We investigate the relationship between landscape heterogeneity and the spatial distribution of small mammals in two areas of Western Sichuan, China. Given a large diversity of species trapped within a large number of habitats, we first classified small mammal assemblages and then modelled the habitat of each in the space of quantitative environmental descriptors. Our original two step “classify then model” procedure is appropriate for the frequently encountered study scenario: trapping data collected in remote areas with sampling guided by expert field knowledge. In the classification step, we defined assemblages by grouping sites of similar species composition and relative densities using an expert-class-merging procedure which reduced redundancy in the habitat factor used within a multinomial logistic regression predicting species trapping probabilities. Assemblages were thus defined as mixtures of small mammal frequency distributions in discrete groups of sampled sites. In the modelling step, assemblages’ habitats and environments of the two sampled areas were discriminated in the space of remotely sensed environmental descriptors. First, we compared the discrimination of assemblage/study areas by linear and non-linear forms of Discriminant Analysis (Linear Discriminant Analysis versus Mixture Discriminant Analysis) and of Multiple Regression (Generalized Linear Models versus Multiple Adaptive Regression Splines). The “best” predictive modelling technique was then used to quantify the contribution of each environmental variable in discriminations of assemblages and areas. Mixtures of Gaussians provided a more efficient model of assemblage coverage in environmental space than a single Gaussian cluster model. However, non-linearity in assemblage response to environmental gradients was consistently predicted with lower deviance and misclassification error by Multiple Adaptive Regression Splines. The two study areas were mainly discriminated along vegetation indices. However, although the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) could discriminate forested from non-forested habitats, its power to discriminate assemblages in Maerkang, where a greater diversity of forest habitat was observed, was seen to be limited, and in this case NDVI was outperformed by the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). Our analyses highlight previously unobserved differences between the environments and small mammal communities of two fringe areas of the Tibetan plateau and suggests that a biogeograph-ical approach is required to elucidate ecological processes in small mammal communities and to reduce extrapolation uncertainty in distribution mapping. PMID:20161274
Vaniscotte, Amélie; Pleydell, David; Raoul, Francis; Quéré, Jean Pierre; Jiamin, Qiu; Wang, Qian; Tiaoying, Li; Bernard, Nadine; Coeurdassier, Michael; Delattre, Pierre; Takahashi, Kenichi; Weidmann, Jean-Christophe; Giraudoux, Patrick
The mountain range of western Sichuan Province of China runs roughly north to south defining the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, where high-resolution climate records are essential for understanding regional climatic phenomena. Unfortunately, instrumental records in this region are too short in duration to confidently gauge the long-term variability of climate change. This paper presented a temperature reconstruction for the western Sichuan Province based on a tree ring width chronology developed from a tree line site (4,150 m) of the Faxon fir (Abies faxoniana) at the Miyaluo Natural Reserve. This reconstruction, spanning the years from 1824 to 2009, could account for 46.7 % of the actual variance of annual mean temperature during the calibration period from 1950 to 2002. The reconstruction could be essentially divided into two distinct subperiods: a relatively cold and stable period in the late nineteenth century and a relatively warm and unstable period in the twentieth century. Years 2001 and 1911 were the warmest (6.32 °C) and coldest (4.87 °C) years in the reconstruction, respectively, while 1960s (5.77 °C) and 1980s (5.08 °C) were the warmest and coldest ten consecutive years within the past 186 years. Close coupling observed with other temperature proxies (tree rings, ice cores, and glaciers) from surrounding areas emphasized the high degree of confidence in our reconstruction.
Li, Zong Shan; Liu, Guo Hua; Gong, Li; Wang, Meng; Wang, Xiao Chun
Genetic diversity and differentiation of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) population in western Sichuan, China, based on the second exon of the major histocompatibility complex class II DQB (MhcMamu-DQB1) alleles
Abstracts Background Rhesus macaques living in western Sichuan, China, have been separated into several isolated populations due to habitat fragmentation. Previous studies based on the neutral or nearly neutral markers (mitochondrial DNA or microsatellites) showed high levels of genetic diversity and moderate genetic differentiation in the Sichuan rhesus macaques. Variation at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci is widely accepted as being maintained by balancing selection, even with a low level of neutral variability in some species. However, in small and isolated or bottlenecked populations, balancing selection may be overwhelmed by genetic drift. To estimate microevolutionary forces acting on the isolated rhesus macaque populations, we examined genetic variation at Mhc-DQB1 loci in 119 wild rhesus macaques from five geographically isolated populations in western Sichuan, China, and compared the levels of MHC variation and differentiation among populations with that previously observed at neutral microsatellite markers. Results 23 Mamu-DQB1 alleles were identified in 119 rhesus macaques in western Sichuan, China. These macaques exhibited relatively high levels of genetic diversity at Mamu-DQB1. The Hanyuan population presented the highest genetic variation, whereas the Heishui population was the lowest. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and pairwise FST values showed moderate genetic differentiation occurring among the five populations at the Mhc-DQB1 locus. Non-synonymous substitutions occurred at a higher frequency than synonymous substitutions in the peptide binding region. Levels of MHC variation within rhesus macaque populations are concordant with microsatellite variation. On the phylogenetic tree for the rhesus and crab-eating macaques, extensive allele or allelic lineage sharing is observed betweenthe two species. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses confirm the apparent trans-species model of evolution of the Mhc-DQB1 genes in these macaques. Balancing selection plays an important role in sharing allelic lineages between species, but genetic drift may share balancing selection dominance to maintain MHC diversity. Great divergence at neutral or adaptive markers showed that moderate genetic differentiation had occurred in rhesus macaque populations in western Sichuan, China, due to the habitat fragmentation caused by long-term geographic barriers and human activity. The Heishui population should be paid more attention for its lowest level of genetic diversity and relatively great divergence from others. PMID:24930092
By adopting the concept of space as a substitute for time, we analyzed the dynamics of species composition and diversity of\\u000a different restoration sequences (20, 30, 40, 50 years) in two secondary forest types in western Sichuan Province, distributed\\u000a in a northerly or northwesterly direction. The analysis was based on the results of measurements of 50 plots located at elevations
Jiangming MA; Shirong Liu; Zuomin Shi; Yuandong Zhang; Bing Kang; Baoyu Chen
The May 12, 2008, Great Sichuan Earthquake, also called the Wenchuan Earthquake, occurred at 14:28 local time, in Sichuan Province, China. The earthquake magnitudes were Mw = 7.9 (USGS), Ms = 8.0 (Chinese Earthquake Administration). The epicenter was 80 km west-northwest of Chengdu, the capital city...
The May 12, 2008, Great Sichuan Earthquake, also called the Wenchuan Earthquake, occurred at 14:28 local time, in Sichuan Province, China. The earthquake magnitudes were Mw = 7.9 (USGS), Ms = 8.0 (Chinese Earthquake Administration). The epicenter was 80 km west-northwest of Chengdu, the capital city...
The May 12, 2008, Great Sichuan Earthquake, also called the Wenchuan Earthquake, occurred at 14:28 local time, in Sichuan Province, China. The earthquake magnitudes were Mw = 7.9 (USGS), Ms = 8.0 (Chinese Earthquake Administration). The epicenter was 80 km west-northwest of Chengdu, the capital city...
A field experiment using litterbags was conducted in an alpine forest of western Sichuan in order to understand the effects of snow patches on the dynamics of N and P during decomposition of six representative species foliar litter in different periods of winter. Net N immobilization during foliar litter decomposition was observed in the whole snow cover season regardless of species. In contrast, P mainly released from foliar litter in the snow cover season, with a rapid rate of P release in the snow melt stage. Thick and moderate snow patches showed higher P release rates, but lower N release rates of foliar litter. The rate of N release was negatively related to daily mean temperature regardless of species, but the rate of P release was positively related to daily mean temperature with the exception of fir needle-litter. The decrease of snow cover in the scenario of global warming could inhibit P release but promote N release from foliar litter decomposition in winter in the alpine forest. PMID:25509063
He, Jie; Jiang, Xian-Min; Yang, Wan-Qin; Ni, Xiang-Yin; Xu, Li-Ya; Li, Han; Wu, Fu-Zhong
The migration and accumulation of typical source-contacting gas, also called basin-centered gas, follow the piston principle that it generates superpressures essentially. In the tight sand reservoir, the formation water cannot exchange sufficiently, which maintains higher pressure in gas reservoirs compared with conventional reservoirs during tectonic uplift or subsidences. The western Sichuan depression is one of the earliest basins in China
Jinchuan ZHANG; Lifang LIU; Xuan TANG; Xiaowei SONG; Shengling JIANG; Bo XU; Ruikang BIAN
This paper presents an overview of the development of supermarkets in the inland province of Sichuan in China over the past decade, with special attention to vegetable products. Both foreign and domestic supermarkets are expanding in the region with different store formats. Five types of vegetable procurement system for the Sichuan supermarkets are identified. Chain characteristics such as product standards
Zhang XiaoYong; J. Fu
Eastern Sichuan Basin is confined by two thin-skinned fold-thrust belt, NW-trending Southern Daba Shan (Shan=Mountain) (SDB) in the northeast and NNE- or NE-trending Western XueFeng Shan (WXF) in the southeast, which constitute two convergent salients convex to the inner basin respectively. Although many factors can lead to the formation of fold-thrust belt salients, the eastern Sichuan salients would be attributed to the combined structure (firstly nominated by Chinese geologist, Li Siguang), which means the interaction of two structural belts in the same period. By field surveying and geological map interpreting, we found that WXF deformation began in Late Jurassic along the eastern side of structral belt, where the synclines cored by Upper-Middle Jurassic rock. The initial time of SDB deformation remains poorly determined, however our palaeocurrent data of Lower Cretaceous rock in adjecent foreland basin indicate the provenance from northeast or east. Hence we considered the two fold-thrust belt started interactive in Late Jurassic and mainly combined during Cretaceous. In Early Cretaceous, the front belt of WXF salient arrived near KaiXian where NEE-trending arc-shape folds converged with the NWW-trending arc-shape folds of SDB.The two salients shaped like an westward "open mouth", east of which EW-trending folds of two structural belts juxtaposed. Particularly in the middle belt of WXF (FengJie - WuFeng) the earlier NEE-trending folds were refolded by later NNE-trending folds. We interpret the NEE-trending folds as the front belt of earlier (maybe Late Jurassic) WXF salient. When the two combined fold belts propagated westward together, the original NNE-trending front belt of WXF constrained by the front belt of SDB and formed the curved fold trend lines convex to NNW. Then as WXF deformation continued but SDB gradually terminated, the consequent NNE-trending folds could not be curved and would superpose on the earlier NEE-trending folds.In Late Cretaceous, WXF still propagated westward but without combination with SDB, and formed three NNE-trending parallel anticlines flanking the central Sichuan Basin. These anticlines dominated by steep dips and west-vergent thrust faults, which suggests the eastward back pushing force. We suppose that the pre-existing deep fault obstructed the WXF westward propagation. In addition, thermochronolgy analysis proved that SDB underwent tectonic sequence in Late Cretaceous. Thus the convergent salients broke up with only NNE-trending parallel fold being present in the front belt of WXF. We also use a finite-element model (FEM) to illustrate the maximum horizontal compressive stress (SHmax) under the combined structure in ABAQUSTM software. A 2D plane stress model with realistic mechanical properties for whole Sichuan Basin was built based on the Late Jurassic paleogeographic boundaries. The model consists of 5,400 elements, providing a resolution of 0.1° in both latitude and longitude. In general, FEM analysis result shows the SHmax direction well perpendicular to the arc-shape folds trend lines in eastern Sichuan Basin when pressure loaded on the SDB and WXF boundaries. The SHmax contours reflect two convergent salients incorporating the gradually decreased stress value from the boundaries to inner basin.
Wang, P.; Liu, S.
Males who seek commercial sex have been identified as an important “bridging population” in the transmission of HIV. There is little information on the HIV-related risk perceptions and behaviors among commercial sex male clients (CSMCs) in China. This study reports qualitative findings from six focus groups and 41 in-depth interviews with CSMCs in Sichuan Province, China. Commercial sex visits were
Cui Yang; Carl A. Latkin; Peng Liu; Kenrad E. Nelson; Cunlin Wang; Rongsheng Luan
This paper aims to identify the relationship between economic growth and forest cover change in Sichuan, China. Using a set\\u000a of panel land use data based on Landsat TM\\/ETM digital images, we show that during the late 1980s and 1990s, Sichuan’s forest\\u000a cover initially decreased and then rose. We also note that the rising and falling trends occurred at the
Huixia Zhao; Emi Uchida; Xiangzheng Deng; Scott Rozelle
Abstract Three new species of the genus Lathrobium Gravenhorst, 1802 from Sichuan Province, Southwest China are described and illustrated: Lathrobium acutissimum sp. n., Lathrobium hailuogouense sp. n. and Lathrobium labahense sp. n. A checklist of Chinese Lathrobium is provided. PMID:22792033
Peng, Zhong; Li, Li-Zhen; Zhao, Mei-Jun
Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in western China, and becoming an important public health concern. Infected dogs are the main reservoir for Leishmania infantum, and a potential sentinel for human VL in endemic areas. In the present study we investigated the prevalence of Leishmania DNA in dogs from Wenchuan, Heishui and Jiuzhaigou County in Sichuan Province, southwestern China, which are important endemic areas of zoonotic VL, detected by real time PCR. The results will help to design control strategies against visceral leishmaniasis in dogs and humans. Results The overall prevalence of Leishmania DNA in dogs was 24.8% (78/314) in Sichuan Province, with the positive rate of 23.5% (23/98) in Wenchuan County, 28.2% (20/71) in Heishui County, and 24.1% (35/145) in Jiuzhaigou County, and no significant difference was observed among the three counties (P > 0.05). The dogs were further allocated to different groups based on sexes, ages and external clinical symptoms. The logistic regression analysis revealed that a higher prevalence was found in older and external symptomatic dogs, compared to that of younger and asymptomatic dogs (P < 0.05). Conclusions The results revealed that L. infantum infection in dogs is widespread in Sichuan Province, southwestern China, which has a public health significance, due to its contribution to the transmission of the infection to humans by sandflies. It is necessary to take measures, including treatment or eradication of infected dogs, to control canine leishmaniasis, which could be helpful to reduce human VL in this area. PMID:21910882
At 14:28 (Beijing time) on 12 May 2008, the catastrophic Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake occurred just west of the Sichuan basin,\\u000a China, causing severe damage and numerous casualties. It also triggered a large number of landslides, rock avalanches, debris\\u000a flows etc. Some of the landslides formed natural dams in the rivers, with the potential secondary hazard of subsequent flooding.\\u000a Through
Qiang Xu; Xuan-Mei Fan; Run-Qiu Huang; Cee Van Westen
Redox conditions in the global ocean prior to, during, and following the end-Permian mass extinction at 252.28 Ma remain contentious. Previous studies in western Australia, South China, and East Greenland have shown that photic-zone euxinia was present at least intermittently from the early Changhsingian through the Dienerian1-3. Here we report a study of organic carbon isotopes, pyrite sulfur isotopes, TOC, pyritic sulfur content, REE, and major and trace elements from the Upper Permian Xiaojiaba section in the Chaotian district of Guangyuan City, Sichuan Province, China. During the Permian-Triassic transition, this section was located on the northwestern margin of the South China Block, facing the Paleo-Tethys Ocean. Our results indicate that suboxic conditions prevailed during the Wuchiapingian and suboxic to anoxic conditions with several pulses of euxinia during the Changhsingian. ?13Corg values are mostly -28‰ to -26‰ but show three positive excursions (to -22‰) prior to the end-Permian mass extinction horizon. These positive excursions are associated with higher Spy concentrations (to ~1%). ?34Spy values are variable (from -41‰ to +5‰) but show a sharp negative excursion in the late Changhsingian (to -43.4‰) that coincided with the most positive ?13Corg values. This horizon is also associated with increases in Eu/Eu*, Baxs, ?REE, Si, and redox-sensitive metals such as V. These patterns reflect linkage of the C and S cycles during the latest Permian, possibly in response to redox controls. The observed positive excursions in ?13Corg may be due to organic inputs from green sulfur bacteria, which exhibit a smaller photosynthetic fractionation (-12.5‰4) than eukaryotic algae. The pronounced negative excursion of ?34Spy corresponds to a sulfate-sulfide S isotope fractionation of about -60‰, suggesting a large flux of syngenetic framboidal pyrite, which would be indicative of euxinic water-column conditions. We infer that the euxinia prior to the main extinction horizon may have been caused by oceanic oxygen-minimum zone expansion and upward movement of the chemocline5. The coupled increases in Eu/Eu* and Baxs may record hydrothermal influence, possibly accompanied by increased ocean acidity and high seawater temperatures. Collectively, our results document major changes in seawater chemistry during the Changhsingian prior to the main end-Permian crisis.
Wei, H.; Algeo, T. J.; Chen, D.; Yu, H.
Intracontinental subduction of the South China Block below the North China Block in the Late Triassic resulted in formation of the transpressional Sichuan foreland basin on the South China Block. The Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation was deposited in this basin and consists of an eastward-tapering wedge of predominantly continental siliciclastic sedimentary rocks that are up to 3.5 km thick in the western foredeep depocenter and thin onto the forebulge and into backbulge depocenters. Five facies associations (A-E) make up the Xujiahe Formation and these are interpreted, respectively, as alluvial fan, transverse and longitudinal braided river, meandering river, overbank or shallow lacustrine, and deltaic deposits. This study establishes a sequence stratigraphic framework for the Xujiahe Formation which is subdivided into four sequences (SQ1, 2, 3 and 4). Sequence boundaries are recognized on the basis of facies-tract dislocations and associated fluvial rejuvenation and incision, and systems tracts are identified based on their constituent facies associations and changes in architectural style and sediment body geometries. Typical sequences consist of early to late transgressive systems tract deposits related to a progressive increase in accommodation and represented by Facies Associations A, B and C that grade upwards into Facies Association D. Regionally extensive and vertically stacked coal seams define maximum accommodation and are overlain by early highstand systems tract deposits represented by Facies Associations D, E and C. Late highstand systems tract deposits are rare because of erosion below sequence boundaries. Sequence development in the Xujiahe Formation is attributed to active and quiescent phases of thrust-loading events and is closely related to the tectonic evolution of the basin. The Sichuan Basin experienced three periods of thrust loading and lithospheric flexure (SQ1, lower SQ2 and SQ3), two periods of stress relaxation and basin widening (upper SQ 2 and SQ3) and one phase of isostatic rebound (SQ4). Paleogeographic reconstruction of the Sichuan Basin in the Late Triassic indicates that the Longmen Mountains to the west, consisting of metamorphic, sedimentary and pre-Neoproterozoic basement granitoid rocks, was the major source of sediment to the foredeep depocenter. Subordinate sediment sources were the Xuefeng Mountains to the east to backbulge depocenters, and the Micang Mountains to the northwest during the late history of the basin. This study has demonstrated the viability of sequence stratigraphic analysis in continental successions in a foreland basin, and the influence of thrust loading on sequence development.
Li, Yingjiao; Shao, Longyi; Eriksson, Kenneth A.; Tong, Xin; Gao, Caixia; Chen, Zhongshu
Porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) is an immunosuppressive virus that mainly inhibits the immune function of the macrophage and T-cell lymphatic systems, and has caused huge economic losses to the porcine breeding industry. Molecular epidemiological investigation of PCMV is important for prevention and treatment, and this study is the first such investigation in Sichuan Province, Southwest China. A PCMV positive infection rate of 84.4% (865/1025) confirmed that PCMV is widely distributed in Sichuan Province. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the PCMV glycoprotein B gene (gB) nucleotide and amino acid sequences from 24 novel Sichuan isolates and 18 other PCMV gB sequences from Genbank. PCMV does not appear to have evolved into different serotypes, and two distinct sequence groups were identified (A and B). However, whether PCMV from this region has evolved into different genotypes requires further research. Analysis of the amino acid sequences confirmed the conservation of gB, but amino acid substitutions in the major epitope region have caused antigenic drift, which may have altered the immunogenicity of PCMV. PMID:23762243
Xu, Zhiwen; Zhou, Yuancheng
The Mw 8.0 R earthquake on the 12th of May 2008 that stroke the Sichuan Prefecture of the People's Republic of China caused tenths of thousands of casualties and significant social and economic consequences. The earthquake was triggered by a reverse fault approximately 100 km in length, of NE-SW strike, dipping towards the NW with a reverse-lateral slip character and focal depth of 18 Km. Due to the great height and steepness of the slopes and their loose geotechnical characteristics in the mountainous terrain, thousands of landslides and collapses occurred in the Longmenshan fault zone during the earthquake, resulting in a large amount of geotechnical damages, such as the destruction the roads, villages, towns and bridges. A total of more than 9000 geological disasters occurred, among which there were approximately 4000 landslides, 2300 slop collapses, 800 debris flows, 1700 unstable slopes and more than 80 locations with hidden danger of geological hazard. Approximately 1.000.000 people and their properties in the affected area were under a directly serious threat. Landslides mobilized millions of cubic meters of rock and soil that slid across adjacent rivers, creating large landslide dams. The blockage of rivers was accompanied by the formation of quake lakes that were flooding the upstream river valleys. As water rises, there is potential of overtopping and downstream flooding. In the affected area 32 quake lakes were formed of various scales. ?he largest one , and most dangerous, is located in Beichuan County. The lake was formed because massive landslide partially blocked Qianjiang River upstream of the devastated Beichuan County seat. It is 40 m deep and contains about 30-40 million m3 of water. The landslide dam had a height of 60 m, the quake lake in the Shitingjiang River direction is more than 900 m long, its largest width is more than 600 m, and its area at the dam crest level is about 300.000 m2. As of June 7, 2008 the reservoir capacity of the quake lake was 240 million cubic meters, which posed a threat to a significantly large area of the down-stream zone, however the hidden danger was relieved by dredging and water drainage.
Based on the new and higher degree geomagnetic model NGDC-720-V3, we have investigated the spatial distribution, the altitude decay characteristics of the crustal magnetic anomaly, the contributions from different wavelength bands to the anomaly, and the relationship among the anomaly, the geological structure, and the geophysical field in Sichuan-Yunnan region of China. It is noted that the most outstanding feature in this area is the strong positive magnetic anomaly in Sichuan Basin, a geologically stable block. Contrasting with this feature, a strong negative anomaly can be seen nearby in Longmen Mountain block, an active block. This contradiction implies a possible relationship between the magnetic field and the geological activity. Completely different feature in magnetic field distribution is seen in the central Yunnan block, another active region, where positive and negative anomalies distribute alternatively, showing a complex magnetic anomaly map. Some fault belts, such as the Longmen Mountain fault, Lijiang-Xiaojinhe fault, and the Red River fault, are the transitional zones of strong and weak or negative and positive anomalies. The corresponding relationship between the magnetic anomaly and the geophysical fields was confirmed. PMID:25243232
Bai, Chunhua; Kang, Guofa; Gao, Guoming
Pepsi had been competing strongly against Coke throughout the world. In 1993, to gain an upper hand in a new market, Pepsi established a bottling plant in cooperation with the local government in Sichuan, an inland province of China. Sichuan Pepsi's business was a big success. The troubles, however, soon started. Sichuan Pepsi refused to follow the policy of allocating
Earthquakes affect the entire world and have catastrophic consequences. On May 12, 2008, an earthquake of magnitude 7.9 on the Richter scale occurred in the Wenchuan area of Sichuan province in China. This event, together with subsequent aftershocks, caused many avalanches, landslides, debris flows, collapses, and quake lakes and induced numerous unstable slopes. This work proposes a methodology that uses a data mining approach and geographic information systems to predict these mass movements based on their association with the main and aftershock epicenters, geologic faults, riverbeds, and topography. A dataset comprising 3,883 mass movements is analyzed, and some models to predict the location of these mass movements are developed. These predictive models could be used by the Chinese authorities as an important tool for identifying risk areas and rescuing survivors during similar events in the future. PMID:24085622
de Souza, Fabio Teodoro
Background Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV), infecting domestic swine and wild boar, is a non-enveloped virus with a circular, single-stranded DNA genome. which has been classified into the genera Iotatorquevirus (TTSuV1) and Kappatorquevirus (TTSuV2) of the family Anelloviridae. A molecular study was conducted to detect evidence of a phylogenic relationship between these two porcine TTSuV genogroups from the sera of 244 infected pigs located in 21 subordinate prefectures and/or cities of Sichuan. Results Both genogroups of TTSuV were detected in pig sera collected from all 21 regions examined. Of the 244 samples, virus from either genogroup was detected in 203 (83.2%), while 44 animals (18.0%) were co-infected with viruses of both genogroups. Moreover, TTSuV2 (186/244, 76.2%) was more prevalent than TTSuV1 (61/244, 25%). There was statistically significant difference between the prevalence of genogroups 1 infection alone (9.4%, 23/244) and 2 alone (64.8%, 158/244), and between the prevalence of genogroups 2 (76.2%, 186/244) and both genogroups co-infection (18.0%, 44/244). The untranslated region of the swine TTSuV genome was found to be an adequate molecular marker of the virus for detection and surveillance. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that both genogroups 1 and 2 could be further divided into two subtypes, subtype a and b. TTSuV1 subtype b and the two TTSuV2 subtypes are more prevalent in Sichuan Province. Conclusions Our study presents detailed geographical evidence of TTSuV infection in China. PMID:23705989
The Qiangic languages in western Sichuan (WSC) are believed to be the oldest branch of the Sino-Tibetan linguistic family, and therefore, all Sino-Tibetan populations might have originated in WSC. However, very few genetic investigations have been done on Qiangic populations and no genetic evidences for the origin of Sino-Tibetan populations have been provided. By using the informative Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers, we analyzed the genetic structure of Qiangic populations. Our results revealed a predominantly Northern Asian-specific component in Qiangic populations, especially in maternal lineages. The Qiangic populations are an admixture of the northward migrations of East Asian initial settlers with Y chromosome haplogroup D (D1-M15 and the later originated D3a-P47) in the late Paleolithic age, and the southward Di-Qiang people with dominant haplogroup O3a2c1*-M134 and O3a2c1a-M117 in the Neolithic Age. PMID:25090432
Wang, Chuan-Chao; Wang, Ling-Xiang; Shrestha, Rukesh; Zhang, Manfei; Huang, Xiu-Yuan; Hu, Kang; Jin, Li; Li, Hui
Taking TM images, ETM images, SPOT images, aerial photos and other remote sensing data as fundamental sources, this research\\u000a makes a thorough investigation on landslides and debris flows in Sichuan Province, China, using the method of manual interpretation\\u000a and taking topography maps as references after the processes of terrain correction, spectral matching, and image mosaic. And\\u000a then, the spatial characteristics
Baolei Zhang; Shumin Zhang; Wancun Zhou
The aqueous geochemistry of Huanglong Ravine, Sichuan, China, where tufa is being deposited extensively, is discussed using chemical composition data together with the carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios. The water quality of tufa-depositing surface streams in this area is basically controlled by the mixing of two source waters—fault-bounded spring water and snow and\\/or glacier melt water. The spring water
K. Yoshimura; Z. Liu; J. Cao; D. Yuan; Y. Inokura; M. Noto
Method of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is used to carry out suitability evaluation on the information service system of â€œAgricultural Science and Technology 110â€ in Sichuan Province, China. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and expert consultation method are used to determine the evaluation index system and index weight. Suitability effect of the information service system of â€œAgricultural Science and Technology 110â€ is
Yu-fu Hu; Liang-ji Deng
To study the cause of frequent drought and rainy-flood disasters in Sichuan province in recent years, a method based on remote sensing (RS), geographic information system (GIS) and global positioning system (GPS) is presented to establish land use/cover change (LUCC) database of Sichuan province. Firstly, LUCC was interpreted interactively with the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS-02) images in 2005, in the light of the database from Landsat-Thematic Mapper (TM) in 2000. Secondly, the interpreted result was validated in the field with GPS hand-held receiver and the database was updated subsequently. Thirdly, LUCC was extracted from the interpreted database with GIS software. The result reveals that the achievement of "grain for green" project was very little, and more farmland? were being occupied; the cities were overspreading at the same time. Therefore, the eco-environment of Sichuan province became worse. Some decisions were provided to improve the eco-environment of Sichuan province at last.
Zheng, Zezhong; Fan, Dongming; Yang, Wunian; Li, Yuxia
Data on trichomycete biodiversity in China is expanded with the description of three new fungal species, Legeriomyces grandis, Legeriosimilis elegans, Smittium shaanxiense, and a protist, Paramoebidium bacillare. The geographical distribution for the harpellid species, Glotzia ephemeridarum, Smittium culicis and Stachylina gravicaudata, is extended with their collection in western China, and five species previously known from Asia are also reported here. PMID:20120240
Strongman, D B; Wang, Juan; Xu, Shengquan
Taenia pisiformis is one of the most important parasites of canines and rabbits. T. pisiformis cysticercus (the larval stage) causes severe damage to rabbit breeding, which results in huge economic losses. In this study, the genetic variation of T. pisiformis was determined in Sichuan Province, China. Fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) (922 bp) gene were amplified in 53 isolates from 8 regions of T. pisiformis. Overall, 12 haplotypes were found in these 53 cytb sequences. Molecular genetic variations showed 98.4% genetic variation derived from intra-region. FST and Nm values suggested that 53 isolates were not genetically differentiated and had low levels of genetic diversity. Neutrality indices of the cytb sequences showed the evolution of T. pisiformis followed a neutral mode. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no correlation between phylogeny and geographic distribution. These findings indicate that 53 isolates of T. pisiformis keep a low genetic variation, which provide useful knowledge for monitoring changes in parasite populations for future control strategies. PMID:24039288
Yang, Deying; Ren, Yongjun; Fu, Yan; Xie, Yue; Nie, Huaming; Nong, Xiang; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou
Taenia pisiformis is one of the most important parasites of canines and rabbits. T. pisiformis cysticercus (the larval stage) causes severe damage to rabbit breeding, which results in huge economic losses. In this study, the genetic variation of T. pisiformis was determined in Sichuan Province, China. Fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) (922 bp) gene were amplified in 53 isolates from 8 regions of T. pisiformis. Overall, 12 haplotypes were found in these 53 cytb sequences. Molecular genetic variations showed 98.4% genetic variation derived from intra-region. FST and Nm values suggested that 53 isolates were not genetically differentiated and had low levels of genetic diversity. Neutrality indices of the cytb sequences showed the evolution of T. pisiformis followed a neutral mode. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no correlation between phylogeny and geographic distribution. These findings indicate that 53 isolates of T. pisiformis keep a low genetic variation, which provide useful knowledge for monitoring changes in parasite populations for future control strategies. PMID:24039288
Yang, Deying; Ren, Yongjun; Fu, Yan; Xie, Yue; Nie, Huaming; Nong, Xiang; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong
Background On May 12, 2008, an earthquake with a power of 8.0 M on the Richter scale occurred in the Wenchuan County of Sichuan Province in southwest China, which was unprecedented in magnitude and aftermath. Approximately 70,000 people were killed and nearly 20,000 went missing. The earthquake caused a wide number of mental and physical health outcomes among survivors, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was one of the most commonly studied. Methods We conducted a systematic overview to assess research achievements about PTSD in the past 6 years after the Wenchuan earthquake, including symptoms and risk factors about PTSD among Wenchuan earthquake survivors, as well as research developments in genetics, molecular biology, and treatment of PTSD. Results The large body of research conducted after the Wenchuan earthquake suggests that the burden of PTSD among persons with high exposure was substantial. Adolescents and adults were among the most studied populations with high prevalence rates. Phytotherapy with Chinese herbs as well as acupuncture were rarely studied as of yet, although published data indicated promising therapy effects. Genome-wide microarray technologies are widely used in experimental mice and rat models to study PTSD mechanisms as well as in patients suffering from PTSD and other psychosomatic disorders to search for novel biomarkers and to monitor the effectiveness of treatment interventions. Conclusion Using genomic and transcriptomic technologies, our future research will focus on the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicine to find potential interventions and effective treatments of PTSD. PMID:25511735
Hong, Chunlan; Cao, Jingming; Efferth, Thomas
The Lower Triassic Feixianguan Formation at the well-known Puguang gasfield in the northeastern Sichuan Basin of southwest China produces a representative oolitic reservoir, which has been the biggest marine-sourced gasfield so far in China (discovered in 2003 with proven gas reserves greater than 350×108 m3). This study combines core, thin section, and scanning electron microscopy observations, and geochemical analysis (C, O, and Sr isotopes) in order to investigate the basic characteristics and formation mechanisms of the reservoir. Observations indicate that platform margin oolitic dolomites are the most important reservoir rocks. Porosity is dominated by intergranular and intragranular solution, and moldic pore. The dolomites are characterized by medium porosity and permeability, averaging at approximately 9% and 29.7 mD, respectively. 87Sr/86Sr (0.707536-0.707934) and ?13CPDB (1.8‰-3.5‰) isotopic values indicate that the dolomitization fluid is predominantly concentrated seawater by evaporation, and the main mechanism for the oolitic dolomite formation is seepage reflux at an early stage of eodiagenesis. Both sedimentation and diagenesis (e.g., dolomitization and dissolution) have led to the formation of high-quality rocks to different degrees. Dolomite formation may have little contribution, karst may have had both positive and negative influences, and burial dissolution-TSR (thermochemical sulfate reduction) may not impact widely. The preservation of primary intergranular pores and dissolution by meteoric or mixed waters at the early stage of eogenesis are the main influences. This study may assist oil and gas exploration activities in the Puguang area and in other areas with dolomitic reservoirs.
Chen, Peiyuan; Tan, Xiucheng; Yang, Huiting; Tang, Ming; Jiang, Yiwei; Jin, Xiuju; Yu, Yang
The trends in semen quality are conflicting. Although many previous surveys on semen quality indicated a decline, the trends in semen quality in Sichuan area of south-west China are not clear. We analysed the semen parameters in a cohort of 28,213 adult males close to general population in Sichuan between July 2007 and June 2012, and investigated the changes on semen quality. The semen parameters including pH, volume, concentration, motility, morphology were measured according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance was used to examine the statistical differences of semen quality between groups. We found that the medians (5th and 95th percentiles) were 2.4 ml (1.0-5.0) for semen volume, 62.0 × 10(6) ml(-1) (15.0-142.0) for semen concentration, 39% (18-60%) for sperm progressive motility and 10.5% (1.0-34.5%) for normal morphology. In these 5 years, sperm concentration and the percentage of sperm normal morphology were decreased from 66.0 × 10(6 ) ml(-1) to 49.0 × 10(6) ml(-1) and from 13.5% to 4.5%, respectively; among different reproductive history groups, sperm concentration and the percentage of sperm normal morphology were also decreased in these 5 years. And the incidence of azoospermia was increasing. These may imply that there is a decline in semen quality of adult males in Sichuan area. PMID:24079334
Jiang, M; Chen, X; Yue, H; Xu, W; Lin, L; Wu, Y; Liu, B
Air quality evaluation is important in order to inform the public about the risk level of air pollution to human health. To better assess air quality, China released its new national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS-2012) and the new method to classify air quality level (AQL) in 2012. In this study, we examined the performance of China's NAAQS-2012 and AQL classification method through applying them, the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, and the US AQL classification method to evaluate air quality in Chengdu, the largest city in southwestern China. The results show that annual mean concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, and O3 at the seven urban sites were in the ranges of 138-161, 87-98, 18-32, 54-70, and 42-57 ?g/m(3), respectively, and the annual mean concentrations of CO were in the range of 1.09-1.28 mg/m(3). Chengdu is located in one of the four largest regions affected by haze in China, and PM10 and PM2.5 were the top air pollutants, with annual concentrations over 2 times of their standards in NAAQS-2012 and over 7 times of the WHO guidelines. Annual mean concentrations of the pollutants were much lower at the background site (LYS) than at the urban sites, but the annual mean concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 at LYS were 3.5 and 5.7 times of the WHO guidelines, respectively. These suggest that severe air pollution in Chengdu was largely associated with local emissions but also related to regional air pollution. The compliance rates of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, and O3 met China's NAAQS-2012 standards four times more frequently than they met the WHO guidelines, as NAAQS-2012 uses the loosest interim target (IT) standards of WHO for these four pollutants. Air pollution in Chengdu was estimated and stated to be less severe using China's classification than using the US classification, as China uses weaker concentration breakpoints and benign descriptions of AQL. Furthermore, China's AQL classification method does not capture the cumulative effects of multiple pollutants, and the risk assessment is mainly based on the exposure-response relationship between air pollutant and human health quantified in the North America and West Europe; these can bring some uncertainties into evaluating the risk to human health in China. In summary, although China greatly improved its NAAQS and AQL classification method in 2012, further improvements are still needed. PMID:25877648
Qiao, Xue; Jaffe, Daniel; Tang, Ya; Bresnahan, Meaghan; Song, Jie
On May 12, 2008, a huge earthquake with magnitude Ms8.0 occurred in the Wenhuan, Sichuan Province of China. This event was the most devastating earthquake in the mainland of China since the 1976 M7.8 Tangshan earthquake. It resulted in tremendous losses of life and property. So far, there are 69,181 persons killed, and 18,522 still missing. Due to occur in the mountainous area, this great earthquake and the following thousands aftershocks also caused many other geological disasters, such as landslide, mud-rock flow and "quake lakes" which formed by landslide-induced reservoirs. This earthquake occurred along the Longmenshan fault, as the result of motion on a northeast striking reverse fault or thrust fault on the northwestern margin of the Sichuan Basin. The earthquake's epicenter and focal-mechanism are consistent with it having occurred as the result of movement on the Longmenshan fault or a tectonically related fault. The earthquake reflects tectonic stresses resulting from the convergence of crustal material slowly moving from the high Tibetan Plateau, to the west, against strong crust underlying the Sichuan Basin and southeastern China. In this study, the spatial and temporal distribution of the stress on the fault plane of this great earthquake is estimated from the inversion results (Chen Ji, 2008) by solving the elastodynamic equations. Then, the dynamic source parameters are determined and the relations between the shear stress and the slip, the shear stress and the slip-rate for all grid positions on the fault are investigated. Finally, the frictional law for the source rupture is inferred from the dynamic source parameters. Based on the obtained dynamic source parameters, we try to rebuild the dynamic rupture process of this event and discuss the characteristics of this great earthquake.
We process the standard 30 s, static GPS data and the 1 s, high-rate GPS (HRGPS) data provided by the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China with GAMIT/GLOBK software package, and obtain the co-seismic displacements of near field and far field, and the epoch-by-epoch time series of HRGPS during Lushan earthquake. GPS data from about 20 sites in Sichuan province, which located between 40 and 450 km from the epicenter, are analyzed so as to study the characteristics of the static displacements and the dynamic crustal deformations, with periods ranging from several minutes to over a month. The result shows that: the static displacements caused by Lushan earthquake are limited to several centimeters; the nearest station SCTQ at 43 km from the epicenter has the largest static displacement of about 2 cm, while the other stations generally have insignificant displacements of less than 5 mm. the stations in the east of Sichuan-Yunnan region shifts 5-10 mm toward the southwest, and the stations in the middle-west of Sichuan Basin moves indistinctively 1-2 mm toward the northwest; station SCTQ has the largest kinematic displacement of about 4 and 3 cm peak-to-peak on the north and east component, respectively, and is much greater than the static permanent displacement; for the stations located at a distance greater than 150 km from the epicenter, the kinematic motions are generally insignificant; exceptionally, station SCNC and station SCSN in central Sichuan Basin have significant kinematic motions although they are more than 200 km away from the epicenter.
Du, Yujun; Wang, Zemin; Yang, Shujiang; An, Jiachun; Liu, Qiang; Che, Guowei
Nitrogen isotopic compositions of upper Permian to lowermost Triassic rocks were analyzed at Chaotian in northern Sichuan, South China, in order to clarify changes in the oceanic nitrogen cycle around the Permian-Triassic boundary (P-TB) including the entire Changhsingian (Late Late Permian) prior to the extinction. The analyzed ca. 40 m thick interval across the P-TB at Chaotian consists of three stratigraphic units: the upper Wujiaping Formation, the Dalong Formation, and the lowermost Feixianguan Formation, in ascending order. The upper Wujiaping Formation, ca. 10 m thick, is mainly composed of dark gray limestone with diverse shallow-marine fossils such as calcareous algae and brachiopods, deposited on the shallow shelf. In contrast, the overlying Dalong Formation, ca. 25 m thick, is mainly composed of thinly bedded black mudstone and siliceous mudstone containing abundant radiolarians, deposited on the relatively deep slope/basin. Absence of bioturbation, substantially high total organic carbon contents (up to 15%), and abundant occurrence of pyrite framboids in the main part of the Dalong Formation indicate deposition under anoxic condition. The lowermost Feixianguan Formation, ca. 5 m thick, is composed of thinly bedded gray marl and micritic limestone with minor fossils such as ammonoids and conodonts, deposited on the relatively shallow slope. ?15NTN values are in positive values around +1 to +2‰ in the upper Wujiaping Formation implying denitrification and/or anammox in the ocean. ?15NTN values gradually decrease to -1‰ in the lower Dalong Formation and are consistently low (around 0‰) in the middle Dalong to lowermost Feixianguan Formation. No clear ?15NTN shift is recognized across the extinction horizon. The consistently low ?15NTN values suggest the enhanced nitrogen fixation in the ocean during the Changhsingian at Chaotian. Composite profiles based on previous and the present studies demonstrate the substantial ?15N variation on a global scale in the late Permian to earliest Triassic; a systematic ?15N difference by low and high latitudes is particularly clarified. Although the enhanced nitrogen fixation throughout the Changhsingian at Chaotian was likely a regional event in northwestern South China, the composite ?15N profiles imply that the sea area in which fixed nitrogen is depleted has gradually developed worldwide in the Changhsingian, possibly acting as a prolonged stress to shallow-marine biota.
Saitoh, Masafumi; Ueno, Yuichiro; Nishizawa, Manabu; Isozaki, Yukio; Takai, Ken; Yao, Jianxin; Ji, Zhansheng
Background Porcine kobuvirus (PKoV) is a member of the Kobuvirus genus within the Picornaviridae family. PKoV is distributed worldwide with high prevalence in clinically healthy pigs and those with diarrhea. Methods Fecal and intestinal samples (n?=?163) from pig farms in Sichuan Province, China were obtained to determine the presence of PKoV using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. Specific primers were used for the amplification of the gene encoding the PKoV VP1 protein sequence. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to clarify evolutionary relationships with other PKoV strains. Results Approximately 53% (87/163) of pigs tested positive for PKoV. PKoV was widespread in asymptomatic pigs and those with diarrhea. A high prevalence of PKoV was observed in pigs younger than 4 weeks and in pigs with diarrhea. Phylogenetic analysis of 36 PKoV VP1 protein sequences showed that Sichuan PKoV strains formed four distinct clusters. Two pigs with diarrhea were found to be co-infected with multiple PKoV strains. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed diversity within the same host and between different hosts. Significant recombination breakpoints were observed between the CHN/SC/31-A1 and CHN/SC/31-A3 strains in the VP1 region, which were isolated from the same sample. Conclusion PKoV was endemic in Sichuan Province regardless of whether pigs were healthy or suffering from diarrhea. Based on our statistical analyses, we suggest that PKoV was the likely causative agent of high-mortality diarrhea in China from 2010. For the first time, we provide evidence for the co-existence of multiple PKoV strains in one pig, and possible recombination events in the VP1 region. Our findings provide further insights into the molecular properties of PKoV, along with its epidemiology. PMID:24025093
Saccharum spontaneum is a wild sugarcane species that is native to and widely distributed in China. It has been extensively used in sugarcane breeding programs, and is being tested for the development of bioenergy cultivars. In order to provide basic information for the exploitation of this species, we analyzed genetic variation among and within native S. spontaneum populations collected from Sichuan, China. Eighty plants from nine native populations were sampled. Twenty-one sequence-related amplified polymorphism primer pairs generated 235 clearly scorable bands, of which 185 were polymorphic (78.7%). Nei's genetic diversity was 0.2801 and Shannon's information index was 0.4155 across the populations. Genetic diversity parameters, G(ST) value (0.2088) and N(m) value (1.8944), showed that the genetic variation within populations was greater than that among populations. In the cluster analysis, one major grouping was formed by populations from Ya'an and another one by populations from Sichuan basin; a population from Baoxing formed a single cluster. In order to fully comprehend the genetic diversity of cold-tolerant local germplasm in this species, germplasm should be collected from the heterogeneous environments along the northern regions of this species' distribution. The germplasm that we collected should be a valuable resource for Saccharum breeding. PMID:22614352
Chang, D; Yang, F Y; Yan, J J; Wu, Y Q; Bai, S Q; Liang, X Z; Zhang, Y W; Gan, Y M
The Sichuan Basin is a low visibility area in southwest China, where the hilly and basin topography, plus humid and stagnant weather, lead to unique pollution patterns. To identify the characteristics and sources of carbonaceous aerosols, one-year record of 24-h PM2.5 samples were analyzed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) content following the thermal/optical transmission protocol at three cities (Chengdu (CD), Neijiang (NJ), and Chongqing (CQ)) in the region during May 2012 to April 2013. The annual average concentrations were 19.0 ± 13.3 ?g OC m-3 and 4.6 ± 2.6 ?g EC m-3 in CD, 18.3 ± 8.4 ?g OC m-3 and 4.1 ± 1.8 ?g EC m-3 in NJ, and 15.2 ± 8.4 ?g OC m-3 and 4.0 ± 1.6 ?g EC m-3 in CQ, respectively. Organic matter (1.6OC) plus EC contributed about 40% of PM2.5 mass and displayed weak regional uniformity. Relatively high ratios of OC to EC were observed in the region with 4.3 for CD, 4.6 for NJ, and 3.8 for CQ, respectively. OC and EC pollution in the region exhibited interesting season-dependent characteristics with the lowest concentrations and OC/EC ratios in summer, but higher levels in other seasons. Higher OC/EC ratios in spring and autumn resulted from biomass burning, and in winter were from the enhanced secondary organic aerosol formation under favorable conditions. The exceptionally high OC and EC levels in May and October, mostly notable in CD, resulted from the burning of agricultural residues during harvest period. The high K+ concentrations and the high Kexcess/EC ratios implied the persistent influence of biomass burning throughout the year. Using a novel technique combing the EC tracer method and potassium mass balance in the aerosols, a K/EC ratio of 1.22 was used to retrieve the OC from biomass burning and the estimated contributions were 30.8%, 28.3%, and 21.9% in CD, NJ, and CQ, respectively, while secondary OC contributions to OC were 26.7%, 24.6%, and 25.7% in CD, NJ, and CQ, respectively.
Chen, Yuan; Xie, Shaodong; Luo, Bin; Zhai, Chongzhi
The Jialinjiang Formation of early Tertiary in Sichuan, China, is a series of limestone and dolomite sediments deposited in a platform shoal environment. The diagenetic sequence and organic inclusions trapped in minerals of 95 samples from 20 drillings have been studied. At the late diagenetic stage, pale yellow organic inclusions consisted of liquid hydrocarbons disseminated in pore-infiltrating dolomite, and the
Shi Jixi; Li Benchao; Fu Jiamo
Hydrogeochemistry of 32 hot springs in the western Sichuan Province after the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake was investigated by analyzing the concentrations of cation and anion and the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen. The water samples of the hot springs were collected four times from June 2008 to April 2010. Hydrogeochemical data indicated the water samples can be classified into 9 chemical types. Values of ? D and ?(18)O indicated that the spring waters were mainly derived from meteoric precipitation and affected by water-rock interaction and mixture of deep fluids. Concentrations of K(+)and SO4(-) of the samples from the Kangding district exhibited evident increases before the Wenchuan earthquake, indicating more supplement of deep fluids under the increase of tectonic stress. The chemical and isotopic variations of the water samples from the area closer to the epicenter area can be attributed to variation of regional stress field when the aftershock activities became weak. PMID:24892106
Chen, Zhi; Du, Jianguo; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Yi, Li; Liu, Lei; Xie, Chao; Cui, Yueju; Li, Ying
Hydrogeochemistry of 32 hot springs in the western Sichuan Province after the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake was investigated by analyzing the concentrations of cation and anion and the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen. The water samples of the hot springs were collected four times from June 2008 to April 2010. Hydrogeochemical data indicated the water samples can be classified into 9 chemical types. Values of ?D and ?18O indicated that the spring waters were mainly derived from meteoric precipitation and affected by water-rock interaction and mixture of deep fluids. Concentrations of K+and SO4? of the samples from the Kangding district exhibited evident increases before the Wenchuan earthquake, indicating more supplement of deep fluids under the increase of tectonic stress. The chemical and isotopic variations of the water samples from the area closer to the epicenter area can be attributed to variation of regional stress field when the aftershock activities became weak. PMID:24892106
Chen, Zhi; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Yi, Li; Liu, Lei; Xie, Chao; Cui, Yueju; Li, Ying
China is striving for coordinated regional economic development and to solve the energy shortage in eastern China through a western China development plan with one focus being energy development and west to east energy transfer. This paper describes Western China Sustainable Energy Development Model (WSED) to evaluate various energy development scenarios for western China. The model includes a Western China
Wenying Chen; Hualin Li; Zongxin Wu
Background Human parvovirus B19 (B19) is a common pathogen which causes a variety of diseases. Persistent B19 infection is related to the degree of host immunodeficiency in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, the existence, loading, virus evolution and distribution of B19 in Chinese HIV-positive patients have not been determined. Materials and methods. We investigated 573 HIV-positive blood donors and AIDS patients in Sichuan, China in the last two decades. Bl9-specific serology and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the prevalence of B19/HIV co-infection. Viral genome fragments were subjected to phylogeny and haplotype analysis. Results B19 genomic DNA was found in 26 of 573 (4.5%) HIV-positive individuals, a higher prevalence than in blood donors. DNA levels ranged from 5.3×102–1.1×105 copies/mL. The seroprevalence of IgG was significantly lower in HIV-positive samples than in HIV-negative blood donors, indicating deficient production of B19-specific IgG in the former. The B19 isolates were genotype-1 subtype B19-1A which formed a monophyletic group; seven distinct haplotypes were discovered with 60% of the B19/HIV co-infected variants sharing one central haplotype. Discussion. This study on the prevalence, phylogeny and distribution of human parvovirus B19 in Sichuan, China, demonstrates the persistence of B19 in the circulation of both immunocompetent and immunocompromised subjects, with implications for blood safety. PMID:22790259
He, Miao; Zhu, Jiang; Yin, Huimin; Ke, Ling; Gao, Lei; Pan, Zhihong; Yang, Xiuhua; Li, Wuping
Aim To create ane-scale map of the distribution of Asiatic black bears, identify landscape variables affecting the spatial range of this species and assess population trends using presence-absence data and opinions of local villagers. Location Sichuan Province, south-western China. Methods We divided the province into 15 · 15 km cells, stratied them by forest cover, elevation and road density and
Fang Liu; William McShea; David Garshelis; Xiaojian Zhu; Dajun Wang; Ji’en Gong; Youping Chen
Western China is vast, expansive, sparsely populated, and economically underdeveloped, but it plays an important role in economic and social development in China. While the west is a crucial base of power resources, it is also rich in fauna and flora resources and the major habitat for China's many rare wildlife species. Therefore, protecting its…
Wenjuan, Zhang; Jixi, Gao
One hundred and twenty bacterial isolates were obtained from a hypersaline pond (c. 22% salinity) in Sichuan, China. Bacteria\\u000a were isolated from hypersaline water, sediment and soil samples using three culture media and an incubation temperature of\\u000a 37°C. Of these isolates, 47 were selected and examined by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences and by tests of\\u000a salt tolerance.
Jie Tang; Ai-ping Zheng; Eden S. P. Bromfield; Jun Zhu; Shuang-cheng Li; Shi-quan Wang; Qi-ming Deng; Ping Li
China’s Western Development Strategy (WDS) has been carried out since 1999 with remarkable achievements, whereby Western China also experienced a rapid and stable development during the past decade. This paper analyzes policy actions and effects of WDS. The findings indicate that Western China’s economic development has experienced a dramatic reversion after implementation of WDS, which to a certain extent, proves
Zheng Lu; Xiang Deng
Background Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease, which is still endemic in the west and northwest area of China. Canines are the major reservoirs of Leishmania, the etiological agent of human visceral leishmaniasis. Phlebotomus chinensis is the main transmission vector of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). Methods In this study, rK39 dip-stick, ELISA and PCR methods were used to investigate the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Beichuan County, Sichuan Province, China. Results Among the 86 dogs which were included in the study, 13 dogs were positive using the dip-stick test (15.12%), while 8 dogs were positive using ELISA (9.30%) and 19 dogs were positive for PCR (22.03%). In total, 32 dogs were positive for one or more tests (37.21%). Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis based on the partial 7SL RNA fragment provided evidence that an undescribed Leishmania species, which is clearly a causative agent of CanL and human visceral leishmaniasis, does exist in China. This result is consistent with our previous study. Conclusions Our work confirmed that canine leishmaniasis is still prevalent in Beichuan County. Further control is urgently needed, as canine leishmaniasis is of great public health importance. The phylogenetic analysis based on 7SL RNA segment provides evidence for the existence of an undescribed Leishmania sp. in China. PMID:22515334
Given the paucity of quantitative empirical research on survivors’ resilience and its predictors in the context of long-term recovery after disasters, we examined how resilience predictors differed by gender among adult survivors five years after the Sichuan earthquake. This was a cross-sectional survey study of adult survivors (N = 495; aged 18–60) living in reconstructed communities five years into the recovery process after the Wenchuan earthquake. The instruments we used included assessments of sociodemographic characteristics and earthquake exposure level, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and the Social Support Rating Scale. Support-seeking behaviors emerged as a significant predictor of male survivors’ resilience, while subjective support and marital status were found to be predictors of female survivors’ resilience. Annual household income and chronic disease were predictors for both male and female groups. The findings of this study can be used in devising methods to boost survivors’ resilience by promoting their satisfaction with social support and their ability to obtain effective support. Additionally, the results suggest how to assist survivors who may have relatively poor resilience. PMID:25811775
Ni, Cuiping; Chow, Meyrick Chum Ming; Jiang, Xiaolian; Li, Sijian; Pang, Samantha Mei Che
The administration of Jiuzhaigou National Park in Sichuan Province, China, is in the process of considering a range of upgrades to their sanitation and wastewater treatment systems. Their case history involves an ongoing series of engineering design flaws and management failures. The administration of the Park identified sustainability, environmental protection, and education goals for their sanitation and wastewater treatment system. To meet the goal of sustainability, environmental and economic concerns of the Park’s administration had to be balanced with socio-cultural needs. An advanced reconnaissance method was developed that identified reasons for previous failures, conducted stakeholder analysis and interviews, determined evaluation criteria, and introduced innovative alternatives with records of successful global implementations. This evaluation also helped the Park to better define their goals . To prevent future failures, the administration of the Park must commit to a balanced and thorough evaluation process for selection of a final alternative and institute effective long-term management and monitoring of systems. In addition, to meet goals and achieve energy efficient, cost-effective use of resources, the Park must shift their thinking from one of waste disposal to resource recovery. The method and criteria developed for this case study provides a framework to aid in the successful implementation of sanitation projects in both underdeveloped and developed areas of the world, incorporating socio-cultural values and resource recovery for a complex group of stakeholders.
Gaulke, Linda S.; Weiyang, Xiao; Scanlon, Andrew; Henck, Amanda; Hinckley, Tom
2008 Sichuan earthquake with a magnitude of Mw 7.9 induced numerous mass movements around the fault surface ruptures of which maximum separations we observed were 3.6 m vertical and 1.5 m horizontal (right lateral). The affected area was mountainous areas with elevations from 1000 m to 4500 m on the west of the Sichuan Basin. The NE-trending Longmenshan fault zone runs along the boundary between the mountains on the west and the Sichuan basin (He and Tsukuda, 2003), of which Yinghsiuwan-Beichuan fault was the main fault that generated the 2008 earthquake (Xu, 2008). The basement rocks of the mountainous areas range from Precambrian to Cretaceous in age. They are basaltic rocks, granite, phyllite, dolostone, limestone, alternating beds of sandstone and shale, etc. There were several types of landslides ranging from small, shallow rockslide, rockfall, debris slide, deep rockslide, and debris flows. Shallow rockslide, rock fall, and debris slide were most common and occurred on convex slopes or ridge tops. When we approached the epicentral area, first appearing landslides were of this type and the most conspicuous was a failure of isolated ridge-tops, where earthquake shaking would be amplified. As for rock types, slopes of granitic rocks, hornfels, and carbonate rocks failed in wide areas to the most. They are generally hard and their fragments apparently collided and repelled to each other and detached from the slopes. Alternating beds of sandstone and mudstone failed on many slopes near the fault ruptures, including Yinghsiuwan near the epicenter. Many rockfalls occurred on cliffs, which had taluses on their feet. The fallen rocks tumbled down and mostly stopped within the talus surfaces, which is quite reasonable because taluses generally develop by this kind of processes. Many rockslides occurred on slopes of carbonate rocks, in which dolostone or dolomitic limestone prevails. Deep-seated rockslide occurred on outfacing slopes and shallow rockslide and rockfall occurred on infacing slopes. Infacing slopes generally are steeper than outfacing slopes and hence surface rocks on infacing slopes tend to be loosened by gravity. Detachment surfaces of carbonate rocks are generally not smooth surfaces but are rough surfaces with dimple-like depressions, which are made by dissolution of these rocks. This feature is one of the most important causes to induce landslide in carbonate rocks. Many gravitational deformations were observed on phyllite slopes. Landslides on the west of Beichuan city is probably of weathered phyllite, which had been preceded by gravitational deformation beforehand. Taochishan landslide in Beichuan occurred on probable outfacing slope of phyllite. The Formosat II images on Google earth indicated that this landslide was also preceded by gravitational deformation, which appeared as spur-crossing depressions with upslope-convex traces on plan. Satellite images indicated that some landslides had long lobate forms, suggesting that they were flow. One of them was Shechadientsu landslide 34 km northeast of Dujiangyan, occurring across the probable earthquake fault rupture. It was 1.5 km long with a maximum width of 250 m and an apparent friction angle of 22°. The top of this landslide area was a steep cliff of Precambrian granite, which failed to go down a small valley. The volume of the slope failure was estimated much less than the volume of the deposit. The small valley had sporadic patches of bedrock consisting of alternating beds of sandstone and mudstone of Triassic in age. The bedrock was covered by bluish grey, clayey, water-saturated debris, which was not disturbed and in turn covered by water-saturated brownish debris with rubbles. The landslide deposits had wrinkles on the surface and streaks of same color rock fragments. In addition, cross section near the distal part had clearly defined reverse grading, in which larger rubbles with a maximum diameter of 5 m concentrated at the surface part. These characteristics strongly suggest that valley-fill sediments mobilized by the earthquake and flowed down
Chigira, M.; Xiyong, W.; Inokuchi, T.; Gonghui, W.
Two hundred and seventy-three Haemophilus influenzae strains isolated from pediatric pneumonia patients in China were studied. We used Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) to analyze\\u000a genotypic characteristics. All strains were biotyped and serotyped. Relatedness and patterns of genes among isolates were\\u000a determined by the analysis of MLST and eBURST. H. influenzae primarily causes acute pneumonia in children under 1 year old.
Guozhong Tian; Li Zhang; Machao Li; Xiaolei Wang; Yuhong Zheng; Xiaojing Li; Cheng Huang; Xuechun Li; Yongqiong Xie; Li Xu; Hongyu Ren; Zhujun Shao
The Emeishan basalt province located in the southwest of China is widely accepted to be a result of the eruption of a mantle plume at the time of middle-late Permian. If it was a mantle plume, the ambient sedimentary rocks must be heated up during the development of the mantle plume and this thermal effect must be recorded by some geothermometers in the country rocks. The vitrinite reflectance (Ro) data as a maximum paleotemperature recorder from boreholes in Sichuan basin was employed to expose the thermal regime related to the proposed Emeishan mantle plume. The Ro profiles from boreholes which drilled close to the Emeishan basalts shows a ';dog-leg' (break) style at the unconformity between the middle and the upper Permian, and the Ro profiles in the lower subsection (pre-middle Permian) shows a significantly higher slopes (gradients) than those in the upper subsection. In contrast, those Ro profiles from boreholes far away from the center of the basalt province have no break at the uncomformity. Based on the chemical kinetic model of Ro, the paleo-temperature gradients for the upper and the lower subsections in different boreholes, as well as the erosion at the unconformity between the middle and the upper Permian, were reconstructed to reveal the variations of the temperature gradients and erosion thickness with geological time and space. Both the thermal regime and the erosion thickness together with their spatial variation (structure) provide strong geothermal evidence for the existence of the Emeishan mantle plume in the middle-late Permian.
Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected) in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19-42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) within the normal range (18.5 ? BMI < 25), 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas), while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ?30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs) the women's overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%), was low in carbohydrates (49.6%), and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%). Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI) fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%), fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%), protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%), vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%), Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%), Fe (56.3% vs. 48%), Ca (55.1% vs. 41%) and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%). The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80%) than in urban (65.1%) areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both urban and rural women. The prevalence of underweight before conception and an insufficient supply of important micronutrients were more pronounced in rural areas. Therefore, attention must be given to the nutritional status, especially of rural women before, or at the latest, during pregnancy. PMID:23912325
Gao, Haoyue; Stiller, Caroline K; Scherbaum, Veronika; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Wang, Qi; Hormann, Elizabeth; Bellows, Anne C
Background Schizophrenia is a chronic condition that leads to high rates of disability and high levels of family burden but the interactive relationship between these variables remains unclear, particularly in low- and middle-income countries where the vast majority of patients live with their families. Aim Assess the symptom severity, level of disability, and family burden among clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia in Sichuan, China. Methods A total of 101 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia who had a median duration of illness of five years were assessed using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale 2.0 (WHODAS II), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Family Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection and Resolve Index scale (APGAR); and their caregivers were surveyed using the Family Burden Interview Schedule (FBIS). Results Among the 101 patients, 92 lived with their immediate family members, 74 had clinically significant disability, and 73 were unemployed. The level of disability was associated with the severity of symptoms (r=0.50, p<0.001), duration of illnesses (r=0.22, p=0.028), age of onset (r=-0.22, p=0.024) and patients’ level of satisfaction with family support (r=-0.30, p=0.020). Disability was also associated with the overall level of family burden (r=0.40, p<0.001), and with several subtypes of family burden: financial burden (r=0.21, p=0.040), the degree of disruption in family routines (r=0.33, p=0.001), the effect on family leisure activities (r=0.31, p=0.001) and the quality of family interactions (r=0.43, p< 0.001). Four variables remained significantly associated with the level of disability in the stepwise multivariate linear regression: duration of illness, severity of symptoms, patient satisfaction with family support, and the overall burden of the illness on the family. Conclusions Even after adjusting for the severity of patients’ symptoms, patient disability is independently associated with family burden. This highlights the importance of targeting both symptoms and disability in treatment strategies for this severe, often lifelong, condition. In countries like China where most individuals with schizophrenia live with their families, family burden is an important component of the impact of the illness on the community that should be included in measures of the relative social and economic importance of the condition. PMID:25114478
ZHANG, Zhuoqiu; DENG, Hong; CHEN, Ying; LI, Shuiying; ZHOU, Qian; LAI, Hua; LIU, Lifang; LIU, Ling; SHEN, Wenwu
Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected) in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19–42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) within the normal range (18.5 ? BMI < 25), 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas), while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ?30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs) the women’s overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%), was low in carbohydrates (49.6%), and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%). Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI) fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%), fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%), protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%), vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%), Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%), Fe (56.3% vs. 48%), Ca (55.1% vs. 41%) and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%). The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80%) than in urban (65.1%) areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both urban and rural women. The prevalence of underweight before conception and an insufficient supply of important micronutrients were more pronounced in rural areas. Therefore, attention must be given to the nutritional status, especially of rural women before, or at the latest, during pregnancy. PMID:23912325
Gao, Haoyue; Stiller, Caroline K.; Scherbaum, Veronika; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Wang, Qi; Hormann, Elizabeth; Bellows, Anne C.
Canine parvovirus causes serious disease in dogs. Study of the genetic variation in emerging CPV strains is important for disease control strategy. The antigenic property of CPV is connected with specific amino acid changes, mainly in the capsid protein VP2. This study was carried out to characterize VP2 gene of CPV viruses from two provinces of China in 2011. The complete VP2 genes of the CPV-positive samples were amplified and sequenced. Genetic analysis based on the VP2 genes of CPV was conducted. All of the isolates screened and sequenced in this study were typed as CPV-2a except GS-K11 strain, which was typed as CPV-2b. Sequence comparison showed nucleotide identities of 98.8-100% among CPV strains, whereas the Aa similarities were 99.6-100%. Compared with the reference strains, there are three distinctive amino acid changes at VP2 gene residue 267, 324 and 440 of the strains isolated in this study. Of the 27 strains, fourteen (51.85%) had the 267 (Phe-Tyr) and 440 (Thr-Ala) substitution, all the 27 (100%) had 324 (Tyr-Ile) substitution. Phylogenetically, all of the strains isolated in this study formed a major monophyletic cluster together with one South Korean isolate, two Thailand isolates and four Chinese former isolates. PMID:23506473
Xu, J; Guo, H-C; Wei, Y-Q; Shu, L; Wang, J; Li, J-S; Cao, S-Z; Sun, S-Q
Due to their rich animal diversity and the presence of rare and endemic species, the Qinling Mountains are listed as a significant global biodiversity area. The Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) has been distributed in this area since the Middle Pleistocene. Due to the gradual encroachment of humans into their habitat, both the distribution range and population sizes of R. roxellana have significantly decreased. Based on literature research as well as field and questionnaires, we investigated the influence of human activities on R. roxellana distribution in the Qinling Mountains. Human activity within the habitat of R. roxellana began in the Stone and Bronze Ages, though initially it had no significant influence on its populations. When China entered the Iron Age, however, different historical and social periods had a considerable impact on R. roxellana distribution. Although national and provincial level governments introduced strict protection policies with the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, human activities continued to influence R. roxellana distribution. Since the launch of the Natural Forest Protection Project across the Qinling Mountains in 1999, the quality of R. roxellana habitat has shown marked improvement. This research will help promote the survival and conservation of the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey in the Qinling Mountains. PMID:25612509
Wang, Chengliang; Wang, Xiaowei; Qi, Xiaoguang; Guo, Songtao; Zhao, Haitao; Wei, Wei; Li, Baoguo
The 2008 Mw 7.9 Sichuan, China earthquake was one of the most devastating events in recent times, and claimed more than 80000 lives. Six adjacent pairs of ascending ALOS PALSAR images and three independent pairs of descending ENVISAT ASAR images were processed for both interferograms and SAR pixel offsets. Three additional pairs of ENVISAT ASAR wide-swath (ScanSAR) interferograms were also processed. In the rugged terrain and heavy vegetation of the Longmen Shan, coseismic deformation signals cannot be resolved by the C-band interferograms, although there is some coherence in the flat plains and less steep areas further into the plateau; In contrast, coherence at L-band is generally good and deformation is well resolved. This highlights the main advantage of L-band over C-band, i.e. less temporal decorrelation due to its capability to penetrate more deeply in vegetation. The shallower 38° incidence of PALSAR also helps in the high-relief areas. No useful signals can be resolved in either C-band or L-band interferograms within c.5-30 km along the faults because the large deformations of more than one pixel cause localized misregistration. SAR pixel offsets provide an unambiguous measurement of the surface displacement, and the presence of macroscopic surface features such as ridges, lake shorelines or roads often make the technique successful even in incoherent regions. Both our PALSAR and ASAR offset maps clearly show the fault trace of this large event, and their patterns are nicely consistent with each other, however the PALSAR along-track offsets are heavily contaminated with large wavelike features that are likely due to transient ionospheric disturbances. Based on InSAR observations, we model the large event with four sub-faults: (1) the strikes and lengths of the sub-faults are determined using offset maps; (2) the fault geometries are estimated using interferometric phases and range offsets with the strikes and lengths fixed; (3) fault slip is re- determined with fixed fault geometries. It appears that our preliminary models can explain more than 90% of the observed deformation signals, suggesting the average slips in the northern sub-faults were smaller than those in the southern one. The latter had a significant thrust component and the other segments had predominantly right-lateral slip. Note: (1) COMET: Centre for the Observation and Modelling of Earthquakes and Tectonics; (2) The first three co-authors are in alphabetical order.
Li, Z.; Fielding, E.; Parsons, B.; Wright, T.; Feng, W.
Lengshuiqing is part of the late Proterozoic igneous province from the western margin of the Yangtze craton. The Lengshuiqing area comprises five ultramafic-mafic intrusions, emplaced in the late Proterozoic Yanbian Group. The intrusions from Lengshuiqing contain cumulate ultramafic zones (peridotite + olivine pyroxenite), with cumulus olivine and Cr-spinel, and intercumulus pyroxenes, hornblende, phlogopite and plagioclase. Ni-Cu ore (pyrrhotite + pentlandite + chalcopyrite) is hosted in the ultramafic zones. Olivine-free diorite-quartz diorite ± gabbro and granite zones commonly occur above the ultramafic rocks. The genesis of the intrusions (conduit-related accumulation or differentiation from stagnant magma) was investigated. The amount of sulphides in the intrusions from Lengshuiqing is one order of magnitude bigger than the sulphides that can be dissolved by a volume of mafic magma similar with the volume of the intrusions. Most intrusions from Lengshuiqing have bulk composition (peridotite ± diorite ± granite) more magnesian (MgO = 21-22%; Mg# > 78) than the deduced composition of their parental magma (MgO = 9-11%; Mg# = 64-67). This indicates the accumulation of sulphide and mafic silicates from a volume of magma much bigger than the volume of the intrusions, which can be explained by the fractionation from magma ascending through the intrusions to shallower depths. A continuous supply and vent of magma is consistent with the lack of chilled margins, the melting of the wall rocks and the generation of high-temperature mineral assemblages (K-feldspar, diopside, and sillimanite) in the Yanbian Group. The intrusions from Lengshuiqing are seen as microchambers on conduits draining olivine-, Cr-spinel-, and sulphide-bearing mafic magma from a larger staging chamber.
Munteanu, Marian; Wilson, Allan H.; Yao, Yong; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Chunnett, Gordon; Luo, Yaonan; Mafurutu, Leonard; Phadagi, Rofhiwa
BACKGROUND: Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus is an important factor associated with cervical cancer, and the distribution of HPV types varies greatly worldwide. Determination of type-specific HPV prevalence constitutes an important step towards the development of vaccines for the prevention of cervical cancer. METHODS: The human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in 190 cervical cancer specimens taken from the Sichuan province, the
En-qi Wu; Guo-nan Zhang; Xiang-hui Yu; Yuan Ren; Ying Fan; Yong-ge Wu; Wei Kong; Xiao Zha
Summary The Sichuan Grey Jay is one of the least known endemic bird species in China, distributed in Gansu, Sichuan, Qinghai and Tibet in west China. The species inhabits the mountain spruce-fir conifer forest, at the altitude between 2 900 m to 3 800 m. Males are slightly larger than females. 31.3 % (n=19) of the individuals were found to
Sun Yue-Hua; Jia Chen-Xi; Fang Yun
Background Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common type of major birth defects in Sichuan, the most populous province in China. The detailed etiology of CHD is unknown but some environmental factors are suspected as the cause of this disease. However, the geographical variations in CHD prevalence would be highly valuable in providing a clue on the role of the environment in CHD etiology. Here, we investigate the spatial patterns and geographic differences in CHD prevalence among 0- to 14-year-old children, discuss the possible environmental risk factors that might be associated with CHD prevalence in Sichuan Basin from 2004 to 2009. Methods The hierarchical Bayesian model was used to estimate CHD prevalence at the township level. Spatial autocorrelation statistics were performed, and a hot-spot analysis with different distance thresholds was used to identify the spatial pattern of CHD prevalence. Distribution and clustering maps were drawn using geographic information system tools. Results CHD prevalence was significantly clustered in Sichuan Basin in different spatial scale. Typical hot/cold clusters were identified, and possible CHD causes were discussed. The association between selected hypothetical environmental factors of maternal exposure and CHD prevalence was evaluated. Conclusions The largest hot-spot clustering phenomena and the CHD prevalence clustering trend among 0- to 14-year-old children in the study area showed a plausibly close similarity with those observed in the Tuojiang River Basin. The high ecological risk of heavy metal(Cd, As, and Pb)sediments in the middle and lower streams of the Tuojiang River watershed and ammonia–nitrogen pollution may have contribution to the high prevalence of CHD in this area. PMID:24924350
SUMMARY China has recently experienced a marked increase in the incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Effective spatio-temporal monitoring of HFMD incidence is important for successful implementation of control and prevention measures. This study monitored county-level HFMD reported incidence rates for Sichuan province, China by examining spatio-temporal patterns. County-level data on HFMD daily cases between January 2008 and December 2013 were obtained from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. We first conducted purely temporal and purely spatial descriptive analyses to characterize the distribution patterns of HFMD. Then, the global Moran's I statistic and space-time scan statistic were used to detect the spatial autocorrelation and identify the high-risk clusters in each year, respectively. A total of 212267 HFMD cases were reported in Sichuan province during the study period (annual average incidence 43·65/100000), and the incidence seasonal peak was between April and July. Relatively high incidence rates appeared in the northeastern-southwestern belt. HFMD had positive spatial autocorrelation at the county level with global Moran's I increasing from 0·27 to 0·52 (P < 0·001). Spatio-temporal cluster analysis detected six most-likely clusters and several secondary clusters from 2008 to 2013. The centres of the six most-likely clusters were all located in the provincial capital city Chengdu. Chengdu and its neighbouring cities had always been spatio-temporal clusters, which indicated the need for further intensive space-time surveillance. Allocating more resources to these areas at suitable times might help to reduce HFMD incidence more effectively. PMID:25703402
Liu, L; Zhao, X; Yin, F; Lv, Q
Background During August 2011–February 2012, an outbreak of type ? circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPVs) occurred in Sichuan Province, China. Methods A field investigation of the outbreak was conducted to characterize outbreak isolates and to guide emergency response. Sequence analysis of poliovirus capsid protein VP1 was performed to determine the viral propagation, and a coverage survey was carried out for risk assessment. Results One clinical compatible polio case and three VDPV cases were determined in Ngawa County, Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province. Case patients were unimmunized children, 0.8–1 years old. Genetic sequencing showed that the isolates diverged from the VP1 region of the type ? Sabin strain by 5–12 nucleotides (nt) and shared the same 5 nt VP1 substitutions, which indicate single lineage of cVDPVs. Of the 7 acute flaccid paralysis cases (all>6 months) reported in Ngawa Prefecture in 2011, 4 (57.1%) cases (including 2 polio cases) did not receive oral attenuated poliovirus vaccine. Supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) were conducted in February–May, 2012, and the strain has not been isolated since. Conclusion High coverage of routine immunization should be maintained among children until WPV transmission is globally eradicated. Risk assessments should be conducted regularly to pinpoint high risk areas or subpopulations, with SIAs developed if necessary. PMID:25503964
Fan, Chun-Xiang; Liu, Qing-Lian; Hao, Li-Xin; Liu, Yu; Zheng, Jing-Shan; Qin, Zhi-Ying; Xia, Wei; Zhang, Shi-Yue; Yin, Zun-Dong; Jing, Qiong; Zhang, Yan-Xia; Huang, Rong-Na; Yang, Ru-Pei; Tong, Wen-Bin; Qi, Qi; Guan, Xu-Jing; Jing, Yu-Lin; Ma, Qian-Li; Wang, Jin; Ma, Xiao-Zhen; Chen, Na; Zheng, Hong-Ru; Li, Yin-Qiao; Ma, Chao; Su, Qi-Ru; Reilly, Kathleen H.; Luo, Hui-Ming; Wu, Xian-Ping; Wen, Ning; Yang, Wei-Zhong
The importance of mountain lakes studies is related to the increasing threat of natural disasters, associated with lake outbursts and debris flows formation, because of population growth on exposed areas. The outburst hazard has not been sufficiently researched, there is a lack of data because of the lakes inaccessibility and remote sensing data is usually not detailed enough. The main scientific topics include assessment of outburst possibility and further simulation of possible outbursts scenarios. There are two types of mountain lakes: glacial (cirque, cirque-moraine, barrier-moraine, glacial-barrier, etc.) lakes and barrier (landslide, rockfall, debris flow, etc.) lakes. The first type was studied in the Central Caucasus (Russia), and the second type - in the Sichuan mountain region (China). The group of scientists, including authors, has been monitoring glacial lakes in the Mnt. Elbrus area for more than ten years. The unique data were collected, including detailed hydrological characteristics of more than ten lakes (water level dynamics, temperature, morphometrical characteristics, water balance components, etc.). Outbursts of at least three glacial lakes were observed. Hydrological characteristics of landslide Tangjiashan Lake were collected with Chinese colleagues during field studies in 2010 and 2011 years. Analysis of the collected data was used to understand the outburst mechanisms, formation factors, dam breaking factors, development stages of mountain lakes. Statistical methods of analysis in this case can be applied with some limitations because of the lack of sufficient monitoring objects, and therefore the results has been verified by experts. All types of possible outbursts mechanisms were divided by the authors into five groups: geomorphologic (caused by changes in lake dams), seismic, or geodynamic (caused by seiches, waves from rockfalls, landslides), glacial (caused by breaks in impounding glaciers, ice floating and melting), water-balance (caused by changes in lakes water balance) and anthropogenic. Three development stages of mountain lakes were identified: 1) constant changes of lake hollows and rapid volume growth; 2) stable state, moderate changes; 3) outburst or overflow because of some external factors or gradual shallowing and disappearing. According to the type of outbursts mechanisms and stage of development, the authors assessed the risk of outburst and chose methods, models and scenarios for simulation. Analysis of the data (weighted estimation, graphoanalytical methods, etc.) showed that glacial lakes outburst possibility is influenced by (in order of importance): 1) water volume, 2) position of lake related to parent glacier, 3) characteristics of dam, 4) conditions of lake banks, 5) high water heat reserve and presence of ice lenses in dam. Barrier lakes outburst possibility is influenced by: 1) lake depth, 2) shape of lake hollow and coastline, 3) characteristics of dam, 4) conditions of lake banks. The most essential external factors are landslides, rockfalls, meteorological and seismic conditions. The most dangerous lakes in research areas were allocated, for them outbursts scenarios have been developed, depending on studied characteristics. These scenarios were simulated using the River and FLO-2D models. At the final stage, zoning of mountain valleys depending on the level of risk was conducted, which is the basis for further risk mitigation.
Kidyaeva, Vera; Krylenko, Inna; Chernomorets, Sergey; Petrakov, Dmitry
to the development of China`s innovative capabilities. A model of the innovation process is developed, and eight of the development of innovation in China, developing an #12;iv innovation process model and testingi INNOVATION IN CHINA: THE CONTRIBUTION OF SINO-WESTERN JOINT VENTURES Li Liu Thesis submitted
Sheldon, Nathan D.
On 24-25 July 2010, a Plateau Vortex system forming to the north of Tibetan Plateau dramatically changed its moving direction to westward after several days of eastward movement. Observational analysis showed that, during its westward movement, a low-level southeasterly or easterly wind developed over the Sichuan basin. The large-scale forcing became favorable for the convection development. The low-level warm advection was more favorable for convection development than the differential vorticity advection. The daytime scattered convections were organized into a mesoscale convective system (MCS) after sunset, which produced extremely heavy rainfall in the eastern slope of the Western Sichuan Plateau. The observational evidences and numerical simulations have indicated that the topographically induced dynamical lifting over the lower topography and the convergence caused by the topographical blocking provided strong support for the convection initiation. The cold outflows caused by surface evaporative cooling of rain steered the MCS to move away from its original place, while the convergence between the cold outflows and the environmental southeasterly flow apparently helped the maintenance of the MCS. The intensification of the low-level flow, which was associated with the diurnal variation of radiative forcing, contributed to the organization and intensification of the MCS. The results of sensitivity experiments further confirmed the impact of topography in the convection initiation, and the influences of cold outflows caused by surface evaporative cooling of rain on the movement and maintenance of the MCS. The effects of the diurnal variation of radiative forcing on the organization of the MCS are also well represented in the model results.
On 24-25 July 2010, a Plateau Vortex system forming to the north of Tibetan Plateau dramatically changed its moving direction to westward after several days of eastward movement. Observational analysis showed that, during its westward movement, a low-level southeasterly or easterly wind developed over the Sichuan basin. The large-scale forcing became favorable for the convection development. The low-level warm advection was more favorable for convection development than the differential vorticity advection. The daytime scattered convections were organized into a mesoscale convective system (MCS) after sunset, which produced extremely heavy rainfall in the eastern slope of the Western Sichuan Plateau. The observational evidences and numerical simulations have indicated that the topographically induced dynamical lifting over the lower topography and the convergence caused by the topographical blocking provided strong support for the convection initiation. The cold outflows caused by surface evaporative cooling of rain steered the MCS to move away from its original place, while the convergence between the cold outflows and the environmental southeasterly flow apparently helped the maintenance of the MCS. The intensification of the low-level flow, which was associated with the diurnal variation of radiative forcing, contributed to the organization and intensification of the MCS. The results of sensitivity experiments further confirmed the impact of topography in the convection initiation, and the influences of cold outflows caused by surface evaporative cooling of rain on the movement and maintenance of the MCS. The effects of the diurnal variation of radiative forcing on the organization of the MCS are also well represented in the model results.
To determine the origin, maturity, formation mechanism and secondary process of marine natural gases in Northeastern Sichuan area, molecular moieties and carbon isotopic data of the Carboniferous and Triassic gases have been analyzed. Typical samples of marine gas precursors including low-maturity kerogen, dispersed liquid hydrocarbons (DLHs) in source rocks, residual kerogen and oil have been examined in a closed system, and several published geochemical diagrams of gas origins have been calibrated by using laboratory data. Results show that both Carboniferous and Triassic gases in the study area have a thermogenic origin. Migration leads to stronger compositional and weak isotopic fractionation, and is path dependent. Carboniferous gases and low-H2S gases are mainly formed by secondary cracking of oil, whereas high-H2S gases are clearly related to the TSR (Thermal Sulfate Reduction) process. Gases in NE Sichuan show a mixture of heavy (13C-enriched) methane in comparison to the lower maturated ethane of Triassic gas samples, suggesting a similar source and maturity for ethane and propane of Carboniferous gases, and a mixture of heavy ethane to the propane for Triassic gases. Based on the data plotted in the diagram of Chung et al. (1988), the residual kerogen from Silurian marine shale and palaeo oil reservoirs are the main source for Carboniferous gases, and that the residual kerogen from Silurian and Permian marine rocks and Permian paleao oil reservoirs constitute the principal source of Triassic gases.
Wang, Yunpeng; Zhao, Changyi; Wang, Hongjun; Wang, Zhaoyun; Wang, Zecheng
Background Schistosoma japonicum is a major public health concern in the Peoples' Republic of China (PRC), with over one million people infected and another 50 million living in areas at risk of infection. Based on ecological, environmental, population genetic and molecular factors, schistosomiasis transmission in PRC can be categorised into four discrete ecosystems or transmission modes. It is predicted that the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) will impact upon the transmission of schistosomiasis in the PRC, with varying degree across the four transmission modes. We undertook longitudinal surveillance from 2002 to 2006 in sentinel villages both above and below the TGD across five provinces (Hunan, Jiangxi, Hubei, Anhui and Sichuan) to determine whether there was any impact of the TGD on schistosomiasis transmission during its construction. Here we present the results from a schistosomiasis-endemic village located above the dam in Sichuan Province. Results Baseline results showed a human S. japonicum prevalence of 42.0% (95% CI: 36.6-47.5). At follow-up, results showed that the incidence of S. japonicum infection in the selected human cohort in Shian decreased by three quarters from 46% in 2003 to 11.3% in 2006. A significant (P < 0.01) downward trend was also evident in the yearly adjusted (for water contact) odds ratios. Over the four years of follow-up, the incidence of S. japonicum infection in bovines declined from 11.8% in the first year to zero in the final year of follow-up. Conclusions The substantial decrease in human (75%) and bovine (100%) incidence observed in Shian village can probably be attributed to the annual human and bovine PZQ treatment of positives; as seen in drug (PZQ) intervention studies in other parts of PRC. If an increase in schistosome transmission had occurred as a result of the TGD, it would be of negligible size compared to the treatment induced decline seen here. It appears therefore that the construction of the TGD had virtually no impact on schistosomiasis transmission in Shian village over the period of study. Furthermore, contrary to previous reports from Sichuan downplaying the role of animals in human schistosome transmission, bovines may indeed play a role. PMID:21429229
The western Kunlun orogenic belt in western China evolved through the development of a large subduction-accretionary complex, including flysch sediments and granitic plutons, and by collision of three terranes, namely the North and South Kunlun and Karakorum-Qiangtang blocks from the early Paleozoic to the early Mesozoic. North-dipping subduction of the Paleo-Tethys ocean beneath the Kunlun terranes, which may have commenced in the Cambrian, produced an early Paleozoic Andean-type magmatic arc on the South Kunlun, and a marginal back arc basin, represented by the early Paleozoic Oytag-Kudi ophiolite belt, between the North and South Kunlun. A northward subduction zone consumed the basin and the young, hot upper plate lithosphere was obducted southward onto the South Kunlun following closure of the basin. This resulted in collision of the North and South Kunlun in the early Devonian. Continuous northward subduction of Paleo-Tethys resulted in the development of a Carboniferous-Triassic magmatic arc, and a back arc rifting sequence composed of the Carboniferous to Permian carbonates and clastic sediments on the North and South Kunlun terranes. The Paleo-Tethys ocean finally closed in the late Triassic-early Jurassic, when the Kunlun and Karakorum-Qiangtang blocks were accreted, with the Kara-Kunlun accretionary prism marking their suture zone.
Background Populus is an ecologically and economically important genus of trees, but distinguishing between wild species is relatively difficult due to extensive interspecific hybridization and introgression, and the high level of intraspecific morphological variation. The DNA barcoding approach is a potential solution to this problem. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we tested the discrimination power of five chloroplast barcodes and one nuclear barcode (ITS) among 95 trees that represent 21 Populus species from western China. Among all single barcode candidates, the discrimination power is highest for the nuclear ITS, progressively lower for chloroplast barcodes matK (M), trnG-psbK (G) and psbK-psbI (P), and trnH-psbA (H) and rbcL (R); the discrimination efficiency of the nuclear ITS (I) is also higher than any two-, three-, or even the five-locus combination of chloroplast barcodes. Among the five combinations of a single chloroplast barcode plus the nuclear ITS, H+I and P+I differentiated the highest and lowest portion of species, respectively. The highest discrimination rate for the barcodes or barcode combinations examined here is 55.0% (H+I), and usually discrimination failures occurred among species from sympatric or parapatric areas. Conclusions/Significance In this case study, we showed that when discriminating Populus species from western China, the nuclear ITS region represents a more promising barcode than any maternally inherited chloroplast region or combination of chloroplast regions. Meanwhile, combining the ITS region with chloroplast regions may improve the barcoding success rate and assist in detecting recent interspecific hybridizations. Failure to discriminate among several groups of Populus species from sympatric or parapatric areas may have been the result of incomplete lineage sorting, frequent interspecific hybridizations and introgressions. We agree with a previous proposal for constructing a tiered barcoding system in plants, especially for taxonomic groups that have complex evolutionary histories (e.g. Populus). PMID:23977122
Shang, Huiying; Dong, Miao; Wang, Gaini; He, Xinyu; Zhao, Changming; Mao, Kangshan
China's achievements in its reform from a centrally planned economy toward a marketing economy during the last two decades are substantial. Although it still has a long way to go to reach its targeted aims, half of China's economy is now 'marketised, or is responsive to market forces (Lawrence, 1998). The influence of the transition on agricultural marketing is significant,
X. Y. Zhang
In the eastern Tibetan plateau both human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by infection with Echincoccus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively are highly endemic. The domestic dog plays a key role in zoonotic transmission in this region. Our primary objective was to investigate the role of domestic dogs in maintaining transmission of E. multilocularis in Shiqu county, Sichuan. A cohort of 281 dogs was followed up over one year after a single treatment with praziquantel followed by re-infection surveillance at 2, 5 and 12 months post-treatment. Faecal samples were tested by an Echinococcus genus-specific coproantigen ELISA and two species-specific copro-PCR tests. Total Echinococcus coproantigen prevalence in Shiqu at baseline was 21% and 9·6% after 2 months. E. multilocularis copro-PCR was positive in 11·2% of dogs before treatment (vs 3·6% with E. granulosus copro-DNA), 2·9% at 2 months post-treatment, and 0% at 5 month and 12 months. The results suggest that dogs may have the potential to maintain E. multilocularis transmission within local pastoral communities, and thus dog dosing could be an effective strategy to reduce transmission of E. multilocularis as well as E. granulosus in these co-endemic Tibetan communities. PMID:23985352
Moss, J E; Chen, X; Li, T; Qiu, J; Wang, Q; Giraudoux, P; Ito, A; Torgerson, P R; Craig, P S
Large conodont samples (20 kg at most) have been collected from the uppermost Permian and the lowermost Triassic (beds 26-33) at Shangsi, northern Sichuan. These have enabled us to establish parallel hindeodid and gondolellid conodont zones through the section similar to previously recognized in the Meishan section. In ascending order, three newly established gondolellid zones at the Shangsi section are: Neogondolella yini Zone (bed 26), Neogondolella meishanensis Zone (beds 27a-27c), Neogondolella taylorae Zone (beds 28a-29 d). Also in ascending order, four revised or newly established hindeodid zones are: Hindeodus changxingensis Zone (beds 28a-29b) Hindeodus parvus Zone (beds 29c-30a), Isarcicella lobata Zone (beds 30b-31a), Isarcicella isarcica Zone (bed 31b and above). According to the new data, the first occurrence of H. parvus is about 2 m lower than the previously reported horizon. On the basis of both hindeodid and gondolellid taxa, the PTB is placed 22 cm above the base of bed 28a. This conodont zonation of the Shangsi section will help improve correlations of global Permian-Triassic boundary sections.
Jiang, Haishui; Lai, Xulong; Yan, Chunbo; Aldridge, Richard J.; Wignall, Paul; Sun, Yadong
Thirty-three rhizobial strains isolated from the root nodules of Astragalus luteolus and Astragalus ernestii growing on the west plateau at two different altitudes in Sichuan province, China, were characterized by amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and by sequencing of rrs, glnA, glnII and nifH. The ARDRA analysis revealed considerable genomic diversity. In AFLP analysis, 20 of 33 Astragalus rhizobia formed three distinct clades, with others dispersed into different groups with the reference strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the rrs gene of six representative strains showed that the isolates were members of the genus Mesorhizobium. Three of the isolates formed a sister clade to Mesorhizobium loti and Mesorhizobium ciceri, whereas the other three formed a sister clade to a clade harboring the species Mesorhizobium huakuii, Mesorhizobium plurifarum, Mesorhizobium septentrionale and Mesorhizobium amorphae, indicating the existence of two new species. Phylogenetic analysis of glnA and glnII confirmed the rrs phylogenies for four strains, but the trees were incongruent. The nifH sequences of the strains formed a monophyletic clade and were typical of those of mesorhizobia forming symbioses with inverted repeat lacking clade legume species. The incongruent phylogenies of the genes studied suggest that horizontal gene transfer and recombination shape mesorhizobial populations in the gene center of the host plants. PMID:19796139
Li, Qiongfang; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zou, Ling; Chen, Qiang; Fewer, David P; Lindström, Kristina
Medium-frequency normal modes in the frequency range of 2.0-6.0 mHz excited by moderate earthquakes (6.0 < Mw < 7.0) are weak seismic signals and seldom concerned in academic study. We show that the validity of predicted M0 (scalar seismic moment) for a complex moderate earthquake can be effectively assessed by a systematic comparison of observed and synthetic medium-frequency spheroidal modes, and the effect of lateral heterogeneity on normal-mode amplitudes can also be well assessed in the comparison. For a complex moderate earthquake, the differences between predicted M0 derived from different inversion methods are significant, in some cases as large as factors of 1.56-3.18. In this study we focus on the Lushan earthquake, a moderate thrust event on 20 April 2013 in the Western Sichuan, China. Five reported M0 for the earthquake differ significantly from 0.4 × 1019 to 1.06 × 1019 N m, up to about 2.5 times difference. To assess the validity of reported M0, we compare observed with synthetic modes corresponding to five centroid moment tensor solutions at 17 stations, which located within epicental distances of 5-30° and distributed in a wide range of source-receiver azimuths. Synthetic modes corresponding to moment tensor solutions derived from long-period waveforms show good agreement to observations. However, synthetics corresponding to moment tensor solutions derived from body waves display significant deviations of amplitudes from observations. We show underestimate of M0 is the main cause for such a large deviation. Another important result obtained from the comparison is that lateral heterogeneity has very little effects on the amplitudes of spherical modes at frequencies below 6.0 mHz. This observational result is inconsistent with previous theoretical result of lateral structure perturbations to normal modes.
Hu, Xiao Gang; Jiang, Ying; Sun, He Ping
Stratigraphic attitude is one of the most important field data for structural geology research. However, it is difficult to measure directly sometimes, especially in weak deformed sediments with low dip angle. Pingluoba anticline, mainly consisting of medium-high dip angle strata, is located on the Longmen Shan fold-and-thrust belt front. Qiongxi anticline is located in the southwestern Sichuan Basin, and it is mainly composed of sub-horizontal to low dip angle strata. An investigation of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in 78 sites has been carried out in these two folds. Stepwise demagnetization of three orthogonal isothermal remanent magnetizations suggests that hematite is the main magnetic carrier mineral in the Qiongxi anticline, meanwhile, hematite and magnetite are both existing in the Pingluoba anticline. It reveals three types of magnetic fabrics: sedimentary magnetic fabric, initial deformation magnetic fabric and pencil structure magnetic fabric, which indicate weak deformation. Throughout AMS theoretical analysis and example test in the Pingluoba anticline, magnetic fabric is a suitable technique to confirm the stratigraphic attitude in weak compressional deformed sediments. For the sedimentary magnetic fabric, initial deformation magnetic fabric and one atypical initial deformation magnetic fabric developed in the weak deformed tectonic superposition region, dip direction of bedding plane = pitch direction of K3+(or -) 180°, and dip angle of bedding plane = 90°-pitch angle of K3. 38 stratigraphic attitudes with low dip angle in the Qiongxi anticline have been rectified by magnetic fabric results. Qiongxi structure is a weak tectonic superposition deformation anticline. The deformation mechanism of Qiongxi structure may contain two stages: NW-SE compression stage started from the latest Cretaceous-early Cenozoic and nearly E-W shortening stage in the Late Cenozoic.
Luo, Liang; Qi, Jiafu; Zhang, Mingzheng
Background Although good progress has been achieved in expanding immunization of children in China, disparities exist across different provinces. Information gaps both from the service supply and demand sides hinder timely vaccination of children in rural areas. The rapid development of mobile health technology (mHealth) provides unprecedented opportunities for improving health services and reaching underserved populations. However, there is a lack of literature that rigorously evaluates the impact of mHealth interventions on immunization coverage as well as the usability and feasibility of smart phone applications (apps). This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a smart phone-based app (Expanded Program on Immunization app, or EPI app) on improving the coverage of children’s immunization. Methods/Design This cluster randomized trial will take place in Xuanhan County, Sichuan Province, China. Functionalities of the app include the following: to make appointments automatically, record and update children’s immunization information, generate a list of children who missed their vaccination appointments, and send health education information to village doctors. After pairing, 36 villages will be randomly allocated to the intervention arm (n?=?18) and control arm (n?=?18). The village doctors in the intervention arm will use the app while the village doctors in the control arm will record and manage immunization in the usual way in their catchment areas. A household survey will be used at baseline and at endline (8 months of implementation). The primary outcome is full-dose coverage and the secondary outcome is immunization coverage of the five vaccines that are included in the national Expanded Program on Immunization program as well as Hib vaccine, Rotavirus vaccine and Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Multidimensional evaluation of the app will also be conducted to assess usability and feasibility. Discussion This study is the first to evaluate the effectiveness of a smart phone app for child immunization in rural China. This study will contribute to the knowledge about the usability and feasibility of a smart phone app for managing immunization in rural China and to similar populations in different settings. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trials Registry (ChiCTR): ChiCTR-TRC-13003960 PMID:24645829
As one aspect of China's modernization, the importation of Western psychiatric ideas poses a mystery. How are such ideas integrated with traditional assumptions? The apparently wholesale adoption of Western psychiatric categories runs counter to the fact that the Chinese have been generally reluctant to define problems in highly individualized psychiatric terms. Our lack of knowledge as to how the Chinese
Metasomatism above subduction zones is an important process that produces heterogeneous mantle and thus a diversity of igneous rocks. In the Panzhihua district, on the western margin of the Yangtze Block (SW China), two Neoproterozoic mafic intrusions, one olivine gabbro and one hornblende gabbro, have identical ages of 746±10 and 738±23Ma. Both of the gabbros are tholeiitic in composition and
Jun-Hong Zhao; Mei-Fu Zhou
Background The aim of this study was to compare retrospectively the characteristics of chest injuries and frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients after earthquakes of different seismic intensity. Methods We compared the cause, type, and body location of chest injuries as well as the frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients admitted to our hospital after the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China. We explored possible relationships between seismic intensity and the causes and types of injuries, and we assessed the ability of the Injury Severity Score, New Injury Severity Score, and Chest Injury Index to predict respiratory failure in chest injury patients. Results The incidence of chest injuries was 9.9% in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake and 22.2% in the less intensive Lushan earthquake. The most frequent cause of chest injuries in both earthquakes was being accidentally struck. Injuries due to falls were less prevalent in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake, while injuries due to burial were more prevalent. The distribution of types of chest injury did not vary significantly between the two earthquakes, with rib fractures and pulmonary contusions the most frequent types. Spinal and head injuries concurrent with chest injuries were more prevalent in the less violent Lushan earthquake. All three trauma scoring systems showed poor ability to predict respiratory failure in patients with earthquake-related chest injuries. Conclusions Previous studies may have underestimated the incidence of chest injury in violent earthquakes. The distributions of types of chest injury did not differ between these two earthquakes of different seismic intensity. Earthquake severity and interval between rescue and treatment may influence the prevalence and types of injuries that co-occur with the chest injury. Trauma evaluation scores on their own are inadequate predictors of respiratory failure in patients with earthquake-related chest injuries. PMID:24816485
Yuan, Yong; Zhao, Yong-Fan
A Jurassic salamander, Beiyanerpeton jianpingensis (gen. et sp. nov.), from a recently found site in western Liaoning Province, China is the earliest known record of Salamandroidea. As a Late Jurassic record of the group, it extends the range of the clade by ~40 Ma. The Late Jurassic taxon is neotenic and represented by exceptionally preserved specimens, including fully articulated cranial and postcranial skeletons and bony gill structures close to the cheek region. The fossil beds, consisting of dark-brown volcanic ash shales of the Upper Jurassic Tiaojishan (Lanqi) Formation (Oxfordian), underlie trachyandesite rocks that have yielded a SHRIMP zircon U-Pb date of 157 ± 3 Ma. The fossiliferous beds are substantially older than the Jehol Group, including the Yixian Formation (40Ar/39Ar dates of 122–129 Ma), but slightly younger than the Middle Jurassic Daohugou horizon (40Ar/39Ar date of 164 ± 4 Ma). The early fossil taxon shares with extant salamandroids derived character states, including: separated nasals lacking a midline contact, angular fused to the prearticular in the lower jaw, and double-headed ribs on the presacral vertebrae. In contrast to extant salamandroids, however, the salamander shows a discrete and tooth-bearing palatine, and unequivocally nonpedicellate and monocuspid marginal teeth in large and presumably mature individuals. The finding provides insights into the evolution of key characters of salamanders, and also provides direct evidence supporting the hypothesis that the split between Cryptobranchoidea and Salamandroidea had taken placed before the Late Jurassic Oxfordian time. In this aspect, both paleontological and molecular data now come to agree. PMID:22411790
Gao, Ke-Qin; Shubin, Neil H.
Background Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is endemic in western China, resulting in important public health problem. It is essential to evaluate the prevalence of canine Leishmania infantum infection for designing control policy. In the present study we report for the first time prevalence of Leishmania infection in dogs living in Jiuzhaigou County (Sichuan Provence, China), which is not only an important endemic area of CanL but also a tourism scenic spot, detected by PCR, ELISA and dipstick test. The results could provide key information for designing control programs against canine and human leishmaniasis. In addition, the complete sequence of the Leishmania isolate from Sichuan Province has not been reported to date and we present the sequences of 116 base-pair (bp) fragment of the conserved region in the minicircle kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) and the results of phylogenetic analyses based on the sequence of the amplified fragment. Results The proportion of dogs infected with Leishmania in Jiuzhaigou County was 36.79%, 9.43%, and 51.88% detected by ELISA, dipstick test, and PCR, respectively. The ELISA and PCR tests were more sensitive than dipstick test. The PCR method is the most sensitive way to detect dogs infected with Leishmania parasites. The total positive rate for infected dogs in the area was 59.43% by the three methods. The PCR products of 116-bp fragment amplified from the kDNA conserved region of dog blood samples and laboratory maintained L. infantum were DNA sequenced and the variation of the sequences was observed. The phylogenetic tree based on the sequences of 116-bp fragment reveals that L. infantum is more genetically related to visceralizing species L. donovani than to the Leishmania species associated with cutaneous disease. Conclusions More than half of dogs living in the endemic Jiuzhaigou County were infected by L. infantum. Control measures, such as treatment or eradication of infected dogs, or prohibition of maintaining dogs, must be taken against these infected dogs due to their role in the transmission of the infection to vectors. The phylogenetic tree based on the sequences of conserved region in kDNA of Leishmania can effectively distinguish species of Leishmania. PMID:21554677
We use a combined earthquake location technique to relocate the M s7.0 Lushan, Sichuan, China, earthquake sequence of April 20, 2013. A stepwise approach, employing three existing location methods (the HYPOINVERSE method, the Minimum 1-D model, and the Double Difference method), is used to improve location precision by iteratively revising the velocity model station corrections, and hypocenter relocations throughout the process. Our stepwise approach has significantly improved the location precision of the Lushan earthquake sequence, yielding hypocenter locations with final errors of 359, 309, and 605 m in the E-W, N-S, and vertical directions, respectively, with average travel time residuals of 0.12 s. Furthermore, we analyzed the seismogenic structure surrounding the Lushan earthquake sequence by combining the results of the relocated hypocenter distribution with new focal mechanism solutions and information from regional geological and geophysical investigations. From our analysis, we conclude that the vast majority of the aftershocks of the Lushan earthquake sequence occurred at depths of 6-9 km, near the front of the southwestern segment of the NE-trending Longmenshan fault zone. Densely aligned hypocenters clearly suggest that the seismogenic structure of the mainshock consists of a set of basal thrust faults dipping to the NW at 40-50°, at a ramp of the deep basal décollement-thrust system at depths of 7-18 km. Focal mechanism solutions suggest that the seismogenic faults have produced almost pure thrusting. At least one SE-dipping back-thrust is also observed within the basement, as indicated by the hypocenter relocations, which points to either a secondary rupture plane during the mainshock or a plane of aftershock slips. A small number of minor events in the Lushan sequence are located at depths of 0-6 km, with a distribution suggesting that the three NE-trending faults with surface traces running through or passing close to the aftershock area are confined to the upper Mesozoic sedimentary cover, making them independent of the deeper thrust faults that ruptured during the mainshock. Therefore, the 2013 M s7.0 Lushan earthquake was a blind thrust fault generated on active thrust faults within the basement of the southwestern Longmenshan fault zone, with an upper limit estimation of the rupture length, average down-dip width, and rupture area of 40, 16, and 640 km2, respectively.
Long, F.; Wen, X. Z.; Ruan, X.; Zhao, M.; Yi, G. X.
Understanding the effects of climate change on primate ranging patterns is crucial for conservation planning. Rhinopithecus roxellana is an endangered primate species distributed in mountainous forests at the elevation of 1500-3500?m a.s.l. in China. Our study site, the Shennongjia National Nature Reserve, represents the eastern-most distribution of this species. This area has experienced significant habitat loss and fragmentation because of human population growth, increased farming and logging, and climate change. To estimate how changes in temperature and rainfall will affect the presumed future distribution of this species, we examined eco-geographic factors including bioclimate, habitat (vegetation type, landcover, etc.), topography, and human impact (human population, gross domestic product, etc.), and provide suggestions for management and conservation. We used a maximum entropy approach to predict the location and distribution of habitats suitable for R. roxellana in the present, 2020, 2050, and 2080 based on 33 environmental parameters, three general circulation models, three emissions scenarios, and two dispersal hypotheses. According to the ensemble modeling, we found range reductions of almost 30% by 2020, 70% by 2050, and over 80% by 2080. Although no obvious differences were found in distribution change based on full and zero dispersal assumptions, our results revealed range reductions in response to elevational, latitudinal, and longitudinal gradients, with the monkeys forced to migrate to higher elevations over time. Bioclimte factors, such as temperature, precipitation, evapo-transpiration, and aridity condition, were dominant contributors to range shifting. As habitat loss due to human influence and climate change is likely to be even more severe in the future, we considered three conservation hot-spots in the Shennongjia area and recommended: (i) securing existing reserves and establishing new reserves, (ii) re-designing management systems to include the Shenongjia reserve and the surrounding reserves and highlighting ecosystem protection at higher elevations, and (iii) using finer-scale research to guide the conservation planning and education in order to enhance protection and awareness in the local community. National and provincial conservation policies should integrate projections of climate change in making effective conservation strategies. Am. J. Primatol. 77:135-151, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25224271
Luo, Zhenhua; Zhou, Surong; Yu, Wendi; Yu, Huiliang; Yang, Jingyuan; Tian, Yanhong; Zhao, Mian; Wu, Hua
Due to complex tectonic and geomorphologic factors, the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas, are particularly prone to landslides. Rivers have deeply cut into bedrock, forming narrow valleys that are especially prone to landslide damming. Numerous landslide damming and subsequent dam breaching events are recorded from the region in historical documents and the geosciece literature; these include events at the Dadu River (1786), Diexi (1933), Tanggudong (1967), Yigong (2000), and Tangjiashan (2008). We report the results of a GIS-based analysis of earthquake-generated landslide dams at Diexi. The Diexi Earthquake (M=7.5) occurred on August 25, 1933 and induced a series of giant landslides along the Min River, some of which blocked the river and formed three large landslide lakes. The landslide dam located furthest downstream breached on October 9, 1933, 45 days after the earthquake. The outburst flood resulted in huge damage to the downstream area killing 2,423 people, one of the most serious landslide-related disasters in China during the 20th Century. In the present work, GIS analysis is applied to the Diexi Landslides, based on a review of historical documents and previous studies, data collected during field work, and remote sensing and SRTM-3 digital terrain data. We attempted to determine the precise locations of the 1933 landslides and measured dam height, cross-section area, and volume of the damming landslides. Due to the lack of topographic data before the 1933 earthquake, data of the landslide lakes, including maximum water elevation and total impounded volume can only be estimated. Using credible water levels and inferred submerged topography we calculate an outburst volume for the 1933 event. Moreover, cross-sections are made for both the damming area and the Min River downstream in order to make a general assessment of the damage due to the subsequent flood. Maximum flood discharge is estimated by regression equations. The two remaining lakes on the Min River have experienced a slight water level decrease after over 80 years of outlet erosion. Despite this, these two lakes are considered to be safe.
Ling, Song; Evans, Stephen G.
Background Co-infections of HBV and HIV are frequent due to similar routes of transmission. In that transmission through blood is an important route for both HBV and HIV, evaluation of the prevalence of HBV in HIV infected blood donors may be important for transfusion safety. In addition, because the epidemiological characteristics of HBV in HIV infected patients and blood donors may differ from each other, understanding of it could be significant for therapy and prevention of HBV in HIV infected adults. However, data reported on these in Chinese people remains limited. Methods 614 HIV confirmed positive samples were collected from blood donors and patients and were screened for HBsAg and HBV DNA. The samples screened reactive for HBsAg or positive for HBV DNA were tested for the other serological markers of HBV including anti-HBs, HBeAg, anti-HBe and anti-HBc. For the samples tested positive for HBV DNA, the S region of HBV was amplified by nested PCR and the HBV genotypes were determined. Results HBV coinfections were found in 12.9% (79/614) HIV infected individuals including 42/417(10.1%) blood donors and 37/197 (18.8%) AIDS patients. In the HBsAg positive individuals, 80.0% were HBeAg negative in which 10.0% were HBV DNA negative and 38.3% with HBV DNA lower than 2000 IU/ml. The average HBV DNA levels were lower in donors than in patients. In the HBV DNA positive populations, HBV genotypes B, A and C accounted for 48.1%, 22.8% and 8.86% respectively. Mutations related to the failure of HBsAg detection were found in 2 of the 4 HBsAg-/HBV DNA + subjects. Conclusions High prevalence of HBV in HIV infected individuals was found in this study. Hence, we recommend routine testing of HBV for patients newly diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in China. Some HIV-HBV co-infected patients remain undiagnosed if only conventional serological markers for HBV are used and it’s important to detect HBV DNA for HIV infected patients. HBV DNA levels were relatively low in HBeAg negative patients, thus this serologic marker may be useful in prioritizing patients on their need for HBV treatment in settings in which HBV DNA is not available. PMID:24923206
Nutrient Release from Weathering of Purplish Rocks in the Sichuan Basin, China 1 1 Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2003CB415202) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 40571093 and 49601009)
Purplish soils having high fertility with mineral nutrients inherited from the parent rock are widely distributed in the hills along the Yangtze River, especially in the Sichuan Basin. Pot and field weathering experiments were conducted to mimic rock weathering and nutrient release processes in order to better understand soil fertility and nutrient compensation. Three types of purplish rock formations formed
Bo ZHU; Tao WANG; Xiang YOU; Mei-Rong GAO
On 12 May 2008, the devastating magnitude 7.9 (Wenchuan) earthquake struck the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau, collapsing buildings and killing thousands in major cities aligned along the western Sichuan basin in China. After such a large-magnitude earthquake, rearrangement of stresses in the crust commonly leads to subsequent damaging earthquakes. The mainshock of the 12 May earthquake ruptured with as much as 9 m of slip along the boundary between the Longmen Shan and Sichuan basin, and demonstrated the complex strike-slip and thrust motion that characterizes the region. The Sichuan basin and surroundings are also crossed by other active strike-slip and thrust faults. Here we present calculations of the coseismic stress changes that resulted from the 12 May event using models of those faults, and show that many indicate significant stress increases. Rapid mapping of such stress changes can help to locate fault sections with relatively higher odds of producing large aftershocks. ??2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Parsons, T.; Ji, C.; Kirby, E.
NOTE Predominant lactic acid bacteria in traditional fermented yak milk products in the Sichuan from widely distributed households in Sichuan province, China. In total, 213 strains of lactic acid.2%) ,, Keywords Yak milk products . Lactic acid bacteria . Isolation . Identification . 16S rDNA . Species
This dissertation considers whether or not archaeology was an effective tool for nation-building elites in Republican China (1912-1949), by looking at the discipline's fortunes in the off-center locale of Sichuan province. Through consideration of the multiplicity of agents and motives involved in archaeological enterprise in Republican Sichuan,…
The lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation hydrocarbon source rocks at the Dingshan-Lintanchang structure in the southeast Sichuan\\u000a Basin were of medium-good quality with two excellent hydrocarbon-generating centers developed in the periphery areas, with\\u000a a possibility of forming a medium to large-sized oil-gas field. Good reservoir rocks were the upper Sinian (Dengying Formation)\\u000a dolomites. The mudstone in the lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation
Shugen Liu; Zhijing Zhang; Wenming Huang; Guozhi Wang; Wei Sun; Guosheng Xu; Haifeng Yuan; Changjun Zhang; Bin Deng
Landslides and rock avalanches triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake produced 257 landslide dams, mainly situated along\\u000a the eastern boundary of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where rivers descend approximately 3,000 m into the Sichuan Basin. The largest\\u000a of these dams blocked the Tongkou River (a tributary of the Fujiang River) at Tangjiashan. The blockage, consisting of 2.04 × 107 m3 of landslide debris, impounded a
Peng CuiChao; Chao Dang; Jian-qi Zhuang; Yong You; Xiao-qing Chen; Kevin M. Scott
The present research was aimed to investigate the relationships between the single nueleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CACNA1S gene 11 exon and thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis (THPP)in the people of Han Nationality in Sichuan China. 100 male subjects were divided into four groups in this study, i.e., 22 patients with THPP, 23 patients with hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP), 33 patients with thyrotoxicosis but without hypokalemic periodic paralysis (NTHPP), and 22 healthy (control group) subjects. The sequences of the CACNA1S gene exon 11 polymorphisms, for the four groups respectively, were analysed by the SNPs method with polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and DNA direct sequencing. A meta-analysis of three additional studies was also performed. Three SNPs of exon 11 of the CACNA1S gene (C1491T, T1551C, C1564T) were present in all the four groups. The polymorphisms C1491T and T1551C were present in both homozygotes and heterozygotes, while the C1564T polymorphism was present only in heterozygotes. The genotype frequencies of variants at C1491T and T1551C were not significantly associated with TPP (dominant model: P=0.530 and P=0.568; allele frequency model: P=0.563 and P=0.568). A Meta-analysis yielded combined odds ratio (OR) for TPP of 2. 12 (95% CI: 0.80-5.60) at C1491T, 2.90 (95% CI: 0.71-11.78) at T1551C, and 1.61 (95% CI: 0.36-7.26) at C1564T with the dominant model. These results suggested that three SNPs of CACNA1S gene exon 11 definitely could exist but could not be associated with TPP people of Han Nationality in Sichuan. PMID:21774221
Xiao, Zhu; Li, Li; Li, Sheyu; Yao, Yu; Liu, Yuping; Tian, Haoming
The purpose of this investigation was to examine comparable dimensions and linkages between child temperament and parenting styles with samples from Beijing, China and the western United States. Participants included 404 mothers and fathers from Beijing, China and 325 mothers and fathers from the western United States. Both mothers and fathers…
Porter, Christian L.; Hart, Craig H.; Yang, Chongming; Robinson, Clyde C.; Olsen, Susanne Frost; Zeng, Qing; Olsen, Joseph A.; Jin, Shenghua
This paper systematically illustrates the value and role of human resource development in the implementation of the Western China development strategy. It analyzes in details some current human resource issues constraining the implementation of the Western China development strategy and those on the sustainable development process of economic…
Landslides and rock avalanches triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake produced 257 landslide dams, mainly situated along the eastern boundary of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where rivers descend approximately 3,000 m into the Sichuan Basin. The largest of these dams blocked the Tongkou River (a tributary of the Fujiang River) at Tangjiashan. The blockage, consisting of 2. 04 ?? 10 7 m 3 of landslide debris, impounded a lake with a projected maximum volume of 3. 15 ?? 10 8 m 3, potentially inundating 8. 92 km 2 of terrain. Its creation during the rainy season and the possibility of an uncontrolled release posed a serious, impending threat to at least 1. 3 million people downstream that could add substantially to the total of 69,200 individuals directly killed by the earthquake. Risk assessment of the blockage indicated that it was unlikely to collapse suddenly, and that eventual overtopping could be mitigated by notching the structure in order to create an engineered breach and achieve safe drainage of the lake. In addition to the installation of monitoring and warning instrumentation, for emergency planning we estimated several outburst scenarios equivalent to 20, 25, 33, and 50% of the dam failing suddenly, creating, respectively, 3. 35, 3. 84, 4. 22, and 4. 65 km 2 of flooded area, and overbank water depths of 4. 6, 5. 1, 5. 7, and 6. 2 m, respectively, in Mianyang, the second largest city in Sichuan Province, 48 km downstream from the blockage. Based on these scenarios, recommendations and plans for excavating a sluiceway, draining the lake, and downstream evacuation were proposed and later were implemented successfully, with the blockage breached by overtopping on June 10, less than a month after dam emplacement. The peak discharge of the release only slightly exceeded the flood of record at Mianyang City. No lives were lost, and significant property damage was avoided. Post-breaching evaluation reveals how future similar mitigation can be improved. Although initial breach erosion was slow, later erosion was judged uncontrollably rapid; increased slope of the engineered channel and adoption of a compound, trapezoid-triangular cross-section can be considered, as can other measures to control the rate of breach incision. Evacuees from Mianyang City spent an unnecessarily long time (12 days) in temporary settlements; more precise risk management planning can reduce this time in the future. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Cui, P.; Dang, C.; Zhuang, J.; You, Y.; Chen, X.; Scott, K.M.
The generation processes of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) that occurred over the Sichuan Basin in China were revealed in the early 2008 monsoon season. MCS occurrences detected in METEOSAT geostational satellite images are associated with the traveling of midlatitude troughs after the onset of the Indian monsoon. Three episodes of large-scale MCSs were generated under synoptic conditions of merging southwesterly low-level monsoon flows with a northerly midlatitude air mass following the trough in the leeward of the Tibetan Plateau without direct migration of the vortex generated from the plateau surface. Numerical simulations using a weather research and forecast (WRF) model showed that the MCS was triggered in the evening by strengthening of the low-level wind convergences with horizontal shear between the southerly monsoon flow, with large convective available potential energy, and the northerly dry intrusion. A sudden increase in the northerly winds was confirmed by sonde observation data in the western basin, and the winds were simulated as intrusions passing over the Qinling Mountains when the daytime clouds over the mountain were diminished. Sensitivity experiments by a WRF simulation revealed that the topography of the Sichuan Basin was able to capture the dry intrusion at the bottom to prevent the propagation of disturbances from the plateau and to cause the sudden onset of MCSs apart from the plateau with a heavy precipitation zone.
Ueno, Kenichi; Sugimoto, Shiori; Koike, Toshio; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Xu, Xiangde
Understanding distribution patterns of hosts implicated in the transmission of zoonotic disease remains a key goal of parasitology. Here, random forests are employed to model spatial patterns of the presence of the plateau pika (Ochotona spp.) small mammal intermediate host for the parasitic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis which is responsible for a significant burden of human zoonoses in western China. Landsat ETM+ satellite imagery and digital elevation model data were utilized to generate quantified measures of environmental characteristics across a study area in Sichuan Province, China. Land cover maps were generated identifying the distribution of specific land cover types, with landscape metrics employed to describe the spatial organisation of land cover patches. Random forests were used to model spatial patterns of Ochotona spp. presence, enabling the relative importance of the environmental characteristics in relation to Ochotona spp. presence to be ranked. An index of habitat aggregation was identified as the most important variable in influencing Ochotona spp. presence, with area of degraded grassland the most important land cover class variable. 71% of the variance in Ochotona spp. presence was explained, with a 90.98% accuracy rate as determined by 'out-of-bag' error assessment. Identification of the environmental characteristics influencing Ochotona spp. presence enables us to better understand distribution patterns of hosts implicated in the transmission of Em. The predictive mapping of this Em host enables the identification of human populations at increased risk of infection, enabling preventative strategies to be adopted. PMID:25386042
Marston, Christopher G; Danson, F Mark; Armitage, Richard P; Giraudoux, Patrick; Pleydell, David R J; Wang, Qian; Qui, Jiamin; Craig, Philip S
Due to its diverse, wondrous plants and unique topography, Western China has drawn great attention from explorers and naturalists from the Western World. Among them, Ernest Henry Wilson (1876 –1930), known as ‘Chinese’ Wilson, travelled to Western China five times from 1899 to 1918. He took more than 1,000 photos during his travels. These valuable photos illustrated the natural and social environment of Western China a century ago. Since 1997, we had collected E.H. Wilson's old pictures, and then since 2004, along the expedition route of E.H. Wilson, we took 7 years to repeat photographing 250 of these old pictures. Comparing Wilson's photos with ours, we found an obvious warming trend over the 100 years, not only in specific areas but throughout the entire Western China. Such warming trend manifested in phenology changes, community shifts and melting snow in alpine mountains. In this study, we also noted remarkable vegetation changes. Out of 62 picture pairs were related to vegetation change, 39 indicated vegetation has changed to the better condition, 17 for degraded vegetation and six for no obvious change. Also in these photos at a century interval, we found not only rapid urbanization in Western China, but also the disappearance of traditional cultures. Through such comparisons, we should not only be amazed about the significant environmental changes through time in Western China, but also consider its implications for protecting environment while meeting the economic development beyond such changes. PMID:21966397
Chen, Huai; Yin, Kaipu; Wang, Haiyan; Zhong, Shenxian; Wu, Ning; Shi, Fusun; Zhu, Dan; Zhu, Qiuan; Wang, Weifeng; Ma, Zhihai; Fang, Xiuqin; Li, Weizhong; Zhao, Pengxiang; Peng, Changhui
The magnitude (Mw) 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake occurred on 12 May 2008 in the Longmen Shan region, the transition zone between the Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin, China, resulting in extensive damage throughout central and western China. Official estimates of casualties released by the Chinese Government as of 31 August 2008 include 69,197 confirmed deaths, 374,176 injured, and 18,209 missing
A. Lin; Z. Ren; D. Jia; X. Wu
Background \\u000a Schistosoma japonicum is a major public health concern in the Peoples' Republic of China (PRC), with over one million people infected and another\\u000a 50 million living in areas at risk of infection. Based on ecological, environmental, population genetic and molecular factors,\\u000a schistosomiasis transmission in PRC can be categorised into four discrete ecosystems or transmission modes. It is predicted\\u000a that
Rong Zhu; Darren J Gray; Aaron P Thrift; Gail M Williams; Yi Zhang; Dong-Chuan Qiu; Feng Zheng; Yue-Sheng Li; Jiagang Guo; Hong-Qing Zhu; Wei-Ping Wu; Robert S Li; Donald P McManus
Due to a lack of industrialization in Western China, surface air there was, until recently, believed to be relatively unpolluted. However, recent measurements and modeling studies have found high levels of ozone (O3) there. Based on the state-of-the-science global chemical transport model MOZART-4, we identify the origin, pathway, and mechanism of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants to Western China in 2000. MOZART-4 generally simulates well the observed surface O3 over inland areas of China. Simulations find surface ozone concentrations over Western China on average to be about 10 ppbv higher than Eastern China. Using sensitivity studies, we find that anthropogenic emissions from all Eurasian regions except China contribute 10-15 ppbv surface O3 over Western China, superimposed upon a 35-40 ppbv natural background. Transport from European anthropogenic sources to Northwestern China results in 2-6 ppbv O3 enhancements in spring and summer. Indian anthropogenic sources strongly influence O3 over the Tibetan Plateau during the summer monsoon. Transport of O3 originating from emissions in the Middle East occasionally reach Western China and increase surface ozone there by about 1-4 ppbv. These influences are of similar magnitude as trans-Pacific and transatlantic transport of O3 and its precursors, indicating the significance of trans-Eurasian ozone transport in hemispheric transport of air pollution. Our study further indicates that mitigation of anthropogenic emissions from Europe, the Indian subcontinent, and the Middle East could benefit public health and agricultural productivity in Western China.
Li, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Emmons, Louisa K.; Walters, Stacy; Horowitz, Larry W.; Tao, Shu
OFF-GRID RENEWABLE ENERGY OPTIONS FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION IN WESTERN CHINA by the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy of University of Delaware Sponsored by National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Ministry of Agriculture People's Republic of China June 2001 #12;i OFF-GRID RENEWABLE ENERGY
Delaware, University of
We present new estimates on evaporation and groundwater recharge in the Badain Jaran Desert, western Inner Mongolia of northwestern China, based on a modified Penman Equation suitable for lakes in China. Geochemical data and water balance calculations suggest that local rainfall makes a significant contribution to groundwater recharge and that past lake-level variations in this desert environment should reflect palaeoclimatic
Xiaoping Yang; Nina Ma; Jufeng Dong; Bingqi Zhu; Bing Xu; Zhibang Ma; Jiaqi Liu
Onshore petroliferous basins of Mesozoic-Cenozoic age in China include two distinct geographic-geotectonic groups: eastern extensional (rifted) basins and western compressional (orogenic) basins. Eastern basins are faulted depressions and crustal sags that formed where incipient intracontinental rifting thinned the crust and developed tilted fault blocks and half grabens bounded by normal faults. Western basins are flexural downbows that were depressed under
C. Quanmao; W. R. Dickinson
The Great Western Development Strategy (GWDS) is a long term national campaign aimed at boosting development of the western area of China and narrowing the economic gap between the western and the eastern parts of China. The Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedure was employed to assess the environmental challenges brought about by the western development plans. These plans include five key developmental domains (KDDs): water resource exploitation and use, land utilization, energy generation, tourism development, and ecological restoration and conservation. A combination of methods involving matrix assessment, incorporation of expert judgment and trend analysis was employed to analyze and predict the environmental impacts upon eight selected environmental indicators: water resource availability, soil erosion, soil salinization, forest destruction, land desertification, biological diversity, water quality and air quality. Based on the overall results of the assessment, countermeasures for environmental challenges that emerged were raised as key recommendations to ensure ecological security during the implementation of the GWDS. This paper is intended to introduce a consensus-based process for evaluating the complex, long term pressures on the ecological security of large areas, such as western China, that focuses on the use of combined methods applied at the strategic level. PMID:22190169
Li, Wei; Liu, Yan-ju; Yang, Zhifeng
The Great Western Development Strategy (GWDS) is a long term national campaign aimed at boosting development of the western area of China and narrowing the economic gap between the western and the eastern parts of China. The Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedure was employed to assess the environmental challenges brought about by the western development plans. These plans include five key developmental domains (KDDs): water resource exploitation and use, land utilization, energy generation, tourism development, and ecological restoration and conservation. A combination of methods involving matrix assessment, incorporation of expert judgment and trend analysis was employed to analyze and predict the environmental impacts upon eight selected environmental indicators: water resource availability, soil erosion, soil salinization, forest destruction, land desertification, biological diversity, water quality and air quality. Based on the overall results of the assessment, countermeasures for environmental challenges that emerged were raised as key recommendations to ensure ecological security during the implementation of the GWDS. This paper is intended to introduce a consensus-based process for evaluating the complex, long term pressures on the ecological security of large areas, such as western China, that focuses on the use of combined methods applied at the strategic level.
Li, Wei; Liu, Yan-Ju; Yang, Zhifeng
The magnitude (M\\u000a w) 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake occurred on 12 May 2008 in the Longmen Shan region of China, the transition zone between the Tibetan\\u000a Plateau and the Sichuan Basin, resulting in widespread damage throughout central and western China. The steep, high-relief\\u000a eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau has undergone rapid Cenozoic uplift and denudation accompanied by folding and thrusting,
Aiming Lin; Zhikun Ren; Dong Jia; Yosuke Miyairi
The northward movement of India induces a right-lateral shear band from the Sunda trench to the easternmost Himalaya, where wrenching between India and Sunda plates, interfere with a clockwise flow of material around the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis. We describe brittle and ductile deformation styles in Western Yunnan and Northern Myanmar, using field data and Landsat 7 imagery for Cenozoic structures as well as GPS and seismicity for active structures to unravel the Neogene to Present evolution. Western Yunnan is crossed by three continental-size ductile shear zones characterized by high mountain belts mainly composed of high-grade metamorphics and mylonitic rocks, and affected by active faulting. The easternmost metamorphic range, the Gaoligong Shan composed of verticalized foliated granites and mylonites is flattened westward and joins the Mogok metamorphic belt in Myanmar. East of the Gaoligong Shan, lie the Chong Shan and the Ailao / Diangcan Shan metamorphic ranges, which presents a vertical shistosity and a left-lateral motion. These three shear zones are separated by sedimentary fold-and-thrust-belts in the East, and , West of the Gaoligong, by Quaternary basins and volcanics. Preliminary results indicate that the Shan Scarp constituted the major strike-slip boundary between Indochina and India during Eocene to Miocene time, and accommodated deformation in right-lateral wrench. At the same time, the Ailao / Diangcan Shan and the Chong Shan zones were sheared left-laterally allowing the displacement toward the SE of Indochina block relative to south China. In the Miocene, ductile deformation migrated north along the Shan Scarp to the Mogok / Ruili metamorphic belt and the Gaoligong belt, dragging the Chong Shan right-laterally and superimposing a late right-lateral ductile deformation on its metamorphic rocks. The present-day relative motion between India and Sundaland, inferred from GPS processing, reaches 35 mm / yr in the Myanmar area. It is classically accepted that all of this motion is accommodated onto a single fault: the Sagaing fault in Myanmar. However, geodetic results show that, out of the 35 mm/yr of India versus Sundaland rate, only 18 mm / yr are accommodated by the Sagaing fault. Part of the remaining motion might be accommodated in western Yunnan. The present system might have been active since the Pliocene. We regard it as a combination of the right-lateral Sagaing Fault / Gaoligong, which propagates toward the north as a horsetail, and the circum syntaxis fault system. The state of stress, in Western Yunnan, is a WNW extension inferred from both focal mechanisms and recent fault-slip data analysis. The tectonic features are influenced by both the clockwise flow around the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis, and the northern extension along splays of the Sagaing fault. Deformation is then distributed between strike-slip and normal faulting. We propose that this interaction is accommodated by clockwise rotations of blocks.
Socquet, A.; Pubellier, M.
Using the static opaque chamber method, a field experiment was conducted in situ for two years to study the effects of three cultivation systems on CH4 and N2O emissions from permanently flooded rice fields in a hilly area in Southwest China. The results show that the average CH4 fluxes from a permanently flooded rice field with a single middle rice crop and flooded with no winter crop (PF) were (21.44 +/- 1.77) mg x (m2 x h)(-1) and (3.77 +/- 0.99) mg x (m2 x h)(-1) during rice-growing and non-rice growing periods, respectively, where both values were much lower than many previous reports from similar regions in Southwest China. The annual CH4 emission was mainly occurred in the rice growing period, being only 23.2% of the total annual CH4 flux emitted from the non-rice growing period, though the latter occupied two thirds of a year. The annual average flux of nitrous oxide was (0.051 +/- 0.008) mg x (m2 x h)(-1) and the N2O emission also intensive in the rice growing period. However, being only 8.1% of total annual N2O flux emitted from the non-rice growing period. After implementing the rice-wheat rotation (RW) and rice oil-seed rape rotation (RR), the CH4 emissions were reduced substantially, only 43.8% and 40.6% of those of PF, respectively. However, the N2O emissions were increased after conducting RW and RR systems, which were 3.7 and 4.5 times larger than those of PF. The global warming potentials (GWPs) of the CH4 and N2O emissions under the three tillage-cropping systems were assessed in an integrated way. The results show that the integrated GWPs of the CH4 and N2O emissions are in the following sequence: PF>RR approximately equal to RR. Within 20, 100 and 500 years spans, the GWPs of the CH4 and N2O emissions of PF were 2.6, 2.1 and 1.7 times larger than those of RW (or RR), respectively. After introducing rice-wheat or rice oil-seed rape rotation systems into the permanently flooded rice fields, the integrated GWPs of the CH4 and N2O emissions were decreased largely. PMID:16686176
Jiang, Chang-sheng; Wang, Yue-si; Zheng, Xun-hua; Zhu, Bo; Huang, Yao
Kaschin-Beck disease (KBD), an endemic osteoarthropathy, is distributed in the low-selenium (Se)-belt that stretches from northeast to southwest China. However, very few studies have investigated the relationship between low bioavailabitity of Se and KBD. The present study examined the behavior of Se and other elements in areas with varying levels of KBD prevalence using pedological and geochemical methods. Rhizosphere soil samples obtained from the KBD-stricken Aba area were classified into Ustic Isohumisols (J2), Udic Luvisols (L4), Stagnic Gleysols (I2), and Cryic Cambisols (M1) and the integrated constraints on selenium bioavailability in these soils were analyzed. We found that Se concentration in soil profiles from a typical KBD area ranged between 0.08 ?g · g(-1) and 0.215 ?g · g(-1), indicating absent and marginal bioavailability, respectively. This suggested that low Se bioavailability may be a feature that soils inherit from their Se-deficient parent materials. Moreover, the soil types examined showed different geochemical behaviors such as eluviation for soluble Se(VI), migration of Se(IV) for its adsorption on clay and sesquioxide, and extreme redox conditions. In conclusion, a higher level of Se bioavailability in environment might be related to a lower risk of KBD, and our results offer a foundation for scientific theory on ecological geochemistry and improve our understanding of KBD. PMID:24995640
Lv, Yaoyao; Yu, Tao; Yang, Zhongfang; Zhao, Wanfu; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Qian
TSR versus non-TSR processes and their impact on gas geochemistry and carbon stable isotopes in Carboniferous, Permian and Lower Triassic marine carbonate gas reservoirs in the Eastern Sichuan Basin, China
The Palaeozoic and lowermost Mesozoic marine carbonate reservoirs of the Sichuan Basin in China contain variably sour and very dry gas. The source of the gas in the Carboniferous, Permian and Lower Triassic reservoirs is not known for certain and it has proved difficult to discriminate and differentiate the effects of thermal cracking- and TSR-related processes for these gases. Sixty-three gas samples were collected and analysed for their composition and carbon stable isotope values. The gases are all typically very dry (alkane gases being >97.5% methane), with low (<1%) nitrogen and highly variable H2S and CO2. Carboniferous gas is negligibly sour while the Lower Triassic gas tends to be most sour. The elevated H2S (up to 62%) is due to thermochemical sulphate reduction with the most sour Triassic and Permian reservoirs being deeper than 4800 m. The non-TSR affected Carboniferous gas is a secondary gas that was derived from the cracking of sapropelic kerogen-derived oil and primary gas and is highly mature. Carboniferous (and non-sour Triassic and Permian) gas has unusual carbon isotopes with methane and propane being isotopically heavier than ethane (a reversal of typical low- to moderate-maturity patterns). The gas in the non-sour Triassic and Permian reservoirs has the same geochemical and isotopic characteristics (and therefore the same source) as the Carboniferous gas. TSR in the deepest Triassic reservoirs altered the gas composition reaching 100% dryness in the deepest, most sour reservoirs showing that ethane and propane react faster than methane during TSR. Ethane evolves to heavier carbon isotope values than methane during TSR leading to removal of the reversed alkane gas isotope trend found in the Carboniferous and non-sour Triassic and Permian reservoirs. However, methane was directly involved in TSR as shown by the progressive increase in its carbon isotope ratio as gas souring proceeded. CO2 increased in concentration as gas souring proceeded, but typical CO2 carbon isotope ratios in sour gases remained about -4‰ V-PDB showing that it was not solely derived from the oxidation of alkanes. Instead CO2 may partly result from reaction of sour gas with carbonate reservoir minerals, such as Fe-rich dolomite or calcite, resulting in pyrite growth as well as CO2-generation.
Liu, Q. Y.; Worden, R. H.; Jin, Z. J.; Liu, W. H.; Li, J.; Gao, B.; Zhang, D. W.; Hu, A. P.; Yang, C.
The formation of orthomagmatic Fe-Ti oxide deposits from the Late Permian Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) of SW China is debated and has important petrologic and economic implications. The Baima igneous complex (BIC) is one of the largest Fe-Ti oxide deposits of the ELIP and is composed of a cumulate layered gabbroic portion, a thick Fe-Ti oxide ore zone and an isotropic peralkaline quartz syenite. The gabbro is composed of various proportions of olivine, plagioclase, clinopyroxene and interstitial titanomagnetite with minor apatite and sulphide minerals. Unlike many other ore-bearing layered intrusions (e.g. Bushveld, Stillwater), the oxide deposit is located in the lower third rather than the upper portions. This study attempts to experimentally constrain the origin and formation of the BIC by using a starting material (i.e. high-Ti Emeishan basalt) similar to the estimated parental magma composition of the gabbro-syenite complex. An anhydrous basaltic rock powder equal to high-Ti Emeishan rocks in the area was loaded into platinum envelopes and suspended in a 1-atm vertical-quenching furnace. The experiments proceeded at temperatures between 1310°C to 1100°C. They were quenched in water after each run. The run products were crafted into polished sections and individual phases were analyzed by EPMA. The experimental results show that the liquidus temperature is ~1310°C whereas the solidus temperature is estimated to be ~1100°C and the melting interval is ~210°C. The crystallization sequence is: titanomagnetite, plagioclase (An65), and pyroxene (Wo43-47En32-45Fs11-23). The residual liquid composition, represented by the quenched glass, evolves from lower SiO2 (SiO2 = ~45 wt%) values to higher SiO2 values (SiO2 = ~60 wt%) with corresponding decrease in Ti, Fe, Mg, Ca and increase of Na and K. The most evolved glass composition is strikingly similar to the enclaves within the Baima syenitic unit. Thus, the liquidus mineral is iron-titanium oxide which is consistent with the observation of basal oxide-ore formation. The low pressure results of this study indicate that early crystallization of Fe-Ti oxides will occur assuming a geologically reasonable starting material and the residual liquid is becoming more silicic. The direct implication is that the oxide deposits and spatially associated granitic rocks formed together by crystallization of a basaltic parental magma. Furthermore, external parameters (i.e. CO2-fluid fluxing) or silicate immiscibility are not necessarily required to form the oxide-ore deposits within evolved gabbroic intrusions.
Hsia, T. W.; Shellnutt, J. G.; Liu, T.; Iizuka, Y.
Background Childhood undernutrition adversely impacts child health and is one of China’s largest health burdens. However, there is limited information on the current rate of childhood undernutrition in rural Western China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of childhood undernutrition and explore its association with socio-economic characteristics in Western China. Methods A total of 13,532 children of 0?~?36 months of age were recruited as subjects from 45 counties and 10 provinces in Western China with a 3-stage probability proportion to size sampling. The composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) was used to assess the childhood undernutrition. The association between socio-economic characteristics and childhood undernutrition was analyzed using a two-level logistic regression. Results Based on CIAF, the prevalence of undernutrition among children under three years of age in rural Western China in 2005 was 21.7%. The two-level logistic analysis presented a large difference in undernutrition among the 10 provinces with the highest odds ratio in Guizhou (OR: 2.15, 95%CI: 1.50, 3.08). Older children had a higher prevalence of undernutrition. As compared to girls, boys were more likely to be undernourished (OR 1.27, 95% CI: 1.16, 1.39). The likelihood of undernutrition was lower in subjects of Han ethnicity as opposed to subjects of minority ethnicities (OR 0.77, 95%CI: 0.65, 0.90). In addition, the education levels of the mother as well as wealth index were both negatively associated with childhood undernutrition. Conclusions Childhood undernutrition still remains a large health challenge in rural Western China. This study has important policy implications for the Chinese government to improve childhood undernutrition in the surveyed areas. PMID:24499429
. henryi H2 QBG, 1996.016 Sichuan province R. longicuspis var. longicuspis Bertol. LL1 QBG, 1990.206B Yunnan province R. longicuspis var. longicuspis LL2 QBG, 1992.244 Sichuan R. longicuspis LL3 China R. rubus L?v. & Vaniot R1 QBG, 1992....071 Sichuan province R. rubus R2 China R. soulieana Cr?p. S1 QBG, 1991.190 Sichuan province R. soulieana S2 QBG, 2003.438C Sichuan province R. soulieana S3 China R. wichuriana Cr?p.'Basye?s Thornless' W1 ARE R. brunonii Lindl. Br China...
Soules, Valerie Ann
During China's economic transformation, much of the rural population migrated to urban areas in search of employment opportunities. "Left-behind children" are the product of this phenomenon and need significant attention. Our study adopted elementary school students in Sichuan province as the subjects. After carefully studying their academic…
Liang, Wenyan; Hou, Longlong; Chen, Wentao
The generation processes of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) that occurred over the Sichuan Basin in China were revealed in the early 2008 monsoon season. MCS occurrences detected in METEOSAT geostational satellite images are associated with the traveling of midlatitude troughs after the onset of the Indian monsoon. Three episodes of large-scale MCSs were generated under synoptic conditions of merging southwesterly
Kenichi Ueno; Shiori Sugimoto; Toshio Koike; Hiroyuki Tsutsui; Xiangde Xu
\\u000a \\u000a Synopsis Results and implications of a study of rangeland\\/livestock systems in four counties in western China are discussed. Two key\\u000a questions were posed: (1) Can changing the current livestock production system to an alternative enterprise, or (2) can changing\\u000a key management practices in current enterprises increase household profit at same stocking rate (SR) or maintain profit at\\u000a lower SR? The answers
D. L. Michalk; Hua Limin; David Kemp; Randall Jones; Taro Takahashi; Wu Jianping; Nan Zhibiao; Xu Zhu; Han Guodong
Based on a survey of rural school districts in Western China, this essay explores the effects of fiscal centralisation on the relationship between local governance and school district management, most particularly on how managerial power is distributed in the rural education sector. The essay also examines some of the possible effects that changes…
Liu, Mingxing; Murphy, Rachel; Tao, Ran; An, Xuehui
Among the Millennium Development Goals, maternal mortality reduction has proven especially difficult to achieve. Unlike many countries, China is on track to meeting these goals on a national level, through a programme of institutionalizing deliveries. Nonetheless, in rural, disadvantaged, and ethnically diverse areas of western China, maternal mortality rates remain high. To reduce maternal mortality in western China, we developed and implemented a three-level approach as part of a collaboration between a regional university, a non-profit organization, and local health authorities. Through formative research, we identified seven barriers to hospital delivery in a rural Tibetan county of Qinghai Province: (1) difficulty in travel to hospitals; (2) hospitals lack accommodation for accompanying families; (3) the cost of hospital delivery; (4) language and cultural barriers; (5) little confidence in western medicine; (6) discrepancy in views of childbirth; and (7) few trained community birth attendants. We implemented a three-level intervention: (a) an innovative Tibetan birth centre, (b) a community midwife programme, and (c) peer education of women. The programme appears to be reaching a broad cross-section of rural women. Multilevel, locally-tailored approaches may be essential to reduce maternal mortality in rural areas of western China and other countries with substantial regional, socioeconomic, and ethnic diversity. PMID:25555773
Gyaltsen Gongque Jianzan, Kunchok; Gyal Li Xianjia, Lhusham; Gipson, Jessica D; Kyi Cai Rangji, Tsering; Pebley, Anne R
The Lower Jurassic Hsiangchi Formation in western Hubei, China is well known for its abundant and diverse fossil ferns, including Marattiaceae, Osmundaceae, Matoniaceae, Dipteridaceae and Dicksoniaceae. Through recent collections and investigation of the fossil plants in this area, an autochthonous\\/hypoautochthonous fern community has been recognised from the upper part of the Hsiangchi Formation in Zigui, Hubei. This community is dominated
This paper describes a new program in the Western provinces of China (Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Tibet, and Inner Mongolia) that is designed to integrate 20,000 children with low-vision into general education classrooms. The Golden Key Research Center of Education for Visually Impaired has been working with the…
A fossil with Gnetum affinity was found in the Jianshangou Member (Barremian Age) of the Yixian Formation (Lower Cretaceous Epoch) of the Jehol Group in western Liaoning, northeastern China. The single fossil specimen is represented by both elongate-cylindrical male spike strobiles which borne within a nodal bract of cauliflorous branch. The spike strobiles have apparent nodes, invisible internodes, and numerous
Shuang-Xing GUO; Jin-Geng SHA; Li-Zeng BIAN; Yin-Long QIU
The degree-day factor (DDF) is an important parameter for the degree-day model, which is a widely used method for ice- and snowmelt computation. Spatial variations of the DDF greatly affect the accuracy of snow- and ice-melt modelling. This study analyzes the spatial variability of DDFs obtained from observed glaciers in different regions of western China. The results clearly show that
Yong Zhang; Shiyin Liu; Yongjian Ding
Rare earth phosphate fertilizer (REPF) as base fertilizer (750 kg per hm2) was applied in the western area of China during the “Tenth Five-Year Plan”, and the results show as follows: compared with calcium superphosphate (CK), REPF increases crops yields for maize by 17.0%, for rice by 10.5%, for wheat by 24.2%, for potato by 18.5%, for cabbage by 16.3%,
Liu Xiangsheng; Wang Jiachen; Yang Jun; Fan Yubin; Wu Yanping; Zhang He
In the present paper, we describe ductile and brittle deformation styles in western Yunnan and NE Myanmar, using field data and Landsat 7 imagery. We show that this complex area located at the northern termination of Sunda Plate (Three Rivers area) was wedged during the Tertiary between the left-lateral Ailao Shan/Chong Shan metamorphic belts to the east and the right-lateral Shan scarp/Gaoligong metamorphic belt in west. This triangular region therefore underwent the effects of these continental size ductile strike-slip faults separating major blocks with a dominant EW to ENE compression. Since the Late Miocene, date of the reversal of motion along the RRF, the incipient eastward motion of the Sunda block and the persisting right-lateral motion along its western boundary (Sagaing fault) created N-S compression and E-W to WNW extension underlined by left-lateral transtension along the Wanding/Nanting fault zones. At the same time, the Diangcan Shan, situated along strike the Ailao Shan metamorphic belt, was slightly impinged by the blocks extruded from the syntaxis and exhumed again from the Early Pliocene in accordance with this late and still active state of stress.
Socquet, Anne; Pubellier, Manuel
On the basis of our fieldwork conducted during the past two decades, in this article, we report our principal findings about the metapolicy and tacit knowledge of public management in western China. We focus on the deeper patterns of managerial and organizational behavior and argue that Chinese bureaucratic culture and practices (especially practices of the Communist Party of China) have
Hon S. Chan; King W. Chow
The Western Junggar, NW China, a dominant site for continental growth in Southern Altaids, bridges the Circum-Balkhash and Junggar belts and exposes ophiolite, igneous rocks and strata from Cambrian to Carboniferous. Recent updated data on structure, geochronology, geochemisty and paleomagnetism, integrated with previous data, present a newly Paleozoic spatial and temporal framework of Western Junggar. In Cambrian, the Western Junggar begins to birth at the Tangbale area to south, where occurs Ordovician blueschist and top-to-south vergence structures, indicating north-dipping subduction. This event triggers intra-arc extension to generate Ordovician island arc in the Hongguleleng-Xiemisitai area to north and seamount in the Mayile area, middle of Western Junggar. Until Silurian, a southeastward subduction begins in the extended back-arc basin to west of Mayile, occurring blueschist at the Barleik trench and the Nalunsuo magmatic arc, at the rear of which generates Devonian back-arc basin around the Durbut area. Meanwhile, a Silurian Xiemisitai magmatic arc has been developed at the northern part of Western Junggar, along which a northward subduction has emplaced the Tarbahatai ophiolite and generates the Carboniferous Sawur magmatic arc. At the middle part of Western Junggar, the coeval adakite and sanukitic dykes, charnockite, multiple properties of ophiolite and plutons, SSZ-like andesite, dacite and rhyolite and regional structures suggest that there develop double-subduction systems with ridge-trench interaction in Carboniferous. These features suggest that the Western Junggar experiences rollback, intra-oceanic extension and subduction polarity reversal/flip in back-arc basin settings. Furthermore, positive ?Nd(t) values and no huge movements of blocks suggest that the Western Junggar is amalgamated by juvenile elements with different orientations. Therefore, we conclude that the Western Junggar enlarges from an island arc to Paleozoic tectonic regime with island arcs and subduction-accretion complexes via continuous accretion presented as episodic events and it significantly contributes to continental growth in southern Altaids.
Zhang, Jien; Xiao, Wenjiao; Han, Chunming; Ma, Chong; Song, Dongfang
The North Qaidam UHP metamorphic rocks are located within the Early Paleozoic Qilian Shan orogenic belt, in this region made up of high-grade gneisses tectonically juxtaposed against lower-grade ophiolitic rocks, all thrust over unlithified Tertiary and Jurassic sediments. The high-grade late Proterozoic Dakendaben gneiss constitutes the bulk of the metamorphic complex and can be broken into two units: a lithologically variable basement unit and a homogeneous UHP orthogneiss containing coesite. The UHP gneiss is a homogeneous leucocratic epidote-amphibolite grade orthogneiss containing many discrete blocks of slightly retrograded mafic eclogite and ultramafic rock. The basement gneiss is heterogeneous unit of epidote-amphibolite grade containing variable amounts of biotite gneiss, mafic amphibolite, mica schist and minor ultramafics. Thus far no eclogite has been observed in this unit. The other major unit in the metamorphic complex is a suite of foliated ophiolitic rocks: vari-textured gabbro containing minor plagio-granite, foliated mafic dikes and minor vesicular basalt interlayered with marble and chert. There is no evidence that the ophiolite experienced conditions greater than greenschist grade. The metamorphic complex has a pervasive regional foliation trending approximately N0°-45°W. The contact between the heterogeneous basement gneiss and orthogneiss is irregular with no indication of any shear zone or fault. The contact between the ophiolite and gneiss is a narrow zone of more intense deformation approximately parallel to the regional foliation. Serpentinized ultramafic bodies commonly occur close to this contact. Regional deformation becomes progressively more intense with proximity to the Yuka shear zone in the NW, which cross cuts the contact between the gneiss units. Kinematic indicators (lineations, augen, S-C fabric) and stretching lineations indicate top to the east shear and 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages (399-370 Ma) suggest that the shear zone was active after peak UHP metamorphism (~495 Ma, U-Pb). Undeformed middle Paleozoic granites intrude the belt placing an upper bound on the cessation of the ductile phase of deformation. The metamorphic and igneous package was thrust over unlithified Jurassic turbiditic sediments and Tertiary red sandstones and conglomerates during the Cenozoic (35-45 Ma) Indo-Asian collision. Our results suggest that the juxtaposition of the UHP gneiss, basement gneiss and ophiolite occurred after UHP metamorphism at midcrustal levels. Our data are consistent with deep burial of continental materials during south-dipping subduction of the North China plate beneath the Qilian terrane and rapid exhumation from 80 km to mid-crustal levels.
Menold, C. A.; Manning, C. E.; An, Y.; Alex, R. C.; Chen, X.
Ethics education has become essential in modern engineering. Ethics education in engineering has been increasingly implemented worldwide. It can improve ethical behaviors in technology and engineering design under the guidance of the philosophy of technology. Hence, this study aims to compare China-US engineering ethics education in Sino-Western philosophies of technology by using literature studies, online surveys, observational researches, textual analyses, and comparative methods. In my original theoretical framework and model of input and output for education, six primary variables emerge in the pedagogy: disciplinary statuses, educational goals, instructional contents, didactic models, teaching methods, and edificatory effects. I focus on the similarities and differences of engineering ethics educations between China and the US in Chinese and Western philosophies of technology. In the field of engineering, the US tends toward applied ethics training, whereas China inclines toward practical moral education. The US is the leader, particularly in the amount of money invested and engineering results. China has quickened its pace, focusing specifically on engineering labor input and output. Engineering ethics is a multiplayer game effected at various levels among (a) lower level technicians and engineers, engineering associations, and stockholders; (b) middle ranking engineering ethics education, the ministry of education, the academy of engineering, and the philosophy of technology; and (c) top national and international technological policies. I propose that professional engineering ethics education can play many important roles in reforming engineering social responsibility by international cooperation in societies that are becoming increasingly reliant on engineered devices and systems. Significantly, my proposals contribute to improving engineering ethics education and better-solving engineering ethics issues, thereby maximizing engineering sustainability. PMID:25481713
Cao, Gui Hong
Northeast China and the western United States share common features in their tectonic history. Both regions experienced compressional tectonics and mountain building due to stresses induced by subduction processes on their boundaries. In Northeast China these events occurred in the Mesozoic and in the western United States a little later, up to the early Cenozoic. Subsequently, both regions experienced extension and widespread intraplate magmatism as the boundary conditions changed. We review the results from several seismic investigations for both regions and compare results. The NECESS project was a multi-national collaboration that consisted of the deployment of 140 broadband seismic stations across Northeast China. P and S wave tomography, receiver function analysis, and surface wave dispersion inversions were conducted to image the seismic structure of the upper mantle beneath the region. Fast seismic velocities from 500 to 660 km depth and a depressed 660 km discontinuity were found below the eastern edge of Northeast China. These observations are likely showing the subducting Pacific plate. At 420 latitude a gap in the deep transition zone fast velocities is observed coincident with an uplifted 660 km discontinuity. The shear wave tomography image shows a roughly 200 km diameter slow anomaly that can be traced from just below the gap in high velocities at 660 km depth to the shallow mantle beneath the Changbaishan volcanic field. We propose the gap in the deep slabs is a pathway for return flow upwelling that results in surface volcanism. Such deep upwelling at edges or gaps in deep slabs may be a common feature in subduction environments. In the shallow mantle strong lateral variations in velocity are seen across Northeast China that are associated with Cenozoic volcanic zones. Beneath a portion of the Xing'an mountains at 1160 longitude, a shallow slow anomaly associated with Pleistocene volcanism is adjacent to a high velocity anomaly at depths below 200 km. This may represent a region where lithosphere is being removed. Similar observations of potential lithosphere removal have been observed in the western United States. In particular, the Ristra experiment observed downwelling along the eastern edge of the Rio Grande Rift. Hydration of lithosphere that lowers its viscosity and subsequent extension may promote lithospheric instability for many tens of Ma after resulting in magmatism over a broad region.
Grand, S. P.; Tang, Y.; Niu, F.; Obayashi, M.; Chen, Y. J.; Kawakatsu, H.; Ning, J.; Ni, J.
Carbonaceous aerosol concentrations were determined for total suspended particle samples collected from Muztagh Ata Mountain in western China from December 2003 to February 2006. Elemental carbon (EC) varied from 0.004 to 0.174 ?g m?3 (average = 0.055 ?g m?3) while organic carbon (OC) ranged from 0.12 to 2.17 ?g m?3 and carbonate carbon (CC) from below detection to 3.57 ?g m?3. Overall, EC was the least abundant fraction of carbonaceous
Jun-Ji Cao; Bai-Qing Xu; Jian-Qiao He; Xian-Qin Liu; Yong-Ming Han; Ge-hui Wang; Chong-shu Zhu
A devastating earthquake occurred on May 12, 2008 in Sichuan, China. This study investigated the prevalence and factors in association with psychological problems among secondary school students living in Chengdu (90 km away from the disaster epicenter) in June 2008. In a cross-sectional survey, 3,324 secondary students self-administered a structured questionnaire in classroom setting. Validated scales were used in this study. Among all respondents, 22.3% reported post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); 22.6% were probable depression cases; 10.6% reported suicidal ideation; and 14.1% would like to receive psychological counseling. No gender differences were found. While social/emotional support from teachers or peers (OR from 0.40 to 0.78) and exposure to positive news reports (OR from 0.59 to 0.62) were found protective, prior experience of severe mental distress (OR from 1.60 to 2.68) and corporal punishment (OR from 1.31 to 1.58), worry about future aftershocks (OR from 1.64 to 3.11), absence from school when it was not closed (OR from 1.38 to 1.48), exposures to scary or sorrowful disaster media coverage (OR from 1.39 to 2.07), post-disaster visits to affected sites (OR from 1.51 to 1.59), separation from parents (OR?=?1.61), etc., were risk factors predictive of some of the aforementioned psychological problems. Negative mental health impacts were prevalent among the respondents. Teachers, parents, and the mass media are all important in maintaining good mental health among adolescents that are indirectly affected by the severe earthquake. The results have important implications for earthquake preparedness and relief work in the future. PMID:20405226
Yu, Xiaonan; Zhang, Jianxin; Mak, Winnie W. S.; Choi, Kai Chow; Lui, Wacy W. S.; Zhang, Jianxin; Chan, Emily Y. Y.
A devastating earthquake occurred on May 12, 2008 in Sichuan, China. This study investigated the prevalence and factors in association with psychological problems among secondary school students living in Chengdu (90 km away from the disaster epicenter) in June 2008. In a cross-sectional survey, 3,324 secondary students self-administered a structured questionnaire in classroom setting. Validated scales were used in this study. Among all respondents, 22.3% reported post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); 22.6% were probable depression cases; 10.6% reported suicidal ideation; and 14.1% would like to receive psychological counseling. No gender differences were found. While social/emotional support from teachers or peers (OR from 0.40 to 0.78) and exposure to positive news reports (OR from 0.59 to 0.62) were found protective, prior experience of severe mental distress (OR from 1.60 to 2.68) and corporal punishment (OR from 1.31 to 1.58), worry about future aftershocks (OR from 1.64 to 3.11), absence from school when it was not closed (OR from 1.38 to 1.48), exposures to scary or sorrowful disaster media coverage (OR from 1.39 to 2.07), post-disaster visits to affected sites (OR from 1.51 to 1.59), separation from parents (OR = 1.61), etc., were risk factors predictive of some of the aforementioned psychological problems. Negative mental health impacts were prevalent among the respondents. Teachers, parents, and the mass media are all important in maintaining good mental health among adolescents that are indirectly affected by the severe earthquake. The results have important implications for earthquake preparedness and relief work in the future. PMID:20405226
Lau, Joseph T F; Yu, Xiaonan; Zhang, Jianxin; Mak, Winnie W S; Choi, Kai Chow; Lui, Wacy W S; Zhang, Jianxin; Chan, Emily Y Y
Molecular biomarkers (brassicasterol, dinosterol, alkenones, C30 1,15-diol/keto-ol and cholesterol) were measured in an IMAGES core MD05-2901 (14°22.50'N, 110°44.60'E, w.d. 1454 m), to reconstruct the phytoplankton community structure over the past 450 kyrs in the western South China Sea on the eastern slope off Vietnam. Our results showed that diatoms, which are most sensitive to nutrition supply, exhibited relatively high productivity in interglacial period and lower productivity in glacial period, possibly caused by summer monsoon-induced upwelling. Dinoflagellates exhibited simillar phenomena as diatoms. But, coccolithphorids did not show clear glacial/intergalcial patterns and had a gradual increasing trend from 450 kyrs to 200 kyrs followed by a gradual decreasing trend until the present. Eustigmatophytes exhibited higher contents in glacial than interglacial periods and almost the same variations with terrestrial n- alkanes. Relationships among the major biomarker groups indicated complex responses of different phytoplanktons to changes in paleoclimate and paleoenvironment in the past 450 kyrs in western South China Sea.
Li, L.; Wang, H.; Li, J.; Zhao, M.; Wang, P.; Zhang, C.
@BCL@A8059DC2.DOC (DO NOT DELETE) 8/17/2009 7:50 AM 428 COMPARATIVE WATER LAW AND MANAGEMENT: THE YELLOW RIVER BASIN IN WESTERN CHINA AND THE STATE OF KANSAS IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES Burke W. Griggs Counsel, Division of Water Resources... Kansas Department of Agriculture John C. Peck Professor of Law, University of Kansas School of Law Special Counsel, Foulston Siefkin, LLP Xue Yunpeng Deputy Division Chief / Senior Engineer Department of Water Resources Management and Regulation Yellow...
Griggs, Burke W.; Peck, John C.; Yupeng, Xue
The "reproduction theory" was conceived and born in the research into educational inequalities in Western countries. Famous as the theory is, when it is to be applied in the research into education in China, a few factors must be taken into consideration: the subjects investigated must be educational inequalities that have come into being in the…
This study analyses the attitudes of Western trained doctors to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in Shenyang, Northern China. Research methodology involved a series of structured interviews as well as developing a questionnaire. Two hundred and fifty questionnaires were distributed in four centres, 177 were returned. Ninety-eight percent of respondents had some theoretical and practical TCM training; the older doctors having
K. Harmsworth; G. T. Lewith
This article assesses the impact of a UK-based professional development programme on curriculum innovation and change in English Language Education (ELE) in Western China. Based on interviews, focus group discussions and observation of a total of 48 English teachers who had participated in an overseas professional development programme influenced…
Li, Daguo; Edwards, Viv
Tree-ring samples from Chinese Pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) collected at Mt. Shimen on the western Loess Plateau, China, were used to reconstruct the mean May–July temperature during AD 1630–2011. The regression model explained 48% of the adjusted variance in the instrumentally observed mean May–July temperature. The reconstruction revealed significant temperature variations at interannual to decadal scales. Cool periods observed in the reconstruction coincided with reduced solar activities. The reconstructed temperature matched well with two other tree-ring based temperature reconstructions conducted on the northern slope of the Qinling Mountains (on the southern margin of the Loess Plateau of China) for both annual and decadal scales. In addition, this study agreed well with several series derived from different proxies. This reconstruction improves upon the sparse network of high-resolution paleoclimatic records for the western Loess Plateau, China. PMID:24690885
Song, Huiming; Liu, Yu; Li, Qiang; Gao, Na; Ma, Yongyong; Zhang, Yanhua
Abstract Objective To describe breastfeeding practices in rural China using globally recommended indicators and to compare them with practices in neighbouring countries and large emerging economies. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional survey of 2354 children younger than 2 years in 26 poor, rural counties in 12 central and western provinces was conducted. Associations between indicators of infant and young child feeding and socioeconomic, demographic and health service variables were explored and rates were compared with the most recent data from China and other nations. Findings Overall, 98.3% of infants had been breastfed. However, only 59.4% had initiated breastfeeding early (i.e. within 1 hour of birth); only 55.5% and 9.4% had continued breastfeeding for 1 and 2 years, respectively, and only 28.7% of infants younger than 6 months had been exclusively breastfed. Early initiation of breastfeeding was positively associated with at least five antenatal clinic visits (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 3.48; P?0.001) and negatively associated with delivery by Caesarean (aOR: 0.53; P?0.001) or in a referral-level facility (aOR: 0.6; P?=?0.014). Exclusive breastfeeding among children younger than 6 months was positively associated with delivery in a referral-level facility (aOR: 2.22; P?0.05). Breastfeeding was not associated with maternal age or education, ethnicity or household wealth. Surveyed rates of exclusive and continued breastfeeding were mostly lower than in other nations. Conclusion Despite efforts to promote breastfeeding in China, rates are very low. A commitment to improve infant and young child feeding is needed to reduce mortality and morbidity. PMID:23678195
Guo, Sufang; Fu, Xulan; Scherpbier, Robert W; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Hong; Wang, Xiaoli
Objective The western borderland between Yunnan Province, China, and Myanmar is characterized by a climate that facilitates year-round production of mosquitoes. Numerous mosquito-transmitted viruses, including Japanese encephalitis virus circulate in this area. This project was to describe seasonal patterns in mosquito species abundance and arbovirus activity in the mosquito populations. Methods Mosquitoes were collected in Mangshi and Ruili cities of Dehong Prefecture near the border of China and Burma in Yunnan Province, the Peoples Republic of China in 2010. We monitored mosquito species abundance for a 12-month period using ultraviolet light, carbon dioxide baited CDC light and gravid traps; and tested the captured mosquitoes for the presence of virus to evaluate mosquito-virus associations in rural/agricultural settings in the area. Results A total of 43 species of mosquitoes from seven genera were collected, including 15 Culex species, 15 Anopheles spp., four Aedes spp., three Armigeres spp., one Mimomyia spp., two Uranotaenia spp. and three Mansonia spp.. Species richness and diversity varied between Mangshi and Ruili. Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles sinensis and Anopheles peditaeniatus were the most abundant species in both sampling sites. Ultraviolet light traps collected more specimens than CDC light traps baited with dry ice, though both collected the same variety of mosquito species. The CDC gravid trap was the most effective trap for capture of Culex quinquefasciatus, a species underrepresented in light trap collections. A total of 26 virus strains were isolated, which included 13 strains of Japanese encephalitis virus, four strains of Getah virus, one strain of Oya virus, one strain from the orbivirus genus, and seven strains of Culex pipien pallens densovirus. Conclusions The present study illustrates the value of monitoring mosquito populations and mosquito-transmitted viruses year-round in areas where the climate supports year-round adult mosquito activity. PMID:24146951
Yang, Wei-Hong; Feng, Yun; Nasci, Roger S.; Yang, Jie; Liu, Yong-Hua; Dong, Chao-Liang; Li, Shi; Zhang, Bao-Sen; Yin, Zheng-Liu; Wang, Pi-Yu; Fu, Shi-Hong; Li, Ming-Hua; Liu, Fen; Zhang, Juan; Sun, Jie; Li, Can-Wei; Gao, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Hong; Wang, Huan-Yu; Petersen, Lyle R.; Liang, Guo-Dong
Jet-like phytoplankton blooms usually occur off the southwestern coast of the South China Sea (SCS) caused by strong winds during summer monsoons. However a jet-like phytoplankton patch was observed in the western SCS in the spring intermonsoon of 2010 in both field and remote sensing data. The present study investigated the biological processes associated with this spring phytoplankton patchiness. The data showed that chlorophyll a concentrations increased in the surface water, extending out to the SCS, and the depth of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum uplifted from 75 m to 50 m depth; low dissolved oxygen, low pH and nutrient enrichment (nitrate+nitrite and soluble reactive phosphate) were observed in the subsurface water (50 to ~200 m depth). Data analysis showed that variations in chlorophyll a, nutrients and temperature in the water column were related to wind-stress curl: the spatial distribution pattern and vertical structure of the phytoplankton patchiness were controlled by vertical flux of nutrients caused by curl-driven upwelling through Ekman pumping. There was a high correlation between chlorophyll a concentration and wind-stress curl where the influence of nutrient influx from the coast was limited. This study shows the importance of wind-stress curl in providing nutrients to support phytoplankton growth during the spring intermonsoon along the western coast of SCS. It may help to better understand the role of wind in marine biological processes.
Wang, Jiu-Juan; Tang, Dan Ling
The current study investigated the development and reproductive health of western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) in the Hanxi River, which has been heavily contaminated by municipal wastewaters from towns in Dongguan of southern China. Western mosquitofish collected from four study sites, Songmu (SM), Yangwu (YW), Hengli (HL), and Zhangcun (ZC) of the Hanxi River, as well as a reference site (LX) of the Liuxi River, were dissected and analyzed for development parameters (total length, wet body mass, liver mass, gonad index, and population composition), reproductive parameters (oocyte count and weight of females, and sperm count and viability of males), and morphology (anal fin in males and females, and hemal spines in males). With the exception of the origin site (SM), mosquitofish from the Hanxi River exhibited significantly decreasing development and reproduction levels. Significant correlations were found for the collected mosquitofish between the morphological and reproductive indexes (ratio of perpendicular distance to tip to vertical distance from the tip on the 16th hemal spine) versus the sperm count of males; ratio 16P:16D versus sperm viability of males; segments of anal fin ray 3 versus oocyte count of females; and segments of anal fin ray 3 versus average oocyte mass of females. The results demonstrated that both male and female mosquitofish in the Hanxi River were affected by the discharged wastewaters, as reflected in their morphological changes in comparison with those of mosquitofish from the reference site. PMID:20853458
Xie, Yong-Ping; Fang, Zhan-Qiang; Hou, Li-Ping; Ying, Guang-Guo
High-resolution ocean color observations offer an opportunity to investigate the oceanic small-scale processes. In this study, the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) daily 300 m data were used to study small-scale processes in the western South China Sea. It is indicated that the cyclonic eddies with horizontal scales of 10 km are frequently observed during the upwelling season of each year over the 2004-2009 period. These small-scale eddies were generated in the vicinity of the southern front of the cold tongue, and then propagated eastward with a speed of approximately 12 cm s-1. This propagation speed was consistent with the velocity of the western boundary current. As a result, the small-scale eddies kept the high levels of phytoplankton rotating away from the coastal areas, resulting in the accumulation of phytoplankton in the interior of the eddies. The generation of the small-scale eddies may be associated with strengthening of the relative movement between the rotation speed of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies and the offshore transport. With the increases of the normalized rotation speed of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies relative to the offshore transport, the offshore current became a meander under the impacts of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies. The meandered cold tongue and instability front may stimulate the generation of the small-scale eddies. Unidirectional uniform wind along the cold tongue may also contribute to the formation of the small-scale eddies.
Liu, F.; Tang, S.; Chen, C.
High-resolution ocean color observation offers an opportunity to investigate the oceanic small-scale processes. In this study, The Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) daily 300 m data are used to study small-scale processes in the western South China Sea. It is indicated that the cyclonic eddies with horizontal scales of the order of 10 km are frequently observed during upwelling season of each year over 2004-2009. These small-scale eddies are generated in the vicinity of the southern front of the cold tongue, and then propagate eastward with a speed of approximately 12 cm s-1. This propagation speed is consistent with the velocity of the western boundary current. As a result, the small-scale eddies keep rotating high levels of the phytoplankton away from the coastal areas, resulting in the accumulation of phytoplankton in the interior of the eddies. The generation of the small-scale eddies may be associated with strengthening of the relative movement between the rotation speed of the anticylconic mesoscale eddies and the offshore transport. With the increases of the normalized rotation speed of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies relative to the offshore transport, the offshore current become meander under the impacts of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies. The meandered cold tongue and instability front may stimulate the generation of the small-scale eddies. Unidirectional uniform wind along cold tongue may also contribute to the formation of the small-scale eddies.
Liu, F.; Tang, S.; Chen, C.
This paper presents the results of a paleomagnetic study undertaken on samples from Lower Triassic and Lower Cretaceous sediments within the northeastern Sichuan Basin, China, in an area close to the Daba Mountains. Stepwise thermal demagnetization was used to isolate the characteristic higher temperature component (HTC) for these samples. These HTC (T1: D = 53.7°, I = 21.6°, ?95 = 6.5°; K1: D = 28.9°, I = 25.7°, ?95 = 6.6°) passed both fold and reversal tests, and indicate that these sediments have undergone sequential clockwise rotations relative to the Sichuan basin. These detected tectonic rotations were probably caused by the obstruction of the Hannan massif during Mesozoic thrusting within the southern Daba Mountains. The northeastern Sichuan Basin and the central Yangtze Fold Belt formed part of a continuous belt of basins (the northern Yangtze Basin), and acted as a coherent tectonic domain during the Early-Middle Jurassic. The Daba Mountains and the central Yangtze Fold Belt subsequently underwent rapid uplift and cooling around the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. This suggests that tectonic rotations within both the central Yangtze Fold Belt and the Daba Mountains were very probably caused by intra-continental deformation over a long period of time rather than a single tectonic event.
Wang, Bin; Zhang, Guowei; Yang, Zhenyu
Summary This study was designed to measure the performance of county health systems in central and western China utilizing routine\\u000a healthcare data. Drawing on a literature review and expert consultation, the study established a theoretical framework and\\u000a an indicator system for performance review. Questionnaires were designed and disseminated to collect empirical data on health\\u000a system performance in four counties of two
Jun Shi; Liang Zhang; Yue Liu; Jiangbo Wang; Chris Scarf; Juyang Xiong
The 12 May 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in the People's Republic of China represented a unique opportunity for the international community to use commonly available GIS (Geographic Information System) tools, like Google Earth (GE), to rapidly evaluate and assess landslide hazards triggered by the destructive earthquake and its aftershocks. In order to map earthquake-triggered landslides, we provide details on the applicability and limitations of publicly available 3-day-post- and pre-earthquake imagery provided by GE from the FORMOSAT-2 (formerly ROCSAT-2; Republic of China Satellite 2). We interpreted landslides on the 8-m-resolution FORMOSAT-2 image by GE; as a result, 257 large landslides were mapped with the highest concentration along the Beichuan fault. An estimated density of 0.3 landslides/km2 represents a minimum bound on density given the resolution of available imagery; higher resolution data would have identified more landslides. This is a preliminary study, and further study is needed to understand the landslide characteristics in detail. Although it is best to obtain landslide locations and measurements from satellite imagery having high resolution, it was found that GE is an effective and rapid reconnaissance tool. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.
Sato, H.P.; Harp, E.L.
Sediment plumes and shelf clinoforms can be traced almost continuously from the Yangtse until the Mekong Delta as a unique morphodynamics feature of the northern and western marginal parts of the South China Sea. Major sediment plumes originate at the mouths of large rivers, namely the Yangtse, Pearl, Red and Mekong Rivers and extend several hundred kilometers in downdrift direction which is governed mainly by the monsoonal system with the prevailing winter-monsoon winds from NE. Outside the zone of influence of these large rivers we find numerous small mountainous rivers between the Yangtse and Pearl Rivers in SE China and between the Red and Mekong Rivers in central Vietnam providing high amounts of detrital sediments as well. Age control provides clear evidence that the shelf clinoforms developed after 8200 calendar years BP together with a re-organization of the coastal zone and the onset of major modern river deltas after the last phase of accelerated sea-level rise in the Early Holocene, 9000 - 8200 calendar years BP. For the last century 210-Pb activity profiles reveal complex sedimentary processes with event deposition and frequent erosion and re-deposition with average accumulation rates up to 1.5 cm/yr. Suspended sediment contents (SSC) were measured on the Vietnam Shelf. Key regions like the Gulf of Tonkin and the Mekong delta show a strong monsoonal signal as well as a strong tidal signal in the inter-monsoonal period by significant areas of SSCs greater than 25 ?l/l even in the inter-monsoonal season. Suspended sediments exhibit distinct seasonal variability while the deposits of shelf clinoforms reflect the average long-term accumulation patterns of terrigenous sediments sometimes winnowed by marine sedimentation and/or masked by bioturbation.
Stattegger, K.; Unverricht, D.; Szczucinski, W.; Liu, Z.; Heinrich, C.; Nguyen, T. C.; Lahajnar, N.
Glaciers in the Tuotuo River basin, western China, have been monitored in recent decades by applying topographical maps and\\u000a high-resolution satellite images. Results indicate that most of glaciers in the Tuotuo River basin have retreated in the period\\u000a from 1968\\/1971 to 2001\\/2002, and their shrinkage area is 3.2% of the total area in the late 1960s. To assess the influence
Yong Zhang; Shiyin Liu; Junli Xu; Donghui Shangguan
Twenty-eight traditional sourdough samples for Chinese steamed breads were collected from the western region in Inner Mongolia of China. The values of pH and the total titratable acidity (TTA) of sourdoughs varied from 2.78–5.13 to 8.3–15.5 mL, respectively. In all samples, the number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) ranged from 6.56 to 8.72 Log cfu\\/g, while the amount of yeasts ranged
Jiachao Zhang; Wenjun Liu; Zhihong Sun; Qiuhua Bao; Fang Wang; Jie Yu; Wei Chen; Heping Zhang
Major and trace element as well as Sr–Nd isotopic compositions of mid-Cretaceous lavas across western Shandong Province, China\\u000a have been studied. These lavas can be generally divided into southern Shandong group (including Pingyi and Mengyin) and northern\\u000a Shandong group (including Laiwu and Zouping) based on their geochemistry. The southern group lavas are characterized by extreme\\u000a enrichment in LREE, large ion
Jifeng Ying; Xinhua Zhou; Hongfu Zhang
Bacteria and archaea sustain subsurface cave ecosystems by dominating primary production and fueling biogeochemical cyclings, despite the permanent darkness and shortage of nutrients. However, the heterogeneity and underlying mechanism of microbial diversity in caves, in particular those well connect to surface environment are largely unexplored. In this study, we examined the bacterial abundance and composition in Jinjia Cave, a small and shallow limestone cave located on the western Loess Plateau of China, by enumerating and pyrosequencing small subunit rRNA genes. The results clearly reveal the contrasting bacterial community compositions in relation to cave habitat types, i.e., rock wall deposit, aquatic sediment, and sinkhole soil, which are differentially connected to the surface environment. The deposits on the cave walls were dominated by putative cave-specific bacterial lineages within the ?-Proteobacteria or Actinobacteria that are routinely found on cave rocks around the world. In addition, sequence identity with known functional groups suggests enrichments of chemolithotrophic bacteria potentially involved in autotrophic C fixation and inorganic N transformation on rock surfaces. By contrast, bacterial communities in aquatic sediments were more closely related to those in the overlying soils. This is consistent with the similarity in elemental composition between the cave sediment and the overlying soil, implicating the influence of mineral chemistry on cave microhabitat and bacterial composition. These findings provide compelling molecular evidence of the bacterial community heterogeneity in an East Asian cave, which might be controlled by both subsurface and surface environments.
Wu, Yucheng; Tan, Liangcheng; Liu, Wuxing; Wang, Baozhan; Wang, Jianjun; Cai, Yanjun; Lin, Xiangui
Precipitation variation on the Loess Plateau (LP) of China is not only important for rain-fed agriculture in this environmentally sensitive region, but also critical for the water and life securities over the whole Yellow River basin. Here we reconstruct high resolution precipitation variation on the western LP during the past 370 years by using two replicated, annually-laminated stalagmites. Spatial analysis suggests that the reconstruction can be also representative for the whole LP region. The precipitation variations show a significant quasi-50 year periodicity during the last 370 years, and have an important role in determining the runoff of the middle Yellow River. The main factor controlling the decadal scale variations and long-term trend in precipitation over this region is southerly water vapour transport associated with the Asian summer monsoon. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation is also an important influence on precipitation variation in this region, as it can affect the East Asian summer monsoon and the West Pacific Subtropical High.
Tan, Liangcheng; An, Zhisheng; Huh, Chih-An; Cai, Yanjun; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Shiau, Liang-Jian; Yan, Libin; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence
Precipitation variation on the Loess Plateau (LP) of China is not only important for rain-fed agriculture in this environmentally sensitive region, but also critical for the water and life securities over the whole Yellow River basin. Here we reconstruct high resolution precipitation variation on the western LP during the past 370 years by using two replicated, annually-laminated stalagmites. Spatial analysis suggests that the reconstruction can be also representative for the whole LP region. The precipitation variations show a significant quasi-50 year periodicity during the last 370 years, and have an important role in determining the runoff of the middle Yellow River. The main factor controlling the decadal scale variations and long-term trend in precipitation over this region is southerly water vapour transport associated with the Asian summer monsoon. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation is also an important influence on precipitation variation in this region, as it can affect the East Asian summer monsoon and the West Pacific Subtropical High. PMID:25223372
Tan, Liangcheng; An, Zhisheng; Huh, Chih-An; Cai, Yanjun; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Shiau, Liang-Jian; Yan, Libin; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence
A recent provincial conference on planned parenthood work convened by the Sichuan Provincial People's Government proposed: It is necessary to further strengthen party committee leadership, persistently grasp together the 2 kinds of production, and, while carrying out propaganda and education with great fanfare, adopt legal, administrative, and economic measures to fulfill this year's population plan and unswervingly do a good job of insuring that each couple has only 1 child. A new situation has appeared in the province's planned parenthood work since last year. Some 1,466,000 couples have insured that they will only have 1 child, accounting for 78.8% of the couples of childbearing age who presently have only 1 child. Although the province was facing a peak birth last year, the natural population growth rate actually fell to 6.7/1000. The population growth rate in Mianyang Prefecture has greatly decreased. The population growth rate has now fallen below 5/1000 in 62 counties, municipalities and districts. Mianyang is the largest prefecture in Sichuan. Last year its natural population growth rate fell to 3.5%. Its primary experience is that the leading cadres at all levels must personally and repeatedly grasp the work and grasp together the 2 kinds of production. It is worth noting that, to control the population, it is necessary to strengthen leadership over large and backward counties. If the population growth declines in these counties, it can also decline very fast in a whole prefecture and in the whole province. The conference demanded that the province step up propaganda work and patiently and meticulously carry out persuasive education. The emphasis should be on commendation and reward. It is necessary to take legal, administrative and economic measures against those who refuse to practice planned parenthood despite education and persuasion, in order to stimulate them to mend their ways. After discussion, the meeting put forward a number of views on amending the trial regulations on a number of issues in Sichuan's planned parenthood work. At its conclusion, the conference commended Mianyang, Wenjiang, Chongqing, and Jiangjin prefectures and municipalities and 81 other counties, municipalities, and districts including Shifang, Jiangjin and Guangyuan, and presented awards to them. PMID:12311429
The Ms 8.0, Wenchuan earthquake, which devastated the mountainous western rim of the Sichuan basin in central China, produced a surface rupture over 200??km-long with oblique thrust/dextral slip and maximum scarp heights of ~ 10??m. It thus ranks as one of the world's largest continental mega-thrust events in the last 150??yrs. Field investigation shows clear surface breaks along two of the main branches of the NE-trending Longmen Shan thrust fault system. The principal rupture, on the NW-dipping Beichuan fault, displays nearly equal amounts of thrust and right-lateral slip. Basin-ward of this rupture, another continuous surface break is observed for over 70??km on the parallel, more shallowly NW-dipping Pengguan fault. Slip on this latter fault was pure thrusting, with a maximum scarp height of ~ 3.5??m. This is one of the very few reported instances of crustal-scale co-seismic slip partitioning on parallel thrusts. This out-of-sequence event, with distributed surface breaks on crustal mega-thrusts, highlights regional, ~ EW-directed, present day crustal shortening oblique to the Longmen Shan margin of Tibet. The long rupture and large offsets with strong horizontal shortening that characterize the Wenchuan earthquake herald a re-evaluation of tectonic models anticipating little or no active shortening of the upper crust along this edge of the plateau, and require a re-assessment of seismic hazard along potentially under-rated active faults across the densely populated western Sichuan basin and mountains. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.
Liu-Zeng, J.; Zhang, Z.; Wen, L.; Tapponnier, P.; Sun, Jielun; Xing, X.; Hu, G.; Xu, Q.; Zeng, L.; Ding, L.; Ji, C.; Hudnut, K.W.; van der Woerd, J.
Background The 20th century was marked by a significant improvement in worldwide human health and access to healthcare. However, these improvements were not completely or uniformly distributed among, or even within, nations. This study was designed to assess the use of maternal health services by pregnant women in China, with a focus on the inequity related to family income level. Methods Two population-based cross-sectional surveys were carried out in the Zhenan and Lantian counties in March 2007 and from December 2008 to March 2009. A total of 2562 women completed the questionnaires, including 948 who were pregnant in 2006 and 1614 from 2008–2009. The concentration index (CI) was calculated and used to analyze the parameters of maternal health care in the two counties surveyed. Results The responses in both 2006 and 2008–2009 indicated a bias towards higher (rich) economic statuses for the use of maternal and child health services. The CI of ‘delivery at health facility’ was 0.0206 (95% confidence interval between 0.0114 and 0.0299) for 2006 and 0.0053 (95% confidence interval between 0.0015 and 0.0091) for 2008, which represented a statistically significant inequity for women of lower (poor) economic statuses. Similar CI was observed in ‘receiving antenatal care within 12?weeks’ for 2006 (CI2006 =?0.0956, 95% confidence interval between 0.0516 and 0.1396). The CIs of ‘postnatal visit’ and ‘postnatal visit >3-times’ was positive (except for 2006), indicating that the poor used postnatal care less than the non-poor. In 2008, poor women had C-sections more often than non-poor women (CI2008 =??0.0629, 95% confidence interval between-0.1165 and ?0.0093), but such a difference was not observed in 2006. Conclusions In 2006 and 2008, the use of maternal health services in western rural China was significantly unequal between pregnant women of poor and non-poor economic statuses. Financial support that enables poorer pregnant women to use health services will be beneficial. Utilization of maternal healthcare services can be improved if out-of-pocket expenses can be minimized. PMID:24708641
Jehol Biota is known by us as the biological assemblage of eosestheria, Ephemeropsis trisetalis and Lycoptera at the beginning. And then we found more fossils at near time such as Sinosauropteryx, Confuciusornis, Cathayornis, Callobatrachus sanyanensis, Archaefructaceae and other fossils in Western Liaoning, China. With the finding of those fossils, we become to think about what is the environment of this area in that time, what led to the development of such livings? In early Cretaceous, there are a lot of basins in North of Liaoning which were with plain layer in side, a lot of Lakes and volcano campaign frequently. We built up a section located in Sihetun of Liaoning with the layer is volcano-lake face. Date of the bottom is Aptian period. From TEX86 dates, we can know that the Paleatemperature is from? (the samples from the bottom is on testing and will be known soon, ), 17°C (Lake surface temperature, in the middle layer), and then 22°C(Lake surface temperature, on the top of the layer). The climate was changed from the seasonal arid or semi-arid into a warm and humid climate. With his kind of changing of the environment, the lives of Jehol Biota can survive, evolve and multiple in those basins. The movement of the volcano took the nutrients from the earth which made a flourishing many plants and plankton. This is the power of the evolution of plants. The early angiosperm came out in this time in this area which is called as Archaefructaceae. In the same time, the direction-sense, mass death of the birds and the macrofaunas showed that the exploration of the volcanoes made a lot of animals die and then be covered very quickly. In such an area where death and living was fast, there must be a quickly evolution. And it led to the formation and preservation of a large number of fossils. we found the same fossils out of the basin but later on date which showed the climate transferred to hot and dry later, and the livings in the basin were strong enough so that they could moved out of the basin at the last time. Section Map of Jehol Biota in North of Lliaoning, China LST by TEX86 in Jehol Biota layer Lake surface temperature using calibration of Powers et al., 2010, Organic Geochemistry
Wang, M.; Weijers, J.; Wang, C.; 973 Project; Igcp555
Background To date, the Lower Cretaceous Jehol Group of western Liaoning, China has yielded five monotypic genera of anurans, including Liaobatrachus grabaui, Callobatrachus sanyanensis, Mesophryne beipiaoensis, Dalianbatrachus mengi, and Yizhoubatrachus macilentus. However, the validity and distinctness of these taxa have been questioned. Methodology/Principal Finding We provide a comprehensive analysis of the Jehol frogs that includes a re-examination of the published taxa as well as an examination of a number of new specimens that have been collected over the past 10 years. The results show that the five previously named taxa can be referred to three species of one genus–Liaobatrachus grabaui, L. beipiaoensis comb. nov. and L. macilentus comb. nov.. The diagnosis of Liaobatrachus is revised, and a new diagnosis is provided for each species of this genus. We also establish Liaobatrachus zhaoi sp. nov., on the basis of a dozen well-preserved specimens from a new locality. This taxon is distinguished by a unique combination of characteristics, including relatively long hind limbs, a rounded rather than triangular acetabulum, and a gradually-tapering cultriform process of the parasphenoid. In addition, an unnamed frog from a higher horizon, which has narrow sacral diapophyses and particularly long legs, is different from Liaobatrachus and represents another form of anuran in the Jehol Biota. Conclusion/Significance Comparisons with other Mesozoic and extant anurans and the primary phylogenetic analysis both suggest that Liaobatrachus is a member of the anuran crown-group and forms a polytomy with leiopelmatids (Ascaphus and Leiopelma) and the remaining crown-group anurans (Lalagobatrachia). PMID:23922783
Dong, Liping; Ro?ek, Zbyn?k; Wang, Yuan; Jones, Marc E H.
Soil samples were collected from 7 sites in the up-, mid- and down-reach along and nearby the wastewater irrigation channel, western Shenyang of China. The concentrations of selected pollutants (mineral oil, PAHs--polycycle aromatic hydrocarbons and Cd) were determined by UV spectrometer, HPLC and AAS (atomic adsorption spectrometer) spectrometer, respectively. Toxicity effects of soils were evaluated by seedling emergence test with root length of wheat as the end-point and by earthworms test with the mortality rate and inhibition rates of body weight as endpoints. Results showed accumulation of pollutants for most soils with concentration of 200.2 mg x kg(-1)-1600 mg x kg(-1) for mineral oil, 0.33 mg x kg(-1)-1.81 mg x kg(-1) for Cd and 900.16 mg x kg(-1)-2737.91 mg x kg(-1) for PAHs. The inhibition rates of root elongation were from -20% up to 40%, and mortality rates of earthworms ranged from 0%-40% from the exposure period of two weeks to eight weeks by sampling interval of two weeks, the inhibition rates of earthworm growth were from -19.36% to 34.53%, showing effects of stimulation at 2 weeks to an increasing effects of inhibition at 4, 6 and 8 weeks, respectively. Mortality rates correlated with the loss of body weight of earthworms. This study indicated the potential risk of pollutants of environmental low content in soil by the determination of selected chemicals combined with toxicity indexes. PMID:16089329
Song, Yufang; Zhou, Qixing; Gong, Ping; Sun, Tieheng
Telluride-bearing gold deposits of the Pingyi area, western Shandong, China, are located on the southeastern margin of the North China Craton. There are two main types of deposits: (i) mineralized cryptoexplosive breccia, e.g., Guilaizhuang; and (ii) stratified, finely-disseminated mineralization hosted in carbonate rocks, e.g., Lifanggou and Mofanggou deposits. In Guilaizhuang, the cryptoexplosive breccia is formed within rocks of the Tongshi complex and Ordovician dolomite. The mineralization is controlled by an E-W-trending listric fault. Stratified orebodies of the Lifanggou and Mofanggou deposits are placed along a NE-trending, secondary detachment zone. They are hosted within dolomitic limestone, micrite and dolomite of the Early-Middle Cambrian Changqing Group. The mineralization in the ore districts is considered to be related to the Early Jurassic Tongshi magmatic complex that formed in a continental arc setting on the margin of the North China Craton. The host rocks are porphyritic and consist predominantly of medium- to fine-grained diorite and pyroxene (hornblende)-bearing monzonite. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of diorites give a 206Pb/238U weighted mean age of 175.7 ± 3.8 Ma. This is interpreted as representing the crystallization age of the Tongshi magmatic complex. Considering the contact relationships between the magmatic and host sedimentary rocks, as well as the genetic link with the deposits, we conclude that this age is relevant also for the formation of mineralization in the Pingyi area. We hence consider that the deposits formed in the Jurassic. The principal gold minerals are native gold, electrum and calaverite. Wall-rock alteration comprises pyritization, fluoritization, silicification, carbonatization and chloritization. Fluid inclusion studies indicate that all the analyzed inclusions are of two-phase vapor-liquid NaCl-H2O type. Homogenization temperatures of the fluid inclusions vary from 103 °C to 250 °C, and the ice melting temperatures range from -2.5 °C to -13.5 °C, corresponding to a salinity range of 4.65 to 17.26 wt.% NaCl equiv. The ?34S values of pyrite associated with gold mineralization exhibit a narrow range of -0.71 to + 2.99‰, implying that the sulfur was probably derived from the mantle and/or dioritic magma. The ?13CPDB values of the fluid inclusions in calcite range from -7.3 to 0.0‰. The ?18OSMOW values of vein quartz and calcite range from 11.5 to 21.5‰, corresponding to ?18Ofluid values of -1.1 to 10.9‰; ?D values of the fluid inclusions vary between -70 and -48‰. The isotope data for all three deposits suggest mixing of ore-forming fluids derived from the mantle and/or magma with different types of fluids at shallow levels. Pressure release and boiling of the fluids, as well as fluid-rock interaction (Lifanggou and Mofanggou) and mixing of magmatically-derived fluids with meteoritic waters (Guilaizhuang) played an important role in the ore-forming processes.
Hu, H.-B.; Mao, J.-W.; Niu, S.-Y.; Li, Y.-F.; Li, M.-W.
Located at the intersection between a NW-trending slip system and NE-trending rift system in the northern South China Sea, the Qiongdongnan Basin provides key clues for us to understand the proposed extrusion of the Indochina Block along with Red River Fault Zone and extensional margins. In this paper we for the first time systematically reveal the striking structural differences between the western and eastern sector of the Qiongdongnan Basin. Influenced by the NW-trending slip faults, the western Qiongdongnan Basin developed E-W-trending faults, and was subsequently inverted at 30-21 Ma. The eastern sector was dominated by faults with NE orientation before 30 Ma, and thereafter with various orientations from NE, to EW and NW during the period 30-21 Ma; rifting display composite symmetric graben instead of the composite half graben or asymmetric graben in the west. The deep and thermal structures in turn are invoked to account for such deformation differences. The lithosphere of the eastern Qiongdongnan Basin is very hot and thinned because of mantle upwelling and heating, composite symmetric grabens formed and the faults varied with the basal plate boundary. However, the Southern and Northern Uplift area and middle of the central depression is located on normal lithosphere and formed half grabens or simple grabens. The lithosphere in the western sector is transitional from very hot to normal. Eventually, the Paleogene tectonic development of the Qiongdongnan Basin may be summarized into three stages with dominating influences, the retreat of the West Pacific subduction zone (44-36 Ma), slow Indochina block extrusion together with slab-pull of the Proto-South China Sea (36-30 Ma), rapid Indochina block extrusion together with the South China Sea seafloor spreading (30-21 Ma).
Zhang, Cuimei; Wang, Zhenfeng; Sun, Zhipeng; Sun, Zhen; Liu, Jianbao; Wang, Zhangwen
The policy of "two exemptions and one subsidy" (TEOS), which is a "popular sentiment" project, has brought life to the western region's rural education and light to impoverished families. In addition to launching the battle for the "two basics" in the western region, the overall popularization of distance education for rural schools in the western…
The Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion in western China hosts the third-largest magmatic Ni-Cu deposit in the world. The crystallization age of the intrusion has long been debated. Here, we present a U-Pb ID-TIMS zircon age of 831.8 ± 0.6 Ma obtained on thermally annealed and chemically etched zircons from a lherzolite sample. The coexisting baddeleyite in the sample is indistinguishable from the age of zircon. Our new results confirm that the emplacement of the Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion was temporally related to the breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent.
Zhang, Mingjie; Kamo, Sandra L.; Li, Chusi; Hu, Peiqing; Ripley, Edward M.
The Yabulai petroliferous basin is located at the north of Hexi Corridor, western China, striking NEE and covering an area of 1.5×104 km2. It is bounded on the south by Beidashan Mountain to the Chaoshui Basin, on the east by Bayanwulashan Mountain to the Bayanhaote Basin, and on the northwest by Yabulai Mountain to the Yingen-Ejinaqi Basin. It is a Meso-cenozoic compressive depression residual basin. In view of regional geotectonics, the Yabulai basin sits in the middle-southern transition belt of Arershan massif in North China Craton. Driven by Indosinian movement at the late Triassic, two near EW normal faults were developed under the regional extensional stress along the northern fringe of Beidashan Mountain and the southern fringe of Yabulai Mountain front in the Arershan massif, forming the embryonic form of the Yabulai rift lake basin. Since Yanshan period, the Yabulai basin evolved in two major stages: Jurassic rift lake basin and Cretaceous rift lake basin. During early Yanshan period, EW striking Yabulai tensional rift was formed. Its major controlling fault was Beidashan normal fault, and the depocenter was at the south of this basin. During middle Yanshan period, collision orogenesis led to sharp uplift at the north of this basin where the middle-lower Jurassic formations were intensely eroded. During late Yanshan period, the Alashan massif and its northern area covered in an extensional tectonic environment, and EW striking normal faults were generated at the Yabulai Mountain front. Such faults moved violently and subsided quickly to form a new EW striking extensional rift basin with the depocenter at the south of Yabulai Mountain. During Himalayan period, the Alashan massif remained at a SN horizontal compressional tectonic environment; under the compressional and strike slip actions, a NW striking and south dipping thrusting nappe structure was formed in the south of the Yabulai basin, which broke the Beidashan normal fault to provide the echelon fault system and finally present the current structural framework of "east uplift and west depression, south faulted and north overlapping". The Yabulai basin presented as a strike-slip pull-apart basin in Mesozoic and a compressional thrusting depression basin in Cenozoic. Particularly, the Mesozoic tectonic units were distributed at a big included angle with the long axis of the basin, while the Cenozoic tectonic units were developed in a basically consistent direction with the long axis. The sags are segmented. Major subsiding sags are located in the south, where Mesozoic Jurassic-Cretaceous systems are developed, with the thickest sedimentary rocks up to 5300m. Jurassic is the best developed system in this basin. Middle Jurassic provides the principal hydrocarbon-bearing assemblage in this basin, with Xinhe Fm. and Qingtujing Fm. dark mudstone and coal as the source rocks, Xinhe Fm. and Qingtujing Fm. sandstones as the reservoir formation, and Xinhe Fm. mudstones as the cap rocks. However, the early burial and late uplifting damaged the structural framework of the basin, thus leading to the early violent compaction and tightness of Jurassic sandstone reservoir and late hydrocarbon maturity. So, tectonic development period was unmatched to hydrocarbon expulsion period of source rocks. The hydrocarbons generated were mainly accumulated near the source rocks and entrapped in reservoir. Tight oil should be the major exploration target, which has been proved by recent practices.
Zheng, Min; Wu, Xiaozhi
The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is an invasive species and the most economically important pest within the insect order Thysanoptera. F. occidentalis, which is endemic to North America, was initially detected in Kunming in southwestern China in 2000 and since then it has rapidly invaded several other localities in China where it has greatly damaged greenhouse vegetables and ornamental crops. Controlling this invasive pest in China requires an understanding of its genetic makeup and migration patterns. Using the mitochondrial COI gene and 10 microsatellites, eight of which were newly isolated and are highly polymorphic, we investigated the genetic structure and the routes of range expansion of 14 F. occidentalis populations in China. Both the mitochondrial and microsatellite data revealed that the genetic diversity of F. occidentalis of the Chinese populations is lower than that in its native range. Two previously reported cryptic species (or ecotypes) were found in the study. The divergence in the mitochondrial COI of two Chinese cryptic species (or ecotypes) was about 3.3% but they cannot be distinguished by nuclear markers. Hybridization might produce such substantial mitochondrial-nuclear discordance. Furthermore, we found low genetic differentiation (global FST?=?0.043, P<0.001) among all the populations and strong evidence for gene flow, especially from the three southwestern populations (Baoshan, Dali and Kunming) to the other Chinese populations. The directional gene flow was further supported by the higher genetic diversity of these three southwestern populations. Thus, quarantine and management of F. occidentalis should focus on preventing it from spreading from the putative source populations to other parts of China. PMID:22509325
Yang, Xian-Ming; Sun, Jing-Tao; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Li, Jin-Bo; Hong, Xiao-Yue
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore a successful case of a Chinese state-owned enterprise (SOE) as it applied western organization development (OD) approaches. Specifically, this study seeks to answer two questions: How has western organization development and change (OD/C) been applied in one Chinese SOE? and What lessons can be…
Are western community psychiatric models suitable for China? An examination of cultural and socio-economic foundations of western community psychiatry models using assertive community treatment as an example
Western community psychiatry models, such as Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) and Case Management, are well-studied and considered to be effective and cost-effective; in particular, ACT is perceived as a gold standard for community treatment of severe and persistently mentally ill patients. With China's recent rapid economic reform and attendant cultural and healthcare system changes, it is timely to examine the
Samuel F. Law
This paper describes and analyses the public health system response to the deadly earthquake in Sichuan province, China, in May 2008. Drawing on an experiential learning project consisting of a literature review and field research, including a series of interviews with medical and public health professionals, policy-makers and first responders, a conceptual framework was developed to describe the response. This approach emphasises the pre-existing preparedness level of the medical and public health systems, as well as social, economic and geo-political factors that had an impact on mitigation efforts. This framework was used to conduct post-disaster analyses addressing major response issues and examining methods employed during the public health response to the disaster. This framework could be used to describe and analyse the emergency response to other disasters. PMID:25196335
Lin, Leesa; Ashkenazi, Isaac; Dorn, Barry C; Savoia, Elena
A 51 m deep ice core was re-drilled on the Dunde Ice Cap of western China in 2002, 15 years after the previous ice core drilling in 1987. Dating by seasonal variations in delta18O and particle concentration showed that this 51 m deep ice core covered approximately the last 150 years. The stratigraphy and density showed that more than 90%
Nozomu Takeuchi; Takayuki Miyake; Fumio Nakazawa; Hideki Narita; Koji Fujita; Akiko Sakai; Masayoshi Nakawo; Yoshiyuki Fujii; Keqin Duan; Tandong Yao
Based on aerial photographs, topographical maps and the Landsat-5 image data, we have analyzed fluctuations of glaciers in the western Qilian Shan, northwest China, from the Little Ice Age (LIA) to 1990. The areas and volumes of glaciers in the whole considered region decreased 15% and 18%, respectively, from the LIA maximum to 1956.This trend of glacier shrinkage continued and
Liu Shiyin; Sun Wenxin; Shen Yongping; Li Gang
To improve the interpretation of fossil pollen records, we analyzed the relationships between modern pollen taxa and climate data and established a pollen–climate calibration using the northern and western Chinese modern pollen dataset to demonstrate its potential for the reconstruction of past climate dynamics in the semi-arid and arid regions of China. Analysis of pollen and climate data involved Pearson's
Chuanxiu Luo; Zhuo Zheng; Pavel Tarasov; Takeshi Nakagawa; Anding Pan; Qinghai Xu; Houyuan Lu; Kangyou Huang
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore a successful case of a Chinese state-owned enterprise (SOE) as it applied western organization development (OD) approaches. Specifically, this study seeks to answer two questions: How has western organization development and change (OD\\/C) been applied in one Chinese SOE? and What lessons can be learned from this successful case? Design\\/methodology\\/approach
Human cystic echinococcosis, caused by infection with the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, and alveolar echinococcosis, caused by the larval form of E. multilocularis, are known to be important public health problems in western China. Echinococcus shiquicus is a new species of Echinococcus recently described in wildlife hosts from the eastern Tibetan plateau and its infectivity and/or pathogenicity in humans remain unknown. In the current study, parasite tissues from various organs were collected post-operatively from 68 echinococcosis patients from Sichuan and Qinghai provinces in eastern China. The tissues were examined by histopathology and genotyped using DNA sequencing and PCR-RFLP. Histopathologically, 38 human isolates were confirmed as E. granulosus and 30 as E. multilocularis. Mitochondrial cob gene sequencing and PCR-RFLP with rrnL as the target gene confirmed 33 of 53 of the isolates to have the G1 genotype of sheep/dog strain of E. granulosus as the only source of infection, while the remaining 20 isolates were identified as E. multilocularis. No infections were found to be caused by E. shiquicus. Additionally, 5 of 20 alveolar echinococcosis patients were confirmed to have intracranial metastases from primary hepatic alveolar echinococcosis lesions. All these cases originated from four provinces or autonomous regions but most were distributed in Sichuan and Qinghai provinces, where high prevalence rates of human alveolar echinococcosis and cystic echinococcosis were previously documented. PMID:18396303
Li, Tiaoying; Ito, Akira; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Qiu, Jiamin; Nakao, Minoru; Zhen, Ren; Xiao, Ning; Chen, Xingwang; Giraudoux, Patrick; Craig, Philip S
China's fuel gas sector: History, current status, and future prospects Chi-Jen Yang a,c,*, Yipei Sichuan University, Chengdu, China c Nicholas School of the Environment, Box 90338, Duke University petroleum gas China a b s t r a c t China has a unique urban pipeline network of three types of fuel gases
Jackson, Robert B.
Data from a subsurface mooring deployed in the western South China Sea shows clear intra-seasonal oscillations (ISO) at the period of 40?70 days. Analysis of remotely-sensed sea surface height (SSH) anomalies in the same area indicates that these ISO signals propagate both eastward and westward. Time-longitude diagrams of ISO signals in SSH anomalies and wind-stress curl indicate that the eastward propagating SSH anomalies is forced by wind-stress curl. This is also confirmed by lag correlation between SSH anomalies and the wind-stress-curl index (wind stress curl averaged over 109.5°E -115°E and 12°N -13.5°N). Lag correlation of SSH anomaly suggests that the westward propagating signals are free Rossby waves.
Wu, Xiangyu; Xie, Qiang; He, Zhigang; Wang, Dongxiao
Stable lead (Pb) isotopic fingerprints provide opportunities to trace natural and anthropogenic Pb sources in the environment. In order to evaluate Pb deposition from different sources over mountainous areas of western China, Pb isotopic compositions were characterized from modern aeolian dust in 15 snowpit samples collected from 13 typical mountain glaciers between 2008 and 2010. Most of the snowpits sampled cover more than a whole year of accumulation and overlap with each other on deposition date. Pb isotopic variability among all the samples is small, varying in the range of 18.1399-18.9199 for 206Pb/204Pb, 15.5979-15.8743 for 207Pb/204Pb, 38.2272-39.9453 for 208Pb/204Pb, 1.1605-1.2009 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.4433-2.5182 for 208Pb/207Pb. Three isotopic plots of the different Pb isotope ratios (207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb, 208Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/207Pb vs. 206Pb/207Pb) in all the samples show identical geographic trends, with more radiogenic in the south and less in the north. This trend is consistent with the distribution of natural dust sources and supports the interpretation of a regional/local source for insoluble particles (IP) to snow/glaciers in this region. Comparison with the Pb isotope results from potential dust sources, however, it shows that the Pb isotopic compositions of IP samples in snow samples are relatively less radiogenic. Parts of these less-radiogenic Pb isotopes are comparable with the ice core results during recent decades, which are shown to be influenced by anthropogenic sources. At sites located along the periphery of western China, the Pb isotopic compositions are much closer to anthropogenic results. Natural and anthropogenic Pb sources are roughly assessed using a simple binary model. The sites with a high anthropogenic fraction are at lower elevations and are relatively close to population centers.
Yu, Guangming; Xu, Jianzhong; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong; Huang, Jie; Ren, Qian; Ren, Jiawen; Qin, Dahe
Leprosy continues to be detected at near stable rates in China even with established control programs, necessitating new knowledge and alternative methods to interrupt transmission. A molecular epidemiology investigation of 190 patients was undertaken to define Mycobacterium leprae strain types and discern genetic relationships and clusters in endemic and non-endemic regions spanning seventeen provinces and two autonomous regions. The findings support multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis as a useful tool in uncovering characteristic patterns across the multiethnic and divergent geographic landscape of China. Several scenarios of clustering of leprosy from township to provincial to regional levels were recognized, while recent occupational or remote migration showed geographical separation of certain strains. First, prior studies indicated that of the four major M. leprae subtypes defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), only type 3 was present in China, purportedly entering from Europe/West/Central Asia via the Silk Road. However, this study revealed VNTR linked strains that are of type 1 in Guangdong, Fujian and Guangxi in southern China. Second, a subset of VNTR distinguishable strains of type 3, co-exist in these provinces. Third, type 3 strains with rpoT VNTR allele of 4, detected in Japan and Korea were discovered in Jiangsu and Anhui in the east and in western Sichuan bordering Tibet. Fourth, considering the overall genetic diversity, strains of endemic counties of Qiubei, Yunnan; Xing Yi, Guizhou; and across Sichuan in southwest were related. However, closer inspection showed distinct local strains and clusters. Altogether, these insights, primarily derived from VNTR typing, reveal multiple and overlooked paths for spread of leprosy into, within and out of China and invoke attention to historic maritime routes in the South and East China Sea. More importantly, new concepts and approaches for prospective case finding and tracking of leprosy from county to national level have been introduced. PMID:23291419
Weng, Xiaoman; Xing, Yan; Liu, Jian; Wang, Yonghong; Ning, Yong; Li, Ming; Wu, Wenbin; Zhang, Lianhua; Li, Wei; Vander Heiden, Jason; Vissa, Varalakshmi
Modern medicine in China began with the arrival of Anglo-American Protestant missionaries in the early 19th century. Conditions were vastly different from the times of the Jesuits in Peking during the 17th and 18th centuries, when the priests enjoyed the endorsement of the Court and high officials. Faced with hostile and xenophobic officialdom and populace, surgeons of the British East India Company in collaboration with missionaries took the initiative. In 1805 Dr Alexander Pearson (1780-1874) introduced smallpox vaccination in Macao and Canton. Reverend Dr Robert Morrison (1782-1834) of the London Missionary Society with another East India Company Surgeon, Dr John Livingstone (1829) opened a dispensary for the poor in Macao in 1820. These pioneers paved the way for later Anglo-American medical missionaries who revolutionized medical practice in China. PMID:24585751
Grassland fire disasters have occurred frequently and adversely affected livestock agriculture and social-economic development\\u000a greatly in the grassland regions of Jilin province, China. Moreover, both the frequency of grassland fire and loss from them\\u000a are considered to be increasing with the global warming and economic development. This study presents a methodology for risk\\u000a analysis and assessment of grassland fire disaster,
Tong Zhijun; Zhang Jiquan; Liu Xingpeng
Thermoluminescence (TL) of monomineralic separates have been widely used in various geosciences fields in order to trace the\\u000a thermal history and aid in prospecting for gold deposits. Quartz is a ubiquitous mineral in the Shihu gold deposit, which\\u000a is situated in the northern part of the Taihang orogenic belt in the North China craton (NCC). The deposit is hosted by
Ye Cao; Shengrong Li; Meijuan Yao; Huafeng Zhang
The ice-snow melt debris flow in the west part of the Tian Shan Mountains is an important natural hazard. The sediment for the debris flows is derived from the thick Quaternary deposits which occur in the Tain Shan Mountains. Another cause of the debris flows is the ice- snow meltwater and the abundant precipitation in the western part of the
WEI WENSHOU; GAO CUNHAI
The study area is physiogeographically located along the western flank of Songnen Plain, and hydrogeochemically distinguished as a basin with groundwater generally flowing easterly. A total of 196 groundwater samples were collected to not only cover the whole study area but also to extend in different aquifers that include Quaternary phreatic groundwater, Quaternary Baitushan Formation confined groundwater and Neogene confined
Jie Tang; Jianmin Bian; Zhaoyang Li; John Zhu; Chenye Wang
A nearly complete skull of a new ctenochasmatid pterosaur, Pterofiltus qiui gen. et sp. nov., from the Lower Cretaceous deposits of Liaoning, China, is described here. The specimen (IVPP V12339), was collected from the shale of the lower Yixian Formation (125 Ma) at the Zhangjiagou locality. It has the following combination of characters: about 112 teeth in total (including the upper and lower jaws); the dentition occupies more than 50% of the skull length; the anterior teeth vary in size; the mandibular symphysis is longer than half of the whole mandible length; in ventral view, an apparent symphyseal trough in the median part of the symphysis. PMID:22146956
Jiang, Shunxing; Wang, Xiaolin
We have reprocessed about 2250 km of multichannel seismic reflection data collected during cruise Sonne 49 across the NW South China Sea. We present images across four regional lines that cross the outer continental shelf and slope, and extend into the deep-water basin. The seismic images are of high quality and show the crustal structure from clear base-of-the-crust reflections to continuous top-of-basement reflections and a well imaged syn-rift and post rift stratigraphy and intrusive magmatic layering. In addition, fault reflections in the basement are also common. The crystalline basement and sediment strata display a series of structures that change laterally from the continental shelf to the deep-water basin and that have been used to define a continental domain, an abrupt continent to ocean transition and an oceanic domain. Existing wide-angle data coincident with our lines support our interpretation. The style of continental extension, the structures defining the continent to ocean transition, and the distribution of oceanic crust in the basin has been used to propose a tectonic model of the formation of the NW South China Sea continental margin. The data document the three-dimensional temporal evolution of the interplay between rifting processes and seafloor spreading leading to the current structural configuration.
Ranero, Cesar R.; Cameselle, Alejandra L.; Franke, Dieter; Barckhausen, Udo
This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary school. China's goal is to provide universal elementary school education by 1990. Since 1978 the premise of China's economic policy has been that consumer welfare, economic productivity, and political stability are indivisible. Emphasis has been placed on raising personal income and consumption and on introducing new productivity incentive and management systems. Since early 1982 China has placed increasing importance on building closer ties with the 3rd world. China's armed forces total about 4.2 million. In February 1981 the Reagan Administration reaffirmed the US commitment to respect the principles of the 1979 Communique on the Establishment of Diplomatic relations. PMID:12178089
The aim of this study is to explore the differences among older adults who are rural or urban residents with respects to their socioeconomic position, chronic health conditions and medication use. This cross-sectional study included 887 community-dwelling older adults (?60 years) from western China. Trained interviewers collected data from all of the study subjects through face-to-face interviews. Polypharmacy was defined as the concomitant use of five or more medications. A total of 717 participants were included in the study analyses. Compared with their urban counterparts, the older adults in rural China were more likely to have more chronic health conditions, and a lower education level, annual income and insurance coverage rate. In addition, the rural inhabitants were less likely to use medications (58.7% vs. 75.7%, p<0.001). The intensity of medication use (the mean number of drugs) was 1.7 for rural residents and 2.3 for urban residents (p<0.001). The prevalence of polypharmacy was significantly lower in rural residents than urban residents (11.5% vs. 17.5%, p=0.021). Urban residence (odds ratios (OR) 1.89, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.03-3.48), number of chronic conditions (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.16-3.30), diabetes (OR 4.14, 95% CI 2.33-7.37), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.25-3.51) were positively associated with polypharmacy, whereas good self-rated health (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.16-0.65) was negatively associated with polypharmacy. In conclusion, urban residence is independently associated with polypharmacy in Chinese elders regardless of chronic health conditions and socioeconomic status. PMID:25440757
Yang, Ming; Lu, Jing; Hao, Qiukui; Luo, Li; Dong, Birong
Satellite remote sensing technology has been employed by Japex to provide information related to oil exploration programs for many years. Since the beginning of the 1980`s, regional geological interpretation through to advanced studies using satellite imagery with high spectral and spatial resolutions (such as Landsat TM and SPOT HRV), have been carried out, for both exploration programs and for scientific research. Advanced techniques (including analysis of airborne hyper-multispectral imaging sensor data) as well as conventional photogeological techniques were used throughout these programs. The first program using remote sensing technology in China focused on the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and was carried out using Landsat MSS data. Landsat MSS imagery allows us to gain useful preliminary geological information about an area of interest, prior to field studies. About 90 Landsat scenes cover the entire Xinjiang Uygru Autonomous Region, this allowed us to give comprehensive overviews of 3 hydrocarbon-bearing basins (Tarim, Junggar, and Turpan-Hami) in NW China. The overviews were based on the interpretations and assessments of the satellite imagery and on a synthesis of the most up-to-date accessible geological and geophysical data as well as some field works. Pairs of stereoscopic SPOT HRV images were used to generate digital elevation data with a 40 in grid cover for part of the Tarim Basin. Topographic contour maps, created from this digital elevation data, at scales of 1:250,000 and 1:100,000 with contour intervals of 100 m and 50 m, allowed us to make precise geological interpretation, and to carry out swift and efficient geological field work. Satellite imagery was also utilized to make medium scale to large scale image maps, not only to interpret geological features but also to support field workers and seismic survey field operations.
Nishidai, Takashi [Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center, Tokyo (Japan); [Japex Geoscience Institute, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)
On May 12, 2008, a 7.9M earthquake struck Sichuan province of China, causing a huge number of death and injuries, and great loss of properties, becoming the most damaging earthquake since the 1976 Tangshan earthquake, in China. The collapse of buildings during the earthquake is the main reason for the casualties. There are a huge number of landslides that had been triggered by this earthquake. Almost all the roads to the mountainous areas had been blocked and many dams were formed by the displaced landslide materials, resulting in great difficulties for the aftershock rescue activities. Also a big portion of the casualties was directly caused by the landslides. The authors had reconnaissance field trips of the landslides, and performed preliminary investigation on some of the catastrophic ones. In this report, four landslides, i.e., Xiejiadian landslide in Pengzhou city, Donghekou landslide and Magongxiang landslide in Qingchuan County, and Niujuangou landslide on the epicenter area of Yingxiu Town, are introduced. The characteristics of deposited landslide masses in Donghekou landslide were investigated by means of a multichannel surface wave technique. Two earthquake recorders were installed at the upper part and deposit area of Donghekou landslide. The seismic responses of different parts of the landslides were monitored, and recorded successfully during the aftershocks that occurred in Qingchuan County on July 24, 2008. Also the drained and undrained dynamic shear behaviors of samples from the landslide areas were examined. Some preliminary analyzing results will be presented in this report.
Wang, G.; Kamai, T.; Chigira, M.; Wu, X. Y.; Zhang, D. X.
Ongoing underground exploration in the giant Jinchuan Ni-Cu sulfide deposit in western China is beginning to emphasize the\\u000a potential for Cu-, Pt-, and Pd-rich sulfide ores that may have formed by sulfide liquid fractionation. The success of such\\u000a an effort relies on whether or not fractional crystallization of sulfide occurred in the Jinchuan system. In this paper, we\\u000a used available
Shangguo Su; Chusi Li; Mei-Fu Zhou; Edward M. Ripley; Liang Qi
The Junggar Basin is one of the large-scale petroliferous basins in northwestern China. During the Jurassic Age it was a down-warped continental basin. Different types of slope break belts with different origins have been identified in the basin, including the fracture, flexure, erosional and depositional slope break belts. Fracture and flexure slope break belts were mainly developed in the western-margin
Liu Hao; Wang Yingmin; Xin Renchen; Wang Yuan
Background Schizotypal personality traits are associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, stating that schizotypal traits may represent a “prodrome” or other developmental precursor of schizophrenia. Genetic and environmental factors both play importanxt roles in the development of schizotypal traits. Different levels of schizotypal traits across regions may be indicative of similar differences in the incidence of schizophrenia. Aim The present study identifying where in a given region, schizotypal personality traits are more or less level of schizotypal personality scores in Chinese male youth of Sichuan province. Not only for research purposes but also for the evaluation of new draft and allocation policy initiatives intended to aid recruitment of mental health employees. Methods Data from the Psychological Selection Systems for Chinese Recruits, a mental health screening system used in China, collected in 2011 (67,558 copies) were used to map spatial distribution of schizotypal personality traits using geostatistics and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Correlation analyses were conducted to explore the effects of years of education and illiterate rate on schizotypal personality traits. Results Maps for three schizotypal personality clinical scales (dissociative, Dit; neurotic, Net and sensitive, Set) showed similar geographical trends. The highest T scores were distributed mainly in the eastern and northern counties of Sichuan, with scores decreasing successively from east to west, with the eastern counties generally showing higher scores. Correlation analysis showed that t-scores of Set were negatively correlated with years of education, whereas t-scores of Net were negatively correlated with illiteracy rate. Conclusions Schizotypal personality traits in male youth showed specific geographical trends in Sichuan province, providing some evidence that kriging based on GIS can be used to geographically localize genetic and environmental factors associated with schizotypal personality traits. This approach could be used to help allocate public health resources to specific areas and could also have personnel selection applications. PMID:24423022
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infects both domestic and wild animals, causing substantial economic losses. In order to investigate possible infection in Bactrian camels in Western China, a total of 56 blood samples were collected from clinically healthy Bactrian camels and tested for BVDV antigens and antibodies using antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization test. The antigen-positive samples (n=17) were further tested for viral nucleic acids by species-specific real-time RT-PCR assays, which showed presence of BVDV-1, but not BVDV-2 nor atypical bovine pestivirus, in the camel samples. Twelve non-cytopathogenic viruses were isolated and genetically typed by sequencing of the 5'untranslated region (5'UTR) and N(pro) coding sequences. Phylogenetic analysis divided the isolates into six known subgenotypes: BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, BVDV-1c, BVDV-1m, BVDV-1o, BVDV-1p and a putative subgenotype, BVDV-1q. This study provides, for the first time, serological and molecular evidence for natural infection of Bactrian camels in Western China with highly divergent BVDV-1 strains. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the possible roles of Bactrian camels in the epidemiology of BVD in Western China. PMID:23313538
Gao, Shandian; Luo, Jihuai; Du, Junzheng; Lang, Yifei; Cong, Guozheng; Shao, Junjun; Lin, Tong; Zhao, Furong; Belák, Sándor; Liu, Lihong; Chang, Huiyun; Yin, Hong
Sediment records from the Tarim Basin of western China are of great importance for understanding Late Quaternary climatic variability in Central Asia. A chronology of aeolian and lacustrine deposits from the centre and southern margin of the Taklamakan Desert, central Tarim Basin, has been established using optical dating methods. Distinct variations in humidity during the last 40,000 a in this extremely arid inland basin have been identified. Lacustrine sediments were deposited in the centre of the Taklamakan during two periods of wetter than present day conditions at around 2000 and 30,000 a ago. Another humid period is recorded between 40,000 and 30,000 a ago. Aeolian processes, the development of large migrating dune fields dominated during periods of more arid conditions. Sand wedges at the southern margin of the Taklamakan are dated at ca 40,000 a and ca 18,000 a, and imply a significant temperature decrease in that area. Sedimentological evidence for a late Holocene humid period are consistent with records in ancient Chinese literature. Wetter environmental conditions in the past within the Taklamakan, as indicated by the presence of lacustrine deposits, are also supported by data from adjacent regions. It is assumed that changes of global westerlies and of the mobile polar high triggered the fluctuations of precipitation in the study area. However, variations in temperature in the Taklamakan Desert are presumed to be mainly controlled by the intensity of the winter monsoon.
Yang, Xiaoping; Preusser, Frank; Radtke, Ulrich
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), as demonstrated in recently published clinical trials, is one promising approach for controlling the emerging epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). We evaluated the attitudes towards use of PrEP among MSM in western China. A total of 1402 participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Overall, 22% of the participants reported that they had heard of PrEP, <1% had ever used medicine to prevent HIV, and 64% reported that they were absolutely willing to use PrEP if it were proven to be safe and effective. The predictors of willingness to use PrEP included lower education, moderate income compared with the lowest income, never or rarely finding sexual partners through the Internet in the past 6 months, sexually transmitted infection (STI) history, more knowledge of AIDS, worrying about HIV as a threat to themselves and their family, having previously heard of PrEP, and believing that PrEP was effective in preventing HIV. This study demonstrates that Chinese MSM have moderate awareness of PrEP and a high interest in using it. PMID:23425017
Zhang, Yan; Peng, Bin; She, Ying; Liang, Hao; Peng, Hong-Bin; Qian, Han-Zhu; Vermund, Sten H; Zhong, Xiao-Ni; Huang, Ailong
The Gejiu tin district in western Cathaysia block comprises a series of igneous rocks including equigranular and porphyritic granites, gabbro and nepheline syenite. Systematic SHRIMP or LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb analyses of 15 representative samples from various phases of the Gejiu complex yielded Late Cretaceous ages of 78-85 Ma. Based on their mineralogical, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope characteristics, these rocks are categorized into three groups: felsic rocks, alkaline rocks and mafic rocks. The felsic rock group includes the equigranular and porphyritic granites. Geochemical characteristics include high SiO2 contents, enrichment in Rb, Th, U, Nb, Ta, Nd and Hf and depletion in Ba, K, Sr, P, Eu and Ti compared to primitive mantle. REE patterns feature slight LREE enrichment with pronounced negative Eu anomalies. Geochemical data and Sr-, Nd- and Hf-isotopic compositions indicate that the felsic rocks were probably generated by partial melting of crustal source rocks with a minor input from mantle materials. The mafic rocks (gabbro and mafic microgranular enclaves) have distinct geochemical and isotopic features consistent with derivation from an enriched mantle source, with variable degrees of mixing with crustal-derived magmas. Strontium-, Nd- and Hf-isotopic compositions of the alkaline rocks are similar with those of the mafic rocks, suggesting that they have a similar source. Nevertheless, petrological and geochemical characteristics of these rocks indicate that they experienced extensive crystal fractionation and limited crustal contamination. Based on the emplacement of the gabbro-mafic microgranular enclaves-syenite-granites in the Gejiu district, together with contemporaneous geological events in other parts of the western Cathaysia block, we suggest that a widespread extension-related magmatic episode affected the entire region in the late Cretaceous, possibly as a result of lithospheric thinning, basaltic underplating and associated crustal melting.
Cheng, Yanbo; Mao, Jingwen; Spandler, Carl
Amphibolite-facies para-and orthogneisses near Dulan, at the southeast end of the North Qaidam terrane, enclose minor eclogite and peridotite which record ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphism associated with the Early Paleozoic continental collision of the Qilian and Qaidam microplates. Field relations and coesite inclusions in zircons from paragneiss suggest that felsic, mafic, and ultramafic rocks all experienced UHP metamorphism and a common amphibolite-facies retrogression. SHRIMP-RG U-Pb and REE analyses of zircons from four eclogites yield weighted mean ages of 449 to 422 Ma, and REE patterns (flat HREE, no Eu anomaly) and inclusions of garnet, omphacite, and rutile indicate these ages record eclogite-facies metamorphism. The coherent field relations of these samples, and the similar range of individual ages in each sample suggests that the ???25 m.y. age range reflects the duration of eclogite-facies conditions in the studied samples. Analyses from zircon cores in one sample yield scattered 433 to 474 Ma ages, reflecting partial overlap on rims, and constrain the minimum age of eclogite protolith crystallization. Inclusions of Th + REE-rich epidote, and zircon REE patterns are consistent with prograde metamorphic growth. In the Lu??liang Shan, approximately 350 km northwest in the North Qaidam terrane, ages interpreted to record eclogite-facies metamorphism of eclogite and garnet peridotite are as old as 495 Ma and as young as 414 Ma, which suggests that processes responsible for extended high-pressure residence are not restricted to the Dulan region. Evidence of prolonged eclogite-facies metamorphism in HP/UHP localities in the Northeast Greenland eclogite province, the Western Gneiss Region of Norway, and the western Alps suggests that long eclogite-facies residence may be globally significant in continental subduction/collision zones.
Mattinson, C.G.; Wooden, J.L.; Liou, J.G.; Bird, D.K.; Wu, C.L.
Devonian reef complexes were well developed in Western Australia and South China, but no detailed direct comparison has been made between reef building in the two regions. The regions differ in several respects, including tectonic, stratigraphic and palaeoceanographic-palaeogeographic settings, and the reef building styles reflect minor differences in reef builders and reef facies. Similarities and differences between the two reef complexes provide insights into the characteristics of platform margins, reef facies and microbial carbonates of both regions. Here we present a comparison of platform margin types from different stratigraphic positions in the Late Devonian reef complex of the Canning Basin, Western Australia and Middle and Late Devonian margin to marginal slope successions in Guilin, South China. Comparisons are integrated into a review of the reefal stratigraphy of both regions. Reef facies, reef complex architecture, temporal reef builder associations, 2nd order stratigraphy and platform cyclicity in the two regions were generally similar where the successions overlap temporally. However, carbonate deposition began earlier in South China. Carbonate complexes were also more widespread in South China and represent a thicker succession overall. Platforms in the Canning Basin grew directly on Precambrian crystalline basement or early Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks, but in South China, carbonate complexes developed conformably on older Devonian siliciclastic strata. Pre-Frasnian reef facies in South China had more abundant skeletal frameworks than in Canning Basin reefs of equivalent age, and Famennian shoaling margins containing various microbial reefs may have been more common and probably more diverse in South China. However, Late Devonian platform margin types have been documented more completely in the Canning Basin. Deep intra-platform troughs (deep depressions containing non-carbonate pelagic sediments — Nandan-type successions) that developed along syndepositional faults characterize Devonian carbonate platforms in South China, but have no equivalent on the Lennard Shelf, Canning Basin where inter-reef areas were more shallow. The South China platform-to-depression pattern was generally continuous from the Lower to Upper Devonian, indicating that many pre-Devonian tectonic features continued to exercise considerable effect through deposition. Localized, fault-controlled subsidence was an important factor in both regions, but similarities in 2nd order aggradation-progradation cycles suggest that eustasy was also an important control on the larger scale stratigraphic development of both regions.
Shen, Jian-Wei; Webb, Gregory E.; Jell, John S.
Background and Purpose Thrombolytic therapy rate for acute ischemic stroke remains low, and improving public awareness of thrombolytic therapy may be helpful to reduce delay and increase chances of thrombolytic therapy. Our purpose was to survey the level of knowledge about thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke among community residents in Yuzhong district, Chongqing, China. Methods In 2011, a population-based face-to-face interview survey was conducted in Yuzhong district, Chongqing. A total of 1500 potential participants aged ?18 years old were selected using a multi-stage sampling method. Results A total of 1101 participants completed the survey. Only 23.3% (95% CI?=?20.8 to 25.8) were aware of thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke, of whom 59.9% (95% CI?=?53.9 to 65.9) knew the time window. Awareness of thrombolytic therapy was higher among young people, those with higher levels of education and household income, those with health insurance, and those who knew all 5 stroke warning signs, while awareness of the time window was higher among those aged 75 years or older. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that awareness of thrombolytic therapy was independently associated with age, education level, health insurance and knowledge of stroke warning signs (P<0.05). Conclusions In this population-based survey the community residents have poor awareness of thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke. PMID:25222126
Yang, Juan; Zheng, Min; Chen, Shuqun; Ou, Shu; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Ni; Cao, Yingying; Wang, Jian
As payment for ecosystem services (PES) programs proliferate globally, assessing their impact upon households’ income and livelihood patterns is critical. The Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) is an exceptional PES program, in terms of its ambitious biophysical and socioeconomic objectives, large geographic scale, numbers of people directly affected, and duration of operation. The SLCP has now operated in the poor mountainous areas in China for 10 y and offers a unique opportunity for policy evaluation. Using survey data on rural households’ livelihoods in the southern mountain area in Zhouzhi County, Shaanxi Province, we carry out a statistical analysis of the effects of PES and other factors on rural household income. We analyze the extent of income inequality and compare the socio-demographic features and household income of households participating in the SLCP with those that did not. Our statistical analysis shows that participation in SLCP has significant positive impacts upon household income, especially for low- and medium-income households; however, participation also has some negative impacts on the low- and medium-income households. Overall, income inequality is less among households participating in the SLCP than among those that do not after 7 y of the PES program. Different income sources have different effects on Gini statistics; in particular, wage income has opposite effects on income inequality for the participating and nonparticipating households. We find, however, that the SLCP has not increased the transfer of labor toward nonfarming activities in the survey site, as the government expected. PMID:21518856
Li, Jie; Feldman, Marcus W.; Li, Shuzhuo; Daily, Gretchen C.
In the present study, near-complete mt genome sequences for eight representative Schistosoma japonicum samples from seven endemic provinces in mainland China were analyzed. Sequence differences among the eight mt genomes of S. japonicum samples were 0.20-2.51%. Variation in protein-coding genes was greater than that in rRNA genes. The mt DNA sequences of S. japonicum samples from south-western (SW) China were 2 bp [position 11727-11728 within tRNA-Cys, microsatellite (AG) indel] longer than those of the parasites from the lower Yangtze/Zhejiang areas. Representative DNA sequencing confirmed that such (AG) indel could be exploited for identification and differentiation of S. japonicum populations in SW China's Yunnan and Sichuan province which have two (AG) repeats from those in all remaining endemic provinces along the Yangtze River below the Three Gorges regions or close to the east coast of China (e.g., Zhejiang) which have only one (AG) repeat. Phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated amino acids of 12 protein-coding genes also showed that samples from SW China (Sichuan and Yunnan provinces), above the Three Gorges Dam, formed a distinct cluster. Based on this indel polymorphism, a pair of specific primers was designed and used to develop a specific-PCR polyacrylamide gel detection assay. There was an obvious length difference in the amplified PCR products between S. japonicum samples from the two endemic types. The specific-PCR assay allowed the specific identification of S. japonicum, with no amplicons being amplified from other closely related trematodes, and the minimum amount of DNA detectable was 0.05 ng. This approach is inexpensive, easy to perform and the whole detection process can be completed within 4h. Examination of 81 S. japonicum samples from SW China's Yunnan and Sichuan provinces, and 264 samples from the lower Yangtze provinces (Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Anhui and Hunan) and from Zhejiang validated the value of the specific PCR assay and proved its reliability. These findings indicate that the specific PCR assay would provide a useful tool for the epidemiological surveillance and for tracing the source of S. japonicum infection in humans and animals in China. PMID:22446475
Zhao, Guang-Hui; Li, Juan; Song, Hui-Qun; Li, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Fen; Lin, Rui-Qing; Yuan, Zi-Guo; Weng, Ya-Biao; Hu, Min; Zou, Feng-Cai; Zhu, Xing-Quan
From 2000 to 2004, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) accepted 1 171 applications and funded 160 projects for fundamental research on integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine. The success rate is 13.64%. Being supported by NSFC, a number of achievements well known in China and abroad have been made, such as acupuncture complementary anaesthesia, treatment of leukemia, viral hepatitis, cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, acute abdomen, burns and fracture with integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine and their therapeutic mechanisms, and some new concepts and theories have been put forward, such as the theories of activating blood to resolve stagnation, simultaneous treatment of bacteria and toxin, etc. But there still exit some problems in the research of the funded projects. The research ways are mainly combination of different methods instead of integration of both traditional Chinese and Western medicine. The research results are mainly confirmation of traditional Chinese medical theories instead of exploration of their innate regularities. The relationship among disease, syndrome and symptom is not clearly explored. The principal-subordinate relationship between macro- and micro-differentiation of syndromes is not clear. Academic research is short of new ideas. Improper or biased explanation of the theories of traditional Chinese medicine still exists. On analysis of above problems, some preferable aspects of projects for fundamental research on integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine funded by NSFC in future are suggested in this article. PMID:15644150
Wang, Chang-En; Pang, Zong-Ran; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Shan-Shan
Mycorrhizal fungi of six endangered species, Paphiopedilum micranthum, Paphiopedilum armeniacum, Paphiopedilum dianthum, Cypripedium flavum, Cypripedium guttatum, and Cypripedium tibeticum, from two closely related genera in the Orchidaceae from Southwestern China, were characterized using the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and part of the large subunit gene of mitochondrial rDNA (mtLSU) sequences. The most frequently detected fungi belonged to the Tulasnellaceae. These fungi were represented by 25 ITS sequence types and clustered into seven major clades in the phylogenetic analysis of 5.8S sequences. Species of Paphiopedilum and Cypripedium shared no fungal ITS sequence types in common, but their fungal taxa sometimes occurred in the same major clade of the 5.8S phylogenetic tree. Although it had several associated fungal ITS sequence types in a studied plot, each orchid species had in general only a single dominant type. The fungal sequence type spectra of different species of Paphiopedilum from similar habitats sometimes overlapped; however, the dominant sequence types differed among the species and so did the sequence-type spectra within Cypripedium. Orchids of P. micranthum and P. armeniacum transplanted from the field and grown in two greenhouses had a greater number of mycorrhizal associations than those sampled directly from the field. Root specimens from P. micranthum taken from the greenhouses were preferably associated with mycobionts of the Tulasnella calospora complex, while those from the field had mycorrhizal associations of other tulasnelloid taxa. Such plasticity in mycorrhizal associations makes ex situ conservation or even propagation by means of mycorrhization of axenically grown seedlings possible. PMID:20217434
Yuan, Li; Yang, Zhu L; Li, Shu-Yun; Hu, Hong; Huang, Jia-Lin
The northern part of the western Kunlun (southern margin of the Tarim basin) represents a Sinian rifted margin. To the south of this margin, the Sinian to Paleozoic Proto-Tethys Ocean formed. South-directed subduction of this ocean, beneath the continental southern Kunlun block during the Paleozoic, resulted in the collision between the northern and southern Kunlun blocks during the Devonian. The northern part of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean, located to the south of the southern Kunlun, was subducted to the north beneath the southern Kunlun during the Late Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic. This caused the formation of a subduction-accretion complex, including a sizeable accretionary wedge to the south of the southern Kunlun. A microcontinent (or oceanic plateau?), which we refer to as "Uygur terrane," collided with the subduction complex during the Late Triassic. Both elements together represent the Kara-Kunlun. Final closure of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean took place during the Early Jurassic when the next southerly located continental block collided with the Kara-Kunlun area. From at least the Late Paleozoic to the Early Jurassic, the Tarim basin must be considered a back-arc region. The Kengxiwar lineament, which "connects" the Karakorum fault in the west and the Ruoqiang-Xingxingxia/Altyn-Tagh fault zone in the east, shows signs of a polyphase strike-slip fault along which dextral and sinistral shearing occurred.
Mattern, Frank; Schneider, Werner; Li, Yongan; Li, Xiangdong
The northern part of the western Kunlun (southern margin of the Tarim basin) represents a Sinian rifted margin. To the south of this margin, the Sinian to Paleozoic Proto-Tethys Ocean formed. South-directed subduction of this ocean, beneath the continental southern Kunlun block during the Paleozoic, resulted in the collision between the northern and southern Kunlun blocks during the Devonian. The northern part of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean, located to the south of the southern Kunlun, was subducted to the north beneath the southern Kunlun during the Late Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic. This caused the formation of a subduction-accretion complex, including a sizeable accretionary wedge to the south of the southern Kunlun. A microcontinent (or oceanic plateau?), which we refer to as “Uygur terrane,” collided with the subduction complex during the Late Triassic. Both elements together represent the Kara-Kunlun. Final closure of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean took place during the Early Jurassic when the next southerly located continental block collided with the Kara-Kunlun area. From at least the Late Paleozoic to the Early Jurassic, the Tarim basin must be considered a back-arc region. The Kengxiwar lineament, which “connects” the Karakorum fault in the west and the Ruogiang-Xingxingxia/Altyn-Tagh fault zone in the east, shows signs of a polyphase strike-slip fault along which dextral and sinistral shearing occurred.
Mattern, F.; Schneider, W.; Li, Y.; Li, X.
Water storage depletion is a worsening hydrological problem that limits agricultural production in especially arid/semi-arid regions across the globe. Quantifying water storage dynamics is critical for developing water resources management strategies that are sustainable and protective of the environment. This study uses GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment), GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) and measured groundwater data products to quantify water storage in Western Jilin (a proxy for semi-arid wetland ecosystems) for the period from January 2002 to December 2009. Uncertainty/bias analysis shows that the data products have an average error <10% (p < 0.05). Comparisons of the storage variables show favorable agreements at various temporal cycles, with R(2) = 0.92 and RMSE = 7.43 mm at the average seasonal cycle. There is a narrowing soil moisture storage change, a widening groundwater storage loss, and an overall storage depletion of 0.85 mm/month in the region. There is possible soil-pore collapse, and land subsidence due to storage depletion in the study area. Invariably, storage depletion in this semi-arid region could have negative implications for agriculture, valuable/fragile wetland ecosystems and people's livelihoods. For sustainable restoration and preservation of wetland ecosystems in the region, it is critical to develop water resources management strategies that limit groundwater extraction rate to that of recharge rate. PMID:22508123
Moiwo, Juana Paul; Lu, Wenxi; Tao, Fulu
The mode of deformation along the eastern boundary of the northward moving Indian block during the Cenozoic is still controversial. Models considered are: (i) southward lateral extrusion of a single crustal block bounded by the right lateral Sagaing fault in Myanmar and the left-lateral Aialo-Shan shear zone (ASSZ) in Yunnan; (ii) southward lateral extrusion of at least two different crustal blocks between the right-lateral S(W)-striking Gaoligong Shan shear zone (GSSZ), the NW-trending Chong Shan shear zone (CSSZ), and the ASSZ. We present a radically different new model: the GSSZ and CSSZ constitute a folded sub-horizontal detachment separating the brittle upper crust from the middle-lower crust represented by the Mogok igneous and metamorphic belt. The kinematics of flow along the detachment was dominantly top-to-S. Folding of the detachment was coeval with and followed top-to-S flow. In the brittle crust, ~E-W shortening is expressed by a fold-thrust belt, and in the ductile crust by L>S tectonites. The deformation pattern is preliminary interpreted as reflecting gravitationally driven flow of upper crustal material from Tibet towards SE-Asia, reminiscent to what is observed by GPS geodesy today. New Mogok-belt granitoid U-Pb zircon dates span the Early to Late Cretaceous (peaks at ~125; 115; 90, and 65 Ma) and tie the Mogok belt to the Gangdese arc of the Lhasa block. New Tertiary magmatic and metamorphic U-Pb zircon dates are 40-30 Ma, similar to magmatism observed across SE-Asia and similar to the monazite age of dikes that we interpret as pre-tectonic along CSSZ . Published and new 40Ar/39Ar dates show that rapid cooling, that we relate to onset of high-strain deformation along the shear zones, started at 20-15 Ma [2, 3]. Fission-track and (U-Th)/He thermochronology indicates that its activity continued at least to 6-3 Ma. References:  Akciz, S., Burchfiel, B. C., Crowley, J. L., Jiyun, Y., and Liangzhong, C. (2008): Geometry, kinematics, and regional significance of the Chong Shan shear zone, Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis, Yunnan, China: Geosphere, Febr. 2008, v. 4, p. 292-314.  Lin, T.-H., Lo, S.-L., Hsu, F.-J., Yeh, M.-W., Lee, T.-Y., Ji, J.-Q., Wang, Y.-Z., and Liu, D. (2009): 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Jiali and Gaoligong shear zones: Implications for crustal deformation around the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis: Journal of Asian Earth Science, v. 34, p. 674-685.  Zhang, B., Zhang, J, Zhong, D., Yang, L., Yue, Y., and Yan, S. (2012): Polystage deformation of the Gaoligong metamorphic zone: Structures, 40Ar/39Ar mica ages, and tectonic implications: Journal of Structural Geology v. 37, p. 1-18.
Sonntag, Benita-Lisette; Min, Myo; Enkelmann, Eva; Kornfeld, Daniela; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Pfänder, Jörg; Jonckheere, Raymond; Dunkl, István
Remote sensing used in the context of global information systems has enormous applications within archaeology. This technology enables the discovery of new archaeological features and promotes an understanding of the relationship between ecosystem and cultural dynamics. Archaeologists are able to add a time dimension to 'creeping environmental changes' that other areas of scientific inquiry concerned with climate change often lack. Remote sensing and other aerial prospecting has been used successfully to model land use and population expansions during relatively recent archaeological eras, such as the Bronze and Iron Ages. Although satellite image databases exist for numerous areas of the New and Old World, very little research has been conducted in Central Asia or western China. This region is historically significant because of its position along the important trading route called the Silk Road. The purpose of the present research is to investigate another poorly understood period of human history that would benefit from the application of remote sensing and associated ground truthing techniques. The migration of hominids out of Africa during the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene and their subsequent colonization of north-central, east, and south-east Asia is relatively well documented in the archaeological record and marks the beginning of the long-term process of human impacts on the region. However, the trajectory of dispersal of Homo erectus, Neandertals, and early modern humans and the ways by which ecosystem vagaries affected this dispersal across Eurasia is unknown. Our purpose is to summarize what is currently known about the geological indicators of ecosystem changes that remote sensing techniques provide and how ecosystem variables may allow us to model human migration as that of an invasive species through this important geographic crossroads of the Old World.
Glantz, Michelle M.; Todd, Lawrence
The Sichuan Earthquake, occurred on May 12, 2008, is the strongest earthquake to hit China since the 1976 Tangshan earthquake. The earthquake had a magnitude of M 8.0, and caused surface deformation greater than 3 meters. This paper presents the research work of measuring the co-seismic deformations of the earthquake with satellite differential interferometric SAR technique. Four L-band SAR images were used to form the interferogram with 2 pre- scenes imaged on Feb 17, 2008 and 2 post- scenes on May 19, 2008. The Digital Elevation Models extracted from 1:50,000-scale national geo-spatial database were used to remove the topographic contribution and form a differential interferogram. The interferogram presents very high coherence in most areas, although the pre- and post- images were acquired with time interval of 92 days. This indicates that the L-band PALSAR sensor is very powerful for interferometry applications. The baseline error is regarded as the main phase error source in the differential interferogram. Due to the difficulties of doing field works immediately after the earthquake, only one deformation measurement recorded by a permanent GPS station is obtained for this research. An approximation method is proposed to eliminate the orbital phase error with one control point. The derived deformation map shows similar spatial pattern and deformation magnitude compared with deformation field generated by seismic inversion method.
Zhang, Yonghong; Gong, Wenyu; Zhang, Jixian
... SpectroRadiometer (MISR) nadir-camera images of eastern China compare a somewhat hazy summer view from July 9, 2000 (left) with a ... arid and sparsely vegetated surfaces of Mongolia and western China pick up large quantities of yellow dust. Airborne dust clouds from the ...
Earthquake, China AndreÂ´s Vin~a, Xiaodong Chen, William J. McConnell, Wei Liu, Weihua Xu, Zhiyun Ouyang the impacts of a devastating earthquake on forest recovery and avoided forest loss estimated to have been% of the forests in Wenchuan County, Sichuan province, China were imme- diately affected by the 2008 earthquake
Objective The study aimed to examine the effect of household and community characteristics on financial catastrophe and impoverishment\\u000a due to health payment in Western and Central Rural China.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A household survey was conducted in 2008 in Hebei and Shaanxi provinces and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region using a multi-stage\\u000a sampling technique. Independent variables included village characteristics, household income, chronic illness status,
Wuxiang Shi; Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong; Alan Geater; Junhua Zhang; Hong Zhang; Daniele Brombal
As one of the top U.S. choices for international students, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has a solid reputation in China and a history of educating Chinese students that goes back more than a century. But the university did not realize until last June that its nickname in China is the "Cornfield Ivy" and that Chinese…
Cross-cultural communication between China and the West, instigated in 1979 by the establishment of an open-door policy in China, has led to the merging of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with the medical practices of the West. The result of these medical exchanges is a blending of medical practices that proves to be more effective in the…
Schnell, James A.
The western Dabieshan terrane in central China involves numerous blocks of garnet amphibolite and eclogite enclosed in felsic gneiss and schist. Two representative garnet amphibolite samples SHS22 and BSW05 were selected for detailed study. They are composed of garnet, hornblendic amphibole, sodic plagioclase, epidote, quartz, biotite and/or muscovite, and small amounts of rutile, sphene and ilmenite. A few phengite flakes are found as inclusions in garnet in sample SHS22. Garnet varies in grain size and rim composition. The coarse-grained garnet porphyroblasts are mostly anhedral and exhibit compositional zoning with increasing pyrope and decreasing or constant grossular content from core to rim. Pseudosections calculated in the system NCKMnFMASHO suggest that this garnet zoning reflects prograde P-T paths of early-stage eclogite facies from 1.9 GPa at 490 °C to 2.3 GPa at 555 °C for sample SHS26 and from 1.8 GPa at 450 °C to 2.2 GPa at 540 °C for sample BSW05. The peak P-T conditions are constrained by the garnet rim compositions with the maximum pyrope (Xprp) and minimum grossular (Xgrs) contents. The Si contents in phengite from sample SHS22 were modeled to yield pressure conditions similar to that constrained by garnet. The other garnet rim compositions with decreasing Xprp and increasing Xgrs contents were modeled in P-M (H2O) pseudosections to reflect different degrees of the modification of eclogite facies to amphibolite facies in fluid-unsaturated conditions, indicating decreasing pressures from 0.7 to 0.5 GPa and increasing water contents from 3.6 to 5.2 mol.% at T = 575 °C for sample SHS22, and decreasing pressures from 0.8 to 0.55 GPa and increasing water contents from 3.5 to 4.7 mol.% at T = 530 °C for sample BSW05, respectively. The garnet rims with minimum Xprp and maximum Xgrs were predicted to be close to an equilibrium state with the matrix minerals involving hornblendic amphibole, plagioclase, epidote, biotite and quartz. The constituting assemblage was closely saturated with water. As it is hard to evaluate if the relevant minerals are in equilibrium or not in the garnet amphibolite with multi-generation assemblages, the conventional thermobarometers are not very useful for estimating the P-T conditions for this type of rock.
Lou, Yuxing; Wei, Chunjing; Liu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Cong; Tian, Zuolin; Wang, Wei
The Huangshandong Ni-Cu deposit is the largest magmatic sulfide deposit discovered to date in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt in northern Xinjiang, western China. The host intrusion is a 274-Ma composite mafic-ultramafic intrusion consisting of four separate intrusive units: a large layered gabbroic sequence (phase I), a sheet-like ultramafic body (phase II), a dyke-like gabbronorite body (phase III), and an irregular ultramafic unit (phase IV). Important sulfide mineralization is present in the last three intrusive units, predominantly as disseminated and net-textured sulfides (pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite). The Huangshandong mafic-ultramafic intrusive rocks are characterized by arc-like geochemical signatures such as low Ca content in olivine and negative Nb-Ta anomalies in whole rocks. This, together with a post-subduction setting for the East Tianshan in the Permian, suggests that the source mantle was modified previously by slab-derived fluids in the Carboniferous. The mantle-derived magma was ponded in a staging chamber in the lower part of the newly formed arc crust. The first batch of magma to arrive at Huangshandong was most fractionated and depleted in Ni, crystallizing Fe-rich and Ni-depleted olivine (Fo67, <300 ppm Ni). The second batch of magma was more primitive, crystallizing more primitive olivine (Fo81-84). The third batch of magma was also highly fractionated and depleted in Ni, crystallizing Fe-rich and Ni-depleted olivine (Fo72, ~600 ppm Ni). The final batch of magma became more primitive again, crystallizing the most primitive olivine (Fo81-86). The occurrence of rounded sulfide inclusions in olivine primocrysts in the Huangshandong ultramafic rocks indicates that immiscible sulfide liquid droplets were present during olivine crystallization. The Ni tenors of disseminated sulfide ores in the gabbronorite dyke vary mainly between 5 and 8 wt%, which are too high to have been produced by the parental magma of the dyke. The Ni, Cu, and platinum-group elements (PGE) tenors of disseminated sulfide ores in the dyke (phase III) and the ultramafic sheet (phase II) are remarkably similar. These observations, together with the sequence of magma emplacement, suggest that the sulfide liquids entrapped in the magma of the dyke formed at depth by a previous pulse of more primitive magma. The estimated parental magma for the most primitive lherzolites in the Huangshandong intrusion contains 10 wt% MgO. Modeling shows that sulfide saturation in the parental magma of the Huangshandong lherzolites could have resulted from fractional crystallization. Significant PGE depletions relative to Ni and Cu in the disseminated sulfide ores of the Huangshandong deposit may be due to sulfide retention in the source mantle.
Mao, Ya-Jing; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Li, Chusi; Tang, Dong-Mei
Purpose To investigate the current status of diabetic self-management behavior and the factors influencing this behavior in Chengdu, a typical city in western China. Methods We performed stratified sampling in 6 urban districts of Chengdu. We used questionnaires concerning self-management knowledge, self-management beliefs, self-management efficacy, social support, and self-management behavior to investigate patients with T2DM from August to November 2011. All of the data were analyzed using the SPSS 17.0 statistical package. Results We enrolled a total of 364 patients in the present study. The median score of self-management behavior was 111.00, the interquartile range was 100.00–119.00, and the index score was 77.77. Self-management was described as “good” in 46%, “fair” in 45%, and “poor” in 6% of patients. A multiple-factor analysis identified age (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20–0.91; P?=?0.026), education in “foot care” (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.18–0.99; P?=?0.048), self-management knowledge (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.80–0.92; P<0.001), self-management belief (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.87–0.97; P?=?0.002), self-efficacy (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90–0.96; P<0.001), and social support (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.41–0.94; P?=?0.023) as positive factors. Negative factors included diabetes duration (5–9 years: OR, 14.82; 95% CI, 1.64–133.73; P?=?0.016; and ?10 years: OR, 10.28; 95% CI, 1.06–99.79; P?=?0.045) and hospitalization experience (OR, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.64–5.36; P<0.001). Conclusion We observed good self-management behavior in patients with T2DM in Chengdu. When self-management education is provided, age, education, knowledge, belief, self-efficacy, and social support should be considered to offer more appropriate intervention and to improve patients' behavior. PMID:24743326
Huang, Mingjun; Zhao, Rui; Li, Sheyu; Jiang, Xiaolian
On 12 May 2008 a Mw 7.9 earthquake occurred near Wenchuan in Sichuan Province, China. More than 69,000 people were killed and over 4.8 million became homeless. Based on initial seismological reports, the earthquake was generated by slip one or more thrust faults within the Longmen Shan mountain belt, where oblique crustal shortening is taking place the Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin. In initial results, we are studying the displacements using in SAR techniques on several data types. One descending ASAR image before the earthquake and two after acquired by the satellite ENVISAT, European Space Agency, we are able to obtain two coseismic and one postseismic interferograms. Because of temporal decorrelation, large baseline for each coseismic pair, denser vegetation, and steep relief, it is lacking of reliable phase information on the Longmen Shan mountain belt, which is regarded as the hanging wall of this thrust event. To its east in the Sichuan basin, more than 50 cm subsidence in the direction of line of sight can be observed coseismically. This observed coseismic deformation in the footwall clearly appears as half-circular fringes. Its western boundary enable us to identify the surface rupture that is roughly located along the previously reported Beichuan fault. The postseismic interferogram shows phase differences between two acquisitions, one month after the main shock (16 June - 21 July). Phase signals could be investigated in both of the Longmen Shan mountain belt and the Sichuan Basin with rather small phase differences. However, this task is significantly perturbed by orbit errors and atmospheric effects; therefore, not much information of the surface displacement can be reliably retrieved. In the future we will add one more orbit located in further northeastern Longmen Shan to completely trace the NE-SW surface ruptures of the Wenchuan earthquake. Furthermore, the combined result from InSAR and sub-pixel comparison technique can further allow us construct a surface displacement field for the entire region and assist the modeling of fault kinematics to understand the seismogenic fault system of the Wenchuan earthquake.
Huang, M.; Kuo, Y.; Suppe, J. E.; Chen, Y.; Hu, J.
The role of the western tropical Pacific Ocean heat content in the South China Sea summer monsoon (SCSSM) onset is investigated in the present paper, by using atmospheric data from NCEP and ocean subsurface temperature data from Japan Meteorology Agency. It is showed from the result that the heat content (HC) of the upper 400 m layer in the western tropical Pacific (WTP), especially in the region of (130°E-150°E, 0°N-14°N) in the last four decades, is a good predictive indicator for the SCSSM onset. Positive (negative) HC anomalies can induce a strong (weak) convection over the WTP, leading to stronger (weaker) Walker circulation and weaker (stronger) western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) in the boreal spring. Consequently, the anomalous westerly (easterly) in the tropical Indian Ocean is favorable (unfavorable) for the airflow into the SCS and for an early (late) WNPSH retreat from the SCS and hence for an early (late) SCSSM onset. It is elucidated that the long-term trend of SCSSM onset changes its sign around 1993/94 from decline to rise, which is responding and attributed to the WTP HC trend. During the period of 1971-1993, the WTP HC shows a significant decrease trend. In particular, a significant decline trend is observed in the HC difference between the WTP and western tropical Indian Ocean, which causes an easterly trend in the SCS and strengthened WNPSH trend, leading to a late onset trend of SCSSM. The situation is reverse after 1993/94.
Feng, Junqiao; Hu, Dunxin
The 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake struck Sichuan Province, China, along the Longmen Shan fold-and-thrust belt. The rupture occurred in a region with no prior, historical earthquakes of comparable size, and in a region with low horizontal shortening. Thus, the event occurred with little prior warning based on current methods of seismic hazards assessment. In order to improve seismic hazards assessment, we have constructed a Community Fault Model (CFM) and Community Velocity Model (CVM) for the region, modeled after the Southern California CFM/CVM (Plesch et al., 2007). Here, we describe the CFM, which consists of 3D representations of the main active faults in the region. To facilitate model construction, we imported a variety of surface and subsurface datasets into Gocad, a 3D CAD tool. These include geological maps, fault maps, seismicity, focal mechanisms, well data, cross-sections, and seismic reflection profiles. We developed a quantitative technique for constructing fault surfaces using these datasets, described in Riesner et al. (2012). The region displays a variety of faulting styles. The Longmen Shan is a NE-SW-striking fold-and-thrust belt, characterized by a set of NW-dipping imbricated thrust ramps that sole into a deep detachment at ~15-20 km. This detachment rises to the SE along a blind thrust ramp (the Range Front thrust), and flattens to a shallower detachment that underlies much of the Sichuan basin (2-7 km depth). Many of the active faults in the basin sole to this shallow detachment, which is localized in a Triassic evaporite sequence. There is also evidence of deeper faulting within the Sichuan basin, as shown by the Weiyuan anticline and patches of seismicity at greater depth. These faults generally dip steeply, and may be thick-skinned or rise from a deeper detachment. The main fault that ruptured in the Wenchuan earthquake, the Beichuan fault, lies within the Longmen Shan and dips steeply. More shallowly dipping faults splay off of this fault to the SE; one of these (the Pengguan fault) also ruptured in the Wenchuan earthquake. Slip in the earthquake was highly oblique, with right-lateral motion. Consistent with this obliquity, we see evidence for the breakthrough of a new strike-slip fault to the NE of the mapped rupture in the Wenchuan earthquake based on seismicity patterns. To the north and south, the Longmen Shan is bounded by two large NW-SE to N-S-striking left-lateral strike-slip systems: the Kunlun to the north, and the Xianshuihe-Anninghe to the south. Although some faults are well-constrained by surface and subsurface data, others are represented only by a surface trace and sparse seismicity. When the geometry is unclear, we provide multiple alternative models. We plan to develop "quality rankings" for the faults based on data availability and community surveys. These rankings will be used to identify the preferred model when multiple alternatives are available. In addition to providing an integrative repository for fault studies and data, this model is intended to be used in a wide range of earthquake studies, including analysis of geodetic data to assess fault slip rates, simulations of the strong ground motion that will result from future earthquakes, and improvement of regional tomographic models. We will be releasing the fault model together with our 3D velocity model (Wang et al., 2012) to facilitate such studies.
Hubbard, J.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Riesner, M.; Smith, H.; Wang, M.; Durand-Riard, P.
Much of Eastern China underwent significant lithospheric thinning during Phanerozoic time. Compared to the wealth of detailed research on the destruction of the North China Craton since the Mesozoic, the lithospheric evolution of South China (including the Yangtze Craton and the Cathaysia block) is still unclear. In particular, studies of the western part of the Cathaysia block, which connects the Yangtze Craton in the west to the eastern Cathaysia block in the east, are sparse. The study of the mantle-derived magmatic rocks from the western Cathaysia block can provide a better understanding of the continental evolution of South China, and of greater East Asia. Elemental and SrNd isotopic compositions of the Cretaceous (89 Ma) lamprophyres and Paleogene (51-28 Ma) basaltic rocks in eastern and central Guangxi Province, western Cathaysia block, were analyzed to reveal the nature of their mantle sources. The Cretaceous lamprophyres are ultrapotassic, strongly enriched in LILE-LREE and depleted in HFSEs (e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti), and have high (87Sr/86Sr)i and negative ?Nd (t) values. They probably were derived from low-degree partial melting of an EM2-type garnet-facies (> 80 km) subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM), followed by the fractionation of olivine and clinopyroxene. The modeled SCLM, mainly a phlogopite-bearing harzburgite, represents a refractory mantle that was metasomatically enriched by subduction, prior to the Pacific subduction during Mesozoic. The Paleogene basaltic rocks are enriched in alkalis, LILEs and LREE but positive NbTa anomalies, and are similar to alkali oceanic-island basalts. These basaltic rocks have DM-type SrNd isotopic signatures, with low (87Sr/86Sr)i and high ?Nd (t). They probably were derived from the low-degree partial melting of fertile (asthenospheric) mantle in spinel- to spinel-garnet-facies lherzolite (< 80 km). The differences imply that the source region was transformed from EM2 in Cretaceous time to DM-mantle in Paleogene time, and that lithospheric replacement occurred over Cretaceous-Paleogene time. It was driven by the two-sided dynamics around the Cathaysia block, with Pacific subduction in the east and the Eurasian-Indian plate collision in the west. The complex subduction dynamics led to complex asthenospheric convection, a regional lithospheric extension beneath the Cathaysia block, and the removal or modification of the ancient SCLM.
Li, Xi-Yao; Zheng, Jian-Ping; Ma, Qiang; Xiong, Qing; Griffin, W. L.; Lu, Jiang-Gu
Corruption is an important challenge facing those who wish to do business in China. Beyond the commercial context, corruption and attitudes towards it are also more broadly relevant to politics, political economics and ...
Winters, Timothy (Timothy Mark)
Recent geophysical surveys and basin modeling suggest that the No. 1 fault in the Ying-gehai basin (YGHB) is the seaward elongation\\u000a of the Red River fault zone (RRFZ) in the South China Sea (SCS). The RRFZ, which separates the South China and Indochina block,\\u000a extends first along the Yuedong fault, offshore of Vietnam, and then continues southward and breaks off
Baoming Liu; Bin Xia; Xuxuan Li; Minqiang Zhang; Binhua Niu; Lifeng Zhong; Qinghuan Jin; Shaocheng Ji
Based on a comparative approach, this article reports content analyses of news articles about a devastating earthquake that occurred in Sichuan province, China, from six Chinese newspapers, indicating that the Chinese media, in reporting the government’s emergency responses, had many similarities with the American media's coverage of Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Further comparisons, however, suggest that the claim of a
King-wa Fu; Ling Zhou; Qiang Zhang; Yuen-ying Chan; Ford Burkhart
Compositions of deuterium and 18O isotopes of 90 representative samples indicate that thermal groundwater in most parts of China is meteoric in origin. Latitude, altitude, and continent effects have significant bearing on the values of ?D and ?18O of the hot water samples. Oxygen-18 shift is not significant in most of the thermal groundwater, especially the hot water of low-to-moderate temperature. Slight oxygen-18 shift is only found in some hot springs of high temperature in Tibet and western Yunnan and in thermal groundwater of low-to-moderate temperature in the deep-seated carbonate aquifers in the northern North China Plain (including the Tianjin area). Near-surface boiling may causes the shift of the former and the latter may be attributed to exchange of oxygen-18 between water and carbonates in the geothermal systems of taphrogenic basin-type. Hot springs in Tibet and western Sichuan have very low contents of ?D and ?18O, possibly due to recharge of precipitation and snow-melting water of extremely depleted ?D and ?18O values at high latitudes of several thousands of meters.
Xun, Zhou; Bin, Fang; Haiyan, Zhou; Juan, Li; Ying, Wang
for that Wagnerian music of the water, one can only feel happy. Really, really happy (even with the knowledge, for relaxing, meditating and reflecting on life - I strongly recommend that place. OK. Sichuan. We landed
Surface ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), and total and speciated reactive nitrogen compounds (NOy, NO, NO2, PAN, HNO3, and particulate ? were measured at Mount Waliguan (WLG; 36.28°N, 100.90°E, 3816 m above sea level (asl)) in the summer of 2006 to further understand the sources of ozone and reactive nitrogen and to investigate the partitioning of reactive nitrogen over the remote Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The mean mixing ratios of O3, CO, NOy, and daytime NO were 59 ppbv, 149 ppbv, 1.44 ppbv, and 71 pptv, respectively, which (except for NOy) were higher than those measured from a previous campaign in summer 2003, which is consistent with more frequent transport of anthropogenic pollution from central and eastern China in the measurement period of 2006 (55%) than that of 2003 (25%). The abnormally high values of NOy observed in 2003 were suspected to be due to the positive interference from ammonia (NH3) to the particular catalytic converter used in that study. Varied diurnal patterns were observed for the various NOy components. The ozone production efficiencies (?O3/?NOz), which were estimated from the slope of the O3-NOz scatterplot, were 7.7-11.3 for the polluted plumes from central and eastern China. The speciation of reactive nitrogen was investigated for the first time in the remote free troposphere in western China. PAN and particulate ? were the most abundant reactive nitrogen species at WLG, with average proportions of 32% and 31%, followed by NOx (24%) and HNO3 (20%). The relatively large contribution of particulate ? to NOy was due to the presence of high concentrations of NH3 and crustal particles, which favor the formation of particulate nitrate. An analysis of backward trajectories for the recent 10 years revealed that air masses from central and eastern China dominated the airflow at WLG in summer, suggesting strong impact of anthropogenic forcing on the surface ozone and other trace constituents on the Plateau.
Xue, L. K.; Wang, T.; Zhang, J. M.; Zhang, X. C.; Deliger, null; Poon, C. N.; Ding, A. J.; Zhou, X. H.; Wu, W. S.; Tang, J.; Zhang, Q. Z.; Wang, W. X.
Methane is widely developed in hydrothermal fluids from reduced porphyry copper deposits, but its origin remains enigmatic. The occurrence of methane in fluid inclusions at the Late Carboniferous Baogutu reduced porphyry copper deposit in western Junggar, Xinjiang, NW-China, presents an excellent opportunity to address this problem. A systematic study including fluid inclusion Laser-Raman and CO2-CH4 carbon isotope analyses, igneous and hydrothermal mineral H-O isotope analyses, and in situ major, trace element and Sr isotopic analyses of hydrothermal epidote was conducted to constrain the origin of CH4 and CH4-rich fluids. The ?2H and ?18O of water in equilibrium with igneous biotite ranges from -65.0‰ to -66.0‰ and +7.2‰ to +7.4‰, respectively, indicating notable degassing of probably supercritical fluids in the magma chamber. The wide range of ?2H (-58.0‰ to -107.0‰, n = 23) for water within quartz suggests the existence of significant hydrothermal fluid boiling. Water-rock interaction is the most likely mechanism leading to the wide range of ?18O values for water in vein quartz with water/rock ratios (wt.% in O) of 0.15 to 0.75 and 0.13 to 0.46 for a closed and open system, respectively. Detailed Laser-Raman analyses indicate CO2 in apatite included in granodiorite porphyry phenocrystic biotite that records the carbon species of the early stage magmatic stage, whereas later hydrothermal fluids containing CH4 with trace or without CO2 are found in inclusions of vein quartz. We propose that CH4 is probably transformed from CO2 by Fischer-Tropsch type reactions at 500 °C, assumed from CO2-CH4 C isotope equilibrium. The (87Sr/86Sr)i of hydrothermal epidote yields values of 0.70369-0.70404, consistent with that reported for the whole rocks. The ?13CCH4 (-28.6‰ to -22.6‰) and ?2HCH4 (-108.0‰ to -59.5‰) are characteristic of abiogenic methane. The measured ?13CCO2 shows a slightly depleted 13C (-13.5‰ to -7.2‰) relative to upper mantle (-6‰), probably due to the combined effects of minor (less than 0.5%) sedimentary organic matter contamination in the mantle and carbon isotope fractionation occurring during late degassing. Combining the results indicates that CO2 likely originated from the upper mantle with trace addition of sedimentary organic matter. During the uplift or emplacement of the granitoids, significant degassing caused the depletion of 13C and 2H. As the granitoids cooled, notable hydrothermal fluid boiling and water-rock interaction produced the depletion of 2H and 18O, respectively, and the magmatic CO2 was reduced to CH4 by Fischer-Tropsch type reactions that probably occurred during Ca-Na and potassic hydrothermal alteration.
Cao, MingJian; Qin, KeZhang; Li, GuangMing; Evans, Noreen J.; Jin, LuYing
The present study aims at a phylogeographic description of Zacco platypus from southeast China, in order to detect subdivisions within the nominal species. Two main basins were sampled: the Chang Jiang (Yangstze River) in central and east China (Hunan and Sichuan provinces) and the Xi Jiang, the more southern main tributary of the Zhu Jiang (Pearl River, Guangxi province). A
P Berrebi; E Boissin; F Fang; G Cattaneo-Berrebi
Through modern near infrared spectrum, the authors analyzed the yellow soil from the rupture zone located in Ping- tong town,Pingwu, Sichuan province. By rapid identification of the characteristic of peak absorption of mineral particles, the result shows that the soil samples mainly composed of calcite, dolomite, muscovite, sericite, illite, smectite; talc, tremolite, actinolite, chlorite, etc. And the mineral compositions of the soil is basically the same with the yellow soil in Sichuan region. By analyzing and comparing it was revealed that part of mineral compositions of the soil are in accordance with the characteristics of the rock mineral compositions below the rupture zone, indicating that part of the minerals of the soil's evolution is closely related to the rock compositions in this area; and the compositions of the clay mineral in the rupture zone is similar to the Ma Lan loess in the north of China, so it is presumed that the clay minerals in these two kinds of soil have the same genetic type. The characteristic of the mineral composition of the soil is in accordance with evolution characteristics of the rocks which is bellow the rupture zone, also it was demonstrated that the results of soil minerals near-infrared analysis can effectively analyze the mineral particles in the soil and indicate the pedogenic environment. Therefore, the result shows the feasibility of adopting modern near-infrared spectrum for rapid analysis of mineral particles of the soil and research of geology. Meanwhile, the results can be the foundation of this region's soil mineral analysis, and also provide new ideas and methods for the future research of soil minerals and the earthquake rupture zone. PMID:25474937
Yi, Ze-bang; Cao, Jian-jin; Luo, Song-ying; Wang, Zheng-yang; Liao, Yi-peng
Through modern near infrared spectrum, the authors analyzed the yellow soil from the rupture zone located in Ping- tong town,Pingwu, Sichuan province. By rapid identification of the characteristic of peak absorption of mineral particles, the result shows that the soil samples mainly composed of calcite, dolomite, muscovite, sericite, illite, smectite; talc, tremolite, actinolite, chlorite, etc. And the mineral compositions of the soil is basically the same with the yellow soil in Sichuan region. By analyzing and comparing it was revealed that part of mineral compositions of the soil are in accordance with the characteristics of the rock mineral compositions below the rupture zone, indicating that part of the minerals of the soil's evolution is closely related to the rock compositions in this area; and the compositions of the clay mineral in the rupture zone is similar to the Ma Lan loess in the north of China, so it is presumed that the clay minerals in these two kinds of soil have the same genetic type. The characteristic of the mineral composition of the soil is in accordance with evolution characteristics of the rocks which is bellow the rupture zone, also it was demonstrated that the results of soil minerals near-infrared analysis can effectively analyze the mineral particles in the soil and indicate the pedogenic environment. Therefore, the result shows the feasibility of adopting modern near-infrared spectrum for rapid analysis of mineral particles of the soil and research of geology. Meanwhile, the results can be the foundation of this region's soil mineral analysis, and also provide new ideas and methods for the future research of soil minerals and the earthquake rupture zone. PMID:25508716
Yi, Ze-bang; Cao, Jian-jin; Luo, Song-ying; Wang, Zheng-yang; Liao, Yi-peng
The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is a natural laboratory for the study of accretionary tectonics and crustal growth owing to its massive generation of juvenile crust in the Paleozoic. There is a debate, however, on the mechanism of this growth. In the Baogutu area of the western Junggar region, northern Xinjiang (west China), diorite–granodiorite porphyry plutons and dikes are
Gongjian Tang; Qiang Wang; Derek A. Wyman; Zheng-Xiang Li; Zhen-Hua Zhao; Xiao-Hui Jia; Zi-Qi Jiang
Morphological characters allow the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) to use multiple tree levels, but very few studies have quantified the terrestriality and tree stratum use of the species. I investigated the terrestriality and tree stratum use in a group of the monkeys from July 2003 to September 2004 (except February) in the Qianjiaping area of Shennongjia Nature Reserve, China. I collected data on the vertical position of individual monkeys in forest in relation to behavior types, diet, age/sex classes, vegetation types, tree height, and distribution of predators. The monkeys were much more arboreal than they were thought to be. They spent 97.1% of their time in trees (n=21,234 records) and 2.9% on the ground, and mainly used the middle (74.4%) and upper strata (17.4%). The monkeys displayed all behavioral types except searching in the middle and upper strata. The percentage of use of a stratum (except the low stratum) varied among months, and there was a difference in the percentage of use of a stratum among age/sex classes and between vegetation types. Approximately 94.2% of trees used by the monkeys were >6 m tall. They mainly fed on lichens, young leaves, mature leaves, flowers, fruits or seeds, and buds in the middle and upper strata, bark in the low and middle strata and herbs on the ground. Wolf (Canis lupus), leopard (Panthera pardus), and golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) are predators threatening the survival of individual monkeys in the study site. The results suggested that the seasonal vertical distribution of food items eaten in forest, predators, and vegetation types had important effects on the terrestriality and tree stratum use of the monkeys. PMID:17265009
PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 ?m) and TSP (total suspended particulates) aerosol samples were collected in Ya'an, a middle-sized city with extensive wood resources in Southwestern China, to characterize the contribution of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) to the regional troposphere, the composition of the organic tracers as well as factors affecting their concentrations. A total of 34 samples were gathered on the Campus of Sichuan Agricultural University (SAU, urban site, in the city zone of Ya'an), while 49 samples were collected at Baima Spring Scenic Area (BSSA, forest site, situated about 30 km to the northeast of SAU) during June to July, 2010. Using GC/MS analysis with prior trimethylsilylation, organic tracers including isoprene oxidation products (2-methyltetrols, C5-alkene triols and 2-methylglyceric acid), ?-/?-pinene oxidation products (norpinic acid, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, 3-hydroxy-4,4-dimethylglutaric acid, and 3-methyl-1,2,3- butanetricarboxylic acid), a sesquiterpene oxidation product (?-caryophyllinic acid), sugars (glucose and fructose), sugar alcohols (arabitol, mannitol, erythritol, sorbitol and xylitol), anhydrosugars (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan) and malic acid were determined. The factors that could potentially affect the SOA tracer concentrations, i.e. trace gases (SO2, NOx, O3, NH3), aerosol acidity and meteorological parameters, were monitored. The results showed that the concentrations of total isoprene oxidation products were 72 and 82 ng/m3 at the two sampling locations, with 29 ± 18, 37 ± 9, 6 ± 2 ng/m3 at SAU and 57 ± 34, 33 ± 33, 4 ± 2 ng/m3 at BSSA for 2-methyltetrols, C5-alkene triols and 2-methylglyceric acid respectively. Compared with the concentrations of isoprene oxidation products, those of ?-/?-pinene oxidation products and ?-caryophyllinic acid were much lower, being 6 ± 33 and 0.5 ± 1.9 ng/m3 at SAU, and 9 ± 14 and 1.0 ± 1.2 ng/m3 at BSSA, respectively. The unique composition of isoprene oxidation products, particularly, the high concentrations of the C5-alkene triols and their relative abundances comparable to those of the 2-methyltetrols, are possibly due to the fact that they are formed through acid-catalyzed reactions of C5-epoxydiols on weak acidic aerosols. Moreover, sugars and sugar alcohols were measured in important fractions at the two study areas, with the median concentrations of 309.7 and 465.7 ng/m3 at SAU and BSSA, respectively. The high abundances of sugar and sugar alcohols in the study area are explained by the robust metabolism of microorganism in the fertile soil under the warm and moist climate as well as vigorous physiological activities of vegetations in the exuberant subtropical areas. The detected organic tracers accounted in total for 1.5-1.8% of organic carbon (OC) in the study atmosphere, and about 15-21% of the OC could in total be apportioned to biogenic aerosol sources and source processes.
Li, Li; Dai, Dongjue; Deng, Shihuai; Feng, Jialiang; Zhao, Min; Wu, Jun; Liu, Lu; Yang, Xiaohui; Wu, Sishi; Qi, Hui; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Wang, Yingjun; Zhang, Yanzong
Summary Theileriosis is an important disease of sheep and goats in West China. Its main distribution includes Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia,\\u000a Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi and Sichuan. The epidemic period is from late March to July with April–May being the peak months.\\u000a This is the perid of most intensive tick attack byHaemaphysalis qinghaiensis (772–9924%) during the year. It has been proved that the
Jianxun Luo; Hong Yin
Xi yuan lu (Records for Washing Away of Wrong Cases) has become the important criterion and authority of the criminal justice tests in the proceedings of case and judicatory judgment, since it was issued royally and officially in the reign of Kangxi Emperor of the Qing Dynasty. However, the Xi yuan lu and its traditional tests was subjected to strong criticism after the introduction of modern science. Especially since the May 4(th) New Culture Movement, not only the theory in the Xi yuan lu had been met with incredulity and condemned sharply through western chemical tests by the intelligentsia, but also the traditional methods of justice tests based on the book was fully criticized. Though the Xi yuan lu has fallen down from the altar, the traditional methods in the book still were used in practice in China during 1930s--1940s because the scientific system of forensic medicine was not established yet. Xi yuan lu, though fallen yet not defeated, reveals its deep-rooted life. The modern fate of the Xi yuan lu was not only the direct result of different historical conversation in the different periods of modern time, but also a true picture of modern China. PMID:25579214
Myricaria species in China occur mostly in the major high-altitude mountain areas in and around the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The one major exception to this is M. laxiflora which is restricted to the Three Gorges mountain region. In this study, we investigate species-level phylogeographical patterns of Myricaria species in western China and the origin of M. laxiflora. The results show that most chloroplast haplotypes are species-specific, except for one haplotype which is shared by three widespread species. Higher haplotype diversity within the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau region supports the hypothesis that the Himalayas are the centre of origin for Myricaria. The phylogeny of Myricaria was geographically structured, and an estimated Bayesian chronology suggested the main divergence events occurred during the Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene (approximately 1.46-2.30 million years ago). The overall phylogeographical pattern was characterized by vicariance events and regional demographical expansion, reflecting a major influence of geological and climatic events on the evolution of Myricaria species. Our data suggest that M. laxiflora has an ancient origin, but has experienced recent population expansion through the Three Gorges Valley. The origin of M. laxiflora was estimated to be during the Early Pleistocene but its demographical expansion was more recent at about 0.015 million years ago. This highlights the unique phylogeographical history of the Three Gorges mountain region, and the deep imprint of the watercourse connections of the Yangtze River Valley on the phylogeographical structure of the species in this region. PMID:19457193
Liu, Yifei; Wang, Yong; Huang, Hongwen
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection is one of the most commonly sexually transmitted infections worldwide. While glycoprotein G-2 ELISA based assays are commonly used for the serologic detection of HSV-2 infections, they have low specificity in developing countries. Euroline Western blot (WB) is a commercially available assay that is easy to perform; however, little is known about its performance characteristics. This study evaluated Euroline WB for the detection of HSV-2 antibodies compared to University of Washington Western blot in three geographically different regions, Baltimore, Maryland, Rakai, Uganda, and Kunming, China. Among the 135 American men attending an STD clinic in Baltimore, Maryland, 72% (n=97) were HSV-2 positive by Euroline WB. The Euroline WB had a sensitivity of 97.8% and a specificity of 81.8%. Among the 273 commercial sex workers in Kunming, 62.3% were HSV-2 positive by Euroline WB. The Euroline WB had a sensitivity of 96.9% and a specificity of 89.1%. Among the 437 Ugandans in Rakai, 67.3% were HSV-2 positive by Euroline WB. The Euroline WB had a sensitivity of 98.7% and a specificity of 65.4%. The Euroline WB has a consistently high sensitivity, but specificity varied significantly among the different locations. PMID:21680672
Neal, Jessica D.; Tobian, Aaron A. R.; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Ngo, Thoai D.; Redd, Andrew D.; Reynolds, Steven J.; Morrow, Rhoda Ashley; Gamiel, Jordyn L.; Serwadda, David; Gray, Ronald H.; Quinn, Thomas C.
To better constrain the Early Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the western part of the Erguna-Xing'an Block, detrital zircon U-Pb dating was applied on the Ordovician to Devonian sedimentary strata along the southeast part of the China-Mongolia border. Most of the zircons from five sedimentary samples display fine-scale oscillatory growth zoning and Th/U ratios higher than 0.1, indicating a magmatic origin. All five Ordovician-Devonian samples display the similar age distribution patterns with age groups at ?440 Ma, ?510 Ma, ?800 Ma, ?950 Ma, and few Meso- to Paleo-Proterozoic and Neoarchean grains. This age distribution pattern is similar to those from adjacent blocks in the southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Considering previous tectonic studies, we propose bidirectional provenances from the Erguna-Xing'an Block and Baolidao Arc. Consequently, a new model was proposed to highlight the Early Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the western Erguna-Xing'an Block, which constrains two main Early Paleozoic tectonic events of the Xing-Meng Orogenic Belt: (a) pre-Late Cambrian collision between Erguna-Kerulen Block and Arigin Sum-Xilinhot-Xing'an Block; (b) the Early Paleozoic subduction of Paleo-Asian Ocean and pre-Late Devonian collision between Erguna-Xing'an Block and Songliao-Hunshandake Block.
Zhao, Pan; Fang, Junqin; Xu, Bei; Chen, Yan; Faure, Michel
H5N1 influenza A viruses are widely distributed among poultry in Asia, but until recently, only a limited number of wild birds were affected. During late April through June 2005, an outbreak of H5N1 virus infection occurred among wild birds at Qinghai Lake in China. Here, we describe the features of this outbreak. First identified in bar-headed geese, the disease soon
Hualan Chen; Yanbing Li; Zejun Li; Jianzhong Shi; Kyoko Shinya; Guohua Deng; Qiaoling Qi; Guobin Tian; Shufang Fan; Haidan Zhao; Yingxiang Sun; Yoshihiro Kawaoka
The Liziyuan gold deposit, located on the northern margin of the western Qinling orogen (WQO), consists of five mineralized sites hosted by metavolcanic rocks, and one hosted by the Tianzishan monzogranite. Orebodies mainly occur as lenticular veins along NW-striking dextral ductile strike–slip shear zones. Major wall rock alteration includes silicification, pyritization, and carbonation, progressively increasing in intensity towards the orebodies.
Tao Yang; Laimin Zhu; Guowei Zhang; Fei Wang; Rukun Lu; Jichao Xia; Yongqiang Zhang
We used surface wave tomography to image the lithospheric S-wave velocity structure along a linear seismic array across the central and western North China Craton (NCC) and the adjacent Qilian orogenic belt (QB). Using waveform data from 8 earthquakes collected at 60 broadband stations, Rayleigh wave phase velocities were measured at periods of 20-120 s and subsequently inverted for reliable S-wave velocities from 60 to 200 km depth. Distinct lithospheric structures and marked lateral variations were revealed beneath the study region, correlating well with regional geological and tectonic features. The average S-wave velocity from 60 to 200 km depth beneath the array is ~ 4.45 km/s, ~ 1% lower than that in model AK135. High velocities of > 4.45 km/s are most pronounced beneath the stable Ordos Block (western NCC). However, the depth to which the observed high velocity body extends varies significantly laterally. It is deepest (~ 200 km) under eastern Ordos, and becomes shallower on both sides along the array. The maximum depth of the high velocity body gradually shallows westward and reaches ~ 110 km near the western edge of Ordos. This depth variation suggests a coexistence of both preserved and modified lithosphere in Ordos. The depth of high velocities decreases rapidly eastward by > 80 km over a lateral distance of < 200 km across the North-south Gravity Lineament (NSGL) in central NCC, supporting the speculation that the NSGL represents a major continental-lithospheric boundary. A stratified lithospheric mantle was revealed beneath QB, the ~ 2% low velocity anomaly above 100 km depth may be attributed partially to a higher temperature here. Our study revealed rapid lithospheric structural variations beneath NSGL and the boundary zone between Ordos and QB, probably reflecting long-lived, inherited weaknesses in lithosphere that may have been enhanced by episodic tectonic reactivations during the evolution of NCC.
Wei, Zigen; Chen, Ling; Jiang, Mingming; Ling, Yuan
This work presents an overview of 1 yr measurements of ozone (O3) and fine particular matter (PM2.5) and related trace gases at a recently developed regional background site, the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES), in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in eastern China. Ozone and PM2.5 showed strong seasonal cycles but with contrast patterns: O3 reached a maximum in warm seasons but PM2.5 in cold seasons. Correlation analysis suggests a VOC-sensitive regime for O3 chemistry and a formation of secondary aerosols under conditions of high O3 in summer. Compared with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in China, our measurements report 15 days of O3 exceedance and 148 days of PM2.5 exceedance during the 1 yr period, suggesting a severe air pollution situation in this region. A calculation of potential source contributions based on Lagrangian dispersion simulations suggests that emissions from the YRD contributed to over 70% of the O3 precursor CO, with a majority from the mid-YRD. North-YRD and the North China Plain are the main contributors to PM2.5pollution in this region. Case studies for typical O3 and PM2.5 episodes showed that synoptic weather played an important role in air pollution, especially for O3. Observation during the typical biomass burning seasons also shows clear air pollution - weather interactions. For the typical episode occurred on 10 June, 2012, the measurement suggest that the mixed agricultural burning plumes with fossil fuel combustion pollution resulted in a decrease of solar radiation by more than 70 %, of sensible heat flux over 85 %, a temperature drop by almost 10 K, and a change 10 of rainfall during daytime and nighttime. This work shows an important environmental impact from industrialization and urbanization in the YRD region, and suggests an urgent need for improving air quality in these areas through collaborative control measures among different administrative regions, and also highlights a cross-disciplinary need in both measurement and modeling to study the regional environmental, weather and climate problems in East China.
Ding, A.; Fu, C.; Yang, X.; Petaja, T.; Kerminen, V.; Kulmala, M. T.
It has been suggested that hawks, panthers, jackals, lynxes and wolves may prey on Sichuan golden monkeys in the wild [1, 2], but all these assumptions were based on observations of dead monkeys eaten by predators, and no direct attack of a living individual has been witnessed. During our field study on the behavioural ecology of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys in
Shuyi Zhang; Baoping Ren; Baoguo Li
Net primary productivity (NPP) is an important indicator for grassland resource management and sustainable development. In this paper, the NPP of Sichuan grasslands was estimated by the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model. The results were validated with in situ data. The overall precision reached 70%; alpine meadow had the highest precision at greater than 75%, among the three types of grasslands validated. The spatial and temporal variations of Sichuan grasslands were analyzed. The absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (APAR), light use efficiency (?), and NPP of Sichuan grasslands peaked in August, which was a vigorous growth period during 2011. High values of APAR existed in the southwest regions in altitudes from 2000?m to 4000?m. Light use efficiency (?) varied in the different types of grasslands. The Sichuan grassland NPP was mainly distributed in the region of 3000–5000?m altitude. The NPP of alpine meadow accounted for 50% of the total NPP of Sichuan grasslands. PMID:25250396
Tang, Chuanjiang; Fu, Xinyu; Jiang, Dong; Zhang, Xinyue; Zhou, Su
A potential receptor influence function (PRIF) model, based on air mass forward trajectory calculations, was applied to simulate the atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from China. With a 10 day atmospheric transport time, most neighboring countries and regions, as well as remote regions, were influenced by PAH emissions from China. Of the total annual PAH emission of 114 Gg, 92.7% remained within the boundary of mainland China. The geographic distribution of PRIFs within China was similar to the geographic distribution of the source regions, with high values in the North China Plain, Sichuan Basin, Shanxi, and Guizhou province. The Tarim basin and Sichuan basin had unfavorable meteorological conditions for PAH outflow. Of the PAH outflow from China (8092 tons or 7.1% of the total annual PAH emission), approximately 69.9% (5655 tons) reached no further than the offshore environment of mainland China and the South China Sea. Approximate 227, 71, 746, and 131 tons PAHs reached North Korea, South Korea, Russia-Mongolia region, and Japan, respectively, 2-4 days after the emission. Only 1.4 tons PAHs reached North America after more than 9 days. Interannual variation in the eastward PAH outflow was positively correlated to cold episodes of El Nino/Southern Oscillation. However, trans-Pacific atmospheric transport of PAHs from China was correlated to Pacific North America index (PNA) which is associated with the strength and position of westerly winds. 38 refs., 4 figs.
Chang Lang; Shu Tao; Wenxin Liu; Yanxu Zhang; Staci Simonich [Peking University, Beijing (China). Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences
The ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) are widely distributed in China. We used mitochondrial DNA control-region data to investigate the origin and past demographic changes in 139 ring-necked pheasants (P. colchicus) sampled from the species' distribution range. A total of 1078 nucleotides from the control region of mitochondrial DNA were sequenced, and 88 polymorphic positions defined 102 haplotypes. High level of genetic diversity was detected in all populations studied which could be associated with the wide ecological distributions and niche variation. Phylogenetic analyses of all haplotypes identified five major clades. The haplotypes of Gray-rumped Pheasants existed in the three clades: A (western clade), B (eastern clade) and C (Sichuan Basin clade). Two haplotypes of Kirghiz Pheasants were in the clade B, and the rest haplotype of Kirghiz Pheasants formed the clade D. Only one haplotype from White-winged Pheasants made up clade E. The results of AMOVA showed a low gene flow (Nm=0.44) and significant genetic differentiation (Fst=0.31, P<0.001) among all populations. Based on the divergence time, we speculate that the divergence of the ring-necked pheasant occurring in the late Pleistocene may have resulted from three events: (1) the uplift of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, (2) the existence of Qinling Mountains and Liupan Mountains, (3) the isolation of Sichuan Basin. Demographic population expansion was strongly confirmed by the non-significant mismatch distribution analysis. The described subspecies of the ring-necked pheasant could not be supported by the phylogeographical structuring. PMID:19328240
Qu, Jiangyong; Liu, Naifa; Bao, Xinkang; Wang, Xiaoli
Objective: This study was undertaken to address practical problems in maternal health care (MHC) utilization and conduct in-depth study of maternal health services utilization in underdeveloped countries(regions), thus to contribute to the achieving of the UN Millennium Development Goal 5. Data Collection: After searching and screening based on key words like “MHC” and “utilization”, we included 45 English articles and 106 Chinese articles from Pubmed, Medline, China Knowledge Resource Integrated and Wang Fang data base. The research themes, issues, designs, perspectives, dimensions and methods of these dissertations were analyzed. Results: The development of MHC utilization research can be divided into three phases: Studies of the first phase focused primarily on decreasing MMR, which caused attention to the central and western rural areas maternal health services in China from domestic as well as international community; Studies of the second phase centered around the practical impacts of the implementation of MHC relevant programs and policy, confirming that the implementation of these programs and policies improved MHC service delivery and utilization, and promoted cooperation between researchers and practitioners; Studies of the third phase focused on the quality of MHC service utilization. We also found that the major problem in the current MHC service utilization is the huge gap across regions and the existing researches lack innovation and comparison researches between in different countries. Conclusion: Research themes of MHC services change regularly. We should grasp the characteristics and defects of current research to increase the innovation of future research and to better response to the problem solving, and thus to provide more valuable reference for the policy and practice of underdeveloped countries and areas. PMID:24639861
Wang, Zhaoxin; Zhang, Yin; Chen, Minxing
...Field (Sichuan) Food Industrial Co...National Cereals, Oils & Foodstuffs Import...China Processed Food Import & Export...Yuxing Fruits and Vegetables Foodstufs Development...records, as well as source documentation...the best data source for industry-specific...Manufacture of Food Products and...
The red panda is classed as a category II species under the Wild Animal Protection Law in China. Both subspecies, Ailurus fulgens fulgens and A. f. styani can be found there. However, the styani subspecies is more typical of the region. According to the survey conducted from 1994 to 1996, red pandas now can only be found in Sichuan, Yunnan
Fuwen Wei; Zuojian Feng; Zuwang Wang; Jinchu Hu
...expenses for foreign inland freight from the plant to the...handling, international freight, and marine insurance...People's Republic of China: Sichuan Dongfang Insulating...site contains inland freight truck rates between many...shipment of goods by ocean transport in India that is...
Abstract Two new species belonging to the consobrina-group of the subgenus Micruria Reitter, 1875 (genus Epuraea Erichson, 1843), Epuraea (Micruria) lanuginosa sp. n. and Epuraea (Micruria) pulliginis sp. n., found in Sichuan Province, China, are described. Pictures and details of structures important for diagnostics of the new species, including external characters and genitalia are given. PMID:25349510
Zhao, Mengjiao; Huang, Min; Yang, Xingke; Kirejtshuk, Alexander G.
The region of South China mainly consists of the Yangtze block in the northwest, the Cathaysia block in the southeast and the Jiangnan orogen in between these two major Precambrian continental blocks. The Yangtze block borders the North China Craton in the north and the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau in the west. The Cathaysia block adjoins the Pacific tectonic domain in the east. The study of tectonics in this region is of great significance given its important role in understanding the formation of the Asia continent. Under the auspices of SinoProbe Project, new magnetotelluric (MT) data were collected along a ?1200 km long profile starting from central Sichuan Basin near Suining, extending southeastward, passing through the Yangtze Block, Jiangnan Orogen, and terminating within the western Cathaysia Block near Ganzhou. Based on data analysis results, 2D inversions were conducted on the dataset. Resulting model shows that the lithospheric electrical structure of South China is generally resistive which is consistent with the basic feature of stable Precambrian tectonic setting. The resistive western Yangtze block represents the stable, Archean aged cratonic region of the Yangtze basement. While the electrically conductive eastern Yangtze block is characterized by lithospheric shearing of the strike-slip fault system and extensional process that is probably caused by slab roll-back of a flatly subducted plate. The Jiangshao fault performs as a northwestward dipping conductive layer, which indicates the lithospheric underthrusting of Cathaysia block beneath Yangtze block with its frontal edge reaching the area of Jishou in the upper mantle. To the west of Jiangshao fault, eastern flank of the Xuefengshan Mountain marks the overthrusting frontier of the Yangtze block, as well as its southeastern boundary. To the east of Jiangshao fault, the northwestern boundary of the Cathaysia block displays the pattern of wedging tectonics, which is characterized by a conductive layer wedging into the Cathaysia lithosphere at the depth range of Moho.
Zhang, Letian; Jin, Sheng; Wei, Wenbo; Ye, Gaofeng; Jing, Jianen; Dong, Hao; Xie, Chengliang
Between 1998 and 2007, the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) was the lead institution in a multi-national, multi-disciplinary biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region (GLGS) in the Yunnan province of China. The project surveyed the species diversity of both higher plants and bryophytes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and selected groups of arachnids and insects. The GLGS of China is one of the most biodiverse areas in all of Asia, yet it is also very poorly sampled and in great threat from increasing human activities in the region. CAS's biodiversity inventory project there has increased the number of carabid species known from just 50 to more than 550 species, an eleven-fold increase. The task that remains is to identify all of those 500 additional species and describe any that are new to science. This project is part of that larger biodiversity survey. Our objective was to identify and/or describe carabid beetles of the tribe Cyclosomini represented by nearly a hundred specimens collected in the GLSG. Among those specimens, six morphospecies were identified - one belonging to the genus Cyclosomus Latreille 1829, and the other five belonging to the genus Tetragonoderus Dejean 1829. Following this initial identification process, a list of known distributions of taxa in both genera was assembled to determine which described species to consider for comparative work. Original descriptions were then located for candidate species with known distributions in or near the GLGS; and these are being used now in morphological comparison of specimens. Type specimens for each of the candidate species have been requested from various academic institutions, and morphological comparisons with these types are underway. Morphological characteristics being examined include body proportions and overall shape, color of appendages, color and shape of pronotum, elytral color patterns, and shape and internal structure of male genitalia.
Cueva-Dabkoski, M.; Kavanaugh, D.
The abstract is the initial achievements of "Continental ultra-deep drilling locating pre-study in the Jinchuan nickel-copper ore-concentrated area,Western China". 1 Some scientific problems faced by Jinchuan scientific drilling 1.1 Tectonic research of plates convergent margins Jinchuan ore-concentrated area locate in intersection of the south China plate, the north China plate, the tarim plate and convergent orogenic belts. Carrying out deep drilling could obtain informations such as deep material composition, fluid composition, rock fabric, structural features of the special region,etc.Then we can discuss tectonic evolution of the area between the plates. 1.2 Metallogenic theory research Ore-forming material source and extension of the deep rock situation are the key of resolving and verifying metallogenic theory. Carrying out scientific drilling research which will make some issues, that reasons of the huge amount of metal accumulation, formation mechanism of Cu-Ni-PGE sulfide deposits, relationships of metals accumulation process and the crust-mantle interaction and geological background, in particular, fluid role in this process, be resolved. And we could research mantle-derived magmatism and mineralization. 1.3 Perfect Jinchuan metallogenic model Jinchuan deposit is typical for the world's "formation of large deposit in a small intrusion". That establishing the metallogenic model is predominant in international field of mafic-ultramafic magmatic sulfide deposits. Scientific deep drilling could obtain informations which will enrich the theory system. 2 New achievements of continental ultra-deep drilling locating pre-study (1) Previous studies shown that Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic strata,to south of Ore-bearing rock, are monoclines, but this research reveals that which are incomplete complex anticlines, which controlled and destructed by several major regional faults. And there are several ductile shear zones in Sinian strata that increased complexity of regional structure,deformation and metamorphism. These findings have a significant impact on studies of regional diagenesis, mineralization,magmation and tectonic evolution. (2) Systematic sampling analysis revealed that the formation of copper-rich,,PGE-rich ore bodies related to the latest magma (Su et al.,2010). The magma mineralization concentrated in the midwestern portion of No.1 ore body, this part was probably the location of the occurrence of magma channel. It's worthy of exploring at depth with other factors. (3)The application of controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric sounding shown that spatial distribution of electromagnetic geological bodies of the mining area over 3200m under the surface.
Yan, H.; Tang, Z.; Yang, J.
Background The extant Gnetales include three monotypic families, namely, Ephedraceae (Ephedra), Gnetaceae (Gnetum), and Welwitschiaceae (Welwitschia), all of which possess compound female cones that comprise a main axis and 1 to multiple pairs/whorls of bracts subtending a female reproductive unit or having lower pairs/whorls of bracts sterile. However, the evolutionary origin of such a reproductive architecture in Gnetales is controversial in the light of the competing anthophyte versus gnetifer hypotheses of seed plant relationships. Hence, macrofossils demonstrating the structure of compound female cones of the Gnetales should be important to decipher the early evolution of the order. Results A new ephedroid plant Chengia laxispicata gen. et sp. nov. is described from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of western Liaoning, Northeast China. The fossil represents a part of a leafy shooting system with reproductive organs attached. The main shoot bears internodes and swollen nodes, from which lateral branches arise oppositely. Reproductive organs consist of female spikes terminal to twigs or axillary to linear leaves. Spikes are loosely arranged, having prominent nodes and internodes. Bracts of the spikes are decussately opposite and comprise 4—8 pairs of bracts. Each bract subtends an ellipsoid seed. Seeds are sessile, with a thin outer envelope and a distal micropylar tube. Conclusions Chengia laxispicata gen. et sp. nov. provides a missing link between archetypal fertile organs in the crown lineage of the Gnetales and compound female cones of the extant Ephedraceae. Combined with a wealth of Ephedra and ephedroid macrofossils from the Early Cretaceous, we propose a reduction and sterilization hypothesis that the female cone of the extant Ephedraceae may have stemmed from archetypal fertile organs in the crown lineage of the Gnetales. These have undergone sequentially intermediate links similar to female cones of Cretaceous Siphonospermum, Chengia, and Liaoxia by reduction and sterilization of the lower fertile bracts, shortenings of internodes and peduncles as well as loss of reproductive units in all inferior bracts. The basal family Ephedraceae including Ephedra of the extant Gnetales was demonstrated to have considerable diversity by the Early Cretaceous, so an emended familial diagnosis is given here. The Jehol Biota in Northeast China and adjacent areas contains a plethora of well-preserved macrofossils of Ephedra and ephedroids that show different evolutionary stages including primitive and derived characters of Ephedraceae, so Northeast China and adjacent areas may represent either the centre of origination or one of the centres for early diversification of the family. PMID:23530702
By using the dendrochronology research methods, this paper developed the 1915-2011 tree ring-width standard chronology of the Huangshan pine (Pinus taiwanesis) at the north slope of western Dabie Mountains in the junction of Hubei, Henan and Anhui provinces. High mean sensitivity (MS) indicated that there was conspicuous high-frequency climate signals and high first-order autocorrelation (AC) showed there were significant lag-effects of tree previous growth. The higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and expressed population signal (EPS) indicated that the trees had high levels of common climate signals. Correlations between the tree ring-width standard chronology and climatic factors (1959-2011) revealed the significant influences of temperature, precipitation and relative humidity on the tree width growth of Huangshan pine by the end of growing season (September and October). Significant positive correlations were found between the tree-ring indices and the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) of current September and October. In conclusion, the combination of water and heat of September and October is the major effect factor for the growth of Huangshan pine in western Dabie Mountains. PMID:25345032
Peng, Jian-Feng; Li, Guo-Dong; Li, Ling-Ling
Abstract A ten-year multidisciplinary, multi-national and multi-institutional biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region of western Yunnan Province, China generated more than 35,000 specimens of the beetle (Coleoptera) family Carabidae. In this report, first of a planned series, we focus on diversity in tribe Zabrini. Our study of just over 1300 specimens of zabrine carabids from the project, all in genus Amara Bonelli, found a total of 13 species, all previously described, to occur in the study area, with none of them strictly endemic. We present a key for identification of adults of these species, as well as nomenclatural data, diagnoses, illustrations of dorsal habitus and male genitalia, and information about geographical, altitudinal and habitat distributions within the study area and overall geographical distribution for each species. Distributions of the species within the study area are compared, and broader geographical range patterns are characterized. We also discuss a possible role of the Gaoligong Shan region as one source area for the present-day fauna of the Himalaya and southern edge of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau. PMID:24899831
Kavanaugh, David H.; Hieke, Fritz; Liang, Hongbin; Dong, Dazhi
The Tarim River Basin, located in Xinjiang, NW China, is the largest endorheic river basin of China and one of the largest in whole Central Asia. Due to the extremely arid climate with an annual precipitation of less than 100 mm, the water supply along the Aksu and Tarim River solely depends on river water. This applies for anthropogenic activities (e.g. agriculture) as well as for the natural ecosystems so that both compete for water. The on-going increase of water consumption by agriculture and other human activities in this region has been enhancing the competition for water between human needs and nature. Against this background, 11 German and 6 Chinese universities and research institutes formed the consortium SuMaRiO (www.sumario.de), which aims at gaining a holistic picture of the availability of water resources in the Tarim River Basin and the impacts on anthropogenic activities and natural ecosystems caused by the water distribution within the Tarim River Basin. The discharge of the Aksu River, which is the major tributary to the Tarim, has been increasing over the past 6 decades due to enhanced glacier melt. Alone from 1989 to 2011, the area under agriculture more than doubled. Thereby, cotton became the major crop and there was a shift from small-scale farming to large-scale intensive farming. The major natural ecosystems along the Aksu and Tarim River are riparian ecosystems: Riparian (Tugai) forests, shrub vegetation, reed beds, and other grassland. Within the SuMaRiO Cluster the focus was laid on the Tugai forests, with Populus euphratica as dominant tree, because the most productive and species-rich natural ecosystems can be found among those forests. On sites with groundwater distance of less than 7.5 m the annual increments correlated with river runoffs of the previous year. But, the further downstream along the Tarim River, the more the natural river dynamics ceased, which impacts on the recruitment of Populus euphratica. Household surveys revealed that there is a considerable willingness to pay for conservation of those riparian forests with the mitigation of dust and sandstorms considered as the most important ecosystem service. This interdisciplinary project will result in a decision support tool (DST), build on the participation of regional stakeholders and models based on results and field experiments. This DST finally shall assist stakeholders in balancing the water competition acknowledging the major external effects of any water allocation.
Rumbaur, C.; Thevs, N.; Disse, M.; Ahlheim, M.; Brieden, A.; Cyffka, B.; Doluschitz, R.; Duethmann, D.; Feike, T.; Frör, O.; Gärtner, P.; Halik, Ü.; Hill, J.; Hinnenthal, M.; Keilholz, P.; Kleinschmit, B.; Krysanova, V.; Kuba, M.; Mader, S.; Menz, C.; Othmanli, H.; Pelz, S.; Schroeder, M.; Siew, T. F.; Stender, V.; Stahr, K.; Thomas, F. M.; Welp, M.; Wortmann, M.; Zhao, X.; Chen, X.; Jiang, T.; Zhao, C.; Zhang, X.; Luo, J.; Yimit, H.; Yu, R.
OBJECTIVE: On 29 October 2000 poliomyelitis was officially declared to have been eradicated from the Western Pacific Region. This article describes the results of surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in China during the final phase of the eradication effort. METHODS: We conducted hospital-based active surveillance in high-risk areas for poliomyelitis in 5 provinces of southern-China (Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi and Jiangxi) between 1995 and 1997 to determine the adequacy of reporting and laboratory diagnosis of cases of AFP. FINDINGS: A total of 1069 AFP cases occurring since 1993 were identified in 311 hospital visits. Less than 50% of AFP cases occurring in 1993 and 1994 had been reported by AFP surveillance, and laboratory diagnosis had been carried out on only a small proportion of these. However, improved cooperation between hospital sectors increased the rate of case reporting and laboratory diagnosis to 85% and 78%, respectively, in 1997. Despite this overall improvement, these two indicators were approximately 10-20% lower in Yunnan Province. Epidemiological analysis revealed that cases of clinical poliomyelitis accounted for as much as one-third of all AFP in 1993 and that some of these cases were clustered. Clusters were rarely observed after 1994. Active surveillance in the China-Myanmar border areas of Yunnan over 1995-96 detected 9 cross-border cases of clinical poliomyelitis, including 2 of wild poliomyelitis. Import of poliomyelitis was thus considered to have occurred frequently until 1996 in this border area of Yunnan. These data were important for the outbreak response immunization carried out in 1996 in the border prefectures of Yunnan. CONCLUSION: Our investigation confirmed a high level of AFP surveillance in poliomyelitis high-risk areas of the five provinces and provided valuable information on the interruption of wild poliovirus circulation in southern China that will be of use to countries in other regions that have yet to eradicate poliomyelitis. PMID:11242816
Chiba, Y.; Hikita, K.; Matuba, T.; Chosa, T.; Kyogoku, S.; Yu, J.; Wang, Z.
Co-seismic deformation associated with the Lushan (China) earthquake that occurred along the south-western segment of the Longmenshan Fault Zone (LFZ) on the 20th April 2013 has been estimated by differential interferometric SAR (DInSAR) technique using Radarsat-2 data. The Lushan earthquake resulted in the deformation of the Sichuan basin and the Longmenshan ranges in proximity to the LFZ. The line of sight (LOS) displacement values obtained from DInSAR technique mainly range between -4.0 cm to +3.0 cm. The western Sichuan basin shows oblique westward movement with predominant downward component in areas farther from LFZ and predominant westward component over the downward movement in areas closer to the source fault. Inversion modelling has been used to derive the seismic source characteristics from DInSAR derived deformation values using elastic dislocation source type. The linear inversion model converged at a double-fault source solution consisting of a deeper, steep, NW dipping fault plane-1 of 60 km × 16 km dimension and a shallower, gentle, NW dipping fault plane-2 of 60 km × 15 km dimension, with distributed slip values varying between 0 to 2.26 m. These fault planes (fault planes-1 and -2) coincide with the Dachuan-Shuangshi fault and the buried Range Front Fault, respectively. The inversion model gives a moment magnitude of 6.81 and the geodetic moment of 2.07 × 1019 Nm, comparable to those given in literature, derived using teleseismic body wave data. Thus DInSAR technique helped to quantify the co-seismic deformation and to retrieve the source characteristics from the estimated deformation values. The study also evaluated the distribution pattern of earthquake induced landslides (EIL) triggered fresh or re-activated during the Lushan earthquake and found that they show spatial association with the seismic source zone and also with various pre-conditioning factors of slope instability.
Mathew, John; Majumdar, Ritwik; Kumar, K. Vinod
Through the geographic insemination test in installments on five phases of potato late blight in four areas of Mianning and Zhaojue with the altitude of 1,600m, 1,800m, 2,100m and 2,500m respectively, this paper researches the meteorological causes, leading factors and climatic indexes for potato late blight in mountain areas of southwest Sichuan in detail. Based on that, short-term section climatic inspection data of mountain areas, observation data from meteorological post and latest data from automatic weather station are extensively collected, organized and processed by extension, based on which the Spatial Distribution Model of climatic indexes for potato late blight in mountain areas of southwest Sichuan is established in association with the routine surface observation data, y=f(h,?,l,?). With the geographic information data of 1:250000 and GIS technology, southwest Sichuan is divided into climatic liable region of potato blight, climatic secondary liable region and climatic non-liable region by factor setting and optimization method. Providing scientific basis for selection, distribution and prevention decision making for late blight resistant species of potato in southwest Sichuan, it has important value for production and application.
Luo, Qing; Peng, Guozhao; Ruan, Jun; Cao, Yanqiu; Fang, Peng; Li, Dazhong; Armuzhong, .; Huang, Doumin; Hu, Qiaojuan; Chen, Yuanzhi
Abstract Material of the paederine genus Domene Fauvel, 1873 from China is examined. Nine species were identified, four of them described previously, one unnamed (represented exclusively by females), and four are newly described: Domene cultrata sp. n. (Gansu, Hubei, Shaanxi); Domene cuspidata sp. n. (Gansu, Shaanxi, Sichuan); Domene chenae sp. n. (Guangxi); Domene reducta sp. n. (Sichuan). A lectotype is designated for Domene reitteri Koch, 1939; a neotype is designated for Domene chenpengi Li, 1990. Domene dersuuzalai Gusarov, 1992 is placed in synonymy with Domene chenpengi. Previous records of two Japanese species from China are most likely based on misidentifications and considered erroneous. Thus, the Domene fauna of China is currently composed of twelve described species. A key to the Domene species of China is provided. The distributions of eleven species are mapped. PMID:25709524
Feldmann, Benedikt; Peng, Zhong; Li, Li-Zhen
The development of sandification process was studied, by monitoring the changes of sediment characteristics, at marsh-sandy land intersections in China's Songnen region. A series of sediment collection plates were deployed in the region; after one year, sediments in these plates were analyzed for changes of mass and chemical characteristics. The sediment flux and the sand content of the sediments decreased with the increasing longitudinal distance between the sampling site and the centre line of a sand dune. The mean sediment flux was 29 ± 14 kg m(-2) yr(-1) and 0.6 ± 0.3 kg m(-2) yr(-1) in the sandy land and marsh, respectively. Strong, positive correlations were found between the concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, P, Fe, Ti, V and Zr, all of which were also negatively correlated with the sand content. The concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, P, Fe, Ti, V and Zr in the marsh sediment samples were all significantly greater than the corresponding concentrations of the sandy land (p<0.001). Sand content and Ti, V and Zr concentrations all proved to be valid indicators of sandification intensity, and they showed that the marsh could be divided into three distinct zones. Sand expansion extended about 88 m into the marsh. The mean sand content in the sediments of the sandy land was 91% and then 64% in the marsh, which in turn was higher than that of marshes outside the influence of sandification, suggesting that the marsh in the marsh-sandy land transitional area has already undergone extensive sandification in the past. The study results provide information on the wetland's function of indicating and buffering the sandification process. PMID:24932717
Yu, Xiaofei; Grace, Michael; Zou, Yuanchun; Yu, Xuefeng; Lu, Xianguo; Wang, Guoping
The development of sandification process was studied, by monitoring the changes of sediment characteristics, at marsh-sandy land intersections in China's Songnen region. A series of sediment collection plates were deployed in the region; after one year, sediments in these plates were analyzed for changes of mass and chemical characteristics. The sediment flux and the sand content of the sediments decreased with the increasing longitudinal distance between the sampling site and the centre line of a sand dune. The mean sediment flux was 29±14 kg m?2 yr?1 and 0.6±0.3 kg m?2 yr?1 in the sandy land and marsh, respectively. Strong, positive correlations were found between the concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, P, Fe, Ti, V and Zr, all of which were also negatively correlated with the sand content. The concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, P, Fe, Ti, V and Zr in the marsh sediment samples were all significantly greater than the corresponding concentrations of the sandy land (p<0.001). Sand content and Ti, V and Zr concentrations all proved to be valid indicators of sandification intensity, and they showed that the marsh could be divided into three distinct zones. Sand expansion extended about 88 m into the marsh. The mean sand content in the sediments of the sandy land was 91% and then 64% in the marsh, which in turn was higher than that of marshes outside the influence of sandification, suggesting that the marsh in the marsh-sandy land transitional area has already undergone extensive sandification in the past. The study results provide information on the wetland's function of indicating and buffering the sandification process. PMID:24932717
Yu, Xiaofei; Grace, Michael; Zou, Yuanchun; Yu, Xuefeng; Lu, Xianguo; Wang, Guoping
A supergene REE deposit closely interrelated with the weathering of the Emeishan basalt formation was produced in the Xuanwei formation, the overlying stratum of the late Permian Emeishan basalt formation in West Guizhou, China. The host strata consist primarily of offwhite kaolinite clay rock and/or grayish black carbonaceous shale. Mineralogical analyses reveal that kaolinites are the major minerals in REE ores with small amounts of smectite, illite, boehmite, hornblende, pyrophyllite, calcite, dolomite and/or iron-bearing minerals, with a certain proportion of feldspar, quartz crystal debris and noncrystal debris. Geochemical analyses reveal high enrichment of trace elements like Cu, Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf. The host strata feature considerable lithological variability, close interrelation of the REE grade with the lithology and uneven spatial distribution of the REE ores, which are mostly found in Lufang, Maojiaping and Zhangsigou profiles of Weining County and can be as thick as 20 m. Of the five stratigraphic profiles, 48% have their whole-rock ?REE higher than 1000 ppm. The REE in this framework consists primarily of ion adsorbed phases and REE-rich residual independent mineral phases. Comprehensive analyses suggest that the source may not only include the Emeishan basalt, but the intermediate acid volcanic rocks evolved from the Emeishan basalt in the later periods; the hydrothermal alteration subsequently imposed on the host strata might have boosted the mineralization of the rare earth. The preliminary genetic model should have been: the denudation product from the weathering of the parent rock was migrated to the sea-continental margin at the continent side carrying huge quantities of REE with it and was preserved by the quick marine transgression. The host strata consist primarily of kaolinite clay rock and/or carbonaceous shale, which are so far believed to be a sedimentary type REE deposit closely interrelated with weathering effect.
Zhou, Lingjie; Zhang, Zhengwei; Li, Yujiao; You, Fuhua; Wu, Chengquan; Zheng, Chaofei
The Permian Huangshanxi Cu-Ni deposit is the second largest magmatic sulfide deposit discovered to date in a major Ni-Cu province related to protracted basaltic magmatism in eastern Xinjiang, China. It is hosted by a small mafic-ultramafic intrusion comprised predominantly of lherzolites, olivine websterites, gabbronorites, and gabbros. The Huangshanxi intrusion is coeval with Permian basalts of tholeiitic and alkaline affinities in the Tuha and Tarim basins, respectively. To evaluate a possible genetic relationship between the Huangshanxi intrusion and a specific type of coeval basalt in the region, as well as ore genesis in the intrusion, we have carried out an integrated mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical study. Our data reveal that the Huangshanxi intrusive rocks are characterized by relatively flat chondrite-normalized REE patterns, depletion in Nb and Ta, and elevated ?Nd values varying between 6 and 10. These features are similar to those of coeval tholeiitic basalts in the nearby Tuha basin, but are significantly different from those of coeval alkaline basalts in the relatively remote Tarim basin. The geochemical similarities and differences suggest that the Huangshanxi intrusion is genetically related to the tholeiitic basalts in the Tuha basin, not to the alkaline basalts in the Tarim basin, as suggested previously by some researchers. This implies that regional exploration for the Huangshanxi-type Cu-Ni deposits should be centered in the Tuha basin instead of the Tarim basin. More specifically, the uplifted areas around the Tuha basin where similar intrusions may have been brought close to the surface should be carefully examined for mineralization potential. Intrusive relations and mass balance constraints from incompatible trace elements and sulfide abundances suggest that the Huangshanxi intrusion represents a dynamic magma conduit through which multiple pulses of magma ascended to higher levels or to the surface. Numerical simulation of magma evolution and mixing calculations using Sr-Nd isotopes indicate that selective assimilation of S-bearing crustal materials is important for sulfide saturation during the early stages of magma evolution when lherzolites formed. Fractional crystallization may have also played a role in the attainment of sulfide saturation during the later stages of magma evolution when olivine websterites and gabbronorites formed. In both cases, immiscible sulfide droplets were retained in the conduit to form disseminated sulfide lenses while the fractionated silicate liquids and buoyant phases such as plagioclase continued to ascend. Extremely low PGE tenors in the sulfide ores of the Huangshanxi deposit suggest that the parental magma was highly depleted in chalcophile elements possibly due to previous sulfide segregation at depth.
Zhang, Mingjie; Li, Chusi; Fu, Piaoer; Hu, Peiqing; Ripley, Edward M.
Terrestrial vegetation dynamics are closely influenced by both climate and by both climate and by land use and/or land cover change (LULCC) caused by human activities. Both can change over time in a monotonic way and it can be difficult to separate the effects of climate change from LULCC on vegetation. Here we attempt to attribute trends in the fractional green vegetation cover to climate variability and to human activity in Ejina Region, a hyper-arid landlocked region in northwest China. This region is dominated by extensive deserts with relatively small areas of irrigation located along the major water courses as is typical throughout much of Central Asia. Variations of fractional vegetation cover from 2000 to 2012 were determined using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index data with 250 m spatial resolution over 16-day intervals. We found that the fractional vegetation cover in this hyper-arid region is very low but that the mean growing season vegetation cover has increased from 3.4% in 2000 to 4.5% in 2012. The largest contribution to the overall greening was due to changes in green vegetation cover of the extensive desert areas with a smaller contribution due to changes in the area of irrigated land. Comprehensive analysis with different precipitation data sources found that the greening of the desert was associated with increases in regional precipitation. We further report that the area of land irrigated each year can be predicted using the runoff gauged 1 year earlier. Taken together, water availability both from precipitation in the desert and runoff inflow for the irrigation agricultural lands can explain at least 52% of the total variance in regional vegetation cover from 2000 to 2010. The results demonstrate that it is possible to separate the satellite-observed changes in green vegetation cover into components due to climate and human modifications. Such results inform management on the implications for water allocation between oases in the middle and lower reaches and for water management in the Ejina oasis.
Wang, Y.; Roderick, M. L.; Shen, Y.; Sun, F.
This paper presents the first attempt to implement the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ), driven by the Mesoscale Meteorological Model (MM5), to simulate the spatiotemporal variation of PM10 and PM2.5 in city cluster of SiChuan province in the southwest of China, one of the most polluted regions in China. The local emission inventory and the INTEX-B emission data were used as inputs to the CMAQ model, and in situ measurements of PM10 concentrations from the monitoring network were used to evaluate the model performance. The results demonstrate that (1) in the western city cluster the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 are relative high with a zonal distribution from the north to the south, i.e. Deyang, Chengdu, Meishan, Neijiang, Zigong, Yibin and Luzhou, while in the eastern city cluster their concentrations are low except in a few cities, like Dazhou and Guangan; (2) the mean ratio of PM2.5 to PM10 is in the range from 56.7% to 99.2%, and the annual PM2.5 concentrations in 9 of the 14 cities exceed the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard class II. The correlation coefficient between the simulated PM10 concentration and in situ measurements is 0.54, however, the seasonal cycle of PM10 concentration is well represented from simulations. Some obvious difference between the simulated aerosol optical depth (AOD) with MODIS observation is under further investigation.
Qian, J.; Tong, H.; Ye, H.; Liu, Z.; Liao, R.
This work discusses the temporal variation of various physicochemical species in the meltwater runoff of Laohugou Glacier No. 12 (4260 ma.s.l.) in central Asia, and their correlation with dust particles, based on a two-year field observation in summer 2012 and 2013, mainly focusing on dust concentration and size distribution, meltwater chemistry, particles SEM-EDX analysis in the meltwater, and MODIS atmospheric optical depth fields around the Qilian Mountains in central Asia. We find that, the volume-size distribution of dust particles in the meltwater is mainly composed of three parts, which includes fine aerosol particles (with diameter of 0~3.0 ?m, mainly PM 2.5), atmospheric dust (with diameter of 3.0~20 ?m), and local dust particles (20~100 ?m), respectively. Comparison of dust particles in the snowpack and meltwater runoff indicates that, large part of dust particles in the meltwater may have originated from atmospheric dust deposition to the snow and ice on the glacier, and transported into the meltwater runoff. Moreover, temporal variation of dust and major ions (especially crustal species) is very similar with each other, showing great influence of dust particles to the chemical constituents of the glacier meltwater. SPM and TDS implied significant influences of dust to the physical characteristics of the glacier meltwater. Results showed that, accelerated glacier melting may affect physicochemical characteristics of the meltwater at an alpine basin under global warming. MODIS atmospheric optical depth (AOD) fields derived using the Deep Blue algorithm, showed great influence of regional dust transportation over western Qilian Mountains in springtime. SEM-EDX analysis shows that dust particles in the glacier meltwater contain Si-, Al-, Ca-, K-, and Fe-rich materials, such as quartz, albite, aluminate, and fly ash, similar to that deposited in snowpack. These results showed great and even currently underestimated influences of atmospheric dust deposition to glacier meltwater physicochemistry at an alpine basin in central Asia. PMID:25010943
Dong, Zhiwen; Qin, Dahe; Chen, Jizu; Qin, Xiang; Ren, Jiawen; Cui, Xiaoqing; Du, Zhiheng; Kang, Shichang
We derive geodetic strain rates in mainland China from GPS measurements of the Crustal Motion Observation Network of China (CMONOC). The data were collected from the regional networks of more than a thousand sites in 1999 and 2001, and processed together with that of the IGS reference stations to deduce the station velocities referenced to the Eurasia plate. This velocity solution provides unprecedented spatial coverage in mainland China, particularly in the North China, eastern Tibetan borderland, and Tien Shan regions, allowing precise estimation of strain rates with fine resolution there. The strain rates are derived from interpolating the velocity field with smoothing, and the degree of smoothing is optimally determined through balancing a trade-off between the strain rate resolution and the postfit residuals of the velocity data. Our result shows high strain rates in and around the Tibetan plateau, with the highest shear strain rates, up to 0.05 micro-radian/yr, across the Himalayas and along the Xianshuihe fault. The dilatation rates also show significant regional patterns. The south-southwest part of the Tibetan plateau demonstrates expansion of 0.01-0.02 micro-strain/yr, resulted from extension across a series of north-south oriented graben systems. The north-northeast part of the plateau is experiencing contraction of 0.01-0.02 micro-strain/yr, associated with the northward indentation of the India plate into the plateau. The western Sichuan-Yunnan-Guizhou plateau, located southeast of the eastern Tibetan borderland, is undergoing significant expansion, up to 0.03 micro-strain/yr. This could be interpreted as the gravitational collapse as the crustal material flowing out of the plateau and/or back-arc spreading behind the subduction zone between the India and Andaman plates south of the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis. Statistics shows that the maximum shear strain rates correlate well spatially with the earthquake catalog of the last 50 years, suggesting usefulness of the strain rate data for long term earthquake forecast in China.
Shen, Z.-K.; Wang, M.; Niu, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Gan, W.
Detailed morphology of a new diplogastrid and a known ektaphelenchid species isolated from Simao pine in south-western China were illustrated and described/redescribed. Micoletzkya chinaae n. sp. is characterized by a relatively short body length (601-802 ?m in female and 505-773 ?m in male), undivided cheilorhabdia (forming an entire ring), dimorphic buccal cavity (eury- or stenostomatous), a large claw-like dorsal tooth and a large right subventral tooth in the stoma of eurystomatous form, typical diplogastrid pharynx, didelphic female gonads, nine pairs of genital papillae on male tail region with two ventral pairs (GP1 and GP2) closely associated, a unique gubernaculum morphology, and a long filiform tail in both sexes. The new diplogastrid belongs to the Group 1 category of Micoletzkya species sensu Massey, 1966, which is characterized by stoma equipped with a large dorsal and a large subventral tooth, and both teeth can cross near the center of the pharynx. The new species can be easily distinguished from other species within this group except for M. tomea Massey, 1966 with the long filiform female and male tails. However, it shows great similarities to Mononchoides spp., Koerneria spp., Fictor spp., and Acrostichus members in some aspects. More morphological features as well as molecular data of this clade should be available before relationships between and within these genera can be better interpreted. The two large moveable teeth in eurystomatous worms indicate their potentially predacious habits, and re-isolation of this species is necessary. Morphology of south-western Chinese population of Ektaphelenchus macrobulbosus (Rühm,1956) Massey, 1974 conforms well to the previous descriptions except for a few minor variations. It is characterized by medium-long female and male bodies (676-791 and 613-685 ?m, respectively), three incisures in the lateral field, offset cephalic region, knobless stylet 18-20 ?m long, oblong median bulb with posteriorly situated valves, two to three rows of developing oocytes, short postuterine sac, absence of female rectum and anus, two pairs of subventral papillae on the male tail region, a cucullus (apophysis) present on the dorsal distal end of the spicule, and the conoid female and male tails. PMID:22736862
Huang, Ren-E; Liang, Jun; Lu, Quan
With Sichuan Basin as focus, this paper introduces the depositional environment, geochemical and reservoir characteristics, gas concentration and prospective resource potential of three different types of shale in China: marine shale, marine-terrigenous shale and terrigenous shale. Marine shale features high organic abundance (TOC: 1.0%–5.5%), high-over maturity (Ro: 2%–5%), rich accumulation of shale gas (gas concentration: 1.17–6.02 m3\\/t) and mainly continental
Caineng Zou; Dazhong Dong; Shejiao Wang; Jianzhong Li; Xinjing Li; Yuman Wang; Denghua Li; Keming Cheng
The Yangshan gold ore field is located in the southern subzone of the Western Qinling Orogen. Mineralization is confined by the east-west-striking Anchanghe thrust fault zone. These subparallel faults constitute a branch of the regional Mianlue structural zone, crosscutting Middle Devonian carbonaceous carbonate and clastic rock sequences, an ore-bearing unit locally named the Sanhekou Formation. The metasedimentary clastic and carbonate rocks containing fine-grained sulfides are the main host rocks of the deposit, with minor mineralization occurring as coarse-grained pyrite-quartz veinlets in black shale and as dissemination in some plagiogranite dykes. Electron microprobe (EMPA) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses show that arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite are the major hosts for gold with tens of ppm up to weight percent levels of Au, and the Au contents in arsenopyrite are one order of magnitude higher than those in pyrite. A negative correlation of As and S in arsenian pyrite is consistent with the substitution of As for S in the mineral. Both arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite in the Yangshan ore field show chemical zonations with middle parts (mantle) enriched in As and Au relative to cores and the outermost rims, reflecting the chemical evolution of ore-forming fluids. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis failed to identify any nanoparticle of native gold even in the highest Au parts of arsenopyrite. This observation combined with the relatively homogenous distribution of Au, a positive correlation of As and Au, and Au/As ratios below the solubility limit of gold in arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite, suggests that invisible gold is likely present as structurally bound Au+1 in sulfides, although our work cannot exclude the existence of Au nanoparticles in arsenian pyrite as identified in American Carlin-type gold deposits. Submicron native gold may be much more easily found in arsenian pyrite than in arsenopyrite, because the later has larger capacity of enrichment of Au+1 than the former due to the substitution of As for S. The mechanism for nanoparticle formation is likely exsolution of native gold from metastable arsenian pyrite caused by later hydrothermal event, which was recorded by the outermost As-, Au-poor overgrowths both in arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite in the Yangshan gold ore field.
Liang, Jinlong; Sun, Weidong; Zhu, Sanyuan; Li, He; Liu, Yulong; Zhai, Wei
Objective The study aimed to examine the effect of household and community characteristics on financial catastrophe and impoverishment due to health payment in Western and Central Rural China. Methods A household survey was conducted in 2008 in Hebei and Shaanxi provinces and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region using a multi-stage sampling technique. Independent variables included village characteristics, household income, chronic illness status, health care use and health spending. A composite contextual variable, named village deprivation, was derived from socio-economic status and availability of health care facilities in each village using factor analysis. Dependent variables were whether household health payment was more than 40% of household's capacity to pay (catastrophic health payment) and whether household per capita income was put under Chinese national poverty line (1067 Yuan income per year) after health spending (impoverishment). Mixed effects logistic regression was used to assess the effect of the independent variables on the two outcomes. Results Households with low per capita income, having elderly, hospitalized or chronically ill members, and whose head was unemployed were more likely to incur financial catastrophe and impoverishment due to health expenditure. Both catastrophic and impoverishing health payments increased with increased village deprivation. However, the presence of a village health clinic had no effect on the two outcomes, nor did household enrollment in the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (national health insurance). Conclusions Village deprivation independently increases the risk for financial hardship due to health payment after adjusting for known household-level factors. This suggests that policy makers need to view the individual, household and village as separate units for policy targeting. PMID:21466714
A 51 m deep ice core was re-drilled on the Dunde Ice Cap of western China in 2002, 15 years after the previous ice core drilling in 1987. Dating by seasonal variations in ?18O and particle concentration showed that this 51 m deep ice core covered approximately the last 150 years. The stratigraphy and density showed that more than 90% of the ice core was refrozen ice layers, which comprised less than 5% of the annual accumulation in the older core. This indicates that the ice cap had experienced a more intense melting since 1987, possibly due to climate warming in this region. Mean net accumulation since the last drilling (2002-1987) was 176 mm a-1, which was considerably smaller than that obtained from the 1987 core (390 mm a-1, 1987-1963), indicating a significant decrease of net accumulation on the ice cap in the more recent period. The ?18O record showed an increasing trend in the late 19th century and the highest in the 1950s, which is consistent with the previous core findings. However, there has been no significant increase in ?18O during the last two decades, in contrast to the warming trends suggested by the melt features and other climate records. This discrepancy may be due to the modification of ?18O records by melt water runoff, percolation, and refreezing on the ice cap. Results strongly suggest recent significant mass loss of glaciers in the Asian high mountains and serious shortage of water supply for local people in this arid region in the near future.
Takeuchi, Nozomu; Miyake, Takayuki; Nakazawa, Fumio; Narita, Hideki; Fujita, Koji; Sakai, Akiko; Nakawo, Masayoshi; Fujii, Yoshiyuki; Duan, Keqin; Yao, Tandong
The western sector of the Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt plays a key role in both Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous "Yanshanian" intracontinental tectonics and Cenozoic lateral escape triggered by India-Asia collision. The Taibai granite in the northern Qinling Mountains is located at the westernmost tip of a Yanshanian granite belt. It consists of multiple intrusions, constrained by new Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous U-Pb zircon ages (156 ± 3 Ma and 124 ± 1 Ma). Applying various geochronometers (40Ar/39Ar on hornblende, biotite and K-feldspar, apatite fission-track, apatite [U-Th-Sm]/He) along a vertical profile of the Taibai Mountain refines the cooling and exhumation history. The new age constraints record the prolonged pre-Cenozoic intracontinental deformation as well as the cooling history mostly related to India-Asia collision. We detected rapid cooling for the Taibai granite from ca. 800 to 100 °C during Early Cretaceous (ca. 123 to 100 Ma) followed by a period of slow cooling from ca. 100 Ma to ca. 25 Ma, and pulsed exhumation of the low-relief Cretaceous peneplain during Cenozoic times. We interpret the Early Cretaceous rapid cooling and exhumation as a result from activity along the southern sinistral lithospheric scale tear fault of the recently postulated intracontinental subduction of the Archean/Palaeoproterozoic North China Block beneath the Alashan Block. A Late Oligocene to Early Miocene cooling phase might be triggered either by the lateral motion during India-Asia collision and/or the Pacific subduction zone. Late Miocene intensified cooling is ascribed to uplift of the Tibetan Plateau.
Heberer, Bianca; Anzenbacher, Thomas; Neubauer, Franz; Genser, Johann; Dong, Yunpeng; Dunkl, István
Background and Aims Biomass accumulation and allocation patterns are critical to quantifying ecosystem dynamics. However, these patterns differ among species, and they can change in response to nutrient availability even among genetically related individuals. In order to understand this complexity further, this study examined three ephemeral species (with very short vegetative growth periods) and three annual species (with significantly longer vegetative growth periods) in the Gurbantunggut Desert, north-western China, to determine their responses to different nitrogen (N) supplements under natural conditions. Methods Nitrogen was added to the soil at rates of 0, 0·5, 1·0, 3·0, 6·0 and 24·0 g N m?2 year?1. Plants were sampled at various intervals to measure relative growth rate and shoot and root dry mass. Key Results Compared with annuals, ephemerals grew more rapidly, increased shoot and root biomass with increasing N application rates and significantly decreased root/shoot ratios. Nevertheless, changes in the biomass allocation of some species (i.e. Erodium oxyrrhynchum) in response to the N treatment were largely a consequence of changes in overall plant size, which was inconsistent with an optimal partitioning model. An isometric log shoot vs. log root scaling relationship for the final biomass harvest was observed for each species and all annuals, while pooled data of three ephemerals showed an allometric scaling relationship. Conclusions These results indicate that ephemerals and annuals differ observably in their biomass allocation patterns in response to soil N supplements, although an isometric log shoot vs. log root scaling relationship was maintained across all species. These findings highlight that different life history strategies behave differently in response to N application even when interspecific scaling relationships remain nearly isometric. PMID:24287812
Zhou, Xiaobing; Zhang, Yuanming; Niklas, Karl J.
We examined the temporal relationships between stable isotopes of carbon (?13C) and oxygen (?18O) from annual tree-ring cellulose of Abies georgei on the moist Batang-Litang plateau, western China. Climatic response analysis reveals that tree-ring ?13C contains a strong moisture signal, and that ?13C was especially influenced by relative humidity and precipitation in May through August during the period 1960-2005. In addition, tree-ring ?13C and temperature in May to August are positively correlated because of the high-elevation tree growth sites. Drought is also recorded in tree-ring ?13C, reflecting the integrated influences of temperature and moisture on stomatal regulation and photosynthesis. Generally, correlations between ?13C and ?18O remained positive, but not significant, in most of the investigated period, and this correlation switched to highly significant from 1969 onwards. Changes in the ?13C-?18O relationship reflect changes in water stress on carbon isotopic discrimination, suggesting an increase in stomatal control of photosynthesis in recent decades, which is consistent with the overall drying trend in the region. Spatial correlation maps confirm that during the past century the response of tree-ring ?13C to temperature and precipitation differs before and after 1969. Using previously reported ?18O results and new ?13C results on the same samples, we determined that the climatic signal recorded in tree-ring ?18O is more stable than that of ?13C. Analysis of temporal changes in the ?13C-?18O correlations indicates that dominant processes and the controlling factors on tree-ring ?13C potentially shift over the long term under temporal fluctuations of dry-wet spells, especially under recent global warming, and stomatal control of photosynthesis may adjust to region-wide changes in climate in this region where water stress on forest was formerly minor.
Liu, Xiaohong; An, Wenling; Leavitt, Steven W.; Wang, Wenzhi; Xu, Guobao; Zeng, Xiaomin; Qin, Dahe
A number of large and giant ore deposits have been discovered within the relatively small areas of lithospheric structure anomalies, including various boundary zones of tectonic plates. The regions have become the well-known intercontinental ore-forming belts, such as the circum-Pacific gold-copper, copper-molybdenum, and tungsten-tin metallogenic belts. These belts are typical geological anomalous areas. An investigation into the hydrothermal ore deposits in different regions in the former Soviet Union illustrated that the geologic structures of ore fields of almost all major commercial deposits have distinct features compared with the neighboring areas. These areas with distinct features are defined as geo-anomalies. A geo-anomaly refers to such a geologic body or a combination of bodies that their composition, texture-structure, and genesis are significantly different from those of their surroundings. A geo-anomaly unit (GU) is an area containing distinct features that can be delineated with integrated ore-forming information using computer techniques on the basis of the geo-anomaly concept. Herein, the GU concept is illustrated by a case study of delineating the gold ore targets in the western Shandong uplift terrain, eastern China. It includes: (1) analyses of gold ore-forming factors; (2) compilation of normalized regional geochemical map and extraction of geochemical anomalies; (3) compilation of gravitational and aeromagnetic tectonic skeleton map and extraction of gravitational and aeromagnetic anomalies; (4) extraction of circular and linear anomalies from remote-sensing Landsat TM images; (5) establishment of a geo-anomaly conceptual model associated with known gold mineralization; (6) establishment of gold ore-forming favorability by computing techniques; and (7) delineation and assessment of ore-forming units. The units with high favorability are suggested as ore targets.
Chen Yongqing, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Zhao Pengda; Chen Jianguo; Liu Jiping [China University of Geosciences, Institute of Mathematical Geology and Remote Sensing Geology (China)
In this study, we determined f max from near-field accelerograms of the Lushan earthquake of April 20, 2013 through spectra analysis. The result shows that the values of f max derived from five different seismography stations are very close though these stations roughly span about 100 km along the strike. This implies that the cause of f max is mainly the seismic source process rather than the site effect. Moreover, according to the source-cause model of Papageorgiou and Aki (Bull Seism Soc Am 73:693-722, 1983), we infer that the cohesive zone width of the rupture of the Lushan earthquake is about 204 with an uncertainty of 13 m. We also find that there is a significant bulge between 30 and 45 Hz in the amplitude spectra of accelerograms of stations 51YAL and 51QLY, and we confirm that it is due to seismic waves' reverberation of the sedimentary soil layer beneath these stations.
Wen, Jian; Chen, Xiaofei
A well-developed, 1,000 m thick basaltic sequence in the Yangliuping region, northern part of the Emeishan basalt province, includes the Lower and Middle Units of tholeiitic basalts and an Upper Unit of both tholeiites and subalkalic basalts. The basalts contain 42-55 wt% SiO2 and 4.1-8.3 wt% MgO. Most of these lavas have Gd/Yb > 2.0, Zr/Nb < 12, and ?Nd(260 Ma) values from +2.5 to +4.7. The platinum-group elements (PGE) are very mildly depleted in most of the basalts which contain 8-19 ppb Pt and 7-27 ppb Pd. However, a significant proportion of the Middle Unit basalts are strongly depleted in PGE with some samples having concentrations lower than detection limits. They have extremely high Zr/Nb ratios (up to 14.5) and low ?Nd(260 Ma) values (+3.21 to +0.65), features of extensive lower crustal contamination. Some samples in this unit have high Ni/Pd (3,965-61,198) and low Pd/Cr (410,000-3,930,000) ratios, indicating sulfide segregation and PGE depletion prior to eruption. The primary magmas were S-undersaturated and derived from partial melting at variable depths in the upper mantle. The early and late stage magmas, as represented by the Lower and Upper Units, underwent AFC processes which induced mild S-saturation and PGE depletion in some of the basalts, whereas the magmas represented by the Middle Unit experienced more extensive crustal contamination resulting in stronger S-saturation and in most cases significant PGE depletion.
Song, Xie-Yan; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Keays, Reid R.; Cao, Zhi-Min; Sun, Min; Qi, Liang
The shoot density, shoot length, and above-ground biomass of Equisetum fluviatile communities were characterized during the growing season at six lakes in the Jiuzhaigou wetland system during 2007. Shoot length, shoot density, and above-ground biomass of E. fluviatile showed significant seasonal changes in all sites. The shoot length increased significantly from April to August except in seasonally flooded sites in
Yu-Lan Peng; Xin-Fen Gao; Ning Wu; Wei-Kai Bao; Feng-Qun Guo; Li-Jun Jiang
Phosphate rock is the source of phosphorus used to make phosphatic fertilizers, essential for growing the food needed by humans in the world today and in the future. The erosion and eluviation on exposed phosphrite layer and overburden in the phosphate rock areas result in the releasing of fluoride and phosphorus and groundwater polluting. Meanwhile, the waste water and untreated mineral waste residue in the beneficiation and mining operations are also main source of pollution. The un-restored post-mined phosphate rock areas in Tuojiang watershed is large scale. The investigation of the amounts of pollutants releasing from mined lands and transporting by runoffs was conducted. The releasing and transporting amounts of pollutants were calculated according to the results of column leaching studies and acreages of exposed phosphrite layers and overburdens. In conclusion, phosphorus mining activity is an important non-point source of groundwater contamination of Tuojiang watershed.Study about the management and engineering measurement can be carried out according to the non-point source: agriculture, Pollution, Phosphorous mine and chemical plant. The study can provide the practical consultation and help making the decision about the management and treatment of groundwater resource in Tuojiang watershed. Keywords: Tuojiang watershed; Groundwater pollution; Losing process; Fluorine; Phosphorus
Primary rock magnetism analysis was performed on samples from the Jiulong outcrop across the Anxian-Guanxian fault of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake rupture zone. The protolith of hanging wall of this outcrop is the upper Triassic sediments, which formed the fault breccia and gouge by repeated large earthquakes. The footwall of this outcrop contains Jurassic grayish-green and dark-purple sandstones. The average magnetic susceptibility value of the gouge is slightly less than that of potential protolith. Based on the primary rock magnetism, the main magnetic carriers are Fe-sulfides for the gouge, magnetite for the fault breccia, and magnetite and hematite for the Jurassic grayish-green and dark-purple sandstones. Possibly during or after repeated large earthquakes (just like the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake), it transformed the magnetic mineral from magnetite to Fe-sulfides by low thermal decomposition processes along the Anxian-Guanxian earthquake fault, which induces the slightly less average magnetic susceptibility values of the gouge than that of potential protolith. If this magnetic mineral changed only because of repeated large earthquake process, the heating by low velocity seismic slip friction and seismic fluid could possibly have been less than 300 °C. If this magnetic mineral of the Anxian-Guanxian earthquake fault is only induced after repeated large earthquakes, the earth surface process acts an important role for the magnetic mineral change. More other further studies should be done to verify the primary magnetic mineral phase change and discriminate the time of this magnetic mineral variation.
Liu, Dongliang; Li, Haibing; Lee, Teh-Quei; Chou, Yu-Min; Song, Sheng-Rong; Sun, Zhiming; Chevalier, Marie-Luce; Si, Jialiang
A method for seismogeological hazards extraction using high resolution remote sensing was proposed in the research taken the epicenter of Wenchuan earthquake-Yingxiu town as the study area. In which, making imagery was built according to the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) to remove interfering factors. Then, the masked imagery was diced into several small parts to reduce the large imageries' inconsistency and they were used as the sources to be classified. After that, the vector conversion was performed on the classified images to mapping geological hazards. Finally, other interfering factors such as bare lands, lands covered by few vegetation and buildings on the top altitude were removed manually. For it can extract geological hazards in a short time, it is of great importance for the decision-makers and rescuers to know the damaged degree in the disaster area, especially within 72 hours after the earthquake. Therefore, it will play an important role in decision making, site rescue and hazards response planning.
Wang, Qinjun; Chen, Yu; Bi, Jiantao; Lin, Qizhong
In the last two decades, remarkable ecological changes have been observed in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR). Some of these changes might be related to excessive deposition of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N), but the relationship has not been quantified due to lack of monitoring data, particularly S and N deposition data. In this study, we investigated the concentrations, fluxes, and sources of S and N wet deposition in JNNR from April 2010 to May 2011. The results show that SO4(2-), NO3(-), and NH4(+) concentrations in the wet deposition were 39.4-170.5, 6.2-34.8, and 0.2-61.2?eqL(-1), with annual Volume-Weighted Mean (VWM) concentrations of 70.5, 12.7, and 13.4?eqL(-1), respectively. Annual wet deposition fluxes of SO4(2-), NO3(-), and NH4(+) were 8.06, 1.29, and 1.39kgS(N)ha(-1), respectively, accounting for about 90% of annual atmospheric inputs of these species at the monitoring site. The results of Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis show that fossil fuel combustion, agriculture, and aged sea salt contributed to 99% and 83% of annual wet deposition fluxes of SO4(2-) and NO3(-), respectively. Agriculture alone contributed to 89% of annual wet deposition flux of NH4(+). Although wet deposition in JNNR was polluted by anthropogenic acids, the acidity was largely neutralized by the Ca(2+) from crust and 81% of wet deposition samples had a pH higher than 6.00. However, acid rain mainly caused by SO4(2-) continued to occur in the wet season, when ambient alkaline dust concentration was lower. Since anthropogenic emissions have elevated S and N deposition and caused acid rain in JNNR, further studies are needed to better quantify the regional sources and ecological effects of S and N deposition for JNNR. PMID:25525712
Qiao, Xue; Xiao, Weiyang; Jaffe, Daniel; Kota, Sri Harsha; Ying, Qi; Tang, Ya
The purpose of this study was to detect chromosomal aberrations and azoospermia factor (AZF) microdeletions in male patients with reproductive problems and to summarize related clinical features to provide reliable information for evaluating prenatal and preimplantation diagnoses. A large cohort of 5083 men with various phenotypes of male infertility was analyzed via G-banding karyotyping, and Origin 8.0 was used to analyze the prevalence of abnormalities. Additionally, patients with azoospermia, oligozoospermia, and oligoasthenozoospermia were analyzed using multiplex polymerase chain reaction to detect microdeletion in the AZF. We identified 387 patients with abnormal karyotypes, and the ratio was 7.61%. Among them were 175 patients with Klinefelter's syndrome, which was the most common numerical chromosomal abnormality and accounted for 45.22% of all chromosomal aberrations. The frequencies of increased satellites, balanced translocations, and Robertsonian translocations were 6.47, 7.00, and 3.62%, respectively. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction performed in 810 cases with azoospermia, oligozoospermia, and oligoasthenozoospermia found a ratio of AZF microdeletions of 4.94%. The finding suggests that chromosomal abnormalities and AZF deletion are main factors that result in male infertility. Detecting these common genetic variations is necessary in infertile men seeking assisted reproductive technology. PMID:24390997
Quan, Q; Li, T J; Ding, X P; Wei, J; Li, L X; Fu, L
Having closed its door to Western ideas for centuries, China has always presented itself as a puzzle both for academicians and politicians. Westerners, though, have always been attracted by the natural resources and human power that China offers to the capitalistic world. This study explores the entrance of Western ideas in China from an…
A unit on China's ethnicities provides students rich opportunities to explore multiple themes in the social studies while helping them to develop a deeper understanding of recent events in western China. Studying China's ethnic minorities encompasses such topics as stereotyping, cultural diversity, the creation of ethnic identities, and key…
Stedman, Caryn White
The Mekelprize 2007 was won by Taco Broerse, who wrote an essay titled Google in China. Is it morally justified for a Western company to go along with self-censorship, especially in a country like China, where freedom of expression is under pressure? The jury found this essay to provide a strong analysis. The central question is explored from different angles
D. B. T. Broerse
The history of filmmaking in China and Japan and film usage in teaching are considered in this document. Pointing out how films describe historical context and culture, the document also describes various techniques of film making. Films in China were heavily influenced by western models and have tended to be tools of the power structure, as…
Gumport, Roberta H.
China Today IAS 2123.001 Kevin Carrico Tuesdays & Thursdays 10:30 am -11:45 am Approved for Non-Western culture credit Everyone knows that China today is a "rising superpower," but the real story of China's modern history is considerably more complex. This course looks beyond the headlines to rediscover China
Oklahoma, University of
By comprehensive analysis on the depositional system and on the main controlling factors of reservoirs in the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation in Sichuan Basin, the formation conditions of high-quality reservoirs under low-porosity and low-permeability background were studied. Except the transitional facies of Xu-1 member, other members of Xujiahe Formation are of terrestrial deposit, with alluvial fan, fluvial, fan-delta, fluvial-delta, and
Zhu Rukai; Zhao Xia; Liu Liuhong; Wang Xuesong; Zhang Nai; Guo Hongli; Song Lihong
Flaveria bidentis (Asteraceae), a potential exotic invasive weed to agro-ecosystem and rangeland ecosystem, has recently invaded Tianjin City and Hebei Province (Hengshui and Langfang) in North China, and is spreading further. Based on its current geographical distribution in the world, the potential distribution areas of this weed in China were predicted by using CLIMEX software, aimed to assess the potential risks of this invasive weed. Following provinces in China could be the potential areas being invaded by F. bidentis, i. e., Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Hainan, Fujian, Taiwan, Jiangxi, Hunan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Chongqing, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangsu, and Shanghai, among which, Guangdong, Guangxi, Taiwan, Hainan, Fujian, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Chongqing, and part of Xizang would be at high risk. PMID:20077693
Bai, Yi-Zhen; Cao, Xiang-Feng; Chen, Chen; Hu, Bai-Shi; Liu, Feng-Quan
The current English-language research and educational program was driven by an initiative to create a more interactive, theme-based bilingual language education model for preschools in Chengdu, China. During a 2-week teacher education program centered at the Experimental Kindergarten of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Chengdu, China, a team of…
Shimpi, Priya M.; Paik, Jae H.; Wanerman, Todd; Johnson, Rebecca; Li, Hui; Duh, Shinchieh
The East Ujimqin Banner, located in the western segment of the Great Xing'an Mountains, NE China, has undergone a long and multi-stage tectonic evolution, which has resulted in significant Fe-Ag-Pb-Zn-Au-Cu-Mo deposits. There are two main types of mineralization: vein and skarn types. The Jilinbaolige and Aerhada vein deposits, and the Chagan Obo and Chaobuleng skarn-type deposits are four typical deposits in this area. The vein deposits mainly occur as veins with hydrothermal alteration in fractures within pre-mineralization clastic rocks and felsic volcanic rocks. The skarn-type deposits always show a temporal and spatial relationship with Mesozoic granite intruded into Paleozoic limestone. The sulfur isotope data from the sulfides in these four deposits have a very narrow range (+1‰ to +8‰), suggesting that most were derived from magma. The 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios range from 17.949 to 18.529, 15.370 to 15.691 and 37.653 to 38.460 respectively, indicating that the metals derive mainly from the mantle source. In the diagrams 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb, the points of lead isotope of the sulfide ores are very near or coincide to the K-feldspar, indicating that the ore-forming materials sources have the genetic relationship. It seems that there are four key factors controlling the mineralization styles in this district: the tectonic setting, magmatic activity, wall rocks, and structures. The superposition of multi-stage tectonism from a Mesozoic extensional setting on a Paleozoic subduction setting provided a remobilization and enrichment mechanism for the ore-forming elements. The magmatic activities were sources of metals and fluids, and drove them to the mineralization sites. The wall rocks are key factors for mineralization styles. When metal-bearing fluid flows into clastic rocks and felsic volcanic rocks, the mineralization is mainly vein type, and mineralization in limestone is mainly skarn type. NE- and NW-trending extensional faults may have provided the channels for the movement of metal-bearing fluids and depositional space for metals.
Zhang, Wanyi; Nie, Fengjun; Liu, Shuwen; Zuo, Liyan; Yao, Xiaofeng; Jia, Delong; Liu, Jiangtao
Water is essential for life. Specifically in the oases of inland arid basins, water is a critically limited resource, essential for the development of socio-economy and sustainability of eco-environmental systems. Due to the unique hydrological regime present in arid oases, a moderate groundwater table is the goal of sustainable water management. A shallow water table induces serious secondary salinization and collapse of agriculture, while a deep water table causes deterioration of natural vegetation. From the hydrological perspective, the exchange flux between unsaturated vadose zone and groundwater reservoir is a critical link to understand regional water table dynamics. This flux is substantially influenced by anthropogenic activities. In Tarim River Basin of western China, where agriculture consumes over 90% of available water resources, the exchange flux is influenced strongly by irrigation. Recently, mulched drip irrigation, a very advanced water-saving irrigation method, has been widely applied in the Tarim River Basin, which greatly impacted the exchange flux and thus the regional groundwater dynamics. Capitalizing on recent progress in evaporation measurement techniques, we can now close the water balance and directly quantify the exchange flux at the field scale, thus gain a better understanding of regional groundwater dynamics. In this study, comprehensive observations of water balance components in an irrigated cropland were implemented in 2011 and 2012 in a typical oasis within Tarim River Basin. The water balance analysis showed that the exchange flux and groundwater dynamics were significantly altered by the application of water-saving irrigation. The exchange flux is mostly downward (310.5 mm yr-1), especially during drip irrigation period and spring flush period, while the upward flux is trivial (-16.1 mm yr-1) due to the moderate groundwater table depth (annual average depth 2.9 m). Traditional secondary salinization caused by intense phreatic evaporation (fed by upward exchange flux) is alleviated. However, a new form of secondary salinization may be introduced unwittingly if there is lack of water for periodic flushing, especially when brackish water is used in the irrigation. Furthermore, the water saved via drip irrigation has been used in further growth of irrigated lands instead of supporting ecological system. This would lead to increasing risk of eco-environmental degradation and calls for improved governance schemes. The insights gained from this study can be potentially applied to other arid inland areas (e.g., central Asia, sub-Saharan Africa) which face similar water shortages and human development problems.
Zhang, Z.; Hu, H.; Tian, F.; Yao, X.; Sivapalan, M.
Water is essential for life. Specifically in the oases of inland arid basins, water is a critically limited resource, essential for the development of the socio-economy and the sustainability of eco-environmental systems. Due to the unique hydrological regime present in arid oases, a moderate groundwater table is the goal of sustainable water management. A shallow water table induces serious secondary salinization and collapse of agriculture, while a deep water table causes deterioration of natural vegetation. From the hydrological perspective, the exchange flux between the unsaturated vadose zone and groundwater reservoir is a critical link to understanding regional water table dynamics. This flux is substantially influenced by anthropogenic activities. In the Tarim River basin of western China, where agriculture consumes over 90% of available water resources, the exchange flux between the unsaturated vadose zone and groundwater reservoir is influenced strongly by irrigation. Recently, mulched drip irrigation, a sophisticated water-saving irrigation method, was widely applied in the Tarim River basin, which greatly impacted the exchange flux and thus the regional groundwater dynamics. Capitalizing on recent progress in evaporation measurement techniques, we can now close the water balance and directly quantify the exchange flux at the field scale, thus gaining a better understanding of regional groundwater dynamics. In this study, comprehensive observations of water balance components in an irrigated cropland were implemented in 2012 and 2013 in a typical oasis within the Tarim River basin. The water balance analysis showed that the exchange flux and groundwater dynamics were significantly altered by the application of water-saving irrigation. The exchange flux at the groundwater table is mostly downward (310.5 mm year-1), especially during drip irrigation period and spring flush period, while the upward flux is trivial (16.1 mm year-1) due to the moderate groundwater table depth (annual average depth 2.9 m). Traditional secondary salinization caused by intense phreatic evaporation (fed by upward exchange flux) is alleviated. However, a new form of secondary salinization may be introduced unwittingly if there is lack of water for periodic flushing, especially when brackish water is used in the irrigation. Furthermore, the water saved via drip irrigation has been used in further growth of irrigated lands instead of supporting the ecological system. This could lead to an increased risk of eco-environmental degradation and calls for improved governance schemes. The insights gained from this study can be potentially applied to other arid inland areas (e.g., central Asia) which face similar water shortages and human development problems.
Zhang, Z.; Hu, H.; Tian, F.; Yao, X.; Sivapalan, M.
A novel Gram-negative bacterium, designated ZWT, was isolated from a soil sample of the Western Desert of China, and its phenotypic properties and phylogenetic position were investigated using a polyphasic approach. Growth occurred on TGY medium at 5–42°C with an optimum of 30°C, and at pH 7.0–11.0 with an optimum of pH 9.0. The predominant cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16:1?7c/C16:1?6c or C16:1?6c/C16:1?7c) (39.22%), iso-C15:0 (27.91%), iso-C17:0 3OH (15.21%), C16:0 (4.98%), iso-C15:0 3OH (3.03%), C16:0 3OH (5.39%) and C14:0 (1.74%). The major polar lipid of strain ZWT is phosphatidylethanolamine. The only menaquinone observed was MK-7. The GC content of the DNA of strain ZWT is 44.9 mol%. rDNA phylogeny, genome relatedness and chemotaxonomic characteristics all indicate that strain ZWT represents a novel species of the genus Sphingobacterium. We propose the name S. deserti sp. nov., with ZWT (= KCTC 32092T = ACCC 05744T) as the type strain. Whole genome optical mapping and next-generation sequencing was used to derive a finished genome sequence for strain ZWT, consisting of a circular chromosome of 4,615,818 bp in size. The genome of strain ZWT features 3,391 protein-encoding and 48 tRNA-encoding genes. Comparison of the predicted proteome of ZWT with those of other sphingobacteria identified 925 species-unique proteins that may contribute to the adaptation of ZWT to its native, extremely arid and inhospitable environment. As the first finished genome sequence for any Sphingobacterium, our work will serve as a useful reference for subsequent sequencing and mapping efforts for additional strains and species within this genus. PMID:25830331
Molnár, István; Li, Xinna; Tang, Ran; Chen, Ming; Wang, Lin; Su, Shiyou; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Min
The western Ordos Plateau is a key area of shrub diversity and a National Nature Reserve of endangered shrub species in north-west China. Desert expansion is becoming the most important threat to these endangered species. However, little is known about the effects of sand burial on the dynamics of the shrub community. This study aims to investigate how the shrubs as a community and as different individual shrubs respond to the disturbances caused by the desert expansion. The approach used by this study is to separate the seed-dispersal strategy from the sand-burial forces that are involved in structuring the shrub communities at different disturbance stages. Four communities for different disturbance stages were surveyed by using 50×50 m plots. The individual shrubs were classified into coloniser and successor groups at the seed-dispersal stage and strong and weak sand-burial tolerance groups at the sand-expansion stage. We employed spatial point pattern analysis with null models for each community to examine the seed-dispersal strategy and sand-burial forces affecting community distribution patterns. At the seed-dispersal stage, the interactions between the colonisers and the successors showed significant positive correlation at a scale of 0–1 m and significant negative correlation at a scale of 2 m; significant negative correlations between the groups with strong and weak sand-burial tolerance in the early stage of sand expansion at scales of 3–6 m, and significant positive correlation in the later stage of sand expansion at a scale of 13 m, were found. Seed-dispersal strategy is a reasonable mechanism to explain the shrub community pattern formation in the earlier stages, whereas sand burial is the primary reason for the disappearance of shrubs with weak sand-burial tolerance, this irreversible disturbance causes homogenisation of the community structure and produces aging populations of shrub species. This has an important influence on the succession direction of desert shrub communities. PMID:23922877
Wang, Yange; Yang, Xiaohui; Shi, Zhongjie
A novel Gram-negative bacterium, designated ZWT, was isolated from a soil sample of the Western Desert of China, and its phenotypic properties and phylogenetic position were investigated using a polyphasic approach. Growth occurred on TGY medium at 5-42°C with an optimum of 30°C, and at pH 7.0-11.0 with an optimum of pH 9.0. The predominant cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16:1?7c/C16:1?6c or C16:1?6c/C16:1?7c) (39.22%), iso-C15:0 (27.91%), iso-C17:0 3OH (15.21%), C16:0 (4.98%), iso-C15:0 3OH (3.03%), C16:0 3OH (5.39%) and C14:0 (1.74%). The major polar lipid of strain ZWT is phosphatidylethanolamine. The only menaquinone observed was MK-7. The GC content of the DNA of strain ZWT is 44.9 mol%. rDNA phylogeny, genome relatedness and chemotaxonomic characteristics all indicate that strain ZWT represents a novel species of the genus Sphingobacterium. We propose the name S. deserti sp. nov., with ZWT (= KCTC 32092T = ACCC 05744T) as the type strain. Whole genome optical mapping and next-generation sequencing was used to derive a finished genome sequence for strain ZWT, consisting of a circular chromosome of 4,615,818 bp in size. The genome of strain ZWT features 3,391 protein-encoding and 48 tRNA-encoding genes. Comparison of the predicted proteome of ZWT with those of other sphingobacteria identified 925 species-unique proteins that may contribute to the adaptation of ZWT to its native, extremely arid and inhospitable environment. As the first finished genome sequence for any Sphingobacterium, our work will serve as a useful reference for subsequent sequencing and mapping efforts for additional strains and species within this genus. PMID:25830331
Teng, Chao; Zhou, Zhengfu; Molnár, István; Li, Xinna; Tang, Ran; Chen, Ming; Wang, Lin; Su, Shiyou; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Min
The western Ordos Plateau is a key area of shrub diversity and a National Nature Reserve of endangered shrub species in north-west China. Desert expansion is becoming the most important threat to these endangered species. However, little is known about the effects of sand burial on the dynamics of the shrub community. This study aims to investigate how the shrubs as a community and as different individual shrubs respond to the disturbances caused by the desert expansion. The approach used by this study is to separate the seed-dispersal strategy from the sand-burial forces that are involved in structuring the shrub communities at different disturbance stages. Four communities for different disturbance stages were surveyed by using 50×50 m plots. The individual shrubs were classified into coloniser and successor groups at the seed-dispersal stage and strong and weak sand-burial tolerance groups at the sand-expansion stage. We employed spatial point pattern analysis with null models for each community to examine the seed-dispersal strategy and sand-burial forces affecting community distribution patterns. At the seed-dispersal stage, the interactions between the colonisers and the successors showed significant positive correlation at a scale of 0-1 m and significant negative correlation at a scale of 2 m; significant negative correlations between the groups with strong and weak sand-burial tolerance in the early stage of sand expansion at scales of 3-6 m, and significant positive correlation in the later stage of sand expansion at a scale of 13 m, were found. Seed-dispersal strategy is a reasonable mechanism to explain the shrub community pattern formation in the earlier stages, whereas sand burial is the primary reason for the disappearance of shrubs with weak sand-burial tolerance, this irreversible disturbance causes homogenisation of the community structure and produces aging populations of shrub species. This has an important influence on the succession direction of desert shrub communities. PMID:23922877
Wang, Yange; Yang, Xiaohui; Shi, Zhongjie
The complex interactions and feedbacks between humans and water are critically important issues but remain poorly understood in the newly proposed discipline of socio-hydrology (Sivapalan et al., 2012). An exploratory model with the appropriate level of simplification can be valuable for improving our understanding of the co-evolution and self-organization of socio-hydrological systems driven by interactions and feedbacks operating at different scales. In this study, a simplified conceptual socio-hydrological model based on logistic growth curves is developed for the Tarim River basin in western China and is used to illustrate the explanatory power of such a co-evolutionary model. The study area is the main stream of the Tarim River, which is divided into two modeling units. The socio-hydrological system is composed of four sub-systems, i.e., the hydrological, ecological, economic, and social sub-systems. In each modeling unit, the hydrological equation focusing on water balance is coupled to the other three evolutionary equations to represent the dynamics of the social sub-system (denoted by population), the economic sub-system (denoted by irrigated crop area ratio), and the ecological sub-system (denoted by natural vegetation cover), each of which is expressed in terms of a logistic growth curve. Four feedback loops are identified to represent the complex interactions among different sub-systems and different spatial units, of which two are inner loops occurring within each separate unit and the other two are outer loops linking the two modeling units. The feedback mechanisms are incorporated into the constitutive relations for model parameters, i.e., the colonization and mortality rates in the logistic growth curves that are jointly determined by the state variables of all sub-systems. The co-evolution of the Tarim socio-hydrological system is then analyzed with this conceptual model to gain insights into the overall system dynamics and its sensitivity to the external drivers and internal system variables. The results show a costly pendulum swing between a balanced distribution of socio-economic and natural ecologic resources among the upper and lower reaches and a highly skewed distribution towards the upper reach. This evolution is principally driven by the attitudinal changes occurring within water resources management policies that reflect the evolving community awareness of society to concerns regarding the ecology and environment.
Liu, D.; Tian, F.; Lin, M.; Sivapalan, M.
This paper presents a historical socio-hydrological analysis of the Tarim River basin (TRB), Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, in Western China, from the time of the opening of the Silk Road to the present. The analysis is aimed at exploring the historical co-evolution of coupled human-water systems and at identifying common patterns or organizing principles underpinning socio-hydrological systems (SHS). As a self-organized entity, the evolution of the human-water system in the Tarim Basin reached stable states for long periods of time, but then was punctuated by sudden shifts due to internal or external disturbances. In this study, we discuss three stable periods (i.e., natural, human exploitation, and degradation and recovery) and the transitions in between during the past 2000 years. During the "natural" stage that existed pre-18th century, with small-scale human society and sound environment, evolution of the SHS was mainly driven by natural environmental changes such as river channel migration and climate change. During the human exploitation stage, especially in the 19th and 20th centuries, it experienced rapid population growth, massive land reclamation and fast socio-economic development, and humans became the principal players of system evolution. By the 1970s, the Tarim Basin had evolved into a new regime with a vulnerable eco-hydrological system seemingly populated beyond its carrying capacity, and a human society that began to suffer from serious water shortages, land salinization and desertification. With intensified deterioration of river health and increased recognition of unsustainability of traditional development patterns, human intervention and recovery measures have since been adopted. As a result, the basin has shown a reverse regime shift towards some healing of the environmental damage. Based on our analysis within TRB and a common theory of social development, four general types of SHSs are defined according to their characteristic spatio-temporal variations of historical co-evolution, including primitive agricultural, traditional agricultural, industrial agricultural, and urban SHSs. These co-evolutionary changes have been explained in the paper in terms of the Taiji-Tire model, a refinement of a special concept in Chinese philosophy, relating to the co-evolution of a system because of interactions among its components.
Liu, Y.; Tian, F.; Hu, H.; Sivapalan, M.
The complex interactions and feedbacks between humans and water are very essential issues but are poorly understood in the newly proposed discipline of socio-hydrology (Sivapalan et al., 2012). An exploratory model with the appropriate level of simplification can be valuable to improve our understanding of the co-evolution and self-organization of socio-hydrological systems driven by interactions and feedbacks operating at different scales. In this study, a simple coupled modeling framework for socio-hydrology co-evolution is developed for the Tarim River Basin in Western China, and is used to illustrate the explanatory power of such a model. The study area is the mainstream of the Tarim River, which is divided into two modeling units. The socio-hydrological system is composed of four parts, i.e. social sub-system, economic sub-system, ecological sub-system, and hydrological sub-system. In each modeling unit, four coupled ordinary differential equations are used to simulate the dynamics of the social sub-system represented by human population, the economic sub-system represented by irrigated crop area, the ecological sub-system represented by natural vegetation cover and the hydrological sub-system represented by stream discharge. The coupling and feedback processes of the four dominant sub-systems (and correspondingly four state variables) are integrated into several internal system characteristics interactively and jointly determined by themselves and by other coupled systems. For example, the stream discharge is coupled to the irrigated crop area by the colonization rate and mortality rate of the irrigated crop area in the upper reach and the irrigated area is coupled to stream discharge through irrigation water consumption. In a similar way, the stream discharge and natural vegetation cover are coupled together. The irrigated crop area is coupled to human population by the colonization rate and mortality rate of the population. The inflow of the lower reach is determined by the outflow from the upper reach. The natural vegetation cover in the lower reach is coupled to the outflow from the upper reach and governed by regional water resources management policy. The co-evolution of the Tarim socio-hydrological system is then analyzed within this modeling framework to gain insights into the overall system dynamics and its sensitivity to the external drivers and internal system variables. In the modeling framework, the state of each subsystem is holistically described by one state variable and the framework is flexible enough to comprise more processes and constitutive relationships if they are needed to illustrate the interaction and feedback mechanisms of the human-water system.
Liu, D.; Tian, F.; Lin, M.; Sivapalan, M.
Located at the northeastern margin of the Tibetan plateau, the Ordos block is a stable tectonic unit in North China. With its active boundary fault zones, the Ordos block played an important role in the eastward extrusion mechanism of the Tibetan plateau. Peking University deployed a linear array of 15 portable broadband seismometers across the western Weihe graben during September 2005 to August 2006 and later a 2-D seismic array (Southwest Ordos Array) of 14 portable broadband seismometers during 2007-2008 at its southwestern boundary. Analyses of shear wave splitting of SKS and SKKS phases at these stations show that the fast directions trend ˜110° with an average delay time of 0.9 s in the southwestern margin of the Ordos block. The agreement between the lithosphere deformation indicated by GPS data and Quaternary fault slip-rate observations and the mantle flow represented by shear wave splitting implies that accordant deformation patterns from lithosphere to asthenosphere in relation to the eastward extrusion of the Tibetan plateau could extend at least to 200 km depth. Spatial distribution of splitting polarization directions indicates that the mantle flow driven by the Tibetan plateau is blocked by the Ordos block and locally restricted in a narrow channel along the Qinling-Dabie fault zones between the Ordos block and Sichuan basin.
Tang, Yongcai; Chen, Yongshun John; Fu, Yuanyuan V.; Wang, Haiyang; Zhou, Shiyong; Sandvol, Eric; Ning, Jieyuan; Feng, Yongge; Liu, Mian
The northwest-striking Qujiang fault is located at the southeastern tip of the Sichuan-Yunnan block, which is bounded by the Ailao Shan-Red River fault and the Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault system. The Qujiang fault is one of the most seismically active faults in western Yunnan, China and is considered to be the seismogenic fault of the 1970 Ms 7.7 Tonghai earthquake. In this study, we examine the geometry, kinematics, and geomorphology of this fault through field observations, satellite images, and DEMs. It is a Holocene active fault characterized by dextral strike-slip movements with dip-slip components. It can be divided into northwest and southeast segments depending on different kinematics. The northwest segment from Baiyizhai to Wujie shows right-lateral strike slip with normal components, whereas it is characterized by dextral movements with the northeast wall thrusting over the opposite in the southeast segment from Wujie to Miaobeishan. The geophysical data combined with our investigations indicate that the fault dips steeply to the NE at depth, while secondary faults with different dip directions developed at shallow surface owing to fault bifurcation. During the Tonghai earthquake, a blind fault may have developed on the southwest wall, resulting in aftershocks concentrated to the southwest of the surface raptures. Multiple tectonic landforms are developed along the fault. The right-lateral Holocene slip rate was determined to be 2.84-3.27 mm/year based on radiometrically dated offset gullies. Our analyses show that the present deformation at the intersection of the Ailao Shan-Red River fault and the Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault system is partitioned into a shortening distributed over a region ~ 150 km wide and a right-lateral strike slip localized on the Qujiang and Jianshui faults. Since the late Pleistocene, the Qujiang fault has been playing an important role in accommodating the ongoing SE-directed movements of the Sichuan-Yunnan block, creating strong earthquakes to release strain energy.
Wang, Yang; Zhang, Bo; Hou, Jianjun; Xu, Xiwei
Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was once a severe parasitic disease in China. Thanks to the great efforts of integrated control, VL was eliminated in most epidemic areas, except for certain western provinces (autonomous region) at the end of 1950s. From then on, VL gained less attention and has seemed to spread, especially in the last 15?years. Infants are the most important population threatened by VL. However, there have been few studies on the endemic characteristics of infantile VL in China. Methods Infantile VL cases were collected from the online National Infectious Diseases Reporting System (NIDRS). Statistical description and inference was used to reveal the endemic characteristics in gender, age group, time and regionalism. Spatial analysis was carried out to explore the high risk area for infantile VL in China. Results A total of 1093 infantile VL cases were reported from 2006 to 2012. There was no statistically significant difference in gender over time. The minimum, maximum and mean age of these cases was 1.1, 35.9 and 13.8?months, respectively. Among them 86.92% were under 2?years of age, and there was a statistically significant difference among age groups over time. An incidence peak appeared in 2008-2009, most cases were distributed in the months September to December, and there was a tail-raising effect in the coming two months of the next year. More than 98% of cases were reported in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Gansu Province and Sichuan Province, accounting for 61.02%, 32.75% and 4.57%, respectively. A total of 56 counties reported infantile VL cases, with the cumulative incidence ranging from 0.02 to 24.57%. There were two main zones of high endemicity for infantile VL in China. The monthly incidence clearly coincides with the number of towns where infantile VL cases were reported. Three fatalities were reported during the study period, the case fatality rate was 2.75‰. Conclusions The endemic situation of infantile VL is serious, and there are several active foci of infantile VL prevalence in China. VL has emerged as a severe threat to infants of endemic regions in China. PMID:23680411
There have been relatively few attempts to model the distributions of the fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Ceratitis cosyra (Walker), and Ceratitis rosa Karsch in China, but the geographic distributions of these species are of considerable concern in terms of biosecurity. In this study, two different modeling methods (genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction [GARP] and maximum entropy species distribution modeling [Maxent]) were used to predict the potential distributions of these three fly species in China, by using distribution records and a set of environmental predictor variables. The results showed that Maxent performed well, compared with modeling by GARP, at each test threshold. For all three species, the results predicted by Maxent agreed with the observed distributions in Africa and in other parts of the world. In China, C. capitata seems to have the highest number of favorable habitat areas, relative to C. cosyra and C. rosa, i.e., Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Guangdong, Hainan, Fujian, Sichuan and Chongqing, whereas C. cosyra has the smallest range of suitable areas, i.e., Yunnan, some parts of Hainan and Sichuan. The suitable areas for C. rosa are mainly restricted to Yunnan, Hainan, southern Guangdong, and a few areas of Sichuan. The indications are that on the whole, Southwest and South China are the areas with the highest risk for establishment from these three fly species. Jackknife tests reveal that environmental variables associated with temperature have the strongest influence on the potential distributions of all three species relative to other variables. PMID:19886442
Li, Baini; Ma, Jun; Hu, Xuenan; Liu, Haijun; Zhang, Runjie
Mianzhu—Aba profile, east of the Tibetan Plateau, was selected to study the occurrence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) along an altitudinal gradient. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and Aldrin, Dieldrin and Endrin (Drins) in surface soils were detected in winter (March) and summer (July). Soil concentrations (ng·g-1, dw) in winter and summer ranged as follws: DDTs, 0.37-179.16 and 0.32-42.57; HCHs, 0.14-10.76 and 0.55-32.71; Drins, N.D-3.99 and 0.02-6.93, respectively. Main soil OCPs were p, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDE, ?-HCH and Drins, among which Drins were rarely reported in current literature of the Tibetan Plateau. Higher OCP concentrations in the profile were attributed close to the agricultural fields of the Sichuan Basin, current lindane and nondicofol DDTs inputs, and also long-range atmospheric transport from abroad. Soil OCP concentrations underwent obvious seasonal variation, with higher DDTs in winter and higher HCHs and Drins in summer. It may be caused by climatic conditions, summer monsoon type, and physico-chemical properties of such contaminants. Though "rest" phenomenon occurred in some sampling sites, HCHs and Drins showed an increasing trend with increasing altitude, while DDTs showed an evident decrease with increasing altitude. The altitudinal distributions of OCPs were all consistent with previous findings in other mountainous regions. A primary fugacity analysis on OCPs soil-air exchange indicated that the profile may be secondary sources for HCHs and Endrin. As with Aldrin, Dieldrin, and DDTs, the profile may be both secondary sources and sinks.
Liu, Hongxia; Qi, Shihua; Yang, Dan; Hu, Ying; Li, Feng; Liu, Jia; Xing, Xinli
Several orogenic belts transecting eastern China are the sites of former convergent plate margins, although there have been varying views on the collisional framework of individual continental blocks, styles of convergence at these zones, and the timing of respective collisions. A tectonic study of eastern China, Mongolia and the southern Soviet Far East indicates the collision of the South China Block with a combined North China-Northeast China Fold Zone Block in the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic, their collective suturing to Eurasia in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, followed by the Sikhote Alin-Japan Block in the Mid to Late Cretaceous. The evidence is as follows: (1) A linear belt of Late Triassic-Early Cretaceous granites and granodiorites trends east from the Qinlingshan through the Dabieshan to the Huaiyang massif. Ophiolites, flysch, subduction zone mélange, a paired metamorphic belt indicating north dipping subduction and marine strata of Carboniferous to Late Triassic age from the Qinlingshan define the suture between the North and South China Blocks, (2) A sinuous belt of ultramafics, blueschists, silicic to intermediate magmatism and west and north vergent folds and thrusts trend from the west margin of the Ordos Basin through central Inner Mongolia and along the east Great Khingan Range to the Amur River. Coupled with a Mid Jurassic-Early Creataceous unconformity a suturing of eastern Chinese blocks to Eurasia along this zone is suggested, (3) A fold and thrust belt with ultramafics, flysch, blueschists and subduction zone mélange along the Ussuri River in northeast China indicates the suturing of the Sikhote Alin-Japan Block to Eurasia along a west dipping subduction zone in the Mid to Late Cretaceous. Similarly, a tectonic study of southern China and Southeast Asia has revealed a complex regional mosaic of suture-bounded terrains which nucleated about the eastern, western and southern margins of the Yangtze Craton during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic. The evidence is as follows: (4) A north-south trending belt of ophiolites, blueschists, calc-alkaline volcanics and subduction zone mélange, including granites, granodiorites and strongly deformed marine strata all of Late Triassic age exposed in the Longmenshan of Sichuan merge with the Kekexilishan ophiolite zone into the Ailaoshan-Tengtiaohe ophiolite and blueschist belt in central Yunnan along which the Songban-Ganzi Complex and the Shan-Thai-Malaya Block join the Craton, and (5) A southeastern prolongation of the Ailaoshan-Tengtiaohe belt bifurcates into the southeast trending Konvoi zone of northern Vietnam and the north-south trending Pak Lay-Luang Prabang zone of Laos and eastern Thailand. Zones of ophiolite, calc-alkaline volcanics and strong Late Triassic deformation, they separate the Indosinia and Shan-Thai-Malaya Blocks from the Craton respectively. These findings differ significantly from previous interpretations of a Late Paleozoic consolidation of South-Eastern Asia as well as disputing the existence of a true Pangea.
Klimetz, Michael P.
High-Mg diorites were discovered in the southern part of the ca. 830 Ma Dongma Pluton, northern Guangxi Province of southern China. The diorites (SiO2 = 59-65 wt%) are characterized by high MgO (6.7-8.9 wt%) contents and Mg-number [Mg# = 100 × Mg/(Mg + Fe)] (69-73), in contrary to the associated medium-Mg (MgO = 3.4-3.8 wt%, Mg# = 59-63) granodiorites in the Dongma main body and the low-Mg (MgO = 1.4-1.9 wt%, Mg# = 46-51) granodiorites in the Bendong Pluton to the north. Moreover, the high-Mg diorites show surprisingly high Cr (595-640 ppm) and Ni (171-194 ppm) concentrations, which are beyond the ranges of most coeval mafic rocks in the study area. Correspondingly, chromite crystals were separated from the high-Mg diorites and some of the medium-Mg granodiorites, and they show high Cr# [100 × Cr/(Cr + Al)] (average of 75), but low Mg# (0.34-2.51) and low Fe3 +. The decoupling of Cr# and Mg# and the existence of quartz + apatite mineral inclusion in chromites suggest Mg-Fe exchange that may be facilitated by the disequilibrium resulted from magma mixing. The high-Mg diorites show low La/Yb (6.8-8.5) and Sr/Y (2.1-3.1) ratios, significant negative anomalies of Nb and Ti and positive anomaly of Pb, resembling the Setouchi high-Mg andesites, despite of their relatively low Sr (71-100 ppm). All of the studied diorites and granodiorites show enriched Nd isotope compositions, with ?Nd(t) values (- 3.2 to - 5.9) a bit higher than some of the associated mafic rocks. Some of the high-Mg diorites show whole-rock ?Hf(t) (- 6.0 to - 6.2) coupled with Nd isotopes, similar to the associated mafic-ultramafic rocks in northern Guangxi, suggesting the metasomatism by melts of subducting sediments in the mantle source. Whereas, others show decoupled Nd-Hf isotopes that are similar to the medium- and low-Mg granodiorites [?Hf(t) = - 1.8 to + 0.05], probably indicating the late magma mixing with granitic magmas at a crustal level for the dioritic magmas. We propose a two-stage model for the petrogenesis of the high-Mg diorites: 1) the mantle source was firstly metasomatized by melts from partial melting of subducting terrigenous sediments to form the enriched Nd-Hf isotopic characteristics; and then 2) the mantle-derived high-Mg mafic melts mixed with the crust-derived low-Mg granitic melts to form the high-Mg diorites and medium-Mg granodiorites. The occurrence of high-Mg diorites implies the existence of Neoproterozoic subduction-related metasomatism in the western part of the Jiangnan orogen.
Chen, Xin; Wang, Di; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Gao, Jian-Feng; Shu, Xu-Jie; Zhou, Jin-Cheng; Qi, Liang
Differentiating magmatic doming and low-angle normal faulting remains critical for fully understanding the thermal, mechanical and chemical evolution of continental landmasses under extension. This zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical study documents two Middle to Late Jurassic batholiths (Lüshan and Haitangshan) from the Yiwulüshan range of western Liaoning, North China Craton. They consist of a variety of lithologies including gabbro, diorite, granodiorite, monzogranite, together with microgranular magmatic enclaves (MME) and mafic dykes. Synthesizing petrologic, elemental, whole-rock Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopic data leads to the characterization of multiple mafic and felsic end-members and their concomitant interaction in building the magmatic dome. A subduction-related metasomatized lithospheric mantle source is fingerprinted by the gabbroic to dioritic rocks with enriched large ion lithophile elements, depleted high field strength elements and heterogeneous isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70541 to 0.70577, ?Nd(t) = - 1.78 to - 5.54 and zircon ?Hf(t) = - 6.0 to 8.1). One felsic magma end-member of ancient mafic lower crustal parentage is discernable from adakitic granites with high Sr/Y and evolved isotopic composition (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70533 to 0.70792, ?Nd(t) = - 18.8 to - 21.7, zircon ?Hf(t) = - 18.5 to - 28.8), whereas another felsic magma end-member of newly underplated crustal heritage manifests itself from some monzogranites with non-adakitic elemental affinity and juvenile isotopic composition (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70429 to 0.70587, ?Nd(t) = - 4.47 to - 5.87, zircon ?Hf(t) = 4.3 to 1.3). Hybridization processes between mantle-derived mafic magma and ancient crustal-derived felsic magma result in the formation of MME-bearing granodiorites with intermediate isotopic signatures (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70491 to 0.70499, ?Nd(t) = - 15.3 to - 15.8, zircon ?Hf(t) = - 12.7 to - 17.4). Subsequent fractional crystallization of the hybridized magmas endows the differentiated monzogranites with low Sr/Y and highly evolved isotopes (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70496 to 0.70605, ?Nd(t) = - 16.0 to - 18.7, zircon ?Hf(t) = - 14.3 to - 21.5). Apart from distinguishing Middle-Late Jurassic extensional magmatic doming from Early Cretaceous detachment faulting, this complex mafic-felsic magma association encapsulates a multi-level crust/mantle interaction leading to lithospheric thinning and concomitant crustal architectural reorganization in the Yanshan belt during the Late Mesozoic. Near-synchronization of a two-stage extensional pattern in the Yanshan belt and even across NE continental Asia accords well with gravitational collapse and convective removal of lithospheric mantle within an evolved post-collisional to within-plate extensional regime.
Zhang, Xiaohui; Yuan, Lingling; Wilde, Simon A.
Northwest China is closely adjacent to Central Asia, an intermediate region of the Eurasian continent. Moreover, the Silk Road through the northwest of China once had a vital role in the east-west intercommunications. Nevertheless, little has been known about the genetic makeup of populations in this region. We collected 503 male samples from 14 ethnic groups in the northwest of China, and surveyed 29 Y-chromosomal biallelic markers and 8 short tandem repeats (STRs) loci to reconstruct the paternal architecture. Our results illustrated obvious genetic difference among these ethnic groups, and in general their genetic background is more similar with Central Asians than with East Asians. The ancestors of present northwestern populations were the admixture of early East Asians peopling northwestward and later Central Asians immigrating eastward. This population mixture was dated to occur within the past 10 000 years. The J2-M172 lineages likely entered China during the eastward migration of Central Asians. The influence from West Eurasia through gene flows on the extant ethnic groups in Northwest China was relatively weak. PMID:20414255
Shou, Wei-Hua; Qiao, En-Fa; Wei, Chuan-Yu; Dong, Yong-Li; Tan, Si-Jie; Shi, Hong; Tang, Wen-Ru; Xiao, Chun-Jie
SCOPE CHINA SCOPE CHINA 92030006 86-351-7010700 86-351-7010700 E-mail: scope #12;SCOPE-ZHONGYU ENvirONmENtal FOrUm 2012 October 11-14, 2012 Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, China Chair of Environmental Development Dr. Shu Sun, Academician, President of SCOPE CAST China Former Vice President
Wang, Wei Hua
Background The village doctors have served rural residents for many decades in China, and their role in rural health system has been highly praised in the world; unfortunately, less attention has been paid to the health workforce during the ambitious healthcare reform in recent years. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study to explore the current situation and track the future evolution of the rural healthcare workforce. Methods The self-administered structured Village Clinic Questionnaire and Village Doctor Questionnaire, which were modified from the official questionnaires of the Ministry of Health, were constructed after three focus groups, in-depth interviews in Hebei Province, and a pilot survey in Sichuan Province. Using a stratified multistage cluster sampling process, we gathered baseline data for a longitudinal survey of village doctors, village clinics from Changshu County, Liyang County, Yongchuan District, Mianzhu County, and Jingning County in China in 2011. Well-trained interviewers and strict procedures were employed to ensure the quality of this survey. Descriptive and correlation analyses were performed with Stata 12.0. Results After four months of surveying, 1,982 Village Doctor Questionnaires were collected, and the response rate was 88.1%. There were 1,507 (76.0%) male and 475 (24.0%) female doctors, with an average age of 51.3 years. The majority of village doctors (58.5%) practiced both western medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine, and 91.2% of the doctors received their education below college level. Their practice methods were not correlated with education level (P = 0.43), but closely related to the way they obtained their highest degree (that is, prior to starting work or as on-the-job training) (P < 0.01). The mean income of the village doctors was 1,817 (95% CI 1,733 to 1,900) RMB per month in 2011; only 757 (41.3%) doctors had pensions, and the self-reported expected pension was 1,965 RMB per month. Conclusions Village doctors in rural China are facing critical challenges, including aging, gender imbalance, low education, and a lack of social protection. This study may be beneficial for making better policies for the development of the health workforce and China’s healthcare reform. PMID:23642224
Explains that education and research, after having been neglected during the Cultural Revolution in China, are once again receiving emphasis, aided by extensive reading and by the reprinting of Western scientific literature. (Author/GA)
Koch, H. William
The anomalous TEC (total electron content) variations as seismo-ionospheric earthquake signa-tures have been investigated for the cases of a) China (Eastern Sichuan) earthquake of May 12, 2008, M 7.9 (31.0° N; 103.4° E) and b) Haiti seismic event of Jan. 12, 2010, M 7.0 (18.46° N; 72.5° W). The anomalies look like strong local long-living TEC enhancements relative to the
Oleg Zolotov; Boris Prokhorov; Alexander Namgaladze; Oleg Martynenko
The genus Mustilia Walker subgenus Smerkata Zolotuhin 2007 was revised by Zolotuhin (2007) to include seven species from the South-Palearctic to Oriental regions: (Mustilia (Smerkata) phaeopera Hampson (type species), Mustilia (Smerkata) fusca Kishida, Mustilia (Smerkata) craptalis Zolotuhin, Mustilia (Smerkata) soosi Zolotuhin, Mustilia (Smerkata) brechlini Zolotuhin, Mustilia (Smerkata) tzarica Zolotuhin, and Mustilia (Smerkata) ulliae Zolotuhin. An unanticipated discovery of a new species from Sichuan Province, China adds an eighth species to this subgenus. PMID:25662136
Saldaitis, Aidas; Ivinskis, Povilas; Rimsaite, Jolanta
Background Without effective treatment, PTSD and depression can cause persistent disability in disaster-affected populations. Methods Our objective was to test the efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) delivered by trained local personnel compared with treatment as usual (TAU) for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) among adults affected by the Sichuan 2008 earthquake. A small randomized controlled trial of IPT?+?TAU versus TAU alone was delivered by local mental health personnel in Shifang, China. Between July 2011 and January 2012, 49 adults???18 years with PTSD, MDD or both were enrolled and randomized to 12 weekly sessions of IPT?+?TAU (27) or TAU (22) alone x 12 weeks. IPT was then offered to the TAU group. Unblinded follow up assessments were conducted at three and six months. IPT was a 12 session, weekly one hour treatment delivered by local personnel who were trained and supervised in IPT. TAU was continuation of prescribed psychotropic medication (if applicable) and crisis counseling, as needed. Main Outcome(s) and Measures (s): Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) PTSD diagnosis; Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) for MDD diagnosis. Secondary measures included PTSD/depression symptoms, interpersonal conflict/anger, social support, self-efficacy and functioning. Results Using an intent-to-treat analysis, 22 IPT?+?TAU and 19 TAU participants were compared at three months post-baseline. A significantly greater reduction of PTSD and MDD diagnoses was found in the IPT group (51.9%, 30.1%, respectively) versus the TAU group (3.4%, 3.4%, respectively). Despite the small sample, the estimates for time-by-condition analyses of target outcomes (2.37 for PTSD (p?=?.018) and 1.91 for MDD (p?=?.056)) indicate the improvement was better in the IPT?+?TAU condition versus the TAU group. Treatment gains were maintained at 6 months for the IPT group. A similar treatment response was observed in the TAU group upon receipt of IPT. Conclusions This initial study shows that IPT is a promising treatment for reducing PTSD and depression, the two major mental health disorders affecting populations surviving natural disaster, using a design that builds local mental health care capacity. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.Gov number, NCT01624935. PMID:25254070
Abstract: The April 20, 2013 Ms 7.0 earthquake in Lushan city, Sichuan province of China occurred as the result of east-west oriented reverse-type motion on a north-south striking fault. The source location suggests the event occurred on the Southern part of Longmenshan fault at a depth of 13km. The Lushan earthquake caused a great of loss of property and 196 deaths. The maximum intensity is up to VIII to IX at Boxing and Lushan city, which are located in the meizoseismal area. In this study, we analyzed the dynamic source process and calculated source spectral parameters, estimated the strong ground motion in the near-fault field based on the Brune's circle model at first. A dynamical composite source model (DCSM) has been developed further to simulate the near-fault strong ground motion with associated fault rupture properties at Boxing and Lushan city, respectively. The results indicate that the frictional undershoot behavior in the dynamic source process of Lushan earthquake, which is actually different from the overshoot activity of the Wenchuan earthquake. Based on the simulated results of the near-fault strong ground motion, described the intensity distribution of the Lushan earthquake field. The simulated intensity indicated that, the maximum intensity value is IX, and region with and above VII almost 16,000km2, which is consistence with observation intensity published online by China Earthquake Administration (CEA) on April 25. Moreover, the numerical modeling developed in this study has great application in the strong ground motion prediction and intensity estimation for the earthquake rescue purpose. In fact, the estimation methods based on the empirical relationship and numerical modeling developed in this study has great application in the strong ground motion prediction for the earthquake source process understand purpose. Keywords: Lushan, Ms7.0 earthquake; near-fault strong ground motion; DCSM; simulated intensity
Meng, L.; Zhou, L.; Liu, J.
Background Oncomelania hupensis is the unique intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, which causes schistosomiasis endemic in the Far East, and especially in mainland China. O. hupensis largely determines the parasite's geographical range. How O. hupensis's genetic diversity is distributed geographically in mainland China has never been well examined with DNA sequence data. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we investigate the genetic variation among O. hupensis from different geographical origins using the combined complete internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. 165 O. hupensis isolates were obtained in 29 localities from 7 provinces across mainland China: lake/marshland and hill regions in Anhui, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi and Jiangsu provinces, located along the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, and mountainous regions in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. Phylogenetic and haplotype network analyses showed distinct genetic diversity and no shared haplotypes between populations from lake/marshland regions of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and populations from mountainous regions of Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. The genetic distance between these two groups is up to 0.81 based on Fst, and branch time was estimated as 2–6 Ma. As revealed in the phylogenetic tree, snails from Sichuan and Yunnan provinces were also clustered separately. Geographical separation appears to be an important factor accounting for the diversification of the two groups of O. hupensis in mainland China, and probably for the separate clades between snails from Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. In lake/marshland and hill regions along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, three clades were identified in the phylogenetic tree, but without any obvious clustering of snails from different provinces. Conclusions O. hupensis in mainland China may have considerable genetic diversity, and a more complex population structure than expected. It will be of significant importance to consider the genetic diversity of O. hupensis when assessing co-evolutionary interactions with S. japonicum. PMID:20209150
Zhao, Qin Ping; Jiang, Ming Sen; Littlewood, D. Timothy J.; Nie, Pin
Western Foot Patrol Western University Room 57, University Community Centre London, Ontario N6A 3K7 August 2013 Get involved! Volunteer with Western Foot Patrol Welcome to Western! Thank you for your interest in volunteering for Western Foot Patrol (WFP)! WFP is a free service that promotes
Lennard, William N.
In mid-July to the end of August 1982, the Sichuan Provincial Party Committee and the Sichuan Provincial People's Government launched a 1-time family planning propaganda month in all of its cities and villages. The purpose was to promote and to carry out consistently and thoroughly the "Going a Step Further in Family Planning Work Directive" of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party and the State Council. Through the propaganda efforts, cadres and masses of Sichuan became familiar with the Party's family planning policy and the basis for population theory, thereby benefitting the nation, its people and future generations. In addition, people sensed the urgency, glory, and responsibility of population control. Based on incomplete data, during the month of propaganda, there were 174,182 new applications for 1 Child Certificates, which was 94.82% of the certificates applied for in the 1st half of 1982; 419,696 cases of contraceptive use, or 43.32% of those using them in the 1st 6 months of the year; 247,808 cases of those taking remedial measures, or 35.62% of those doing so in the 1st half of the year. The 1 child rate rose from a June 1982 figure of 68.21% to 68.71%; the multiple child rate dropped from 8.24% to 8%. The projected birthrate for 1982 is 16-17/1000. The success of the propaganda month was attained through: 1) organized responsibility, clearly defined goals and complete preparations that existed at all provincial Party and provincial Governmental levels; 2) the propaganda effort that was a priority of all governmental leaders, who utilized every propaganda tool available; At every level, propaganda sessions of every kind were convened, the entire propaganda machine was mobilized, and propaganda was brought into the home and to individuals; 3) propaganda, experience, and implementation that were all utilized simultaneously; and 4) the organization and administration of propaganda work that was systematized. PMID:12312939
Wan, C; Tan, S S
Investigations of Chinese students and their approaches to learning have emphasised a dichotomy in ‘western’ and ‘Confucian’ approaches to education but in a longitudinal study of Chinese postgraduate students’ academic adjustment to a British university the dichotomy is less than real. The focus of this research was on an in-depth study of students’ own conceptualisation of their learning and the
Lihong Wang; Michael Byram
Background The global pandemic of obesity has become a disastrous public health issue that needs urgent attention. Previous studies have concentrated in high-income urban settings and few cover low-income rural settings especially nomadic residents in mountain areas. This study focused on low-income rural and nomadic minority people residing in China’s far west and investigated their prevalence and ethnic differences of obesity. Methods A questionnaire-based survey and physical examination of 8,036 individuals were conducted during 2009–2010, using stratified cluster random sampling method in nomadic Kazakhs and rural Uyghur residents (?18 years old) in 18 villages, Xinjiang, China, about 4,407 km away from capital Beijing. Obesity was defined by BMI and WC. Results The overall prevalence of general and abdominal obesity in Kazakh adults were 18.3% and 60.0%, respectively and in Uyghur, 7.6% and 54.5%, respectively. Female’s prevalence of obesity was higher than male’s for general obesity (45–54 age group in Uyghur, P?=?0.041) and abdominal obesity (?55 years in Kazakhs, P55??=?0.010, P65??=?0.001; and ?18 years in Uyghurs, P<0.001). Kazakh’s prevalence of obesity was higher than Uyghur’s (general obesity: ?35 years, P<0.001; abdominal obesity: ?25 years in males and ?65 years in females, P<0.01). The prevalence of obesity increased after 18 years old and subsequently decreased after 55 years old. Meat consumption, older age, and female gender had a higher risk of obesity in these two minorities. Conclusions Both general and abdominal obesity were common in rural ethnic Kazakhs and Uyghurs. The prevalence rates were different in these two minorities depending on ethnicity, gender, and age. Kazakhs, females and elderly people may be prioritized in prevention of obesity in western China. Because of cost-effectiveness in measuring BMI and WC, we recommend that BMI and WC be integrated into local preventive policies in public health toward screening obesity and related diseases in low-income rural minorities. PMID:25188373
He, Jia; Guo, Shuxia; Liu, Jiaming; Zhang, Mei; Ding, Yusong; Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Shugang; Xu, Shangzhi; Niu, Qiang; Guo, Heng; Ma, Rulin
Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to106 tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts’ energy distribution also varies from province to province in China. Based on the analysis of the market scale and industry development, the article argues that China’s biomass energy industry is still at a very early stage of development and that Feed-in Tariffs (FIT) might be the best policy option for China to promote its development of biomass energy. A successful enforcement of FIT in China needs some policy combination of special capital subsidies, R&D funding, tax incentives and pricing.
Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario
Fifteen papers were presented covering the following: the outlook for Powder River Basin Coals; markets for medium-range Western coals; outlook for domestic coal sales; Canada - the reliable coal supplier; coal requirements and procurement policies; coal procurement at Nevada Power Co; Nebraska Public Power District coal fired power plants - specifications and projections; NSP and its fuel needs; coal procurement at Grand River Dam Authority; Son of OPEC: Western Fuels and its coal contracting procedures; an update of the coal supply and demand situation of China Light and Power Co. Ltd; maximum rate guidelines - deja vu or the real thing.; Western coal shippers concerns; domestic and export movements; 1984-eleven years later. Most of the papers are in the form of transcripts.
The ?stunning comeback? of China after almost two centuries is one of the most significant trends affecting Western economies, particularly the United States (US). None of the key drives that have promoted China?s growth are really at risk if the Chinese government does not deviate from its present economic policy and keeps up gradual refinement of its unique and effective
... Liaoning region of China and parts of northern and western Korea. They contrast a relatively clear day (March 23, 2002) with one in which ... the Liaodong peninsula extending between the Bo Hai Sea and Korea Bay is faintly visible at the lower left. Wave features are apparent ...
We use a theoretical sampling approach to investigate and compare communications in two crisis situations – the Sichuan earthquake in China and Hurricane Katrina in the US. We propose to re-conceptualize crisis communications, with the possibility of recognizing non-hierarchical and reciprocal interactions between authorities, traditional and social media, and individuals in crisis planning policy. We bring the issues of political and social
James D. White; King-Wa Fu
Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to10(6) tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts' energy distribution also varies from province to province in China. Based on the analysis of the market scale and industry development, the article argues that China's biomass energy industry is still at a very early stage of development and that Feed-in Tariffs (FIT) might be the best policy option for China to promote its development of biomass energy. A successful enforcement of FIT in China needs some policy combination of special capital subsidies, R&D funding, tax incentives and pricing. PMID:20372892
Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario
In the last 60 years, great progress has been made in controlling and preventing schistosomiasis in China. However, due to the ecosystem changes caused by the construction of the Three Gorges Dams and the South-north Water Conversion Project, the effects of climate change, the scarcity of a highly sensitive surveillance and response system, schistosomiasis is still considered as a major public health problem and is listed among the top infectious diseases in the country prioritized for control and elimination. Based on the epidemiological pattern of schistosomiasis and ecological characteristics of the vector snail, endemic areas of schistosomiasis in China were categorized into three types: (i) plain region with waterway networks, (ii) mountainous and hilly regions, and (iii) marshland and lake regions. China aims to reach the criteria of transmission control threshold of less than 1% in the lake and marshland provinces and reach transmission interruption threshold in hilly provinces of Sichuan and Yunnan by the end of 2015. The purpose of this article is to use the deterministic model proposed in our earlier study in (Chen et al., 2010) to simulate the schistosomiasis infection data from other lake and marshland provinces, including Hunan, Jiangxi and Anhui. Our simulations demonstrate that the model can reasonably mimic the schistosomiasis infection data from these lake and marshland provinces. Thus, similar control and prevention measures can be designed and proposed for these provinces. We will also try to use the model to simulate the schistosomiasis infection data from Sichuan and Yunnan provinces in the mountainous and hilly regions where cattle farming is not as popular and important as in the lake and marshland provinces and find out that different control and prevention strategies are required. PMID:25559046
Zou, Lan; Ruan, Shigui
Purpose A 11-gene set by methylation-specific PCR in urine sediments for sensitive\\/specific detection of bladder cancer has been identified\\u000a previously. In this study, we have evaluated 10 DNA methylation biomarkers that have been reported informative in western\\u000a countries for bladder cancer diagnosis for a better set.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods The promoter CpG Islands of the following 10 genes: CDH1, FANCF, LOXL1, LOXL4,
Jinfeng Sun; Zhou Chen; Tongyu Zhu; Jian Yu; Kelong Ma; Hongyu Zhang; Yinghua He; Xiaoying Luo; Jingde Zhu
Objective With a quasi-experimental design, this study aims to assess whether the Zero-markup Policy for Essential Drugs (ZPED) reduces the medical expense for patients at county hospitals, the major healthcare provider in rural China. Methods Data from Ningshan county hospital and Zhenping county hospital, China, include 2014 outpatient records and 9239 inpatient records. Quantitative methods are employed to evaluate ZPED. Both hospital-data difference-in-differences and individual-data regressions are applied to analyze the data from inpatient and outpatient departments. Results In absolute terms, the total expense per visit reduced by 19.02 CNY (3.12 USD) for outpatient services and 399.6 CNY (65.60 USD) for inpatient services. In relative terms, the expense per visit was reduced by 11% for both outpatient and inpatient services. Due to the reduction of inpatient expense, the estimated reduction of outpatient visits is 2% among the general population and 3.39% among users of outpatient services. The drug expense per visit dropped by 27.20 CNY (4.47 USD) for outpatient services and 278.7 CNY (45.75 USD) for inpatient services. The proportion of drug expense out of total expense per visit dropped by 11.73 percentage points in outpatient visits and by 3.92 percentage points in inpatient visits. Conclusion Implementation of ZPED is a benefit for patients in both absolute and relative terms. The absolute monetary reduction of the per-visit inpatient expense is 20 times of that in outpatient care. According to cross-price elasticity, the substitution between inpatient and outpatient due to the change in inpatient price is small. Furthermore, given that the relative reductions are the same for outpatient and inpatient visits, according to relative thinking theory, the incentive to utilize outpatient or inpatient care attributed to ZPED is equivalent, regardless of the 20-times price difference in absolute terms. PMID:25790443
Zhou, Zhongliang; Su, Yanfang; Campbell, Benjamin; Zhou, Zhiying; Gao, Jianmin; Yu, Qiang; Chen, Jiuhao; Pan, Yishan
The climate of the Vietnamese coast, western South China Sea (SCS), is driven by the annually reversing East Asian Monsoon (EAM) system which is also related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) through teleconnection. Our understanding of EAM activity and its connection with global climate is not fully established. In this study high resolution Sr/Ca and ?18O records derived from four fossil Porites sp. corals with U-series ages ranging from ~7000 to 1800 years (yrs) were used to characterise the EAM-ENSO activities since the mid-Holocene. The results show that both the summer and winter monsoons were stronger than present ~ 7000 yrs ago, as evidenced by the higher-than-present amplitudes of annual cycles in SST (9.1 °C) and seawater ?18O (1.4%). The strengthened summer monsoon is considered to result from higher Northern Hemispheric insolation during the mid-Holocene, while the enhanced winter monsoon could be attributed to a reduction/shutdown of North Atlantic Meridional Overturning (NAMOC), leading to a prevailing "cold tongue" off the Vietnamese coast, and an amplified east-west SST gradient in the northern SCS. The EAM was weakened ca. 4200 yrs ago, as reflected by the lower amplitude of SST (4.3 °C) and seawater ?18O (0.57%) annual cycles. The downturn of the EAM is correlated in timing with the cold phase or the Bond event of the high-latitude climate, the Neolithic cultural collapse in China, and the strengthened ENSO in the Pacific. After this downturn, the EAM was slightly strengthened ~3600 and 1800 yrs ago as shown by larger amplitudes of SST (~ 5 °C) and seawater ?18O (1.0-1.2%) annual cycles. The enhanced EAM at these times are out of phase with the high-latitude climate, but are consistent with evidence from historical documents in Vietnam and China. The waxing/waning of the EAM appear to match with the waning/waxing of the ENSO intensity throughout the records since the mid-Holocene. The changes in EAM activity were accompanied by corresponding variations in the annual rainfall pattern, demonstrated by the difference in the timing of the onset and withdrawal of the rainy season. For instance, around 4200 yrs ago, the rainy season started 5.5 months earlier, compared with other times, including the present.
Nguyen, A. D.; Zhao, J.; Feng, Y.; Yu, K.; Gasparon, M.; U-Series Dating Technique Team
The study of the winter temperatures, averaged from the records of 11 observatories in the Da Hinggan Mountains and its western areas in China (DHM-WA), identified 11 extremely cold (? - 1.5 °C) and 13 extremely warm winters (? + 1.5 °C) during the past 60 years (1951-2010). The winters of 2011 and 2012 are another two extremely cold events. Aimed at exploring the climate causes, a comprehensive investigation is carried out on variations of some major atmospheric circulation components. Additionally, opposite circulation regimes are verified by examining the mean 500-hPa circulation patterns and sea level pressure (SLP) corresponding to 14 warm and 18 cold sea surface temperature (SST) phases over the North India Ocean (NIO) during the period of 1951-2010. Composite of an extremely cold winter usually includes a large and strong Siberian High, a deep East Asian trough to the west, an small and weak western Pacific Subtropical High to the east, a large North Polar vortex and a weakened westerly stream over Eurasia continent accompanied by a strong meridional winds from the polar region to lower latitude. Moreover, it has been found that a favorable circulation condition associated with the extremely cold winters to DHM-WA is mainly controlled by the SST over NIO in the previous warm season (June-September); This is primarily related to changes in the intensity of the Walker and Anti-Walker circulations, which subsequently influence the major circulation components and result in an extremely cold winter in DHM-WA.
Gao, Tao; Han, Jingwei; Gao, Lian; Yan, Wei
Classical plate tectonics theory predicts concentrated deformation at plate boundaries and weak deformation within plates. Yet, the existence of intracontinental orogens shows that highly deformed regions can occur within continental plates, which is geodynamically incompletely understood. Shear wave splitting measurements in South China show belt-parallel (i.e. NE-SW) fast directions beneath the Wulingshan-Xuefengshan Belts, while no dominant fast direction is found in the cratonic Sichuan Basin. Tomographic studies in the mantle in the same area show that the thickness of lithosphere beneath the intracontinental orogen is larger than that beneath the cratonic Sichuan Basin. In order to better understand these seismic observations, we performed numerical experiments of intracontinental lithospheric deformation with the presence of cratonic basin.
Lu, Gang; Zhao, Liang; Zheng, Tianyu; Kaus, Boris J. P.
The Alkaline porphyries in the Beiya area are located east of the Jinshajiang suture, as part of a Cenozoic alkali-rich porphyry belt in western Yunnan. The main rock types include quartz-albite porphyry, quartz-K-feldspar porphyry and biotite-K-feldspar porphyry. These porphyries are characterised by high alkalinity [(K2O + Na2O)% > 10%], high silica (SiO2% > 65%), high Sr (> 400??ppm) and 87Sr/86Sr (> 0.706)] ratio and were intruded at 65.5??Ma, between 25.5 to 32.5??Ma, and about 3.8??Ma, respectively. There are five main types of mineral deposits in the Beiya area: (1) porphyry Cu-Au deposits, (2) magmatic Fe-Au deposits, (3) sedimentary polymetallic deposits, (4) polymetallic skarn deposits, and (5) palaeoplacers associated with karsts. The porphyry Cu-Au and polymetallic skarn deposits are associated with quartz-albite porphyry bodies. The Fe-Au and polymetallic sedimentary deposits are part of an ore-forming system that produced considerable Au in the Beiya area, and are characterised by low concentrations of La, Ti, and Co, and high concentrations of Y, Yb, and Sc. The Cenozoic porphyries in western Yunnan display increased alkalinity away from the Triassic Jinshajiang suture. Distribution of both the porphyries and sedimentary deposits in the Beiya area are interpreted to be related to partial melting in a disjointed region between upper mantle lithosphere of the Yangtze Plate and Gondwana continent, and lie within a shear zone between buried Palaeo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere and upper mantle lithosphere, caused by the subduction and collision of India and Asia. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Xu, X.-W.; Cai, X.-P.; Xiao, Q.-B.; Peters, S.G.
Magnetostratigraphy of 222 remanent directions together with late Oligocene to early Miocene mammal and charophyte paleontology suggest that 2179 m of the Xishuigou section (Subei, Gansu Province, China) were deposited from ˜26 to ˜19 Ma. Stratigraphic patterns of bulk susceptibility, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility parameters, and natural and anhysteretic remanent magnetization intensities demonstrate that (1) faulting does not significantly affect the record, (2) sediment deposition was relatively continuous, (3) sediment source changed around 23 Ma, and (4) rapid uplift near Subei occurred at 21 Ma. Subei rotated 27°±5° counterclockwise with respect to the 20 Ma pole from the Eurasian synthetic apparent polar wander path. Folding and rotation of the section took place after 19 Ma. The paleolatitude of Subei is 14° less than at present and 19°±3° less than predicted from the reference pole. Both rock magnetic and paleomagnetic data sets suggest that the unusually low paleolatitude is the result of synsedimentary inclination shallowing, a phenomenon which has likely affected other paleomagnetic data from central Asia.
Gilder, Stuart; Chen, Yan; Sen, Sevket
China took its 3rd national population census on July 1, 1982. Some interesting figures from the published data are: 1) the most populous province in China is Sichuan province with a total of 99,713,310 people, or 9.66% of China's total population; 2) with the exception of 3 municipalities directly controlled by the central government, the most densely populated province is Jiangsu, whose population density is 590 persons per square km; 3) the biggest national minority group in China is the Zhuang nationality whose total population is 13,378,162; 4) the highest sex ratio is 109 of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region; 5) since the year 1964, the biggest increase of relative volume of population is in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region--84.84% more in 1982 than in 1964; 6) the highest birth rate in 1981 was 31.5/1000 in the Tibetan Autonomous Region, and the lowest 16.14/1000 in Shanghai; 7) the highest death rate in 1981 was 9.29/1000 in the Tibetan Autonomous Region and the lowest 4.95/1000 in Heilungjiang province; 8) the highest natural population growth rate in 1981 was 23.57/1000 in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, and the lowest, 9.7/1000, in Shanghai; and 9) the highest illiteracy rate is 51.8% in Tibet, and the lowest 12.4% in Beijing. PMID:12268515
Background Economic transition which took place in China over the last three decades, has led to a rapid marketization of the health care sector. Today inequity in health and poverty resulting from major illness has become a serious problem in rural areas of China. Medical Financial Assistance (MFA) is a health assistance scheme that helps rural poor people cope with major illness and alleviate their financial burden from major illness, which will definitely play a significant role in the process of rebuilding Chinese new rural health system. It mainly provides assistance to cover medical expenditure for inpatient services or the treatment of major illnesses, with joint funding from the central and local government. The purpose of this paper is to review the design, funding, implementation and to explore the preliminary effects of four counties' MFA in Hubei and Sichuan province of China. Methods We used an analytical framework built around the main objective of any social assistance scheme. The framework contains six 'targeting' procedural 'steps' which may explain why a specific group does not receive the assistance it ought to receive. More specifically, we explored to what extent the targeting, a key component of social assistance programs, is successful, based on the qualitative and quantitative data collected from four representative counties in central and western China. Results In the study sites, the budget of MFA ranged from 0.8 million Yuan to 1.646 million Yuan in each county and the budget per eligible person ranged from 32.67 Yuan to 149.09 Yuan. The preliminary effects of MFA were quite modest because of the scarcity of funds dedicated to the scheme. The coverage rate of MFA ranged from 17.8% to 24.1% among the four counties. MFA in the four counties used several ways to ration a restricted budget and provided only limited assistance. Substantial problems remained in terms of eligibility and identification of the beneficiaries, utilization and management of funds. Conclusions MFA needs to be improved further although it evidences the concern of the government for the poor rural people with major illness. Some ideas on how to improve MFA are put forward for future policy making. PMID:22011478
The authors sought to determine the prevalence and risk factors for major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among survivors living in temporary accommodation in the Yongxing settlement in Mianyang city 1 year after the Sichuan earthquake for further interventions. They interviewed 182 residents, using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and a self-report questionnaire. The 12-month prevalence of depressive disorder and PTSD were 48.9% and 39.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that bereaved survivors were 5.51 times (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 5.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.14-14.22) more likely to report PTSD and 2.42 times (AOR = 2.42; 95%CI =1.00-5.48) more likely to report depressive disorder than nonbereaved survivors. Older age and receipt of government financial support were significantly associated with 12-month PTSD. Depressive disorder 12 months after the earthquake was associated with receipt of government financial support, pre-earthquake physical illness, single marital status, being currently employed, and Han ethnicity. PMID:23666829
Cheng, Zhang; Ma, Ning; Yang, Lei; Agho, Kingsley; Stevens, Garry; Raphael, Beverley; Cui, Lijun; Liu, Yongqiao; Yan, Baoping; Ma, Hong; Yu, Xin
The three types of physicians trained in the People's Republic of China (practitioners in Chinese medicine, traditional Mongolian medicine, and western-style medicine) and the design of the medical schools and programs are discussed. (MSE)
Cooper, John A. D.; Yingang, Lin
Major and trace element compositions of constituent minerals, partly decomposed rims of orthopyroxenes (DRO), `closed' melt pockets (CMP) and open melt pockets (OMP) in some Western Qinling peridotite xenoliths were obtained by LA-ICP-MS. Systematic core-to-rim compositional variations of garnet, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene demonstrate that these minerals underwent variable degrees of subsolidus breakdown or partial melting. Both DROs and CMPs consist of similar mineral assemblages and are characterized by high TiO2, CaO + Na2O and low MgO contents; they are enriched in LREE and LILE compositions, have positive anomalies in Pb, Sr and particularly Ti, negative Th and U, and variable Zr and Hf anomalies. These chemical features are distinct and reflect reactions involving the orthopyroxenes. Compared to the CMPs, the OMPs, which are composed of a complex assemblage of minerals, display lower FeO and MgO contents, larger ranges in SiO2 and Na2O, higher TiO2, Al2O3, CaO and trace element concentrations, slightly negative Zr and Hf anomalies, and apparently negative Ti anomalies. Modeling calculations of partial fusion of orthopyroxenes and clinopyroxenes suggest that the CMPs most likely originated from the breakdown of orthopyroxenes with variably minor contribution of external melts from the melting of clinopyroxenes, whereas the OMPs were probably formed from the modification of the CMPs through the interaction with large amount of external melts.
Su, Ben-Xun; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Yang, Yue-Heng; Sakyi, Patrick Asamoah; Ying, Ji-Feng; Tang, Yan-Jie
Ambient particulate matter was collected in a megacity, Nanjing in western YRD during the spring and summer periods. Chemical compositions of fine PM including organic carbon, elemental carbon, elements and water soluble ions were analyzed. The light extinction coefficients were reconstructed following the IMPROVE formula. Organic matter was the most abundant composition in PM2.5 (20-25% of total mass), followed by the inorganic ions. During the spring time, geological materials contributed 25% of the total PM2.5. Estimated light extinction coefficient ranged from 133 to 560 Mm-1 with the deciview haze index value of 26-40 dv, indicating strong light extinction by PM and subsequently low visibility in the city. Reconstructed ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, organic matter and light absorption carbon in fine PM contributed significantly (37 ± 10, 16 ± 6, 15 ± 4 and 10 ± 3%, respectively) to the total light extinction of PM, while soil (5-7%) and sea salt fractions (2-4%) in fine PM and coarse PM (6-11%) had relatively minor influences. The results of backward air trajectory showed that the site was strongly influenced by the air from the eastern (39%) and southeastern (29%) areas during the sampling period. Air plumes from the Southeastern had both high PM mass pollution and large light extinction, while the air mass originating from the Northwestern resulted in high PM mass loading but relatively lower light extinction.
Shen, Guofeng; Xue, Miao; Yuan, Siyu; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Qiuyue; Li, Bing; Wu, Haisuo; Ding, Aijun
Giant plagioclase crystals carried into the Panzhihua gabbroic layered intrusion from a deeper magma chamber can help constrain the timescales of emplacement of the Panzhihua intrusion in the Emeishan large igneous province (LIP). In this study, we present the petrographic textures and chemical compositions of giant plagioclase and fine-grained gabbro samples along a ~ 50 m horizontal outcrop of the low zone of the Panzhihua deposit. The giant plagioclase gabbro (GPG) dykes mostly intrude into the fine-grained gabbros without significant contact. Both types of gabbros have the similar bulk-rock major and trace element compositions. However, the mineral composition shows that most of the plagioclase megacrysts contain less An than the plagioclase in fine-grained gabbro samples. In situ analyses of Sr isotopes from core-to-rim transects of plagioclase megacrysts are constant, indicating that there are no recycled crystals. The textural characteristics of samples combined with petrological modeling using MELTS suggest that the plagioclase megacrysts should crystallize and grow in a deeper magma chamber. Textual studies of the GPG indicate that these plagioclase megacrysts mostly plot as straight lines on a classic crystal size distribution (CSD) diagram. For a plagioclase growth range of 10- 11-10- 10 mm/s, the plagioclase should have a growth time of 530-8118 years. In a 100 km3 magma chamber releasing thermal energy at a rate of 1000 MW, the Panzhihua intrusion should reach 50% crystallization after ~ 2400 years. The growth time recorded by the megacrysts in the GPG and numerical modeling may indicate that the emplacement and crystallization of the Panzhihua intrusion may have taken place in thousands of years. In the Emeishan LIP, therefore the combination of large volumes of Fe-rich magma flux and efficient metal precipitation led to the formation of a giant Fe-Ti-V oxide deposit in a short period.
Cheng, Lilu; Zeng, Ling; Ren, Zhongyuan; Wang, Yu; Luo, Zhaohua
Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria promote plant growth by direct and indirect mechanisms. We isolated twelve bacterial strains showing different degrees of phosphate solubilizing activity from maize rhizosphere. Four isolates solubilized over 300 ?g mL?¹ phosphate from insoluble Ca?(PO?)?, with isolate SCAUK0330 solubilizing over 450 ?g mL?¹. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis SCAUK0330 was identified as Burkholderia cepacia. SCAUK0330 grew at 10-40 °C and pH 4.0-10.0, tolerated up to 5% NaCl, and showed antagonism against nine pathogenic fungi. SCAUK0330 promoted the growth of both healthy and Helminthosporium maydis infected maize plants, indicating that the isolate was a good candidate to be applied as a biofertilizer and a biocontrol agent under a wide range of environmental conditions.The expression of a single SCAUK0330 gene gave E. coli a pH decrease linked ability to solubilize phosphate. The nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequences of this phosphate solubilization linked gene showed high degree of sequence identity with B. cepacia E37gabY. The production of gluconic acid is considered as the principle mechanism for phosphate solubilization. In agreement with the proposed periplasmic location of the gluconic acid production, the predicted signal peptide and transmembrane regions implied that GabY is membrane bound. PMID:23932330
Zhao, Ke; Penttinen, Petri; Zhang, Xiaoping; Ao, Xiaoling; Liu, Maoke; Yu, Xiumei; Chen, Qiang
The 8.0R earthquake that struck Sichuan on the 12th of May 2008, in the district of Chengdu of Southern China resulted in tenths of thousands casualties, the complete destruction of many towns and extended damages to public works. The earthquake was triggered by a reverse fault of NE-SW trend, more than 100 km long, that divides morphologically the affected area
Cervus sichuanicus is a species of sika deer (Cervus nippon Group). To date, research has mainly focused on quantity surveying and behavior studies, with genetic information on this species currently deficient. To provide scientific evidence to assist in the protection of this species, we collected Sichuan sika deer fecal samples from the Sichuan Tiebu Nature Reserve (TNR) and extracted DNA from those samples. Microsatellite loci of bovine were used for PCR amplification. After GeneScan, the genotype data were used to analyze the genetic diversity and population structure of the Sichuan sika deer in TNR. Results showed that the average expected heterozygosity of the Sichuan sika deer population in TNR was 0.562, equivalent to the average expected heterozygosity of endangered animals, such as Procapra przewalskii. Furthermore, 8 of 9 microsatellite loci significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and two groups existed within the Sichuan sika deer TNR population. This genetic structure may be caused by a group of Manchurian sika deer (Cervus hortulorum) released in TNR. PMID:25465089
He, Ya; Wang, Zheng-Huan; Wang, Xiao-Ming
The study reported in this paper tested the hypothesis that the developmental and reproductive health of mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) exposed to pulp and paper effluent in the Dengcun River would differ from that of mosquitofish living in a reference site. We also studied whether morphological characteristics such as the anal fin and hemal spines of mosquitofish could serve as indicators for evaluating the androgenic effect and mosquitofish population security in the Dengcun River. Male and female mosquitofish were captured at three sites contaminated by pulp and paper effluent in the Dengcun River in Sihui, South China, and at a nearby uncontaminated reference site. Samples were collected from the sampling sites on the same day in August 2009. We compared the populations by total length, wet body and liver mass, gonad mass, and population composition. We also compared the populations according to number of anal fin segments, oocyte and embryo count, anal fin and hemal spine morphology among females, and by sperm count and viability among males, and observed the gonadal and liver histology of both males and females. Female mosquitofish exposed to pulp and paper effluent in the Dengcun River were generally smaller in length and mass, had a greater number of anal fin segments and more embryos, but had significantly fewer oocytes in comparison with those living at the reference site. The higher number of anal fin ray 3 segments and the increased ray 4:6 length ratio observed among fish taken from the Dengcun River sites indicated that they might be subject to the androgenic effect. Furthermore, the significantly different hemal spine morphology of the effluent-affected females also indicated the pulp and paper mills effluents in Dengcun River might contain androgenic substance(s). Male mosquitofish at the sites exposed to effluent had a higher number of anal fin segments and greater testis mass in comparison with those living at the reference site. No evidence of intersex was found in either males or females, although histopathological tests on females revealed histologic abnormalities in the liver and gonads. It can be concluded that pulp and paper effluent contamination in the Dengcun River has affected a number of developmental parameters and reproductive characteristics in mosquitofish, with possible adverse effects on reproduction in this population. PMID:21458407
Hou, Liping; Xie, Yongping; Ying, Guangguo; Fang, Zhanqiang
China is well known for its long history of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which has endured for thousands of years. The use of TCM requires complex recipes and formulae derived from historical and anecdotal evidence of Chinese medicinal practitioners. Although western drugs were brought into China over a hundred years ago, TCM is still widely used in China based on
Hai Yan Zhang; Xi Can Tang
Chien S.-S. and Gordon I. Territorial competition in China and the West, Regional Studies. In modern western societies, and most other economies to which it has spread, territorial economic competition is associated with a combination of competitive electoral politics and private land-ownership. In mainland China, however, a very strong form of this competition has emerged without either of these supports.
Shiuh-Shen Chien; Ian Gordon
The 400 km-long Karakax left-lateral strike-slip fault is the westernmost segment of the Altyn Tagh fault. It separates northwestern Tibet to the south from the Tarim basin to the north. The western section of the Karakax fault exhibits clear co-seismic surface ruptures of past large earthquakes. Geomorphic offset measurements from the field and high-resolution Ikonos images along 1.5 km across the Sanshiliyingfang fan and along 55 km of the fault, range from 3 to 28 m, with distinct clusters at 6 × 2(3), 14 × 2, 19 × 2 and 24 × 3 m. The cluster of the smallest offsets around 6 m (full range from 3 to 10 m) distributed over a minimum length of 55 km, is attributed to the last largest surface rupturing event that testifies of the occurrence of a magnitude Mw 7.4-7.6 earthquake along the Karakax fault. We interpret the other offset clusters as the possible repetition of similarly sized events thus favoring a characteristic slip model for the Karakax fault. In a 3 m-deep trench dug across the active trace of the fault we can identify the main rupture strands of the last and penultimate events. The penultimate event horizon, a silty-sand layer, has been radiocarbon dated at 975-1020 A.D. (AMS 14C age). Estimating that the most recent event occurred in the last century (or 200 yrs at most), it may be related to the historical events of 1902 or 1882 located south of Pishan and Hotan. It is proposed that large Mw 7.4-7.6 events with co-seismic slip of about 6 m rupture the Karakax fault with a return time of about 900 years implying an average slip-rate of about 6-7 mm/yr during the late Holocene. These results suggest that the Karakax fault is the largest left-lateral strike-slip fault at the rim of northwestern Tibet accommodating eastward movement of Tibet due to the India-Eurasia collision.
Li, H.; Van der Woerd, J.; Sun, Z.; Pan, J.; Tapponnier, P.; Liu, D.; Si, J.; Chevalier, M.; Zhang, W.
The South Tianshan Collisional Belt (STCB), formed by the collision between the Tarim and Central Tianshan blocks, is pivotal for understanding the complex and prolonged tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The Chuanwulu complex is located in the eastern part of the STCB, Xinjiang province, NW China. It consists of a gabbro-diorite unit (unit I) and a monzonite-syenite unit (unit II), which are both cut by some granite dykes (unit III). Based on LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating, the units I and II were emplaced at 287.8 ± 4.3 Ma and 286.4 ± 2.5 Ma, respectively. The SiO2 contents of the samples from the complex display a wide range from 50.52 wt.% to 70.64 wt.%, and most samples are of alkaline affinities. The magma mixing process during the formation of the complex is suggested by considerable petrographic and geochemical evidence such as mafic microgranular enclaves (MEEs) that occur within unit II, disequilibrium textures, linear negative correlations between SiO2 and some major elements, and a wide range of (87Sr/86Sr)t ratios and ?18OSMOW values. Unit I is characterized by relatively low SiO2 contents (50.52-55.05 wt.%), high MgO contents (3.29-5.43 wt.% with Mg# = 0.50-0.56), high Sr contents (1646-3101 ppm), pronounced negative Nb-Ta anomalies and light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment. In combination with their isotopic compositions [(87Sr/86Sr)t = 0.70543-0.70751, ?Nd (t) = - 2.3 to - 1.8, ?18OSMOW = 5.7-9.4‰, ?Hf (t) = 0.2-4.9], these features indicate that they are derived from an incompatible element-enriched lithospheric mantle. The SiO2 contents of units II and III range from 58.88 wt.% to 65.91 wt.% and 67.10 wt.% to 70.64 wt.%, respectively. They exhibit pronounced positive Zr-Hf anomalies and negative P and Ti anomalies, and relatively elevated Sr and O isotopic compositions [(87Sr/86Sr)t = 0.70543-0.70751, ?18OSMOW = 8.9-9.1‰]. In addition, samples of unit III have high Sr (600 ppm to 1201 ppm) contents and Sr/Yb (373 to 1905) and low Y/Yb (8 to 12) ratios. The felsic rocks (units II and III) have a "C-type" adakite-like geochemical signature and are comparable with those of rocks derived from an ancient garnet-bearing amphibolite facies lower crust. Our study, complied with other geological evidence, indicate that the collision between the Central Tianshan and Tarim blocks and the final amalgamation of the CAOB should have occurred during Late Carboniferous. On the regional scale, we propose that the recycling of ancient lithosphere is the predominant mechanism which is able to account for Phanerozoic continental evolution in STCB, differing from other tectonic units in CAOB.
Huang, He; Zhang, Zhaochong; Kusky, Timothy; Zhang, Dongyang; Hou, Tong; Liu, Junlai; Zhao, Zhidan
Present study compares local air-sea relationship of 10-20-day and 30-60-day intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) over the South China Sea (SCS) and western North Pacific (WNP) during May through September for the period 1998-2010. It is shown that sea surface temperature (SST) has a larger intraseasonal variance in the North Indian Ocean, the SCS, and subtropical WNP on the 30-60-day time scale, but in tropical WNP on the 10-20-day time scale. The local correlation of SST with rain, surface shortwave radiation (SWR) and latent heat flux (LHF) displays a southwest-northeast tilted structure on the 10-20-day time scale, but a broad west-east pattern with a larger correlation on the 30-60-day time scale. The time of SST leading rain is larger in off-equatorial regions than in near-equatorial regions for both types of ISOs, whereas the time of rain leading SST is larger in near-equatorial regions than in off-equatorial regions. A similar feature is seen for SWR, but an opposite feature for LHF. The atmospheric ISOs induce intraseasonal SST variations through cloud-radiation and wind-evaporation changes. The intraseasonal SST variations feedback on the atmosphere through modulation of atmospheric stability over off-equatorial regions on both timescales. The SST impacts on the atmosphere appear larger on the 30-60-day time scale than on the 10-20-day time scale. The distinct spatial patterns of local air-sea relationship on the two types of ISOs are associated with different spatial structures in both atmospheric ISO-associated SWR and LHF anomalies and SST-induced atmospheric stability anomalies.
Ye, Kunhui; Wu, Renguang
The Western skink (Plestiodon skiltonianus) is a relatively common and widespread lizard in Southern California. It is more secretive and prefers more grassy habitat than the Western fence lizard or the side-blotched lizard, yet USGS and National Park Service biologists are finding signs of genetic ...
Challenges in China’s Move to Mass Higher Education. ” TheChina’s Universities and Western Academic Models. ” Higher Educationhigher education, nationwide Adapted from Ministry of Education data (2012a) From 1998 to 2010, the number of enrolled college students in China
During the summer of 2002, frequent, heavy rains gave rise to floods and landslides throughout China that have killed over 1,000 people and affected millions. This false-color image of the western Yangtze River and Dongting Lake in central China was acquired on August 21, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. (right) The latest flooding crisis in China centers on Dingtong Lake in the center of the image. Heavy rains have caused it to swell over its banks and swamp lakefront towns in the province of Hunan. As of August 23, 2002, more than 250,000 people have been evacuated, and over one million people have been brought in to fortify the dikes around the lake. Normally the lake would appear much smaller and more defined in the MODIS image. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.
Montane forests of western China provide an opportunity to establish baseline studies for climate change. The region is being impacted by climate change, air pollution, and significant human impacts from tourism. We analyzed forest stand structure and climate-growth relationships from Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve in northwestern Sichuan province, along the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We conducted a survey to characterize forest stand diversity and structure in plots occurring between 2050 and 3350 m in elevation. We also evaluated seedling and sapling recruitment and tree-ring data from four conifer species to assess: 1) whether the forest appears in transition toward increased hardwood composition; 2) if conifers appear stressed by recent climate change relative to hardwoods; and 3) how growth of four dominant species responds to recent climate. Our study is complicated by clear evidence of 20(th) century timber extraction. Focusing on regions lacking evidence of logging, we found a diverse suite of conifers (Pinus, Abies, Juniperus, Picea, and Larix) strongly dominate the forest overstory. We found population size structures for most conifer tree species to be consistent with self-replacement and not providing evidence of shifting composition toward hardwoods. Climate-growth analyses indicate increased growth with cool temperatures in summer and fall. Warmer temperatures during the growing season could negatively impact conifer growth, indicating possible seasonal climate water deficit as a constraint on growth. In contrast, however, we found little relationship to seasonal precipitation. Projected warming does not yet have a discernible signal on trends in tree growth rates, but slower growth with warmer growing season climates suggests reduced potential future forest growth. PMID:23951188
Schwartz, Mark W; Dolanc, Christopher R; Gao, Hui; Strauss, Sharon Y; Schwartz, Ari C; Williams, John N; Tang, Ya
Montane forests of western China provide an opportunity to establish baseline studies for climate change. The region is being impacted by climate change, air pollution, and significant human impacts from tourism. We analyzed forest stand structure and climate-growth relationships from Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve in northwestern Sichuan province, along the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We conducted a survey to characterize forest stand diversity and structure in plots occurring between 2050 and 3350 m in elevation. We also evaluated seedling and sapling recruitment and tree-ring data from four conifer species to assess: 1) whether the forest appears in transition toward increased hardwood composition; 2) if conifers appear stressed by recent climate change relative to hardwoods; and 3) how growth of four dominant species responds to recent climate. Our study is complicated by clear evidence of 20th century timber extraction. Focusing on regions lacking evidence of logging, we found a diverse suite of conifers (Pinus, Abies, Juniperus, Picea, and Larix) strongly dominate the forest overstory. We found population size structures for most conifer tree species to be consistent with self-replacement and not providing evidence of shifting composition toward hardwoods. Climate-growth analyses indicate increased growth with cool temperatures in summer and fall. Warmer temperatures during the growing season could negatively impact conifer growth, indicating possible seasonal climate water deficit as a constraint on growth. In contrast, however, we found little relationship to seasonal precipitation. Projected warming does not yet have a discernible signal on trends in tree growth rates, but slower growth with warmer growing season climates suggests reduced potential future forest growth. PMID:23951188
Schwartz, Mark W.; Dolanc, Christopher R.; Gao, Hui; Strauss, Sharon Y.; Schwartz, Ari C.; Williams, John N.; Tang, Ya
On May 12, 2008, a huge earthquake with magnitude Ms 8.0 occurred in the Wenchuan, Sichuan Province of China. This event was the most devastating earthquake in the mainland of China since the Great 1976 M7.8 Tangshan earthquake. It resulted in tremendous losses of life and property. Due to occur in the mountainous area, this great earthquake and the following thousands aftershocks also caused many other geological disasters, such as landslide, mud-rock flow and "quake lakes" which formed by landslide-induced reservoirs. This earthquake occurred along the Longmenshan fault, as the result of motion on a northeast striking reverse fault or thrust fault on the northwestern margin of the Sichuan Basin. The earthquake's epicenter and focal-mechanism are consistent with it having occurred as the result of movement on the Longmenshan fault or a tectonically related fault. The earthquake reflects tectonic stresses resulting from the convergence of crustal material slowly moving from the high Tibetan Plateau, to the west, against strong crust underlying the Sichuan Basin and southeastern China. In this study, the spatial and temporal distribution of the stress on the fault plane of this great earthquake is estimated from the inversion results (Qin & Zhang, 2013) by solving the elastodynamic equations. Then, the dynamic source parameters are determined and the relations between the shear stress and the slip, the shear stress and the slip-rate for all grid positions on the fault are investigated. Finally, the frictional law for the source rupture is inferred from the dynamic source parameters. Based on the obtained dynamic source parameters, we try to rebuild the dynamic rupture process of this event and discuss the characteristics of this great earthquake.
Yu, X.; Zhang, W.
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) found in rivers from the Sichuan Basin to Aba Prefecture profile were analyzed to assess possible health risks to adults and children who use the river as a source of drinking water. OCP co