models of dynamically driven and sustained topography (Royden et al., 1997) limiting the role of earthquakes in relief building and leaving the mechanism of long term strain distribution in this area as an open question. Here we combine C and L band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) offsets data from ascending and descending paths to retrieve the three dimensional surface slips distribution all along the earthquake ruptures of the Sichuan earthquake. We show a quantitative assessment of the amount of co-seismic slip and its partitioning at the surface.

de Michele, M.; Raucoules, D.; de Sigoyer, J.; Pubellier, M.; Lasserre, C.; Pathier, E.; Klinger, Y.; van der Woerd, J.

2009-12-01

119

Stress changes from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and increased hazard in the Sichuan basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On 12 May 2008, the devastating magnitude 7.9 (Wenchuan) earthquake struck the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau, collapsing buildings and killing thousands in major cities aligned along the western Sichuan basin in China. After such a large-magnitude earthquake, rearrangement of stresses in the crust commonly leads to subsequent damaging earthquakes. The mainshock of the 12 May earthquake ruptured with as much as 9 m of slip along the boundary between the Longmen Shan and Sichuan basin, and demonstrated the complex strike-slip and thrust motion that characterizes the region. The Sichuan basin and surroundings are also crossed by other active strike-slip and thrust faults. Here we present calculations of the coseismic stress changes that resulted from the 12 May event using models of those faults, and show that many indicate significant stress increases. Rapid mapping of such stress changes can help to locate fault sections with relatively higher odds of producing large aftershocks. ??2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Parsons, T.; Ji, C.; Kirby, E.

2008-01-01

120

Developing a new perspective to study the health of survivors of Sichuan earthquakes in China: a study on the effect of post-earthquake rescue policies on survivors' health-related quality of life  

PubMed Central

Background Sichuan is a province in China with an extensive history of earthquakes. Recent earthquakes, including the Lushan earthquake in 2013, have resulted in thousands of people losing their homes and their families. However, there is a research gap on the efficiency of government support policies. Therefore, this study develops a new perspective to study the health of earthquake survivors, based on the effect of post-earthquake rescue policies on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of survivors of the Sichuan earthquake. Methods This study uses data from a survey conducted in five hard-hit counties (Wenchuan, Qingchuan, Mianzhu, Lushan, and Dujiangyan) in Sichuan in 2013. A total of 2,000 questionnaires were distributed, and 1,672 were returned; the response rate was 83.6%. Results Results of the rescue policies scale and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) scale passed the reliability test. The confirmatory factor analysis model showed that the physical component summary (PCS) directly affected the mental component summary (MCS). The results of structural equation model regarding the effects of rescue policies on HRQOL showed that the path coefficients of six policies (education, orphans, employment, poverty, legal, and social rescue policies) to the PCS of survivors were all positive and passed the test of significance. Finally, although only the path coefficient of the educational rescue policy to the MCS of survivors was positive and passed the test of significance, the other five policies affected the MCS indirectly through the PCS. Conclusions The general HRQOL of survivors is not ideal; the survivors showed a low satisfaction with the post-earthquake rescue policies. Further, the six post-earthquake rescue policies significantly improved the HRQOL of survivors and directly affected the promotion of the PCS of survivors. Aside from the educational rescue policy, all other policies affected the MCS indirectly through the PCS. This finding indicates relatively large differences in the effects of different post-earthquake rescue policies on the HRQOL of survivors.

2013-01-01

121

Guangzhou social workers in Yingxiu: a case study of social work intervention in the aftermath of the Sichuan 5.12 earthquake in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most devastating effects of the Sichuan 5.12 earthquake occurred in Yingxiu, where Guangzhou social workers were sent to deal with the aftermath. In this paper, we describe our experience working in the post-earthquake community and the theoretical approach we adopted to realize our objectives. We also outline the challenges and opportunities of the social work profession in the field

Yuxin Pei; Heqing Zhang; Ben H. B. Ku

2009-01-01

122

Origin and gas potential of pyrobitumen in the Upper Proterozoic strata from the Middle Paleo-Uplift of the Sichuan Basin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently a sizable quantity of natural gas has been discovered in Upper Proterozoic and Lower Paleozoic strata from the Middle Paleo-Uplift area of the Sichuan Basin. It has been assumed that the natural gas originated from Cambrian–Silurian black mudstones which are widely distributed in the Southern Depression. In the present paper, we report that pyrobitumen occurring widely in the Upper

X. M. Xiao; F. Wang; R. W. T. Wilkins; Z. G. Song

2007-01-01

123

Human Resource Development Issues in the Implementation of the Western China Development Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper systematically illustrates the value and role of human resource development in the implementation of the Western China development strategy. It analyzes in details some current human resource issues constraining the implementation of the Western China development strategy and those on the sustainable development process of economic…

Xiao, Mingzheng

2007-01-01

124

Investigation and Analysis of Voluntary Service in Western China by Agricultural University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the survey on voluntary service in western China by students from Nanjing Agricultural University and Agricultural University of Jiangxi, this paper analyzes agricultural university students' participation in and understanding of the Western China Program as well as the major problems various universities confronted while implementing the…

Liang, Liu; Congying, Li

2008-01-01

125

Human resource development issues in the implementation of the Western China development strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article systematically illustrates the value and role of human resource development in the implementation of the Western China development strategy. It analyses in detail some current human resource issues constraining the implementation of the Western China development strategy and those factors that constrain the sustainable development process of economic society. Based upon these analyses, the study accordingly proposes the

Mingzheng Xiao

2008-01-01

126

A Comparative Study of Child Temperament and Parenting in Beijing, China and the Western United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to examine comparable dimensions and linkages between child temperament and parenting styles with samples from Beijing, China and the western United States. Participants included 404 mothers and fathers from Beijing, China and 325 mothers and fathers from the western United States. Both mothers and fathers…

Porter, Christian L.; Hart, Craig H.; Yang, Chongming; Robinson, Clyde C.; Olsen, Susanne Frost; Zeng, Qing; Olsen, Joseph A.; Jin, Shenghua

2005-01-01

127

GIS-based analysis of 1933 Diexi Landslides and dam breach on the Min River, Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to complex tectonic and geomorphologic factors, the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas, are particularly prone to landslides. Rivers have deeply cut into bedrock, forming narrow valleys that are especially prone to landslide damming. Numerous landslide damming and subsequent dam breaching events are recorded from the region in historical documents and the geosciece literature; these include events at the Dadu River (1786), Diexi (1933), Tanggudong (1967), Yigong (2000), and Tangjiashan (2008). We report the results of a GIS-based analysis of earthquake-generated landslide dams at Diexi. The Diexi Earthquake (M=7.5) occurred on August 25, 1933 and induced a series of giant landslides along the Min River, some of which blocked the river and formed three large landslide lakes. The landslide dam located furthest downstream breached on October 9, 1933, 45 days after the earthquake. The outburst flood resulted in huge damage to the downstream area killing 2,423 people, one of the most serious landslide-related disasters in China during the 20th Century. In the present work, GIS analysis is applied to the Diexi Landslides, based on a review of historical documents and previous studies, data collected during field work, and remote sensing and SRTM-3 digital terrain data. We attempted to determine the precise locations of the 1933 landslides and measured dam height, cross-section area, and volume of the damming landslides. Due to the lack of topographic data before the 1933 earthquake, data of the landslide lakes, including maximum water elevation and total impounded volume can only be estimated. Using credible water levels and inferred submerged topography we calculate an outburst volume for the 1933 event. Moreover, cross-sections are made for both the damming area and the Min River downstream in order to make a general assessment of the damage due to the subsequent flood. Maximum flood discharge is estimated by regression equations. The two remaining lakes on the Min River have experienced a slight water level decrease after over 80 years of outlet erosion. Despite this, these two lakes are considered to be safe.

Ling, Song; Evans, Stephen G.

2014-05-01

128

Hepatitis B virus infection in a cohort of HIV infected blood donors and AIDS patients in Sichuan, China  

PubMed Central

Background Co-infections of HBV and HIV are frequent due to similar routes of transmission. In that transmission through blood is an important route for both HBV and HIV, evaluation of the prevalence of HBV in HIV infected blood donors may be important for transfusion safety. In addition, because the epidemiological characteristics of HBV in HIV infected patients and blood donors may differ from each other, understanding of it could be significant for therapy and prevention of HBV in HIV infected adults. However, data reported on these in Chinese people remains limited. Methods 614 HIV confirmed positive samples were collected from blood donors and patients and were screened for HBsAg and HBV DNA. The samples screened reactive for HBsAg or positive for HBV DNA were tested for the other serological markers of HBV including anti-HBs, HBeAg, anti-HBe and anti-HBc. For the samples tested positive for HBV DNA, the S region of HBV was amplified by nested PCR and the HBV genotypes were determined. Results HBV coinfections were found in 12.9% (79/614) HIV infected individuals including 42/417(10.1%) blood donors and 37/197 (18.8%) AIDS patients. In the HBsAg positive individuals, 80.0% were HBeAg negative in which 10.0% were HBV DNA negative and 38.3% with HBV DNA lower than 2000 IU/ml. The average HBV DNA levels were lower in donors than in patients. In the HBV DNA positive populations, HBV genotypes B, A and C accounted for 48.1%, 22.8% and 8.86% respectively. Mutations related to the failure of HBsAg detection were found in 2 of the 4 HBsAg-/HBV DNA + subjects. Conclusions High prevalence of HBV in HIV infected individuals was found in this study. Hence, we recommend routine testing of HBV for patients newly diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in China. Some HIV-HBV co-infected patients remain undiagnosed if only conventional serological markers for HBV are used and it’s important to detect HBV DNA for HIV infected patients. HBV DNA levels were relatively low in HBeAg negative patients, thus this serologic marker may be useful in prioritizing patients on their need for HBV treatment in settings in which HBV DNA is not available.

2014-01-01

129

Triage during the week of the Sichuan earthquake: A review of utilized patient triage, care, and disposition procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThere exists no standard hospital emergency department (ED) triage procedure model for earthquake victims. This study provides an overview of the hospital triage procedure used for patients evaluated and treated at the West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu in the Sichuan province of China, following the May 12, 2008 Wenchuan earthquake.

Hu Nie; Shi-Yuan Tang; Wayne Bond Lau; Jian-Cheng Zhang; Yao-Wen Jiang; Bernard L. Lopez; Xin L. Ma; Yu Cao; Theodore A. Christopher

2011-01-01

130

Crustal structures in the area of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake from seismologic and gravimetric data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 12 May 2008 the Sichuan earthquake was one of the worst natural disasters in China. Here, we present a detailed picture of the epicentral area inferred geophysical data. Based on the analysis of teleseismic data acquired by a dense seismic network, we highlight an abrupt 20km Moho offset between the Sichuan Basin and the Tibetan plateau and a horizontal

A. Robert; J. Zhu; J. Vergne; R. Cattin; L. S. Chan; G. Wittlinger; G. Herquel; J. de Sigoyer; M. Pubellier; L. D. Zhu

2010-01-01

131

Active faults and surface rupture in the 12 May 2008 Sichuan earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 12 May 2008 Sichuan, China, earthquake displayed a complex pattern of surface rupture on at least three faults that extend for ~220 km along the Longmen Shan mountains in Sichuan Province. Two of these faults - the Beichuan and Pengguan faults - had been previously recognized as active on the basis of geological and geomorphological relationships. The active traces

A. L. Densmore; Y. Li; N. Richardson

2008-01-01

132

Excavating the Nation: Archaeology and Control of the Past and Present in Republican Sichuan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation considers whether or not archaeology was an effective tool for nation-building elites in Republican China (1912-1949), by looking at the discipline's fortunes in the off-center locale of Sichuan province. Through consideration of the multiplicity of agents and motives involved in archaeological enterprise in Republican Sichuan,…

Kyong-McClain, Jeffrey

2009-01-01

133

Coseismic ruptures of the 12 May 2008, M s 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan: East–west crustal shortening on oblique, parallel thrusts along the eastern edge of Tibet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ms 8.0, Wenchuan earthquake, which devastated the mountainous western rim of the Sichuan basin in central China, produced a surface rupture over 200 km-long with oblique thrust\\/dextral slip and maximum scarp heights of ~10 m. It thus ranks as one of the world's largest continental mega-thrust events in the last 150 yrs. Field investigation shows clear surface breaks along two of the

J. Liu-Zeng; Z. Zhang; L. Wen; P. Tapponnier; J. Sun; X. Xing; G. Hu; Q. Xu; L. Zeng; L. Ding; C. Ji; K. W. Hudnut; J. van der Woerd

2009-01-01

134

[Ecological benefits of planting winter rapeseed in western China].  

PubMed

To evaluate the ecological benefits of popularizing winter rapeseed planting in western China, a wind tunnel simulation test was conducted with four kinds of farmland surface, i.e., winter rapeseed, winter wheat, wheat stubble, and bare field just after spring sowing, collected from west Gansu in April. The results showed that winter rapeseed surface had a roughness of 4.08 cm and a threshold wind velocity as high as 14 m x s(-1), being more effective in blown sand control than the other three surfaces. Under the same experimental conditions, the wind erosion modulus and sand transportation rate of winter rapeseed surface were only 4.1% and 485% of those of the bare field just after spring sowing, and the losses of soil organic matter, alkali-hydrolyzed N, available P and K, catalase, urease, alkaline phosphatase, invertase, and microbes of winter rapeseed surface due to wind erosion were only 1.4%, 5.1%, 1.6%, 2.7%, 9.7%, 3.6%, 6.3%, 6.7% and 1.5% of those of the bare field, respectively. It was suggested that popularizing winter rapeseed planting in west China could control wind erosion, retain soil water and nutrients, increase multicropping index, and improve economic benefits of farmland. In addition, it could benefit the regional desertification control and ecological environment improvement. PMID:19637605

Wang, Xue-fang; Sun, Wan-cang; Li, Fang; Kang, Yan-li; Pu, Yuan-yuan; Liu, Hong-xia; Zeng, Chao-wu; Fan, Chong-xiu

2009-03-01

135

Characterization and application of an anti- Listeria bacteriocin produced by Pediococcus pentosaceus 05-10 isolated from Sichuan Pickle, a traditionally fermented vegetable product from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediococcus pentosaceus 05-10, isolated from a traditionally fermented Sichuan Pickle, produced a bacteriocin (Pediocin 05-10) active against Listeria, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Pediococcus and Leuconostoc. Pediocin 05-10 was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, but stable between pH 2–10 and heat resistant (15min at 121°C). It did not adhere to the surface of the producer cells. However, adsorption to both resistant and sensitive

Ying Huang; Yunbo Luo; Zhengyuan Zhai; Hongxing Zhang; Chaoxiang Yang; Hongtao Tian; Zheng Li; Jiannan Feng; Hui Liu; Yanling Hao

2009-01-01

136

Bilateral transtibial amputation with concomitant thoracolumbar vertebral collapse in a Sichuan earthquake survivor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The devastating earthquake in Sichuan, China on 12 May 2008 left thousands of survivors requiring medical care and intensive rehabilitation. In view of this great demand, the Chinese Speaking Orthopaedic Society established the \\

Caroline Ngar-Chi Wong; Joseph Man-Kit Yu; Sheung-Wai Law; Herman Mun-Cheung Lau; Cavor Kai-Ming Chan

2010-01-01

137

Psychological Distress among Adolescents in Chengdu, Sichuan at 1 Month after the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

A devastating earthquake occurred on May 12, 2008 in Sichuan, China. This study investigated the prevalence and factors in\\u000a association with psychological problems among secondary school students living in Chengdu (90 km away from the disaster epicenter)\\u000a in June 2008. In a cross-sectional survey, 3,324 secondary students self-administered a structured questionnaire in classroom\\u000a setting. Validated scales were used in this study.

Joseph T. F. Lau; Xiaonan Yu; Jianxin Zhang; Winnie W. S. Mak; Kai Chow Choi; Wacy W. S. Lui; Emily Y. Y. Chan

2010-01-01

138

Detecting One-Hundred-Year Environmental Changes in Western China Using Seven-Year Repeat Photography  

PubMed Central

Due to its diverse, wondrous plants and unique topography, Western China has drawn great attention from explorers and naturalists from the Western World. Among them, Ernest Henry Wilson (1876 –1930), known as ‘Chinese’ Wilson, travelled to Western China five times from 1899 to 1918. He took more than 1,000 photos during his travels. These valuable photos illustrated the natural and social environment of Western China a century ago. Since 1997, we had collected E.H. Wilson's old pictures, and then since 2004, along the expedition route of E.H. Wilson, we took 7 years to repeat photographing 250 of these old pictures. Comparing Wilson's photos with ours, we found an obvious warming trend over the 100 years, not only in specific areas but throughout the entire Western China. Such warming trend manifested in phenology changes, community shifts and melting snow in alpine mountains. In this study, we also noted remarkable vegetation changes. Out of 62 picture pairs were related to vegetation change, 39 indicated vegetation has changed to the better condition, 17 for degraded vegetation and six for no obvious change. Also in these photos at a century interval, we found not only rapid urbanization in Western China, but also the disappearance of traditional cultures. Through such comparisons, we should not only be amazed about the significant environmental changes through time in Western China, but also consider its implications for protecting environment while meeting the economic development beyond such changes.

Chen, Huai; Yin, Kaipu; Wang, Haiyan; Zhong, Shenxian; Wu, Ning; Shi, Fusun; Zhu, Dan; Zhu, Qiuan; Wang, Weifeng; Ma, Zhihai; Fang, Xiuqin; Li, Weizhong; Zhao, Pengxiang; Peng, Changhui

2011-01-01

139

Mercury in Glaciers over Western China: Distribution, Deposition and History  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury (Hg) has been recognized as a global contaminant due to its long-range transport via the atmosphere, biomagnification in ecosystems, and its intrinsic toxicity. Western China is home to the largest aggregate of glaciers outside the polar regions, yet little is known about how the glaciers in this area affect the transport and cycling of Hg regionally and globally. From 2005 to 2010, 14 snowpits were dug from 9 glaciers over western China, total Hg (THg) concentrations ranged from <1 to 43.6 ng L-1, and exhibited clear seasonal variations with lower values in summer than in winter. Spatially, higher THg concentrations were typically observed in glacier snows from the northern region (Figure 1). Glacier snowpit Hg was largely dependent on particulate matters and was associated with particulate Hg (PHg). Consecutive snowpit sampling at Zhadang glacier during summer melt season further revealed that Hg tends to accumulate in the dust layers during its percolation down to lower snow stratum. Since Hg in glaciers is mainly preserved in the form of PHg which is less prone to post-depositional changes, glacier Hg record most likely represents a valuable record of atmospheric Hg deposition. Estimated atmospheric Hg depositional fluxes ranged from 0.74 to 7.89 ?g m-2 yr-1, agreeing very well with the global natural values. A high-resolution Hg record reconstructed by the Mt.Geladiandong ice core provided insight into historical variation of atmospheric Hg during the past 500 years. Elevated THg concentrations were observed since 1940s, which coincides the increase of global Hg production, especially the Asian Hg production history. Reconstructed Hg depositional flux for post-1940s era is 6.4 times higher than that of pre-20th century, which clearly indicated the anthropogenic influence on the regional, perhaps even the global background (Figure 2).; Figure 1. THg concentrations and estimated annual atmospheric depositional fluxes of Hg at sampling sites ; Figure 2. Historical Hg flux reconstructed from the Mt.Geladiandong ice core

Zhang, Q.

2012-12-01

140

Frequency-Dependent Characteristics of Regional Seismic Phases: Propagation of Pn in Western China.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The propagation of Pn waves has been investigated over a large region in western China using regional events recorded by the Hi-CLIMB array. Seismic attributes, including arrival times, Hilbert envelope amplitudes, and pulse frequencies, are modeled to in...

R. L. Nowack W. Chen

2011-01-01

141

Characteristics of crush syndrome caused by prolonged limb compression longer than 24 h in the Sichuan earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTo assess the characteristics, treatment and outcome of patients with crush syndrome caused by prolonged limb compression longer than 24 h in the Sichuan earthquake.MethodsFollowing the Sichuan earthquake, 2728 patients were transferred to the West China Hospital of Sichuan University and 157 of those were admitted to the intensive care unit. The medical records of nine severe crush syndrome patients

Zhou Chunguang; Chen Rigao; Huang Fuguo; Tu Chongqi; Song Yueming; Wang Guanglin; Zhang Hui; Pei Fuxing; Kang Yan; Liang Peng; Fu Ping; Tao Ye

2010-01-01

142

Assessment of dietary intake among pregnant women in a rural area of western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Adequate maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy is important to ensure satisfactory birth outcomes. There are no data available on the usual dietary intake among pregnant women in rural China. The present study describes and evaluates the dietary intake in a cohort of pregnant women living in two counties of rural Shaanxi, western China. METHODS: 1420 pregnant women were recruited

Yue Cheng; Michael J Dibley; Xueli Zhang; Lingxia Zeng; Hong Yan

2009-01-01

143

Seismic Source Characteristics of Nine Strong Earthquakes from 1988 to 1990 and Earthquake Activity since 1970 in the Sichuan-Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Zone of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chinese provinces of Sichuan, Qinghai and Xizang (Tibet) are situated in a very active seismic zone. From 1988 to 1990, nine strong earthquakes (M > 5.9) occurred in these provinces. A method of analyzing seismic waveforms using apparent source time functions (aSTF) and apparent time differences (aTD) is adopted to derive rupture characteristics for the strong earthquakes. Combining the source characteristics with aftershock data, regional tectonics and geology, this paper examines the migration of strong earthquakes. The Qinghai earthquakes in this study were found to have strong reverse-slip faulting, which is different from the strike-slip focal mechanisms of past earthquakes in the region. The steepness of compressional axes of Sichuan earthquakes is related to the local complicated tectonics. Finally, the single-link cluster (SLC) method is used to analyze the spatial-temporal behavior of the all strong earthquakes that occurred in the region since 1970. The SLC analysis suggests that the patterns of earthquake activity can be identified well and that continental earthquakes occur seemingly with basic regularity.

Gao, Y.; Wu, Z.; Liu, Z.; Zhou, H.

144

Preliminary strategic environmental assessment of the Great Western Development Strategy: safeguarding ecological security for a new western China.  

PubMed

The Great Western Development Strategy (GWDS) is a long term national campaign aimed at boosting development of the western area of China and narrowing the economic gap between the western and the eastern parts of China. The Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedure was employed to assess the environmental challenges brought about by the western development plans. These plans include five key developmental domains (KDDs): water resource exploitation and use, land utilization, energy generation, tourism development, and ecological restoration and conservation. A combination of methods involving matrix assessment, incorporation of expert judgment and trend analysis was employed to analyze and predict the environmental impacts upon eight selected environmental indicators: water resource availability, soil erosion, soil salinization, forest destruction, land desertification, biological diversity, water quality and air quality. Based on the overall results of the assessment, countermeasures for environmental challenges that emerged were raised as key recommendations to ensure ecological security during the implementation of the GWDS. This paper is intended to introduce a consensus-based process for evaluating the complex, long term pressures on the ecological security of large areas, such as western China, that focuses on the use of combined methods applied at the strategic level. PMID:22190169

Li, Wei; Liu, Yan-ju; Yang, Zhifeng

2012-02-01

145

Preliminary Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Great Western Development Strategy: Safeguarding Ecological Security for a New Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Great Western Development Strategy (GWDS) is a long term national campaign aimed at boosting development of the western area of China and narrowing the economic gap between the western and the eastern parts of China. The Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedure was employed to assess the environmental challenges brought about by the western development plans. These plans include five key developmental domains (KDDs): water resource exploitation and use, land utilization, energy generation, tourism development, and ecological restoration and conservation. A combination of methods involving matrix assessment, incorporation of expert judgment and trend analysis was employed to analyze and predict the environmental impacts upon eight selected environmental indicators: water resource availability, soil erosion, soil salinization, forest destruction, land desertification, biological diversity, water quality and air quality. Based on the overall results of the assessment, countermeasures for environmental challenges that emerged were raised as key recommendations to ensure ecological security during the implementation of the GWDS. This paper is intended to introduce a consensus-based process for evaluating the complex, long term pressures on the ecological security of large areas, such as western China, that focuses on the use of combined methods applied at the strategic level.

Li, Wei; Liu, Yan-Ju; Yang, Zhifeng

2012-02-01

146

Cenozoic to active deformation in Western Yunnan (Myanmar China border)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northward movement of India induces a right-lateral shear band from the Sunda trench to the easternmost Himalaya, where wrenching between India and Sunda plates, interfere with a clockwise flow of material around the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis. We describe brittle and ductile deformation styles in Western Yunnan and Northern Myanmar, using field data and Landsat 7 imagery for Cenozoic structures as well as GPS and seismicity for active structures to unravel the Neogene to Present evolution. Western Yunnan is crossed by three continental-size ductile shear zones characterized by high mountain belts mainly composed of high-grade metamorphics and mylonitic rocks, and affected by active faulting. The easternmost metamorphic range, the Gaoligong Shan composed of verticalized foliated granites and mylonites is flattened westward and joins the Mogok metamorphic belt in Myanmar. East of the Gaoligong Shan, lie the Chong Shan and the Ailao / Diangcan Shan metamorphic ranges, which presents a vertical shistosity and a left-lateral motion. These three shear zones are separated by sedimentary fold-and-thrust-belts in the East, and , West of the Gaoligong, by Quaternary basins and volcanics. Preliminary results indicate that the Shan Scarp constituted the major strike-slip boundary between Indochina and India during Eocene to Miocene time, and accommodated deformation in right-lateral wrench. At the same time, the Ailao / Diangcan Shan and the Chong Shan zones were sheared left-laterally allowing the displacement toward the SE of Indochina block relative to south China. In the Miocene, ductile deformation migrated north along the Shan Scarp to the Mogok / Ruili metamorphic belt and the Gaoligong belt, dragging the Chong Shan right-laterally and superimposing a late right-lateral ductile deformation on its metamorphic rocks. The present-day relative motion between India and Sundaland, inferred from GPS processing, reaches 35 mm / yr in the Myanmar area. It is classically accepted that all of this motion is accommodated onto a single fault: the Sagaing fault in Myanmar. However, geodetic results show that, out of the 35 mm/yr of India versus Sundaland rate, only 18 mm / yr are accommodated by the Sagaing fault. Part of the remaining motion might be accommodated in western Yunnan. The present system might have been active since the Pliocene. We regard it as a combination of the right-lateral Sagaing Fault / Gaoligong, which propagates toward the north as a horsetail, and the circum syntaxis fault system. The state of stress, in Western Yunnan, is a WNW extension inferred from both focal mechanisms and recent fault-slip data analysis. The tectonic features are influenced by both the clockwise flow around the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis, and the northern extension along splays of the Sagaing fault. Deformation is then distributed between strike-slip and normal faulting. We propose that this interaction is accommodated by clockwise rotations of blocks.

Socquet, A.; Pubellier, M.

2003-04-01

147

Landslide-dammed lake at Tangjiashan, Sichuan province, China (triggered by the Wenchuan Earthquake, May 12, 2008): Risk assessment, mitigation strategy, and lessons learned  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Landslides and rock avalanches triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake produced 257 landslide dams, mainly situated along the eastern boundary of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where rivers descend approximately 3,000 m into the Sichuan Basin. The largest of these dams blocked the Tongkou River (a tributary of the Fujiang River) at Tangjiashan. The blockage, consisting of 2. 04 ?? 10 7 m 3 of landslide debris, impounded a lake with a projected maximum volume of 3. 15 ?? 10 8 m 3, potentially inundating 8. 92 km 2 of terrain. Its creation during the rainy season and the possibility of an uncontrolled release posed a serious, impending threat to at least 1. 3 million people downstream that could add substantially to the total of 69,200 individuals directly killed by the earthquake. Risk assessment of the blockage indicated that it was unlikely to collapse suddenly, and that eventual overtopping could be mitigated by notching the structure in order to create an engineered breach and achieve safe drainage of the lake. In addition to the installation of monitoring and warning instrumentation, for emergency planning we estimated several outburst scenarios equivalent to 20, 25, 33, and 50% of the dam failing suddenly, creating, respectively, 3. 35, 3. 84, 4. 22, and 4. 65 km 2 of flooded area, and overbank water depths of 4. 6, 5. 1, 5. 7, and 6. 2 m, respectively, in Mianyang, the second largest city in Sichuan Province, 48 km downstream from the blockage. Based on these scenarios, recommendations and plans for excavating a sluiceway, draining the lake, and downstream evacuation were proposed and later were implemented successfully, with the blockage breached by overtopping on June 10, less than a month after dam emplacement. The peak discharge of the release only slightly exceeded the flood of record at Mianyang City. No lives were lost, and significant property damage was avoided. Post-breaching evaluation reveals how future similar mitigation can be improved. Although initial breach erosion was slow, later erosion was judged uncontrollably rapid; increased slope of the engineered channel and adoption of a compound, trapezoid-triangular cross-section can be considered, as can other measures to control the rate of breach incision. Evacuees from Mianyang City spent an unnecessarily long time (12 days) in temporary settlements; more precise risk management planning can reduce this time in the future. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Cui, P.; Dang, C.; Zhuang, J.; You, Y.; Chen, X.; Scott, K. M.

2012-01-01

148

Coseismic Kinematic Slip Model for the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan-Beichuan Mw 7.9 Earthquake in Sichuan, China from Joint Inversion of ALOS, Envisat, GPS and Teleseismic Data and Preliminary Postseismic InSAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Mw 7.9 earthquake struck Sichuan province on 12 May 2008 causing catastrophic damage over a large area including the county seats of Wenchuan and Beichuan. ALOS PALSAR coseismic pairs have been processed for eight ascending paths to both interferograms and SAR pixel offsets. Along-track (azimuth) coseismic pixel offsets have large amplitude ripples or waves that are likely due to the ionosphere, and the interferograms show waves in the phase that also are likely due to the ionospheric disturbances that seem to affect the Sichuan area in May and June 2008. Envisat ASAR acquired a number of scenes in Sichuan after the earthquake in high-resolution strip-map modes. Unfortunately, only four descending tracks had prequake acquisitions that allow InSAR analysis, and available temporal and spatial baselines were not optimal. ScanSAR ASAR acquisitions (wide-swath, WS mode) were acquired on tracks that have a number of pre-quake acquisitions, but InSAR coherence at C-band wavelength is marginal for the WS-WS interferograms and adequate only in the plains for the strip-map interferograms. Slip models for the earthquake have been estimated using a joint inversion of the eight PALSAR and four ASAR strip-map interferograms with GPS data published by the Crustal Motion Observation Network of China and teleseismic data. The models show that most of the slip occurred in the upper 10 km of the fault zone. SAR pixel offsets show at least two major faults ruptured. Interferograms and SAR pixel offset measurements show a surface rupture with up to 6 m of oblique right-lateral and thrust slip on a complex set of faults close to what has been called the Beichuan Fault that passes close to the devastated Beichuan. These are consistent with field measurements made by several groups. To the southwest of Beichuan, a second fault to the east of the Beichuan Fault, the Hanwang Fault, a segment of the Pengguan Fault system had significant slip with primarily thrust motion, consistent with field mapping of up to 2 m of vertical displacement. We calculated viscoelastic models of predicted postseismic deformation in the first year after the earthquake using our coseismic static slip model. Projecting into the radar lines of sight yields a prediction for interferometric measurements in the range of 4-6 cm peak to peak. Postseismic interferograms from PALSAR and Envisat ASAR show some indications of the deformation after the earthquake. Large InSAR phase errors due to the propagation through the atmosphere (caused primarily by tropospheric water vapor, but also ionospheric variations for PALSAR) in addition to low coherence in the steep Longmen Shan make it difficult to unambiguously measure the postseismic deformation. The interferograms provide high spatial resolution measurements, but less than optimal postseismic acquisitions cause limitations on the temporal sampling.

Fielding, E. J.; Sladen, A.; Li, Z.; Burgmann, R.; Ryder, I. M.; Avouac, J.

2009-12-01

149

The quest for western social work knowledgeLiterature in the USA and practice in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

EnglishDespite the fast development of social work education, scholars in China are eager to import and adapt western social work knowledge which is portrayed as a monolithic entity. Using a case study of American social work literature, we question the existence of a monolithic system of western knowledge.FrenchEn dé pit du développement rapide de la formation en travail social, les

Miu-Chung Yan; Ming-Sum Tsui

2007-01-01

150

Some rapid and long traveled landslides triggered by the May 12, 2008 Sichuan earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

On May 12, 2008, a 7.9M earthquake struck Sichuan province of China, causing a huge number of death and injuries, and great loss of properties, becoming the most damaging earthquake since the 1976 Tangshan earthquake, in China. The collapse of buildings during the earthquake is the main reason for the casualties. There are a huge number of landslides that had

G. Wang; T. Kamai; M. Chigira; X. Y. Wu; D. X. Zhang

2009-01-01

151

Education Management and Performance after Rural Education Finance Reform: Evidence from Western China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a survey of rural school districts in Western China, this essay explores the effects of fiscal centralisation on the relationship between local governance and school district management, most particularly on how managerial power is distributed in the rural education sector. The essay also examines some of the possible effects that changes…

Liu, Mingxing; Murphy, Rachel; Tao, Ran; An, Xuehui

2009-01-01

152

A new fossil mordellid (Coleoptera: Tenebrionoidea: Mordellidae) from the Yixian Formation of Western Liaoning Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new genus and species, Mirimordella gracilicruralis gen. et sp. nov., in the subfamily Praemordellinae of Mordel- lidae, is described and illustrated based on a nearly complete fossil specimen. It is from the Yixian Formation of western Liaoning Province, NE China. The diagnosis of the subfamily Praemordellinae is emended based on this new species. Characters such as simple and linear

MING LIU; WENHUA LU; DONG REN

2007-01-01

153

Building Empire through Argumentation: Debating Salt and Iron in Western Han China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history of American imperialism, as well as China's strong presence on the contemporary global scene, should encourage American scholars of rhetoric to look beyond the nation-state and study other rhetorical traditions such as Chinese practices of argument. A debate during the Western Han dynasty over the country's economic policies…

You, Xiaoye

2010-01-01

154

On Understanding the Movement to Send College Graduates as Volunteer Teachers to Western China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Western China University Graduates Volunteer Teaching Program (VTP) is a government-oriented social movement aimed at the advancement of social equity and the establishment of a harmonious society. University students, as the undertakers of volunteer teaching, serve as a vital part of this program. The participation of university students has…

Qiao, Xiang; A'rong, Yun

2008-01-01

155

Student Performance and Family Socioeconomic Status: Results from a Survey of Compulsory Education in Western China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used fifteen-year-old ninth-grade students from rural areas of five provinces in western China as samples to carry out research on the relationship between the socioeconomic status of Chinese families and student academic performance. Based on parents' educational background, occupation, family economic conditions, and other factors,…

Liu, Xiaofei; Lu, Ke

2008-01-01

156

Factors Associated with the Utilization and Quality of Prenatal Care in Western Rural Regions of China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The paper seeks to identify key features of prenatal care utilization and quality in western regions of China and to determine the factors affecting the quality of prenatal care. Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted. The instrument for the study was a 10-stem respondent-administered, structured…

Dongxu, Wang; Yuhui, Shi; Stewart, Donald; Chun, Chang; Chaoyang, Li

2012-01-01

157

Geography Location and County-Level Industry Competitiveness Development Patterns in Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzed the competitiveness of the industries in Western China's ecologically vulnerable poverty counties and constructed a framework based on the theory of competitiveness to study the influence and effect of the geography location and development patterns. We took two poor counties which are undergoing dramatic economical changes as our empirical cases using two selection criteria: successful industry development

LIU Ying-qi

158

Ground Deformation Imagery of the May Sichuan Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitude Mw = 7.8 earthquake that struck China's Sichuan region on 12 May 2008 (Figure 1a) has been imaged by the Italian Space Agency's (ASI) Constellation of Small Satellites for the Mediterranean Basin Observation (COSMO-SkyMed radar Earth observation satellites. Five images were available-two preseismic spotlight mode images and three strip-map mode images, two of which are preseismic and one

Salvatore Stramondo; Marco Chini; Stefano Salvi; Christian Bignami; Simona Zoffoli; Enzo Boschi

2008-01-01

159

Geodynamics of the Sichuan earthquake region in May 12, 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

A disastrous earthquake with a magnitude of M 7.8? 7.9 occurred 93 km northwest of the administrative center Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China, on May 12, 2008. The hypocenter depth was about 30 km. Aftershocks with magnitudes up to M 6.1?6.4 went on until the first half of June. Their epicenters were confined to the north-northwest?trending zone extending for 315 km

Yu. G. Gatinsky; D. V. Rundkvist; G. L. Vladova; T. V. Prokhorova

2008-01-01

160

The UK medical response to the Sichuan earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAt 14:48 on 12 May 2008 an earthquake of magnitude 8.0 struck the Wenchuan area of Sichuan province, China. A decision to offer\\/receive UK medical assistance was agreed at a Sino\\/British political level and a medical team was despatched to the earthquake area.MethodsThis study describes the team's experience during the immediate aftermath of the earthquake and the following 18 months,

A D Redmond; J Li

2010-01-01

161

A study on eco-environmental vulnerability of mining cities: a case study of Panzhihua city of Sichuan province in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large-scale and super-strength development of mineral resources in mining cities in long term has made great contributions to China's economic construction and development, but it has caused serious damage to the ecological environment even ecological imbalance at the same time because the neglect of the environmental impact even to the expense of the environment to some extent. In this

Huaiyong Shao; Wei Xian; Wunian Yang

2009-01-01

162

A western OR delegation to the People's Republic of China.  

PubMed

Nursing in the People's Republic of China (PRC) is beginning to revitalize after decades of the repression and obliteration of nursing education programs under the rule of Mao Tse-tung. A delegation of American, Australian, and Canadian perioperative nurses traveled to the PRC for a series of professional exchanges with Chinese OR nurse colleagues. The exchange was an affirmation of the common commitment to caring that all nurses share. PMID:8651665

Spry, C C

1996-03-01

163

A Study of Soil Erosion on a Steep Cultivated Slope in the Mt. Gongga Region near Luding, Sichuan, China, using the 137 Cs Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of an investigation of soil erosion on a steep cultivated slope in the Mt Gongga region of the Upper Yangtze River Basin, Southwest China, using the 137Cs technique. \\u000a\\u000aThe effective 137Cs reference inventory for the study field, estimated from the bottom layer of a 137Cs depth profile at the deposition zones, is 2373.9 Bq\\/m2, accounting

X. B. Zhang; T. A. Quine; D. E. Walling; A. B. Wen

2000-01-01

164

A 5-year longitudinal study of schistosomiasis transmission in Shian village, the Anning River Valley, Sichuan Province, the Peoples' Republic of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  \\u000a Schistosoma japonicum is a major public health concern in the Peoples' Republic of China (PRC), with over one million people infected and another\\u000a 50 million living in areas at risk of infection. Based on ecological, environmental, population genetic and molecular factors,\\u000a schistosomiasis transmission in PRC can be categorised into four discrete ecosystems or transmission modes. It is predicted\\u000a that

Rong Zhu; Darren J Gray; Aaron P Thrift; Gail M Williams; Yi Zhang; Dong-Chuan Qiu; Feng Zheng; Yue-Sheng Li; Jiagang Guo; Hong-Qing Zhu; Wei-Ping Wu; Robert S Li; Donald P McManus

2011-01-01

165

Evaluating the Consistency of Remote Sensing Based Snow Depth Products in Arid Zone of Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow cover is a sensitive indicator of global climate change. Among various snow cover parameters, snow depth which can indicate snow accumulation is essential for retrieving snow water equivalent. In arid zone of western China, based on different inversion models, snow depth products retrieved from passive microwave remote sensing sensors have been issued. However, none of them can promise a high accuracy due to the spatial heterogeneity of snow cover especially in mountain areas with complex terrain. This study aims to analyse the reliability of existing long-term snow depth products in arid zone of western China. Two datasets are compared including GlobSnow snow water equivalent (SWE) product and snow depth dataset provided by Environmental and Ecological Science Data Center for West China. Statistical techniques like regression and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) models are employed to examine the consistency of these two remote sensing based snow depth products in a selected sampling site. More than 260 samples during three years are tested covering from snow falling to snow melting periods. Result shows that there is a discrepancy between the two datasets. Accordingly, remote sensing based snow depth measurement is not reliable in mountain areas in arid zone of western China. This study gives an awareness of the stabilities of current snow depth detection models. A further study is expected to calibrate snow depth products based on in-situ observation and measurements from ground monitoring stations.

Zhou, Q.; Sun, B.

2012-08-01

166

Serendipity in Sichuan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research opportunities can present themselves at the most unexpected times. When Ingrid Ukstins Peate and Scott Bryan went on a conference field trip in China, they didn't expect to steer previous geological interpretations in a new direction.

2008-09-01

167

Cenozoic deformation in western Yunnan (China?Myanmar border)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, we describe ductile and brittle deformation styles in western Yunnan and NE Myanmar, using field data and Landsat 7 imagery. We show that this complex area located at the northern termination of Sunda Plate (Three Rivers area) was wedged during the Tertiary between the left-lateral Ailao Shan/Chong Shan metamorphic belts to the east and the right-lateral Shan scarp/Gaoligong metamorphic belt in west. This triangular region therefore underwent the effects of these continental size ductile strike-slip faults separating major blocks with a dominant EW to ENE compression. Since the Late Miocene, date of the reversal of motion along the RRF, the incipient eastward motion of the Sunda block and the persisting right-lateral motion along its western boundary (Sagaing fault) created N-S compression and E-W to WNW extension underlined by left-lateral transtension along the Wanding/Nanting fault zones. At the same time, the Diangcan Shan, situated along strike the Ailao Shan metamorphic belt, was slightly impinged by the blocks extruded from the syntaxis and exhumed again from the Early Pliocene in accordance with this late and still active state of stress.

Socquet, Anne; Pubellier, Manuel

2005-01-01

168

A new family of primitive mammal from the Mesozoic of western Liaoning, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fairly well-preserved specimen of a new primitive mammal,Repenomamus robustus gen. et sp. nov., has been described from the Yixian Formation (Lower Cretaceous), western Liaoning, China. This animal has\\u000a several derived characteristics, such as well-developed dentary\\/squamosal articulation, reduced number of tooth, differentiation\\u000a of premolars and molars in postcanine teeth, presence of a dorsal process of the premaxilla that is not

Jinling Li; Yuan Wang; Yuanqing Wang; Chuankui Li

2001-01-01

169

Policy Impacts on Land Degradation: Evidence Revealed by Remote Sensing in Western Ordos, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents a multi-temporal monitoring and assessment of biomass dynamics in response to land cover change in Western\\u000a Ordos, one of the most important dry areas in China, aiming to reveal the impacts of governmental land management policies\\u000a on the biomass production of the rangeland ecosystem and on land degradation. Multi-temporal Landsat images (MSS 1978, 1979;\\u000a TM 1987, 1989,

Weicheng Wu; Eddy De Pauw

170

Acid Rain and Below-Cloud Scavenging in South-Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major urban areas in south-western China exhibit unique air pollutionproblems due to increasing use of high sulphur-content fuels in an environmentof unfavourable topography and climate. Ambient levels of sulphur dioxideexceed the air quality objectives, and this gas is the major precursor of acidrain. Cloudwater chemistry studies are reported for urban, suburban andcountryside locations, during the period 1985–1989. Although cloudwateracidity was

PETER A. TANNER; HENG-CHI LEI; MEI-YUAN HUANG; ZHI-LAI SHEN

1997-01-01

171

Two new ornithurine birds from the Early Cretaceous of western Liaoning, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe two new ornithurine birds from the Early Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of western Liaoning, northeast China:Yanornis martini gen. et sp. nov. andYixianornis grabaui gen. et sp. nov. They represent the best fossil record of ornithurine birds known from the Early Cretaceous. They are more\\u000a advanced than the most primitive ornithurineLiaoningornis, and are more similar to the other two Chinese

Zhonghe Zhou; Fucheng Zhang

2001-01-01

172

Fuzzy Model of Regional Economic Competitiveness in GIS Spatial Analysis: Case Study of Gansu, Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

After more than 20 years of impressive development since the economic reforms in 1978, today western China is facing an increasing\\u000a development gap between its regions, particularly between urban and rural areas. Using the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation\\u000a model, this paper aims to demonstrate the evolution of the economic competitiveness levels base on two categories of geographical\\u000a unity in the province of

Shengquan Ma; Jing Feng; Huhua Cao

2006-01-01

173

Signature of the Mekong River plume in the western South China Sea revealed by radium isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the distribution of 223Ra, 228Ra, and 226Ra in the surface water of the western South China Sea (SCS) during summer based on a 30 day cruise conducted in August–September 2007. The activities of 223Ra varied from almost undetectable to 0.74 disintegrations per minute (dpm)\\/100 L, and those of 228Ra varied from 12.2 to 61.5 dpm\\/100 L. Their spatial

Weifang Chen; Qian Liu; Chih-An Huh; Minhan Dai; Yu-Chun Miao

2010-01-01

174

Carbon sequestration of paddy fields in Western Jilin of China during 1989–2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study area of this article, Western Jilin province of China, was a typical area responding to global changing in middle\\u000a latitude areas. In this paper, by interpreting the thematic mapper (TM) images of the study area in the years of 1989, 1996,\\u000a 2000 and 2004, the land use\\/cover change (LUCC) data were achieved, which included the area of paddy

Jie Tang; Xiaoming Xu; Zhaoyang Li; Weizheng Han

2012-01-01

175

Regional seismic discrimination in central Asia with emphasis on western China  

SciTech Connect

In support of an anticipated Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the authors have started to evaluate regional seismic event discrimination capabilities for central Asia, emphasizing western China. The authors have measured noise and seismic phase amplitudes of over 250 earthquakes and 18 underground nuclear explosions recorded at the broadband, digital station WMQ in western China and over 100 earthquakes and 5 nuclear explosions at station AAK in Kyrgyzstan. The explosions are from the Kazakh Test Site (KTS) and Lop Nor, China. The earthquakes are mostly from northwest China. They have also evaluated a single suspected chemical explosion. Event magnitudes (m{sub b}) range between 2.5 and 6.5 and maximum event-station distance is about 1,700 km. Using these measurements the authors formed phase, spectral, cross-spectral, short-period/long-period, and long-period ratios to test many possible event discriminants. All ratios were corrected for distance effects before forming ratio-versus-magnitude discrimination plots. The authors found that all five classes of these discriminants are useful for separating earthquakes from explosions in central Asia, provided the right combinations of frequency bands and phases are selected. Results are described.

Hartse, H.E.; Taylor, S.R.; Phillips, W.S.; Randall, G.E.

1996-09-01

176

Measuring and decomposing the inequality of maternal health services utilization in Western Rural China  

PubMed Central

Background To measure socioeconomic inequalities in maternal health services in rural western China and to analyze the determinants’ contributions of inequalities. Study design: a cross-sectional study. Methods The data utilized in this study were obtained from a cross-sectional study from 10 provinces in rural Western China in 2005. Wealth index of household socioeconomic status was developed by using principle component analysis. Concentration index, concentration curve and decomposition of the concentration index were employed to measure socioeconomic inequality in maternal health services utilization. Results For more than four times prenatal visits, the concentration index was 0.0605 (95% CI: 0.0603, 0.0607). The concentration index of hospital delivery was 0.0230 (95% CI: 0.0210, 0.0240) and the concentration index of more than 2 times postnatal visits was 0.0842 (95% CI: 0.0836, 0.0847). Han ethnicity woman, particularly in conjunction with high school education and rich wealth status, was the main contributor to inequality in maternal health services utilization. Conclusions There is a strong pro-rich inequality of maternal health services in rural western China. This study suggests that an effective way to reduce the inequality is not only to narrow the gap of income between the rich and poor, but focus education on ethnic minority woman in rural remote areas.

2014-01-01

177

Public Management Policy and Practice in Western ChinaMetapolicy, Tacit Knowledge, and Implications for Management Innovation Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of our fieldwork conducted during the past two decades, in this article, we report our principal findings about the metapolicy and tacit knowledge of public management in western China. We focus on the deeper patterns of managerial and organizational behavior and argue that Chinese bureaucratic culture and practices (especially practices of the Communist Party of China) have

Hon S. Chan; King W. Chow

2007-01-01

178

Lateral asthenospheric flow beneath South China craton: constraints from Cenozoic basalts and metamorphic rocks distribution in South China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a lateral asthenosphere flow model beneath South China craton, constrained by both the spatial and temporal distribution of Cenozoic basalts in South China (CBSC) and the variation characteristics of regional metamorphic depths in South China. Integrated compilation of K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar geochronological data of CBSC reveals that Cenozoic basalts in the region can be classified into three zones according to their eruption ages: a western zone (older than 38 Ma) ranging from eastern Anhui Province to central Guangdong Province, a central zone (between 24 and 10 Ma) from western Jiangsu Province to Fujian Province, and an eastern zone (younger than 10 Ma) localized near the Hangzhou Bay and at the Leizhou Peninsula (Lei-Qiong area). An eastward-propagation evolution process of CBSC is therefore implied by the systematic decrease in the age from inland in the west to the coast in the east. Meanwhile, a west-dipping lithosphere/asthenosphere boundary (LAB) slope beneath South China craton is indicated by variation of the regional metamorphic depths in South China, which were calculated from compiled metamorphic pressure and temperature conditions. The results showed that the metamorphic depths are less than 10 km around Sichuan basin, between 10 and 16 km in central South China, and more than 21 km in southeast China. We propose that the western and central zones of CBSC be explained by the lateral flow of asthenosphere along the LAB slope beneath South China due to the Indian-Eurasian collision at the Tibet, whereas the localization of the eastern zone is related to the Hainan plume and the current channel flow of asthenosphere between the Ordos and Sichuan blocks along the Qinling-Dabie suture. Fig.1 Distribution of Cenozoic basalts in Southeast China

Gong, J.; Chen, Y. J.

2010-12-01

179

TSR versus non-TSR processes and their impact on gas geochemistry and carbon stable isotopes in Carboniferous, Permian and Lower Triassic marine carbonate gas reservoirs in the Eastern Sichuan Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Palaeozoic and lowermost Mesozoic marine carbonate reservoirs of the Sichuan Basin in China contain variably sour and very dry gas. The source of the gas in the Carboniferous, Permian and Lower Triassic reservoirs is not known for certain and it has proved difficult to discriminate and differentiate the effects of thermal cracking- and TSR-related processes for these gases. Sixty-three gas samples were collected and analysed for their composition and carbon stable isotope values. The gases are all typically very dry (alkane gases being >97.5% methane), with low (<1%) nitrogen and highly variable H2S and CO2. Carboniferous gas is negligibly sour while the Lower Triassic gas tends to be most sour. The elevated H2S (up to 62%) is due to thermochemical sulphate reduction with the most sour Triassic and Permian reservoirs being deeper than 4800 m. The non-TSR affected Carboniferous gas is a secondary gas that was derived from the cracking of sapropelic kerogen-derived oil and primary gas and is highly mature. Carboniferous (and non-sour Triassic and Permian) gas has unusual carbon isotopes with methane and propane being isotopically heavier than ethane (a reversal of typical low- to moderate-maturity patterns). The gas in the non-sour Triassic and Permian reservoirs has the same geochemical and isotopic characteristics (and therefore the same source) as the Carboniferous gas. TSR in the deepest Triassic reservoirs altered the gas composition reaching 100% dryness in the deepest, most sour reservoirs showing that ethane and propane react faster than methane during TSR. Ethane evolves to heavier carbon isotope values than methane during TSR leading to removal of the reversed alkane gas isotope trend found in the Carboniferous and non-sour Triassic and Permian reservoirs. However, methane was directly involved in TSR as shown by the progressive increase in its carbon isotope ratio as gas souring proceeded. CO2 increased in concentration as gas souring proceeded, but typical CO2 carbon isotope ratios in sour gases remained about -4‰ V-PDB showing that it was not solely derived from the oxidation of alkanes. Instead CO2 may partly result from reaction of sour gas with carbonate reservoir minerals, such as Fe-rich dolomite or calcite, resulting in pyrite growth as well as CO2-generation.

Liu, Q. Y.; Worden, R. H.; Jin, Z. J.; Liu, W. H.; Li, J.; Gao, B.; Zhang, D. W.; Hu, A. P.; Yang, C.

2013-01-01

180

Constraint on selenium bioavailability caused by its geochemical behavior in typical Kaschin-Beck disease areas in Aba, Sichuan Province of China.  

PubMed

Kaschin-Beck disease (KBD), an endemic osteoarthropathy, is distributed in the low-selenium (Se)-belt that stretches from northeast to southwest China. However, very few studies have investigated the relationship between low bioavailabitity of Se and KBD. The present study examined the behavior of Se and other elements in areas with varying levels of KBD prevalence using pedological and geochemical methods. Rhizosphere soil samples obtained from the KBD-stricken Aba area were classified into Ustic Isohumisols (J2), Udic Luvisols (L4), Stagnic Gleysols (I2), and Cryic Cambisols (M1) and the integrated constraints on selenium bioavailability in these soils were analyzed. We found that Se concentration in soil profiles from a typical KBD area ranged between 0.08?g·g(-1) and 0.215?g·g(-1), indicating absent and marginal bioavailability, respectively. This suggested that low Se bioavailability may be a feature that soils inherit from their Se-deficient parent materials. Moreover, the soil types examined showed different geochemical behaviors such as eluviation for soluble Se(VI), migration of Se(IV) for its adsorption on clay and sesquioxide, and extreme redox conditions. In conclusion, a higher level of Se bioavailability in environment might be related to a lower risk of KBD, and our results offer a foundation for scientific theory on ecological geochemistry and improve our understanding of KBD. PMID:24995640

Lv, Yaoyao; Yu, Tao; Yang, Zhongfang; Zhao, Wanfu; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Qian

2014-09-15

181

Subduction of the Western Pacific Plate underneath Northeast China: Implications of numerical studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geodynamic process of the deep subduction of the western Pacific Plate underneath Northeast China is critical for understanding the extensional events and volcanism in Northeast China. Understanding of this process depends on: (1) the initial time of the subduction, (2) the trench retreat velocity during the subduction process, (3) the contribution of Indian-Eurasian collision and Pacific-Eurasian subduction to extensional events in the northeast of China. However, information on these three issues is very limited. We use several regional models to gain insight into these three issues. Each of the models includes temperature-dependent viscosity structures, and distinct velocity patterns at the surface. Our results show that the subduction of the Pacific Plate under the Eurasian plate started most probably around 70 Ma. To be consistent with the tomography under Northeast China, trench retreat must be included in the models, with a rate less than 45 km/Ma that has been estimated in the past. We suggest that the extension events in the northeast China are attributed to Indian-Eurasian collision and Pacific-Eurasian subduction according to the velocity evolution in our models.

Zhu, Guizhi; Shi, Yaolin; Tackley, Paul

2010-01-01

182

Paleozoic archipelagic tectonic evolution of Western Junggar, NW China: implications for continental growth of southern Altaids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Western Junggar, NW China, a dominant site for continental growth in Southern Altaids, bridges the Circum-Balkhash and Junggar belts and exposes ophiolite, igneous rocks and strata from Cambrian to Carboniferous. Recent updated data on structure, geochronology, geochemisty and paleomagnetism, integrated with previous data, present a newly Paleozoic spatial and temporal framework of Western Junggar. In Cambrian, the Western Junggar begins to birth at the Tangbale area to south, where occurs Ordovician blueschist and top-to-south vergence structures, indicating north-dipping subduction. This event triggers intra-arc extension to generate Ordovician island arc in the Hongguleleng-Xiemisitai area to north and seamount in the Mayile area, middle of Western Junggar. Until Silurian, a southeastward subduction begins in the extended back-arc basin to west of Mayile, occurring blueschist at the Barleik trench and the Nalunsuo magmatic arc, at the rear of which generates Devonian back-arc basin around the Durbut area. Meanwhile, a Silurian Xiemisitai magmatic arc has been developed at the northern part of Western Junggar, along which a northward subduction has emplaced the Tarbahatai ophiolite and generates the Carboniferous Sawur magmatic arc. At the middle part of Western Junggar, the coeval adakite and sanukitic dykes, charnockite, multiple properties of ophiolite and plutons, SSZ-like andesite, dacite and rhyolite and regional structures suggest that there develop double-subduction systems with ridge-trench interaction in Carboniferous. These features suggest that the Western Junggar experiences rollback, intra-oceanic extension and subduction polarity reversal/flip in back-arc basin settings. Furthermore, positive ?Nd(t) values and no huge movements of blocks suggest that the Western Junggar is amalgamated by juvenile elements with different orientations. Therefore, we conclude that the Western Junggar enlarges from an island arc to Paleozoic tectonic regime with island arcs and subduction-accretion complexes via continuous accretion presented as episodic events and it significantly contributes to continental growth in southern Altaids.

Zhang, Jien; Xiao, Wenjiao; Han, Chunming; Ma, Chong; Song, Dongfang

2013-04-01

183

A comparative look at the coverage of the Sichuan earthquake in Chinese and American newspapers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study explores the differences in the news frames used by two Chinese newspapers (the People's Daily and the West China City Daily) as well as two American newspapers (the Washington Post and the New York Times) in covering the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. It also examines how the frames applied by the newspapers in the two countries differed as the

Daqi Liu

2010-01-01

184

Predictive factors for acute renal failure in crush injuries in the Sichuan earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe Sichuan earthquake caused a large number of crush injuries and many of them developed acute renal failure (ARF). A retrospective study was performed on victims with crush injuries of West China Hospital to investigate the predictive factors for acute renal failure (ARF) in crush injuries.

Zhangxue Hu; Xiaoxi Zeng; Ping Fu; Zhijuan Luo; Yuanmao Tu; Jingyuan Liang; Ye Tao; Wei Qin

185

Soil acidity reconstruction based on tree ring information of a dominant species Abies fabri in the subalpine forest ecosystems in southwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the suitability of dendrochemistry as an indicator of soil acidification, soil chemistry and tree ring information of Abies fabri were measured at two distinct sites (severe acid deposition site-Emei Mountain and clean site-Gongga Mountain) of the subalpine forest ecosystems of western Sichuan, southwest China. The actual soil acidity (pH) was significantly correlated with some of the recent xylem

Lei Chen; Fei-Hua Wu; Ting-Wu Liu; Juan Chen; Zhen-Ji Li; Zhen-Ming Pei; Hai-Lei Zheng

2010-01-01

186

Paleozoic plate-tectonic evolution of the Tarim and western Tianshan regions, western China  

SciTech Connect

The plate-tectonic evolution of the Tarim basin and nearby western Tianshan region during Paleozoic time is reconstructed in an effort to further constrain the tectonic evolution of Central Asia, providing insights into the formation and distribution of oil and gas resources. The Tarim plate developed from continental rifting that progressed during early Paleozoic time into a passive continental margin. The Yili terrane (central Tianshan) broke away from the present eastern part of Tarim and became a microcontinent located somewhere between the Junggar ocean and the southern Tianshan ocean. The southern Tianshan ocean, between the Tarim craton and the Yili terrane, was subducting beneath the Yili terrane from Silurian to Devonian time. During the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous, the Tarim plate collided with the Yili terrane by sinistral accretional docking that resulted in a late Paleozoic deformational episode. Intracontinental shortening (A-type subduction) continued through the Permian with the creation of a magmatic belt. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Yangshen, S.; Huafu, L.; Dong, J. [Nanjing Univ. (China)] [and others

1994-11-01

187

On plant bugs of conifers in Xinjiang (Western China)  (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae).  

PubMed

In the northern and central part of Xinjiang (Western China) are distributed 14 species of coniferous plant bugs of these, 10 species are recorded for the first time for China. In the Mongolian Altai are 9 species: 6 widely distributed in the Palearctic, Deraeocoris annulipes (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1842), Dichrooscytus intermedius Reuter, 1885, Pinalitus rubricatus (Fallén, 1807), Atractotomus morio J. Sahlberg, 1883, Plagiognathus vitellinus (Scholtz, 1847), Phoenicocoris obscurellus (Fallén, 1829), and 3 Siberian Psallus (Pityopsallus) laricinus Vinokurov, 1998, P. (P.) laticeps Reuter, 1878, P. (P.) sachaensis Vinokurov, 1998. In Chinese Tian Shan and Jungar Alatau occur 5 mountain-Central Asian species: Dichrooscytus consorbinus Horváth, 1904, D. josifovi Kerzhner, 1997, D. kerzhneri Josifov, 1974 and D. pseudosabinae Reuter, 1896, and Compsidolon schrenkianum Konstantinov, Vinokurov, 2011. A key for 5 species of the subgenus Pithyopsallus Wagn. is given. PMID:24871423

Vinokurov, Nikolai N; Luo, Zhaohui

2014-01-01

188

Plumes and Drips Beneath Northeast China and the Western United States (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northeast China and the western United States share common features in their tectonic history. Both regions experienced compressional tectonics and mountain building due to stresses induced by subduction processes on their boundaries. In Northeast China these events occurred in the Mesozoic and in the western United States a little later, up to the early Cenozoic. Subsequently, both regions experienced extension and widespread intraplate magmatism as the boundary conditions changed. We review the results from several seismic investigations for both regions and compare results. The NECESS project was a multi-national collaboration that consisted of the deployment of 140 broadband seismic stations across Northeast China. P and S wave tomography, receiver function analysis, and surface wave dispersion inversions were conducted to image the seismic structure of the upper mantle beneath the region. Fast seismic velocities from 500 to 660 km depth and a depressed 660 km discontinuity were found below the eastern edge of Northeast China. These observations are likely showing the subducting Pacific plate. At 420 latitude a gap in the deep transition zone fast velocities is observed coincident with an uplifted 660 km discontinuity. The shear wave tomography image shows a roughly 200 km diameter slow anomaly that can be traced from just below the gap in high velocities at 660 km depth to the shallow mantle beneath the Changbaishan volcanic field. We propose the gap in the deep slabs is a pathway for return flow upwelling that results in surface volcanism. Such deep upwelling at edges or gaps in deep slabs may be a common feature in subduction environments. In the shallow mantle strong lateral variations in velocity are seen across Northeast China that are associated with Cenozoic volcanic zones. Beneath a portion of the Xing'an mountains at 1160 longitude, a shallow slow anomaly associated with Pleistocene volcanism is adjacent to a high velocity anomaly at depths below 200 km. This may represent a region where lithosphere is being removed. Similar observations of potential lithosphere removal have been observed in the western United States. In particular, the Ristra experiment observed downwelling along the eastern edge of the Rio Grande Rift. Hydration of lithosphere that lowers its viscosity and subsequent extension may promote lithospheric instability for many tens of Ma after resulting in magmatism over a broad region.

Grand, S. P.; Tang, Y.; Niu, F.; Obayashi, M.; Chen, Y. J.; Kawakatsu, H.; Ning, J.; Ni, J.

2013-12-01

189

King Ata Tag Mountain Range, western China as seen by STS-66 Atlantis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The northwest-southeast trending, snow-covered, linear mountain range is the King Ata Tag Mountain, located in extreme western most China. Highest peaks are just over 20,100 feet above sea level. The town or village of Muji is located in the largest river valley that is south of this range of mountains. This area includes part of the country of Tajikistan. The center point of the photo is approximately 39.30 degrees north and 74.30 degrees easth.

1994-01-01

190

Contrasting nature of petroliferous Mesozoic-Cenozoic basins in eastern and western China  

SciTech Connect

Onshore petroliferous basins of Mesozoic-Cenozoic age in China include two distinct geographic-geotectonic groups: eastern extensional (rifted) basins and western compressional (orogenic) basins. Eastern basins are faulted depressions and crustal sags that formed where incipient intracontinental rifting thinned the crust and developed tilted fault blocks and half grabens bounded by normal faults. Western basins are flexural downbows that were depressed under the tectonic load of adjacent thrust sheets associated with the folded mountain ranges of central Asia. Source beds in both groups of basins are dominantly dark lacustrine mudstones of terrestrial facies associations, and reservoirs are mainly fluviodeltaic sandstones. Hydrocarbon traps in the eastern basins include extensional rollover anticlines, compactional drape anticlines, diapiric salt domes, buried-hill highs in the substratum, and stratal pinch-outs on the flanks of buried highs. Simple or faulted anticlinal traps are dominant in the western basins. Multiple reservoir horizons are characteristic of oil fields in both groups of basins. Orogenic compression, which developed the western basins, is attributed to the successive collision of microcontinents with the southern edge of the composite Eurasian continental mass. Crustal extension, which developed the eastern basins, is attributed to incipient rifting within and behind magmatic arcs along the margin of the Pacific Ocean basin. 15 figures.

Quanmao, C.; Dickinson, W.R.

1986-03-01

191

Assessment of the effectiveness of desertification rehabilitation measures in Yulin, north-western China using remote sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In China tremendous efforts have gone into the rehabilitation of desertified land for productive use such as grazing, crop cultivation and afforestation. In this study the effectiveness of these agro-ecological measures to combat desertification in Yulin, Shaanxi Province of north-western China, is evaluated from multi-temporal aerial photographs in a geographical information system (GIS). The trend of desertification between 1960 and

J. Gao; Y. Zha

2001-01-01

192

azimuthal anisotropy underneath western North China Craton from surface wave tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Azimuthal anisotropic velocity structure beneath the western North China Craton (NCC) has been extracted using Rayleigh wave data from 69 broad-band seismographs of China Earthquake Networks Center and 23 of Peking University. We get the surface wave structure for period of 20s to 125s of Rayleigh wave. Surface wave velocity in a slight anisotropic media can be expressed as following: v_1=v_0+asin?+bcos? Where v_0 is the isotropic velocity and ? is the back azimuth. The primary results indicate that the Ordos Craton, which has been stable since Archean is obviously high-velocity-anomaly for over 200 km depth. While the Central part of NCC, including the Shanxi Rift, has obvious low-velocity-anomaly going down to 200 km. We interpret this enormous velocity changes as an evidence for the apart geologic processes of the eastern and western parts of NCC. The reactivation since Mesozoic of NCC may have caused upwelling of upper mantle right beneath Shanxi Rift.

Li, D.; Liu, Y.; Zhou, S.

2013-12-01

193

Anthropogenic input of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into five lakes in western China.  

PubMed

The temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was examined in dated sediments from five lakes in Western China. The surficial concentrations of seven carcinogenic PAHs (BaA, Chyr, BbF, BkF, BaP, DBA and INP, hereafter denoted as PAH7) were highly site-specific. The SigmaPAH7 concentrations generally increased from the deep layers to surface sediments. The temporal trends of SigmaPAH7 concentrations were clearly different from those reported in developed countries. From 1950s to 1980s, which PAHs started to decrease in developed countries, is the right period that PAHs started to increase rapidly in Western China. The fluxes and mass inventories suggest that the PAH7 input over the past three decades was much more rapidly than it was before the 1980s. Source identification indicates that the PAHs were primarily from biomass burning and domestic coal combustion, and increasing vehicular and/or industrial coal combustion emission was also found. PMID:20307921

Guo, Jianyang; Wu, Fengchang; Luo, Xiaojun; Liang, Zhang; Liao, Haiqing; Zhang, Runyu; Li, Wen; Zhao, Xiaoli; Chen, Shejun; Mai, Bixian

2010-06-01

194

Sequence Analysis of cytb Gene in Echinococcus granulosus from Western China  

PubMed Central

Echinococcus granulosus is the causative agent of cystic echinococcosis with medical and veterinary importance in China. Our main objective was to discuss the genotypes and genetic diversity of E. granulosus present in domestic animals and humans in western China. A total of 45 hydatid cyst samples were collected from sheep, humans, and a yak and subjected to an analysis of the sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene. The amplified PCR product for all samples was a 1,068 bp band. The phylogenetic analysis showed that all 45 samples were identified as E. granulosus (genotype G1). Ten haplotypes were detected among the samples, with the main haplotype being H1. The haplotype diversity was 0.626, while the nucleotide diversity was 0.001. These results suggested that genetic diversity was low among our samples collected from the west of China based on cytb gene analysis. These findings may provide more information on molecular characteristics of E. granulosus from this Chinese region.

Zhong, Xiuqin; Wang, Ning; Hu, Dandan; Wang, Jiahai; Liu, Tianyu; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong

2014-01-01

195

Evidence for Borna disease virus infection in neuropsychiatric patients in three western China provinces.  

PubMed

Borna disease virus (BDV) is a non-cytolytic, neurotropic RNA virus that can infect a wide variety of vertebrate species from birds and primates to humans. Several studies have been carried out to investigate whether BDV is associated with neuropsychiatric diseases. However, this association is still inconclusive. Two panels of subjects consisting of 1,679 various neuropsychiatric patients and healthy people from three western China provinces were enrolled in this study. BDV p24 or p40 RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were detected in the first panel of 1,481 subjects using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from the BDV RNA-positive individuals were subjected to BDV p24 antibodies testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). BDV p24 or p40 RNA in PBMCs and p24 antibodies in plasma were detected in the second panel of 198 subjects by RT-qPCR and Western blot. A higher prevalence for BDV RNA was demonstrated in patients with viral encephalitis (6.70%), Guillain-Barré syndrome (6.70%), schizophrenia (9.90%) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) (12.70%) compared to healthy controls in the first panel. CSF p24 antibodies were demonstrated in three viral encephalitis patients, two schizophrenia patients and two major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. The prevalences of p24 antibodies in plasma from patients with viral encephalitis (13.24%), multiple sclerosis (25.00%) and Parkinson's disease (22.73%) were significantly higher than healthy controls. This study demonstrates that BDV infection also exists in humans from three western China provinces, and suggests the involvement of the contribution of BDV in the aetiology of Chinese patients with some neuropsychiatric disorders, including viral encephalitis, schizophrenia, CFS, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. PMID:24170181

Zhang, L; Xu, M-M; Zeng, L; Liu, S; Liu, X; Wang, X; Li, D; Huang, R-Z; Zhao, L-B; Zhan, Q-L; Zhu, D; Zhang, Y-Y; Xu, P; Xie, P

2014-04-01

196

Variations of the Last Glacial Warm Pool: Sea surface temperature contrasts between the open western Pacific and South China Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution paleoceanographic records from the southern South China Sea (SCS) and the tropical open western Pacific reveal multicentennial- to millennial-scale variations of the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) over the last 40 kyr. During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), in marine isotope stage (MIS) 2, planktonic Globigerinoides sacculifer ?18O in core NS93-5 from the southern SCS and in core WP92-5

Muhong Chen; Qianyu Li; Fan Zheng; Xianzan Tan; Rong Xiang; Zhimin Jian

2005-01-01

197

Variations of the Last Glacial Warm Pool: Sea surface temperature contrasts between the open western Pacific and South China Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution paleoceanographic records from the southern South China Sea (SCS) and the tropical open western Pacific reveal multicentennial- to millennial-scale variations of the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) over the last 40 kyr. During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), in marine isotope stage (MIS) 2, planktonic Globigerinoides sacculifer delta18O in core NS93-5 from the southern SCS and in core WP92-5

Muhong Chen; Qianyu Li; Fan Zheng; Xianzan Tan; Rong Xiang; Zhimin Jian

2005-01-01

198

Change as Challenge for Shop-Floor Learning: The Case of Western and Local Manufacturing Companies in South China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores the process of workplace learning and problem solving by examining Western and local enterprises in South China. The paper addresses the subject on two levels. First, it examines the process of learning by solving problems on the shop floor. Second, it deals with certain managerial concepts embedded in Chinese culture and discusses whether these concepts help or impede collective learning. The article concludes that new ways of working and learning are emerging through the interaction of Western and Chinese culture.

Hong, Jianzhong

2000-11-01

199

Seismic motion attenuation relations in Sichuan and adjacent areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sichuan and adjacent areas is divided into southwest China region (SWCR) and Sichuan Basin region (SCBR) according to tectonic backgrounds and seismic damage distribution features. 96 modern destructive earthquakes in SWCR and 40 in SCBR are gathered respectively. All their magnitude parameters are checked. Based on the statistic relations between epicentral intensity and magnitude as well as relation between sensible radius and magnitude, the near and far field seismic intensity attenuation features are represented and controlled. And then the seismic intensity attenuation relations along major axis, minor axis and mean axis are established separately. The systematic deviations of surface wave magnitude between China seismograph network and U.S. seismograph network are considered in this paper. By making use of the new attenuation relations of bedrock horizontal ground acceleration response spectrum in west U.S., the attenuation relations of bedrock horizontal ground acceleration response spectrum in SWCR and SCBR are digital transformed based on the attenuation model considering acceleration saturation of distance and magnitude in near field.

Lei, Jian-Cheng; Gao, Meng-Tan; Yu, Yan-Xiang

2007-09-01

200

Late Cenozoic climate changes in China's western interior: a review of research on Lake Qinghai and comparison with other records  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review Late Cenozoic climate and environment changes in the western interior of China with an emphasis on lacustrine records from Lake Qinghai. Widespread deposition of red clay in the marginal basins of the Tibetan Plateau indicates that the Asian monsoon system was initially established by ?8Ma, when the plateau reached a threshold altitude. Subsequent strengthening of the winter monsoon,

Steven M. Colman; Shi-Yong Yu; Zhisheng An; Ji Shen; A. C. G. Henderson

2007-01-01

201

The Impact of Overseas Training on Curriculum Innovation and Change in English Language Education in Western China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article assesses the impact of a UK-based professional development programme on curriculum innovation and change in English Language Education (ELE) in Western China. Based on interviews, focus group discussions and observation of a total of 48 English teachers who had participated in an overseas professional development programme influenced…

Li, Daguo; Edwards, Viv

2013-01-01

202

[A re-ponderation about the eastward spread of western medicine into China and the process of its recognition by the Chinese].  

PubMed

Since the end of the Ming Dynasty, western medicine was introduced into China gradually. At first, due to the Chinese were used to traditional Chinese medicine treatment, plus the disgusted attitude toward the malfeasance of western missionaries, the Chinese didn't accept western medical approaches, even with resentment. As the advantages of western medicine gradually revealed, the Chinese felt the magical effects of western medicine in medical practice, and at the same time, the advanced intellectuals were seeking the truth to save the nation and its people, then western medicine were accepted by the Chinese gradually and then spread all over China, reflecting that this process of from conflict between Chinese and western culture to recognition is but, in fact, the cultural conflict between China and the West and its fusion. PMID:24429036

Zhang, Ya-Bin; Lu, Xu-Feng

2013-09-01

203

The use of propagation path corrections to improve regional seismic event location in western China  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to improve the ability to locate seismic events in western China using only regional data, the authors have developed empirical propagation path corrections (PPCs) and applied such corrections using both traditional location routines as well as a nonlinear grid search method. Thus far, the authors have concentrated on corrections to observed P arrival times for shallow events using travel-time observations available from the USGS EDRs, the ISC catalogs, their own travel-tim picks from regional data, and data from other catalogs. They relocate events with the algorithm of Bratt and Bache (1988) from a region encompassing China. For individual stations having sufficient data, they produce a map of the regional travel-time residuals from all well-located teleseismic events. From these maps, interpolated PPC surfaces have been constructed using both surface fitting under tension and modified Bayesian kriging. The latter method offers the advantage of providing well-behaved interpolants, but requires that the authors have adequate error estimates associated with the travel-time residuals. To improve error estimates for kriging and event location, they separate measurement error from modeling error. The modeling error is defined as the travel-time variance of a particular model as a function of distance, while the measurement error is defined as the picking error associated with each phase. They estimate measurement errors for arrivals from the EDRs based on roundoff or truncation, and use signal-to-noise for the travel-time picks from the waveform data set.

Steck, L.K.; Cogbill, A.H.; Velasco, A.A.

1999-03-01

204

Breastfeeding rates in central and western China in 2010: implications for child and population health  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To describe breastfeeding practices in rural China using globally recommended indicators and to compare them with practices in neighbouring countries and large emerging economies. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional survey of 2354 children younger than 2 years in 26 poor, rural counties in 12 central and western provinces was conducted. Associations between indicators of infant and young child feeding and socioeconomic, demographic and health service variables were explored and rates were compared with the most recent data from China and other nations. Findings Overall, 98.3% of infants had been breastfed. However, only 59.4% had initiated breastfeeding early (i.e. within 1 hour of birth); only 55.5% and 9.4% had continued breastfeeding for 1 and 2 years, respectively, and only 28.7% of infants younger than 6 months had been exclusively breastfed. Early initiation of breastfeeding was positively associated with at least five antenatal clinic visits (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 3.48; P?China, rates are very low. A commitment to improve infant and young child feeding is needed to reduce mortality and morbidity.

Guo, Sufang; Fu, Xulan; Scherpbier, Robert W; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Hong; Wang, Xiaoli

2013-01-01

205

Mosquitoes of Western Yunnan Province, China: Seasonal Abundance, Diversity, and Arbovirus Associations  

PubMed Central

Objective The western borderland between Yunnan Province, China, and Myanmar is characterized by a climate that facilitates year-round production of mosquitoes. Numerous mosquito-transmitted viruses, including Japanese encephalitis virus circulate in this area. This project was to describe seasonal patterns in mosquito species abundance and arbovirus activity in the mosquito populations. Methods Mosquitoes were collected in Mangshi and Ruili cities of Dehong Prefecture near the border of China and Burma in Yunnan Province, the Peoples Republic of China in 2010. We monitored mosquito species abundance for a 12-month period using ultraviolet light, carbon dioxide baited CDC light and gravid traps; and tested the captured mosquitoes for the presence of virus to evaluate mosquito-virus associations in rural/agricultural settings in the area. Results A total of 43 species of mosquitoes from seven genera were collected, including 15 Culex species, 15 Anopheles spp., four Aedes spp., three Armigeres spp., one Mimomyia spp., two Uranotaenia spp. and three Mansonia spp.. Species richness and diversity varied between Mangshi and Ruili. Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles sinensis and Anopheles peditaeniatus were the most abundant species in both sampling sites. Ultraviolet light traps collected more specimens than CDC light traps baited with dry ice, though both collected the same variety of mosquito species. The CDC gravid trap was the most effective trap for capture of Culex quinquefasciatus, a species underrepresented in light trap collections. A total of 26 virus strains were isolated, which included 13 strains of Japanese encephalitis virus, four strains of Getah virus, one strain of Oya virus, one strain from the orbivirus genus, and seven strains of Culex pipien pallens densovirus. Conclusions The present study illustrates the value of monitoring mosquito populations and mosquito-transmitted viruses year-round in areas where the climate supports year-round adult mosquito activity.

Yang, Wei-Hong; Feng, Yun; Nasci, Roger S.; Yang, Jie; Liu, Yong-Hua; Dong, Chao-Liang; Li, Shi; Zhang, Bao-Sen; Yin, Zheng-Liu; Wang, Pi-Yu; Fu, Shi-Hong; Li, Ming-Hua; Liu, Fen; Zhang, Juan; Sun, Jie; Li, Can-Wei; Gao, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Hong; Wang, Huan-Yu; Petersen, Lyle R.; Liang, Guo-Dong

2013-01-01

206

Geologic Setting of the May 12, 2008, Sichuan Earhquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The May 12, 2008, Sichuan earthquake was located in the Longmen Shan, mountains that form the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau and border the western side of the Sichuan basin. The region of the Longmen Shan consists of very complex structures that vary greatly along strike. Geologically, the Longmen Shan lie along the western margin of the Yangtze craton and was first deformed in late Triassic-early Jurassic (Indosinian) time when the margin was telescoped by large scale eastward thrusting and development of an adjacent Mesozoic foredeep. These units can be followed from their join with the Qinling Mountains in the north, south into central Yunnan. Although there are suggestions of younger Mesozoic deformation, the next major deformation that can be documented is late Cenozoic (beginning ~12 Ma) with the formation of diverse structures. South of the Sichuan basin folds and thrust faults form a multiply deformed area that involves Precambrian basement rocks and Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks with a modified dome and basin interference pattern. These folds and thrust fault project northward into the southern Sichuan basin where most of them end within the basin, but the Longchuan anticline on the east and several folds on the west continue north; the Longchuan anticline curves west into the middle of the Longmen Shan and the western structures form the eastern margin of the NE-trending Longmen Shan. At this latitude the structures involve only Mesozoic rocks above a decollement that underlies the Chengdu plain, but ramps down to the west beneath Precambrian cored structures that form the core of the Longmen Shan. These basement involved structures have a modified fault propagation fold geometry. Northward, the margin of the Tibetan plateau curves to the west along the N-S trending Min Shan formed by active east-vergent steep thrust faults. These structures may be localized by crustal anisotropy between the Xue Shan plateau and Song Pan Ganze flysch basin. A lower range continues northeast along the west side of the Sichuan basin into the Qinling Mountains and is marked by transpressional right-lateral strike-slip faults. The May 12 earthquake was localized along the ramp part of the thrusts beneath the Longmen Shan and after shocks propagated eastward where they have an increasingly greater right-lateral strike-slip component. The epicenter is located where greater shortening may have been localized because of the northward ending of structures to the east. The Longmen Shan was not considered a major seismic hazard because: 1. They show little horizontal shortening, 2. Lack a foredeep related to shortening, and 3. GPS data show very slow structure normal shortening and strike-slip (~1 mm/yr) confirmed by neotectonic studies of Densmore et al. (2007). However, closer examination suggests the area may have been a seismic gap for large earthquakes and the very steep eastern Longmen Shan front is suggestive of very active uplift. The Sichuan earthquake suggests that we need to examine (or reexamine) carefully criteria for seismic hazards.

Burchfiel, B. C.; Royden, L. H.

2008-12-01

207

Phytoplankton patchiness during spring intermonsoon in western coast of South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jet-like phytoplankton blooms usually occur off the southwestern coast of the South China Sea (SCS) caused by strong winds during summer monsoons. However a jet-like phytoplankton patch was observed in the western SCS in the spring intermonsoon of 2010 in both field and remote sensing data. The present study investigated the biological processes associated with this spring phytoplankton patchiness. The data showed that chlorophyll a concentrations increased in the surface water, extending out to the SCS, and the depth of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum uplifted from 75 m to 50 m depth; low dissolved oxygen, low pH and nutrient enrichment (nitrate+nitrite and soluble reactive phosphate) were observed in the subsurface water (50 to ~200 m depth). Data analysis showed that variations in chlorophyll a, nutrients and temperature in the water column were related to wind-stress curl: the spatial distribution pattern and vertical structure of the phytoplankton patchiness were controlled by vertical flux of nutrients caused by curl-driven upwelling through Ekman pumping. There was a high correlation between chlorophyll a concentration and wind-stress curl where the influence of nutrient influx from the coast was limited. This study shows the importance of wind-stress curl in providing nutrients to support phytoplankton growth during the spring intermonsoon along the western coast of SCS. It may help to better understand the role of wind in marine biological processes.

Wang, Jiu-Juan; Tang, Dan Ling

2014-03-01

208

Altered development and reproduction in western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) found in the Hanxi River, southern China.  

PubMed

The current study investigated the development and reproductive health of western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) in the Hanxi River, which has been heavily contaminated by municipal wastewaters from towns in Dongguan of southern China. Western mosquitofish collected from four study sites, Songmu (SM), Yangwu (YW), Hengli (HL), and Zhangcun (ZC) of the Hanxi River, as well as a reference site (LX) of the Liuxi River, were dissected and analyzed for development parameters (total length, wet body mass, liver mass, gonad index, and population composition), reproductive parameters (oocyte count and weight of females, and sperm count and viability of males), and morphology (anal fin in males and females, and hemal spines in males). With the exception of the origin site (SM), mosquitofish from the Hanxi River exhibited significantly decreasing development and reproduction levels. Significant correlations were found for the collected mosquitofish between the morphological and reproductive indexes (ratio of perpendicular distance to tip to vertical distance from the tip on the 16th hemal spine) versus the sperm count of males; ratio 16P:16D versus sperm viability of males; segments of anal fin ray 3 versus oocyte count of females; and segments of anal fin ray 3 versus average oocyte mass of females. The results demonstrated that both male and female mosquitofish in the Hanxi River were affected by the discharged wastewaters, as reflected in their morphological changes in comparison with those of mosquitofish from the reference site. PMID:20853458

Xie, Yong-Ping; Fang, Zhan-Qiang; Hou, Li-Ping; Ying, Guang-Guo

2010-11-01

209

Analytical and finite element modeling of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake from DInSAR data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitude Mw = 8.0 earthquake that struck China's Sichuan region on 12 May 2008 has been imaged by X, C, and L-band SAR satellites (ASI's Cosmo-Skymed, ESA's ENVISAT, and NASDA's ALOS, respectively), allowing to attempt the recovering of the ground deformation associated to the fault dislocation. We analyzed all the available Cosmo stripmap images (3-m resolution), some ENVISAT frames,

S. Atzori; C. Bignami; C. Brunori; M. Chini; C. Tolomei; E. Trasatti; S. Stramondo; S. Salvi

2008-01-01

210

Damage analysis of 12 May 2008 Sichuan earthquake with satellite data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The devastating earthquake (Ms=8.0) of 12 May 2008 in Sichuan, China struck the whole world. To detect the large damaged area in less time and identify seismogenic structure, remote sensing technology is strongly recommended. This paper attempts to focus on seismic area to analyze the earthquake damage from different aspects. Firstly, pre- and post-earthquake Landsat TM\\/ETM images, CBERS-02B CCD images,

Xiaoqian Cheng; Wen Wang; Tao Yu; Zhuyan Ren

2008-01-01

211

Rekindling hearts with art: A community arts project for the young survivors of the Sichuan earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

A devastating earthquake of magnitude 7.9 struck Sichuan in China on 12 May 2008, resulting in over 69,000 deaths, leaving 37,000 people injured and 4.8 million people homeless. Immediately after the catastrophe, many of the young survivors were confused and lost, and experienced difficulty in expressing their inner emotions. In the past two years, Art for All, a non-profit-making community

Sophia Suk Mun Law

2012-01-01

212

Coseismic Displacement of M8.0 Sichuan Earthquake Derived by ALOS Radar Interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

On May 12th 2008, a major (M8.0) earthquake struck Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province in China. The causalities include approximately 70,000 dead and 374,000 injured. The rupture accompanying the events extends over 270 km toward the northeast, and is a result of the convergent tectonic movement associated with Longmen Shan fault. We assemble and process ALOS PALSAR data including 6 ascending

X. Tong; D. T. Sandwell; Y. Fialko; R. J. Mellors

2008-01-01

213

Corporate Philanthropic Disaster Response and Ownership Type: Evidencefrom Chinese Firms’ Responseto the Sichuan Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines whether the charitable giving amount and likelihood of firm response to catastrophic events relate to\\u000a firms’ ownership type using a unique dataset of listed firms in China, where state ownership is still prevalent. Based on\\u000a the data of Chinese firms’ response to the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, we find that the extent of corporate contributions for\\u000a state-owned firms

Ran Zhang; Zabihollah Rezaee; Jigao Zhu

2010-01-01

214

Rekindling hearts with art: A community arts project for the young survivors of the Sichuan earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

A devastating earthquake of magnitude 7.9 struck Sichuan in China on 12 May 2008, resulting in over 69,000 deaths, leaving 37,000 people injured and 4.8 million people homeless. Immediately after the catastrophe, many of the young survivors were confused and lost, and experienced difficulty in expressing their inner emotions. In the past two years, Art for All, a non-profit-making community

Sophia Suk Mun Law

2011-01-01

215

Genetic diversity and population structure in wild Sichuan rhesus macaques.  

PubMed

Because wild rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) populations have suffered major declines, there is a growing need to characterize their genetic and population structure in order to protect the genetic integrity of this species. In this study, we genotyped a sample comprising 120 wild rhesus macaques from six sites in Sichuan Province for 30 nuclear microsatellite (STR) loci using an ABI 3130xl genetic analyzer. Bayesian analyses and PCA clearly differentiated monkeys from Heishui from those at other sites. The samples from all six sites exhibited high gene diversity suggesting that the Sichuan wild rhesus macaque populations are not threatened by a lack of genetic diversity. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was more frequent in the Danba and Heishui populations. This may be due to the more fragmented habitat and less disturbance by humans in this area that foster greater subpopulation structuring than occurs in eastern China. We suggest that this population subdivision is the result of both long-term geographic barriers and human activity. PMID:23269618

Li, Di Yan; Xu, Huai Liang; Trask, Jessica Satkoski; Zhu, Qing; Cheng, An Chun; Smith, David Glenn; George, Debbie; Zhang, Long

2013-04-01

216

Drought in the Western US and Floods in China: Pacific Response to Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional response to increased warming due to greenhouse forcing is of vital interest and is only now beginning to be explored. . The Pacific Ocean plays an important role in modulating regional climate in many parts of the world at interannual to decadal time-scales; the response of the Pacific to global warming is thus important to any future climate predictions. Currently, there are contradictory modeling inferences on the response of the Pacific to greenhouse warming. One way to resolve these contradictions is to look for analogues to global warming scenarios in the paleoclimate record. Although climate response to solar variability is likely to be different in magnitude and detail compared to greenhouse forcing, it is a potential analog. Solar modulation of Holocene climate has now been documented in a number of regions, including the southwestern US (SW) and the monsoon region of China, based on precipitation records of precisely-dated speleothems. In the SW higher than normal solar activity was associated with drier than normal conditions, typical of La Niña and the negative phase of the PDO. In contrast, higher solar activity was associated with wetter than normal conditions in China. This inverse response to solar forcing by the two regions is attributed to changes in the Walker circulation and the Pacific Decadal and El Niño/Southern Oscillation systems of the Pacific Ocean. The inverse response to solar forcing by the two regions is consistent with modern negative correlation (r = -0.45) of precipitation patterns between the two regions. If solar forcing is indeed a low-level analogue to greenhouse forcing, the speleothem data suggest that warming from greater greenhouse emissions will lead to La Niña and the negative phase of the PDO-like conditions in the Pacific. These conditions would result in greater drought in the western USA and wetter conditions in the monsoon regions of Asia.

Asmerom, Y.; Polyak, V.; Burns, S.; Rasmussen, J.

2007-12-01

217

The seismotectonic and macroseismic features of the Wenchuan (Sichuan) earthquake ( M S = 8.0) of May 12, 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

A disastrous earthquake with a magnitude M\\u000a \\u000a S\\u000a = 8.0 (M\\u000a \\u000a W\\u000a = 7.9), in China called “the 5.12 Wenchuan earthquake,” occurred on May 12, 2008, in Sichuan province on the border between\\u000a the Sino-Tibetan Mountains and the Sichuan depression. The instrumental epicenter was registered in the southeastern part\\u000a of Wenchuan county, and the hypocenter depth was 14 km. As

E. A. Rogozhin; Xuhui Shen

2011-01-01

218

Use of multifrequency, multipolarization shuttle imaging radar for volcano mapping in the Kunlun Mountains of Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of volcanoes northeast of Aksayqin Lake, in the western Kunlun Mountains, China, have been identified on multifrequency, multipolarization spaceborne imaging radar-C\\/X-band synthetic aperture radar (SIR-C\\/X-SAR) images. Field observations made on the volcanic morphology and terrain features are described in this paper. Analysis of single-band, single-polarization radar backscatter coefficients (?°) shows that LHV best discriminates the two types of

Guo Huadong; Liao Jingjuan; Wang Changlin; Wang Chao; Thomas G. Farr; Diane L. Evans

1997-01-01

219

Stable isotopes of lake and fluid inclusion brines, Dabusun Lake, Qaidam Basin, western China: Hydrology and paleoclimatology in arid environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Qaidam Basin, underlain by salt, is the largest (120,000 km2) on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, western China. Numerous shallow to ephemeral saline lakes and dry saline pans are present on the Qarhan Salt Plain. Dabusun Lake, the largest (about 200 km2), contains high salinity Na?Mg?Cl brines. Whereas it precipitates halite, it is fringed by a potash salt flat.The dominant inflow

Wenbo Yang; Ronald J. Spencer; H. Roy Krouse; Tim K. Lowenstein; E. Casas

1995-01-01

220

Seismic evidence for significant lateral variations in lithospheric thickness beneath the central and western North China Craton  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have migrated teleseismic S-receiver functions to construct detailed lithospheric structure images that cover the three constituent parts of the North China Craton (NCC). Our images show that in contrast to the eastern NCC where significantly thinned lithosphere (60–100km) is widespread, the central and western NCC are characterized by the coexistence of both preserved thick and dramatically thinned lithosphere. The

Ling Chen; Cheng Cheng; Zigen Wei

2009-01-01

221

Zr-in-rutile thermometry in HP/UHP eclogites from Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four Zr-in-rutile thermometry calibrations are applied to eclogites from Western China. Here, we show that if rutile grows in equilibrium with Qtz and Zrn, and is isolated inside garnet, it preserves its Zr composition and does not undergo compositional change due to cation exchange with the host garnet. It thus preserves the composition for the P- T conditions of its formation and the growth zoning of the host garnet. For the HP/UHP metamorphic temperature, the Tomkins et al. (J Metamorph Geol 25:703-713, 2007) calibration yields temperatures that agree well with previous studies, whereas the other three calibrations (Zack et al. in Contrib Mineral Petrol 148:471-488, 2004; Watson et al. in Contrib Mineral Petrol 151:413-433, 2006; Ferry and Watson in Contrib Mineral Petrol in 154:429-437, 2007), which do not include a pressure correction, give systematically lower temperatures. Zr contents of rutile inclusions within garnet show systematic decrease from garnet core to rim. The rutile inclusions in garnet rims contain the lowest Zr content, similar to that in the matrix. Analyses confirm that the pressure plays a significant role in modifying the primary temperature dependence of the Zr content of rutile. Rutiles trapped in garnets are unable to re-equilibrate easily during retrogression, but those in the matrix can do so, providing retrograde P- T path information.

Zhang, Guibin; Ellis, David J.; Christy, Andrew G.; Zhang, Lifei; Song, Shuguang

2010-09-01

222

Tree-ring hydrologic reconstructions for the Heihe River watershed, western China since AD 1430.  

PubMed

Based on the tree-ring-width analysis, the total precipitation from previous July to current June of the Qilian Mountains from 1634 to 2000 AD and the average runoff from previous September to current June in the middle section of the Heihe River from 1430 to 2007 have been reconstructed. This allowed detailed examination of the hydrologic history of the watershed of the Heihe River in western China. Precipitation, runoff and groundwater level were found to be significantly correlated with each other on the decadal scale. The three curves display quite synchronous trends of natural variation before AD 1940 to present before the onset of man-made disturbances. A remarkable period is AD 1925-1940 when the precipitation is low in the upper section, the runoff decreases in the middle section, and the groundwater level declines in the downstream section. After 1940, the groundwater level shows a lag effect, which may be a result of high water consumption in the middle and downstream sections. All three tree-ring based hydrologic indices commonly display the most significant periodicities around 80 (78-82), 50 (49-58) and 2 year. These cycles correspond to large-scale oscillation found in the climate system and appear mainly related to ocean-atmosphere interaction. PMID:20206961

Liu, Yu; Sun, Junyan; Song, Huiming; Cai, Qiufang; Bao, Guang; Li, Xuxiang

2010-05-01

223

Emplacement sequence in the Jinchuan sulfide ore-bearing ultramafic intrusion, western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion in western China hosts the third largest magmatic Cu-Ni deposit in the world. The emplacement history of magma and sulfide liquid in the intrusion remains poorly understood. Based on the lithological structure and compositional variations in the intrusion, we propose a five-stage construction model: (1) formation of sulfide-poor ultramafic lithology by injection of olivine-charged crystal mush from depth; (2) formation of disseminated sulfide zones by injection of olivine-charged magma with small amounts of suspended sulfide droplets from depth; (3) formation of net-textured sulfide ore bodies by injection of sulfide-laden magma from depth; (4) formation of massive sulfide ore body by injection of sulfide liquid from depth; and (5) formation of Cu, Pt, Pd-rich sulfide veins by injection of fractionated sulfide liquids derived from nearby sulfide zones into fractures in the intrusion and its footwall. The materials of the first four emplacements were derived from a staging, stratified magma chamber where denser materials such as immiscible sulfide liquid and olivine crystals tend to concentrated on the base and lighter materials such as silicate liquid tend to concentrate on the top.

Su, S.; Tang, Z.

2009-12-01

224

Environmental effects on parasitic disease transmission exemplified by schistosomiasis in western China  

PubMed Central

Environmental effects on the transmission of many parasitic diseases are well recognized, but the role of specific factors like climate and agricultural practices in modulating transmission is seldom characterized quantitatively. Based on studies of Schistosoma japonicum transmission in irrigated agricultural environments in western China, a mathematical model was used to quantify environmental impacts on transmission intensity. The model was calibrated by using field data from intervention studies in three villages and simulated to predict the effects of alternative control options. Both the results of these interventions and earlier epidemiological findings confirm the central role of environmental factors, particularly those relating to snail habitat and agricultural and sanitation practices. Moreover, the findings indicate the inadequacy of current niclosamide-praziquantel strategies alone to achieve sustainable interruption of transmission in some endemic areas. More generally, the analysis suggests a village-specific index of transmission potential and how this potential is modulated by time-varying factors, including climatological variables, seasonal water-contact patterns, and irrigation practices. These time-variable factors, a village's internal potential, and its connectedness to its neighbors provide a framework for evaluating the likelihood of sustained schistosomiasis transmission and suggest an approach to quantifying the role of environmental factors for other parasitic diseases.

Liang, Song; Seto, Edmund Y. W.; Remais, Justin V.; Zhong, Bo; Yang, Changhong; Hubbard, Alan; Davis, George M.; Gu, Xueguang; Qiu, Dongchuan; Spear, Robert C.

2007-01-01

225

Ground Deformation Imagery of the May Sichuan Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnitude Mw = 7.8 earthquake that struck China's Sichuan region on 12 May 2008 (Figure 1a) has been imaged by the Italian Space Agency's (ASI) Constellation of Small Satellites for the Mediterranean Basin Observation (COSMO-SkyMed radar Earth observation satellites. Five images were available-two preseismic spotlight mode images and three strip-map mode images, two of which are preseismic and one of which is postseismic. We used two strip-map images (acquired 1 month prior to and 3 days after the earthquake) to generate the first ever X-band (i.e., microwave frequency domain, corresponding to about 3-centimeter wavelength) coseismic interferogram, which clearly shows part of the strong ground deformation caused by the fault dislocation. We also performed a change detection analysis of the same data that highlighted several changes in the radar response, presumably due to strong seismic damage, as far as 80 kilometers away from the epicenter.

Stramondo, Salvatore; Chini, Marco; Salvi, Stefano; Bignami, Christian; Zoffoli, Simona; Boschi, Enzo

2008-09-01

226

Equity in use of maternal health services in Western Rural China: a survey from Shaanxi province  

PubMed Central

Background The 20th century was marked by a significant improvement in worldwide human health and access to healthcare. However, these improvements were not completely or uniformly distributed among, or even within, nations. This study was designed to assess the use of maternal health services by pregnant women in China, with a focus on the inequity related to family income level. Methods Two population-based cross-sectional surveys were carried out in the Zhenan and Lantian counties in March 2007 and from December 2008 to March 2009. A total of 2562 women completed the questionnaires, including 948 who were pregnant in 2006 and 1614 from 2008–2009. The concentration index (CI) was calculated and used to analyze the parameters of maternal health care in the two counties surveyed. Results The responses in both 2006 and 2008–2009 indicated a bias towards higher (rich) economic statuses for the use of maternal and child health services. The CI of ‘delivery at health facility’ was 0.0206 (95% confidence interval between 0.0114 and 0.0299) for 2006 and 0.0053 (95% confidence interval between 0.0015 and 0.0091) for 2008, which represented a statistically significant inequity for women of lower (poor) economic statuses. Similar CI was observed in ‘receiving antenatal care within 12?weeks’ for 2006 (CI2006 =?0.0956, 95% confidence interval between 0.0516 and 0.1396). The CIs of ‘postnatal visit’ and ‘postnatal visit >3-times’ was positive (except for 2006), indicating that the poor used postnatal care less than the non-poor. In 2008, poor women had C-sections more often than non-poor women (CI2008 =??0.0629, 95% confidence interval between-0.1165 and ?0.0093), but such a difference was not observed in 2006. Conclusions In 2006 and 2008, the use of maternal health services in western rural China was significantly unequal between pregnant women of poor and non-poor economic statuses. Financial support that enables poorer pregnant women to use health services will be beneficial. Utilization of maternal healthcare services can be improved if out-of-pocket expenses can be minimized.

2014-01-01

227

The climate change for Jehol Biota and its revolution in early Cretaceous in Western Liaoning, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jehol Biota is known by us as the biological assemblage of eosestheria, Ephemeropsis trisetalis and Lycoptera at the beginning. And then we found more fossils at near time such as Sinosauropteryx, Confuciusornis, Cathayornis, Callobatrachus sanyanensis, Archaefructaceae and other fossils in Western Liaoning, China. With the finding of those fossils, we become to think about what is the environment of this area in that time, what led to the development of such livings? In early Cretaceous, there are a lot of basins in North of Liaoning which were with plain layer in side, a lot of Lakes and volcano campaign frequently. We built up a section located in Sihetun of Liaoning with the layer is volcano-lake face. Date of the bottom is Aptian period. From TEX86 dates, we can know that the Paleatemperature is from? (the samples from the bottom is on testing and will be known soon, ), 17°C (Lake surface temperature, in the middle layer), and then 22°C(Lake surface temperature, on the top of the layer). The climate was changed from the seasonal arid or semi-arid into a warm and humid climate. With his kind of changing of the environment, the lives of Jehol Biota can survive, evolve and multiple in those basins. The movement of the volcano took the nutrients from the earth which made a flourishing many plants and plankton. This is the power of the evolution of plants. The early angiosperm came out in this time in this area which is called as Archaefructaceae. In the same time, the direction-sense, mass death of the birds and the macrofaunas showed that the exploration of the volcanoes made a lot of animals die and then be covered very quickly. In such an area where death and living was fast, there must be a quickly evolution. And it led to the formation and preservation of a large number of fossils. we found the same fossils out of the basin but later on date which showed the climate transferred to hot and dry later, and the livings in the basin were strong enough so that they could moved out of the basin at the last time. Section Map of Jehol Biota in North of Lliaoning, China LST by TEX86 in Jehol Biota layer Lake surface temperature using calibration of Powers et al., 2010, Organic Geochemistry

Wang, M.; Weijers, J.; Wang, C.; 973 Project; Igcp555

2010-12-01

228

A Sea-Surface Radiation Data Set for Climate Applications in the Tropical Western Pacific and South China Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sea-surface shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes have been retrieved from the radiances measured by Japan's Geostationary Meteorological Satellite 5. The surface radiation data set covers the domain 40S-40N and 90E-170W. The temporal resolution is 1 day, and the spatial resolution is 0.5 deg x 0.5 deg latitude-longitude. The retrieved surface radiation have been validated with the radiometric measurements at the Atmospheric Radiation Measuring (ARM) site on Manus island in the equatorial western Pacific for a period of 15 months. It has also been validated with the measurements at the radiation site on Dungsha island in the South China Sea during the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) Intensive Observing Period (May and June 1998). The data set is used to study the effect of El Nino and East Asian Summer monsoon on the heating of the ocean in the tropical western Pacific and the South China Sea. Interannual variations of clouds associated with El Nino and the East Asian Summer monsoon have a large impact on the radiative heating of the ocean. It has been found that the magnitude of the interannual variation of the seasonal mean surface radiative heating exceeds 40 W/sq m over large areas. Together with the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) shortwave fluxes at top of the atmosphere and the radiative transfer calculations of clear-sky fluxes, this surface radiation data set is also used to study the impact of clouds on the solar heating of the atmosphere. It is found that clouds enhance the atmospheric solar heating by approx. 20 W/sq m in the tropical western Pacific and the South China Sea. This result is important for evaluating the accuracy of solar flux calculations in clear and cloudy atmospheres.

Chou, Ming-Dah; Chan, Pui-King; Yan, Michael M.-H.

2000-01-01

229

A new species of Altipolia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Xyleninae) from China.  

PubMed

The trifine Noctuid genus Altipolia Plante occurs only in ecozones above the Himalayan timberline. The imagoes generally appear during late season's first frosty nights with only females becoming active in early spring after overwintering. They share this reproductive strategy and certain genitalic characters with Dasypolia Thunberg and Estagrotis Nye. Members of Altipolia are medium sized moths (wingspan 31-38 mm) having divergent wings patterns and ground colouration but more conservative genitalia especially in most females. The genus is currently comprised of seven species which can now be separated into two species-groups based on male genitalia characters. Their distribution is restricted solely to the Himalayas where they are found from Northeast Pakistan throughout North India and Nepal to China's North Yunnan and Western Sichuan Provinces. A more detailed survey of the late autumnal high mountain Himalayan Noctuidae fauna especially in the less explored areas of the Southern and Western edge of the Tibetan plateau may yield further species. Recent collecting trips to Western Sichuan resulted in new distribution data for a few interesting Altipolia species including one new to the science but also raised further taxonomical questions. The female genitalia of Altipolia are relatively uniform but further male genitalia analysis is needed and will be included in a subsequent study. The present paper provides an updated check-list of the genus including a description of a new species with a detailed comparison with its closest relatives. PMID:24943606

Benedek, Balázs; Saldaitis, Aidas; Rimsaite, Jolanta

2014-01-01

230

Crustal Structure of the Western Hubei Province of China and its Implications for Extension and Thinning of Continental Crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western Hubei Province is on the southern end of 3000-km-long north-south-oriented Xinganling-Taihangshan-Wulingshan topographic step which separates the plateaus and mountain ranges in western China from low-elevation plains in eastern China. Within the study region, the high-rising Wuling Uplift, the Huangling Massif, and the Wudangshan Mt. in the west are in sharp contrast to their neighboring low lands of Nanxiang Basin and Jianghan Basin in the east. We processed teleseismic P waveforms recorded by 30 broadband stations in the region from nearly 700 events using the receiver function method. The results show an east-west crustal thickness change of up to 20 km in less than 20 km of horizontal distance. The thin crust beneath the basins extends into the interior of the Wuling Uplift and the Huangling Massif. They suggest a decoupling between the upper and lower crust deformation and possible lower crust delamination for the crust thinning in the eastern mainland China.

Zhu, L.; Huang, R.; Xu, Y.

2013-12-01

231

Crustal structures in the area of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake from seismologic and gravimetric data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 12 May 2008 the Sichuan earthquake was one of the worst natural disasters in China. Here, we present a detailed picture of the epicentral area inferred geophysical data. Based on the analysis of teleseismic data acquired by a dense seismic network, we highlight an abrupt 20 km Moho offset between the Sichuan Basin and the Tibetan plateau and a horizontal discontinuity at ˜ 15 km depth, which may connect with the ruptured zone of the 2008 event. We obtain low mean crustal velocity ratios, which suggest the absence of a thick and extensive zone of partial melt within the crust beneath the eastern part of the Songpan-Garze Terrane. All our data support the idea that the Longmen Shan range mark a zone of active strain localization due to the rigid Yangtze craton resisting eastward displacement of the Tibetan Plateau.

Robert, A.; Zhu, J.; Vergne, J.; Cattin, R.; Chan, L. S.; Wittlinger, G.; Herquel, G.; de Sigoyer, J.; Pubellier, M.; Zhu, L. D.

2010-08-01

232

The Uppermost Mantle Structure in China from Pseudowave Tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have obtained pseudowave velocity images of the uppermost mantle beneath China by performing tomographic inversion of travel time differences between Sn and Pn. The arrival pairs were selected from the Annual Bulletin of Chinese Earthquakes from 1984 to 2005. The dataset includes 50,136 arrival pairs from 11,470 earthquakes recorded by 116 stations. The average pseudowave velocities are 10.6 km/s. The preliminary tomographic results show that 1) the pseudowave velocity is high in the Tarim and Junggar basins, the Ordos craton, the southern region of the Sichuan basin, and the Taiwan Strait; and 2) the pseudowave velocity is low in North China, the North-South Seismic Zone, and the central and western Tibetan Plateau. The pseudowave velocity pattern obtained is very similar to the distribution of Pn and Sn velocities in the study area.

Pei, S.; Sun, Y.; Rowe, C.; Liu, H.; Zhao, J.

2007-12-01

233

Psychological Distress among Adolescents in Chengdu, Sichuan at 1 Month after the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake  

PubMed Central

A devastating earthquake occurred on May 12, 2008 in Sichuan, China. This study investigated the prevalence and factors in association with psychological problems among secondary school students living in Chengdu (90 km away from the disaster epicenter) in June 2008. In a cross-sectional survey, 3,324 secondary students self-administered a structured questionnaire in classroom setting. Validated scales were used in this study. Among all respondents, 22.3% reported post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); 22.6% were probable depression cases; 10.6% reported suicidal ideation; and 14.1% would like to receive psychological counseling. No gender differences were found. While social/emotional support from teachers or peers (OR from 0.40 to 0.78) and exposure to positive news reports (OR from 0.59 to 0.62) were found protective, prior experience of severe mental distress (OR from 1.60 to 2.68) and corporal punishment (OR from 1.31 to 1.58), worry about future aftershocks (OR from 1.64 to 3.11), absence from school when it was not closed (OR from 1.38 to 1.48), exposures to scary or sorrowful disaster media coverage (OR from 1.39 to 2.07), post-disaster visits to affected sites (OR from 1.51 to 1.59), separation from parents (OR?=?1.61), etc., were risk factors predictive of some of the aforementioned psychological problems. Negative mental health impacts were prevalent among the respondents. Teachers, parents, and the mass media are all important in maintaining good mental health among adolescents that are indirectly affected by the severe earthquake. The results have important implications for earthquake preparedness and relief work in the future.

Yu, Xiaonan; Zhang, Jianxin; Mak, Winnie W. S.; Choi, Kai Chow; Lui, Wacy W. S.; Zhang, Jianxin; Chan, Emily Y. Y.

2010-01-01

234

Assessment of maternal anemia in rural Western China between 2001 and 2005: a two-level logistic regression approach  

PubMed Central

Background There are multiple adverse effects of anemia on human function, particularly on women. However, few researches are conducted on women anemia in rural Western China. This study mainly aims to investigate the levels and associated factors of maternal anemia between 2001 and 2005 in this region. Methods 6172 and 5372 mothers with children under three years old were selected from 8 provinces in 2001 and from 9 provinces in 2005 respectively in Western China by means of a multi-stage probability proportion to size sampling method (PPS). The blood samples were tested and related socio-demographic information was obtained through questionnaires. A two-level logistic regression model was employed to identify the determinants and provincial variations of women anemia in 2001 and 2005. Results The results indicated that the crude prevalence of women anemia in 2005 was higher than the rate in 2001(45.7% vs 33.6%). Based on the nationwide census data in 2000, the age-standardized prevalence of women anemia in the study were obtained as 38.0% in 2001 and 50.0% in 2005 respectively. Two-level logistic model analysis showed that compared to the average, women were more likely to be anemic in Guangxi and Qinghai in 2001 as well as in Chongqing and Qinghai in 2005; that women from Minority groups had higher odds of anemia in contrast with Han; that women with higher parity, longer breastfeeding duration and higher socioeconomic level had a lower rate of anemia, while age of women was positively associated with anemia. The positive correlation between women anemia and altitude was also observed. Conclusions The study demonstrated that the burden of maternal anemia in rural Western China increased considerably between 2001 and 2005. The Chinese government should conduct integrated interventions on anemia of mothers in this region.

2013-01-01

235

Thoughts on "Two Exemptions and One Subsidy" (TEOS) in China's Western Region  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The policy of "two exemptions and one subsidy" (TEOS), which is a "popular sentiment" project, has brought life to the western region's rural education and light to impoverished families. In addition to launching the battle for the "two basics" in the western region, the overall popularization of distance education for rural schools in the western

Xiangyang, Tian

2008-01-01

236

China in the Eyes of Western Travelers as Represented in Travel Blogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Travel blogs provide a new way of understanding consumers' perceptions on destination and its associated products. The purpose of this study was to examine international tourists' destination image of China as represented in travel blog discourse. Data were obtained from blog entries relating to trips to China posted on three dominant travel blog websites. Content analysis facilitated by Atlas.ti 6.0

Xu Li; Youcheng Wang

2011-01-01

237

Precise U-Pb zircon-baddeleyite age of the Jinchuan sulfide ore-bearing ultramafic intrusion, western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion in western China hosts the third-largest magmatic Ni-Cu deposit in the world. The crystallization age of the intrusion has long been debated. Here, we present a U-Pb ID-TIMS zircon age of 831.8 ± 0.6 Ma obtained on thermally annealed and chemically etched zircons from a lherzolite sample. The coexisting baddeleyite in the sample is indistinguishable from the age of zircon. Our new results confirm that the emplacement of the Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion was temporally related to the breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent.

Zhang, Mingjie; Kamo, Sandra L.; Li, Chusi; Hu, Peiqing; Ripley, Edward M.

2010-01-01

238

Landslide erosion associated with the May 12, 2008 Sichuan Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The M7.9 earthquake of May 12, 2008 in Sichuan, China triggered a remarkable number of landslides. As time progresses and satellite imagery becomes available, the landslide inventory associated with this event will be a valuable dataset for understanding the dynamics and distribution of landslides triggered by large earthquakes and for constraining models of landscape evolution in steep topography where landslides are the dominant mode of hillslope erosion. The landslides associated with Sichuan earthquake will also have interesting implications for the tectonic and landscape evolution of the Longmen Shan. Preliminary analysis of satellite imagery reveals that the highest density of landslides and therefore the greatest amount of landslide driven erosion was focused along Longmen Shan front associated with steep, high relief topography and is closely tied to the region of greatest ground motion in the hanging wall of the fault rupture. The rocks underlying the highest density of landslides are Precambrian granites and gneisses, and landslide density decreases moving to the northeast in areas underlain by deformed Paleozoic sediments. Short-term erosion rates in the Longmen Shan region measured prior to the earthquake from concentrations of 10Be in quartz extracted in 5 river catchments were 0.22-0.32 mm/yr, reflecting the last 1,500-3,000 years - a time period shorter than the estimated recurrence interval of large earthquakes along the fault that ruptured. Long-term erosion rates measured by low-temperature thermochronology, meanwhile, are higher, 0.5-0.6 mm/yr (Kirby et al., 2002). This suggests that the earthquake and landslide erosion associated with it allowed the landscape to catch up and balance the tectonic growth of Longmen Shan.

Ouimet, W.

2008-12-01

239

Tectonic evolution and hydrocarbon accumulation in the Yabulai Basin, western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yabulai petroliferous basin is located at the north of Hexi Corridor, western China, striking NEE and covering an area of 1.5×104 km2. It is bounded on the south by Beidashan Mountain to the Chaoshui Basin, on the east by Bayanwulashan Mountain to the Bayanhaote Basin, and on the northwest by Yabulai Mountain to the Yingen-Ejinaqi Basin. It is a Meso-cenozoic compressive depression residual basin. In view of regional geotectonics, the Yabulai basin sits in the middle-southern transition belt of Arershan massif in North China Craton. Driven by Indosinian movement at the late Triassic, two near EW normal faults were developed under the regional extensional stress along the northern fringe of Beidashan Mountain and the southern fringe of Yabulai Mountain front in the Arershan massif, forming the embryonic form of the Yabulai rift lake basin. Since Yanshan period, the Yabulai basin evolved in two major stages: Jurassic rift lake basin and Cretaceous rift lake basin. During early Yanshan period, EW striking Yabulai tensional rift was formed. Its major controlling fault was Beidashan normal fault, and the depocenter was at the south of this basin. During middle Yanshan period, collision orogenesis led to sharp uplift at the north of this basin where the middle-lower Jurassic formations were intensely eroded. During late Yanshan period, the Alashan massif and its northern area covered in an extensional tectonic environment, and EW striking normal faults were generated at the Yabulai Mountain front. Such faults moved violently and subsided quickly to form a new EW striking extensional rift basin with the depocenter at the south of Yabulai Mountain. During Himalayan period, the Alashan massif remained at a SN horizontal compressional tectonic environment; under the compressional and strike slip actions, a NW striking and south dipping thrusting nappe structure was formed in the south of the Yabulai basin, which broke the Beidashan normal fault to provide the echelon fault system and finally present the current structural framework of "east uplift and west depression, south faulted and north overlapping". The Yabulai basin presented as a strike-slip pull-apart basin in Mesozoic and a compressional thrusting depression basin in Cenozoic. Particularly, the Mesozoic tectonic units were distributed at a big included angle with the long axis of the basin, while the Cenozoic tectonic units were developed in a basically consistent direction with the long axis. The sags are segmented. Major subsiding sags are located in the south, where Mesozoic Jurassic-Cretaceous systems are developed, with the thickest sedimentary rocks up to 5300m. Jurassic is the best developed system in this basin. Middle Jurassic provides the principal hydrocarbon-bearing assemblage in this basin, with Xinhe Fm. and Qingtujing Fm. dark mudstone and coal as the source rocks, Xinhe Fm. and Qingtujing Fm. sandstones as the reservoir formation, and Xinhe Fm. mudstones as the cap rocks. However, the early burial and late uplifting damaged the structural framework of the basin, thus leading to the early violent compaction and tightness of Jurassic sandstone reservoir and late hydrocarbon maturity. So, tectonic development period was unmatched to hydrocarbon expulsion period of source rocks. The hydrocarbons generated were mainly accumulated near the source rocks and entrapped in reservoir. Tight oil should be the major exploration target, which has been proved by recent practices.

Zheng, Min; Wu, Xiaozhi

2014-05-01

240

Invasion Genetics of the Western Flower Thrips in China: Evidence for Genetic Bottleneck, Hybridization and Bridgehead Effect  

PubMed Central

The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is an invasive species and the most economically important pest within the insect order Thysanoptera. F. occidentalis, which is endemic to North America, was initially detected in Kunming in southwestern China in 2000 and since then it has rapidly invaded several other localities in China where it has greatly damaged greenhouse vegetables and ornamental crops. Controlling this invasive pest in China requires an understanding of its genetic makeup and migration patterns. Using the mitochondrial COI gene and 10 microsatellites, eight of which were newly isolated and are highly polymorphic, we investigated the genetic structure and the routes of range expansion of 14 F. occidentalis populations in China. Both the mitochondrial and microsatellite data revealed that the genetic diversity of F. occidentalis of the Chinese populations is lower than that in its native range. Two previously reported cryptic species (or ecotypes) were found in the study. The divergence in the mitochondrial COI of two Chinese cryptic species (or ecotypes) was about 3.3% but they cannot be distinguished by nuclear markers. Hybridization might produce such substantial mitochondrial-nuclear discordance. Furthermore, we found low genetic differentiation (global FST?=?0.043, P<0.001) among all the populations and strong evidence for gene flow, especially from the three southwestern populations (Baoshan, Dali and Kunming) to the other Chinese populations. The directional gene flow was further supported by the higher genetic diversity of these three southwestern populations. Thus, quarantine and management of F. occidentalis should focus on preventing it from spreading from the putative source populations to other parts of China.

Yang, Xian-Ming; Sun, Jing-Tao; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Li, Jin-Bo; Hong, Xiao-Yue

2012-01-01

241

Mantle structure from inter-station Rayleigh wave dispersion and its tectonic implication in western China and neighboring regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We processed more than 3000 inter-station great circle paths to determine the phase velocity for the fundamental mode of Rayleigh wave, and finally arrived at 110 paths of high quality dispersion data, which show good spatial coverage in western China and neighboring regions. Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion model WChina1D was obtained and compared with previous global and regional models. Phase velocity maps from 15 to 120 s were inverted and the maps of 20, 40, 80, and 120 s are presented in this paper. Checkerboard tests show the average lateral resolution in our area of interest is about 7°. Our tomographic results corroborate a prominent low-velocity anomaly lying mainly in the lower crust and uppermost mantle in the Chang Thang terrane. The apparent low-velocity anomaly also appears in the wide area of northeastern Tibet in the crust and upper mantle. The low-velocity area around southeastern Tibet may be created by the southeastern migration of the low-velocity mass of the Tibetan plateau. The eastern Tarim shows structure with higher velocities relative to that of central Tarim. A large-scale low-velocity anomaly is clearly seen in central and western Mongolia. Our high quality measurements were also used to evaluate the CUB global shear velocity model [Shapiro, N., Ritzwoller, M., 2002. Monte-Carlo inversion for a global shear-velocity model of the crust and upper mantle. Geophys. J. Int. 151, 88-105] of the crust and upper mantle. The 40 s Rayleigh phase velocity map predicted from CUB model shows an apparent discrepancy with our measurements in western China and western Mongolia, which implies a higher estimated (about +1-2%) phase velocity model in these regions, probably due to the Gaussian smoothing condition in their tomography inversion.

Yao, Huajian; Xu, Guoming; Zhu, Liangbao; Xiao, Xiang

2005-01-01

242

New species of the genus Chydaeus from China, Nepal, Myanmar, and Thailand, with remarks on species previously described (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Harpalini).  

PubMed

Ten new species of the genus Chydaeus Chaudoir, 1854 are described: C. dissimilis sp. n. (the bedeli species group) from the Doi Inthanon Mountain, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand; C. shaanxiensis sp. n. (the kasaharai species group) from the Daba Shan Mountain Range, southern Shaanxi, China; C. kabaki sp. n. (the kasaharai species group) from southern Sichuan, China; C. weishanensis sp. n. (the kasaharai species group) from the northern part of Wuliang Shan, western Yunnan, China; C. belousovi sp. n. (the kasaharai species group) from the south-western Yunnan, China; C. putaoensis sp. n. (the kasaharai species group) from the environments of Putao, the northernmost part of Myanmar; C. ganeshensis sp. n. (the irvinei species group) from the Ganesh Himal, Central Nepal; C. chuliensis sp. n. (the semenowi species group) from the Manaslu Himal, Central Nepal; C. wuliangensis sp. n. (the semenowi species group) from the northern part of Wuliang Shan, western Yunnan, China; C. luxiensis sp. n. (the semenowi species group) from the environments of Luxi, western Yunnan, China. New data about the distribution of the following species are provided: C. kasaharai Ito, 2002, C. shunichii Ito, 2006, C. semenowi (Tschitschérine, 1899), C. convexus Ito, 2002, C. baoshanensis Kataev & Liang, 2012, and C. obtusicollis Schauberger, 1932. The following taxa are reported for the first time: Chydaeus semenowi, C. obtusicollis and C. bedeli interjectus Kataev & Schmidt, 2002 from the Indian state Arunachal Pradesh, C. bedeli difficilis Kataev & Schmidt, 2002 from Myanmar, and C. similis Kataev & Schmidt, 2002 from the Chinese provinces Shaanxi and Chongqing. PMID:24870882

Kataev, Boris M; Wrase, David W; Schmidt, Joachim

2014-01-01

243

A music therapy educator and undergraduate students’ perceptions of their music project's relevance for Sichuan earthquake survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the earthquake in Sichuan, China, in May 2008, which killed approximately 70,000 people, a music therapy educator led three teams, totalling 41 music therapy students, who provided music performances and activities to survivors and relief workers for three 30-day periods from June–August 2008. This constructivist research examines the educator's and five music therapy student volunteers’ perceptions of their music

Tian Gao; Clare OCallaghan; Lucanne Magill; Sisi Lin; Junhan Zhang; Jingwen Zhang; Jiaao Yu; Xiaomeng Shi

2012-01-01

244

Are western community psychiatric models suitable for China? An examination of cultural and socio-economic foundations of western community psychiatry models using assertive community treatment as an example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western community psychiatry models, such as Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) and Case Management, are well-studied and considered to be effective and cost-effective; in particular, ACT is perceived as a gold standard for community treatment of severe and persistently mentally ill patients. With China's recent rapid economic reform and attendant cultural and healthcare system changes, it is timely to examine the

Samuel F. Law

2008-01-01

245

Prevalence and Trend of Major Transfusion-Transmissible Infections among Blood Donors in Western China, 2005 through 2010  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) in blood donations is important for evaluating blood safety and potential risks to the population. This study investigated the prevalence of TTIs among blood donors in Western China and suggested measures for policy-makers. Methods The screening results of 66,311 donations between 2005 and 2010 from a central blood center in Western China were analyzed. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and syphilis infections were expressed in percentages for the entire study group as well as groups by demographic characteristics and donation frequency, with differences analyzed using Fisher's exact or Chi-square test. Logistic regression was performed to identify the influencing factors of the detected results. Results 1,769 (2.67%, 95% CI 2.55–2.79%) of the donated blood had serological evidence of infection with at least one pathogen and 44 (0.07%, 95% CI 0.05–0.09%) showed evidence of multiple infections. The seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV, and syphilis infections was 0.87% (95% CI 0.80–0.94%), 0.86% (95% CI 0.79–0.93%), 0.31% (95% CI 0.26–0.35%), and 0.70% (95% CI 0.64–0.76%) respectively. Trend analysis for the prevalence of TTIs showed a significant increase from 2.44% to 3.71% (?2?=?100.72, p?=?0.00) over this 6-year period. The positive rates for TTIs varied along demographic lines. The top three risk factors in test-positive donors were identified as age, education level and donation frequency. The older age group and lower educated group were linked to a higher prevalence of TTIs. A decreasing prevalence was associated with an increasing frequency of blood donations (?2?=?562.78, p?=?0.00). Conclusions Hepatitis B and C were found most, and often in conjunction with syphilis. These were the primary threats to blood safety. The high positivity rate and the increasing prevalence of TTIs among blood donors in Western China call for further actions.

Song, Yan; Bian, Ying; Petzold, Max; Ung, Carolina Oi Lam

2014-01-01

246

Effect of melt–rock interaction on geochemistry in the Kudi ophiolite (western Kunlun Mountains, northwestern China): implication for ophiolite origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major, trace and rare earth elements (REE), and platinum group elements (PGE) geochemistry have been studied for the Kudi ophiolite in the northwestern part of the western Kunlun Mountains, northwestern China, in order to determine the relationship between the mantle peridotites and mafic lavas and the origin of the ophiolite. The ophiolite consists of harzburgites, dunites, cumulate dunites, pyroxenites and

Zhihong Wang; Shu Sun; Quanlin Hou; Jiliang Li

2001-01-01

247

An Exploratory Study of the Application of Modern Distance Learning Resources for Rural Elementary and Middle Schools in Western China: The Case of Three Cities in Gansu Province  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a specially adapted questionnaire, research was carried out to explore how resources in modern distance learning were being applied in rural elementary and middle schools in Western China, in order to enhance the usefulness of the allocated resources. One particular distance learning project was used as the subject of the study, and…

Yang, Gaixue; Yu, Shuyu

2010-01-01

248

Planning and implementing the green manufacturing strategy: evidences from western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the model for planning and implementing the green manufacturing (GM) strategy for Chinese enterprises under the background of “Energy Conservation and Pollution Emissions Reduction”. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Based on an in-depth case study of a machine tool manufacturer in Chongqing, China, the paper tries to investigate the planning and implementing of

Congbo Li; Fei Liu; Qiulian Wang

2010-01-01

249

Postgraduate Educational Aspirations and Policy Implications: A case study of university students in western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's educational reform from the late 1990s, has substantially increased university capacity. This has been most evident in undergraduate enrolments. As an increasingly large cohort of university graduates enters the job market yearly, the demand for university graduates has not caught up with supply. Some university students plan to pursue postgraduate studies in order to delay their entry into the

Peter S. Li; Liming Li; Li Zong

2007-01-01

250

Comparison of handaxes from Bose Basin (China) and the western Acheulean indicates convergence of form, not cognitive differences.  

PubMed

Alleged differences between Palaeolithic assemblages from eastern Asia and the west have been the focus of controversial discussion for over half a century, most famously in terms of the so-called 'Movius Line'. Recent discussion has centered on issues of comparability between handaxes from eastern Asian and 'Acheulean' examples from western portions of the Old World. Here, we present a multivariate morphometric analysis in order to more fully document how Mid-Pleistocene (i.e. ?803 Kyr) handaxes from Bose Basin, China compare to examples from the west, as well as with additional (Mode 1) cores from across the Old World. Results show that handaxes from both the western Old World and Bose are significantly different from the Mode 1 cores, suggesting a gross comparability with regard to functionally-related form. Results also demonstrate overlap between the ranges of shape variation in Acheulean handaxes and those from Bose, demonstrating that neither raw material nor cognitive factors were an absolute impediment to Bose hominins in making comparable handaxe forms to their hominin kin west of the Movius Line. However, the shapes of western handaxes are different from the Bose examples to a statistically significant degree. Moreover, the handaxe assemblages from the western Old World are all more similar to each other than any individual assemblage is to the Bose handaxes. Variation in handaxe form is also comparatively high for the Bose material, consistent with suggestions that they represent an emergent, convergent instance of handaxe technology authored by Pleistocene hominins with cognitive capacities directly comparable to those of 'Acheulean' hominins. PMID:22536441

Wang, Wei; Lycett, Stephen J; von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen; Jin, Jennie J H; Bae, Christopher J

2012-01-01

251

Identification of a Novel HIV Type 1 Circulating Recombinant Form (CRF65_cpx) Composed of CRF01_AE and Subtypes B and C in Western Yunnan, China.  

PubMed

Abstract A novel HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF) designated CRF65_cpx was recently characterized from three epidemiologically unlinked individuals infected through heterosexual contact in western Yunnan province of China. This is the first complex mosaic HIV-1 CRF, consisting of contributions from three or more different subtypes, identified in China. An additional full-length genome sequence with identical recombinant breakpoints was found among a previously reported recombinant strain from a man who had sex with a man in Anhui province of East Central China. The breakpoint analysis of the recombinants showed a complex genome organization composed of parental subtypes B' (Thailand variant of subtype B), C, and CRF01_AE, with 13 recombination breakpoints observed in almost all structure genes of HIV-1. The generation of complex recombinant forms is likely due to cocirculation of multiple lineages of HIV-1 strains in high-risk populations in western Yunnan. PMID:24279591

Feng, Yi; Wei, Huamian; Hsi, Jenny; Xing, Hui; He, Xiang; Liao, Lingjie; Ma, Yanling; Ning, Chuanyi; Wang, Nidan; Takebe, Yutaka; Shao, Yiming

2014-06-01

252

Free and Forced Rossby Waves in the Western South China Sea Inferred from Jason-1 Satellite Altimetry Data  

PubMed Central

Data from a subsurface mooring deployed in the western South China Sea shows clear intra-seasonal oscillations (ISO) at the period of 40?70 days. Analysis of remotely-sensed sea surface height (SSH) anomalies in the same area indicates that these ISO signals propagate both eastward and westward. Time-longitude diagrams of ISO signals in SSH anomalies and wind-stress curl indicate that the eastward propagating SSH anomalies is forced by wind-stress curl. This is also confirmed by lag correlation between SSH anomalies and the wind-stress-curl index (wind stress curl averaged over 109.5°E -115°E and 12°N -13.5°N). Lag correlation of SSH anomaly suggests that the westward propagating signals are free Rossby waves.

Wu, Xiangyu; Xie, Qiang; He, Zhigang; Wang, Dongxiao

2008-01-01

253

Lead isotopic composition of insoluble particles from widespread mountain glaciers in western China: Natural vs. anthropogenic sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable lead (Pb) isotopic fingerprints provide opportunities to trace natural and anthropogenic Pb sources in the environment. In order to evaluate Pb deposition from different sources over mountainous areas of western China, Pb isotopic compositions were characterized from modern aeolian dust in 15 snowpit samples collected from 13 typical mountain glaciers between 2008 and 2010. Most of the snowpits sampled cover more than a whole year of accumulation and overlap with each other on deposition date. Pb isotopic variability among all the samples is small, varying in the range of 18.1399-18.9199 for 206Pb/204Pb, 15.5979-15.8743 for 207Pb/204Pb, 38.2272-39.9453 for 208Pb/204Pb, 1.1605-1.2009 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.4433-2.5182 for 208Pb/207Pb. Three isotopic plots of the different Pb isotope ratios (207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb, 208Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/207Pb vs. 206Pb/207Pb) in all the samples show identical geographic trends, with more radiogenic in the south and less in the north. This trend is consistent with the distribution of natural dust sources and supports the interpretation of a regional/local source for insoluble particles (IP) to snow/glaciers in this region. Comparison with the Pb isotope results from potential dust sources, however, it shows that the Pb isotopic compositions of IP samples in snow samples are relatively less radiogenic. Parts of these less-radiogenic Pb isotopes are comparable with the ice core results during recent decades, which are shown to be influenced by anthropogenic sources. At sites located along the periphery of western China, the Pb isotopic compositions are much closer to anthropogenic results. Natural and anthropogenic Pb sources are roughly assessed using a simple binary model. The sites with a high anthropogenic fraction are at lower elevations and are relatively close to population centers.

Yu, Guangming; Xu, Jianzhong; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong; Huang, Jie; Ren, Qian; Ren, Jiawen; Qin, Dahe

2013-08-01

254

The Protestant medical missions to China: the introduction of Western medicine with vaccination.  

PubMed

Modern medicine in China began with the arrival of Anglo-American Protestant missionaries in the early 19th century. Conditions were vastly different from the times of the Jesuits in Peking during the 17th and 18th centuries, when the priests enjoyed the endorsement of the Court and high officials. Faced with hostile and xenophobic officialdom and populace, surgeons of the British East India Company in collaboration with missionaries took the initiative. In 1805 Dr Alexander Pearson (1780-1874) introduced smallpox vaccination in Macao and Canton. Reverend Dr Robert Morrison (1782-1834) of the London Missionary Society with another East India Company Surgeon, Dr John Livingstone (1829) opened a dispensary for the poor in Macao in 1820. These pioneers paved the way for later Anglo-American medical missionaries who revolutionized medical practice in China. PMID:24585751

Fu, Louis

2013-05-01

255

EMS systems in China.  

PubMed

The prehospital emergency service is the initial part of the Emergency Medical Service System (EMSS) in China, and is the de facto overall emergency medical service for China. As the EMSS in China continues to undergo rapid development, it faces the challenge of providing rapid response times with adequate coverage for this highly populated country. The recent Sichuan earthquake on 12 May 2008 tested the ability of the EMSS response. This article focuses on the prehospital emergency service of the EMSS and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the current system. PMID:19443099

Hung, Kevin K C; Cheung, C S K; Rainer, T H; Graham, C A

2009-07-01

256

A traverse through the western Kunlun (Xinjiang, China): tentative geodynamic implications for the Paleozoic and Mesozoic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northern part of the western Kunlun (southern margin of the Tarim basin) represents a Sinian rifted margin. To the south\\u000a of this margin, the Sinian to Paleozoic Proto-Tethys Ocean formed. South-directed subduction of this ocean, beneath the continental\\u000a southern Kunlun block during the Paleozoic, resulted in the collision between the northern and southern Kunlun blocks during\\u000a the Devonian. The

Frank Mattern; Werner Schneider; Yongan Li; Xiangdong Li

1996-01-01

257

Rifting of the north-western South China Sea Basin from MCS images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have reprocessed about 2250 km of multichannel seismic reflection data collected during cruise Sonne 49 across the NW South China Sea. We present images across four regional lines that cross the outer continental shelf and slope, and extend into the deep-water basin. The seismic images are of high quality and show the crustal structure from clear base-of-the-crust reflections to continuous top-of-basement reflections and a well imaged syn-rift and post rift stratigraphy and intrusive magmatic layering. In addition, fault reflections in the basement are also common. The crystalline basement and sediment strata display a series of structures that change laterally from the continental shelf to the deep-water basin and that have been used to define a continental domain, an abrupt continent to ocean transition and an oceanic domain. Existing wide-angle data coincident with our lines support our interpretation. The style of continental extension, the structures defining the continent to ocean transition, and the distribution of oceanic crust in the basin has been used to propose a tectonic model of the formation of the NW South China Sea continental margin. The data document the three-dimensional temporal evolution of the interplay between rifting processes and seafloor spreading leading to the current structural configuration.

Ranero, Cesar R.; Cameselle, Alejandra L.; Franke, Dieter; Barckhausen, Udo

2014-05-01

258

Molecular, ethno-spatial epidemiology of leprosy in China: Novel insights for tracing leprosy in endemic and non endemic provinces  

PubMed Central

Leprosy continues to be detected at near stable rates in China even with established control programs, necessitating new knowledge and alternative methods to interrupt transmission. A molecular epidemiology investigation of 190 patients was undertaken to define M. leprae strain types and discern genetic relationships and clusters in endemic and non-endemic regions spanning seventeen provinces and two autonomous regions. The findings support multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis as a useful tool in uncovering characteristic patterns across the multiethnic and divergent geographic landscape of China. Several scenarios of clustering of leprosy from township to provincial to regional levels were recognized, while recent occupational or remote migration showed geographical separation of certain strains. First, prior studies indicated that of the four major M. leprae subtypes defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), only type 3 was present in China, purportedly entering from Europe/West/Central Asia via the Silk Road. However, this study revealed VNTR linked strains that are of type 1 in Guangdong, Fujian and Guangxi in southern China. Second, a subset of VNTR distinguishable strains of type 3, co-exist in these provinces. Third, type 3 strains with rpoT VNTR allele of 4, detected in Japan and Korea were discovered in Jiangsu and Anhui in the east and in western Sichuan bordering Tibet. Fourth, considering the overall genetic diversity, strains of endemic counties of Qiubei, Yunnan; Xing Yi, Guizhou; and across Sichuan in southwest were related. However, closer inspection showed distinct local strains and clusters. Altogether, these insights, primarily derived from VNTR typing, reveal multiple and overlooked paths for spread of leprosy into, within and out of China and invoke attention to historic maritime routes in the South and East China Sea. More importantly, new concepts and approaches for prospective case finding and tracking of leprosy from county to national level have been introduced.

Weng, Xiaoman; Xing, Yan; Liu, Jian; Wang, Yonghong; Ning, Yong; Li, Ming; Wu, Wenbin; Zhang, Lianhua; Li, Wei; Heiden, Jason Vander; Vissa, Varalakshmi

2013-01-01

259

Molecular, ethno-spatial epidemiology of leprosy in China: novel insights for tracing leprosy in endemic and non endemic provinces.  

PubMed

Leprosy continues to be detected at near stable rates in China even with established control programs, necessitating new knowledge and alternative methods to interrupt transmission. A molecular epidemiology investigation of 190 patients was undertaken to define Mycobacterium leprae strain types and discern genetic relationships and clusters in endemic and non-endemic regions spanning seventeen provinces and two autonomous regions. The findings support multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis as a useful tool in uncovering characteristic patterns across the multiethnic and divergent geographic landscape of China. Several scenarios of clustering of leprosy from township to provincial to regional levels were recognized, while recent occupational or remote migration showed geographical separation of certain strains. First, prior studies indicated that of the four major M. leprae subtypes defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), only type 3 was present in China, purportedly entering from Europe/West/Central Asia via the Silk Road. However, this study revealed VNTR linked strains that are of type 1 in Guangdong, Fujian and Guangxi in southern China. Second, a subset of VNTR distinguishable strains of type 3, co-exist in these provinces. Third, type 3 strains with rpoT VNTR allele of 4, detected in Japan and Korea were discovered in Jiangsu and Anhui in the east and in western Sichuan bordering Tibet. Fourth, considering the overall genetic diversity, strains of endemic counties of Qiubei, Yunnan; Xing Yi, Guizhou; and across Sichuan in southwest were related. However, closer inspection showed distinct local strains and clusters. Altogether, these insights, primarily derived from VNTR typing, reveal multiple and overlooked paths for spread of leprosy into, within and out of China and invoke attention to historic maritime routes in the South and East China Sea. More importantly, new concepts and approaches for prospective case finding and tracking of leprosy from county to national level have been introduced. PMID:23291419

Weng, Xiaoman; Xing, Yan; Liu, Jian; Wang, Yonghong; Ning, Yong; Li, Ming; Wu, Wenbin; Zhang, Lianhua; Li, Wei; Heiden, Jason Vander; Vissa, Varalakshmi

2013-03-01

260

China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

China has the longest continuous civilization in the world--about 4000 years. Another reason to study China is its sheer size in both area and population. This text gives students the opportunity to explore those aspects of Chinese life which have changed in recent years. The extensive history and religion sections allow these changes to be seen…

Semaan, Leslie

261

China's \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Special Report examines both improvements and problems in China's relations with neighboring countries in different parts of Asia. John W. Garver of the Georgia Institute of Technology argues that China's core interest is to maintain the status quo of non- Islamist and non-democratic states in post-Soviet Central Asia, and to uphold the existing balance of power between India and

JOHN W. GARVER; DENNIS V. H ICKEY; MICHAEL R. CHAMBERS

262

A global collaboration to deploy help to China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A firsthand account of an international team effort to install the Sahana disaster-management system in Chengdu, Sichuan after an earthquake. On Monday May 12, 2008, an earthquake measuring 7.9 on the Richter scale struck in Sichuan Province in southwestern China, destroying homes, schools, hospitals, roads, and vital power and communication infrastructure. More than 45 million people were affected---tens of thousands

Ralph Morelli; Chamindra de Silva; Trishan R. de Lanerolle; Rebecca Curzon; Xin Sheng Mao

2010-01-01

263

China.  

PubMed

This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary school. China's goal is to provide universal elementary school education by 1990. Since 1978 the premise of China's economic policy has been that consumer welfare, economic productivity, and political stability are indivisible. Emphasis has been placed on raising personal income and consumption and on introducing new productivity incentive and management systems. Since early 1982 China has placed increasing importance on building closer ties with the 3rd world. China's armed forces total about 4.2 million. In February 1981 the Reagan Administration reaffirmed the US commitment to respect the principles of the 1979 Communique on the Establishment of Diplomatic relations. PMID:12178089

1983-12-01

264

Tectonic evolution of the Altyn Tagh-Western Kunlun fault system, northwestern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neotectonic and structural mapping of the Altyn Tagh and North Altyn faults suggests that Tarim-Tibet relative motion has been distributed across a zone of strike-slip faults with a cross-strike width of at least 100 km. Geologic mapping along the North Altyn fault indicates that Mio (?)-Pliocene motion was predominantly left-reverse. Map relations imply that total offset on this structure is >120 km, since lithologic packages on opposite sides of the fault system do not mach along the entire mapped length of the fault and preliminary 40Ar/39Ar thermochronologic data suggest that this pattern does not reflect late Mesozoic or Cenozoic juxtaposition of different crustal levels. The width and distributed nature of deformation within the Altyn Tagh fault system requires that a regional marker be identified to determine total offset. Data presented here suggest such a marker exists in the western and eastern Kunlun Shan, which lie to the north and south of the fault system, respectively. U-Pb ion microprobe zircon dating reveals widespread Cambro-Devonian plutonism within both belts. In both cases this Cambro-Devonian magmatic province is sharply bound to the south by the Songpan-Ganzi flysch belt. I suggest that the Altyn Tagh fault has offset the boundary between these two tectonic domains by 475 +/- 70 km. It is unlikely that the present structural framework within the western Kunlun Shan has been responsible for the separation of this belt from the eastern Kunlun Shan. Investigation of the western Kunlun Shan indicates this thrust belt comprises three main south-dipping structures: the Hotan, Tiklik, and Tam Karaul thrusts. Integrated structural and thermochronologic studies of the Hotan and Tiklik thrust sheets suggest that Oligocene to recent deformation of this belt is dominated by thin skinned, north-directed thrusting which is restricted to shallow crustal levels (i.e., <10 km). Both the western Kunlun Shan and the Tibetan plateau to the south move northwards relative to Tarim along this south-dipping thrust system. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Cowgill, Eric Saxon

265

Deformation and propagation of the Western Kunlun foreland into the Tarim Basin (Xinjiang, China)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Western Kunlun, which bounds the north-western Tibetan Plateau, is one of the largest mountain range of Asia, with altitudes peaking at 6500-7500 m asl, and an extension of 750 km. Moreover its foreland extends until 320 km into the Tarim basin, which is strongly flexured: up to 9 km of neogene-quaternary sediments are accumulated in front of the range. A large spectrum of studies (thermochronology, magnetostratigraphy, sedimentology, structural geology) now shows that this range is active since the early Miocene (23 Ma) to at least the Pleistocene (2.6 Ma). However, timing of the deformation, as well as present-day tectonic activity, are not well-explored yet. We bring new constraints on the crustal structure and Neogene evolution of the Western Kunlun through field data, satellite imagery, elevation models and seismic profiles. We also focus on key structures of the foothills to describe and quantify Quaternary deformation. At range scale, three décollement levels are described in Eocene, Cambrian and in the basement. Underplating forms an antiformal nappe stack at the morphological front. In the foreland, the sediments are folded by several deep-rooted faults, which are located until 320 km away from the morphological front. Timing of the deformation on these faults is constrained through the identification of growth strata on seismic profiles that indicate onset of deformation in the foreland since the end of the Miocene. Geomorphological and topographic analysis of (1) the morphological-front thrust (Tekelike fault), (2) a large foreland fault-bend-fold (Pishan-Yesheng anticline), and (3) the emergent frontal-thrust (Mazar Tagh range), give insight into deformation patterns and uplift values across these structures. Cosmogenic 10Be dating of fluvial markers provides bounds on uplift rates that range from about 0.05 to 1 mm/yr over time scales spanning the whole Quaternary (100 ka to 2 Ma). Estimates of fault dips, allow to propose shortening rates from 0.05 to 5 mm/yr, accounting therefore for a total minimum shortening rate of 0.5 to 5.3 mm/y in the piedmont of the western Kunlun. These amounts of shortening should be taken as minimum rates as other structures are also active. They are comparable to the rates of shortening found on the northern side of the basin along folds of the Tian Shan piedmont. Given the size of the décollement, that reaches up to the middle part of the Tarim basin over a width of about 500 km, direct comparison with geodetic data from the southwestern Tarim may be misleading. Kinematic models of deformation of this part of the Indo-Asia collision zone will have to consider these rates together with the internal deformation of the western Tarim.

Coudroy, T.; Li, H.; van der Woerd, J.; Barrier, L.; Simoes, M.; Tapponnier, P.; Mainsant, G.; Pan, J.; Thuizat, R.

2009-12-01

266

Timing and duration of supergene mineralization at the Xinrong manganese deposit, western Guangdong Province, South China: cryptomelane 40 Ar\\/ 39 Ar dating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supergene Mn-oxide deposits are widely distributed in Guangxi, Guangdong, Yunnan, and Hunan Provinces, South China, accounting\\u000a for 18% of the total Mn reserves in the country. Direct dating of supergene Mn enrichment, however, is lacking. In this paper,\\u000a we present high-resolution 40Ar\\/39Ar ages of Mn oxides from the Xinrong Mn deposit, western Guangdong, to place numerical constraints on the timing

Jian-Wei Li; Paulo Vasconcelos; Wei Zhang; Xiao-Dong Deng; Nurdan Duzgoren-Aydin; Dai-Rong Yan; Jian-Qiang Zhang; Ming-An Hu

2007-01-01

267

Relationship Among H-FABP Gene Polymorphism, Intramuscular Fat Content, and Adipocyte Lipid Droplet Content in Main Pig Breeds with Different Genotypes in Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

H-FABP (Heart fatty acid-binding protein), a member of FABP family, plays an essential role in long-chain fatty acid uptake and metabolic homeostasis. Its role in pig intramuscular fat content remains poorly understood, especially in local pig breeds in western China. In this study, the genetic variations of 5?-upstream region and the second intron in porcine H-FABP gene were investigated by

Wei-Jun PANG; Liang BAI; Gong-She YANG

2006-01-01

268

A Devonian to Carboniferous intra-oceanic subduction system in Western Junggar, NW China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Devonian and Carboniferous rock assemblages in Western Junggar, southern Altaids, include ophiolitic mélanges and coherent units. At Baijiantan, Yeyagou and Dagun Devonian gabbros and one group of volcanic rocks (type I lava) generally crop out as blocks in a matrix of ultramafic rocks and/or mudstone. They have a depleted light rare earth element (LREE) and mid-oceanic ridge basalt (MORB)-like signature with a small negative Nb anomaly, suggesting formation in a back-arc basin. Another group of volcanic rocks (type II lava) from Baijiantan, Yeyagou, Western Karamay and Maliya includes alkaline basalt, basanite, andesite, dacite and trachyte that contain microphenocrysts of clinopyroxene-plagioclase, amygdales filled with chalcedony and calcite, and accessory pyrite and ilmenite. The type II lavas are further subdivided into five sub-types: (1) Type II 1 lava is strongly enriched in LREE with incompatible trace element ratios similar to oceanic island basalt (OIB), suggesting derivation from enriched mantle. (2) Type II 2 lava and tuff are slightly LREE-enriched, with a marked negative Nb anomaly and Th/Yb-enrichment indicating that they were generated in a supra-subduction zone (SSZ). (3) Type II 3 lava is also moderately enriched in LREE suggesting derivation from a more-enriched MORB mantle. (4) Type II 4 lava is enriched in LREE and has high Nb/Yb values close to those of OIB. It is extensively depleted in Nb suggesting a source containing a mixture of enriched and SSZ mantle. (5) Type II 5 lava has MORB-like REE patterns, and Nb/Yb and Th/Yb ratios. Based on field structural data, and the contemporaneity of the Baogutu adakite, a high-Mg diorite dike and the Miaoergou charnockite, these enriched and depleted magmatic features suggest generation in an intra-oceanic subduction zone influenced by ridge-trench interaction. The Altaids in Western Junggar are characterized by multiple intra-oceanic subduction systems, which may have continued to operate to the late Carboniferous.

Zhang, Ji'en; Xiao, Wenjiao; Han, Chunming; Mao, Qigui; Ao, Songjian; Guo, Qianqian; Ma, Chong

269

Description of two new species of Cossidae (Lepidoptera) from China  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two new Cossidaespecies from China‘s Zhejiang and Sichuan provinces are described. The new species Phragmataecia monika sp. n.and Patoptoformis rimsaite sp. n. superficially resemble related congeners but can be distinguished by differences in wing pattern, genitalia and distribution. Checklists of the genera Phragmataecia and Patoptoformis are presented.

Ivinskis, Povilas; Rimsaite, Jolanta; Saldaitis, Aidas; Yakovlev, Roman

2012-01-01

270

Attitudes Toward HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Western China  

PubMed Central

Abstract Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), as demonstrated in recently published clinical trials, is one promising approach for controlling the emerging epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). We evaluated the attitudes towards use of PrEP among MSM in western China. A total of 1402 participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Overall, 22% of the participants reported that they had heard of PrEP, <1% had ever used medicine to prevent HIV, and 64% reported that they were absolutely willing to use PrEP if it were proven to be safe and effective. The predictors of willingness to use PrEP included lower education, moderate income compared with the lowest income, never or rarely finding sexual partners through the Internet in the past 6 months, sexually transmitted infection (STI) history, more knowledge of AIDS, worrying about HIV as a threat to themselves and their family, having previously heard of PrEP, and believing that PrEP was effective in preventing HIV. This study demonstrates that Chinese MSM have moderate awareness of PrEP and a high interest in using it.

Zhang, Yan; Peng, Bin; She, Ying; Liang, Hao; Peng, Hong-Bin; Qian, Han-Zhu; Vermund, Sten H.; Huang, Ailong

2013-01-01

271

[Characteristics of fly ash particles deposition in the snowpack of Laohugou Glacier no. 12 in western Qilian Mountains, China].  

PubMed

This research aimed to identify and characterize individual spherical fly ash particles extracted from surface snow at Laohugou Glacier No. 12, western Qilian Mountains, China. Characterization of the spherical particles (i. e. morphology, chemical composition and genesis) was obtained by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX). Spherical particles and agglomerates were identified according to their morphology in nine snow samples. Prevalent particle types in all samples were granular spherical particles, hollow spherical particles, and agglomerates. The vast majority of spherical particles in our samples had mostly smooth and glossy surfaces. Individual particle analyses of elemental composition showed that particles formed in combustion were mainly composed of silicon, aluminum and trace elements. On the basis of chemical information obtained from EDX, the fly ash particles deposited in the snow could be classified into three types, which were Si-dominant particles, Fe-dominant particles, and Ti-dominant spherical particles. Backward air mass trajectory and dispersion analysis suggested that the developed urban regions of central Asia and surrounding Yumen city contributed the primary fly ash particles from industrial combustion to the study site through the high-level atmospheric circulation. PMID:24812940

Dong, Zhi-Wen; Qin, Da-He; Qin, Xiang; Du, Zhi-Heng; Chen, Ji-Zu; Ren, Jia-Wen

2014-02-01

272

Geology, geochemistry and geochronology of the Jiaojiguanliangzi Fe-polymetallic deposit, Tengchong County, Western Yunnan (China): Regional tectonic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jiaojiguanliangzi Fe-polymetallic deposit, located near the Sino-Burmese border of the Tengchong County, western Yunnan in China, is a medium to large scale skarn Fe-polymetallic deposit that was recently discovered in this area. Zircons from monzonite granite-porphyry in the mining area yield an U-Pb age of 120 ± 0.6 Ma, and show ?Hf(t) values ranging from -1.9 to -4.9, suggesting that the magma was derived from dominantly pelitic sedimentary protoliths. The porphyry is part of muscovite-bearing peraluminous S-type granitoid formed at the late stage of Early Cretaceous. The molybdenite Re-Os age of 122 ± 0.7 Ma from this deposit is consistent with the age of the monzonite granite-porphyry. The monzonite granite-porphyry that hosts the skarn deposit belongs to syn- to post-collisional granitoid, representing the culmination of the collision of Tengchong block with Baoshan block, and the initiation of post-collisional extension event. The Mesozoic granite and Fe-rich polymetallic deposits in the Tengchong area are similar to their counterparts in Bangong-Nujiang magmatic/metallogenic belt in terms of formation age and geological characteristics. This indicates that these two areas underwent a similar intense magmatic activities and mineralization events during the Cretaceous. The Tengchong area has considerable prospecting potential. We believe that the Tengchong area is an important part of the southeast extension of the Bangong-Nujiang metallic belt.

Cao, Hua-Wen; Zhang, Shou-Ting; Lin, Jin-Zhan; Zheng, Luo; Wu, Jun-De; Li, Dong

2014-02-01

273

Microbiotic crusts and their interrelations with environmental factors in the Gurbantonggut desert, western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located in the Junggar Basin in Xinjiang, the Gurbantonggut Desert is the second largest desert in China. Microbiotic crusts consisting of animalcule, lichen, moss, and algae species develop extensively in the region. Their formation, species composition and distribution pattern are closely related to the environmental conditions along the different parts of sand dune. Analysis of microbiotic crust distribution and relationship to environmental factors shows that average microbiotic crust thickness is 0.05 0.1 cm at the tops dunes, 0.2 1.5 cm in the upper part, 1.5 2.5 cm in middle and lower parts of dunes, and 1.5 5.0 cm in interdune areas, while areal coverage is 30.5, 48.5, 55.5, and 75.5%, respectively. Microbiotic crust differentiation along dune slopes is a result of the development stage and converse-succession resistance of the different microbiotic crusts. The numbers of species, thickness and degree of development of microbiotic crusts increase from the upper part to the middle and lower parts of dune slopes. The development and differentiation of microbiotic crusts at various dune slope positions are a reflection of the ecological expression of the comprehensive adaptability and natural selection of different microbiotic crust species to the local environmental conditions, and are closely related to such ecological conditions as the physiochemical properties of soils and topsoil textural stability.

Chen, Y. N.; Wang, Q.; Li, W. H.; Ruan, X.

2007-04-01

274

Assessment of wetland fragmentation in the Tarim River basin, western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wetlands in the middle and lower reaches of the Tarim River are a rich area of biodiversity and natural resources in the inland arid region of China. However, this wetland area has decreased in size during the past several decades. Water quality and biodiversity has declined due to expanded agricultural activities since 1960s. Using remote sensing (RS), geographic information system (GIS) and global positioning system (GPS) techniques, we investigated the dynamics, spatial patterns and fragmentation of the wetlands in the middle and lower reaches of the Tarim River from 1980 to 2000. We found that the total area of the wetlands was reduced by 45.8% and the density of the patches increased four times from 1980 to 1990. From 1990 to 2000, though the total area of the wetlands slightly increased the number of the patches increased three times and the density of the patches doubled. Based on the analyses of transition matrixes, diversity and fragmentation indexes, and spatial distribution alternation of the wetlands, we found the landscape diversity and fragmentation indices increased while wetland dominance index decreased dramatically. Among the wetland types, the areas of the river-channel, reservoir and pond wetlands increased while the areas of the lake and marsh wetlands decreased continuously.

Zhao, Ruifeng; Chen, Yaning; Zhou, Huarong; Li, Yiqing; Qian, Yibing; Zhang, Lihua

2009-03-01

275

Rural household income and inequality under the Sloping Land Conversion Program in western China  

PubMed Central

As payment for ecosystem services (PES) programs proliferate globally, assessing their impact upon households’ income and livelihood patterns is critical. The Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) is an exceptional PES program, in terms of its ambitious biophysical and socioeconomic objectives, large geographic scale, numbers of people directly affected, and duration of operation. The SLCP has now operated in the poor mountainous areas in China for 10 y and offers a unique opportunity for policy evaluation. Using survey data on rural households’ livelihoods in the southern mountain area in Zhouzhi County, Shaanxi Province, we carry out a statistical analysis of the effects of PES and other factors on rural household income. We analyze the extent of income inequality and compare the socio-demographic features and household income of households participating in the SLCP with those that did not. Our statistical analysis shows that participation in SLCP has significant positive impacts upon household income, especially for low- and medium-income households; however, participation also has some negative impacts on the low- and medium-income households. Overall, income inequality is less among households participating in the SLCP than among those that do not after 7 y of the PES program. Different income sources have different effects on Gini statistics; in particular, wage income has opposite effects on income inequality for the participating and nonparticipating households. We find, however, that the SLCP has not increased the transfer of labor toward nonfarming activities in the survey site, as the government expected.

Li, Jie; Feldman, Marcus W.; Li, Shuzhuo; Daily, Gretchen C.

2011-01-01

276

Rural household income and inequality under the Sloping Land Conversion Program in western China.  

PubMed

As payment for ecosystem services (PES) programs proliferate globally, assessing their impact upon households' income and livelihood patterns is critical. The Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) is an exceptional PES program, in terms of its ambitious biophysical and socioeconomic objectives, large geographic scale, numbers of people directly affected, and duration of operation. The SLCP has now operated in the poor mountainous areas in China for 10 y and offers a unique opportunity for policy evaluation. Using survey data on rural households' livelihoods in the southern mountain area in Zhouzhi County, Shaanxi Province, we carry out a statistical analysis of the effects of PES and other factors on rural household income. We analyze the extent of income inequality and compare the socio-demographic features and household income of households participating in the SLCP with those that did not. Our statistical analysis shows that participation in SLCP has significant positive impacts upon household income, especially for low- and medium-income households; however, participation also has some negative impacts on the low- and medium-income households. Overall, income inequality is less among households participating in the SLCP than among those that do not after 7 y of the PES program. Different income sources have different effects on Gini statistics; in particular, wage income has opposite effects on income inequality for the participating and nonparticipating households. We find, however, that the SLCP has not increased the transfer of labor toward nonfarming activities in the survey site, as the government expected. PMID:21518856

Li, Jie; Feldman, Marcus W; Li, Shuzhuo; Daily, Gretchen C

2011-05-10

277

The Mw 7.9, 12 May 2008 Sichuan earthquake rupture measured by sub-pixel correlation of ALOS PALSAR amplitude images  

Microsoft Academic Search

PALSAR L-band spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) amplitude images are used to map the Sichuan earthquake rupture (China, Mw 7.9, 12 May 2008) and to identify the faults activated by the earthquake. A sub-pixel correlation method is used to retrieve the coseismic displacement field projected into the line of sight of the satellite and the horizontal along- track direction, and

Marcello de Michele; Daniel Raucoules; Cécile Lasserre; Erwan Pathier; Yann Klinger; Jérôme Van Der Woerd; Julia de Sigoyer; Xiwei Xu

2008-01-01

278

Simulated experiment evidences of the corrosion and reform actions of H 2 S to carbonate reservoirs: an example of Feixianguan Formation, east Sichuan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reservoir of Feixianguan Formation of the Lower Triassic in the Sichuan Basin is the deepest buried carbonate reservoir\\u000a in China, with developed secondary corrosion holes, high quantities carbonate reservoir, maximum effective carbonate reservoir\\u000a thickness. Also Feixianguan gas reservoir has the highest quantities of H2S. Research discovers that there are close relationships between the formation of reservoir and H2S. The

YongSheng Ma; TongLou Guo; GuangYou Zhu; XunYu Cai; ZengYe Xie

2007-01-01

279

Block rotation: Tectonic response of the Sichuan basin to the southeastward growth of the Tibetan Plateau along the Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

field and seismic data show that the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau is tectonically and seismically active. This activity is due to the southeastward extrusion of the Chuandian fragment, a large crustal block rotating clockwise around the northeastern syntaxis of the Himalayas. The eastern boundary fault of this fragment is defined by the left-lateral Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault, which abruptly truncates the Sichuan basin of the Yangtze block. Our paper presents evidence indicating that the Sichuan basin experienced right-lateral shear along its margin, including the Longmen Shan fault belt, as shown by the presence of a large number of interference deformation features, including S-shaped and Z-shaped folds and faults, aligned in an en echelon pattern. This study hypothesizes that the Sichuan basin experienced counterclockwise rotation, dragged by the left-lateral movement along the Xianshuihe fault, and it is this rotation that was the underlying cause of the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan Ms 7.9 earthquake. During the rotation, the Sichuan basin decoupled along a subhorizontal decollement fault zone that developed along Triassic gypsum- and coal-bearing rocks, at a mean depth of ~5000 m, below which the Paleozoic rocks experienced much more intense deformation than the overlying Mesozoic rocks, suggesting that the lower part of the basin experienced a larger-scale rotation relative to the uppermost part of the basin. Based on thermal data from the western margin of the Sichuan basin and from along the Xianshuihe fault, the counterclockwise bending/rotation of the Sichuan basin initiated in late Cenozoic time (~13 Ma).

Wang, Erchie; Meng, Kai; Su, Zhe; Meng, Qingren; Chu, Jean J.; Chen, Zhiliang; Wang, Gang; Shi, Xuhua.; Liang, Xinquan

2014-05-01

280

Upper mantle seismic velocities and anisotropy in China determined through Pn and Sn tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have obtained velocity images of the uppermost mantle beneath China by performing tomographic inversion of both Pn and Sn traveltimes. From the Annual Bulletin of Chinese Earthquakes, 99,139 Pn arrivals and 43,646 Sn arrivals were selected. Pn anisotropy was also obtained simultaneously with Pn velocity. Average Pn and Sn velocities are 8.05 and 4.55 km/s, respectively, and maximum velocity perturbations are about 3-4%. The Pn and Sn velocities are low in eastern China and high in western China. Particularly high velocities are associated with old basins (for example, Tarim, Junggar, Turpan-Hami, Qaidam, and Sichuan) and stable craton (for example, Ordos). Low Sn velocities are found mainly throughout North China. In addition, velocities are relatively low beneath the central Tibetan Plateau and the North-South Seismic Zone (along 103°E). In Tarim and central China where we observe strong anisotropy, the fast Pn velocity directions are consistent with the directions of maximum principal compressive stress as well as directions of crustal movement determined from Global Positioning System. Beneath the India-Eurasia collision zone, the Pn anisotropy direction is parallel to the collision arc and nearly perpendicular to both the direction of maximum compression and crustal movement resulting from pure shear deformation. Both the velocity variations and anisotropy indicate that the Tibetan Plateau was extruded, and the mantle material beneath the plateau has flowed around the East Himalaya Syntax, while the remaining material has diverted northwestward beneath the Tarim Basin.

Pei, Shunping; Zhao, Junmeng; Sun, Youshun; Xu, Zhonghuai; Wang, Suyun; Liu, Hongbing; Rowe, Charlotte A.; ToksöZ, M. Nafi; Gao, Xing

2007-05-01

281

Socio-hydrologic Perspectives of the Co-evolution of Humans and Water in the Tarim River Basin, Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Socio-hydrology studies the co-evolution of coupled human-water systems, which is of great importance for long-term sustainable water resource management in basins suffering from serious eco-environmental degradation. Process socio-hydrology can benefit from the exploring the patterns of historical co-evolution of coupled human-water systems as a way to discovering the organizing principles that may underpin their co-evolution. As a self-organized entity, the human-water system in a river basin would evolve into certain steady states over a sufficiently long time but then could also experience sudden shifts due to internal or external disturbances that exceed system thresholds. In this study, we discuss three steady states (also called stages in the social sciences, including natural, human exploitation and recovery stages) and transitions between these during the past 1500 years in the Tarim River Basin of Western China, which a rich history of civilization including its place in the famous Silk Road that connected China to Europe. Specifically, during the natural stage with a sound environment that existed before the 19th century, shifts in the ecohydrological regime were mainly caused by environmental changes such river channel migration and climate change. During the human exploitation stages in the 5th and again in the 19th-20th centuries, however, humans gradually became the main drivers for system evolution, during which the basin experienced rapid population growth, fast socio-economic development and intense human activities. By the 1970s, after 200 years of colonization, the Tarim River Basin evolved into a new regime with vulnerable ecosystem and water system, and suffered from serious water shortages and desertification. Human society then began to take a critical look into the effects of their activities and reappraise the impact of human development on the ecohydrological system, which eventually led the basin into a treatment and recovery stage. Since then, the basin has shown a reverse trend of regime shift towards healing of the environmental damage that was inflicted in the previous stage of human development. In this paper we analyze the recasting effect of human activities on the water system and provide explanations on how human activities influence the co-evolution of human-water system from a broader perspective.

Liu, Ye; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Heping; Liu, Dengfeng; Sivapalan, Murugesu

2013-04-01

282

Eco-environmental problems and effective utilization of water resources in the Kashi Plain, western Terim Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since ancient times, water resources, mainly from melting snow in the high mountains, have nourished a large area of an oasis in the Kashi Plain in the western Terim Basin, China. In the last half-century, however, the rapid growth of population and the overexploitation of water, soil, and biological resources have led to drought, salinization, and desertification in the area, and consequently have hindered the development of sustainable agriculture. In this study, groundwater reservoirs with sustainable water supplies equivalent to 44.65×108 m3/year were identified, which has made it possible to implement several projects in the area to improve the ecological and agricultural environment. Three strategies are proposed for the integrated development and management of both surface-water and groundwater resources in the area. Résumé. Depuis des temps anciens, les ressources en eaux, provenant surtout de la fonte des neiges en montagne, ont alimenté une large part d'une oasis de la plaine de Kashi, dans le bassin occidental de Terim (Chine). Au cours des derniers cinquante ans, toutefois, l'accroissement rapide de la population et la surexploitation de l'eau, des sols et des ressources biologiques ont provoqué la sécheresse, la salinisation et la désertification de la région cela a eu pour conséquence d'entraver le développement d'une agriculture durable. Cette étude identifie les réserves en eau souterraine, susceptibles de fournir durablement 44,65×108 m3/an, ce qui a permis de réaliser plusieurs projets dans cette région pour améliorer l'environnement écologique et agricole. Trois stratégies sont proposées pour le développement intégré et la gestion simultanée des ressources en eau de surface et en eau souterraine de cette région. Resumen. Los recursos hídricos, procedentes fundamentalmente del deshielo en alta montaña, han nutrido desde tiempo inmemorial una gran área de un oasis situado en las llanuras de Kashi, en la cuenca occidental de Terim (China). Sin embargo, en la última mitad de siglo, el rápido aumento de población y la sobreexplotación de los recursos hídricos, pedológicos y biológicos han producido la sequía, salinización y desertificación en la zona, y, por consiguiente, han obstaculizado el desarrollo de una agricultura sostenible. En este estudio, se identificaron reservorios de agua subterránea con unos recursos equivalentes a 44,65×108 m3/a, hecho que ha permitido establecer varios proyectos en el área para mejorar el medio ambiente ecológico y agrícola. Se proponen tres estrategias para el desarrollo integrado y la gestión en la zona, tanto de los recursos superficiales como de los subterráneos.

Lin, Nian-Feng; Tang, Jie; Han, Feng-Xiang

2001-02-01

283

Crustal flow in western Yunnan, China, and along the Mogok belt, Myanmar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mode of deformation along the eastern boundary of the northward moving Indian block during the Cenozoic is still controversial. Models considered are: (i) southward lateral extrusion of a single crustal block bounded by the right lateral Sagaing fault in Myanmar and the left-lateral Aialo-Shan shear zone (ASSZ) in Yunnan; (ii) southward lateral extrusion of at least two different crustal blocks between the right-lateral S(W)-striking Gaoligong Shan shear zone (GSSZ), the NW-trending Chong Shan shear zone (CSSZ), and the ASSZ. We present a radically different new model: the GSSZ and CSSZ constitute a folded sub-horizontal detachment separating the brittle upper crust from the middle-lower crust represented by the Mogok igneous and metamorphic belt. The kinematics of flow along the detachment was dominantly top-to-S. Folding of the detachment was coeval with and followed top-to-S flow. In the brittle crust, ~E-W shortening is expressed by a fold-thrust belt, and in the ductile crust by L>S tectonites. The deformation pattern is preliminary interpreted as reflecting gravitationally driven flow of upper crustal material from Tibet towards SE-Asia, reminiscent to what is observed by GPS geodesy today. New Mogok-belt granitoid U-Pb zircon dates span the Early to Late Cretaceous (peaks at ~125; 115; 90, and 65 Ma) and tie the Mogok belt to the Gangdese arc of the Lhasa block. New Tertiary magmatic and metamorphic U-Pb zircon dates are 40-30 Ma, similar to magmatism observed across SE-Asia and similar to the monazite age of dikes that we interpret as pre-tectonic along CSSZ [1]. Published and new 40Ar/39Ar dates show that rapid cooling, that we relate to onset of high-strain deformation along the shear zones, started at 20-15 Ma [2, 3]. Fission-track and (U-Th)/He thermochronology indicates that its activity continued at least to 6-3 Ma. References: [1] Akciz, S., Burchfiel, B. C., Crowley, J. L., Jiyun, Y., and Liangzhong, C. (2008): Geometry, kinematics, and regional significance of the Chong Shan shear zone, Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis, Yunnan, China: Geosphere, Febr. 2008, v. 4, p. 292-314. [2] Lin, T.-H., Lo, S.-L., Hsu, F.-J., Yeh, M.-W., Lee, T.-Y., Ji, J.-Q., Wang, Y.-Z., and Liu, D. (2009): 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Jiali and Gaoligong shear zones: Implications for crustal deformation around the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis: Journal of Asian Earth Science, v. 34, p. 674-685. [3] Zhang, B., Zhang, J, Zhong, D., Yang, L., Yue, Y., and Yan, S. (2012): Polystage deformation of the Gaoligong metamorphic zone: Structures, 40Ar/39Ar mica ages, and tectonic implications: Journal of Structural Geology v. 37, p. 1-18.

Sonntag, Benita-Lisette; Min, Myo; Enkelmann, Eva; Kornfeld, Daniela; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Pfänder, Jörg; Jonckheere, Raymond; Dunkl, István

2013-04-01

284

Teaching in China: An Outside Look In  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a Canadian International Development Agency funded project working with rural teachers in central China, recent graduates Lebans and Radigan spent a month teaching in Chinese schools. The primary purpose of the project is to work with members of the Sichuan Provincial Teacher Training Centre and rural teachers from Wenchuan County…

Lebans, Tanya; Radigan, Margie

2007-01-01

285

Maturity effect on carbazole distributions in source rocks from the saline lacustrine settings, the western Qaidam Basin, NW China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbazole distributions and biomarker compositions have been investigated in a series of source rocks from the Tertiary strata in the western Qaidam Basin, NW China. Typical biomarker signatures, high gammacerane, high C 35 hopane and low Pr/Ph, indicate a saline lacustrine environment. Maturity parameter C 29 sterane ??? S/S + R ranges from 0.06 to 0.58, indicating immature (ca. <0.35) and mature (ca. >0.35) stages. Significant variations were observed for carbazole distributions with maturation. As for C 1-carbazoles, the relative amounts of 1-MC (methylcarbazole) show a decrease trend in the immature stage and an increase trend in the mature stage, while the other three isomers (2-, 3- and 4-MCs) show a generally opposite change, indicating a "two-stage" variation. As for C 2-carbazole isomers, complex variations were observed for their relative amounts, an overall increase for 1,7-DMC (dimethylcarbazole), a slight "two-stage" change for 1,8- and 1,3-DMCs and a marked "two-stage" variation for 2,4-, 2,5- and 2,6-DMCs. Comparison of the distributions of carbazole and benzocarbazoles revealed a preferential generation for benzocarbazoles at high maturity levels. Benzocarbazole ratio a/a + c varies only in a narrow range 0.52-0.61 in the entire maturity range, suggesting limited maturity dependence. The results here support the idea that carbazole distributions have strong maturity effect in a wide maturity range and the "two-stage" variations for some pyrrolic nitrogen isomers may indicate their different geochemical controls between the immature and mature stages.

Zhang, Chunming; Zhang, Yuqing; Cai, Chunfang

2011-11-01

286

Remote sensing, paleoecology, and the archaeology of human migration during the Pleistocene in central Asia and western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing used in the context of global information systems has enormous applications within archaeology. This technology enables the discovery of new archaeological features and promotes an understanding of the relationship between ecosystem and cultural dynamics. Archaeologists are able to add a time dimension to 'creeping environmental changes' that other areas of scientific inquiry concerned with climate change often lack. Remote sensing and other aerial prospecting has been used successfully to model land use and population expansions during relatively recent archaeological eras, such as the Bronze and Iron Ages. Although satellite image databases exist for numerous areas of the New and Old World, very little research has been conducted in Central Asia or western China. This region is historically significant because of its position along the important trading route called the Silk Road. The purpose of the present research is to investigate another poorly understood period of human history that would benefit from the application of remote sensing and associated ground truthing techniques. The migration of hominids out of Africa during the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene and their subsequent colonization of north-central, east, and south-east Asia is relatively well documented in the archaeological record and marks the beginning of the long-term process of human impacts on the region. However, the trajectory of dispersal of Homo erectus, Neandertals, and early modern humans and the ways by which ecosystem vagaries affected this dispersal across Eurasia is unknown. Our purpose is to summarize what is currently known about the geological indicators of ecosystem changes that remote sensing techniques provide and how ecosystem variables may allow us to model human migration as that of an invasive species through this important geographic crossroads of the Old World.

Glantz, Michelle M.; Todd, Lawrence

2003-07-01

287

Bilateral transtibial amputation with concomitant thoracolumbar vertebral collapse in a Sichuan earthquake survivor  

PubMed Central

The devastating earthquake in Sichuan, China on 12 May 2008 left thousands of survivors requiring medical care and intensive rehabilitation. In view of this great demand, the Chinese Speaking Orthopaedic Society established the "Stand Tall" project to provide voluntary services to aid amputee victims in achieving total rehabilitation and social integration. This case report highlights the multidisciplinary rehabilitation of a girl who suffered thoracolumbar vertebral collapse and underwent bilateral transtibial amputation. The rehabilitation team was involved in all stages of the care process from the pre-operative phase, through amputation, into prosthetic training, and during her life thereafter. Despite this catastrophic event, early rehabilitation and specially designed bilateral prostheses allowed her a high level of functional ability. The joint efforts of the multidisciplinary team and the advancement of new technology have revolutionized the care process for amputees.

2010-01-01

288

Female victimization and intimate partner violence after the May 12, 2008, Sichuan earthquake.  

PubMed

This study investigates the impact of the earthquake that occurred on May 12, 2008 in Sichuan, China on stressed families already experiencing domestic violence. We hypothesized that cumulative postdisaster stress would increase marital aggression and that the well-being of victims would deteriorate following the quake. A total of 186 women were recruited for this study. Results show that all types of family violence, including psychological aggression and physical violence between partners, increased after the earthquake. We provided preliminary evidence that psychological aggression was significantly associated with the detrimental effects on victims' mental and physical functioning. The findings support the need for violence assessment among victims of earthquakes, and we recommend that violence prevention be considered as part of the intervention during such natural disasters. PMID:21846023

Chan, Ko Ling; Zhang, Yulian

2011-01-01

289

Bilateral transtibial amputation with concomitant thoracolumbar vertebral collapse in a Sichuan earthquake survivor.  

PubMed

The devastating earthquake in Sichuan, China on 12 May 2008 left thousands of survivors requiring medical care and intensive rehabilitation. In view of this great demand, the Chinese Speaking Orthopaedic Society established the "Stand Tall" project to provide voluntary services to aid amputee victims in achieving total rehabilitation and social integration. This case report highlights the multidisciplinary rehabilitation of a girl who suffered thoracolumbar vertebral collapse and underwent bilateral transtibial amputation. The rehabilitation team was involved in all stages of the care process from the pre-operative phase, through amputation, into prosthetic training, and during her life thereafter. Despite this catastrophic event, early rehabilitation and specially designed bilateral prostheses allowed her a high level of functional ability. The joint efforts of the multidisciplinary team and the advancement of new technology have revolutionized the care process for amputees. PMID:20630054

Wong, Caroline Ngar-Chi; Yu, Joseph Man-Kit; Law, Sheung-Wai; Lau, Herman Mun-Cheung; Chan, Cavor Kai-Ming

2010-01-01

290

[Resources of Chinese Herbs Sang (Morus sp.) in Sichuan and strategies for development and utilization].  

PubMed

A comprehensive analysis was conducted on resources composition of Chinese Herbs Sang (Morus sp.) in Sichuan using survey data and related literature. The original plants, germplasm collections, cultivation areas, main cultivated varieties and production sale of crude drugs of Sang in Sichuan were clearly expounded. Strategies for development and utilization of Sichuan mulberry resources were suggested. PMID:19294839

Yang, Wen-Yu; Wan, De-Guang

2008-12-01

291

Emulation vs. indigenization in the reception of Western psychology in Republican China: an analysis of the content of Chinese psychology journals (1922-1937).  

PubMed

The present study examines the practice of empirical psychology in China during the Republican period using a content analysis of its journals. By seeking answers to questions of what kinds of psychology from the West first attracted the Chinese; whether they found a way of developing a psychology more in tune to their own cultural assumptions of selfhood; and to what uses they felt the new discipline could be put, it shows the extent to which its journal content adopted a Western or an indigenous orientation. It thus contributes to the recent debate about indigenization of psychology globally and situates the origins of these issues in China much earlier than has been envisaged by contemporary Chinese indigenous psychologists. Throughout this period, indigenous concerns informed the research agenda, the dominant practice being psychometrics. But because of a lack of social support, they remained largely confined to the pages of psychology journals. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:19137614

Blowers, Geoffrey; Cheung, Boris Tat; Ru, Han

2009-01-01

292

China  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a China ist das drittgrößte und mit mehr als 1,3 Mrd. Einwohnern das bevölkerungsreichste Land der Erde. Die sozialistische\\u000a Volksrepublik durchläuft seit den 1980er Jahren einen Reformprozess, eine Vielzahl wirtschaftlicher, politischer und sozialer\\u000a Reformen sorgt für eine innere Umgestaltung des Landes und trägt zu einer allmählichen Öffnung des Landes bei. Im Zuge dieser\\u000a Umgestaltung haben sich auch die Rahmenbedingungen des Mediensystems

Hardy Dreier

293

The Merging of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine in China: Old Ideas Cross Culturally Communicated through New Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cross-cultural communication between China and the West, instigated in 1979 by the establishment of an open-door policy in China, has led to the merging of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with the medical practices of the West. The result of these medical exchanges is a blending of medical practices that proves to be more effective in the…

Schnell, James A.

294

The China Connection: Western Institutions Meet Chinese Students and Alumni on the Country's Most Popular Social Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As one of the top U.S. choices for international students, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has a solid reputation in China and a history of educating Chinese students that goes back more than a century. But the university did not realize until last June that its nickname in China is the "Cornfield Ivy" and that Chinese…

Ramspott, Becca

2013-01-01

295

China Dust  

... SpectroRadiometer (MISR) nadir-camera images of eastern China compare a somewhat hazy summer view from July 9, 2000 (left) with a ... arid and sparsely vegetated surfaces of Mongolia and western China pick up large quantities of yellow dust. Airborne dust clouds from the ...

2013-04-16

296

Self-Management Behavior in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Western Urban China  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the current status of diabetic self-management behavior and the factors influencing this behavior in Chengdu, a typical city in western China. Methods We performed stratified sampling in 6 urban districts of Chengdu. We used questionnaires concerning self-management knowledge, self-management beliefs, self-management efficacy, social support, and self-management behavior to investigate patients with T2DM from August to November 2011. All of the data were analyzed using the SPSS 17.0 statistical package. Results We enrolled a total of 364 patients in the present study. The median score of self-management behavior was 111.00, the interquartile range was 100.00–119.00, and the index score was 77.77. Self-management was described as “good” in 46%, “fair” in 45%, and “poor” in 6% of patients. A multiple-factor analysis identified age (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20–0.91; P?=?0.026), education in “foot care” (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.18–0.99; P?=?0.048), self-management knowledge (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.80–0.92; P<0.001), self-management belief (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.87–0.97; P?=?0.002), self-efficacy (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90–0.96; P<0.001), and social support (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.41–0.94; P?=?0.023) as positive factors. Negative factors included diabetes duration (5–9 years: OR, 14.82; 95% CI, 1.64–133.73; P?=?0.016; and ?10 years: OR, 10.28; 95% CI, 1.06–99.79; P?=?0.045) and hospitalization experience (OR, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.64–5.36; P<0.001). Conclusion We observed good self-management behavior in patients with T2DM in Chengdu. When self-management education is provided, age, education, knowledge, belief, self-efficacy, and social support should be considered to offer more appropriate intervention and to improve patients' behavior.

Huang, Mingjun; Zhao, Rui; Li, Sheyu; Jiang, Xiaolian

2014-01-01

297

A modified genetic model for the Huangshandong magmatic sulfide deposit in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, Xinjiang, western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Huangshandong Ni-Cu deposit is the largest magmatic sulfide deposit discovered to date in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt in northern Xinjiang, western China. The host intrusion is a 274-Ma composite mafic-ultramafic intrusion consisting of four separate intrusive units: a large layered gabbroic sequence (phase I), a sheet-like ultramafic body (phase II), a dyke-like gabbronorite body (phase III), and an irregular ultramafic unit (phase IV). Important sulfide mineralization is present in the last three intrusive units, predominantly as disseminated and net-textured sulfides (pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite). The Huangshandong mafic-ultramafic intrusive rocks are characterized by arc-like geochemical signatures such as low Ca content in olivine and negative Nb-Ta anomalies in whole rocks. This, together with a post-subduction setting for the East Tianshan in the Permian, suggests that the source mantle was modified previously by slab-derived fluids in the Carboniferous. The mantle-derived magma was ponded in a staging chamber in the lower part of the newly formed arc crust. The first batch of magma to arrive at Huangshandong was most fractionated and depleted in Ni, crystallizing Fe-rich and Ni-depleted olivine (Fo67, <300 ppm Ni). The second batch of magma was more primitive, crystallizing more primitive olivine (Fo81-84). The third batch of magma was also highly fractionated and depleted in Ni, crystallizing Fe-rich and Ni-depleted olivine (Fo72, ~600 ppm Ni). The final batch of magma became more primitive again, crystallizing the most primitive olivine (Fo81-86). The occurrence of rounded sulfide inclusions in olivine primocrysts in the Huangshandong ultramafic rocks indicates that immiscible sulfide liquid droplets were present during olivine crystallization. The Ni tenors of disseminated sulfide ores in the gabbronorite dyke vary mainly between 5 and 8 wt%, which are too high to have been produced by the parental magma of the dyke. The Ni, Cu, and platinum-group elements (PGE) tenors of disseminated sulfide ores in the dyke (phase III) and the ultramafic sheet (phase II) are remarkably similar. These observations, together with the sequence of magma emplacement, suggest that the sulfide liquids entrapped in the magma of the dyke formed at depth by a previous pulse of more primitive magma. The estimated parental magma for the most primitive lherzolites in the Huangshandong intrusion contains 10 wt% MgO. Modeling shows that sulfide saturation in the parental magma of the Huangshandong lherzolites could have resulted from fractional crystallization. Significant PGE depletions relative to Ni and Cu in the disseminated sulfide ores of the Huangshandong deposit may be due to sulfide retention in the source mantle.

Mao, Ya-Jing; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Li, Chusi; Tang, Dong-Mei

2014-05-01

298

Breastfeeding by Chinese mothers in Australia and China: the healthy migrant effect.  

PubMed

Background: Breastfeeding practices might be influenced by migration to another country. Although the "healthy migrant effect" is commonly reported in epidemiology, evidence for it in breastfeeding practices is weak. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the initiation and duration of breastfeeding between Chinese Australian migrants and Chinese mothers in mainland China and test the healthy migrant effect in Chinese Australian migrants in Perth, Western Australia. Methods: A survey was undertaken of 239 Chinese mothers living in Perth and 1844 mothers living in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, PR China, with a response rate of 96.7% and 87.8%, respectively. Results: The breastfeeding initiation rate in Chinese Australian mothers (94.1%) was higher than in mothers in China (86.2%, P < .001). Chinese Australian mothers also had a longer breastfeeding duration, greater "full breastfeeding" rate at 6 months, and greater "any breastfeeding" rates at 6 and 12 months. After controlling for potential confounding variables, the results of the binary logistic regression analysis showed that the location of the mother (Australia or China) was associated with breastfeeding practices. Chinese mothers living in Chengdu were less likely to initiate breastfeeding (odds ratio = 0.47, 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.89) and breastfeed their babies at 12 months (odds ratio = 0.48, 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.69) than Chinese mothers in Perth. Conclusion: The higher breastfeeding initiation and longer breastfeeding duration by Chinese migrant mothers in Perth than mothers in Chengdu suggest a "healthy migrant effect." PMID:23468042

Chen, Shu; Binns, Colin W; Zhao, Yun; Maycock, Bruce; Liu, Yi

2013-05-01

299

Output Change of the Gas Wells in Western Scihuan Basin Induced by Wenchuan Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lots of papers have reported that earthquakes may increase oil well outputs. What are the cases of gas wells? Western Scihuan Basin is one of most important gas rich basins in China. It is adjact to Longmanshan, where there was a huge earthquake named Wenchuan earthquake in 2008. We collect and analysis more than 200 production data of the gas wells in Western Scihuan Basin, Sichuan, China. The results show that there are markedl output changes for about one-third gas wells after the earthquake. The output changes can be divided into four types: A: immediate increase in water output, and decrease in gas output; B: delay (a few days) decrease in water output and gas output; C: short time (one day) little fluctuation; D: marked fluctuation. We have known that large earthquake may lead to permeability increase, and then lead to water well output increase. In our cases, we observe marked water output increase, and, at the same time, gas output decrease. From the facts, we conclude: (1) the gas well output change induced by earthquake is complex; (2) water migration and gas migration in underground rocks are different; (3) main mechanism for the gas well output change induced by earthquake may be the micro-fracturing. The work was supported by NSFC under grant No. 40930424

He, X.; Cao, J.; Liu, S.; Zhen, Y.

2013-12-01

300

A taxonomic study on semifumata species-group of Fissocantharis Pic, with description of six new species from China and Myanmar (Coleoptera, Cantharidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The cantharid Fissocantharis semifumata species-groupis reviewed. Fissocantharis semifumata (Fairmaire, 1889) is redescribed and illustrated. The type series of Fissocantharis fissa (Wittmer, 1997) is shown to consist of 3 species and clarified, except the holotype, the two paratypes become invalid. Fissocantharis grahami (Wittmer, 1997) is attributed to this species group. Six new species are described and illustrated, Fissocanthais yui sp. n. (CHINA: Yunnan), Fissocantharis semimetallica sp. n. (CHINA: Yunnan; MYANMAR: Kachin), Fissocantharis bicolorata sp. n. (CHINA: Sichuan), Fissocantharis maculiceps sp. n. (CHINA: Gansu), Fissocantharis bimaculata sp. n. (CHINA: Sichuan) and Fissocantharis flava sp. n. (CHINA: Sichuan, Guizhou). The number of species in the Fissocantharis semifumata species-groupis increased from 4 to 11, and a key to all species is provided.

Yang, Yuxia; Yang, Xingke

2011-01-01

301

China and Korea  

... article title:  Dust Obscures Liaoning Province, China     View Larger Image ... acquired 16 days apart, covers the Liaoning region of China and parts of northern and western Korea. They contrast a relatively clear ...

2013-04-16

302

Exploring China's western and central county systems performance measured by outcomes framework scores-a cross-sectional survey of routine healthcare data.  

PubMed

This study was designed to measure the performance of county health systems in central and western China utilizing routine healthcare data. Drawing on a literature review and expert consultation, the study established a theoretical framework and an indicator system for performance review. Questionnaires were designed and disseminated to collect empirical data on health system performance in four counties of two central and western provinces. Quantitative data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis through SPSS12.0. Three dimensions were introduced in the performance review framework-health outcomes, financial risk protection and consumer and provider satisfaction. Health outcomes were assessed from four secondary indicators: infant mortality rate; maternal mortality rate; under-5 child mortality rate; and the incidence of Class A and Class B notifiable diseases. Financial risk was assessed using two secondary indicators: the proportion of the cost of inpatient care that was reimbursed under the New Cooperative Medical System (NCMS) insurance scheme, and the rate of NCMS funds utilization. The assessment of satisfaction was made using two secondary indicators: the overall satisfaction of local residents with healthcare services, and the satisfaction of health practitioners at the township and village level. The study indicated better health system performance in the two counties in Chongqing than those in Shanxi. It was concluded that outcome framework scores can fairly reveal performance differences among county health systems in central and western China, and can provide practical evidence for optimizing the operation and inputs of county health systems. Caution needs to be exercised in generalizing such performance outcomes as many factors such as spending and organization that contribute to county health system performance were not included in the study. PMID:21822999

Shi, Jun; Zhang, Liang; Liu, Yue; Wang, Jiangbo; Scarf, Chris; Xiong, Juyang

2011-08-01

303

Onsite infectious agents and toxins monitoring in 12 May Sichuan earthquake affected areas.  

PubMed

At 14:28 on 12 May 2008, Sichuan Province of China suffered a devastating earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter scale with more than 80 000 human lives lost and millions displaced. With inadequate shelter, poor access to health services, and disrupted ecology, the survivors were at enormous risk of infectious disease outbreaks. This work, believed to be unprecedented, was carried out to contain a possible outbreak through onsite monitoring of airborne biological agents in the high-risk areas. In such a mission, a mobile laboratory was developed using a customized vehicle along with state-of-art bioaerosol and molecular equipment and tools, and deployed to Sichuan 11 days after the earthquake. Using a high volume bioaerosol sampler (RCS High Flow) and Button Inhalable Aerosol Sampler equipped with gelatin filters, a total of 55 air samples, among which are 28 filter samples, were collected from rubble, medical centers, and camps of refugees, troops and rescue workers between 23 May and 9 June, 2008. After pre-treatment of the air samples, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), gel electrophoresis, limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were applied to detect infectious agents and to quantify environmental toxins and allergens. The results revealed that, while high levels of endotoxin (180 approximately 975 ng/m3) and (1,3)-beta-d-glucans (11 approximately 100 ng/m3) were observed, infectious agents such as Bacillus anthracis, Bordetella pertussis, Neisseria meningitidis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, influenza A virus, bird flu virus (H5N1), enteric viruses, and Meningococcal meningitis were found below their detection limits. The total bacterial concentrations were found to range from 250 to 2.5 x 10(5) DNA copies/L. Aspergillus fumigatus (Asp f 1) and dust mite allergens (Der p 1 and Der f 1) were also found below their detection limits. PMID:19890556

Yao, Maosheng; Zhu, Tong; Li, Kejun; Dong, Shuofei; Wu, Yan; Qiu, Xinghua; Jiang, Bo; Chen, Liansheng; Zhen, Shiqi

2009-11-01

304

The Application of InSAR to the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 12 May 2008 a Mw 7.9 earthquake occurred near Wenchuan in Sichuan Province, China. More than 69,000 people were killed and over 4.8 million became homeless. Based on initial seismological reports, the earthquake was generated by slip one or more thrust faults within the Longmen Shan mountain belt, where oblique crustal shortening is taking place the Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin. In initial results, we are studying the displacements using in SAR techniques on several data types. One descending ASAR image before the earthquake and two after acquired by the satellite ENVISAT, European Space Agency, we are able to obtain two coseismic and one postseismic interferograms. Because of temporal decorrelation, large baseline for each coseismic pair, denser vegetation, and steep relief, it is lacking of reliable phase information on the Longmen Shan mountain belt, which is regarded as the hanging wall of this thrust event. To its east in the Sichuan basin, more than 50 cm subsidence in the direction of line of sight can be observed coseismically. This observed coseismic deformation in the footwall clearly appears as half-circular fringes. Its western boundary enable us to identify the surface rupture that is roughly located along the previously reported Beichuan fault. The postseismic interferogram shows phase differences between two acquisitions, one month after the main shock (16 June - 21 July). Phase signals could be investigated in both of the Longmen Shan mountain belt and the Sichuan Basin with rather small phase differences. However, this task is significantly perturbed by orbit errors and atmospheric effects; therefore, not much information of the surface displacement can be reliably retrieved. In the future we will add one more orbit located in further northeastern Longmen Shan to completely trace the NE-SW surface ruptures of the Wenchuan earthquake. Furthermore, the combined result from InSAR and sub-pixel comparison technique can further allow us construct a surface displacement field for the entire region and assist the modeling of fault kinematics to understand the seismogenic fault system of the Wenchuan earthquake.

Huang, M.; Kuo, Y.; Suppe, J. E.; Chen, Y.; Hu, J.

2008-12-01

305

Basic characteristics of recent tectonic stress field in southwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direction and structure characteristics of 58 tectonic stress tensors have been determined in 41 surveyed areas (points) in the southwestern district of China through a calculation method for inversion of tectonic stress tensors from sliding direction of faults, and, in combination with seismic mechanism solution and in-situ stress measurements, the following characteristics of the recent tectonic stress fields in the southwestern district of China have been defined: (1) the stress fields in this district have remained stable since the end of early to mid-Pleistocene; (2) the effect of such tectonic stresses is mainly horizontal; (3) the orientation of the maximum principal stress axis shows a trend of regular rotation from north to south, i. e. from NEE-SWW in northern Songpan and Longmen Shan areas to sub-EW in the central part of western Sichuan, and further to NNW-SWW or sub-SN in Yunnan; (4) the regional tectonic stress fields are of distinct division character; (5) there is well concordance between the main direction and type of stress structures in the stress tate both in deep and shallow parts of the crust. In addition, studies of staged tectonic stress tensors preliminarily show that in early Quaternary the southwestern district was mainly affected by lateral compression of Indian plate, under which the regional tectonic stress fields mainly display NE-sub-EW compression.

Xie, Fu-Ren; Zhu, Jing-Zhong; Liang, Hai-Qing; Liu, Guang-Xun

1993-11-01

306

Some rapid and long traveled landslides triggered by the May 12, 2008 Sichuan earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On May 12, 2008, a 7.9M earthquake struck Sichuan province of China, causing a huge number of death and injuries, and great loss of properties, becoming the most damaging earthquake since the 1976 Tangshan earthquake, in China. The collapse of buildings during the earthquake is the main reason for the casualties. There are a huge number of landslides that had been triggered by this earthquake. Almost all the roads to the mountainous areas had been blocked and many dams were formed by the displaced landslide materials, resulting in great difficulties for the aftershock rescue activities. Also a big portion of the casualties was directly caused by the landslides. The authors had reconnaissance field trips of the landslides, and performed preliminary investigation on some of the catastrophic ones. In this report, four landslides, i.e., Xiejiadian landslide in Pengzhou city, Donghekou landslide and Magongxiang landslide in Qingchuan County, and Niujuangou landslide on the epicenter area of Yingxiu Town, are introduced. The characteristics of deposited landslide masses in Donghekou landslide were investigated by means of a multichannel surface wave technique. Two earthquake recorders were installed at the upper part and deposit area of Donghekou landslide. The seismic responses of different parts of the landslides were monitored, and recorded successfully during the aftershocks that occurred in Qingchuan County on July 24, 2008. Also the drained and undrained dynamic shear behaviors of samples from the landslide areas were examined. Some preliminary analyzing results will be presented in this report.

Wang, G.; Kamai, T.; Chigira, M.; Wu, X. Y.; Zhang, D. X.

2009-04-01

307

Detection of HBV Genotypes of Tumor Tissues and Serum by A Fluorescence Polarization Assay in North-Western China's Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients  

PubMed Central

Background The understanding of the distribution of hepatitis B virus genotypes and the occult hepatitis B virus infection in hepatocellular carcinoma may shed light into the prevention and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. The purpose of the study is to investigate hepatitis B virus genotypes distribution, the high-risk genotypes and the occult infection in north-western China's hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Methods Hepatitis B virus genotypes A-D of hepatocellular carcinoma tumor tissues and serum samples in 268 north-western China hepatocellular carcinoma patients were detected by fluorescence polarization assay. The hepatitis B virus genotypes in serum and matched primary tumor tissue samples were compared. Hepatitis B surface antigen and ?-fetoprotein in serum were detected. Occult hepatitis B virus infections were analyzed. The relationship between hepatitis B virus genotypes and clinicopathologic characteristics were analyzed statistically using SPSS v.10.0. Results Intrahepatic hepatitis B virus DNA was detected in 83.6% of 268 patients, whereas serum hepatitis B virus DNA was detected in 78.7%. The hepatitis B virus genotypes in serum were consistent with the results in matched tumor tissue. Intrahepatic hepatitis B virus genotype B and C were detected respectively in 11.6% and 54.5% of the patients. Mixed intrahepatic hepatitis B virus genotypes were detected in 13.4% of 268 patients. There was not mixed hepatitis B virus infection in Edmondonson grade I. The patients with mixed HBV genotypes exhibited statistically significant different Edmondson grade than the patients with single type HBV infection (p < 0.05). Hepatitis B surface antigens were positive in 77.2% of 268 patients. Hepatitis B virus genotype C was detected in 64.7% of occult infected patients. There was no significant differences of patients' ages and ?-fetoprotein level in different groups of intrahepatic hepatitis B virus genotypes (p > 0.05). Conclusions Hepatitis B virus genotype C was associated closely with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and the occult hepatitis B virus infection in patients in north-western China. There was a relatively high prevalence of mixed hepatitis B virus infection in Edmondonson grade III-IV.

2011-01-01

308

Effective elastic thickness of the continental lithosphere in China from heat flow: Implications for the lithospheric rheology and active tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effective elastic thickness (Te) of continental lithosphere is one important parameter that describes the response of the lithosphere to long-term loads. However, the estimation of Te is still controversial and various forward and inverse methods have been proposed since the last 20 years. Besides the general application of gravity-topography based inverse method, thermal aspect and related technique is more emphasized, since the mechanical behavior of lithosphere is obviously influenced by temperature. Here we present the effective elastic thickness of the continental lithosphere in China from heat flow data by the method proposed by Burov et al, J. Geophys. Res., 1995, 100(B3):3905-3927. Our results show that Te varies much in different areas of China due to diverse and complicated geological evolution and associated change in thermal regime. Te is much larger than the crustal thickness in the regions where the heat flow is really low (usually less than 50mW/m2) and the lithosphere is relatively thick, indicating much more contribution from the upper mantle to the whole strength of lithosphere. Under this condition, the rheology of the mantle with olivine dominates the deformation manner and processes of the lithosphere and the typical cases in China are those blocks (Tarim, Junggar, Ordos and Sichuan) in central-western China. For instance, the Te of the Tarim basin is 66

Liu, S.; Wang, L.

2009-04-01

309

Two new species of Chelifera Macquart from China (Diptera: Empididae).  

PubMed

Two new Chelifera species, C. liuae sp. nov. from Sichuan and C. tibetensis sp. nov. from Tibet, are described. The genus Chelifera is recorded from Tibet for the first time. Cheliefera tibetensis is assigned to the C. rhombicercus-group. An updated key to the species of Chelifera from China is provided. PMID:24870472

Wang, Xiwei; Yan, Shanchun; Yang, Ding

2014-01-01

310

Newspaper coverage of emergency response and government responsibility in domestic natural disasters: China-US and within-China comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a comparative approach, this article reports content analyses of news articles about a devastating earthquake that occurred in Sichuan province, China, from six Chinese newspapers, indicating that the Chinese media, in reporting the government’s emergency responses, had many similarities with the American media's coverage of Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Further comparisons, however, suggest that the claim of a

King-wa Fu; Ling Zhou; Qiang Zhang; Yuen-ying Chan; Ford Burkhart

2012-01-01

311

Sequestration of metals through association with pyrite in subtidal sediments of the Nanpaishui Estuary on the Western Bank of the Bohai Sea, China.  

PubMed

Measurements were made of the degree of trace metal pyritization (DTMP) and ancillary characteristics of four undisturbed sediment cores collected from the subtidal zone of the Nanpaishui Estuary on the Western Bank of the Bohai Sea, a seriously polluted inland sea in northeastern China. The remarkably low concentrations of organic carbon (<0.72%) in these sediments likely constrained sulfate reduction rates, and the low concentrations of acid volatile sulfide (AVS) (<12.5 ?mol g(-1)) limited the sequestration of metals through association with pyrite. The most consistent cause of inter-station differences and depth variations in the degree of pyritization was differences in pyrite metal concentrations rather than reactive metal concentrations. Reactive metal concentrations were in several cases negatively correlated with pore water concentrations, consistent with a dissolution/precipitation mechanism. The relationship between pore water metal concentrations and DTMPs was evidenced by a qualitative similarity of the inter-station variability of these same parameters. PMID:21397276

Ye, Siyuan; Laws, Edward A; Zhong, Shaojun; Ding, Xigui; Pang, Shouji

2011-05-01

312

Intraspecific Genetic Variation and Phylogenetic Analysis of Dirofilaria immitis Samples from Western China Using Complete ND1 and 16S rDNA Gene Sequences.  

PubMed

Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm) is the causative agent of an important zoonotic disease that is spread by mosquitoes. In this study, molecular and phylogenetic characterization of D. immitis were performed based on complete ND1 and 16S rDNA gene sequences, which provided the foundation for more advanced molecular diagnosis, prevention, and control of heartworm diseases. The mutation rate and evolutionary divergence in adult heartworm samples from seven dogs in western China were analyzed to obtain information on genetic diversity and variability. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using both maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayes methods based on the complete gene sequences. The results suggest that D. immitis formed an independent monophyletic group in which the 16S rDNA gene has mutated more rapidly than has ND1. PMID:24639299

Liu, Tianyu; Liang, Yinan; Zhong, Xiuqin; Wang, Ning; Hu, Dandan; Zhou, Xuan; Gu, Xiaobin; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

2014-06-01

313

Species-level phylogeographical history of Myricaria plants in the mountain ranges of western China and the origin of M. laxiflora in the Three Gorges mountain region.  

PubMed

Myricaria species in China occur mostly in the major high-altitude mountain areas in and around the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The one major exception to this is M. laxiflora which is restricted to the Three Gorges mountain region. In this study, we investigate species-level phylogeographical patterns of Myricaria species in western China and the origin of M. laxiflora. The results show that most chloroplast haplotypes are species-specific, except for one haplotype which is shared by three widespread species. Higher haplotype diversity within the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau region supports the hypothesis that the Himalayas are the centre of origin for Myricaria. The phylogeny of Myricaria was geographically structured, and an estimated Bayesian chronology suggested the main divergence events occurred during the Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene (approximately 1.46-2.30 million years ago). The overall phylogeographical pattern was characterized by vicariance events and regional demographical expansion, reflecting a major influence of geological and climatic events on the evolution of Myricaria species. Our data suggest that M. laxiflora has an ancient origin, but has experienced recent population expansion through the Three Gorges Valley. The origin of M. laxiflora was estimated to be during the Early Pleistocene but its demographical expansion was more recent at about 0.015 million years ago. This highlights the unique phylogeographical history of the Three Gorges mountain region, and the deep imprint of the watercourse connections of the Yangtze River Valley on the phylogeographical structure of the species in this region. PMID:19457193

Liu, Yifei; Wang, Yong; Huang, Hongwen

2009-06-01

314

On integral design of special souvenir in sichuan earthquake area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economics, culture, environment, etc. all received a series of serious damage due to the earthquake on 12-05-2008 in Sichuan. This areas with abundant different ethnic culture and attractive landscapes, is badly affected by earthquakes. So everything needs rebuilding including the tourism. Rebuilding is hard work for all of elements had changed after 5,12 Earthquake and focusing on these changes, a

Huang Tao; Gou Rui

2009-01-01

315

Denudation history of onshore central Vietnam: constraints on the Cenozoic evolution of the western margin of the South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apatite fission track analysis is used to monitor the timing and rate of upper crustal cooling and denudation across central Vietnam in response to rifting of the South China Sea. Results show regional denudation in the syn- and post-rift phases of the South China Sea occurred at a similar rate (˜40±10 m/Myr), consistent with the sedimentation record in adjacent offshore basins. This suggests that extension was not the dominant factor controlling Cenozoic denudation, probably because the study area was sufficiently distant from the actively rifted continental margin. A significant change in regional cooling rate during the Upper Miocene (inferred denudation rates also shift from ˜34 m/Myr to 390-500 m/Myr) is linked to enhanced erosion and deposition of prograding sediments in adjacent offshore basins. This shift in denudation is associated, and contemporaneous, with initiation of regional basaltic magmatism and development of topography.

Carter, A.; Roques, D.; Bristow, C. S.

2000-07-01

316

Soil acidity reconstruction based on tree ring information of a dominant species Abies fabri in the subalpine forest ecosystems in southwest China.  

PubMed

To assess the suitability of dendrochemistry as an indicator of soil acidification, soil chemistry and tree ring information of Abies fabri were measured at two distinct sites (severe acid deposition site-Emei Mountain and clean site-Gongga Mountain) of the subalpine forest ecosystems of western Sichuan, southwest China. The actual soil acidity (pH) was significantly correlated with some of the recent xylem cation (Ca, Mg, Mn, Al, Sr and Ba) concentrations and their molar ratios. Xylem Ca/Mg and Ca/Mn of A. fabri were ultimately selected to reconstruct the historical changes of soil pH in Emei Mountain and Gongga Mountain, respectively. The validity of those rebuild was also verified to a certain extent. We conclude that xylem cation molar ratios of A. fabri were superior to the single cation concentrations in soil acidity rebuild at the study sites due to normalizing for concentration fluctuations. PMID:20702012

Chen, Lei; Wu, Fei-Hua; Liu, Ting-Wu; Chen, Juan; Li, Zhen-Ji; Pei, Zhen-Ming; Zheng, Hai-Lei

2010-10-01

317

Formation of tectonic peperites from alkaline magmas intruded into wet sediments in the Beiya area, western Yunnan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tertiary (3.78Ma to 3.65Ma) biotite-K-feldspar porphyritic bodies intrude Tertiary, poorly consolidated lacustrine sedimentary rocks in the Beiya mineral district in southwestern China. The intrusives are characterized by a microcrystalline and vitreous-cryptocrystalline groundmass, by replacement of some tabular K-feldspar phenocrysts with microcrystalline chlorite and calcite, and by Fe-rich rings surrounding biotite phenocrysts. Peculiar structures, such as contemporary contact faults and slickensides,

Xing-Wang Xu; Xin-Ping Cai; Jia-You Zhong; Bao-Chang Song; Stephen G. Peters

2007-01-01

318

To measure the cumulate crustal deformation of important faults system on the Western China by PS InSAR technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work puts forwards a plan to measure the cumulate long period slow slip of some active fault zone by applied PS InSAR technique and introduces some prophase work. At first, some scenes ERS-1\\/2 SAR data from strong earthquakes in West China are processed by D-InSAR technique. Next, corner reflector experiment field is established in where fault slibs in intensity

J. F. Zhang; L. X. Gong; Z. Q. Chang

2004-01-01

319

Is food-related lifestyle (FRL) able to reveal food consumption patterns in non-Western cultural environments? Its adaptation and application in urban China.  

PubMed

Research related to food-related behaviour in China is still scarce, one reason being the fact that food consumption patterns in East Asia do not appear to be easily analyzed by models originating in Western cultures. The objective of the present work is to examine the ability of the food related lifestyle (FRL) instrument to reveal food consumption patterns in a Chinese context. Data were collected from 479 respondents in 6 major Chinese cities using a Chinese version of the FRL instrument. Analysis of reliability and dimensionality of the scales resulted in a revised version of the instrument, in which a number of dimensions of the original instrument had to be omitted. This revised instrument was tested for statistical robustness and used as a basis for the derivation of consumer segments. Construct validity of the instrument was then investigated by profiling the segments in terms of consumer values, attitudes and purchase behaviour, using frequency of consumption of pork products as an example. Three consumer segments were identified: concerned, uninvolved and traditional. This pattern replicates partly those identified in Western cultures. Moreover, all three segments showed consistent value-attitude-behaviour profiles. The results also suggest which dimensions may be missing in the instrument in a more comprehensive instrument adapted to Chinese conditions, most notably a broader treatment of eating out activities. PMID:21192995

Grunert, Klaus G; Perrea, Toula; Zhou, Yanfeng; Huang, Guang; Sørensen, Bjarne T; Krystallis, Athanasios

2011-04-01

320

Osteology of Monjurosuchus splendens (Diapsida: Choristodera) based on a new specimen from the Lower Cretaceous of western Liaoning, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of a new specimen of Monjurosuchus splendens, a taxon that has remained a taxonomic conundrum since the 1940s, from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation in western Liaoning, has allowed a new and accurate interpretation of the skull roof. Comparison of the new fossil with several specimens of the same taxon from the type Lingyuan area clarifies several anatomical

Ke-Qin Gao; Quanguo Li

2007-01-01

321

Analysis of Coordination between the Public Service in Rural Areas and Socioeconomic Development - a Case Study of Sichuan Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking Sichuan Province as an example, by using the overall evaluation function of Sichuan's rural public service equalization development level and rural socio-economic development level. We conduct profound analysis on coordination between public service in Sichuan's rural areas and socio-economic development from 2003 to 2008. The results show that the coordination between rural public service and socio-economic development in Sichuan

Ye He; Fang-min Wang

2011-01-01

322

Trace gases, aerosols and their interactions with synoptic weather: An overview of in-situ measurements at the SORPES Station in the western Yangtze River Delta, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents an overview of 1 yr measurements of ozone (O3) and fine particular matter (PM2.5) and related trace gases at a recently developed regional background site, the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES), in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in eastern China. Ozone and PM2.5 showed strong seasonal cycles but with contrast patterns: O3 reached a maximum in warm seasons but PM2.5 in cold seasons. Correlation analysis suggests a VOC-sensitive regime for O3 chemistry and a formation of secondary aerosols under conditions of high O3 in summer. Compared with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in China, our measurements report 15 days of O3 exceedance and 148 days of PM2.5 exceedance during the 1 yr period, suggesting a severe air pollution situation in this region. A calculation of potential source contributions based on Lagrangian dispersion simulations suggests that emissions from the YRD contributed to over 70% of the O3 precursor CO, with a majority from the mid-YRD. North-YRD and the North China Plain are the main contributors to PM2.5pollution in this region. Case studies for typical O3 and PM2.5 episodes showed that synoptic weather played an important role in air pollution, especially for O3. Observation during the typical biomass burning seasons also shows clear air pollution - weather interactions. For the typical episode occurred on 10 June, 2012, the measurement suggest that the mixed agricultural burning plumes with fossil fuel combustion pollution resulted in a decrease of solar radiation by more than 70 %, of sensible heat flux over 85 %, a temperature drop by almost 10 K, and a change 10 of rainfall during daytime and nighttime. This work shows an important environmental impact from industrialization and urbanization in the YRD region, and suggests an urgent need for improving air quality in these areas through collaborative control measures among different administrative regions, and also highlights a cross-disciplinary need in both measurement and modeling to study the regional environmental, weather and climate problems in East China.

Ding, A.; Fu, C.; Yang, X.; Petaja, T.; Kerminen, V.; Kulmala, M. T.

2013-12-01

323

Sources and photochemistry of volatile organic compounds in the remote atmosphere of western China: results from the Mt. Waliguan Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemistry of the natural atmosphere and the influence by long-range transport of air pollution are key issues in the atmospheric sciences. Here we present two intensive field measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in late spring and summer of 2003 at Mt. Waliguan (WLG, 36.28° N, 100.90° E, 3816 m a.s.l.), a baseline station in the northeast part of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Most VOC species exhibited higher concentrations in late spring than in summer. A typical diurnal variation was observed with higher nighttime levels, in contrast to results from other mountainous sites. Five different air masses were identified from backward trajectory analysis showing distinct VOC speciation. Air masses originating from the central Eurasian continent contained the lowest VOC levels compared to the others that were impacted by anthropogenic emissions from China and the Indian sub-continent. The data were compared with the TRACE-P (Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific) data to examine the inflow and outflow of air pollution over the China sub-continent. The results show that the free troposphere over China may be affected by the inflow from the Eurasian continent in spring, and the emissions in China may not have a significant influence on the free tropospheric outflow. A photochemical box model based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (version 3.2) and constrained by a full suite of measurements was developed to probe the photochemistry of atmosphere at WLG. Our results show net ozone production from in-situ photochemistry during both late spring and summer. Oxidation of nitric oxide (NO) by the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) dominates the ozone production relative to the oxidation by the organic peroxy radicals (RO2), and the ozone is primarily destroyed by photolysis and reactions with the HOx(HOx = OH + HO2) radicals. Ozone photolysis is the predominant primary source of radicals (ROx = OH + HO2 + RO2), followed by the photolysis of oxygenated VOCs and hydrogen peroxides. The radical losses are governed by the self and cross reactions among the radicals. The findings can provide insights into the background chemistry and the impacts of pollution transport on the pristine atmosphere over the Eurasian continent.

Xue, L. K.; Wang, T.; Guo, H.; Blake, D. R.; Tang, J.; Zhang, X. C.; Saunders, S. M.; Wang, W. X.

2013-05-01

324

A new iguanodontid ( Jinzhousaurus yangi gen. et sp. nov.) from the Yixian Formation of western Liaoning, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new iguanodontid,Jinzhousaurus yangi gen. et sp. nov., is erected based on the cranial and dental morphology of a specimen from the Yixian Formation of western\\u000a Liaoning. Although a few primitive characteristics remain,Jinzhousaurus yangi display a number of characteristics similar to those seen in derived iguanodontids. Other interesting characteristics include\\u000a the absence of antorbital fenestra and the frontal excluded from

Xiaolin Wang; Xing Xu

2001-01-01

325

Ionospheric electron density variations observed by FORMOSAT3/COSMIC during AKR experiments and the Sichuan earthquake.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) experiments were conducted at the HIPAS (High Power Auroral Stimulation) Observatory (64°52'19" N, 146°50'33" W) during January-March of 2008. The GPS Occultation experiment (GOX) onboard FORMOSAT3/COSMIC (F3/C) are employed to observe the ionospheric electron density during the 2008-01-21 06:52:00UT experiment. The F3/C GOX data at 07:00-08:00UT within 10- degree lat/long from the HIPAS on the experiment day and 1-15 days before and after are isolated. A comparison between the experiment day and the associated medians of its 1-15 day before/after shows that the AKR experiment results in a pronounced ionospheric electron density cavity on 21 January 2008. Meanwhile, an earthquake was occurred at Sichuan, China (30.986° N, 103.364° E, Depth 19km) at 06:28:01UT on 12 May 2008.The F3/C GOX data show that ionospheric electron densities above the forthcoming epicenter anomalously decrease of about 30-40% in the afternoon period (13:00-16:00UT) of day 6 to 4 and in the late evening period of 3-5 day before the earthquake.

Chen, C.; Liu, J.; Lee, L.; Wong, A.

2008-12-01

326

Damage analysis of 12 May 2008 Sichuan earthquake with satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The devastating earthquake (Ms=8.0) of 12 May 2008 in Sichuan, China struck the whole world. To detect the large damaged area in less time and identify seismogenic structure, remote sensing technology is strongly recommended. This paper attempts to focus on seismic area to analyze the earthquake damage from different aspects. Firstly, pre- and post-earthquake Landsat TM/ETM images, CBERS-02B CCD images, DEM and relating data is used to observe ground changes. The analysis assumption is testified by the Tangjia Mountain dammed lake in Beichuan county and landslide in Anxian county in relative news and reports. Furthermore, Radarsat data is used to complement the analysis, since it could provide the seismic area surface deformation and a better 3-D vision. Also specific information of local fault, landslide and sub-block features in seismic area could be observed and got, which helps to perfect the damage analysis. All these analysis results could be useful for improving and revising the interpretations of geological, geodetic and seismological data. Finally, the possibility of estimating and inducing earthquake damage using remote sensing data is discussed.

Cheng, Xiaoqian; Wang, Wen; Yu, Tao; Ren, Zhuyan

2008-12-01

327

Comparison of two large earthquakes: the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake and the 2011 East Japan Earthquake.  

PubMed

Between August 15th and 19th, 2011, eight 5th-year medical students from the Keio University School of Medicine had the opportunity to visit the Peking University School of Medicine and hold a discussion session titled "What is the most effective way to educate people for survival in an acute disaster situation (before the mental health care stage)?" During the session, we discussed the following six points: basic information regarding the Sichuan Earthquake and the East Japan Earthquake, differences in preparedness for earthquakes, government actions, acceptance of medical rescue teams, earthquake-induced secondary effects, and media restrictions. Although comparison of the two earthquakes was not simple, we concluded that three major points should be emphasized to facilitate the most effective course of disaster planning and action. First, all relevant agencies should formulate emergency plans and should supply information regarding the emergency to the general public and health professionals on a normal basis. Second, each citizen should be educated and trained in how to minimize the risks from earthquake-induced secondary effects. Finally, the central government should establish a single headquarters responsible for command, control, and coordination during a natural disaster emergency and should centralize all powers in this single authority. We hope this discussion may be of some use in future natural disasters in China, Japan, and worldwide. PMID:22410538

Otani, Yuki; Ando, Takayuki; Atobe, Kaori; Haiden, Akina; Kao, Sheng-Yuan; Saito, Kohei; Shimanuki, Marie; Yoshimoto, Norifumi; Fukunaga, Koichi

2012-01-01

328

Analytical and finite element modeling of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake from DInSAR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnitude Mw = 8.0 earthquake that struck China's Sichuan region on 12 May 2008 has been imaged by X, C, and L-band SAR satellites (ASI's Cosmo-Skymed, ESA's ENVISAT, and NASDA's ALOS, respectively), allowing to attempt the recovering of the ground deformation associated to the fault dislocation. We analyzed all the available Cosmo stripmap images (3-m resolution), some ENVISAT frames, and more than sixty ALOS-PALSAR scenes. The X and C band interferograms show good coherence only in the lowland, near the city of Chengdu, but the coherence decreases dramatically in the strong relief areas. Moreover their spatial coverage is limited with respect to the large extent of the fault (~ 300 km long). The best coverage is provided by PALSAR interferograms which maintain very good coherence also in the mountain areas, thanks to the long wavelength of the L band (23.8 cm). We calculated ~ 45 differential PALSAR interferograms across time spans of a few months, obtaining a good view of the co-seismic surface deformation along the fault. We observe over 2.5 m of Line of Sight ground displacement. We use the displacement field to infer the geometry and the slip distribution of the seismogenic fault, by means of a linear and non-linear inversion of an analytic elastic source; an additional modelling is then performed by means of a finite element approach.

Atzori, S.; Bignami, C.; Brunori, C.; Chini, M.; Tolomei, C.; Trasatti, E.; Stramondo, S.; Salvi, S.

2008-12-01

329

PI forecast with or without de-clustering: an experiment for the Sichuan-Yunnan region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pattern Informatics (PI) algorithm uses earthquake catalogues for estimating the increase of the probability of strong earthquakes. The main measure in the algorithm is the number of earthquakes above a threshold magnitude. Since aftershocks occupy a significant proportion of the total number of earthquakes, whether de-clustering affects the performance of the forecast is one of the concerns in the application of this algorithm. This problem is of special interest after a great earthquake, when aftershocks become predominant in regional seismic activity. To investigate this problem, the PI forecasts are systematically analyzed for the Sichuan-Yunnan region of southwest China. In this region there have occurred some earthquakes larger than MS 7.0, including the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. In the analysis, the epidemic-type aftershock sequences (ETAS) model was used for de-clustering. The PI algorithm was revised to consider de-clustering, by replacing the number of earthquakes by the sum of the ETAS-assessed probability for an event to be a "background event" or a "clustering event". Case studies indicate that when an intense aftershock sequence is included in the "sliding time window", the hotspot picture may vary, and the variation lasts for about one year. PI forecasts seem to be affected by the aftershock sequence included in the "anomaly identifying window", and the PI forecast using "background events" seems to have a better performance.

Jiang, C. S.; Wu, Z. L.

2011-03-01

330

Predatory Ground Beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Gaoligong Mountain Region of Western Yunnan Province, China: the Tribe Cyclosomini  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 1998 and 2007, the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) was the lead institution in a multi-national, multi-disciplinary biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region (GLGS) in the Yunnan province of China. The project surveyed the species diversity of both higher plants and bryophytes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and selected groups of arachnids and insects. The GLGS of China is one of the most biodiverse areas in all of Asia, yet it is also very poorly sampled and in great threat from increasing human activities in the region. CAS's biodiversity inventory project there has increased the number of carabid species known from just 50 to more than 550 species, an eleven-fold increase. The task that remains is to identify all of those 500 additional species and describe any that are new to science. This project is part of that larger biodiversity survey. Our objective was to identify and/or describe carabid beetles of the tribe Cyclosomini represented by nearly a hundred specimens collected in the GLSG. Among those specimens, six morphospecies were identified - one belonging to the genus Cyclosomus Latreille 1829, and the other five belonging to the genus Tetragonoderus Dejean 1829. Following this initial identification process, a list of known distributions of taxa in both genera was assembled to determine which described species to consider for comparative work. Original descriptions were then located for candidate species with known distributions in or near the GLGS; and these are being used now in morphological comparison of specimens. Type specimens for each of the candidate species have been requested from various academic institutions, and morphological comparisons with these types are underway. Morphological characteristics being examined include body proportions and overall shape, color of appendages, color and shape of pronotum, elytral color patterns, and shape and internal structure of male genitalia.

Cueva-Dabkoski, M.; Kavanaugh, D.

2013-12-01

331

Properties and Dissemination of H5N1 Viruses Isolated during an Influenza Outbreak in Migratory Waterfowl in Western China  

PubMed Central

H5N1 influenza A viruses are widely distributed among poultry in Asia, but until recently, only a limited number of wild birds were affected. During late April through June 2005, an outbreak of H5N1 virus infection occurred among wild birds at Qinghai Lake in China. Here, we describe the features of this outbreak. First identified in bar-headed geese, the disease soon spread to other avian species populating the lake. Sequence analysis of 15 viruses representing six avian species and collected at different times during the outbreak revealed four different H5N1 genotypes. Most of the isolates possessed lysine at position 627 in the PB2 protein, a residue known to be associated with virulence in mice and adaptation to humans. However, neither of the two index viruses possessed this residue. All of the viruses tested were pathogenic in mice, with the exception of one index virus. We also tested the replication of two viruses isolated during the Qinghai Lake outbreak and one unrelated duck H5N1 virus in rhesus macaques. The Qinghai Lake viruses did not replicate efficiently in these animals, producing no evidence of disease other than transient fever, while the duck virus replicated in multiple organs and caused symptoms of respiratory illness. Importantly, H5N1 viruses isolated in Mongolia, Russia, Inner Mongolia, and the Liaoning Province of China after August 2005 were genetically closely related to one of the genotypes isolated during the Qinghai outbreak, suggesting the dominant nature of this genotype and underscoring the need for worldwide intensive surveillance to minimize its devastating consequences.

Chen, Hualan; Li, Yanbing; Li, Zejun; Shi, Jianzhong; Shinya, Kyoko; Deng, Guohua; Qi, Qiaoling; Tian, Guobin; Fan, Shufang; Zhao, Haidan; Sun, Yingxiang; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2006-01-01

332

textbf{20-50-day Oscillation of Summer Yangtze Rainfall in Response to Intraseasonal Variations in the Subtropical High over the Western North Pacific and South China Sea}  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatio-temporal variability in summer rainfall within eastern China is identified based on empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of daily rain-gauge precipitation data for the period 1979-2003. Spatial coherence of rainfall is found in the Yangtze Basin, and a wavelet transform is applied to the corresponding principal component to capture the intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) of Yangtze rainfall. The ensemble mean wavelet spectrum, representing statistically significant intraseasonal variability, shows a predominant oscillation in summer Yangtze rainfall with a period of 20-50 days; a 10-20-day oscillation is pronounced during June and July. This finding suggests that the 20-50-day oscillation is a major agent in regulating summer Yangtze rainfall. Composite analyses reveal that the 20-50-day oscillation of summer Yangtze rainfall arises in response to intraseasonal variations in the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH), which in turn is modulated by a Rossby wave-like coupled circulation-convection system that propagates northward and northwestward from the equatorial western Pacific. When an anomalous cyclone associated with this Rossby wave-like system reaches the South China Sea (SCS) and Philippine Sea, the WNPSH retreats northeastward due to a reduction in local pressure. Under these conditions, strong monsoonal southwesterlies blow mainly toward the SCS-Philippine Sea, while dry conditions form in the Yangtze Basin, with a pronounced divergent flow pattern. In contrast, the movement of an anomalous anticyclone over the SCS-Philippine Sea results in the southwestward extension of the WNPSH; consequently, the tropical monsoonal southwesterlies veer to the northeast over the SCS and then converge toward the Yangtze Basin, producing wet conditions. Therefore, the 20-50-day oscillation of Yangtze rainfall is also manifest as a seesaw pattern in convective anomalies between the Yangtze Basin and the SCS-Philippine Sea. A considerable zonal shift in the WNPSH is associated with extreme dry (wet) episodes in the Yangtze Basin, with an abrupt eastward (westward) shift in the WNPSH generally leading the extreme negative (positive) Yangtze rainfall anomaly by a 3/8-period of the 20-50-day oscillation. This finding may have implications for improving extended-range weather forecasting in the Yangtze Basin.

Mao, Jiangyu; Sun, Zhang; Wu, Guoxiong

2010-05-01

333

20-50-day oscillation of summer Yangtze rainfall in response to intraseasonal variations in the subtropical high over the western North Pacific and South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatio-temporal variability in summer rainfall within eastern China is identified based on empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of daily rain-gauge precipitation data for the period 1979-2003. Spatial coherence of rainfall is found in the Yangtze Basin, and a wavelet transform is applied to the corresponding principal component to capture the intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) of Yangtze rainfall. The ensemble mean wavelet spectrum, representing statistically significant intraseasonal variability, shows a predominant oscillation in summer Yangtze rainfall with a period of 20-50 days; a 10-20-day oscillation is pronounced during June and July. This finding suggests that the 20-50-day oscillation is a major agent in regulating summer Yangtze rainfall. Composite analyses reveal that the 20-50-day oscillation of summer Yangtze rainfall arises in response to intraseasonal variations in the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH), which in turn is modulated by a Rossby wave-like coupled circulation-convection system that propagates northward and northwestward from the equatorial western Pacific. When an anomalous cyclone associated with this Rossby wave-like system reaches the South China Sea (SCS) and Philippine Sea, the WNPSH retreats northeastward due to a reduction in local pressure. Under these conditions, strong monsoonal southwesterlies blow mainly toward the SCS-Philippine Sea, while dry conditions form in the Yangtze Basin, with a pronounced divergent flow pattern. In contrast, the movement of an anomalous anticyclone over the SCS-Philippine Sea results in the southwestward extension of the WNPSH; consequently, the tropical monsoonal southwesterlies veer to the northeast over the SCS and then converge toward the Yangtze Basin, producing wet conditions. Therefore, the 20-50-day oscillation of Yangtze rainfall is also manifest as a seesaw pattern in convective anomalies between the Yangtze Basin and the SCS-Philippine Sea. A considerable zonal shift in the WNPSH is associated with extreme dry (wet) episodes in the Yangtze Basin, with an abrupt eastward (westward) shift in the WNPSH generally leading the extreme negative (positive) Yangtze rainfall anomaly by a 3/8-period of the 20-50-day oscillation. This finding may have implications for improving extended-range weather forecasting in the Yangtze Basin.

Mao, Jiangyu; Sun, Zhang; Wu, Guoxiong

2010-04-01

334

Alafrasca sticta, a new genus and species of the tribe Empoascini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) with a checklist of the tribe from China.  

PubMed

A new monotypic genus of empoascine leafhopper, Alafrasca gen. nov. is described and illustrated for A. sticta sp. nov. from Sichuan, China as its type species. Habitus photos and illustrations of male genitalia of the new species are given. A checklist of the tribe in China is also provided. PMID:24871710

Lu, Si-Han; Qin, Dao-Zheng

2014-01-01

335

Continental ultra-deep drilling locating research status and progress in the Jinchuan Ni-Cu ore-concentrated area,Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abstract is the initial achievements of "Continental ultra-deep drilling locating pre-study in the Jinchuan nickel-copper ore-concentrated area,Western China". 1 Some scientific problems faced by Jinchuan scientific drilling 1.1 Tectonic research of plates convergent margins Jinchuan ore-concentrated area locate in intersection of the south China plate, the north China plate, the tarim plate and convergent orogenic belts. Carrying out deep drilling could obtain informations such as deep material composition, fluid composition, rock fabric, structural features of the special region,etc.Then we can discuss tectonic evolution of the area between the plates. 1.2 Metallogenic theory research Ore-forming material source and extension of the deep rock situation are the key of resolving and verifying metallogenic theory. Carrying out scientific drilling research which will make some issues, that reasons of the huge amount of metal accumulation, formation mechanism of Cu-Ni-PGE sulfide deposits, relationships of metals accumulation process and the crust-mantle interaction and geological background, in particular, fluid role in this process, be resolved. And we could research mantle-derived magmatism and mineralization. 1.3 Perfect Jinchuan metallogenic model Jinchuan deposit is typical for the world's "formation of large deposit in a small intrusion". That establishing the metallogenic model is predominant in international field of mafic-ultramafic magmatic sulfide deposits. Scientific deep drilling could obtain informations which will enrich the theory system. 2 New achievements of continental ultra-deep drilling locating pre-study (1) Previous studies shown that Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic strata,to south of Ore-bearing rock, are monoclines, but this research reveals that which are incomplete complex anticlines, which controlled and destructed by several major regional faults. And there are several ductile shear zones in Sinian strata that increased complexity of regional structure,deformation and metamorphism. These findings have a significant impact on studies of regional diagenesis, mineralization,magmation and tectonic evolution. (2) Systematic sampling analysis revealed that the formation of copper-rich,,PGE-rich ore bodies related to the latest magma (Su et al.,2010). The magma mineralization concentrated in the midwestern portion of No.1 ore body, this part was probably the location of the occurrence of magma channel. It's worthy of exploring at depth with other factors. (3)The application of controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric sounding shown that spatial distribution of electromagnetic geological bodies of the mining area over 3200m under the surface.

Yan, H.; Tang, Z.; Yang, J.

2010-12-01

336

Chengia laxispicata gen. et sp. nov., a new ephedroid plant from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of western Liaoning, Northeast China: evolutionary, taxonomic, and biogeographic implications  

PubMed Central

Background The extant Gnetales include three monotypic families, namely, Ephedraceae (Ephedra), Gnetaceae (Gnetum), and Welwitschiaceae (Welwitschia), all of which possess compound female cones that comprise a main axis and 1 to multiple pairs/whorls of bracts subtending a female reproductive unit or having lower pairs/whorls of bracts sterile. However, the evolutionary origin of such a reproductive architecture in Gnetales is controversial in the light of the competing anthophyte versus gnetifer hypotheses of seed plant relationships. Hence, macrofossils demonstrating the structure of compound female cones of the Gnetales should be important to decipher the early evolution of the order. Results A new ephedroid plant Chengia laxispicata gen. et sp. nov. is described from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of western Liaoning, Northeast China. The fossil represents a part of a leafy shooting system with reproductive organs attached. The main shoot bears internodes and swollen nodes, from which lateral branches arise oppositely. Reproductive organs consist of female spikes terminal to twigs or axillary to linear leaves. Spikes are loosely arranged, having prominent nodes and internodes. Bracts of the spikes are decussately opposite and comprise 4—8 pairs of bracts. Each bract subtends an ellipsoid seed. Seeds are sessile, with a thin outer envelope and a distal micropylar tube. Conclusions Chengia laxispicata gen. et sp. nov. provides a missing link between archetypal fertile organs in the crown lineage of the Gnetales and compound female cones of the extant Ephedraceae. Combined with a wealth of Ephedra and ephedroid macrofossils from the Early Cretaceous, we propose a reduction and sterilization hypothesis that the female cone of the extant Ephedraceae may have stemmed from archetypal fertile organs in the crown lineage of the Gnetales. These have undergone sequentially intermediate links similar to female cones of Cretaceous Siphonospermum, Chengia, and Liaoxia by reduction and sterilization of the lower fertile bracts, shortenings of internodes and peduncles as well as loss of reproductive units in all inferior bracts. The basal family Ephedraceae including Ephedra of the extant Gnetales was demonstrated to have considerable diversity by the Early Cretaceous, so an emended familial diagnosis is given here. The Jehol Biota in Northeast China and adjacent areas contains a plethora of well-preserved macrofossils of Ephedra and ephedroids that show different evolutionary stages including primitive and derived characters of Ephedraceae, so Northeast China and adjacent areas may represent either the centre of origination or one of the centres for early diversification of the family.

2013-01-01

337

Active faults and surface rupture in the 12 May 2008 Sichuan earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 12 May 2008 Sichuan, China, earthquake displayed a complex pattern of surface rupture on at least three faults that extend for ~220 km along the Longmen Shan mountains in Sichuan Province. Two of these faults - the Beichuan and Pengguan faults - had been previously recognized as active on the basis of geological and geomorphological relationships. The active traces of the Beichuan and Pengguan faults are northeast-striking, steeply-dipping to vertical shear zones that show a combination of dextral strike-slip and thrust movement, and offset a variety of Quaternary landforms. Evidence for previous earthquakes on both faults is patchy, but available data indicate that surface-rupturing earthquakes have occurred within the last 8-12 kyr on the Beichuan fault, and within the last 1-3 kyr on the Pengguan fault. During the 12 May earthquake, up to 6 m of oblique dextral-thrust slip occurred on strands of the Beichuan fault. Slip during the early stages of the rupture was primarily thrust, and the component of strike-slip deformation became progressively more important as the rupture propagated to the northeast. In places the surface rupture appears somewhat discontinuous, and we speculate that significant near-surface deformation was absorbed by bedding-parallel slip rather than by offset along a discrete fault plane. The Pengguan fault experienced nearly pure thrust deformation along ~100 km of surface rupture, despite geomorphological evidence of Quaternary dextral strike-slip displacement. The third fault that was involved in the 12 May earthquake, informally termed the Xiaoyudong fault, is a northwest-striking, moderately west-dipping fault with approximately equal components of sinistral strike-slip and thrust deformation. The Xiaoyudong fault is largely confined to the floor of the Jian Jiang river valley and was not previously recognized as an active fault. The continuity of geological contacts on either side of the valley appears to rule out long-term displacements of more than a few km on the fault. Observations of apparent compound scarps, however, indicate that the Xiaoyudong fault likely had some surface expression in older fluvial deposits before the 12 May earthquake. Interestingly, despite the extensive surface rupture and widespread evidence for large ground motions, the density of landsliding associated with the earthquake appears to depend much more strongly on bedrock lithology than on proximity to the active fault traces.

Densmore, A. L.; Li, Y.; Richardson, N.

2008-12-01

338

Spatiotemporal distribution of water environmental capacity-a case study on the western areas of Taihu Lake in Jiangsu Province, China.  

PubMed

Currently, the poor water quality in Taihu Lake is a major problem in China, so pollution control in the upstream areas has become a government priority. In Jiangsu Province, pollution emissions around the western areas of Taihu Lake, including Changzhou Municipality and Yixing City, need to be highly restricted, and calculating the water environmental capacity is important if pollution is to be reduced. In this study, 19 control units in these areas were established, and a 0-D mathematical model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity. For three important control units with important cross sections, a 1-D model was established to redress the results. Finally, the total maximum monthly loads of each control unit were obtained using temporal allocation principles. The results suggested that (1) the total pollution control of chemical oxygen demand was 58,894.2 tonnes per annum (t a(-1)), with ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus amounting to 3,808, 6,054.6, and 386.6 t a(-1), respectively; (2) water environmental capacity per unit water area in the ambient control units was smaller than that in the middle control units; and (3) the largest water environmental capacity was in June, and the smallest capacity was in December. The study provides important information for local governments, which will enable them to implement pollution control strategies that will improve the water quality in Taihu Lake. PMID:24399075

Xie, Rongrong; Pang, Yong; Bao, Kun

2014-04-01

339

Inventory of the carabid beetle fauna of the Gaoligong Mountains, western Yunnan Province, China: species of the tribe Zabrini (Coleoptera, Carabidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract A ten-year multidisciplinary, multi-national and multi-institutional biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region of western Yunnan Province, China generated more than 35,000 specimens of the beetle (Coleoptera) family Carabidae. In this report, first of a planned series, we focus on diversity in tribe Zabrini. Our study of just over 1300 specimens of zabrine carabids from the project, all in genus Amara Bonelli, found a total of 13 species, all previously described, to occur in the study area, with none of them strictly endemic. We present a key for identification of adults of these species, as well as nomenclatural data, diagnoses, illustrations of dorsal habitus and male genitalia, and information about geographical, altitudinal and habitat distributions within the study area and overall geographical distribution for each species. Distributions of the species within the study area are compared, and broader geographical range patterns are characterized. We also discuss a possible role of the Gaoligong Shan region as one source area for the present-day fauna of the Himalaya and southern edge of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau.

Kavanaugh, David H.; Hieke, Fritz; Liang, Hongbin; Dong, Dazhi

2014-01-01

340

Formation of tectonic peperites from alkaline magmas intruded into wet sediments in the Beiya area, western Yunnan, China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tertiary (3.78 Ma to 3.65 Ma) biotite-K-feldspar porphyritic bodies intrude Tertiary, poorly consolidated lacustrine sedimentary rocks in the Beiya mineral district in southwestern China. The intrusives are characterized by a microcrystalline and vitreous-cryptocrystalline groundmass, by replacement of some tabular K-feldspar phenocrysts with microcrystalline chlorite and calcite, and by Fe-rich rings surrounding biotite phenocrysts. Peculiar structures, such as contemporary contact faults and slickensides, ductile shear zones and flow folds, foliation and lineations, tension fractures, and banded and boudin peperites, are developed along the contact zones of the intrusives. These features are related to the forceful intrusion of the alkaline magmas into the wet Tertiary sediments. The partially consolidated magmas were deformed and flattened by continued forceful magma intrusion that produced boudinaged and banded peperites. These peperites characterized by containing oriented deformation fabrics are classified as tectonic peperites as a new type of peperite, and formation of these tectonic peperites was related to fracturing of magmas caused by forceful intrusion and shear deformation and to contemporary migration and injection of fluidized sediments along fractures that dismembered the porphyritic magma. Emplacement of the magma into the wet sediments in the Beiya area is interpreted to be related to a large pressure difference rather than to the buoyancy force. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Xu, X. -W.; Cai, X. -P.; Zhong, J. -Y.; Song, B. -C.; Peters, S. G.

2007-01-01

341

A Community Fault Model (CFM) for the Sichuan basin and Longmen Shan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake struck Sichuan Province, China, along the Longmen Shan fold-and-thrust belt. The rupture occurred in a region with no prior, historical earthquakes of comparable size, and in a region with low horizontal shortening. Thus, the event occurred with little prior warning based on current methods of seismic hazards assessment. In order to improve seismic hazards assessment, we have constructed a Community Fault Model (CFM) and Community Velocity Model (CVM) for the region, modeled after the Southern California CFM/CVM (Plesch et al., 2007). Here, we describe the CFM, which consists of 3D representations of the main active faults in the region. To facilitate model construction, we imported a variety of surface and subsurface datasets into Gocad, a 3D CAD tool. These include geological maps, fault maps, seismicity, focal mechanisms, well data, cross-sections, and seismic reflection profiles. We developed a quantitative technique for constructing fault surfaces using these datasets, described in Riesner et al. (2012). The region displays a variety of faulting styles. The Longmen Shan is a NE-SW-striking fold-and-thrust belt, characterized by a set of NW-dipping imbricated thrust ramps that sole into a deep detachment at ~15-20 km. This detachment rises to the SE along a blind thrust ramp (the Range Front thrust), and flattens to a shallower detachment that underlies much of the Sichuan basin (2-7 km depth). Many of the active faults in the basin sole to this shallow detachment, which is localized in a Triassic evaporite sequence. There is also evidence of deeper faulting within the Sichuan basin, as shown by the Weiyuan anticline and patches of seismicity at greater depth. These faults generally dip steeply, and may be thick-skinned or rise from a deeper detachment. The main fault that ruptured in the Wenchuan earthquake, the Beichuan fault, lies within the Longmen Shan and dips steeply. More shallowly dipping faults splay off of this fault to the SE; one of these (the Pengguan fault) also ruptured in the Wenchuan earthquake. Slip in the earthquake was highly oblique, with right-lateral motion. Consistent with this obliquity, we see evidence for the breakthrough of a new strike-slip fault to the NE of the mapped rupture in the Wenchuan earthquake based on seismicity patterns. To the north and south, the Longmen Shan is bounded by two large NW-SE to N-S-striking left-lateral strike-slip systems: the Kunlun to the north, and the Xianshuihe-Anninghe to the south. Although some faults are well-constrained by surface and subsurface data, others are represented only by a surface trace and sparse seismicity. When the geometry is unclear, we provide multiple alternative models. We plan to develop "quality rankings" for the faults based on data availability and community surveys. These rankings will be used to identify the preferred model when multiple alternatives are available. In addition to providing an integrative repository for fault studies and data, this model is intended to be used in a wide range of earthquake studies, including analysis of geodetic data to assess fault slip rates, simulations of the strong ground motion that will result from future earthquakes, and improvement of regional tomographic models. We will be releasing the fault model together with our 3D velocity model (Wang et al., 2012) to facilitate such studies.

Hubbard, J.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Riesner, M.; Smith, H.; Wang, M.; Durand-Riard, P.

2012-12-01

342

Review of the millipede genus Epanerchodus Attems, 1901 in continental China, with descriptions of new species (Diplopoda: Polydesmidae).  

PubMed

Four new species of Epanerchodus are described from mainland China: E. jaegeri sp. nov. and E. martensi sp. nov., both sympatric and even partly syntopic in Shaanxi, E. schawalleri sp. nov., from Sichuan, and E. yunnanensis sp. nov., from Yunnan. In addition, E. koreanus Verhoeff, 1937 is formally new to the fauna of China due to fresh samples from Jilin. A key is presented to all 14 unquestioned species of Epanerchodus currently known from mainland China. PMID:24870082

Golovatch, S I

2014-01-01

343

Digital radiography of crush thoracic trauma in the Sichuan earthquake  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the features of crush thoracic trauma in Sichuan earthquake victims using chest digital radiography (CDR). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 772 CDR of 417 females and 355 males who had suffered crush thoracic trauma in the Sichuan earthquake. Patient age ranged from 0.5 to 103 years. CDR was performed between May 12, 2008 and June 7, 2008. We looked for injury to the thoracic cage, pulmonary parenchyma and the pleura. RESULTS: Antero-posterior (AP) and lateral CDR were obtained in 349 patients, the remaining 423 patients underwent only AP CDR. Thoracic cage fractures, pulmonary contusion and pleural injuries were noted in 331 (42.9%; 95% CI: 39.4%-46.4%), 67 and 135 patients, respectively. Of the 256 patients with rib fractures, the mean number of fractured ribs per patient was 3. Rib fractures were mostly distributed from the 3rd through to the 8th ribs and the vast majority involved posterior and lateral locations along the rib. Rib fractures had a significant positive association with non-rib thoracic fractures, pulmonary contusion and pleural injuries (P < 0.001). The number of rib fractures and pulmonary contusions were significant factors associated with patient death. CONCLUSION: Earthquake-related crush thoracic trauma has the potential for multiple fractures. The high number of fractured ribs and pulmonary contusions were significant factors which needed appropriate medical treatment.

Dong, Zhi-Hui; Shao, Heng; Chen, Tian-Wu; Chu, Zhi-Gang; Deng, Wen; Tang, Si-Shi; Chen, Jing; Yang, Zhi-Gang

2011-01-01

344

Geochronological, geochemical, and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic characteristics of Cretaceous monzonitic plutons in western Zhejiang Province, Southeast China: New insights into the petrogenesis of intermediate rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present comprehensive petrological, geochemical, and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic data for the Matou and Dalai plutons in western Zhejiang Province, Southeast China, with the aim of constraining the petrogenesis of monzonites and to offer new insights into the deep processes of interaction between crustal- and mantle-derived magmas beneath SE China. The Matou pluton comprises quartz monzonite, whereas the Dalai pluton consists of quartz monzodiorite. Zircon U–Pb ages obtained by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry show that both plutons were emplaced at 99–101 Ma. Rocks of both plutons are intermediate to silicic, metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, subalkaline, and K-rich in composition. Samples of the plutons are enriched in large ion lithophile (e.g., Rb, K, and Pb) and light rare earth elements, depleted in high-field strength elements (e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti), and have small negative or no Eu anomalies. In addition, the rocks have high Mg# values (up to 53.9), high zircon ?Hf(t) values (up to ? 1.4), and low Nb/U and Ta/U ratios. Geochemical evidence suggests that both depleted asthenospheric and metasomatically enriched mantle components were involved in the formation of these monzonitic rocks. The presence of inherited zircons with Palaeoproterozoic ages and zircons with unusually low ?Hf(t) values (? 12.9) in the Matou quartz monzonites indicates that ancient crustal materials were also involved in their petrogenesis. In combination with the presence of abundant mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) with spheroidal to ellipsoidal–ovoidal shapes and xenocrysts within the more diffused enclaves, and the results of trace element modelling, we suggest that the Matou quartz monzonites were generated by mixing between mantle-derived mafic magmas and crustally derived silicic magmas. The Dalai pluton is relatively homogeneous and contains fewer MMEs than the Matou pluton. Zircons from the Dalai pluton show no inherited components, indicating that crustal materials have played a limited role in the petrogenesis of the quartz monzodiorites. The Dalai quartz monzodiorites have lower SiO2 contents, higher Mg# values, and considerably higher and variable Cr, Co, and Ni concentrations than the Matou quartz monzonites. Zircon Hf isotopic compositions of the Dalai pluton are relatively homogeneous (?Hf(t) = ? 5.2 to ? 3.2). The combined petrological, geochemical, and isotopic features indicate that the Dalai monzodiorites were generated by olivine- and pyroxene-dominated fractional crystallisation from basaltic magmas, which were in turn produced by mixing between melts from depleted asthenosphere and subduction-enriched mantle. Our interpretation implies that Late Mesozoic monzonitic rocks in Southeast China require a significant input of mantle melts, and some may have been generated solely by fractionation of basaltic magmas. This petrogenetic model may be applicable to other monzonitic rocks in Southeast China, and to similar tectonic settings and sites of monzonitic magma generation worldwide.

Liu, Liang; Qiu, Jian-Sheng; Zhao, Jiao-Long; Yang, Ze-Li

2014-05-01

345

Surface Sediments in the Marsh-Sandy Land Transitional Area: Sandification in the Western Songnen Plain, China  

PubMed Central

The development of sandification process was studied, by monitoring the changes of sediment characteristics, at marsh-sandy land intersections in China's Songnen region. A series of sediment collection plates were deployed in the region; after one year, sediments in these plates were analyzed for changes of mass and chemical characteristics. The sediment flux and the sand content of the sediments decreased with the increasing longitudinal distance between the sampling site and the centre line of a sand dune. The mean sediment flux was 29±14 kg m?2 yr?1 and 0.6±0.3 kg m?2 yr?1 in the sandy land and marsh, respectively. Strong, positive correlations were found between the concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, P, Fe, Ti, V and Zr, all of which were also negatively correlated with the sand content. The concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, P, Fe, Ti, V and Zr in the marsh sediment samples were all significantly greater than the corresponding concentrations of the sandy land (p<0.001). Sand content and Ti, V and Zr concentrations all proved to be valid indicators of sandification intensity, and they showed that the marsh could be divided into three distinct zones. Sand expansion extended about 88 m into the marsh. The mean sand content in the sediments of the sandy land was 91% and then 64% in the marsh, which in turn was higher than that of marshes outside the influence of sandification, suggesting that the marsh in the marsh-sandy land transitional area has already undergone extensive sandification in the past. The study results provide information on the wetland's function of indicating and buffering the sandification process.

Yu, Xiaofei; Grace, Michael; Zou, Yuanchun; Yu, Xuefeng; Lu, Xianguo; Wang, Guoping

2014-01-01

346

Sources and photochemistry of volatile organic compounds in the remote atmosphere of western China: results from the Mt. Waliguan Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemistry of the natural atmosphere and the influence by long-range transport of air pollution are key issues in the atmospheric sciences. Here we present two intensive field measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in late spring and summer of 2003 at Mt. Waliguan (WLG, 36.28° N, 100.90° E, 3816 m a.s.l.), a baseline station in the northeast part of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Most VOC species exhibited higher concentrations in late spring than in summer. A typical diurnal variation was observed with higher nighttime levels, in contrast to results from other mountainous sites. Five different air masses were identified from backward trajectory analysis showing distinct VOC speciation. Air masses originating from the central Eurasian continent contained the lowest VOC levels compared to the others that were impacted by anthropogenic emissions from China and the Indian subcontinent. A photochemical box model based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (version 3.2) and constrained by a full suite of measurements was developed to probe the photochemistry of atmosphere at WLG. Our results show net ozone production from in situ photochemistry during both late spring and summer. Oxidation of nitric oxide (NO) by the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) dominates the ozone production relative to the oxidation by the organic peroxy radicals (RO2), and the ozone is primarily destroyed by photolysis and reactions with the HOx (HOx = OH + HO2) radicals. Ozone photolysis is the predominant primary source of radicals (ROx = OH + HO2 + RO2), followed by the photolysis of secondary oxygenated VOCs and hydrogen peroxides. The radical losses are governed by the self and cross reactions among the radicals. Overall, the findings of the present study provide insights into the background chemistry and the impacts of pollution transport on the pristine atmosphere over the Eurasian continent.

Xue, L. K.; Wang, T.; Guo, H.; Blake, D. R.; Tang, J.; Zhang, X. C.; Saunders, S. M.; Wang, W. X.

2013-09-01

347

Geological and geochemical characteristics in the paleo-weathering crust sedimentary type REE deposits, western Guizhou, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A supergene REE deposit closely interrelated with the weathering of the Emeishan basalt formation was produced in the Xuanwei formation, the overlying stratum of the late Permian Emeishan basalt formation in West Guizhou, China. The host strata consist primarily of offwhite kaolinite clay rock and/or grayish black carbonaceous shale. Mineralogical analyses reveal that kaolinites are the major minerals in REE ores with small amounts of smectite, illite, boehmite, hornblende, pyrophyllite, calcite, dolomite and/or iron-bearing minerals, with a certain proportion of feldspar, quartz crystal debris and noncrystal debris. Geochemical analyses reveal high enrichment of trace elements like Cu, Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf. The host strata feature considerable lithological variability, close interrelation of the REE grade with the lithology and uneven spatial distribution of the REE ores, which are mostly found in Lufang, Maojiaping and Zhangsigou profiles of Weining County and can be as thick as 20 m. Of the five stratigraphic profiles, 48% have their whole-rock ?REE higher than 1000 ppm. The REE in this framework consists primarily of ion adsorbed phases and REE-rich residual independent mineral phases. Comprehensive analyses suggest that the source may not only include the Emeishan basalt, but the intermediate acid volcanic rocks evolved from the Emeishan basalt in the later periods; the hydrothermal alteration subsequently imposed on the host strata might have boosted the mineralization of the rare earth. The preliminary genetic model should have been: the denudation product from the weathering of the parent rock was migrated to the sea-continental margin at the continent side carrying huge quantities of REE with it and was preserved by the quick marine transgression. The host strata consist primarily of kaolinite clay rock and/or carbonaceous shale, which are so far believed to be a sedimentary type REE deposit closely interrelated with weathering effect.

Zhou, Lingjie; Zhang, Zhengwei; Li, Yujiao; You, Fuhua; Wu, Chengquan; Zheng, Chaofei

2013-09-01

348

Surface sediments in the marsh-sandy land transitional area: sandification in the Western songnen plain, china.  

PubMed

The development of sandification process was studied, by monitoring the changes of sediment characteristics, at marsh-sandy land intersections in China's Songnen region. A series of sediment collection plates were deployed in the region; after one year, sediments in these plates were analyzed for changes of mass and chemical characteristics. The sediment flux and the sand content of the sediments decreased with the increasing longitudinal distance between the sampling site and the centre line of a sand dune. The mean sediment flux was 29±14 kg m-2 yr-1 and 0.6±0.3 kg m-2 yr-1 in the sandy land and marsh, respectively. Strong, positive correlations were found between the concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, P, Fe, Ti, V and Zr, all of which were also negatively correlated with the sand content. The concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, P, Fe, Ti, V and Zr in the marsh sediment samples were all significantly greater than the corresponding concentrations of the sandy land (p<0.001). Sand content and Ti, V and Zr concentrations all proved to be valid indicators of sandification intensity, and they showed that the marsh could be divided into three distinct zones. Sand expansion extended about 88 m into the marsh. The mean sand content in the sediments of the sandy land was 91% and then 64% in the marsh, which in turn was higher than that of marshes outside the influence of sandification, suggesting that the marsh in the marsh-sandy land transitional area has already undergone extensive sandification in the past. The study results provide information on the wetland's function of indicating and buffering the sandification process. PMID:24932717

Yu, Xiaofei; Grace, Michael; Zou, Yuanchun; Yu, Xuefeng; Lu, Xianguo; Wang, Guoping

2014-01-01

349

New species of Pseudopoda J?ger, 2000 from Southern China (Araneae, Sparassidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Four new species of the huntsman spider genus Pseudopoda Jäger, 2000 are described from Southern China: Pseudopoda acuminata sp. n. from Suiyang County, Guizhou Province, P. emei sp. n. from Emei Mountain, Sichuan Province, P. lacrimosa sp. n. from Fugong County and Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, and P. robusta sp. n. fromJinyun Mountain, Chongqing Municipality.

Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Bao-Shi; Zhang, Zhi-Sheng

2013-01-01

350

Lauriana Ren & Qin, a new genus of the tribe Tropidocephalini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Delphacidae) from China.  

PubMed

A new delphacid genus and species, Lauriana senticosa Ren & Qin, gen. et sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: Tropidocephalini) is described from Sichuan, China. Habitus photos and illustrations of male genitalia of the new species are given, and the differences between the new genus and its closely related genera are discussed. PMID:24872035

Ren, Feng-Juan; Zheng, Li-Fang; Huang, Yi-Xin; Qin, Dao-Zheng

2014-01-01

351

A new species of Schrankia H?bner, 1825 from China (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Hypenodinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of the genus Schrankia Hübner, 1825, S. pelicano sp. n. is described from Sichuan, China. A diagnostic comparison is made with Schrankia taenialis (Hübner, [1809]) and Schrankia separatalis (Herz, 1904); illustrations of the male holotype and its genitalia are provided. A checklist of the genus with synonyms is given.

Pekarsky, Oleg

2012-01-01

352

Current distribution, status and conservation of wild red pandas Ailurus fulgens in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The red panda is classed as a category II species under the Wild Animal Protection Law in China. Both subspecies, Ailurus fulgens fulgens and A. f. styani can be found there. However, the styani subspecies is more typical of the region. According to the survey conducted from 1994 to 1996, red pandas now can only be found in Sichuan, Yunnan

Fuwen Wei; Zuojian Feng; Zuwang Wang; Jinchu Hu

1999-01-01

353

Physicochemical impacts of dust particles on alpine glacier meltwater at the Laohugou Glacier basin in western Qilian Mountains, China.  

PubMed

This work discusses the temporal variation of various physicochemical species in the meltwater runoff of Laohugou Glacier No. 12 (4260ma.s.l.) in central Asia, and their correlation with dust particles, based on a two-year field observation in summer 2012 and 2013, mainly focusing on dust concentration and size distribution, meltwater chemistry, particles SEM-EDX analysis in the meltwater, and MODIS atmospheric optical depth fields around the Qilian Mountains in central Asia. We find that, the volume-size distribution of dust particles in the meltwater is mainly composed of three parts, which includes fine aerosol particles (with diameter of 0~3.0?m, mainly PM 2.5), atmospheric dust (with diameter of 3.0~20?m), and local dust particles (20~100?m), respectively. Comparison of dust particles in the snowpack and meltwater runoff indicates that, large part of dust particles in the meltwater may have originated from atmospheric dust deposition to the snow and ice on the glacier, and transported into the meltwater runoff. Moreover, temporal variation of dust and major ions (especially crustal species) is very similar with each other, showing great influence of dust particles to the chemical constituents of the glacier meltwater. SPM and TDS implied significant influences of dust to the physical characteristics of the glacier meltwater. Results showed that, accelerated glacier melting may affect physicochemical characteristics of the meltwater at an alpine basin under global warming. MODIS atmospheric optical depth (AOD) fields derived using the Deep Blue algorithm, showed great influence of regional dust transportation over western Qilian Mountains in springtime. SEM-EDX analysis shows that dust particles in the glacier meltwater contain Si-, Al-, Ca-, K-, and Fe-rich materials, such as quartz, albite, aluminate, and fly ash, similar to that deposited in snowpack. These results showed great and even currently underestimated influences of atmospheric dust deposition to glacier meltwater physicochemistry at an alpine basin in central Asia. PMID:25010943

Dong, Zhiwen; Qin, Dahe; Chen, Jizu; Qin, Xiang; Ren, Jiawen; Cui, Xiaoqing; Du, Zhiheng; Kang, Shichang

2014-09-15

354

[Characteristics of soil macrofaunal community structure in secondary forest and forest plantations in western Qinling Mountains of Northwest China].  

PubMed

Long-term disturbance of human beings on secondary forest ecosystem would have profound impacts on belowground ecological processes, whereas the community structure and functional diversity of soil fauna would be sensitive to the changes of belowground ecological processes, with significance as an indicator of the changes. In this study, the method of hand-sorting was adopted to investigate the density of soil macrofaunal community in a secondary forest and the Pinus tabulaeformis, Larix kaempferi, Picea abie, and Picea asperata plantations of nearly 30 years old in Xiaolongshan forest area of western Qinling Mountains, and the PCA ordination and one-way ANOVA analysis were applied to analyze the community structure and trophic group composition of soil macrofauna in the five forest types. In the P. tabulaeformis and L. kaempferi plantations, the density of soil macrofaunal community was 3.0 and 2.1 times of that in the secondary forest, respectively, and the consumers/decomposers ratio of the community was obviously higher than that in the secondary forest. Among the plantations, P. tabulaeformis and L. kaempferi plantations had a significantly higher consumers/decomposers ratio of soil macrofaunal community than P. abies and P. asperata plantations. There was an obvious difference in community structure of soil macrofauna among the four plantations. The density of soil macrofaunal community in P. tabulaeformis and L. kaempferi plantations was 3.5 and 2.1 times higher than that in P. asperata plantation, respectively, whereas the group richness of soil macrofaunal community in P. tabulaeformis plantation was 1.5 times of that in P. abies and P. asperata plantations. PMID:23286002

Liu, Ji-Liang; Cao, Jing; Li, Shi-Jie; Pan, Chun-Lin; Pan, Cheng-Chen

2012-09-01

355

Interpreting and Integrating DInSAR Data of Mountainous Areas: The Case of the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ALOS PALSAR data is an excellent sensor for monitoring seismic events due to its long wavelength and very large critical baseline. Initial PALSAR interferometry results for the Sichuan Earthquake of May 2008 have demonstrated this very well and the results continue to be interpreted. However, in this particular case, the areas exhibiting the most significant land surface motion occurred in an extremely mountainous region of China which presents great challenges for the interpretation of the SAR results and its integration with other types of data, such as GPS. The overwhelming problem for the interpretation is that the foreshortened geometry greatly restricts any chance of an even distribution of coherent resolution cells. Furthermore, the extremes of layover and shadow can dominate images of mountainous regions, effectively rendering large areas without any reliable SAR measurements whatsoever. In this paper, we consider the incident geometry of the ALOS PALSAR system and describe the problems associated with the interpretation and geolocation of differential interferometry results using the Sichuan earthquake as a case study. We show the effect that this has on the characterisation of the seismic displacement and also on the ability to monitor associated small-scale events such as mass-movements and landslides. The study is conducted around the SE termination of the May 2008 rupture zone where fault slip and surface deformations were relatively low and topography is relatively high. We attempt a superficial reconciliation of the deformation pattern with structural geology. The interpretation shows that the motion sensed by the interferometry is a combination of effects from a number of earthquakes that occurred within the 46 day interval of the PALSAR image pair.

Sowter, A.; Windsor, C.

2008-12-01

356

Characteristics of the spatial distribution and yearly variation of aerosol optical depth over China in last 30 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The yearly and monthly mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 0.75 ?m were retrieved using a new method improved from Qiu's algorithm from the data of daily direct solar radiation, sunshine duration, surface pressure, and vapor pressure at 46 A class solar radiation stations over China from 1961 to 1990, as well as the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) derived ozone data from 1979 to 1990. Then the analysis on the distribution of yearly mean AOD and its variation over China in the last 30 years were made from the derived AOD data. It was found that the yearly mean AOD has pattern related to the geographical features with the maximums over basins. One of the maximum centers at Sichuan Basin, southwest of China, and the other is in the south Xinjiang Basin, northwest of China. In most areas of China the maximum of AOD occurs in spring, but the season of reaching the minimum varies with regions. The monthly mean AOD distributions are similar to the annual mean pattern, having strong ``basin'' effect, but the month-to-month differences are still obvious. In addition, AOD increased dramatically over China mainland from 1961 to 1990, particularly in the middle and lower reaches area of the Yangzi River and the east part of southwest China. In north China, Shandong peninsula, the east part of Qinghai Province, and coastal areas of Guangdong Province, a significant increasing trend of AOD is shown, while in most parts of northwest China and northwest China, the increase trend is less significant. However, in the western part of Xinjiang autonomous region and part of Yunnan Province, only a decreasing tendency is shown. Of the total 46 stations, the yearly averaged AOD variation curve can be briefly divided into two periods. One period is from 1961 to 1975, when AOD is smaller than the 30 year mean value; the other period is from 1976 to 1990, when AOD is higher than the mean value. Except for the peak in 1982 and 1983, which may be attributed to the eruptions of El Chichon, the curve shows a significant increasing trend from 1961 to 1990. The monthly averaged AODs of the total 46 stations also obviously increased.

Luo, Yunfeng; Lu, Daren; Zhou, Xiuji; Li, Weiliang; He, Qing

2001-07-01

357

Mineralogical study of sediment-hosted gold deposits in the Yangshan ore field, Western Qinling Orogen, Central China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yangshan gold ore field is located in the southern subzone of the Western Qinling Orogen. Mineralization is confined by the east-west-striking Anchanghe thrust fault zone. These subparallel faults constitute a branch of the regional Mianlue structural zone, crosscutting Middle Devonian carbonaceous carbonate and clastic rock sequences, an ore-bearing unit locally named the Sanhekou Formation. The metasedimentary clastic and carbonate rocks containing fine-grained sulfides are the main host rocks of the deposit, with minor mineralization occurring as coarse-grained pyrite-quartz veinlets in black shale and as dissemination in some plagiogranite dykes. Electron microprobe (EMPA) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses show that arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite are the major hosts for gold with tens of ppm up to weight percent levels of Au, and the Au contents in arsenopyrite are one order of magnitude higher than those in pyrite. A negative correlation of As and S in arsenian pyrite is consistent with the substitution of As for S in the mineral. Both arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite in the Yangshan ore field show chemical zonations with middle parts (mantle) enriched in As and Au relative to cores and the outermost rims, reflecting the chemical evolution of ore-forming fluids. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis failed to identify any nanoparticle of native gold even in the highest Au parts of arsenopyrite. This observation combined with the relatively homogenous distribution of Au, a positive correlation of As and Au, and Au/As ratios below the solubility limit of gold in arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite, suggests that invisible gold is likely present as structurally bound Au+1 in sulfides, although our work cannot exclude the existence of Au nanoparticles in arsenian pyrite as identified in American Carlin-type gold deposits. Submicron native gold may be much more easily found in arsenian pyrite than in arsenopyrite, because the later has larger capacity of enrichment of Au+1 than the former due to the substitution of As for S. The mechanism for nanoparticle formation is likely exsolution of native gold from metastable arsenian pyrite caused by later hydrothermal event, which was recorded by the outermost As-, Au-poor overgrowths both in arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite in the Yangshan gold ore field.

Liang, Jinlong; Sun, Weidong; Zhu, Sanyuan; Li, He; Liu, Yulong; Zhai, Wei

2014-05-01

358

Seismic structure of the Helan–Liupan–Ordos western margin tectonic belt in North-Central China and its geodynamic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study high-resolution three-dimensional P-wave velocity (Vp) tomography and anisotropic structure of the crust and uppermost mantle under the Helan-Liupan-Ordos western margin tectonic belt in North-Central China using 13,506 high-quality P-wave arrival times from 2666 local earthquakes recorded by 87 seismic stations during 1980-2008. Our results show that prominent low-velocity (low-V) anomalies exist widely in the lower crust beneath the study region and the low-V zones extend to the uppermost mantle in some local areas, suggesting that the lower crust contains higher-temperature materials and fluids. The major fault zones, especially the large boundary faults of major tectonic units, are located at the edge portion of the low-V anomalies or transition zones between the low-V and high-V anomalies in the upper crust, whereas low-V anomalies are revealed in the lower crust under most of the faults. Most of large historical earthquakes are located in the boundary zones where P-wave velocity changes drastically in a short distance. Beneath the source zones of most of the large historical earthquakes, prominent low-V anomalies are visible in the lower crust. Significant P-wave azimuthal anisotropy is revealed in the study region, and the pattern of anisotropy in the upper crust is consistent with the surface geologic features. In the lower crust and uppermost mantle, the predominant fast velocity direction (FVD) is NNE-SSW under the Yinchuan Graben and NWW-SEE or NW-SE beneath the Corridor transitional zone, Qilian Orogenic Belt and Western Qinling Orogenic Belt, and the FVD is NE-SW under the eastern Qilian Orogenic Belt. The anisotropy in the lower crust may be caused by the lattice-preferred orientation of minerals, which may reflect the lower-crustal ductile flow with varied directions. The present results shed new light on the seismotectonics and geodynamic processes of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and its northeastern margin.

Cheng, Bin; Cheng, Shunyou; Zhang, Guowei; Zhao, Dapeng

2014-06-01

359

Micoletzkya chinaae n. sp. (Nematoda: Diplogastridae), a potential predacious nematode and Ektaphelenchus macrobulbosus (Nematoda: Ektaphelenchinae) isolated from Simao pine in South-western China.  

PubMed

Detailed morphology of a new diplogastrid and a known ektaphelenchid species isolated from Simao pine in south-western China were illustrated and described/redescribed. Micoletzkya chinaae n. sp. is characterized by a relatively short body length (601-802 ?m in female and 505-773 ?m in male), undivided cheilorhabdia (forming an entire ring), dimorphic buccal cavity (eury- or stenostomatous), a large claw-like dorsal tooth and a large right subventral tooth in the stoma of eurystomatous form, typical diplogastrid pharynx, didelphic female gonads, nine pairs of genital papillae on male tail region with two ventral pairs (GP1 and GP2) closely associated, a unique gubernaculum morphology, and a long filiform tail in both sexes. The new diplogastrid belongs to the Group 1 category of Micoletzkya species sensuMassey, 1966, which is characterized by stoma equipped with a large dorsal and a large subventral tooth, and both teeth can cross near the center of the pharynx. The new species can be easily distinguished from other species within this group except for M. tomeaMassey, 1966 with the long filiform female and male tails. However, it shows great similarities to Mononchoides spp., Koerneria spp., Fictor spp., and Acrostichus members in some aspects. More morphological features as well as molecular data of this clade should be available before relationships between and within these genera can be better interpreted. The two large moveable teeth in eurystomatous worms indicate their potentially predacious habits, and re-isolation of this species is necessary. Morphology of south-western Chinese population of Ektaphelenchus macrobulbosus (Rühm,1956) Massey, 1974 conforms well to the previous descriptions except for a few minor variations. It is characterized by medium-long female and male bodies (676-791 and 613-685 ?m, respectively), three incisures in the lateral field, offset cephalic region, knobless stylet 18-20 ?m long, oblong median bulb with posteriorly situated valves, two to three rows of developing oocytes, short postuterine sac, absence of female rectum and anus, two pairs of subventral papillae on the male tail region, a cucullus (apophysis) present on the dorsal distal end of the spicule, and the conoid female and male tails. PMID:22736862

Huang, Ren-E; Liang, Jun; Lu, Quan; Zhang, Xing-Yao

2010-12-01

360

Crustal and upper-mantle Seismic Tomography beneath the Helan-Liupan-Ordos's western margin structural belt and its adjacent region in central China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract We determined high-resolution 3-D P-wave velocity and anisotropic structures under the Helan-Liupan-Ordos's western margin (H-L-O) structural belt and its adjacent region using 13,506 P-wave high-quality arrival times from 2,666 regional earthquakes recorded by 87 seismic stations distributed in Northwestern China during 1980 to 2008. The results indicate that the prominent low-Vp anomalies widely exist in the lower crust beneath the study region and extend to the uppermost mantle in local area, which suggest that the lower crust contains relative high-temperature materials and/or fluids. The major fault zones especial the large boundary faults are distributed in the edge portion of the low-Vp anomalies or a transitional zone between the low- and high-Vp anomalies in the upper crust, and the obvious low-Vp anomalies are revealed in the lower crust even uppermost mantle under most of the faults. Most of the large historical earthquakes are located in the boundary zones where P-wave velocity changes drastically in a short distance. The prominent low-Vp zones are visible in the lower crust even uppermost mantle beneath the large historical earthquakes and most of the regional earthquakes. The anisotropic patterns in the upper crust is good consistent with the surface structures. In the lower crust and uppermost mantle, the predominant fast velocity direction has the NNE-SSW under the Yinchuan Graben and NWW-SEE or NW-SE beneath the Corridor transitional zone, Qilian Orogenic Belt and Western Qinling Orogenic Belt with about NE-SW in local region such as eastern Qilian Orogenic Belt, respectively, being caused by the LPO of lower crustal minerals which may be result from the ductile flow of the lower crust with varied flow directions. Another velocity feature is being zonation with low- and high-velocity S-N strike and segments along S-N within the Crust. The present results shed new light on the structural heterogeneities and seismic anisotropy in the crust and uppermost mantle under the H-L-O structural belt, which provide some new inspires for understanding the deformation and its geodynamic process of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and its Northeastern margin.

Cheng, S.; Cheng, B.; Zhang, G.; Zhao, D.

2013-12-01

361

Petrogenesis of gold-mineralized magmatic rocks of the Taerbieke area, northwestern Tianshan (western China): Constraints from geochronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic compositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many Late Paleozoic Cu-Au-Mo deposits occur in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). However, their tectonic settings and associated geodynamic processes have been disputed. This study provides age, petrologic and geochemical data for andesites and granitic porphyries of the Taerbieke gold deposit from the Tulasu Basin, in the northwestern Tianshan Orogenic Belt (western China). LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the granitic porphyries have an Early Carboniferous crystallization age (349 ± 2 Ma) that is broadly contemporaneous with the eruption age (347 ± 2 Ma) of the andesites. The andesites have a restricted range of SiO2 (58.94-63.85 wt.%) contents, but relatively high Al2O3 (15.39-16.65 wt.%) and MgO (2.51-6.59 wt.%) contents, coupled with high Mg# (57-69) values. Geochemically, they are comparable to Cenozoic sanukites in the Setouchi Volcanic Belt, SW Japan. Compared with the andesites, the granitic porphyries have relatively high SiO2 (72.68-75.32 wt.%) contents, but lower Al2O3 (12.94-13.84 wt.%) and MgO (0.10-0.33 wt.%) contents, coupled with lower Mg# (9-21) values. The andesites and granitic porphyries are enriched in both large ion lithophile and light rare earth elements, but depleted in high field strength elements, similar to those of typical arc magmatic rocks. They also have similar Nd-Hf-Pb isotope compositions: ?Nd(t) (+0.48 to +4.06 and -0.27 to +2.97) and zircons ?Hf(t) (+3.4 to +8.0 and -1.7 to +8.2) values and high (206Pb/204Pb)i (18.066-18.158 and 17.998-18.055). We suggest that the Taerbieke high-Mg andesitic magmas were generated by the interaction between mantle wedge peridotites and subducted oceanic sediment-derived melts with minor basaltic oceanic crust-derived melts, and that the magmas then fractionated to produce the more felsic members (i.e., the Taerbieke granitic porphyries) during late-stage evolution. Taking into account the Carboniferous magmatic record from the western Tianshan Orogenic Belt, we suggest that the formation of the Early Carboniferous andesites and granitic porphyries in the Taerbieke area were related to the Paleo-Junggar Oceanic plate southward subduction under the Yili-Central Tianshan plate. The close association of the Early Carboniferous magmatic rocks and Au mineralization in the Taerbieke area suggests that the arc magmatic rocks in the Tulasu basin may have a high potential for Au mineralization.

Tang, Gong-Jian; Wang, Qiang; Wyman, Derek A.; Sun, Min; Zhao, Zhen-Hua; Jiang, Zi-Qi

2013-09-01

362

Ground motion attenuation relations of small and moderate earthquakes in Sichuan region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of 10 935 broadband velocity records of 135 earthquakes M L3.0-6.4 and epicentral distance of 26-623 km) occurred from May 12 to June 10 in 2008, which are collected from 27 bedrock stations included in Sichuan Earthquake Monitoring Network, the corresponding acceleration records are obtained by a real-time simulation method. Then by regression analysis on the data, the relation between the peak ground acceleration and velocity attenuation of small and moderate bedrock earthquakes occurred in Sichuan region is acquired. And the relation is verified by a M4.8 earthquake took place recently in Wenchuan. Finally, the attenuation relations, which are coincident to the geological conditions in Sichuan region, are proposed by studying the records from Sichuan earthquake network.

Kang, Lanchi; Jin, Xing

2009-06-01

363

Timing and duration of supergene mineralization at the Xinrong manganese deposit, western Guangdong Province, South China: cryptomelane 40Ar/39Ar dating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supergene Mn-oxide deposits are widely distributed in Guangxi, Guangdong, Yunnan, and Hunan Provinces, South China, accounting for 18% of the total Mn reserves in the country. Direct dating of supergene Mn enrichment, however, is lacking. In this paper, we present high-resolution 40Ar/39Ar ages of Mn oxides from the Xinrong Mn deposit, western Guangdong, to place numerical constraints on the timing and duration of supergene Mn enrichment. A total of ten cryptomelane samples, spanning a vertical extent of 67 m, were dated using the 40Ar/39Ar laser incremental heating technique, with seven samples yielding well-defined plateau or pseudo-plateau ages ranging from 23.48 ± 0.91 to 2.06 ± 0.05 Ma (2 ?). One sample yields a staircase spectrum that does not reach a plateau; the spectrum, however, indicates the presence of two or more generations of Mn oxides in the sample, whose ages are best estimated at 22.34 ± 0.31 and 10.2 ± 0.86 Ma, respectively. The remaining two samples gave meaningless or uninterpretable results due to significant 39Ar recoil and contamination by old phases. The 40Ar/39Ar data thus reveal a protracted history of weathering and supergene Mn enrichment that started at least in the end of the Oligocene or beginning of Miocene and extending into the latest Pliocene. Staircase-apparent age spectra, resulting from banded or botryoidal samples, yield an average growth rate of Mn oxides at 0.6-0.7 × 10-3 mm kyr-1. The values indicate that a 1-mm grain of Mn oxides may host minerals precipitated during a time span of ca. 1.5 m.y., and accumulation of Mn oxides to form economic deposits under weathering environments may take millions of years. The distribution of weathering ages shows that the oldest Mn oxides occur on the top of the profile, whereas the youngest minerals are found at the bottom, suggesting downward propagation of weathering fronts. However, two samples located at the intermediate depths of the profile yield ages comparable with those occurring at the highest elevations. Such a complexity of age distribution is interpreted in terms of preferential penetration of Mn-rich weathering solutions along more permeable fault zones, or as a result of multi stages of dissolution and re-precipitation of Mn oxides. A synthesis of geochronological and geological data suggests that formation of the Xinrong deposit was a consequence of a combination of favorable lithological, climatic, and structural conditions. Because the climatic and structural conditions are similar among the provinces of South China during the Cenozoic, the geochronological results obtained at Xinrong may also have implications for the timing of supergene Mn enrichment throughout South China.

Li, Jian-Wei; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Zhang, Wei; Deng, Xiao-Dong; Duzgoren-Aydin, Nurdan; Yan, Dai-Rong; Zhang, Jian-Qiang; Hu, Ming-An

2007-04-01

364

Controls on variations of platinum-group element concentrations in the sulfide ores of the Jinchuan Ni-Cu deposit, western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ongoing underground exploration in the giant Jinchuan Ni-Cu sulfide deposit in western China is beginning to emphasize the potential for Cu-, Pt-, and Pd-rich sulfide ores that may have formed by sulfide liquid fractionation. The success of such an effort relies on whether or not fractional crystallization of sulfide occurred in the Jinchuan system. In this paper, we used available PGE data to evaluate such a process. We found that about two thirds of the 126 samples analyzed to date exhibit significant decoupling not only between Pt and Pd but also between Ru, Rh, and Ir. The best explanation for the decoupling is postmagmatic hydrothermal alteration, which affected not only silicates but also sulfides. The effects of postmagmatic alteration must be considered when using metal and isotopic ratios to evaluate primary mineralization. PGE variations in the remaining one third of the samples with Ir/(Ir + Ru) = 0.3-0.7, Ir/(Ir + Rh) = 0.4-0.8, and Pt/(Pt + Pd) = 0.3-0.7 indicate variable R-factors within individual ore bodies as well as the entire deposit, consistent with the interpretation that multiple sulfide-bearing magmas from depth were involved in the formation of the Jinchuan deposit. The mantle-normalized PGE patterns of the least-altered samples from the Jinchuan deposit are similar to the picrite-related Pechenga Ni-Cu sulfide deposit in Russia. PGE variations that can be related to sulfide liquid fractionation are observed in orebody-1 and orebody-24 but not in orebody-2 at Jinchuan. Exploration for Cu-, Pt-, and Pd-rich sulfide ores that may have been expelled into fractures in the footwalls of orebody-1 and orebody-24 appears to be justified.

Su, Shangguo; Li, Chusi; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Ripley, Edward M.; Qi, Liang

2008-08-01

365

Field-Scale Spatial Variation of Saline-Sodic Soil and Its Relation with Environmental Factors in Western Songnen Plain of China  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to investigate the degree of spatial variability and variance structure of salinization parameters using classical and geostatistical method in Songnen Plain of China, which is one of largest saline-sodic areas in the World, and to analyze the relationship between salinization parameters, including soil salinity content (SC), electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), and pH, and seven environmental factors by Pearson and stepwise regression analysis. The environmental factors were ground elevation, surface ponding time, surface ponding depth, and soil moistures at four layers (0–10 cm, 10–30 cm, 30–60 cm, and 60–100 cm). The results indicated that SC, EC, and SAR showed great variations, whereas pH exhibited low variations. Four salinization parameters showed strongly spatial autocorrelation resulting from the compound impact of structural factors. The empirical semivariograms in the four parameters could be simulated by spherical and exponential models. The spatial distributions of SC, EC, SAR and pH showed similar patterns, with the coexistence of high salinity and sodicity in the areas with high ground elevation. By Pearson analysis, the soil salinization parameters showed a significant positive relationship with ground elevation, but a negative correlation with surface ponding time, surface ponding depth, and soil moistures. Both correlation and stepwise regression analysis showed that ground elevation is the most important environmental factor for spatial variation of soil sanilization. The results from this research can provide some useful information for explaining mechanism of salinization process and utilization of saline-sodic soils in the Western Songnen Plain.

Yang, Fan; Zhang, Guangxin; Yin, Xiongrui; Liu, Zhijun

2011-01-01

366

Application of the Geo-Anomaly Unit Concept in Quantitative Delineation and Assessment of Gold Ore Targets in Western Shandong Uplift Terrain, Eastern China  

SciTech Connect

A number of large and giant ore deposits have been discovered within the relatively small areas of lithospheric structure anomalies, including various boundary zones of tectonic plates. The regions have become the well-known intercontinental ore-forming belts, such as the circum-Pacific gold-copper, copper-molybdenum, and tungsten-tin metallogenic belts. These belts are typical geological anomalous areas. An investigation into the hydrothermal ore deposits in different regions in the former Soviet Union illustrated that the geologic structures of ore fields of almost all major commercial deposits have distinct features compared with the neighboring areas. These areas with distinct features are defined as geo-anomalies. A geo-anomaly refers to such a geologic body or a combination of bodies that their composition, texture-structure, and genesis are significantly different from those of their surroundings. A geo-anomaly unit (GU) is an area containing distinct features that can be delineated with integrated ore-forming information using computer techniques on the basis of the geo-anomaly concept. Herein, the GU concept is illustrated by a case study of delineating the gold ore targets in the western Shandong uplift terrain, eastern China. It includes: (1) analyses of gold ore-forming factors; (2) compilation of normalized regional geochemical map and extraction of geochemical anomalies; (3) compilation of gravitational and aeromagnetic tectonic skeleton map and extraction of gravitational and aeromagnetic anomalies; (4) extraction of circular and linear anomalies from remote-sensing Landsat TM images; (5) establishment of a geo-anomaly conceptual model associated with known gold mineralization; (6) establishment of gold ore-forming favorability by computing techniques; and (7) delineation and assessment of ore-forming units. The units with high favorability are suggested as ore targets.

Chen Yongqing, E-mail: ydonglai@mail.cgs.gov.cn; Zhao Pengda; Chen Jianguo; Liu Jiping [China University of Geosciences, Institute of Mathematical Geology and Remote Sensing Geology (China)

2001-03-15

367

The Great Sichuan Earthquake of May 12, 2008 (Mw7.9) - An Unpredictable Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The great Sichuan earthquake (Mw7.9, Ms8.0) occurred on the Longmenshan Rupture Zone (LRZ) triplet of parallel faults, the boundary fault rupture zone that separates the eastern Tibetan Plateau from the Sichuan Basin. No really scientific, successful prediction was made for this event in terms of place or size, or time (even on long-time scale) with an acceptable precision. That is,

G. Purcaru

2008-01-01

368

Stratigraphy and stable isotope results from an Eocene-Miocene section of the western Qaidam Basin, NW China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The climate of central Asia has changed significantly throughout the Cenozoic, with surface uplift of the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau cited as the primary cause of the change. However, the timing and mechanisms of plateau uplift, especially the northern plateau, is still unclear. Sedimentary basin deposits and their stable isotopic composition record both paleo-environment and paleoclimate information and thus can be used to study the climate evolution and ultimately-the surface uplift history. The Qaidam Basin, in the northern part of the Tibetan Plateau, deposited thick fluviolacustrine sediments from Eocene to Pleistocene time. Here, we report a newly documented 4440 m long sedimentary section near Huatugou town in the western Qaidam Basin, and preliminary O and C stable isotope results from sedimentary carbonates. The section includes four formations. Xiaganchaigou Formation (XGCG Fm), with a late Eocene age, is dominated by alluvial to fluvial conglomerates, sandstones and sandy mudstones in the lower part, and siltstones, mudstones with gypsum of lacustrine origin in the upper part. The Oligocene Shangganchaigou Formation (SGCG Fm) and early to middle Miocene Xiayoushashan Formation (XYSS Fm) both consist mainly of lacustrine mudstones, siltstones, sandstones, intercalated with marls, limestones and minor conglomerates. The late Miocene Shangyoushashan Formation (SYSS Fm, the lower part) is dominated by alluvial to delta-front conglomerates, gravelly sandstones and siltstones; paleosols with root traces are also common in this formation. Between 232 and 1196 m (XGCG Fm), both the ?18O (VPDB) and ?13C (VPDB) values of marls show large variability between -3.3 and -8.9‰ and between 0.7 and -2.7‰, respectively. Between 1196 and 2524 m (SGCG Fm), the ?18O values of marls and limestones show a more narrow range of lower values between -7.0 and -8.6‰, and the ?13C values decrease to between -1.5 and -4.9‰. We speculate that the large variability in XGCG Fm resulted from late Eocene climate cyclicity, followed by decreasing ? values related to global cooling during the Eocene-Oligocene transitions and cooling associated with the horizontal translation of the Basin to higher latitudes. From 2500 to 3500 m (XYSS Fm), there is a more pronounced decrease in the ?18O values of paleosols and carbonate cements to between -8.2 and -10.0‰, but their ?13C values show large variations between -0.6 and -6.8‰. A plausible explanation for these changes is localized climate perturbations associated with the growth of surrounding mountain ranges. At the top of the section, between 3500 and 4400 m (XYSS and SYSS Fm), both the ?18O and ?13C values of paleosols and carbonate cements show a positive shift by 1 to 2‰. This positive shift is interpreted as the result of mid-Miocene aridification, a regional climatic change event that was also documented in Tarim Basin, eastern Qaidam Basin, and in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Extreme aridity that is comparable to present day is not recorded in the Huatuguo section, most likely because these deposits predate the Plio-Pleistocene time period when modern conditions were established.

Li, L.; Garzione, C. N.; Pullen, A.; Chang, H.; Molnar, P. H.

2012-12-01

369

The genus Pseudolathra Casey in China: new species and new records (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two new species of the genus Pseudolathra Casey from mainland China are described and attributed to their respective species groups, P. cylindrata sp. n. from Hubei and Sichuan, and P. superficiaria sp. n. from Yunnan. Pseudolathra pulchella (Kraatz, 1859), P. transversiceps Assing, 2013 and P. bipectinata Assing, 2013 from Yunnan are reported from China for the first time. The history of the exploration of the Chinese fauna of Pseudolathra is summarized.

Li, Xiao-Yan; Solodovnikov, Alexey; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

2013-01-01

370

Coseismic Displacement of M8.0 Sichuan Earthquake Derived by ALOS Radar Interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On May 12th 2008, a major (M8.0) earthquake struck Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province in China. The causalities include approximately 70,000 dead and 374,000 injured. The rupture accompanying the events extends over 270 km toward the northeast, and is a result of the convergent tectonic movement associated with Longmen Shan fault. We assemble and process ALOS PALSAR data including 6 ascending tracks (> 72 scenes) to map the coseismic displacement with a full coverage of 400 km by 400 km of the fault zone. Mosaicking the 6 tracks requires careful treatment of the precise orbits as well as a new correction for the ionospheric delay, which is typically 10 cm ramp in the range direction. Severe ionospheric disturbances cause azimuth pixel shifts, which mask the shifts due to the coseismic displacement. We are developing methods to perform ScanSAR interferometry along the descending track in order to obtain two independent components of deformation for analysis. Field observations show the surface rupture occurred on two parallel faults (Beichuan and Pengguan Faults) having significant thrust and right lateral surface displacement. Interferograms show a large area of decorrelation that coincides with the region of landslides and intense ground shaking, mostly on the hanging wall of the thrust faults. We present preliminary results of inversions of the InSAR data for the coseismic slip distribution. The model allows for spatially variable rake angles and illustrates relative contributions of the thrust and strike-slip motion in the deeper part of the fault, as well as the along-strike variability. The inferred slip distribution will be used to drive models of postseismic relaxation, which will be compared to InSAR data collected after the earthquake to constrain the relaxation mechanisms, effective rheology, and provide insights into time-dependent stress transfer and future seismic hazard.

Tong, X.; Sandwell, D. T.; Fialko, Y.; Mellors, R. J.

2008-12-01

371

Terrestriality and tree stratum use in a group of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys.  

PubMed

Morphological characters allow the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) to use multiple tree levels, but very few studies have quantified the terrestriality and tree stratum use of the species. I investigated the terrestriality and tree stratum use in a group of the monkeys from July 2003 to September 2004 (except February) in the Qianjiaping area of Shennongjia Nature Reserve, China. I collected data on the vertical position of individual monkeys in forest in relation to behavior types, diet, age/sex classes, vegetation types, tree height, and distribution of predators. The monkeys were much more arboreal than they were thought to be. They spent 97.1% of their time in trees (n=21,234 records) and 2.9% on the ground, and mainly used the middle (74.4%) and upper strata (17.4%). The monkeys displayed all behavioral types except searching in the middle and upper strata. The percentage of use of a stratum (except the low stratum) varied among months, and there was a difference in the percentage of use of a stratum among age/sex classes and between vegetation types. Approximately 94.2% of trees used by the monkeys were >6 m tall. They mainly fed on lichens, young leaves, mature leaves, flowers, fruits or seeds, and buds in the middle and upper strata, bark in the low and middle strata and herbs on the ground. Wolf (Canis lupus), leopard (Panthera pardus), and golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) are predators threatening the survival of individual monkeys in the study site. The results suggested that the seasonal vertical distribution of food items eaten in forest, predators, and vegetation types had important effects on the terrestriality and tree stratum use of the monkeys. PMID:17265009

Li, Yiming

2007-07-01

372

Antibody responses against Em18 and Em16 serodiagnostic markers in alveolar and cystic echinococcosis patients from northwest China.  

PubMed

Western blot analysis was carried out in order to evaluate new serodiagnostic markers, Em18 and Em16, for differentiation of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) from cystic echinococcosis (CE) using 36 serum samples from hydatid patients from Xinjiang, China, where AE and CE are both endemic and one double infection case has been reported. All AE cases except one (5/6) who exhibited a calcified lesion and a single case of double infection showed antibody responses against Em18 and Em16. Some of CE patient sera (6/22) showed antibody response against Em16 except one who showed that against Em18. Analyses of IgG subclass responses against Em18 and Em16 were carried out using all serum samples showing antibody responses against Em18 and/or Em16 (seven CE, five AE, and one AE + CE) and additional samples of three CE and 22 AE from Sichuan, China. IgG4 was the most predominant antibody subclass. Em18 and Em16 were recognized by both IgG4 and IgG1 (in most cases) or by either IgG4 or IgG1 (in minor cases) or by IgG3 (in very rare cases). Neither Em18 nor Em16 was recognized by IgG2 antibodies. The usefulness of Em18 and Em16 as potential new markers for serological differentiation of human AE and CE, respectively, is discussed. PMID:9354966

Ito, A; Wen, H; Craig, P S; Ma, L; Nakao, M; Horii, T; Pang, X L; Okamoto, M; Itoh, M; Osawa, Y; Wang, X G; Liu, Y H

1997-02-01

373

Teaching West in the East: An American University in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Having closed its door to Western ideas for centuries, China has always presented itself as a puzzle both for academicians and politicians. Westerners, though, have always been attracted by the natural resources and human power that China offers to the capitalistic world. This study explores the entrance of Western ideas in China from an…

Ozturgut, Osman

2007-01-01

374

Geological characteristics and resource potential of shale gas in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

With Sichuan Basin as focus, this paper introduces the depositional environment, geochemical and reservoir characteristics, gas concentration and prospective resource potential of three different types of shale in China: marine shale, marine-terrigenous shale and terrigenous shale. Marine shale features high organic abundance (TOC: 1.0%–5.5%), high-over maturity (Ro: 2%–5%), rich accumulation of shale gas (gas concentration: 1.17–6.02 m3\\/t) and mainly continental

Caineng Zou; Dazhong Dong; Shejiao Wang; Jianzhong Li; Xinjing Li; Yuman Wang; Denghua Li; Keming Cheng

2010-01-01

375

China, Peoples Republic of: Agricultural Situation. Chengdu: Untapped Emerging City Market, 2008. GAIN Report No. CH8913.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The city of Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan province, is one of the most prosperous and affluent cities in China's interior. The residents of Chengdu have a passion for food and are very receptive to U.S. foods and food ingredients. Rising incomes are cre...

N. Hutsell

2008-01-01

376

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Technical Assistance to Beichuan Reconstruction: Creating and Designing Low- to Zero-carbon Communities in New Beichuan, Sichuan Province.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Beichuan county, located in north of Sichuan Province, was the most severely damaged township in last May's Sichuan earthquake. Reconstruction of a new Beichuan is a high-profiled project by the governments. In addition to constructing structurally-sound,...

C. Wang M. Levine T. Hong T. Xu

2009-01-01

377

Groundwater Dynamics under Water Saving Irrigation and Implications for Sustainable Water Management in an Oasis: Tarim River Basin of Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is essential for life. Specifically in the oases of inland arid basins, water is a critically limited resource, essential for the development of socio-economy and sustainability of eco-environmental systems. Due to the unique hydrological regime present in arid oases, a moderate groundwater table is the goal of sustainable water management. A shallow water table induces serious secondary salinization and collapse of agriculture, while a deep water table causes deterioration of natural vegetation. From the hydrological perspective, the exchange flux between unsaturated vadose zone and groundwater reservoir is a critical link to understand regional water table dynamics. This flux is substantially influenced by anthropogenic activities. In Tarim River Basin of western China, where agriculture consumes over 90% of available water resources, the exchange flux is influenced strongly by irrigation. Recently, mulched drip irrigation, a very advanced water-saving irrigation method, has been widely applied in the Tarim River Basin, which greatly impacted the exchange flux and thus the regional groundwater dynamics. Capitalizing on recent progress in evaporation measurement techniques, we can now close the water balance and directly quantify the exchange flux at the field scale, thus gain a better understanding of regional groundwater dynamics. In this study, comprehensive observations of water balance components in an irrigated cropland were implemented in 2011 and 2012 in a typical oasis within Tarim River Basin. The water balance analysis showed that the exchange flux and groundwater dynamics were significantly altered by the application of water-saving irrigation. The exchange flux is mostly downward (310.5 mm yr-1), especially during drip irrigation period and spring flush period, while the upward flux is trivial (-16.1 mm yr-1) due to the moderate groundwater table depth (annual average depth 2.9 m). Traditional secondary salinization caused by intense phreatic evaporation (fed by upward exchange flux) is alleviated. However, a new form of secondary salinization may be introduced unwittingly if there is lack of water for periodic flushing, especially when brackish water is used in the irrigation. Furthermore, the water saved via drip irrigation has been used in further growth of irrigated lands instead of supporting ecological system. This would lead to increasing risk of eco-environmental degradation and calls for improved governance schemes. The insights gained from this study can be potentially applied to other arid inland areas (e.g., central Asia, sub-Saharan Africa) which face similar water shortages and human development problems.

Zhang, Z.; Hu, H.; Tian, F.; Yao, X.; Sivapalan, M.

2014-02-01

378

Tin-carrier minerals in metaluminous granites of the western Nanling Range (southern China): Constraints on processes of tin mineralization in oxidized granites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Huashan, Guposhan and Qitianling are three similar and representative metaluminous A-type tin granites in the western Nanling Range, China. They all have a high oxidization state with magnetite as the dominant Fe-Ti oxide. This study presents an understanding of systematic mineralogy of Sn-bearing minerals (biotite, titanite, magnetite and cassiterite) in the three granites. Biotite has an annite composition and both electron-microprobe and LA-ICP-MS analyses indicate trace amounts of tin in biotite (approximately 100-20 ppm). Chloritization of biotite is accompanied by formation of Sn-rich rutile and cassiterite. Titanite has a long history of crystallization from the early-magmatic stage through the late-magmatic stage to the hydrothermal stage. Owing to its solid-solution relationship with malayaite (CaSnSiO5), titanite always contains tin to various extents. Early-magmatic titanite contains about 0.5 wt.% SnO2, while the late-magmatic titanite is markedly enriched in tin (on average 14.8 and 3.4 SnO2 in titanite from the Qitianling and Huashan granites, respectively). Magnetite grains typically display a trellis structure with ilmenite lamellae, where microinclusions of cassiterite (<1 ?m in size) are present. This is likely consistent with features of the "oxy-exsolution" process of Sn-bearing titanomagnetite precursor. Cassiterite may be observed as late-magmatic phase, but most commonly appears as an alteration product of other primary minerals. All tin-bearing minerals in the three granites record a complete process of tin mineralization in granite. The features of tin in primary biotite, titanite and magnetite reflect an initial enrichment during the early stage of magmatic crystallization of the Huashan, Guposhan and Qitianling granites. Association of interstitial Sn-titanite and cassiterite suggests further tin enrichment related to fractional crystallization of granitic magmas. Fluids and alteration of primary minerals play an important role in the leaching, concentration and transportation of Sn during hydrothermal processes, which favors vein-type Sn mineralization.

Wang, Ru Cheng; Xie, Lei; Chen, Jun; Yu, Apeng; Wang, Lubin; Lu, Jianjun; Zhu, Jinchu

2013-09-01

379

Socio-hydrologic perspectives of the co-evolution of humans and water in the Tarim River basin, Western China: the Taiji-Tire model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a historical socio-hydrological analysis of the Tarim River basin (TRB), Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, in Western China, from the time of the opening of the Silk Road to the present. The analysis is aimed at exploring the historical co-evolution of coupled human-water systems and at identifying common patterns or organizing principles underpinning socio-hydrological systems (SHS). As a self-organized entity, the evolution of the human-water system in the Tarim Basin reached stable states for long periods of time, but then was punctuated by sudden shifts due to internal or external disturbances. In this study, we discuss three stable periods (i.e., natural, human exploitation, and degradation and recovery) and the transitions in between during the past 2000 years. During the "natural" stage that existed pre-18th century, with small-scale human society and sound environment, evolution of the SHS was mainly driven by natural environmental changes such as river channel migration and climate change. During the human exploitation stage, especially in the 19th and 20th centuries, it experienced rapid population growth, massive land reclamation and fast socio-economic development, and humans became the principal players of system evolution. By the 1970s, the Tarim Basin had evolved into a new regime with a vulnerable eco-hydrological system seemingly populated beyond its carrying capacity, and a human society that began to suffer from serious water shortages, land salinization and desertification. With intensified deterioration of river health and increased recognition of unsustainability of traditional development patterns, human intervention and recovery measures have since been adopted. As a result, the basin has shown a reverse regime shift towards some healing of the environmental damage. Based on our analysis within TRB and a common theory of social development, four general types of SHSs are defined according to their characteristic spatio-temporal variations of historical co-evolution, including primitive agricultural, traditional agricultural, industrial agricultural, and urban SHSs. These co-evolutionary changes have been explained in the paper in terms of the Taiji-Tire model, a refinement of a special concept in Chinese philosophy, relating to the co-evolution of a system because of interactions among its components.

Liu, Y.; Tian, F.; Hu, H.; Sivapalan, M.

2014-04-01

380

Socio-hydrologic perspectives of the co-evolution of humans and water in the Tarim River Basin, Western China: the Taiji-Tire Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a historical socio-hydrological analysis of the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang Province, Western China, from the time of the opening of the Silk Road to the present. The analysis is aimed at exploring the historical co-evolution of coupled human-water systems and at identifying common patterns or organizing principles underpinning socio-hydrological systems (SHS). As a self-organized entity, the evolution of the human-water system in the Tarim Basin reached stable states for long periods of time, then punctuated by sudden shifts due to internal or external disturbances. In this study, we discuss three steady periods (i.e. natural, human exploitation, and degradation and recovery) and transitions in between during the past 2000 yr. During the "natural" stage that existed pre-18th century, with small-scale human society and sound environment, evolution of the SHS was mainly driven by natural environmental changes such as river channel migration and climate change. During the human exploitation stage, especially in the 19th and 20th centuries, it experienced rapid population growth, massive land reclamation and fast socio-economic development, and humans became the principal players of system evolution. By the 1970s, the Tarim Basin had evolved into a new regime with a vulnerable eco-hydrological system seemingly populated beyond its carrying capacity, and a human society that began to suffer from serious water shortages, land salinization and desertification. With intensified deterioration of river health and increased recognition of unsustainability of traditional development pattern, human intervention and recovery measures have been adopted. Since then, the basin has shown a reverse regime shift towards some healing of the environmental damage. Spatio-temporal variations of historical socio-hydrological co-evolution are classified into four types: primitive agricultural, traditional agricultural, industrial agricultural and urban SHSs. These co-evolutionary changes have been summarized in terms of the Taiji-Tire Model, a refinement of a special concept in Chinese philosophy, relating to the co-evolution of a system because of interactions among its components.

Liu, Y.; Tian, F.; Hu, H.; Sivapalan, M.

2013-10-01

381

Spatial pattern of the co-seismic landslides triggered by the Mw7.9 Sichuan earthquake: Influence of the complex focal mechanism.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have recently shown that density patterns of co-seismic landslides associated with large thrust earthquakes can be used to map the area of maximum slip of the fault plane (Meunier et al., 2013). In this study, we present the results of the inversion performed over the nearly sixty thousand landslides triggered by the Sichuan earthquake (Mw=7.9, 2008, China). This earthquake is particularly interesting because a) it is an order of magnitude larger than the cases we have previously studied and b) its focal mechanism is not pure thrust but exhibits a strong dextral component. Our source, inverted from the landslide data, clearly points at the two zones of pure thrust on the fault, independently identified by geodetic data (De Michelle et al., 2010). This result suggests that the co-seismic landslides were preferentially induced by the waves generated by the thrust component of the fault slip.

Meunier, Patrick; Robert, Alexandra; De Michele, Marcello; Parker, Robert N.; Densmore, Alexander L.

2013-04-01

382

[Potential distribution areas of alien invasive plant Flaveria bidentis (Asteraceae) in China].  

PubMed

Flaveria bidentis (Asteraceae), a potential exotic invasive weed to agro-ecosystem and rangeland ecosystem, has recently invaded Tianjin City and Hebei Province (Hengshui and Langfang) in North China, and is spreading further. Based on its current geographical distribution in the world, the potential distribution areas of this weed in China were predicted by using CLIMEX software, aimed to assess the potential risks of this invasive weed. Following provinces in China could be the potential areas being invaded by F. bidentis, i. e., Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Hainan, Fujian, Taiwan, Jiangxi, Hunan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Chongqing, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangsu, and Shanghai, among which, Guangdong, Guangxi, Taiwan, Hainan, Fujian, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Chongqing, and part of Xizang would be at high risk. PMID:20077693

Bai, Yi-Zhen; Cao, Xiang-Feng; Chen, Chen; Hu, Bai-Shi; Liu, Feng-Quan

2009-10-01