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1

Tree ring-based temperature reconstruction over the past 186 years for the Miyaluo Natural Reserve, western Sichuan Province of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mountain range of western Sichuan Province of China runs roughly north to south defining the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, where high-resolution climate records are essential for understanding regional climatic phenomena. Unfortunately, instrumental records in this region are too short in duration to confidently gauge the long-term variability of climate change. This paper presented a temperature reconstruction for the western Sichuan Province based on a tree ring width chronology developed from a tree line site (4,150 m) of the Faxon fir (Abies faxoniana) at the Miyaluo Natural Reserve. This reconstruction, spanning the years from 1824 to 2009, could account for 46.7 % of the actual variance of annual mean temperature during the calibration period from 1950 to 2002. The reconstruction could be essentially divided into two distinct subperiods: a relatively cold and stable period in the late nineteenth century and a relatively warm and unstable period in the twentieth century. Years 2001 and 1911 were the warmest (6.32 °C) and coldest (4.87 °C) years in the reconstruction, respectively, while 1960s (5.77 °C) and 1980s (5.08 °C) were the warmest and coldest ten consecutive years within the past 186 years. Close coupling observed with other temperature proxies (tree rings, ice cores, and glaciers) from surrounding areas emphasized the high degree of confidence in our reconstruction.

Li, Zong Shan; Liu, Guo Hua; Gong, Li; Wang, Meng; Wang, Xiao Chun

2014-06-01

2

Induced abortion among unmarried women in Sichuan province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the social and demographic characteristics of 457 unmarried women who underwent a first trimester induced abortion at hospitals and family planning clinics in Sichuan province, China. The data show a very low level of medical complications. However, improved access to contraception for unmarried women is needed in order to reduce the incidence of unintended pregnancies and induced

Luo Lin; Wu Shi-Zhong; Chen Xiao-Qing; Li Min-Xiang; Thomas W. Pullum

1995-01-01

3

Study on the Effect of Source-Contacting Gas Accumulations upon Abnormal Pressures in Western Sichuan Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The migration and accumulation of typical source-contacting gas, also called basin-centered gas, follow the piston principle that it generates superpressures essentially. In the tight sand reservoir, the formation water cannot exchange sufficiently, which maintains higher pressure in gas reservoirs compared with conventional reservoirs during tectonic uplift or subsidences. The western Sichuan depression is one of the earliest basins in China

Jinchuan ZHANG; Lifang LIU; Xuan TANG; Xiaowei SONG; Shengling JIANG; Bo XU; Ruikang BIAN

2008-01-01

4

The privatization process of rangeland and its impacts on pastoral dynamics in the Hindu Kush Himalaya: The Case of Western Sichuan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Profound changes in the last four decades in China has greatly affected traditional Tibetan pastoral production systems. The Chinese government is implementing an ambitious rangeland intensification scheme throughout the Plateau in response to perceived rangeland degradation. Traditional production systems have been altered ever since the Collective period of the 60's and 70's, but now, once communally managed rangelands are being

Wu Ning; Camille Richard

5

A review on active tectonics and deep crustal processes of the Western Sichuan region, eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of remarkable geological and geomorphological features in continental China is the presence of a north-south trending tectonic zone which separates the seismically active Tibetan Plateau to the west from the tectonically stable South China and Ordos blocks to the east. The zone also owns a name of "north-south seismic belt" as a large number of great historical earthquakes occur on it. The most recent one, the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, attests its recent tectonic activity. In this review I take the Western Sichuan region as an example to probe the structural styles and kinematic pattern as well as deep geological process associated with tectonic deformation of the north-south trending zone. Through integrated studies on active faults, GPS crustal deformation, and geophysical structure, we show that deformation in the Western Sichuan is governed by interactions among three crustal blocks (Songpan, Chuandian, and South China) of distinctive rheological properties under the tectonic framework that eastward growth of the "soft" Eastern Tibet is blocked by the "hard" lithosphere of the South China block. The left-lateral Xianshuihe Fault continues to the north-south trending fault system without crustal shortening to form a bounding fault to limit the northern extend of the magnificent clockwise rotation of crustal material around the Eastern Himalaya Syntax. Upper crust of the three blocks is dominated by brittle deformation, whereas the ductile flow of lower crust would drag the brittle upper crustal blocks to move with respect to each other. The relative motions among the brittle upper crustal blocks cause strain accumulations among their bounding faults to generate large earthquakes. Deformation of the Western Sichuan region can thus be described in terms of combined model of rigid block movement and continuous deformation. We suggest this combined model can be applied to entire continental China.

Zhang, Pei-Zhen

2013-01-01

6

Outpatient prescription practices in rural township health centers in Sichuan Province, China  

PubMed Central

Background Sichuan Province is an agricultural and economically developing province in western China. To understand practices of prescribing medications for outpatients in rural township health centers is important for the development of the rural medical and health services in this province and western China. Methods This is an observational study based on data from the 4th National Health Services Survey of China. A total of 3,059 prescriptions from 30 township health centers in Sichuan Province were collected and analyzed. Seven indicators were employed in the analyses to characterize the prescription practices. They are disease distribution, average cost per encounter, number of medications per encounter, percentage of encounters with antibiotics, percentage of encounters with glucocorticoids, percentage of encounters with combined glucocorticoids and antibiotics, and percentage of encounters with injections. Results The average medication cost per encounter was 16.30 Yuan ($2.59). About 60% of the prescriptions contained Chinese patent medicine (CPM), and almost all prescriptions (98.07%) contained western medicine. 85.18% of the prescriptions contained antibiotics, of which, 24.98% contained two or more types of antibiotics; the percentage of prescriptions with glucocorticoids was 19.99%; the percentage of prescriptions with both glucocorticoids and antibiotics was 16.67%; 51.40% of the prescriptions included injections, of which, 39.90% included two or more injections. Conclusions The findings from this study demonstrated irrational medication uses of antibiotics, glucocorticoids and injections prescribed for outpatients in the rural township health centers in Sichuan Province. The reasons for irrational medication uses are not only solely due to the pursuit of maximizing benefits in the township health centers, but also more likely attributable to the lack of medical knowledge of rational medication uses among rural doctors and the lack of medical devices for disease diagnosis in those township health centers. The policy implication from this study is to enhance professional training in rational medication uses for rural doctors, improve hardware facilities for township health centers, promote health education to rural residents and establish a public reporting system to monitor prescription practices in rural township health centers, etc. PMID:22988946

2012-01-01

7

High anemia prevalence in western China.  

PubMed

We assessed the prevalence of anemia among schoolchildren in western China as determined by seven cross-sectional surveys involving 12,768 children aged 8-12 years. Subjects were selected randomly from 283 primary schools in 41 economically disadvantaged counties of Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi and Sichuan Provinces. Data were collected through questionnaires and hemoglobin levels were measured. The anemia prevalence was 34% using the WHO hemoglobin cutoff of < 120 g/l. Boarding students and girls were more likely to be anemic. The prevalence of anemia in schoolchildren was high. Iron deficiency is a significant nutrition issue in China. PMID:22299447

Luo, Renfu; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Shi, Yaojiang; Miller, Grant; Rozelle, Scott; Yu, Elaine; Martorell, Reynaldo

2011-09-01

8

Petroleum geology of the Puguang sour gas field in the Sichuan Basin, SW China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Puguang sour gas field in northeastern Sichuan Basin is the largest gas discovery in the Paleozoic marine strata in China, with at least 9 trillion cubic feet (tcf) of proven gas reserves. It is one of the many anticlinal structures formed during the Indo-Sinian orogeny, with gas being trapped in a composite structure–lithology pool. The presence of the Upper

Yongsheng Ma; Shuichang Zhang; Tonglou Guo; Guangyou Zhu; Xunyu Cai; Maowen Li

2008-01-01

9

A New Vole (Cricetidae: Arvicolinae: Proedromys) from the Liangshan Mountains of Sichuan Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2000, 2002, and 2006 we captured small mammals in the Liangshan Mountains, Mabian Dafengding National Nature Reserve and Meigu Dafengding National Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China. Among the collected specimens we identified a new species of the genus Proedromys. Its identifying characteristics are its relatively long tail, broad upper incisors without grooves, comparatively short lower incisors, and features of

Shaoying Liu; Zhiyu Sun; Zongyong Zeng; Ermi Zhao

2007-01-01

10

[Effects of snow pack removal on soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and the number of soil culturable microorganisms during wintertime in alpine Abies faxoniana forest of western Sichuan, Southwest China].  

PubMed

To understand the effects of the lack of snow pack under global warming on the characteristics of soil microorganisms during wintertime, a snow-shading experiment was conducted in a primary fir (Abies faxoniana) forest after snow pack removal, with the soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) and soil culturable microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) at the stages of snow forming, snow covering, and snow melting investigated. Snow pack removal had significant effects on the soil MBC and MBN and the number of soil culturable bacteria and fungi, but the responses of the culturable microorganisms differed with the stages of snow-shading. Under the condition of snow pack removal, the MBC and MBN in soil organic layer decreased significantly at the early stages of snow forming and snow melting but increased significantly at snow covering stage and at the later stage of snow melting, and the number of culturable bacteria decreased significantly from the early stage of snow forming to the stage of snow covering while that of culturable fungi had a significant increase from the early stage of snow forming to the stage of snow melting. After snow melting, the MBC and the number of culturable fungi in soil organic layer had a significant decrease, the number of cultural bacteria was in adverse, but the MBN had less change. The MBC and MBN and the number of culturable microorganisms in soil mineral layer had the similar variation trends as those in soil organic layer, but the fluctuations were smaller. It was suggested that snow pack removal changed the ratio of culturable bacteria to culturable fungi, showing positive effects on the number of soil culturable fungi during wintertime in alpine Abies faxoniana forest of western Sichuan. PMID:23173453

Yang, Yu-Lian; Wu, Fu-Zhong; He, Zhen-Hua; Xu, Zhen-Feng; Liu, Yang; Yang, Wan-Qin; Tan, Bo

2012-07-01

11

Using Satellite Data to Investigate the 12 May 2008 Sichuan Earthquake, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The M 8.0 earthquake that struck Sichuan Province in southwestern China on 12 May 2008 was the most devastating earthquake in that country in the past 5 decades. At least 69,000 deaths have been confirmed and more than 374,000 people were injured, according to China's Ministry of Civil Affairs. Overall, more than 45.5 million people in 10 provinces and regions

Gang Pan; DanLing Tang

2009-01-01

12

The prevalence of canine Leishmania infantum infection in Sichuan Province, southwestern China detected by real time PCR  

PubMed Central

Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in western China, and becoming an important public health concern. Infected dogs are the main reservoir for Leishmania infantum, and a potential sentinel for human VL in endemic areas. In the present study we investigated the prevalence of Leishmania DNA in dogs from Wenchuan, Heishui and Jiuzhaigou County in Sichuan Province, southwestern China, which are important endemic areas of zoonotic VL, detected by real time PCR. The results will help to design control strategies against visceral leishmaniasis in dogs and humans. Results The overall prevalence of Leishmania DNA in dogs was 24.8% (78/314) in Sichuan Province, with the positive rate of 23.5% (23/98) in Wenchuan County, 28.2% (20/71) in Heishui County, and 24.1% (35/145) in Jiuzhaigou County, and no significant difference was observed among the three counties (P > 0.05). The dogs were further allocated to different groups based on sexes, ages and external clinical symptoms. The logistic regression analysis revealed that a higher prevalence was found in older and external symptomatic dogs, compared to that of younger and asymptomatic dogs (P < 0.05). Conclusions The results revealed that L. infantum infection in dogs is widespread in Sichuan Province, southwestern China, which has a public health significance, due to its contribution to the transmission of the infection to humans by sandflies. It is necessary to take measures, including treatment or eradication of infected dogs, to control canine leishmaniasis, which could be helpful to reduce human VL in this area. PMID:21910882

2011-01-01

13

Analysis of land use and cover change in Sichuan province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of environmental policies in Sichuan province was executed to restore the grassland and forestland on some degraded lands after 2000. But the effectiveness on land use and cover change (LUCC) has not yet been systematically investigated. We undertook a detailed analysis about land use and cover change between 2000 and 2005 in Sichuan province. Our study mainly utilized remotely sensed data of 2005 China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite II (CBERS II) and 2000 Landsat 5 thematic mapper (TM) data. Land use and cover change between 2000 and 2005 was visually interpreted by CBERS II with ArcInfo Workstation based on land use and cover database interpreted from TM. Then LUCC was validated by ground truth with global positioning system receivers. Our analysis illustrates that the conservation policies to restore the grassland and forestland were successful to a lesser extent. But more measures to restore the grassland and forestland of Sichuan province have to be taken further in the future.

Zheng, Zezhong; Yang, Wunian; Zhou, Guoqing; Wang, Xiaoting

2012-01-01

14

Detrital zircon U-Pb ages of Late Triassic-Late Jurassic deposits in the western and northern Sichuan Basin margin: constraints on the foreland basin provenance and tectonic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upper Triassic to Upper Jurassic strata in the western and northern Sichuan Basin were deposited in a synorogenic foreland basin. Ion-microprobe U-Pb analysis of 364 detrital zircon grains from five Late Triassic to Late Jurassic sandstone samples in the northern Sichuan Basin and several published Middle Triassic to Middle Jurassic samples in the eastern Songpan-Ganzi Complex and western and inner Sichuan Basin provide an initial framework for understanding the Late Triassic to Late Jurassic provenance of western and northern Sichuan Basin. For further understanding, the paleogeographic setting of these areas and neighboring hinterlands was constructed. Combined with analysis of depocenter migration, thermochronology and detrital zircon provenance, the western and northern Sichuan Basin is displayed as a transferred foreland basin from Late Triassic to Late Jurassic. The Upper Triassic Xujiahe depocenter was located at the front of the Longmen Shan belt, and sediments in the western Sichuan Basin shared the same provenances with the Middle-Upper Triassic in the Songpan-Ganzi Complex, whereas the South Qinling fed the northern Sichuan Basin. The synorogenic depocenter transferred to the front of Micang Shan during the early Middle Jurassic and at the front of the Daba Shan during the middle-late Middle Jurassic. Zircons of the Middle Jurassic were sourced from the North Qinling, South Qinling and northern Yangtze Craton. The depocenter returned to the front of the Micang Shan again during the Late Jurassic, and the South Qinling and northern Yangtze Craton was the main provenance. The detrital zircon U-Pb ages imply that the South and North China collision was probably not finished at the Late Jurassic.

Luo, Liang; Qi, Jia-Fu; Zhang, Ming-Zheng; Wang, Kai; Han, Yu-Zhen

2014-09-01

15

Coseismic ground displacements from sub-pixel correlation for the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, Sichuan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

On May 12, 2008, a Mw 7.9 earthquake occurred in the Longmen Shan mountains with an epicenter near Wenchuan in Sichuan Province of southwestern China. This event caused more than 69,000 fatalities and huge economic losses. The tectonic context of the epicentral area is characterized by NW-SE trending and east-vergent folds and thrust faults which also topographically form the boundary

Y. Kuo; M. Huang; J. Suppe; Y. Chen; J. Avouac; S. Leprince; F. Ayoub

2008-01-01

16

Geology of Sedimentary Rock-Hosted Disseminated Gold Deposits in Northwestern Sichuan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen sedimentary rock-hosted disseminated gold deposits (e.g., Dongbeizhai, Qiuluo, Manaoke, Laerma, Gala and Lianhecun) and about 50 prospects have been discovered in northwestern Sichuan Province, China since the late 1970s. They are hosted in complex rock series such as fine-grained clastic rocks, subvolcanic rocks, and ophiolitic melange, mainly of Triassic age. Mineral associates include pyrite, arsenopyrite, marcasite, realgar, orpiment, stibnite,

Xiao-Chun Wang; Zhe-Ru Zhang

2001-01-01

17

Nitrogen Isotope Study on Nitrate-Contaminated Groundwater in the Sichuan Basin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the expansion of NO3\\u000a ?-contaminated groundwater in the Sichuan Basin, China. Nitrogen concentrations and isotopic ratios of NH4\\u000a + and NO3\\u000a ? were analyzed in groundwater and rain collected from four areas in this basin in order to evaluate the sources of nitrogen\\u000a pollution. NH4\\u000a + in rain, for which ?15N values are strongly negative to slightly positive

Xiaodong Li; Harue Masuda; Keisuke Koba; Haiao Zeng

2007-01-01

18

Tertiary relic deciduous forests on a humid subtropical mountain, Mt. Emei, Sichuan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The floristic characteristics, age structure and survival modes of Tertiary-relic deciduous forests were analyzed at 1600\\u000a m on Mt. Emei (3099 m), Sichuan, China. Three plots were selected to represent typical topographies: Plot 1 at 1620 m on a\\u000a scree slope, Plot 2 at 1640 m on a slope with moderately rocky soils, and Plot 3 at 1616 m on

Cindy Q. Tang; Masahiko Ohsawa

2002-01-01

19

[Emergy evaluation and dynamic measurement analysis of agro-ecosystems in Sichuan Province of Southwest China].  

PubMed

Agro-ecosystem is the most basic system for human beings survival, while the analysis of the structure and function of the system is the key to solve the problems of agro-ecological environment. In this paper, emergy theory and related economic measurement methods including data envelopment analysis, cointegration test, and error correction model were applied to quantitatively analyze the operation dynamics, environmental loading, operation efficiency, and input-output relation of the agro-ecosystems in Sichuan Province and its 21 cities in 1997-2009. In the study period, Sichuan Province was in the transition period from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. The agricultural mechanization level of the Province improved constantly, resources utilization efficiency enhanced continually, overall structural dominant degree was better, but the over-reliance on economic emergy input caused the sustainability of the system weakened gradually. The development status of the agro-ecosystems in the Province varied among regions. Chengdu Plain and Western Sichuan Highland were either in overexploited or in underutilized, while the hilly areas were full of vitality and development potential, tended to be the important areas for the future development of Sichuan agriculture. Generally, the operation efficiency of the agro-ecosystems in the Province was relatively low, with the situation differed in different regions due to the lower technical efficiency or improper scale. There was a long-term equilibrium between the economic emergy indices and output emergy, but the short-term emergy input didn't reach the ideal output. PMID:22720632

Zhang, Ying-Cong; Du, Shou-Hu

2012-03-01

20

Three dimensional surface displacement of the Sichuan earthquake (Mw 7.9, China) from Synthetic Aperture Radar.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sichuan earthquake, Mw 7.9, struck the Longmen Shan range front, in the western Sichuan province, China, on 12 May 2008. It severely affected an area where little historical seismicity and little or no significant active shortening were reported before the earthquake (e.g. Gu et al., 1989; Chen et al., 1994; Gan et al., 2007). The Longmen Shan thrust system bounds the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau and is considered as a transpressive zone since Triassic time that was reactivated during the India-Asia collision (e.g., Tapponnier and Molnar, 1977, Chen and Wilson 1996; Arne et al., 1997, Godard et al., 2009). However, contrasting geological evidences of sparse thrusting and marked dextral strike-slip faulting during the Quaternary along with high topography (Burchfiel et al., 1995; Densmore et al., 2007) have led to models of dynamically driven and sustained topography (Royden et al., 1997) limiting the role of earthquakes in relief building and leaving the mechanism of long term strain distribution in this area as an open question. Here we combine C and L band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) offsets data from ascending and descending paths to retrieve the three dimensional surface displacement distribution all along the earthquake ruptures of the Sichuan earthquake. For the first time on this earthquake we present near field 3D co-seismic surface displacement, which is an important datum for constraining modelled fault geometry at depth. Our results complement other Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and field analyses in indicating that crustal shortening is one of the main drivers for topography building in the Longmen Shan (Liu-Zeng, 2009; Shen et al., 2009; Hubbard and Shaw, 2009). Moreover, our results put into evidence a small but significant amount of displacement in the range front that we interpret as due to slip at depth on a blind structure. We verify this hypothesis by inverting the data against a simple elastic dislocation model. We discuss this result and its implications for understanding strain partitioning during the Sichuan earthquake.

de Michele, Marcello; Raucoules, Daniel; de Sigoyer, Julia; Pubellier, Manuel; Lasserre, Cecile; Pathier, Erwan; Klinger, Yann; van der Woerd, Jerome; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas

2010-05-01

21

Molecular Epidemiology of Porcine Cytomegalovirus (PCMV) in Sichuan Province, China: 2010-2012  

PubMed Central

Porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) is an immunosuppressive virus that mainly inhibits the immune function of the macrophage and T-cell lymphatic systems, and has caused huge economic losses to the porcine breeding industry. Molecular epidemiological investigation of PCMV is important for prevention and treatment, and this study is the first such investigation in Sichuan Province, Southwest China. A PCMV positive infection rate of 84.4% (865/1025) confirmed that PCMV is widely distributed in Sichuan Province. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the PCMV glycoprotein B gene (gB) nucleotide and amino acid sequences from 24 novel Sichuan isolates and 18 other PCMV gB sequences from Genbank. PCMV does not appear to have evolved into different serotypes, and two distinct sequence groups were identified (A and B). However, whether PCMV from this region has evolved into different genotypes requires further research. Analysis of the amino acid sequences confirmed the conservation of gB, but amino acid substitutions in the major epitope region have caused antigenic drift, which may have altered the immunogenicity of PCMV. PMID:23762243

Xu, Zhiwen; Zhou, Yuancheng

2013-01-01

22

Community-based survey of HCV and HIV coinfection in injection drug abusers in Sichuan Province of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of HCV\\/HIV coinfection in injection drug abusers (IDAs) in Lianshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan province, China. METHODS: From November 8, 2002 to November 29, 2002, a community-based survey was conducted to investigate the demographic characteristics, patterns of shared injectors devices and sexual behaviors in IDAs. Blood samples were also collected to

Yu-Hua Ruan; Kun-Xue Hong; Shi-Zhu Liu; Yi-Xin He; Feng Zhou; Guan-Ming Qin; Kang-Lin Chen; Hui Xing; Jian-Ping Chen; Yi-Ming Shao

23

Distribution of the Crustal Magnetic Field in Sichuan-Yunnan Region, Southwest China  

PubMed Central

Based on the new and higher degree geomagnetic model NGDC-720-V3, we have investigated the spatial distribution, the altitude decay characteristics of the crustal magnetic anomaly, the contributions from different wavelength bands to the anomaly, and the relationship among the anomaly, the geological structure, and the geophysical field in Sichuan-Yunnan region of China. It is noted that the most outstanding feature in this area is the strong positive magnetic anomaly in Sichuan Basin, a geologically stable block. Contrasting with this feature, a strong negative anomaly can be seen nearby in Longmen Mountain block, an active block. This contradiction implies a possible relationship between the magnetic field and the geological activity. Completely different feature in magnetic field distribution is seen in the central Yunnan block, another active region, where positive and negative anomalies distribute alternatively, showing a complex magnetic anomaly map. Some fault belts, such as the Longmen Mountain fault, Lijiang-Xiaojinhe fault, and the Red River fault, are the transitional zones of strong and weak or negative and positive anomalies. The corresponding relationship between the magnetic anomaly and the geophysical fields was confirmed. PMID:25243232

Bai, Chunhua; Kang, Guofa; Gao, Guoming

2014-01-01

24

Genetic structure of Qiangic populations residing in the western Sichuan corridor.  

PubMed

The Qiangic languages in western Sichuan (WSC) are believed to be the oldest branch of the Sino-Tibetan linguistic family, and therefore, all Sino-Tibetan populations might have originated in WSC. However, very few genetic investigations have been done on Qiangic populations and no genetic evidences for the origin of Sino-Tibetan populations have been provided. By using the informative Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers, we analyzed the genetic structure of Qiangic populations. Our results revealed a predominantly Northern Asian-specific component in Qiangic populations, especially in maternal lineages. The Qiangic populations are an admixture of the northward migrations of East Asian initial settlers with Y chromosome haplogroup D (D1-M15 and the later originated D3a-P47) in the late Paleolithic age, and the southward Di-Qiang people with dominant haplogroup O3a2c1*-M134 and O3a2c1a-M117 in the Neolithic Age. PMID:25090432

Wang, Chuan-Chao; Wang, Ling-Xiang; Shrestha, Rukesh; Zhang, Manfei; Huang, Xiu-Yuan; Hu, Kang; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

2014-01-01

25

A follow-up study of first trimester induced abortions at hospitals and family planning clinics in Sichuan Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four-thousand women aged 18–40 underwent an early induced abortion at hospitals and family planning clinics in six counties in Sichuan province, China, between 1 July 1990 and 30 June 1991. The subjects were followed-up three times, on days 15, 90 and 180 after the operation. Information was obtained about their age, parity, contraceptive use, social behaviors, and gynecological and psychological

Lin Luo; Shi-Zhong Wu; Xiao-Qin Chen; Min-Xiang Li; Thomas W. Pullum

1996-01-01

26

Anthropogenic hillslope terraces and swidden agriculture in Jiuzhaigou National Park, northern Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small, irregular terraces on hillslopes, or terracettes, are common landscape features throughout west central China. Despite their prevalence, there is limited understanding of the nature of these topographic features, the processes that form them, and the role humans played in their formation. We used an interdisciplinary approach to investigate the geology, ecology, and cultural history of terracette development within Jiuzhaigou National Park, Sichuan Province, China. Terracettes occur on south facing, 20° slopes at 2500 m elevation, which appears to coincide with places people historically preferred to build villages. Ethnographic interviews suggest that traditional swidden agricultural cycles removed tree roots, causing the loess sediments to lose cohesion, slump, and the terrace risers to retreat uphill over time. This evidence is supported by landslide debris at terracette faces. Archaeological analysis of terracette sites reveal remains of rammed spread soil structures, bones, stone tools, and ceramics dating from at least 2200 years before present within a distinct paleosol layer. Radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating of terracette sediments ranged in age from between 1500 and 2000 14C yr BP and between 16 and 0.30 ka, respectively. These multiple lines of evidence indicate a long history of human habitation within Jiuzhaigou National Park and, taken together, suggest strong links between terracette formation and human-landuse interactions.

Henck, Amanda; Taylor, James; Lu, Hongliang; Li, Yongxian; Yang, Qingxia; Grub, Barbara; Breslow, Sara Jo; Robbins, Alicia; Elliott, Andrea; Hinckley, Tom; Combs, Julie; Urgenson, Lauren; Widder, Sarah; Hu, Xinxin; Ma, Ziyu; Yuan, Yaowu; Jian, Daijun; Liao, Xun; Tang, Ya

2010-03-01

27

[Contribution of soil fauna to the mass loss of Betula albosinensis leaf litter at early decomposition stage of subalpine forest litter in western Sichuan].  

PubMed

In order to quantify the contribution of soil fauna to the decomposition of birch (Betula albosinensis) leaf litter in subalpine forests in western Sichuan of Southwest China during freeze-thaw season, a field experiment with different mesh sizes (0.02, 0.125, 1 and 3 mm) of litterbags was conducted in a representative birch-fir (Abies faxoniana) forest to investigate the mass loss rate of the birch leaf litter from 26 October, 2010 to 18 April, 2011, and the contributions of micro-, meso- and macro-fauna to the decomposition of the leaf litter. Over the freeze-thaw season, 11.8%, 13.2%, 15.4% and 19.5% of the mass loss were detected in the litterbags with 0.02, 0. 125, 1 and 3 mm mesh sizes, respectively. The total contribution of soil fauna to the litter decomposition accounted for 39.5% of the mass loss, and the taxa and individual relative density of the soil fauna in the litterbags had the similar variation trend with that of the mass loss rate. The contribution rate of soil fauna to the leaf litter mass loss showed the order of micro- < meso- < macro-fauna, with the highest contribution of micro-fauna (7.9%), meso-fauna (11.9%), and macro-fauna (22.7%) at the onset of freezing stage, deeply frozen stage, and thawing stage, respectively. The results demonstrated that soil fauna played an important role in the litter decomposition in subalpine forests of western Sichuan during freeze-thaw season. PMID:22586951

Xia, Lei; Wu, Fu-Zhong; Yang, Wan-Qin; Tan, Bo

2012-02-01

28

Use of mobile phones in an emergency reporting system for infectious disease surveillance after the Sichuan earthquake in China  

PubMed Central

Abstract Problem Quick detection and response were essential for preventing outbreaks of infectious diseases after the Sichuan earthquake. However, the existing public health communication system in Sichuan province, China, was severely damaged by the earthquake. Approach The Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention set up a mobile phone emergency reporting system. In total, 495 light-powered mobile phones were delivered to local health-care agencies in earthquake affected areas. All phones were loaded with software designed for inputting and transmitting cases of infectious disease directly to a national database for further analysis. Local setting The emergency reporting system was set up in 14 counties hit hardest by the earthquake in Sichuan province, China. Relevant changes One week after delivering mobile phones to earthquake-affected areas, the number of health-care agencies at the township level that had filed reports returned to the normal level. The number of cases reported by using mobile phones accounted for as much as 52.9% of the total cases reported weekly from 19 May to 13 July in those areas Lessons learned The mobile phone is a useful communication tool for infectious disease surveillance in areas hit by natural disasters. Nevertheless, plans must be made ahead of time and be included in emergency preparedness programmes. PMID:19705013

Yang, Changhong; Luo, Xiangshu; Gong, Peng

2009-01-01

29

Maternal deaths among women with pregnancies outside of family planning in Sichuan, China.  

PubMed

To assess the impact of family planning status on maternal mortality, we analyzed data gathered in a community-based, maternal mortality surveillance study conducted by the Sichuan Health Department in the People's Republic of China during 1989-1991. The overall maternal mortality ratio, which included only deaths of pregnant women within family planning guidelines ("planned" pregnancies), was 78.9 per 100,000 livebirths. When the deaths of pregnant women outside of family planning ("unplanned" pregnancies) were included, the maternal mortality ratio doubled to 135.6 per 100,000 livebirths. The leading causes of death for women with "planned" and "unplanned" pregnancies were the same: hemorrhage, postpartum infection, pregnancy-induced hypertension, cardiac diseases, and pulmonary diseases. As among women with "planned" pregnancies, about 40% of maternal deaths among women with "unplanned" pregnancies occurred at home, and 20% occurred en route to a hospital. After controlling for the confounding effects of gravidity and education, the odds ratio of maternal death associated with "unplanned" pregnancy status was 2.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.0-3.7], which declined to 2.0 (95% CI = 1.4-2.9) with additional control for the effect of prenatal care visits. Our study indicates that women with "unplanned" pregnancies have a higher risk of maternal death, which is only partially attributed to less prenatal care. PMID:7986862

Ni, H; Rossignol, A M

1994-09-01

30

Genetic Variation of Taenia Pisiformis Collected from Sichuan, China, Based on the Mitochondrial Cytochrome b gene  

PubMed Central

Taenia pisiformis is one of the most important parasites of canines and rabbits. T. pisiformis cysticercus (the larval stage) causes severe damage to rabbit breeding, which results in huge economic losses. In this study, the genetic variation of T. pisiformis was determined in Sichuan Province, China. Fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) (922 bp) gene were amplified in 53 isolates from 8 regions of T. pisiformis. Overall, 12 haplotypes were found in these 53 cytb sequences. Molecular genetic variations showed 98.4% genetic variation derived from intra-region. FST and Nm values suggested that 53 isolates were not genetically differentiated and had low levels of genetic diversity. Neutrality indices of the cytb sequences showed the evolution of T. pisiformis followed a neutral mode. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no correlation between phylogeny and geographic distribution. These findings indicate that 53 isolates of T. pisiformis keep a low genetic variation, which provide useful knowledge for monitoring changes in parasite populations for future control strategies. PMID:24039288

Yang, Deying; Ren, Yongjun; Fu, Yan; Xie, Yue; Nie, Huaming; Nong, Xiang; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong

2013-01-01

31

Investigations of Satellite Data for Ionospheric Disturbances Associated with Sichuan, China Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the presented paper we have statistically analyzed the ionospheric parameters to search for variations in the vicinity of large earthquake prior to event using the DEMETER (Detection of Electromagnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions) satellite data. Because as the evidences have shown that the phenomenon of ionospheric disturbances associated with large earthquakes are considered to be most promising tools for earthquake studies. We have observed these variations in the ionospheric parameters before the Sichuan, China (30.98N, 103.36E) earthquake which was occurred on May 12, 2008 with the magnitude of M = 7.9. The variations in the ionospheric parameters like ion density, electron density and electron temperature have been recorded from different onboard instruments (i.e. ISL, IAP) mounted on the DEMETER satellite. The anomalous deviations in the ion density, electron density and electron temperature have been found by the statistical results. It was concluded that variations in these parameters are due to anomalous change in atmospheric electric field during the earthquake preparation process. Keywords: Earthquake Precursors, Ionospheric Perturbations, DEMETER Satellite.

Shrivastava, Rahul; Gwal, Ashok Kumar; Sondhiya, Deepak Kumar

32

Characteristics and genesis of the Feixianguan Formation oolitic shoal reservoir, Puguang gas field, Sichuan Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lower Triassic Feixianguan Formation at the well-known Puguang gasfield in the northeastern Sichuan Basin of southwest China produces a representative oolitic reservoir, which has been the biggest marine-sourced gasfield so far in China (discovered in 2003 with proven gas reserves greater than 350×108 m3). This study combines core, thin section, and scanning electron microscopy observations, and geochemical analysis (C, O, and Sr isotopes) in order to investigate the basic characteristics and formation mechanisms of the reservoir. Observations indicate that platform margin oolitic dolomites are the most important reservoir rocks. Porosity is dominated by intergranular and intragranular solution, and moldic pore. The dolomites are characterized by medium porosity and permeability, averaging at approximately 9% and 29.7 mD, respectively. 87Sr/86Sr (0.707536-0.707934) and ?13CPDB (1.8‰-3.5‰) isotopic values indicate that the dolomitization fluid is predominantly concentrated seawater by evaporation, and the main mechanism for the oolitic dolomite formation is seepage reflux at an early stage of eodiagenesis. Both sedimentation and diagenesis (e.g., dolomitization and dissolution) have led to the formation of high-quality rocks to different degrees. Dolomite formation may have little contribution, karst may have had both positive and negative influences, and burial dissolution-TSR (thermochemical sulfate reduction) may not impact widely. The preservation of primary intergranular pores and dissolution by meteoric or mixed waters at the early stage of eogenesis are the main influences. This study may assist oil and gas exploration activities in the Puguang area and in other areas with dolomitic reservoirs.

Chen, Peiyuan; Tan, Xiucheng; Yang, Huiting; Tang, Ming; Jiang, Yiwei; Jin, Xiuju; Yu, Yang

2014-06-01

33

Landslides and the Fault Surface Ruptures during the 2008 Wengchuan Earthquake, Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2008 Sichuan earthquake with a magnitude of Mw 7.9 induced numerous mass movements around the fault surface ruptures of which maximum separations we observed were 3.6 m vertical and 1.5 m horizontal (right lateral). In order to clarify the distribution of these landslides and to characterize them, we interpreted satellite images and made field investigation for 3 weeks by using these images. We used satellite ALOS images taken by the sensors AVNIR II with a resolution of 10 m and PRISM with a resolution of 2.5 m, both of which were taken on 4th in June. We also used satellite images of before and after the earthquake provided by Google Earth. The affected area was mountainous areas with elevations from 1000 m to 4500 m on the west of the Sichuan Basin. Ridges and valleys are generally trending NE parallel to the trends of the geologic structures, while large rivers, such as the Minjiang River, and the Fujiang River are flowing from the north or northwest to the south or southeast, crossing these trends. The NE-trending Longmenshan fault zone runs along the boundary between the mountains and the Sichuan basin (He and Tsukuda, 2003), of which Yinghsiuwan-Beichuan fault was the main fault that generated the 2008 earthquake (Xu, 2008). The basement rocks of the mountainous areas range from Precambrian to Cretaceous in age. They are basaltic rocks, granite, phyllite, dolostone, limestone, alternating beds of sandstone and shale, etc. (Geologic map of China). Landslide distribution areas were mainly of two types: One was the area along the fault that generated this earthquake, and another was along the steep slopes of inner valleys along the Minjian River. Landslides were concentrated on the hanging wall of the earthquake fault, which appeared for more than 180 km along the Longmenshan fault zone. The distribution area of landslides was wider around the middle and the southwest parts of the surface rupture trace and became narrower to the northeast. The directions of the landslides were controlled by the fault: Landslides moving normal to the fault ruptures were most prevailing probably due to the directivity of the seismic wave. The most common landslides were of carbonate rocks, which could be attributable to the decrease in shear strength because of its dissolution by subsurface water. Relatively shallow landslides were concentratedly induced on the slopes in the valley of the Mingjian River from Yinghsiuwa through Wengchan to Maoxian. These slopes seem to be the inner gorges (Kelsey, 1998), which are formed by the acceleration of erosion, leading to the destabilization of valley slopes (Chigira, 2006). The inner valleys are as steep as 35 to 40 degrees with about 500 m height. Largest landslide in the history occurred in the middle of the affected area. It was 1.3 km wide and 5 km long with an area of 7 million m2 and its volume may be 1 billion m3 from the images of the satellite ALOS. This landslide was preceded by gravitational deformation, which was represented by a ridge-top depression. More than 30 landslide dams were made; dams consisting of large carbonate rubbles apparently stable and dams consisting of weathered marlstone or phyllite less stable.

Chigira, M.; Xiyong, Wu; Takashi, Inokuchi; Gonghui, Wang

2009-04-01

34

Co-seismic deformation derived from GPS observations during April 20th, 2013 Lushan Earthquake, Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We process the standard 30 s, static GPS data and the 1 s, high-rate GPS (HRGPS) data provided by the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China with GAMIT/GLOBK software package, and obtain the co-seismic displacements of near field and far field, and the epoch-by-epoch time series of HRGPS during Lushan earthquake. GPS data from about 20 sites in Sichuan province, which located between 40 and 450 km from the epicenter, are analyzed so as to study the characteristics of the static displacements and the dynamic crustal deformations, with periods ranging from several minutes to over a month. The result shows that: the static displacements caused by Lushan earthquake are limited to several centimeters; the nearest station SCTQ at 43 km from the epicenter has the largest static displacement of about 2 cm, while the other stations generally have insignificant displacements of less than 5 mm. the stations in the east of Sichuan-Yunnan region shifts 5-10 mm toward the southwest, and the stations in the middle-west of Sichuan Basin moves indistinctively 1-2 mm toward the northwest; station SCTQ has the largest kinematic displacement of about 4 and 3 cm peak-to-peak on the north and east component, respectively, and is much greater than the static permanent displacement; for the stations located at a distance greater than 150 km from the epicenter, the kinematic motions are generally insignificant; exceptionally, station SCNC and station SCSN in central Sichuan Basin have significant kinematic motions although they are more than 200 km away from the epicenter.

Du, Yujun; Wang, Zemin; Yang, Shujiang; An, Jiachun; Liu, Qiang; Che, Guowei

2013-08-01

35

Nitrogen isotope chemostratigraphy across the Permian-Triassic boundary at Chaotian, Sichuan, South China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen isotopic compositions of upper Permian to lowermost Triassic rocks were analyzed at Chaotian in northern Sichuan, South China, in order to clarify changes in the oceanic nitrogen cycle around the Permian-Triassic boundary (P-TB) including the entire Changhsingian (Late Late Permian) prior to the extinction. The analyzed ca. 40 m thick interval across the P-TB at Chaotian consists of three stratigraphic units: the upper Wujiaping Formation, the Dalong Formation, and the lowermost Feixianguan Formation, in ascending order. The upper Wujiaping Formation, ca. 10 m thick, is mainly composed of dark gray limestone with diverse shallow-marine fossils such as calcareous algae and brachiopods, deposited on the shallow shelf. In contrast, the overlying Dalong Formation, ca. 25 m thick, is mainly composed of thinly bedded black mudstone and siliceous mudstone containing abundant radiolarians, deposited on the relatively deep slope/basin. Absence of bioturbation, substantially high total organic carbon contents (up to 15%), and abundant occurrence of pyrite framboids in the main part of the Dalong Formation indicate deposition under anoxic condition. The lowermost Feixianguan Formation, ca. 5 m thick, is composed of thinly bedded gray marl and micritic limestone with minor fossils such as ammonoids and conodonts, deposited on the relatively shallow slope. ?15NTN values are in positive values around +1 to +2‰ in the upper Wujiaping Formation implying denitrification and/or anammox in the ocean. ?15NTN values gradually decrease to -1‰ in the lower Dalong Formation and are consistently low (around 0‰) in the middle Dalong to lowermost Feixianguan Formation. No clear ?15NTN shift is recognized across the extinction horizon. The consistently low ?15NTN values suggest the enhanced nitrogen fixation in the ocean during the Changhsingian at Chaotian. Composite profiles based on previous and the present studies demonstrate the substantial ?15N variation on a global scale in the late Permian to earliest Triassic; a systematic ?15N difference by low and high latitudes is particularly clarified. Although the enhanced nitrogen fixation throughout the Changhsingian at Chaotian was likely a regional event in northwestern South China, the composite ?15N profiles imply that the sea area in which fixed nitrogen is depleted has gradually developed worldwide in the Changhsingian, possibly acting as a prolonged stress to shallow-marine biota.

Saitoh, Masafumi; Ueno, Yuichiro; Nishizawa, Manabu; Isozaki, Yukio; Takai, Ken; Yao, Jianxin; Ji, Zhansheng

2014-10-01

36

6.6 earthquake, Sichuan, China, based on the inverted and synthetic slip models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that quantitative estimation of slip distributions on fault plane is one of the most important issues for earthquake source inversion related to the fault rupture process. The characteristics of slip distribution on the main fault play a fundamental role to control strong ground motion pattern. A large amount of works have also suggested that variable slip models inverted from longer period ground motion recordings are relevant for the prediction of higher frequency ground motions. Zhang et al. (Chin J Geophys 56:1412-1417, 2013) and Wang et al. (Chin J Geophys 56:1408-1411, 2013) published their source inversions for the fault rupturing process soon after the April 20, 2013 Lushan earthquake in Sichuan, China. In this study, first, we synthesize two forward source slip models: the value of maximum slip, fault dimension, size, and dimension of major asperities, and corner wave number obtained from Wang's model is adopted to constrain the generation of k -2 model and crack model. Next, both inverted and synthetic slip models are employed to simulate the ground motions for the Lushan earthquake based on the stochastic finite-fault method. In addition, for a comparison purpose, a stochastic slip model and another k -2 model ( k -2 model II) with 2 times value of corner wave number of the original k -2 model ( k -2 model I) are also employed for simulation for Lushan event. The simulated results characterized by Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) show that the source slip models based on the inverted and synthetic slip distributions could capture many basic features associated with the ground motion patterns. Moreover, the simulated MMI distributions reflect the rupture directivity effect and the influence of the shallow velocity structure well. On the other hand, the simulated MMI by stochastic slip model and k -2 model II is apparently higher than observed intensity. By contrast, our simulation results show that the higher frequency ground motion is sensitive to the degree of slip roughness; therefore, we suggest that, for realistic ground-motion simulations due to future earthquake, it is imperative to properly estimate the slip roughness distribution.

Shen, Wenhao; Zhong, Qiu; Shi, Baoping

2014-08-01

37

Three-dimensional surface displacement of the 2008 May 12 Sichuan earthquake (China) derived from Synthetic Aperture Radar: evidence for rupture on a blind thrust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sichuan earthquake, Mw 7.9, struck the Longmen Shan (LMS) range front, China, on 2008 May 12, affecting an area of moderate historical seismicity where little active shortening has been previously reported. Recent studies based on space geodesy have succeeded in retrieving the far field surface displacements caused by the earthquake, but the near field (+\\/-25km from the faults) coseismic

Marcello de Michele; Daniel Raucoules; Julia de Sigoyer; Manuel Pubellier; Nicolas Chamot-Rooke

2010-01-01

38

A new species of Amara (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Zabrini) from Sichuan Province, China, with additional records for other Amara species from the region  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species, Amara (Bradytulus) shalulishanica Hieke & Kavanaugh, sp. n. (type locality: Haizishan Yakou, 29.47366°N, 100.21921°E, 4623 m, Shalulishan, Zhuosang Township, Litang County, Sichuan Province, China) is described and diagnosed. Additional records are provided for 16 other Amara species, each of which represents one of five different geographical distribution types, which are discussed. PMID:23378815

Hieke, Fritz; Kavanaugh, David H.; Liang, Hongbin

2012-01-01

39

Microfarming techniques for yak producers in the Tibetan area of Muli in SW Sichuan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The Pumi people of Sichuan Province are traditionally nomadic producers of the yak. Since 1949, they have relied more and more on soil based agriculture to produce subsistence crops. They survive on a diet based on cereal crops and yak products of milk, butter and yoghurt. The families graze their animals in the high Hengduan Mountains and rely on

Peggy Bradley; Coralee Whitsett; Raanan Katzir

40

Automated Hazard Assessment Techniques Using Satellite Images Following the 2008 Sichuan China Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid seismic hazard assessment is crucial for accurate damage estimation right after earthquakes. New technologies provide faster damage detection compared to the traditional, manual assessments. One of the new technologies includes using satellite images. Pre- and post-earthquake satellite images can be used to identify damage patterns. One of the recent disastrous earthquakes occurred in Sichuan (Mw = 7.9) on May 12,

K. Armagan Korkmaz; M. Emin Kutay

2010-01-01

41

Isotopic evidence of TSR origin for natural gas bearing high H 2 S contents within the Feixianguan Formation of the northeastern Sichuan Basin, southwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northeastern area of Sichuan Basin, southwestern China, is the area with the maximal reserve of natural gas containing\\u000a higher hydrogen sulphide (H2S) that has been found among the petroliferous basins of China, with the proven and controlled gas reserve of more than 200\\u000a billion cubic meters. These gas pools, with higher H2S contents averaging 9%, some 17%, are mainly

Guangyou Zhu; Shuichang Zhang; Yingbo Liang; Jinxing Dai; Jian Li

2005-01-01

42

Geomorphic constraints on Middle Yangtze River reversal in eastern Sichuan Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yangtze, the longest river in Asia, was hypothesized to be assembled through a series of Cenozoic capture events, such as the reversal of Middle Yangtze River and the capture of Upper Yangtze River, but the history remains largely unknown. Here, we present new geomorphic observations in the structural context of the eastern Sichuan Basin, namely the Eastern Sichuan fold belt, and identify an important drainage divide along the "midline" of this arc-shape fold belt. Based on longitudinal profile analysis, we find that the river capture events more likely occurred in the syncline valleys of low-relief landscape. Our results yield a new perspective on Middle Yangtze River reversal, and we propose that the "midline" drainage divide, rather than the Three Gorges, was the starting site of Middle Yangtze River reversal. In this manner, the reversal could have been accomplished by a sequence of river reversal over range-parallel segments in syncline valleys with less impact on the pre-existing drainage system in eastern Sichuan Basin.

Wang, Ping; Zheng, Hongbo; Liu, Shaofeng

2013-06-01

43

Problems of Ecological Environment in Western China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Western China is vast, expansive, sparsely populated, and economically underdeveloped, but it plays an important role in economic and social development in China. While the west is a crucial base of power resources, it is also rich in fauna and flora resources and the major habitat for China's many rare wildlife species. Therefore, protecting its…

Wenjuan, Zhang; Jixi, Gao

2004-01-01

44

A Community Velocity Model (CVM) for the Sichuan basin and Longmen Shan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new three-dimensional velocity model of the crust and upper mantle for the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, developed using the concept of a Community Velocity Model (CVM) (Magistrale et al., 2000; Süss and Shaw, 2003). The model extends from 27.5°-34.5°N and 100°-110°E, and describes the velocity structure of the Sichuan basin and surrounding fold-and-thrust belt systems (including the Longmen Shan, Micang Shan, Daba Shan, Eastern Sichuan and Kangdian), as well as the Kunlun and Xianshuihe-Anninghe strike fault systems in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. The model consists of 3D surfaces representing major geologic unit contacts and faults, and is parameterized with velocity-depth curves (Boore and Joyner, 1997) calibrated using sonic logs from wells. The model incorporates data from 1166 oil wells, industry isopach maps, surface geological maps and digital elevation models. The model was developed in the program GoCAD, a geological computer-aided design application (Mallet, 1992). The geological surfaces were modeled based on industry isopach maps for various units augmented by stratigraphic picks in oil and gas wells and regional seismic reflection profiles. These surfaces include base Quaternary, Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic, and Paleozoic horizons. These surface are locally cut by major faults, which are compatible with the locations and displacements of major faults systems in the Sichuan Community Fault Model (CFM) (Hubbard et al., 2012). The velocity profiles for each layer are calibrated with high-resolution sonic log as well as stacking velocities from seismic reflection profiles and vertical seismic profiles. This upper crustal model extends down to ~10-15 km depth, and is embedded into a regional tomographic model (Xu and Song, 2010). The Sichuan basin is an atypical basin in terms of its velocity structure. The rocks exposed at the surface are primarily Mesozoic in age, with limited patch of Cenozoic rocks in the southwestern part of the basin. As a consequence, the velocities (Vp) in the basin are generally fast. They range from about 3000 to ~7500 m/s, exhibiting increasing velocities with age and depth. We divide the rock in the Sichuan basin and Longmen Shan region into five basic types: (1) Cenozoic alluvium; (2) Mesozoic sedimentary and metamorphic rocks; (3) Paleozoic sedimentary and metamorphic rocks; (4) Proterozoic sedimentary and metamorphic rocks and (5) granite. Cenozoic alluvium is thin (0~500 m) and limited primarily to the southwestern basin. Mesozoic sedimentary rocks are thick (2600-9800 m) and widely exposed at the surface and in boreholes in the basin. Their velocities vary from about 3000-6000 m/s. Paleozoic sedimentary and metamorphic rocks are also common, exposed primarily in the Longmen Shan and in regions to the north, east, and south of the basin. These units vary in thickness from 400-4100 m, and have velocities from about 5000-7000 m/s. Proterozoic sedimentary and metamorphic rocks crop out in narrow regions around the boundary of the basin, but are disturbed within the basin. Two exploration wells penetrate the base of Sinian, giving a velocity of about 6500-7500 m/s. The model will serve as a basic community resource for strong ground motion prediction and seismic hazard assessments in the densely populated Sichuan basin.

Wang, M.; Hubbard, J.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Jia, D.

2012-12-01

45

Large > 10 m coseismic oblique slip along the rupture of the Mw 7.9 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Sichuan, China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

At 02:28:01pm (06:28:01utc), on 12th May 2008, an Mw 7.9 (Ms 8.0) earthquake ruptured in the Longmen Shan along the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau in Sichuan, China. The epicenter was located inside the mountain range (N30.989°, E103.329°) in Wenchuan County. Field survey after the event allowed locating ruptures along the NE striking Longmenshan fault belt, that show mainly

H. Li; J. van der Woerd; P. Tapponnier; Z. Wang; X. Fu; L. Hou; J. Si; Z. Qiu

2009-01-01

46

Thermochemical sulphate reduction and the generation of hydrogen sulphide and thiols (mercaptans) in Triassic carbonate reservoirs from the Sichuan Basin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sichuan Basin in China is a sour petroleum province. In order to assess the origin of H2S and other sulphur compounds as well as the cause of petroleum alteration, data on H2S, thiophene and thiol concentrations and gas stable isotopes (?34S and ?13C) have been collected for predominantly gas phase petroleum samples from Jurassic, Triassic, Permian and Upper Proterozoic

Chunfang Cai; Richard H. Worden; Simon H. Bottrell; Lansheng Wang; Chanchun Yang

2003-01-01

47

Protective enzyme activity and physiological properties of four mulberry varieties affected by drought stress in the Panxi Region of Sichuan Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to identify the effects of drought stress on protective enzyme activity and physiological properties, four mulberry\\u000a varieties, i.e.,‘Nanye-1’, ‘Yunsang-1’, ‘Xinyizhilai’ and ‘Husang-32’ in the Panxi Region of Sichuan Province, China, were\\u000a selected. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) in four mulberry varieties was determined.\\u000a Soluble protein, soluble sugar, proline, net photosynthetic rate and

Ying-hong Ren

2009-01-01

48

Evaluation of an educational intervention on villagers' knowledge, attitude and behaviour regarding transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in Sichuan province, China.  

PubMed

Health education is an important component of efforts to control schistosomiasis. In China, while education programmes have been implemented intensively, few articles in recent years in either the Chinese or English literature report randomised, controlled interventions of the impacts on knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. Thus, we designed and carried out a cluster-randomised controlled education intervention trial that targeted 706 adults from rural areas in 28 villages in Sichuan, China. We evaluated the effects of the intervention on five endpoints: (1) schistosomiasis knowledge, (2) attitudes towards infection testing and treatment, (3) use of personal protective equipment (PPE), (4) reducing defecation in the field, and (5) reducing dermal contact with potentially contaminated water sources. The results indicated that people in both the intervention and control groups showed improvement in knowledge, attitudes and reduction in field-defecation in the follow-up surveys. However, there was little evidence that suggested statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding any endpoint. Participation in intervention classes was associated with age, gender, occupation and education level. Our study suggests short-term health education interventions may not be effective in improving schistosomiasis knowledge or in the adoption of health-protective behaviours. This might be partially due to the spontaneous learning process of people subject to repeated surveys and other disease control activities. Considering the difficulties of occupation-associated behaviour change and knowledge reinforcement in general, longer-term education programmes should be considered in the future. PMID:23711611

Wang, Shuo; Carlton, Elizabeth J; Chen, Lin; Liu, Yang; Spear, Robert C

2013-09-01

49

Prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in Beichuan County, Sichuan, China and phylogenetic evidence for an undescribed Leishmania sp. in China based on 7SL RNA  

PubMed Central

Background Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease, which is still endemic in the west and northwest area of China. Canines are the major reservoirs of Leishmania, the etiological agent of human visceral leishmaniasis. Phlebotomus chinensis is the main transmission vector of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). Methods In this study, rK39 dip-stick, ELISA and PCR methods were used to investigate the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Beichuan County, Sichuan Province, China. Results Among the 86 dogs which were included in the study, 13 dogs were positive using the dip-stick test (15.12%), while 8 dogs were positive using ELISA (9.30%) and 19 dogs were positive for PCR (22.03%). In total, 32 dogs were positive for one or more tests (37.21%). Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis based on the partial 7SL RNA fragment provided evidence that an undescribed Leishmania species, which is clearly a causative agent of CanL and human visceral leishmaniasis, does exist in China. This result is consistent with our previous study. Conclusions Our work confirmed that canine leishmaniasis is still prevalent in Beichuan County. Further control is urgently needed, as canine leishmaniasis is of great public health importance. The phylogenetic analysis based on 7SL RNA segment provides evidence for the existence of an undescribed Leishmania sp. in China. PMID:22515334

2012-01-01

50

Discovery of Cu-Zn, Cu-Sn intermetallic minerals and its significance for genesis of the Mianning-Dechang REE Metallogenic Belt, Sichuan Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mianning-Dechang Himalayan REE Metallogenetic Belt in Sichuan Province lies along the western margin of the Yangtze Craton.\\u000a We have conducted detailed mineralogical studies on ore minerals collected from Maoniuping and Dalucao, the two largest deposits\\u000a in the belt. With optical microscope, SEM\\/EDS, and EPMA, three rare intermetallic minerals, i.e., zinccopperite (Cu2Zn), Sn-bearing native copper, and Cu-bearing jupiter were found to

Yuling Xie; Zengqian Hou; Jiuhua Xu; Zhongxin Yuan; Ge Bai; Xiaoyu Li

2006-01-01

51

Peer norms and consistent condom use with female sex workers among male clients in Sichuan province, China  

PubMed Central

Despite their crucial role in HIV infection and transmission, commercial sex male clients (CSMCs) are rarely studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between peer norms and consistent condom use with female sex workers (FSWs) among CSMCs in Sichuan province, China. Male clients with peers who had paid for sex (n=562) were recruited by local health workers through snowball sampling. Measures of peer norms included 1) descriptive norms which were evaluated by perceptions of peer’s condom attitudes and behaviors with FSWs; 2) injunctive norms which were assessed by the perceived peer approval of using condoms with FSWs; and 3) communication of HIV-related topics with peers. The outcome was consistent condom use with FSWs. Results of multivariate logistic regression models revealed that consistent condom use with FSWs was significantly more likely among male clients who perceived more pro-condom descriptive and injunctive norms among their peer groups. In addition, the pattern of commercial sex visits moderated the relations between peer norms and consistent condom use with FSWs. More peer approval of condom use and more HIV-related communication were significantly associated with consistent condom use among clients who visited FSWs with friends but not among those who visited FSWs alone. The findings suggest that social activities surrounding commercial sex visits may provide an entry point for HIV prevention intervention with men who patronize FSWs and that such efforts should tap into existing dynamics of social interaction to promote pro-condom norms. PMID:20541859

Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl; Luan, Rongsheng; Nelson, Kenrad

2010-01-01

52

Characterization of Dicrocoelium chinensis from domestic yaks in Gansu and Sichuan provinces, China, using genetic markers in two mitochondrial genes.  

PubMed

Dicrocoelium chinensis is commonly known as the "lancet fluke" or "small liver fluke" which lives in the bile ducts and gall bladder of domestic and wild ruminants. In this study, we examined sequence variability in two mitochondrial (mt) genes, namely cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) genes, among D. chinensis isolated from domestic yaks in Gansu and Sichuan provinces, China. A portion of the cox1 (pcox1) and nad1 (pnad1) genes was amplified by PCR separately from the individual adult D. chinensis, and the amplicons were subjected to sequencing from both directions. The lengths of the sequences of pcox1 and pnad1 were 358 and 458 bp, respectively. The A+T contents of the sequences were 58.94-59.22% for pcox1 and 60.04-60.48% for pnad1, respectively. The intra-specific sequence variations within D. chinensis were 0-0.84% for pcox1 and 0-0.87% for pnad1. The inter-specific sequence differences among members of the examined trematodes were significantly higher, being 22.9-29.3% and 33.6-41.5% for pcox1 and pnad1, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis utilizing combined sequences of pcox1 and pnad1 using Bayesian inference revealed that all of the D. chinensis isolates grouped together with high statistical support. These findings demonstrated the existence of low intra-specific variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences among the D. chinensis isolates from domestic yaks in China and had implications for studying the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of D. chinensis. PMID:23194108

Wang, Xing-Ye; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Liu, Guo-Hua; Li, Jia-Yuan; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Xu, Min-Jun; Lin, Qing; Zhu, Xing-Quan

2013-06-01

53

Distribution and features of landslides induced by the 2008 Wengchuan Earthquake, Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2008 Sichuan earthquake with a magnitude of Mw 7.9 induced numerous mass movements around the fault surface ruptures of which maximum separations we observed were 3.6 m vertical and 1.5 m horizontal (right lateral). The affected area was mountainous areas with elevations from 1000 m to 4500 m on the west of the Sichuan Basin. The NE-trending Longmenshan fault zone runs along the boundary between the mountains on the west and the Sichuan basin (He and Tsukuda, 2003), of which Yinghsiuwan-Beichuan fault was the main fault that generated the 2008 earthquake (Xu, 2008). The basement rocks of the mountainous areas range from Precambrian to Cretaceous in age. They are basaltic rocks, granite, phyllite, dolostone, limestone, alternating beds of sandstone and shale, etc. There were several types of landslides ranging from small, shallow rockslide, rockfall, debris slide, deep rockslide, and debris flows. Shallow rockslide, rock fall, and debris slide were most common and occurred on convex slopes or ridge tops. When we approached the epicentral area, first appearing landslides were of this type and the most conspicuous was a failure of isolated ridge-tops, where earthquake shaking would be amplified. As for rock types, slopes of granitic rocks, hornfels, and carbonate rocks failed in wide areas to the most. They are generally hard and their fragments apparently collided and repelled to each other and detached from the slopes. Alternating beds of sandstone and mudstone failed on many slopes near the fault ruptures, including Yinghsiuwan near the epicenter. Many rockfalls occurred on cliffs, which had taluses on their feet. The fallen rocks tumbled down and mostly stopped within the talus surfaces, which is quite reasonable because taluses generally develop by this kind of processes. Many rockslides occurred on slopes of carbonate rocks, in which dolostone or dolomitic limestone prevails. Deep-seated rockslide occurred on outfacing slopes and shallow rockslide and rockfall occurred on infacing slopes. Infacing slopes generally are steeper than outfacing slopes and hence surface rocks on infacing slopes tend to be loosened by gravity. Detachment surfaces of carbonate rocks are generally not smooth surfaces but are rough surfaces with dimple-like depressions, which are made by dissolution of these rocks. This feature is one of the most important causes to induce landslide in carbonate rocks. Many gravitational deformations were observed on phyllite slopes. Landslides on the west of Beichuan city is probably of weathered phyllite, which had been preceded by gravitational deformation beforehand. Taochishan landslide in Beichuan occurred on probable outfacing slope of phyllite. The Formosat II images on Google earth indicated that this landslide was also preceded by gravitational deformation, which appeared as spur-crossing depressions with upslope-convex traces on plan. Satellite images indicated that some landslides had long lobate forms, suggesting that they were flow. One of them was Shechadientsu landslide 34 km northeast of Dujiangyan, occurring across the probable earthquake fault rupture. It was 1.5 km long with a maximum width of 250 m and an apparent friction angle of 22°. The top of this landslide area was a steep cliff of Precambrian granite, which failed to go down a small valley. The volume of the slope failure was estimated much less than the volume of the deposit. The small valley had sporadic patches of bedrock consisting of alternating beds of sandstone and mudstone of Triassic in age. The bedrock was covered by bluish grey, clayey, water-saturated debris, which was not disturbed and in turn covered by water-saturated brownish debris with rubbles. The landslide deposits had wrinkles on the surface and streaks of same color rock fragments. In addition, cross section near the distal part had clearly defined reverse grading, in which larger rubbles with a maximum diameter of 5 m concentrated at the surface part. These characteristics strongly suggest that valley-fill sediments mobilized by the earthquake and flowed down

Chigira, M.; Xiyong, W.; Inokuchi, T.; Gonghui, W.

2009-04-01

54

Suitability of IS6110-RFLP and MIRU-VNTR for Differentiating Spoligotyped Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates from Sichuan in China  

PubMed Central

Genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) vary with the geographic origin of the patients and can affect tuberculosis (TB) transmission. This study was aimed to further differentiate spoligotype-defined clusters of drug-resistant MTBC clinical isolates split in Beijing (n = 190) versus non-Beijing isolates (n = 84) from Sichuan region, the second high-burden province in China, by IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs. Among 274 spoligotyped isolates, the clustering ratio of Beijing family was 5.3% by 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs versus 2.1% by IS6110-RFLP, while none of the non-Beijing isolates were clustered by 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs versus 9.5% by IS6110-RFLP. Hence, neither the 24-locus MIRU-VNTR was sufficient enough to fully discriminate the Beijing family, nor the IS6110-RFLP for the non-Beijing isolates. A region adjusted scheme combining 12 highly discriminatory VNTR loci with IS6110-RFLP was a better alternative for typing Beijing strains in Sichuan than 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs alone. IS6110-RFLP was for the first time introduced to systematically genotype MTBC in Sichuan and we conclude that the region-adjusted scheme of 12 highly discriminative VNTRs might be a suitable alternative to 24-locus MIRU-VNTR scheme for non-Beijing strains, while the clusters of the Beijing isolates should be further subtyped using IS6110-RFLP for optimal discrimination. PMID:24724099

Zheng, Chao; Zhao, Yuding; Zhu, Guoqiang; Li, Song; Sun, Honghu; Feng, Qin; Luo, Mei; Wu, Fanzi; Li, Xuefeng; Hill, Veronique; Rastogi, Nalin; Sun, Qun

2014-01-01

55

Paleogeothermal record of the Emeishan mantle plume: evidences from borehole Ro data in the Sichuan basin, SW China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Emeishan basalt province located in the southwest of China is widely accepted to be a result of the eruption of a mantle plume at the time of middle-late Permian. If it was a mantle plume, the ambient sedimentary rocks must be heated up during the development of the mantle plume and this thermal effect must be recorded by some geothermometers in the country rocks. The vitrinite reflectance (Ro) data as a maximum paleotemperature recorder from boreholes in Sichuan basin was employed to expose the thermal regime related to the proposed Emeishan mantle plume. The Ro profiles from boreholes which drilled close to the Emeishan basalts shows a ';dog-leg' (break) style at the unconformity between the middle and the upper Permian, and the Ro profiles in the lower subsection (pre-middle Permian) shows a significantly higher slopes (gradients) than those in the upper subsection. In contrast, those Ro profiles from boreholes far away from the center of the basalt province have no break at the uncomformity. Based on the chemical kinetic model of Ro, the paleo-temperature gradients for the upper and the lower subsections in different boreholes, as well as the erosion at the unconformity between the middle and the upper Permian, were reconstructed to reveal the variations of the temperature gradients and erosion thickness with geological time and space. Both the thermal regime and the erosion thickness together with their spatial variation (structure) provide strong geothermal evidence for the existence of the Emeishan mantle plume in the middle-late Permian.

Hu, S.

2013-12-01

56

Permian to Late Triassic evolution of the Longmen Shan Foreland Basin (Western Sichuan): Model results from both the lithospheric extension and flexure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lithosphere was extended during the Permian-Middle Triassic in the Yangtze Craton where the Sichuan Basin located, and then bent due to thrusting of the Longmen Shan orogen, leading to formation of the Longmen Shan Foreland Basin (Western Sichuan) during the Late Triassic Indosinian orogeny. The lateral variation of the lithospheric strength resulted by former differential extension would inevitably influence the subsequent evolution of the foreland basin. In order to investigate this, both extensional and flexural models were applied in modeling Permian-Late Triassic basin evolution. A 2D kinematic extensional model was initially developed along a profile crossing the Yangtze Craton to simulate the lithospheric thermal evolution during the Permian-Middle Triassic. Based on the thermal results, the thermal-rheological structure, as well as the effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere (Te), was then determined. Extension model show that the stretching factors decrease gradually from Songpan-Ganzi to the Sichuan Basin, leading to variable thermal-rheological structure and increased Te from west to east. Taking into account of the Te variation, a flexural model was finally constructed to investigate the evolution of the Longmen Shan Foreland Basin during the Late Triassic spanning the time period c. 227-206 Ma. Three episodes were divided according to the corresponding tectonostratigraphic units. By matching the stratigraphic observations, three phase advance distances eastward of the Longmen Shan along the Qingchuan-Maowen Fault turned out to be 18, 22, and 18 km. It implied a slow and similar thrust advance rate of 3.6 (c.227-222 Ma), 2.2 (c.222-212 Ma), and 3 mm/yr (c.212-206 Ma), respectively.

He, Lijuan

2014-10-01

57

Stress changes from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and increased hazard in the Sichuan basin.  

PubMed

On 12 May 2008, the devastating magnitude 7.9 (Wenchuan) earthquake struck the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau, collapsing buildings and killing thousands in major cities aligned along the western Sichuan basin in China. After such a large-magnitude earthquake, rearrangement of stresses in the crust commonly leads to subsequent damaging earthquakes. The mainshock of the 12 May earthquake ruptured with as much as 9 m of slip along the boundary between the Longmen Shan and Sichuan basin, and demonstrated the complex strike-slip and thrust motion that characterizes the region. The Sichuan basin and surroundings are also crossed by other active strike-slip and thrust faults. Here we present calculations of the coseismic stress changes that resulted from the 12 May event using models of those faults, and show that many indicate significant stress increases. Rapid mapping of such stress changes can help to locate fault sections with relatively higher odds of producing large aftershocks. PMID:18600260

Parsons, Tom; Ji, Chen; Kirby, Eric

2008-07-24

58

Spatio-temporal modeling with GIS and remote sensing for schistosomiasis control in Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Schistosomiasis is a water-borne parasitic disease endemic in tropical and subtropical areas. Its transmission requires certain kind of snail as the intermediate host. Some efforts have been made to mapping snail habitats with remote sensing and schistosomiasis transmission modeling. However, the modeling is limited to isolated residential groups and does not include spatial interaction among those groups. Remotely sensed data are only used in snail habitat classification, not in estimation of snail abundance that is an important parameter in schistosomiasis transmission modeling. This research overcomes the above two problems using innovative geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing technology. A mountainous environment near Xichang, China, is chosen as the test site. Environmental and epidemiological data are stored in a GIS to support modeling. Snail abundance is estimated from land-cover and land-use fractions derived from high spatial resolution IKONOS satellite data. Spatial interaction is determined in consideration of neighborhoods, group areas, relative slopes among groups, and natural barriers. Land-cover and land-use information extracted from 4 m high resolution IKONOS data is used as reference in scaling up to the regional level. The scale-up is done with coarser resolution satellite data including Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), EO-1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Hyperion data all at 30 m resolution. Snail abundance is estimated by regressing snail survey data with land-cover and land-use fractions. An R2 of 0.87 is obtained between the average snail density predicted and that surveyed at the group level. With such a model, a snail density map is generated for all residential groups in the study area. A spatio-temporal model of schistosomiasis transmission is finally built to incorporate the spatial interaction caused by miracidia and cercaria migration. Comparing the model results with and without spatial interaction has revealed a number of advantages of the spatio-temporal model. Particularly, with the inclusion of spatial interaction, more effective control of schistosomiasis transmission over the whole study area can be achieved.

Xu, Bing

59

The distribution and status of Sichuan Grey Jay ( Perisoreus internigrans )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The Sichuan Grey Jay is one of the least known endemic bird species in China, distributed in Gansu, Sichuan, Qinghai and Tibet in west China. The species inhabits the mountain spruce-fir conifer forest, at the altitude between 2 900 m to 3 800 m. Males are slightly larger than females. 31.3 % (n=19) of the individuals were found to

Sun Yue-Hua; Jia Chen-Xi; Fang Yun

2001-01-01

60

[Responses of subalpine Betula albo-sinensis soil invertase activity to elevated atmospheric temperature and CO2 concentration in Western Sichuan].  

PubMed

Taking the soil planted with subalpine Betula albo-sinensis seedlings in Western Sichuan as test object, this paper studied the responses of its invertase activity to elevated temperature (ET), elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (EC), and their combination (ETC). The results indicated that ET increased the soil invertase activity to a certain extent, being significant in May, June, September and October. EC also had a significant positive effect on the enzyme activity from May to October (P < 0.05), which was higher in rhizosphere than in non-rhizosphere soil, and in those planted with high density B. albo-sinensis. The responses of soil invertase activity to ETC and shading differed with month, planting density of B. albo-sinensis, and distribution pattern of the enzyme. PMID:17763720

Wu, Xiu-chen; Sun, Hui; Yang, Wan-qin; Wang, Kai-yun

2007-06-01

61

Spatial patterns of the congenital heart disease prevalence among 0- to 14-year-old children in Sichuan Basin, P. R China, from 2004 to 2009  

PubMed Central

Background Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common type of major birth defects in Sichuan, the most populous province in China. The detailed etiology of CHD is unknown but some environmental factors are suspected as the cause of this disease. However, the geographical variations in CHD prevalence would be highly valuable in providing a clue on the role of the environment in CHD etiology. Here, we investigate the spatial patterns and geographic differences in CHD prevalence among 0- to 14-year-old children, discuss the possible environmental risk factors that might be associated with CHD prevalence in Sichuan Basin from 2004 to 2009. Methods The hierarchical Bayesian model was used to estimate CHD prevalence at the township level. Spatial autocorrelation statistics were performed, and a hot-spot analysis with different distance thresholds was used to identify the spatial pattern of CHD prevalence. Distribution and clustering maps were drawn using geographic information system tools. Results CHD prevalence was significantly clustered in Sichuan Basin in different spatial scale. Typical hot/cold clusters were identified, and possible CHD causes were discussed. The association between selected hypothetical environmental factors of maternal exposure and CHD prevalence was evaluated. Conclusions The largest hot-spot clustering phenomena and the CHD prevalence clustering trend among 0- to 14-year-old children in the study area showed a plausibly close similarity with those observed in the Tuojiang River Basin. The high ecological risk of heavy metal(Cd, As, and Pb)sediments in the middle and lower streams of the Tuojiang River watershed and ammonia–nitrogen pollution may have contribution to the high prevalence of CHD in this area. PMID:24924350

2014-01-01

62

Rapid sea-level change in the Late Guadalupian (Permian) on the Tethyan side of South China: litho- and biostratigraphy of the Chaotian section in Sichuan  

PubMed Central

The Capitanian (Late Guadalupian) Maokou Formation at Chaotian in northern Sichuan, South China, is composed mainly of shallow marine shelf carbonates deposited on the Tethyan side of South China. By detailed field mapping and scientific drilling, we newly found out unique fossil assemblages and a sharp lithologic change in the upper part of the Maokou Formation. The main part of the Maokou Formation (over 130 m thick) is composed of algal packstone with Wordian-Capitanian large-tested fusulines, rugose corals and other sessile benthos, whereas the Uppermost Member (13 m thick) is composed of black limy mudstone/chert with Capitanian offshore biota (ammonoids, radiolarians, and conodonts). The topmost Capitanian conodont zones are missing; however, the Maokou Formation is disconformably overlain by 260 ± 4 Ma volcanic ash (Wangpo bed) and the Early Lopingian Wujiaping Formation with plant-bearing coaly mudstone and shallow marine carbonates (packstone). The newly identified facies change indicates that northern Sichuan has experienced rapid sea-level changes in the late Guadalupian, i.e., first a transgression in the mid-Capitanian and then a regression across the Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary. As the end-Guadalupian is characterized by a global regression, such a volatile sea-level fluctuation, in particular the sea-level rise, is unique to the Tethyan side of South China. The newly recognized relatively deep-water late Guadalupian sequence adds new paleo-environmental information and further provides a paleotectonic interpretation of the low-latitude eastern Tethyan margin immediately before the end-Guadalupian mass extinction. PMID:18941307

Isozaki, Yukio; Yao, Jianxin; Ji, Zhangshen; Saitoh, Masafumi; Kobayashi, Noritada; Sakai, Harutaka

2008-01-01

63

Diagenesis of clay minerals and K-bentonites in Late Permian/Early Triassic sediments of the Sichuan Basin (Chaotian section, Central China)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed clay mineralogical analyses were carried out on Late Permian/Early Triassic carbonate sediments exposed on the Chaotian section (Sichuan Basin, Central China). The clay assemblages are dominantly composed of illite in platform carbonates and clay seams, and illite-smectite mixed-layers (I/S) in tuff layers (K-bentonites) intercalated in the carbonate succession. Detrital and authigenic volcanogenic clay minerals have been partially replaced through illitisation processes during burial, raising questions about diagenetic effects. The precise determination of I/S occurring in K-bentonites shows that the sediments reached a temperature of about 180 °C, which is consistent with (1) previous estimates based on fluid-inclusion homogenisation temperature analysis, (2) the burial depth of the sedimentary series deduced from the post-Palaeozoic geological history of the Sichuan Basin and (3) the new data (Tmax) obtained on organic matter indicating the transition between oil and gas windows. The Wangpo Bed, located close to the Guadalupian-Lopingian Boundary, is interpreted either as a volcanic acidic tuff or as a clastic horizon. This controversial origin probably results from mixed volcanogenic and detrital influences. The Wangpo Bed is therefore interpreted as a reworked bentonite as revealed by the occurrence of I/S similar to those found in tuff layers, together with preserved detrital kaolinite.

Deconinck, J. F.; Crasquin, S.; Bruneau, L.; Pellenard, P.; Baudin, F.; Feng, Q.

2014-02-01

64

Origin of marine sour natural gas and gas-filling model for the Wolonghe Gas Field, Sichuan Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical and isotopic composition of natural gases from the Wolonghe Gas Field, Sichuan Basin, Southwest China, was investigated to assess the potential gas sources and reconstruct the gas-filling history of the reservoirs. All natural gases in this field are dominated by gaseous hydrocarbons (C1-C3) with varied amounts of non-hydrocarbon components (CO2, H2S and N2). The H2S content varies with reservoir intervals. It ranges from zero to 1.84% with an average of 0.37% in the Carboniferous reservoir, from 0.05% to 0.76% with an average of 0.30% in the Permian reservoir, and from 1.09% to 18.83% with an average of 5.39% in the Lower Triassic reservoir. The gas dryness coefficient (C1/C1-3) ranges from 0.97 to 1.0 with an average of 0.99. The carbon isotopic compositions of methane and its homologues in the Wolonghe Gas Field vary widely, with ?13C1 ? ?13C2 < ?13C3 in the Carboniferous and Permian gas reservoirs, and ?13C1 < ?13C2 < ?13C3 in the Lower Triassic Jialingjiang Formation gas reservoirs. The ?D1 values range from -140‰ to -100‰, with an average of -124.5‰. The ?34SH2S values in the field extend from 5.7‰ to 31.0‰, with ?34SH2S values in the Lower Triassic Jialingjiang Formation reservoirs being much higher than those in the Carboniferous and Permian reservoirs. The sour natural gases in the field originated from cracking of oil and were sourced from the marine sapropelic organic matter at high maturity levels. The natural gases underwent alteration by thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). Although the limited extent TSR occurred in the Carboniferous and Permian gas reservoirs, the TSR alteration is likely to have caused the high gas dryness and the 13C enrichment of CH4. The present low content of H2S in the Carboniferous and Permian gases would be related to the loss of H2S dissolved in water under the reconstruction of these gas reservoirs. In contrast, the high H2S in the Jialingjiang Formation gases is determined by both the favorable TSR conditions in the Lower Triassic reservoirs and the favorable preservation conditions provided by the Lower-Middle Triassic gypsum. The Wolonghe natural gas system is characterized by multi-pay zones, multi-source supply and multi-type layers. The gas generated from Silurian source rocks migrated into the Carboniferous reservoir through faults and fractures and was trapped beneath the Permian Liangshan Formation shale, whereas the natural gas in the Permian and Lower Triassic Jialingjiang Formation was generated and preserved in its own formations with the overlying gypsum acting as a cap rock.

Liu, Quanyou; Jin, Zhijun; Li, Jian; Hu, Anping; Bi, Changchun

2012-09-01

65

Near Full-Length Genomic Characterization of a Novel HIV Type 1 CRF07_ BC/01_AE Recombinant in Men Who Have Sex with Men from Sichuan, China  

PubMed Central

Abstract In recent years, the men who have sex with men (MSM) population has seen the fastest growing prevalence of HIV transmission in China. In addition, coinfection through sex and intravenous drug use is a major problem in HIV prevention and control. Recent studies have also revealed that three major viral strains (CRF07_BC, CRF01_AE, and subtype B) have been cocirculating among MSM in Sichuan, suggesting a high probability of generating new recombinants. This study reports a near full-length genome of a novel HIV-1 recombinant (MSM0720) between CRF07_BC and CRF01_AE. The analysis of MSM0720 shows that the genome is composed of at least 11 interlaced segments, including six CRF07_BC and five CRF01_AE segments, with CRF07_BC as the backbone; this is different from a previously identified CRF01_AE/07_BC recombinant strain in intravenous drug users from Jiangsu. PMID:23594292

Wei, Huamian; Su, Ling; Feng, Yi; He, Xiang; His, Jenny; Liang, Shu

2013-01-01

66

Information Technology Brings Better Life to Western China  

E-print Network

dramatically. China's western regions have reported an annual average economic growth rate of 10.6% for six, China launched a national development strategy in its impov- erished western regions to boost economic that leverage information technology to enable local people in the west- ern regions to access information

Narasayya, Vivek

67

Origins of natural gases from marine strata in Northeastern Sichuan Basin (China) from carbon molecular moieties and isotopic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To determine the origin, maturity, formation mechanism and secondary process of marine natural gases in Northeastern Sichuan area, molecular moieties and carbon isotopic data of the Carboniferous and Triassic gases have been analyzed. Typical samples of marine gas precursors including low-maturity kerogen, dispersed liquid hydrocarbons (DLHs) in source rocks, residual kerogen and oil have been examined in a closed system, and several published geochemical diagrams of gas origins have been calibrated by using laboratory data. Results show that both Carboniferous and Triassic gases in the study area have a thermogenic origin. Migration leads to stronger compositional and weak isotopic fractionation, and is path dependent. Carboniferous gases and low-H2S gases are mainly formed by secondary cracking of oil, whereas high-H2S gases are clearly related to the TSR (Thermal Sulfate Reduction) process. Gases in NE Sichuan show a mixture of heavy (13C-enriched) methane in comparison to the lower maturated ethane of Triassic gas samples, suggesting a similar source and maturity for ethane and propane of Carboniferous gases, and a mixture of heavy ethane to the propane for Triassic gases. Based on the data plotted in the diagram of Chung et al. (1988), the residual kerogen from Silurian marine shale and palaeo oil reservoirs are the main source for Carboniferous gases, and that the residual kerogen from Silurian and Permian marine rocks and Permian paleao oil reservoirs constitute the principal source of Triassic gases.

Wang, Yunpeng; Zhao, Changyi; Wang, Hongjun; Wang, Zhaoyun; Wang, Zecheng

2013-03-01

68

Barcoding Poplars (Populus L.) from Western China  

PubMed Central

Background Populus is an ecologically and economically important genus of trees, but distinguishing between wild species is relatively difficult due to extensive interspecific hybridization and introgression, and the high level of intraspecific morphological variation. The DNA barcoding approach is a potential solution to this problem. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we tested the discrimination power of five chloroplast barcodes and one nuclear barcode (ITS) among 95 trees that represent 21 Populus species from western China. Among all single barcode candidates, the discrimination power is highest for the nuclear ITS, progressively lower for chloroplast barcodes matK (M), trnG-psbK (G) and psbK-psbI (P), and trnH-psbA (H) and rbcL (R); the discrimination efficiency of the nuclear ITS (I) is also higher than any two-, three-, or even the five-locus combination of chloroplast barcodes. Among the five combinations of a single chloroplast barcode plus the nuclear ITS, H+I and P+I differentiated the highest and lowest portion of species, respectively. The highest discrimination rate for the barcodes or barcode combinations examined here is 55.0% (H+I), and usually discrimination failures occurred among species from sympatric or parapatric areas. Conclusions/Significance In this case study, we showed that when discriminating Populus species from western China, the nuclear ITS region represents a more promising barcode than any maternally inherited chloroplast region or combination of chloroplast regions. Meanwhile, combining the ITS region with chloroplast regions may improve the barcoding success rate and assist in detecting recent interspecific hybridizations. Failure to discriminate among several groups of Populus species from sympatric or parapatric areas may have been the result of incomplete lineage sorting, frequent interspecific hybridizations and introgressions. We agree with a previous proposal for constructing a tiered barcoding system in plants, especially for taxonomic groups that have complex evolutionary histories (e.g. Populus). PMID:23977122

Shang, Huiying; Dong, Miao; Wang, Gaini; He, Xinyu; Zhao, Changming; Mao, Kangshan

2013-01-01

69

Regional characterization of Western China-II  

SciTech Connect

As part of the CTBT Research and Development regional characterization effort, geological, geophysical, and seismic data are being assembled and organized for inclusion in a knowledge base for China. The authors have continued their analysis using data form the station WMQ of the Chinese Digital Seismic Network (CDSN) and the IRIS station AAK. They are also acquiring and analyzing data from stations that are designated as (or near a designated) primary or secondary CTBT monitoring station. Regional seismograms are being analyzed to construct travel time curves, velocity models, attenuation characteristics, and to quantify regional propagation effects such as phase blockages. Using locations from the USGS Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) they have identified Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg phases, constructed travel time curves, and estimated apparent velocities using linear regression. Amplitudes for the seismic phases have been measured using bandpassed waveforms and a series of magnitude relations have been determined for Western China. Studies of path specific propagation efficiency of the seismic phases have mapped blockages and also identified a possible set of observations that can be used to identify intermediate depth (> 100 im) seismic events in the Pamir-Hindu Kush seismic zone. Chinese seismicity catalogs from the USGS and Chinese State Seismological Bureau (SSB) are being used to identify and obtain seismic data (including mine seismicity) and information for lower magnitude events. Clustering analysis has been used to identify seismicity clusters in space with origin times that are distributed during daylight hours which suggest mining operations. These clusters are being investigated with imagery to attempt to identify precise mine locations.

Randall, G.E.; Hartse, H.E.; Phillips, W.S.; Taylor, S.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Geophysics Group

1996-10-01

70

Agricultural Marketing in a Country in Transition : Case of Sweetpotato Products in Sichuan P.R. China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's achievements in its reform from a centrally planned economy toward a marketing economy during the last two decades are substantial. Although it still has a long way to go to reach its targeted aims, half of China's economy is now 'marketised, or is responsive to market forces (Lawrence, 1998). The influence of the transition on agricultural marketing is significant,

X. Y. Zhang

1999-01-01

71

Comparative study of bacterial status from conjunctival sac of the elder Qiang minority and Han people with dry eye in Sichuan, China  

PubMed Central

AIM To compare the status of bacteria in the conjunctival sac from the elder Qiang minority and Han people with dry eyes in Sichuan, China. METHODS Total of 54 elder Qiang people with dry eyes (108 eyes) were examined by cluster sampling. In the similar habitation region of Han people, 80 (160 dry eyes) Han people were analyzed as the control group. The bacteria was separated from the inferior palpebral conjunctiva, then inoculated on blood plate for 48 hours and identified. RESULTS Totally 24 strains of bacteria were cultured in either Qiang minority or Han c populations with 3 strains of them existed in both ethnic groups. The commonest bacteria in conjunctival sac in two ethnic groups were non-pathogenic bacterium. The composition of Corynebacterium in Han people (54.1%) was significantly higher than that in Qiang minority (27.4%) (?2=11.6721, P=0.0006). The percentage of Sphingomonas Paucimobilis in Qiang people was higher than that in Han people (?2=18.6442, P=0.0000). However, there was no significant difference between Qiang minority and Han people either in bacterial positive rate in conjunctival sac, or the composition of bacteria species and strains, or the composition of staphylococcus epidemids between two ethnic populations. CONCLUSION There was no significant difference of bacterial positive rate in conjunctival sac from the elder of Qiang minority and Han people with dry eye, but the species of bacteria were different. PMID:22773985

Zhang, Yue; Liu, Zhi-Rong; Chen, Hui; Dong, Wan-Jiang; Fan, Ying-Chuan; Yu, Hua; Wang, Guang-Jin; Li, Yu-Chan; Cao, Kui

2012-01-01

72

Reinfection studies of canine echinococcosis and role of dogs in transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis in Tibetan communities, Sichuan, China.  

PubMed

In the eastern Tibetan plateau both human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by infection with Echincoccus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively are highly endemic. The domestic dog plays a key role in zoonotic transmission in this region. Our primary objective was to investigate the role of domestic dogs in maintaining transmission of E. multilocularis in Shiqu county, Sichuan. A cohort of 281 dogs was followed up over one year after a single treatment with praziquantel followed by re-infection surveillance at 2, 5 and 12 months post-treatment. Faecal samples were tested by an Echinococcus genus-specific coproantigen ELISA and two species-specific copro-PCR tests. Total Echinococcus coproantigen prevalence in Shiqu at baseline was 21% and 9·6% after 2 months. E. multilocularis copro-PCR was positive in 11·2% of dogs before treatment (vs 3·6% with E. granulosus copro-DNA), 2·9% at 2 months post-treatment, and 0% at 5 month and 12 months. The results suggest that dogs may have the potential to maintain E. multilocularis transmission within local pastoral communities, and thus dog dosing could be an effective strategy to reduce transmission of E. multilocularis as well as E. granulosus in these co-endemic Tibetan communities. PMID:23985352

Moss, J E; Chen, X; Li, T; Qiu, J; Wang, Q; Giraudoux, P; Ito, A; Torgerson, P R; Craig, P S

2013-11-01

73

Buddhist Education in Sichuan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is devoted to Buddhist education in Sichuan Province with a focus on Venerable Longlian's temple. It deals with the historical development of Chinese Buddhist education and makes statistic analysis of the available data. Venerable Longlian established the Sichuan Buddhist Institute for Nuns in the 1980s. It was the first modern school…

Long, Darui

2002-01-01

74

Consumer preferences for western-style convenience foods in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand for western-style convenience foods is growing around the world, especially in the People's Republic of China, a likely result of the modernization of food consumption patterns. Proper targeting of consumers who exhibit preferences for western foods will be essential to companies wishing to successfully enter the Chinese market. Data from a 2002 survey of consumers in Beijing is

Thomas I. WAHLb

75

China's importation of Western psychiatry: Cultural relativity and mental disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

As one aspect of China's modernization, the importation of Western psychiatric ideas poses a mystery. How are such ideas integrated with traditional assumptions? The apparently wholesale adoption of Western psychiatric categories runs counter to the fact that the Chinese have been generally reluctant to define problems in highly individualized psychiatric terms. Our lack of knowledge as to how the Chinese

Deborah Woo

1991-01-01

76

AMS investigation in the Pingluoba and Qiongxi anticlines, Sichuan, China: Implications for deformation mechanism of the Qiongxi structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stratigraphic attitude is one of the most important field data for structural geology research. However, it is difficult to measure directly sometimes, especially in weak deformed sediments with low dip angle. Pingluoba anticline, mainly consisting of medium-high dip angle strata, is located on the Longmen Shan fold-and-thrust belt front. Qiongxi anticline is located in the southwestern Sichuan Basin, and it is mainly composed of sub-horizontal to low dip angle strata. An investigation of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in 78 sites has been carried out in these two folds. Stepwise demagnetization of three orthogonal isothermal remanent magnetizations suggests that hematite is the main magnetic carrier mineral in the Qiongxi anticline, meanwhile, hematite and magnetite are both existing in the Pingluoba anticline. It reveals three types of magnetic fabrics: sedimentary magnetic fabric, initial deformation magnetic fabric and pencil structure magnetic fabric, which indicate weak deformation. Throughout AMS theoretical analysis and example test in the Pingluoba anticline, magnetic fabric is a suitable technique to confirm the stratigraphic attitude in weak compressional deformed sediments. For the sedimentary magnetic fabric, initial deformation magnetic fabric and one atypical initial deformation magnetic fabric developed in the weak deformed tectonic superposition region, dip direction of bedding plane = pitch direction of K3+(or -) 180°, and dip angle of bedding plane = 90°-pitch angle of K3. 38 stratigraphic attitudes with low dip angle in the Qiongxi anticline have been rectified by magnetic fabric results. Qiongxi structure is a weak tectonic superposition deformation anticline. The deformation mechanism of Qiongxi structure may contain two stages: NW-SE compression stage started from the latest Cretaceous-early Cenozoic and nearly E-W shortening stage in the Late Cenozoic.

Luo, Liang; Qi, Jiafu; Zhang, Mingzheng

2014-06-01

77

Effectiveness of a smart phone app on improving immunization of children in rural Sichuan Province, China: study protocol for a paired cluster randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Although good progress has been achieved in expanding immunization of children in China, disparities exist across different provinces. Information gaps both from the service supply and demand sides hinder timely vaccination of children in rural areas. The rapid development of mobile health technology (mHealth) provides unprecedented opportunities for improving health services and reaching underserved populations. However, there is a lack of literature that rigorously evaluates the impact of mHealth interventions on immunization coverage as well as the usability and feasibility of smart phone applications (apps). This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a smart phone-based app (Expanded Program on Immunization app, or EPI app) on improving the coverage of children’s immunization. Methods/Design This cluster randomized trial will take place in Xuanhan County, Sichuan Province, China. Functionalities of the app include the following: to make appointments automatically, record and update children’s immunization information, generate a list of children who missed their vaccination appointments, and send health education information to village doctors. After pairing, 36 villages will be randomly allocated to the intervention arm (n?=?18) and control arm (n?=?18). The village doctors in the intervention arm will use the app while the village doctors in the control arm will record and manage immunization in the usual way in their catchment areas. A household survey will be used at baseline and at endline (8 months of implementation). The primary outcome is full-dose coverage and the secondary outcome is immunization coverage of the five vaccines that are included in the national Expanded Program on Immunization program as well as Hib vaccine, Rotavirus vaccine and Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Multidimensional evaluation of the app will also be conducted to assess usability and feasibility. Discussion This study is the first to evaluate the effectiveness of a smart phone app for child immunization in rural China. This study will contribute to the knowledge about the usability and feasibility of a smart phone app for managing immunization in rural China and to similar populations in different settings. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trials Registry (ChiCTR): ChiCTR-TRC-13003960 PMID:24645829

2014-01-01

78

The prevalence of canine Leishmania infantum infection in western China detected by PCR and serological tests  

PubMed Central

Background Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is endemic in western China, resulting in important public health problem. It is essential to evaluate the prevalence of canine Leishmania infantum infection for designing control policy. In the present study we report for the first time prevalence of Leishmania infection in dogs living in Jiuzhaigou County (Sichuan Provence, China), which is not only an important endemic area of CanL but also a tourism scenic spot, detected by PCR, ELISA and dipstick test. The results could provide key information for designing control programs against canine and human leishmaniasis. In addition, the complete sequence of the Leishmania isolate from Sichuan Province has not been reported to date and we present the sequences of 116 base-pair (bp) fragment of the conserved region in the minicircle kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) and the results of phylogenetic analyses based on the sequence of the amplified fragment. Results The proportion of dogs infected with Leishmania in Jiuzhaigou County was 36.79%, 9.43%, and 51.88% detected by ELISA, dipstick test, and PCR, respectively. The ELISA and PCR tests were more sensitive than dipstick test. The PCR method is the most sensitive way to detect dogs infected with Leishmania parasites. The total positive rate for infected dogs in the area was 59.43% by the three methods. The PCR products of 116-bp fragment amplified from the kDNA conserved region of dog blood samples and laboratory maintained L. infantum were DNA sequenced and the variation of the sequences was observed. The phylogenetic tree based on the sequences of 116-bp fragment reveals that L. infantum is more genetically related to visceralizing species L. donovani than to the Leishmania species associated with cutaneous disease. Conclusions More than half of dogs living in the endemic Jiuzhaigou County were infected by L. infantum. Control measures, such as treatment or eradication of infected dogs, or prohibition of maintaining dogs, must be taken against these infected dogs due to their role in the transmission of the infection to vectors. The phylogenetic tree based on the sequences of conserved region in kDNA of Leishmania can effectively distinguish species of Leishmania. PMID:21554677

2011-01-01

79

Incorporation of mulberry in contour hedgerows to increase overall benefits: a case study from Ningnan County, Sichuan Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contour hedgerow intercropping system (alley cropping) has been promoted as a promising option for sustainable land management in many parts of the world. It was introduced to China in 1991 as a management option of sloping croplands. Despite its effectiveness in soil conservation and soil fertility improvement, farmers' adoption had been unsatisfactory before 1998, mainly due to its lack of

Z TangYa; Zhang Yan-zhou; Xie Jia-sui; Sun Hui

2003-01-01

80

Measles vaccine adverse events reported in the mass vaccination campaign of Sichuan province, China from 2007 to 2008.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterize the adverse events of attenuated measles vaccine in mainland China. We carried out prospective follow-up of adverse events after mass measles immunization practices, categorizing them into two groups: allergic reactions and serious adverse events. The incidence of anaphylaxis reaction was estimated to be 6.5 per million for attenuated measles vaccine. Among 14.3 million vaccination practices, 1 case each of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and 28 cases of Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) were reported. The total incidence of serious adverse events after vaccination was 2.14 per million doses. PMID:19909830

Shu, Min; Liu, Qinglian; Wang, Jin; Ao, Rui; Yang, Chaomei; Fang, Gang; Wan, Chaomin; Guo, Wenjun

2011-04-18

81

Abnormal overpressure distribution and natural gas accumulation in foreland basins, Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal overpressure occurs in the foreland basins of Kuqa, South Junggar and West Sichuan in China. The pressure coefficients\\u000a are high. Overpressure exists in wide areas and various strata. The layers of overpressure have a very close relationship\\u000a with lithology, and the area of overpressure is controlled by the piedmont depression. The mechanisms of overpressure formation\\u000a in the Kuqa and

Yan Song; Xinyu Xia; Feng Hong; Shengfei Qin; Guoyou Fu

2002-01-01

82

Epipaleolithic\\/early Neolithic settlements at Qinghai Lake, western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transitions from terminal Pleistocene Upper Paleolithic foraging to Holocene Neolithic farming and pastoralist economic orientations in the northern Tibetan Plateau are examined from the perspective of Epipaleolithic sites located near Qinghai Lake, Qinghai Province, western China. Jiangxigou 2 is an artifact-rich, multicomponent midden site with the main period of occupation dating ca. 9000–5000 cal yr BP, containing abundant flaked stone

David Rhode; Zhang Haiying; David B. Madsen; Gao Xing; P. Jeffrey Brantingham; Ma Haizhou; John W. Olsen

2007-01-01

83

Modeling of the 3d Wave Propagation of the Sichuan Ms 7.9 Earthquake of 12 05 08  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic potential of southern China is manifested in the Western Sichuan Plateau (eastern Tibetan Plateau) by among others, the seismic activity of the Longmenshan fault. The seismicity observed on the latter includes recent historical events with magnitudes up to 6.5, and the one of the 12 05 2008 Ms 7.9 (Mo 1.15 1028 dyne/cm) thrust mechanism, the so-called Sichuan earthquake. Herewith, a hybrid procedure, combining long period (obtained a recently optimized 3D seismic wave propagation parallel finite difference code) and high frequency (by using the empirical Green fuction approach) simulations was used to obtain 3D synthetics seismograms for the mentioned Sichuan earthquake. The modeling included the USGS web- site, 40 x 315 km2 kinematic description of the earthquake's rupture. The comparisons between observed and synthetic seismograms for stations sites of the Seismological Network of China, such as CD2 (Chengdu), GYA, LHZ and TIY at about 90, 500, 600 and 1200 Km from the epicenter of the Sichuan event, respectively, are satisfactory. Assuming rock sites, maximum synthetic accelerations, velocities and displacements, and permanent displacements of: 1.70 m/s2 , 1.90 m/s, 3.30 m, and 1.25 m; were obtained for Beichuan and 0.625 m/s2 , 0.092 m/s, 0.10 m, and 0.0 m, were computed for Chengdu, which partially explains the modification of the topography, and the extensive damage observed on the infrastructure and towns located on top of the Sichuan earthquake rupture zone, as well as the slight damage observed at Chengdu located at an epicentral distance of 90 km.

Chavez, M.; Cabrera, E.; Chen, H.; Perea, N.; Emerson, D.; Ashworth, M.; Moulinec, C.; Wu, M.; Salazar, A.; Zhao, G.

2008-12-01

84

Strong ground motion simulation for the Mw6.6 Lushan Earthquake, Sichuan, China, base on the inverted and synthetic slip models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As we know, the estimation of slip distributions on the fault surface is one of the most important issues for the source inversion of earthquake fault rupturing process. The characteristics of slip distribution on the mainfault play an important role to control strong ground motion pattern. Wang et al., and Zhang et al., published the fast inversion for the rupturing process soon after the 20 April 2013 Lushan, Ya'an earthquake in Sichuan, China. A large amount of works has suggested that variable slip models derived from longer-period ground motion recording are relevant for the prediction of higher-frequency ground motions. The k square model and crack model are well known to describe the slip distribution on the rupture surface. In this study, first we synthesize two forward models: the value of maximum slip, fault dimension, corner wave number derived from Wang model is used to constrain the production of k square model; also, the value of maximum slip, the dimension of asperities from Wang model is used to produce the crack model. Calculation shows that the value of corner wave number of these two synthetic slip models and the inverted models are much the same, and these four slip models are then used to simulate the ground motions for the Lushan earthquake base on the stochastic finite-fault method. Furthermore, a stochastic slip model is also employed for the simulation of strong ground motion for the Lushan event. The simulated results characterized by PGA and PGV show that the source models base on the inverted and synthetic slip distributions could capture most of the basic features of the ground motion. Moreover, the simulated MMI distributions reflect the obvious rupture directivity effect and the influence of the shallow velocity structure well. While the simulation of stochastic slip model is apparently higher than observed MMI. In addition, our simulation result shows that the higher-frequency ground is strongly sensitive to the degree of slip roughness, therefore, we suggest that, for a realistic ground motion simulations due to future earthquake, it is imperative to properly estimate the slip roughness distribution.

Shen, W.; Zhong, Q.; Shi, B.

2013-12-01

85

Hepatitis B virus infection in a cohort of HIV infected blood donors and AIDS patients in Sichuan, China  

PubMed Central

Background Co-infections of HBV and HIV are frequent due to similar routes of transmission. In that transmission through blood is an important route for both HBV and HIV, evaluation of the prevalence of HBV in HIV infected blood donors may be important for transfusion safety. In addition, because the epidemiological characteristics of HBV in HIV infected patients and blood donors may differ from each other, understanding of it could be significant for therapy and prevention of HBV in HIV infected adults. However, data reported on these in Chinese people remains limited. Methods 614 HIV confirmed positive samples were collected from blood donors and patients and were screened for HBsAg and HBV DNA. The samples screened reactive for HBsAg or positive for HBV DNA were tested for the other serological markers of HBV including anti-HBs, HBeAg, anti-HBe and anti-HBc. For the samples tested positive for HBV DNA, the S region of HBV was amplified by nested PCR and the HBV genotypes were determined. Results HBV coinfections were found in 12.9% (79/614) HIV infected individuals including 42/417(10.1%) blood donors and 37/197 (18.8%) AIDS patients. In the HBsAg positive individuals, 80.0% were HBeAg negative in which 10.0% were HBV DNA negative and 38.3% with HBV DNA lower than 2000 IU/ml. The average HBV DNA levels were lower in donors than in patients. In the HBV DNA positive populations, HBV genotypes B, A and C accounted for 48.1%, 22.8% and 8.86% respectively. Mutations related to the failure of HBsAg detection were found in 2 of the 4 HBsAg-/HBV DNA + subjects. Conclusions High prevalence of HBV in HIV infected individuals was found in this study. Hence, we recommend routine testing of HBV for patients newly diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in China. Some HIV-HBV co-infected patients remain undiagnosed if only conventional serological markers for HBV are used and it’s important to detect HBV DNA for HIV infected patients. HBV DNA levels were relatively low in HBeAg negative patients, thus this serologic marker may be useful in prioritizing patients on their need for HBV treatment in settings in which HBV DNA is not available. PMID:24923206

2014-01-01

86

Three dimensional surface slip partitioning of the Sichuan earthquake from Synthetic Aperture Radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sichuan earthquake, Mw 7.9, struck the Longmen Shan range front, in the western Sichuan province, China, on 12 May 2008. It severely affected an area where little historical seismicity and little or no significant active shortening were reported before the earthquake (e.g. Gu et al., 1989; Chen et al., 1994; Gan et al., 2007). The Longmen Shan thrust system bounds the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau and is considered as a transpressive zone since Triassic time that was reactivated during the India-Asia collision (e.g., Tapponnier and Molnar, 1977, Chen and Wilson 1996; Arne et al., 1997, Godard et al., 2009). However, contrasting geological evidences of sparse thrusting and marked dextral strike-slip faulting during the Quaternary along with high topography (Burchfiel et al., 1995; Densmore et al., 2007) have led to models of dynamically driven and sustained topography (Royden et al., 1997) limiting the role of earthquakes in relief building and leaving the mechanism of long term strain distribution in this area as an open question. Here we combine C and L band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) offsets data from ascending and descending paths to retrieve the three dimensional surface slips distribution all along the earthquake ruptures of the Sichuan earthquake. We show a quantitative assessment of the amount of co-seismic slip and its partitioning at the surface.

de Michele, M.; Raucoules, D.; de Sigoyer, J.; Pubellier, M.; Lasserre, C.; Pathier, E.; Klinger, Y.; van der Woerd, J.

2009-12-01

87

Nutrient Release from Weathering of Purplish Rocks in the Sichuan Basin, China 1 1 Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2003CB415202) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 40571093 and 49601009)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purplish soils having high fertility with mineral nutrients inherited from the parent rock are widely distributed in the hills along the Yangtze River, especially in the Sichuan Basin. Pot and field weathering experiments were conducted to mimic rock weathering and nutrient release processes in order to better understand soil fertility and nutrient compensation. Three types of purplish rock formations formed

Bo ZHU; Tao WANG; Xiang YOU; Mei-Rong GAO

2008-01-01

88

Formation and destruction processes of upper Sinian oil-gas pools in the Dingshan-Lintanchang structural belt, southeast Sichuan Basin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation hydrocarbon source rocks at the Dingshan-Lintanchang structure in the southeast Sichuan\\u000a Basin were of medium-good quality with two excellent hydrocarbon-generating centers developed in the periphery areas, with\\u000a a possibility of forming a medium to large-sized oil-gas field. Good reservoir rocks were the upper Sinian (Dengying Formation)\\u000a dolomites. The mudstone in the lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation

Shugen Liu; Zhijing Zhang; Wenming Huang; Guozhi Wang; Wei Sun; Guosheng Xu; Haifeng Yuan; Changjun Zhang; Bin Deng

2010-01-01

89

Characterization and application of an anti- Listeria bacteriocin produced by Pediococcus pentosaceus 05-10 isolated from Sichuan Pickle, a traditionally fermented vegetable product from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediococcus pentosaceus 05-10, isolated from a traditionally fermented Sichuan Pickle, produced a bacteriocin (Pediocin 05-10) active against Listeria, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Pediococcus and Leuconostoc. Pediocin 05-10 was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, but stable between pH 2–10 and heat resistant (15min at 121°C). It did not adhere to the surface of the producer cells. However, adsorption to both resistant and sensitive

Ying Huang; Yunbo Luo; Zhengyuan Zhai; Hongxing Zhang; Chaoxiang Yang; Hongtao Tian; Zheng Li; Jiannan Feng; Hui Liu; Yanling Hao

2009-01-01

90

The Post-seismic Slip of the 1973 M7.6 earthquake on the Luhuo Segment of the Xianshuihe Fault Zone, Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An M=7.6 earthquake ruptured the Luhuo segment of the Xianshuihe fault zone on Feb. 6, 1973. Since then, several across-fault (across the 1973 rupture) deformation observation systems have been set up one after another at the site of Xialatuo, Luhuo county, Sichuan province, China. Among them are a system of short baselines and short leveling, a set of creep-meters, an artificial construction, and some near-fault to far-fault GPS geodetic stations. By using data from the observation of these systems, this paper studies the characteristic of the post-seismic slip/deformation and their temporal-spatial variations for the Luhuo segment of the Xianshuihe fault zone, and builds a tectonic-dynamic model to explain the characteristic features. Our study mainly shows that, (1) in the first five years following the 1973 earthquake, the earthquake fault at Xialatuo behaved as an open one that the post-seismic slip showed mainly as aseismic left-lateral slip (creeping) at an average rate of 10.27mm/a along with slight tensional creeping. Since 1979, however, the rate of the post-seismic left-lateral creep has been slowing down gradually from 5.3mm/a to 2.27mm/a, and the process of the rate slowing down is the type of logarithmic function, suggesting that during the period since 1979 the fault plane, that ruptured in the 1973 earthquake, has been tending to re-couple and re-lock gradually with some strain having rebuilt-up. (2) Since 1999 the rate of relative left-lateral displacement/deformation at the fault far-fields on both sides of the fault segment is estimated to be 10mm/a, much greater than the near-fault (40m to 144m across the fault) left-lateral creep rates of 0.66 mm/a to 2.52mm/a in the same stage. Also, such significant differences of the near- to far-fault displacement/deformation rates occur along an about 2×30-km-wide zone centered along the fault segment of Luhuo, indicating the width of the seismogenic fault zone associated with the stress/strain build-up and release during major earthquake cycles here. (3) Combining with information of tectonic-dynamic background and deep crustal structure, the authors try to explain the mechanism of the post-seismic fault slip/deformation and its spatial-temporal variation for the studied fault segment. Key points of the explanation are as follows: Starting from the 5th year after the 1973 earthquake, the fault plane in the brittle upper crust, which was once used to be open in the earlier post-seismic stage, has been tending to re-couple and re-lock as a result of gradual increasing slip/friction resistance on the fault plane. In the deeper crust, however, the continuous ductile relative motion between the both sides of the fault keeps dragging the brittle upper crust to produce elastic displacement/deformation. (4) It can be estimated that the studied fault segment will entirely "re-lock", enter the stage of inter-seismic locking, and re-build up stress/strain for the next major event in the next 15 to 25 years.

Fang, D.; Xue-Ze, W.

2012-04-01

91

Psychological Distress among Adolescents in Chengdu, Sichuan at 1 Month after the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

A devastating earthquake occurred on May 12, 2008 in Sichuan, China. This study investigated the prevalence and factors in\\u000a association with psychological problems among secondary school students living in Chengdu (90 km away from the disaster epicenter)\\u000a in June 2008. In a cross-sectional survey, 3,324 secondary students self-administered a structured questionnaire in classroom\\u000a setting. Validated scales were used in this study.

Joseph T. F. Lau; Xiaonan Yu; Jianxin Zhang; Winnie W. S. Mak; Kai Chow Choi; Wacy W. S. Lui; Emily Y. Y. Chan

2010-01-01

92

Coseismic ruptures of the 12 May 2008, M s 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan: East–west crustal shortening on oblique, parallel thrusts along the eastern edge of Tibet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ms 8.0, Wenchuan earthquake, which devastated the mountainous western rim of the Sichuan basin in central China, produced a surface rupture over 200 km-long with oblique thrust\\/dextral slip and maximum scarp heights of ~10 m. It thus ranks as one of the world's largest continental mega-thrust events in the last 150 yrs. Field investigation shows clear surface breaks along two of the

J. Liu-Zeng; Z. Zhang; L. Wen; P. Tapponnier; J. Sun; X. Xing; G. Hu; Q. Xu; L. Zeng; L. Ding; C. Ji; K. W. Hudnut; J. van der Woerd

2009-01-01

93

[Quantitative analysis of different restoration stages during natural succession processes of subalpine dark brown coniferous forests in western Sichuan, China].  

PubMed

By adopting space as a substitute for time, and based on the approaches of inter-specific association, PCA and optimal division, the restoration stages of various secondary forest communities originated from the natural succession processes of bamboo-dark brown coniferous and moss-dark brown coniferous old-growth forests after clear-cut were quantified at different temporal series (20, 30, 30, 40, 50 and 160-200 years). The results showed that Betula albo-sinensis, Salix rehderiana, Acer mono, A. laxiflorum, Prunus tatsienensis, Hydrangea xanthoneura, Tilia chinensis and Salix dolia were the declining species groups with progressive restoration processes from secondary forest to mature moss and bamboo-dark brown coniferous forests, Sorbus hupehensis, S. koehneana and P. pilosiuscula were the transient species groups, and Abies faxoniana, Picea purpurea, Tsuga chinensis and P. wilsonii were the progressive species groups. During the period of 20-40 years restoration, the secondary forests were dominated by broad-leaved tree species, such as B. albo-sinensis, and the main forest types were moss--B. albo-sinensis forest and bamboo--B. albo-sinensis forest. Through 50 years natural succession, the secondary forests turned into conifer/broad-leaved mixed forest dominated by B. albo-sinensis and A. faxoniana, and the main forest types were moss--B. albo-sinensis--A. faxoniana forest and bamboo--B. albo-sinensis--A. faxoniana forest. The remained 160-200 years old coniferous forests without cutting were dominated by old-growth stage A. faxoniana, and the main forest types were moss--A. faxoniana forest and bamboo--A. faxoniana forest. PMID:17974231

Ma, Jiang-Ming; Liu, Shi-Rong; Shi, Zuo-Min; Zhang, Yuan-Dong; Chen, Bao-Yu

2007-08-01

94

Developing a new perspective to study the health of survivors of Sichuan earthquakes in China: a study on the effect of post-earthquake rescue policies on survivors' health-related quality of life  

PubMed Central

Background Sichuan is a province in China with an extensive history of earthquakes. Recent earthquakes, including the Lushan earthquake in 2013, have resulted in thousands of people losing their homes and their families. However, there is a research gap on the efficiency of government support policies. Therefore, this study develops a new perspective to study the health of earthquake survivors, based on the effect of post-earthquake rescue policies on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of survivors of the Sichuan earthquake. Methods This study uses data from a survey conducted in five hard-hit counties (Wenchuan, Qingchuan, Mianzhu, Lushan, and Dujiangyan) in Sichuan in 2013. A total of 2,000 questionnaires were distributed, and 1,672 were returned; the response rate was 83.6%. Results Results of the rescue policies scale and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) scale passed the reliability test. The confirmatory factor analysis model showed that the physical component summary (PCS) directly affected the mental component summary (MCS). The results of structural equation model regarding the effects of rescue policies on HRQOL showed that the path coefficients of six policies (education, orphans, employment, poverty, legal, and social rescue policies) to the PCS of survivors were all positive and passed the test of significance. Finally, although only the path coefficient of the educational rescue policy to the MCS of survivors was positive and passed the test of significance, the other five policies affected the MCS indirectly through the PCS. Conclusions The general HRQOL of survivors is not ideal; the survivors showed a low satisfaction with the post-earthquake rescue policies. Further, the six post-earthquake rescue policies significantly improved the HRQOL of survivors and directly affected the promotion of the PCS of survivors. Aside from the educational rescue policy, all other policies affected the MCS indirectly through the PCS. This finding indicates relatively large differences in the effects of different post-earthquake rescue policies on the HRQOL of survivors. PMID:24168028

2013-01-01

95

A Comparative Study of Child Temperament and Parenting in Beijing, China and the Western United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to examine comparable dimensions and linkages between child temperament and parenting styles with samples from Beijing, China and the western United States. Participants included 404 mothers and fathers from Beijing, China and 325 mothers and fathers from the western United States. Both mothers and fathers…

Porter, Christian L.; Hart, Craig H.; Yang, Chongming; Robinson, Clyde C.; Olsen, Susanne Frost; Zeng, Qing; Olsen, Joseph A.; Jin, Shenghua

2005-01-01

96

Notice on Implementing the Plan of College Graduate Volunteer Service in Western China (2003)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Western China Program, initiated through this policy jointly issued in 2003 by the several ministries of the government and the Central Committee of the Communist Youth League, organizes 5,000 college students annually to engage in full-time volunteer services in western China. The document states details about the recruitment and preservice…

Chinese Education and Society, 2008

2008-01-01

97

Detecting one-hundred-year environmental changes in Western China using seven-year repeat photography.  

PubMed

Due to its diverse, wondrous plants and unique topography, Western China has drawn great attention from explorers and naturalists from the Western World. Among them, Ernest Henry Wilson (1876 -1930), known as 'Chinese' Wilson, travelled to Western China five times from 1899 to 1918. He took more than 1,000 photos during his travels. These valuable photos illustrated the natural and social environment of Western China a century ago. Since 1997, we had collected E.H. Wilson's old pictures, and then since 2004, along the expedition route of E.H. Wilson, we took 7 years to repeat photographing 250 of these old pictures. Comparing Wilson's photos with ours, we found an obvious warming trend over the 100 years, not only in specific areas but throughout the entire Western China. Such warming trend manifested in phenology changes, community shifts and melting snow in alpine mountains. In this study, we also noted remarkable vegetation changes. Out of 62 picture pairs were related to vegetation change, 39 indicated vegetation has changed to the better condition, 17 for degraded vegetation and six for no obvious change. Also in these photos at a century interval, we found not only rapid urbanization in Western China, but also the disappearance of traditional cultures. Through such comparisons, we should not only be amazed about the significant environmental changes through time in Western China, but also consider its implications for protecting environment while meeting the economic development beyond such changes. PMID:21966397

Chen, Huai; Yin, Kaipu; Wang, Haiyan; Zhong, Shenxian; Wu, Ning; Shi, Fusun; Zhu, Dan; Zhu, Qiuan; Wang, Weifeng; Ma, Zhihai; Fang, Xiuqin; Li, Weizhong; Zhao, Pengxiang; Peng, Changhui

2011-01-01

98

[Characteristics of soil net nitrogen mineralization in subalpine/alpine forests of west Sichuan, Southwest China during seasonal freeze-thaw period].  

PubMed

Seasonal freeze-thaw cycle and its change pattern under the scenarios of climate warming might exert strong effects on the soil nitrogen mineralization in alpine forests. In this paper, intact soil cores were collected from the subalpine/alpine forests along an altitudinal gradient in west Sichuan, and an incubation test was conducted to study the soil net nitrogen mineralization rate and the amount of soil mineralized nitrogen in the forests during growth season and seasonal freeze-thaw period under simulated scenarios of global warming. In the test soils, the NH(4+)-N and NO(3-)-N contents both showed a clear tendency of decreased in the period from growth season to the onset stage of freezing, increased at deep freezing stage, and decreased again at the early stage of thawing. The soil net nitrogen mineralization rate and the amount of soil mineralized nitrogen were significantly lower in freeze-thaw period than in growth season, and the soil inorganic nitrogen was obviously immobilized. The soil nitrogen immobilization was stronger at middle altitudes but weaker at high altitudes, as compared with that at low altitudes, possibly due to the variation of soil temperature and its induced different freeze-thaw cycle. During growth period, the soil net nitrogen mineralization rate and the amount of soil mineralized nitrogen showed an obvious increasing trend with the decrease of altitude, and the soil nitrogen mineralization was the strongest at low altitudes, implying that under the scenarios of climate warming, the increase of soil temperature promoted the soil nitrogen mineralization during growth season, and affected the soil nitrogen mineralization rate by increasing the frequency of freeze-thaw cycle and shortening the time period of freeze-thaw. Soil micro-environment could also affect the soil nitrogen mineralization in alpine forest regions. PMID:22720601

Liu, Jin-Ling; Wu, Fu-Zhong; Yang, Wan-Qin; Shi, Pei-Li; Wang, Ao; Yang, Yu-Lian; Wu, Zhi-Chao

2012-03-01

99

Mercury in Glaciers over Western China: Distribution, Deposition and History  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury (Hg) has been recognized as a global contaminant due to its long-range transport via the atmosphere, biomagnification in ecosystems, and its intrinsic toxicity. Western China is home to the largest aggregate of glaciers outside the polar regions, yet little is known about how the glaciers in this area affect the transport and cycling of Hg regionally and globally. From 2005 to 2010, 14 snowpits were dug from 9 glaciers over western China, total Hg (THg) concentrations ranged from <1 to 43.6 ng L-1, and exhibited clear seasonal variations with lower values in summer than in winter. Spatially, higher THg concentrations were typically observed in glacier snows from the northern region (Figure 1). Glacier snowpit Hg was largely dependent on particulate matters and was associated with particulate Hg (PHg). Consecutive snowpit sampling at Zhadang glacier during summer melt season further revealed that Hg tends to accumulate in the dust layers during its percolation down to lower snow stratum. Since Hg in glaciers is mainly preserved in the form of PHg which is less prone to post-depositional changes, glacier Hg record most likely represents a valuable record of atmospheric Hg deposition. Estimated atmospheric Hg depositional fluxes ranged from 0.74 to 7.89 ?g m-2 yr-1, agreeing very well with the global natural values. A high-resolution Hg record reconstructed by the Mt.Geladiandong ice core provided insight into historical variation of atmospheric Hg during the past 500 years. Elevated THg concentrations were observed since 1940s, which coincides the increase of global Hg production, especially the Asian Hg production history. Reconstructed Hg depositional flux for post-1940s era is 6.4 times higher than that of pre-20th century, which clearly indicated the anthropogenic influence on the regional, perhaps even the global background (Figure 2).; Figure 1. THg concentrations and estimated annual atmospheric depositional fluxes of Hg at sampling sites ; Figure 2. Historical Hg flux reconstructed from the Mt.Geladiandong ice core

Zhang, Q.

2012-12-01

100

Have steering flows in the western North Pacific and the South China Sea changed over the last 50 years?  

E-print Network

North Pacific (WNP) and the South China Sea (SCS) are examined during the peak typhoon seasonHave steering flows in the western North Pacific and the South China Sea changed over the last 50. Ruan Chen (2012), Have steering flows in the western North Pacific and the South China Sea changed over

Wang, Yuqing

101

CEO background and the adoption of Western-style human resource practices in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops and tests an institutional explanation of how chief executive officer (CEO) characteristics affect the adoption of Western-style human resource (HR) practices in China's transitional economy. It was predicted that: (1) CEO exposure to HR ideology would positively relate to firm adoption of Western-style HR practices, and (2) CEO embeddedness in the Chinese institutional environment would negatively relate

Katherine A. Frear; Yang Cao; Wei Zhao

2012-01-01

102

Preliminary strategic environmental assessment of the Great Western Development Strategy: safeguarding ecological security for a new western China.  

PubMed

The Great Western Development Strategy (GWDS) is a long term national campaign aimed at boosting development of the western area of China and narrowing the economic gap between the western and the eastern parts of China. The Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedure was employed to assess the environmental challenges brought about by the western development plans. These plans include five key developmental domains (KDDs): water resource exploitation and use, land utilization, energy generation, tourism development, and ecological restoration and conservation. A combination of methods involving matrix assessment, incorporation of expert judgment and trend analysis was employed to analyze and predict the environmental impacts upon eight selected environmental indicators: water resource availability, soil erosion, soil salinization, forest destruction, land desertification, biological diversity, water quality and air quality. Based on the overall results of the assessment, countermeasures for environmental challenges that emerged were raised as key recommendations to ensure ecological security during the implementation of the GWDS. This paper is intended to introduce a consensus-based process for evaluating the complex, long term pressures on the ecological security of large areas, such as western China, that focuses on the use of combined methods applied at the strategic level. PMID:22190169

Li, Wei; Liu, Yan-ju; Yang, Zhifeng

2012-02-01

103

Preliminary Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Great Western Development Strategy: Safeguarding Ecological Security for a New Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Great Western Development Strategy (GWDS) is a long term national campaign aimed at boosting development of the western area of China and narrowing the economic gap between the western and the eastern parts of China. The Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedure was employed to assess the environmental challenges brought about by the western development plans. These plans include five key developmental domains (KDDs): water resource exploitation and use, land utilization, energy generation, tourism development, and ecological restoration and conservation. A combination of methods involving matrix assessment, incorporation of expert judgment and trend analysis was employed to analyze and predict the environmental impacts upon eight selected environmental indicators: water resource availability, soil erosion, soil salinization, forest destruction, land desertification, biological diversity, water quality and air quality. Based on the overall results of the assessment, countermeasures for environmental challenges that emerged were raised as key recommendations to ensure ecological security during the implementation of the GWDS. This paper is intended to introduce a consensus-based process for evaluating the complex, long term pressures on the ecological security of large areas, such as western China, that focuses on the use of combined methods applied at the strategic level.

Li, Wei; Liu, Yan-Ju; Yang, Zhifeng

2012-02-01

104

Forecast of soil stalinization in western Jilin Province of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecological environment in the western Jilin Province is threatened by soil Stalinization. The study area is the west of Jilin Province in China. By using TM image in 1993 and ETM+ image in 2003 from LANDSAT satellite and integrating field survey, all kinds of maps and text datum, soil Stalinization information for the west of Jilin Province were extracted by man-computer interactive interpretation method in Arcinfo GIS software and land use type (including Stalinization soil) maps of 1993 and 2003 were finished. By the statistic analysis and spatial analysis, the primitive status matrix and the transition probability matrix of different land use types from 1993 to 2003 were calculated. On the basis of Markov model, the change trend of the Stalinization soil was forecast. The field data of 2001 was used to validate the model, showing that the model is efficient and suitable for prediction. The results of calculation using the Markov chain model showed that the Stalinization in study area is quite severe. If current policy is kept, the annual mean rate growth of Stalinization is 4.29%, the area proportion of the study area will rise from 6.19% in 1993 to 6.81% in 2013, and the area of Stalinization will rise to 322517.64 hm2 in 2013. Therefore, the question of Stalinization should not be ignored, and effective measures should be taken to maintain healthy development of environment. According to the results of the model, adjusting land-use / land cover pattern and providing scientific Basis for macroeconomic decision become available

Zhao, Zhuo; Liu, Zhiming; Du, Huishi

2008-10-01

105

Evidence for a Tang-Song Dynasty great earthquake along the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt prior to the 2008 M w  7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitude (M\\u000a w) 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake occurred on 12 May 2008 in the Longmen Shan region of China, the transition zone between the Tibetan\\u000a Plateau and the Sichuan Basin, resulting in widespread damage throughout central and western China. The steep, high-relief\\u000a eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau has undergone rapid Cenozoic uplift and denudation accompanied by folding and thrusting,

Aiming Lin; Zhikun Ren; Dong Jia; Yosuke Miyairi

2010-01-01

106

A survey of undernutrition in children under three years of age in rural Western China  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood undernutrition adversely impacts child health and is one of China’s largest health burdens. However, there is limited information on the current rate of childhood undernutrition in rural Western China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of childhood undernutrition and explore its association with socio-economic characteristics in Western China. Methods A total of 13,532 children of 0?~?36 months of age were recruited as subjects from 45 counties and 10 provinces in Western China with a 3-stage probability proportion to size sampling. The composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) was used to assess the childhood undernutrition. The association between socio-economic characteristics and childhood undernutrition was analyzed using a two-level logistic regression. Results Based on CIAF, the prevalence of undernutrition among children under three years of age in rural Western China in 2005 was 21.7%. The two-level logistic analysis presented a large difference in undernutrition among the 10 provinces with the highest odds ratio in Guizhou (OR: 2.15, 95%CI: 1.50, 3.08). Older children had a higher prevalence of undernutrition. As compared to girls, boys were more likely to be undernourished (OR 1.27, 95% CI: 1.16, 1.39). The likelihood of undernutrition was lower in subjects of Han ethnicity as opposed to subjects of minority ethnicities (OR 0.77, 95%CI: 0.65, 0.90). In addition, the education levels of the mother as well as wealth index were both negatively associated with childhood undernutrition. Conclusions Childhood undernutrition still remains a large health challenge in rural Western China. This study has important policy implications for the Chinese government to improve childhood undernutrition in the surveyed areas. PMID:24499429

2014-01-01

107

FREQUENCY-DEPENDENT NATURE OF Pn IN WESTERN CHINA: GAUSSIAN BEAM MODELING OF DATA FROM THE HI-CLIMB EXPERIMENT  

E-print Network

FREQUENCY-DEPENDENT NATURE OF Pn IN WESTERN CHINA: GAUSSIAN BEAM MODELING OF DATA FROM THE HI the propagation of Pn beneath western China using data from Hi-CLIMB (An Integrated Study of the Himalayan a dataset for regional seismic events recorded by the Hi-CLIMB arrays and will show examples of long seismic

Nowack, Robert L.

108

Usefulness of pumpkin seeds combined with areca nut extract in community-based treatment of human taeniasis in northwest Sichuan Province, China.  

PubMed

Taeniasis refers to the infection with adult tapeworms of Taenia spp. in the upper small intestine of humans, which is also a cause of cysticercosis infection in either both humans and/or animals. Currently the most commonly applied anthelminthics for treatment of taeniasis are praziquantel and niclosamide. Praziquantel is very effective, but has the risk of induction of epileptic seizures or convulsions in carriers with asymptomatic concurrent neurocysticercosis. In contrast, niclosamide is safe and effective, but is not readily available in many endemic countries including China. In the current community-based study, we assessed the curative effect of either pumpkin seeds or areca nut extract alone in taeniasis, and also looked at synergistic effects of these two herb drugs on tapeworms. In the study group with the pumpkin seed/areca nut extract treatment, 91 (79.1%) of 115 suspected taeniasis cases (with a history of expulsion of proglottids within the previous one year) released whole tapeworms, four (3.5%) expelled incomplete strobila, and no tapeworms or proglottids were recovered in the remaining 20 cases. In these 115 persons, 45 were confirmed as taeniasis before treatment by microscopy and/or coproPCR. Forty (88.9%) of 45 confirmed cases eliminated intact worms following treatment. The mean time period for complete elimination of tapeworms in 91 taeniasis cases was 2 h (range 20 min to 8 h 30 min), and 89.0% (81) of 91 patients discharged intact worms within 3h after drug administration. In Control Group A with treatment of pumpkin seeds alone, 75.0% (9/12) of confirmed taeniasis cases expelled whole tapeworms, but the mean time period for complete elimination was about 14 h 10 min (range 3 h 20 min to 21 h 20 min), which was much longer than that (2 h) for the study group, whereas in Control Group B treated with areca nut extract alone, only 63.6% (7/11) of taeniasis cases discharged whole tapeworms, and the mean time period was 6 h 27 min (range 1-22 h). Mild side effects included nausea and dizziness in about 46.3% of patients with the pumpkin seeds/areca nut extract treatment, but all discomforts were transient and well tolerated. In conclusion, a synergistic effect of pumpkin seed and areca nut extract on Taenia spp. tapeworms was confirmed in the current study, primarily in producing an increased rate of effect on tapeworm expulsion (average time 2 h for combination vs 6-21 h for individual extracts). The pumpkin seed/areca combined treatment was indicated to be safe and highly effective (89%) for human taeniasis. PMID:22910218

Li, Tiaoying; Ito, Akira; Chen, Xingwang; Long, Changping; Okamoto, Munehiro; Raoul, Francis; Giraudoux, Patrick; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Xiao, Ning; Craig, Philip S

2012-11-01

109

Geology, distribution, and classification of gold deposits in the western Qinling belt, central China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold deposits of the western Qinling belt occur within the western part of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogen, which is located between the Precambrian North China and Yangtze cratons and east of the Songpan-Ganzi basin. The early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic orogen can be divided into northern, central, and southern zones, separated by the Shangdan and Lixian-Shanyang thrust fault systems. The northern

Jingwen Mao; Yumin Qiu; Richard J. Goldfarb; Zhaochong Zhang; Steve Garwin; Ren Fengshou

2002-01-01

110

An accounting representation of sustainable agriculture practices: the case of a biogas agricultural unit in Sichuan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an accounting representation of a system of sustainable agricultural production, organized around a biogas unit in the Province of Sichuan, China. The aims of this exercise are numerous. First, it is important to highlight the existence of examples of sustainable practices, although (and because) they are fewer and fewer. A focus on the operationalization and analysis of

Sandrine Simon

2000-01-01

111

Left-Behind Children in Rural Primary Schools: The Case of Sichuan Province  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During China's economic transformation, much of the rural population migrated to urban areas in search of employment opportunities. "Left-behind children" are the product of this phenomenon and need significant attention. Our study adopted elementary school students in Sichuan province as the subjects. After carefully studying their academic…

Liang, Wenyan; Hou, Longlong; Chen, Wentao

2008-01-01

112

A new fossil mordellid (Coleoptera: Tenebrionoidea: Mordellidae) from the Yixian Formation of Western Liaoning Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new genus and species, Mirimordella gracilicruralis gen. et sp. nov., in the subfamily Praemordellinae of Mordel- lidae, is described and illustrated based on a nearly complete fossil specimen. It is from the Yixian Formation of western Liaoning Province, NE China. The diagnosis of the subfamily Praemordellinae is emended based on this new species. Characters such as simple and linear

MING LIU; WENHUA LU; DONG REN

2007-01-01

113

New fossil eccoptarthrids (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) from the Yixian Formation of western Liaoning, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

One new genus and three new species of the weevil family Eccoptarthridae (Curculionoidea), Leptocar polychaetus gen. et sp. nov., Abrocar macilentus sp. nov., Cretonanophyes punctatus sp. nov., are described and illustrated. They pertain to the Upper Jurassic or Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of western\\u000a Liaoning Province, China. The host plants to the living eccoptarthrids and the floras in Yixian Formation

Ming Liu; Dong Ren

2007-01-01

114

Environmental change during the Holocene in western China on a millennial timescale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent data on the evolution of the inland lakes, loess-palaeosol sequences, and glacier variations in western China are briefly reviewed. The lake history shows three distinct stages in the Holocene, i.e., low water levels before 7500 BP, a stage of expansion during the climatic optimum between 7500 and 3500 BP, and contraction after 3500 BP. Three stages (wooded grassland, mixed

S. Z. Zhou; F. H. Chen; B. T. Pan; J. X. Cao; J. J. Li; Edward Derbyshire

1991-01-01

115

Factors Associated with the Utilization and Quality of Prenatal Care in Western Rural Regions of China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The paper seeks to identify key features of prenatal care utilization and quality in western regions of China and to determine the factors affecting the quality of prenatal care. Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted. The instrument for the study was a 10-stem respondent-administered, structured…

Dongxu, Wang; Yuhui, Shi; Stewart, Donald; Chun, Chang; Chaoyang, Li

2012-01-01

116

Talent management of western MNCs in China: Balancing global integration and local responsiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the beginning of its market economy and open-door policy in 1978, China has extensively promoted foreign direct investment. Consequently, many western MNCs have entered the country in search of new business opportunities. Today, one of the greatest challenges facing these organizations is finding talented people who are needed to run their businesses. Although the strategic importance of talent management

Evi Hartmann; Edda Feisel; Holger Schober

2010-01-01

117

Release of heavy metals during weathering of the Lower Cambrian Black Shales in western Hunan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weathering of heavy metal enriched black shales may be one of the most important sources of environmental contamination in areas where black shales are distributed. Heavy metal release during weathering of the Lower Cambrian Black Shales (LCBS) in western Hunan, China, was investigated using traditional geochemical methods and the ICP-MS analytical technique. Concentrations of 16 heavy metals, 8 trace elements

Bo Peng; Zhaoliang Song; Xiangling Tu; Meilian Xiao; Fucheng Wu; Huanzhe Lv

2004-01-01

118

The Transfer of Management Knowledge to China: Building Learning Communities Rather than Translating Western Textbooks?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The attempt to transfer Western management knowledge to China is unlikely to be effective if a cognitive model of management knowledge is used. A community model or socially constructed model is better aligned with the Chinese cultural and business environment. (SK)

Newell, Sue

1999-01-01

119

Determinants for High Maternal Mortality in Multiethnic Populations in Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our purpose of this study was to investigate determinants and patterns of associations with high maternal mortality in poor and multiethnic populations from the Xinjiang Uigur autonomous region of Western China. The researcher found that the maternal mortality ratio of Xinjiang was very high; almost half of the participants delivered at home without clean delivery, and nearly one-fifth of the

Qing Du; Oyvind Nass; Per Bergsjo; Bernadette Nirmal Kumar

2009-01-01

120

Fern ecological implications from the Lower Jurassic in Western Hubei, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lower Jurassic Hsiangchi Formation in western Hubei, China is well known for its abundant and diverse fossil ferns, including Marattiaceae, Osmundaceae, Matoniaceae, Dipteridaceae and Dicksoniaceae. Through recent collections and investigation of the fossil plants in this area, an autochthonous\\/hypoautochthonous fern community has been recognised from the upper part of the Hsiangchi Formation in Zigui, Hubei. This community is dominated

Yongdong Wang

2002-01-01

121

Evaluating the Consistency of Remote Sensing Based Snow Depth Products in Arid Zone of Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow cover is a sensitive indicator of global climate change. Among various snow cover parameters, snow depth which can indicate snow accumulation is essential for retrieving snow water equivalent. In arid zone of western China, based on different inversion models, snow depth products retrieved from passive microwave remote sensing sensors have been issued. However, none of them can promise a high accuracy due to the spatial heterogeneity of snow cover especially in mountain areas with complex terrain. This study aims to analyse the reliability of existing long-term snow depth products in arid zone of western China. Two datasets are compared including GlobSnow snow water equivalent (SWE) product and snow depth dataset provided by Environmental and Ecological Science Data Center for West China. Statistical techniques like regression and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) models are employed to examine the consistency of these two remote sensing based snow depth products in a selected sampling site. More than 260 samples during three years are tested covering from snow falling to snow melting periods. Result shows that there is a discrepancy between the two datasets. Accordingly, remote sensing based snow depth measurement is not reliable in mountain areas in arid zone of western China. This study gives an awareness of the stabilities of current snow depth detection models. A further study is expected to calibrate snow depth products based on in-situ observation and measurements from ground monitoring stations.

Zhou, Q.; Sun, B.

2012-08-01

122

Acceptance of male circumcision among male rural-to-urban migrants in western China.  

PubMed

To describe the acceptability of male circumcision (MC) and explore potential factors associated with MC acceptability among male rural-to-urban migrants in western China, a cross-sectional survey of MC acceptability was conducted with 1,904 subjects in three western provinces with high HIV prevalence (Guangxi, Chongqing, and Xinjiang) in China between June 2009 and November 2009. Through face-to-face interviews, the participants completed a self-administered questionnaire about demographics, MC knowledge, willingness and reasons to accept or refuse MC, sexual behaviors, and other psychosocial variables. Factors associated with acceptability of MC were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. Of the participants (n=1,904), 710 men were willing to accept MC (37.3%); the reasons included promotion of the partners' genital hygiene (54.9%), redundant prepuce or phimosis (43.1%), enhancement of sexual pleasure (40.6%), prevention of penile inflammation or cancer (35.5%), and protection against HIV and sexual transmitted diseases (STDs)(31.1%). A multivariable logistic regression showed that four factors were associated with acceptability of MC, including education level (OR=1.286, 95% CI=1.025~1.614), redundant prepuce or phimosis (OR=13.751, 95% CI=10.087~18.745), having one or more circumcised friends (OR=2.468, 95% CI=1.953~3.119), and having sexual intercourse with a temporary partner in the past year (OR=1.543, 95% CI=1.101~2.162). Compared with previously published data among the general population in China or worldwide, the acceptability of MC (37.3%) was low among the male rural-to-urban migrants in western China. Nevertheless, appropriate education could greatly improve the acceptability of MC. More public campaigns and health education on MC are needed to increase the rate of MC in China. PMID:23931654

Jiang, Junjun; Huang, Jiegang; Yang, Xiaobo; Ye, Li; Wei, Bo; Deng, Wei; Wei, Suosu; Qin, Bo; Upur, Halmurat; Zhong, Chaohui; Wang, Qianqiu; Wang, Qian; Ruan, Yuhua; Wei, Fumei; Xu, Na; Xie, Peiyan; Liang, Hao

2013-12-01

123

Efficacy trial of Vi polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid fever in south-western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To test the efficacy of locally produced Vi vaccine over a time period of longer than one year. Methods A double-blinded, randomized field trial was performed in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in south-western China, using 30mg doses of locally produced Vi. Enrolled subjects were 3-50 years of age, although the majority (92%) were school-aged children, who have the highest

H. H. Yang; C. G. Wu; G. Z. Xie; Q. W. Gu; B. R. Wang; L. Y. Wang; H. F. Wang; Z. S. Ding; Y. Yang; W. S. Tan; W. Y. Wang; X. C. Wang; M. Qin; J. H. Wang; H. A. Tang; X. M. Jiang; Y. H. Li; M. L. Wang; S. L. Zhang; G. L. Li

2001-01-01

124

Regional seismic discrimination in central Asia with emphasis on western China  

SciTech Connect

In support of an anticipated Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the authors have started to evaluate regional seismic event discrimination capabilities for central Asia, emphasizing western China. The authors have measured noise and seismic phase amplitudes of over 250 earthquakes and 18 underground nuclear explosions recorded at the broadband, digital station WMQ in western China and over 100 earthquakes and 5 nuclear explosions at station AAK in Kyrgyzstan. The explosions are from the Kazakh Test Site (KTS) and Lop Nor, China. The earthquakes are mostly from northwest China. They have also evaluated a single suspected chemical explosion. Event magnitudes (m{sub b}) range between 2.5 and 6.5 and maximum event-station distance is about 1,700 km. Using these measurements the authors formed phase, spectral, cross-spectral, short-period/long-period, and long-period ratios to test many possible event discriminants. All ratios were corrected for distance effects before forming ratio-versus-magnitude discrimination plots. The authors found that all five classes of these discriminants are useful for separating earthquakes from explosions in central Asia, provided the right combinations of frequency bands and phases are selected. Results are described.

Hartse, H.E.; Taylor, S.R.; Phillips, W.S.; Randall, G.E.

1996-09-01

125

Ramet population structure of Fargesia nitida in different canopy conditions of the subalpine dark coniferous forest in the Wolong Nature Reserve, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bamboo Fargesia nitida, one of the giant panda’s main food sources and the dominant shrub species of the forest understory, is mainly distributed\\u000a in the dark coniferous belt in western Sichuan and southern Gansu in China. To study the impact of different forest canopy\\u000a conditions on subalpine dwarf bamboo populations, ramet population structures of clonal Fargesia nitida were surveyed

Jianping Tao; Lixia Song; Yuan Li; Yongjian Wang; Xiaohong Yu

2007-01-01

126

Paleozoic plate-tectonic evolution of the Tarim and western Tianshan regions, western China  

SciTech Connect

The plate-tectonic evolution of the Tarim basin and nearby western Tianshan region during Paleozoic time is reconstructed in an effort to further constrain the tectonic evolution of Central Asia, providing insights into the formation and distribution of oil and gas resources. The Tarim plate developed from continental rifting that progressed during early Paleozoic time into a passive continental margin. The Yili terrane (central Tianshan) broke away from the present eastern part of Tarim and became a microcontinent located somewhere between the Junggar ocean and the southern Tianshan ocean. The southern Tianshan ocean, between the Tarim craton and the Yili terrane, was subducting beneath the Yili terrane from Silurian to Devonian time. During the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous, the Tarim plate collided with the Yili terrane by sinistral accretional docking that resulted in a late Paleozoic deformational episode. Intracontinental shortening (A-type subduction) continued through the Permian with the creation of a magmatic belt. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Yangshen, S.; Huafu, L.; Dong, J. [Nanjing Univ. (China)] [and others

1994-11-01

127

Rekindling hearts with art: A community arts project for the young survivors of the Sichuan earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

A devastating earthquake of magnitude 7.9 struck Sichuan in China on 12 May 2008, resulting in over 69,000 deaths, leaving 37,000 people injured and 4.8 million people homeless. Immediately after the catastrophe, many of the young survivors were confused and lost, and experienced difficulty in expressing their inner emotions. In the past two years, Art for All, a non-profit-making community

Sophia Suk Mun Law

2012-01-01

128

Rekindling hearts with art: A community arts project for the young survivors of the Sichuan earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

A devastating earthquake of magnitude 7.9 struck Sichuan in China on 12 May 2008, resulting in over 69,000 deaths, leaving 37,000 people injured and 4.8 million people homeless. Immediately after the catastrophe, many of the young survivors were confused and lost, and experienced difficulty in expressing their inner emotions. In the past two years, Art for All, a non-profit-making community

Sophia Suk Mun Law

2011-01-01

129

Contrasting nature of petroliferous Mesozoic-Cenozoic basins in eastern and western China  

SciTech Connect

Onshore petroliferous basins of Mesozoic-Cenozoic age in China include two distinct geographic-geotectonic groups: eastern extensional (rifted) basins and western compressional (orogenic) basins. Eastern basins are faulted depressions and crustal sags that formed where incipient intracontinental rifting thinned the crust and developed tilted fault blocks and half grabens bounded by normal faults. Western basins are flexural downbows that were depressed under the tectonic load of adjacent thrust sheets associated with the folded mountain ranges of central Asia. Source beds in both groups of basins are dominantly dark lacustrine mudstones of terrestrial facies associations, and reservoirs are mainly fluviodeltaic sandstones. Hydrocarbon traps in the eastern basins include extensional rollover anticlines, compactional drape anticlines, diapiric salt domes, buried-hill highs in the substratum, and stratal pinch-outs on the flanks of buried highs. Simple or faulted anticlinal traps are dominant in the western basins. Multiple reservoir horizons are characteristic of oil fields in both groups of basins. Orogenic compression, which developed the western basins, is attributed to the successive collision of microcontinents with the southern edge of the composite Eurasian continental mass. Crustal extension, which developed the eastern basins, is attributed to incipient rifting within and behind magmatic arcs along the margin of the Pacific Ocean basin. 15 figures.

Quanmao, C.; Dickinson, W.R.

1986-03-01

130

Environmental geochemistry study of arsenic in Western Hunan mining area, P.R. China.  

PubMed

The geochemical characteristics of arsenic in the soil of the Western Hunan mining area of P.R. China were systematically studied. The results show that the strata of Western Hunan are rich in arsenic and that Western Hunan is a geochemically abnormal region for arsenic. The experimental study on speciation in the strata also indicates that the speciation of arsenic in the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian strata are mainly easily transferred speciation (exchangeable, carbonate-bound, sulfides-bound), which are approaching or exceed 60%. Arsenic content in the main soil of Western Hunan is in the range of 8.8-22.8 mug g(-1), the mean value is 16.1 mug g(-1), which is larger than the arsenic background value of Hunan soil. The distribution of rock with high arsenic content or high easily transferred arsenic speciation is consistent with the distribution of high arsenic content soil. In the mining region, part soils and river/brook waters were polluted by mine tailings and mining/smelting waste water. The arsenic content in polluted paddy soils and river/brook water is 46.26-496.19 microg g(-1), 0.3-16.5 mgL(-1), respectively. The positive abnormality and pollution of arsenic in the soil and water affects the arsenic content of the crop and the inhabitants' health. PMID:16027966

Lu, Xinwei; Zhang, Xiaolan

2005-12-01

131

Regeneration patterns and tree species coexistence in old-growth AbiesPicea forests in southwestern China  

E-print Network

Giant Panda Research Centre, Wolong Natural Reserve, Sichuan 623006, People's Republic of China Received structure; Size structure; Disturbance; Giant panda 1. Introduction In a heterogeneous forest environment

Taylor, Alan

132

The adoption of “Western” management accounting\\/controls in China's state-owned enterprises during economic transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the influences on the adoption of “Western” management accounting\\/control practices by China's state-owned enterprises (SOEs). This topic is important given the potential for such practices to affect SOE operations in the midst of China's continued privatization programme, and the continued opening of its markets to competition. In-depth interviews were conducted with managers at four SOEs and two

Neale G. O'Connor; Chee W. Chow; Anne Wu

2004-01-01

133

3-D lithospheric structure beneath western North China Craton from Rayleigh-wave tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used 2-year broadband seismographs of China Earthquake Networks Center and 6-month of Peking University to establish the 3-D wave velocity structure beneath the western North China Craton (NCC). We firstly extracted the Rayleigh-wave velocities for period of 20 s to 125 s (frequency of 0.008 Hz to 0.05 Hz) with a newly developed tomography method, two-plane-wave method (Forsyth & Li, 2005). This new method adjusts traditional single plane-wave basis and uses two plane waves to fit teleseismic surface-wave field, getting more realistic results. As Rayleigh wave velocity is most sensitive to shear wave velocity variation, we got the 3-D shear wave velocity structure for the depth of 0~200 km. The results indicate that the Ordos Craton, which has been stable since Archor is obviously high-velocity-anomaly for over 200 km depth. While the Central part of NCC, including the Shanxi Rift, has obviously low-velocity-anomaly from Moho to 200 km. We interpret this enormous velocity changes as an evidence for the apart geologic processes of the eastern and western parts of NCC. The reactivation since Mesozoic of NCC may have caused upwelling of upper mantle right beneath Shanxi Rift.

Li, D.; Zhou, S.

2012-12-01

134

Tectonics and climate of the Tibetan plateau, China, and the western Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On some fundamental level, changes in the distribution of land and mountains lead to changes in Earth's climate. Relating climate change to tectonic events remains a challenge, however, in part due to a lack of understanding of modern and past climates and the scarcity of climate and tectonic records. This thesis contains studies of climate and tectonics in two geographic areas: the Tibetan plateau and eastern China, and the Maritime Continent and the western Pacific. The Tibetan plateau, the largest high-elevation surface on the earth, formed as a result of the continental collision between India and Asia. The northern boundary of Tibet is marked by the strong lithosphere of the Tarim and Qaidam basins and the North China craton. Using thin viscous sheet calculations, we show that strain rates localize adjacent to a strong region, analogous to the localized strain of the Altyn Tagh fault south of the Tarim basin. If the southern lithosphere of Tibet was thickened during the subduction of Indian oceanic lithosphere, thin viscous sheet calculations show that strain rates increase in northern Tibet soon after continental collision begins. Thus the location of the northern boundary of Tibet may be fixed since the beginning of collision because of the presence of strong lithosphere to the north of Tibet. Seasonality of climate in China is related in part to thermal and mechanical atmospheric processes that are influenced by Tibet's presence. The mid-latitude jet stream generally flows south or north of the plateau. Jet convergence in the lee of the plateau is related to the surface subtropical high pressure center in the western Pacific, which transports moisture into China. Sensible heating of the high surface of the plateau may enhance this circulation. The timing of the jet's springtime shift from south to north of the plateau is related to spring precipitation amounts in China. We use observations of modern climate to discuss how seasonality of China's climate might vary on orbital and geologic timescales, and what might be learned from stable oxygen isotope paleoclimate records. The Cenozoic reorganization of islands in the Maritime Continent region of the tropical western Pacific may have increased the amount of land surface area, changed the distribution of sea surface temperature (SST), and consequently provided a necessary condition for the El Nino -- Southern Oscillation state (ENSO). Precipitation rates over the Maritime Continent correlate positively with La Nina-like conditions, and precipitation rates over the western Pacific warm pool correlate positively with El Nino-like conditions. Areas of high precipitation rates are related to areas of ascent in the atmosphere and with high SST. Thus tectonic expansion and reorganization of the Maritime Continent may be related to a change in tropical Pacific climate from a permanent and zonally uniform state in Pre-Ice Age time to the present day ENSO state.

Dayem, Katherine E.

135

Sequence analysis of cytb gene in Echinococcus granulosus from Western China.  

PubMed

Echinococcus granulosus is the causative agent of cystic echinococcosis with medical and veterinary importance in China. Our main objective was to discuss the genotypes and genetic diversity of E. granulosus present in domestic animals and humans in western China. A total of 45 hydatid cyst samples were collected from sheep, humans, and a yak and subjected to an analysis of the sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene. The amplified PCR product for all samples was a 1,068 bp band. The phylogenetic analysis showed that all 45 samples were identified as E. granulosus (genotype G1). Ten haplotypes were detected among the samples, with the main haplotype being H1. The haplotype diversity was 0.626, while the nucleotide diversity was 0.001. These results suggested that genetic diversity was low among our samples collected from the west of China based on cytb gene analysis. These findings may provide more information on molecular characteristics of E. granulosus from this Chinese region. PMID:24850967

Zhong, Xiuqin; Wang, Ning; Hu, Dandan; Wang, Jiahai; Liu, Tianyu; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

2014-04-01

136

Psychological distress among adolescents in Chengdu, Sichuan at 1 month after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake.  

PubMed

A devastating earthquake occurred on May 12, 2008 in Sichuan, China. This study investigated the prevalence and factors in association with psychological problems among secondary school students living in Chengdu (90 km away from the disaster epicenter) in June 2008. In a cross-sectional survey, 3,324 secondary students self-administered a structured questionnaire in classroom setting. Validated scales were used in this study. Among all respondents, 22.3% reported post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); 22.6% were probable depression cases; 10.6% reported suicidal ideation; and 14.1% would like to receive psychological counseling. No gender differences were found. While social/emotional support from teachers or peers (OR from 0.40 to 0.78) and exposure to positive news reports (OR from 0.59 to 0.62) were found protective, prior experience of severe mental distress (OR from 1.60 to 2.68) and corporal punishment (OR from 1.31 to 1.58), worry about future aftershocks (OR from 1.64 to 3.11), absence from school when it was not closed (OR from 1.38 to 1.48), exposures to scary or sorrowful disaster media coverage (OR from 1.39 to 2.07), post-disaster visits to affected sites (OR from 1.51 to 1.59), separation from parents (OR = 1.61), etc., were risk factors predictive of some of the aforementioned psychological problems. Negative mental health impacts were prevalent among the respondents. Teachers, parents, and the mass media are all important in maintaining good mental health among adolescents that are indirectly affected by the severe earthquake. The results have important implications for earthquake preparedness and relief work in the future. PMID:20405226

Lau, Joseph T F; Yu, Xiaonan; Zhang, Jianxin; Mak, Winnie W S; Choi, Kai Chow; Lui, Wacy W S; Zhang, Jianxin; Chan, Emily Y Y

2010-05-01

137

Decadal trends of RSMA-based GV and NPV in western China during 2000-2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Western China (73-112°E, 26 - 50°N) is an important arid and semi-arid area that is dominated by a typical monsoon climate. Currently, this region is experiencing both climatic and human induced stresses. Thus, an accurate description of vegetation dynamics in the last decade is necessary to help us understand and attribute the response of vegetation to both natural forcings and anthropogenic disturbances. The continuous and intensive MOD43B4 Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR) product, covering western China, were acquired for the period of 2000 to 2008. To better understand the variability of the total vegetation cover in the growing season (from April to October) in this arid region, relative spectral mixture analysis (RSMA) was selected as the target indicator. The resulting data set was used in a non-parametric trend analysis to characterize spatial patterns of green vegetation (GV), non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and total vegetation (TV) trends. Results indicate that shrubland, grassland and “barren” land cover types have experienced significant changes in vegetation (GV and NPV) cover. A few large areas of distinct clustering for GV changes are observed in the middle part of Gansu, the southern part of Shanxi, south-eastern Xizang, northern Xinjiang and central Qinghai. Shanxi (69.6%) and Gansu (28.2%) have the greatest percentage of pixels with a persistent increasing GV, whereas portions of Xinjiang (9.64%) shows a persistent decline. Associated spatial patterns of NPV change reveal that those regions with decreasing NPV are in the central and northern Gansu, around the Taklimakan Desert, Shanxi and central Qinghai, whereas the area with significant increase is in northern Xinjiang. A cluster of increasing TV is observed in the southern Shanxi and areas with decreasing TV are located in northern Shanxi and northern slope of Tianshan Mountain in Xinjiang. These results indicate that complex interactions between human and natural forcings are altering vegetation cover, with significant implications for dust emission, planetary albedo, and land-atmosphere interactions in the region. Keywords: Relative Spectral Mixture Analysis (RSMA), MOD43B4, Trend analysis, western China, nonphotosynthetic vegetation, green vegetation.

Gu, J.; Okin, G. S.

2010-12-01

138

Signature of the Mekong River plume in the western South China Sea revealed by radium isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the distribution of 223Ra, 228Ra, and 226Ra in the surface water of the western South China Sea (SCS) during summer based on a 30 day cruise conducted in August-September 2007. The activities of 223Ra varied from almost undetectable to 0.74 disintegrations per minute (dpm)/100 L, and those of 228Ra varied from 12.2 to 61.5 dpm/100 L. Their spatial distribution was characterized by a jet of high 228Ra (>48 dpm/100 L) and 223Ra (>0.4 dpm/100 L) extending eastward from the Vietnam coast along ˜11°N, curling up in the vicinity of 112°E and swirling counterclockwise to form a cyclonic eddy with lower 228Ra (21-25 dpm/100 L) and 223Ra (0.04-0.14 dpm/100 L) at its center. High 226Ra (10-14 dpm/100 L) appeared in the eastward jet and decreased to 6.0-8.5 dpm/100 L along the track of the jet described above. The observed distribution of Ra isotopes was consistent with the pattern of the Southeast Vietnam Offshore Current in the western SCS in summer. The higher radium activities were in all likelihood derived from the Mekong River. Using a simple two-end-member mixing model based on the 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio and salinity, we calculated that approximately 53% of the surface water in the western SCS was originated from the Mekong River diluted water. Note that this estimation should be regarded as an upper limit due to the lack of sampling at its immediate source, the Mekong estuary. The data revealed that more than 2 weeks were required for the transportation of freshened water from the Mekong River's mouth several hundred kilometers to the western SCS.

Chen, Weifang; Liu, Qian; Huh, Chih-An; Dai, Minhan; Miao, Yu-Chun

2010-12-01

139

A new genus and two new species of fossil Elaterids from the Yixian Formation of Western Liaoning, China (Coleoptera: Elateridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new genus and two new species of fossil Elateridae are described and illustrated: Paralithomerus gen. nov., P. exquisi- tus sp. nov, and P. parallelus sp. nov. Both species were collected from the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Yixian For- mation of western Liaoning, China. Fossil elaterids expressing a sutured mesoventrite have been otherwise discovered only from the Upper Jurassic strata of

HUALI CHANG; FAN ZHANG; DONG REN

140

Dry climate near the Western Pacific Warm Pool: Pleistocene caliches of the Nansha Islands, South China Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nansha (Spratly) Islands are located in the middle of the South China Sea (at about 10°N) near the northwestern margin of the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP). A borehole was drilled at an atoll at Nansha, and cores were taken. The upper 165.4 m of the borehole consists entirely of limestone of reef facies and lagoon facies, which had

Shou-Yeh Gong; Horng-Sheng Mii; Kuo-Yen Wei; Chorng-Sherng Horng; Chen-Feng You; Fu-Wen Huang; Wen-Rong Chi; Tzen-Fu Yui; Pei-Keng Torng; Shieu-Tsann Huang; Shih-Wei Wang; Jong-Chang Wu; Kenn-Ming Yang

2005-01-01

141

Ground-water level affects plant species diversity along the lower reaches of the Tarim river, Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relationship between plant species diversity and ground-water level in the lower reaches of the Tarim River, western China, by analysing the field data from 40 monitoring wells across nine study sites and 18 vegetation survey plots during the period from 2000 to 2002. We found that several of the species diversity indices were closely related to ground-water

Y.-N. Chen; H. Zilliacus; W.-H. Li; H.-F. Zhang

2006-01-01

142

Variabilities of particulate flux and 210Pb in the southern East China Sea and western South Okinawa Trough  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variabilities of the particulate mass flux and associated 210Pb activity were examined on samples collected from time-series sediment traps deployed in the continental slope area of the East China Sea off northeast Taiwan and in the western South Okinawa Trough (SOT) as a part of the KEEP program. The particulate flux decreases laterally from the continental slope toward the trough,

Y. Chung; K. Chung; H. C. Chang; L. W. Wang; C. M. Yu; G. W. Hung

2003-01-01

143

The correlation of the surface circulation between the Western Pacific and the South China Sea from satellite altimetry data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen years of satellite altimetry data are used to study the correlation of the surface circulation between the Western Pacific and the South China Sea (SCS) based on the Singular Value Decomposition method. There is a high correlation between the circulation of the SCS and the North Equatorial Current (NEC) current system. In summer\\/winter, the sea surface height (SSH) of

Yinghui He; Shuqun Cai; Shengan Wang

2010-01-01

144

The Impact of Overseas Training on Curriculum Innovation and Change in English Language Education in Western China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article assesses the impact of a UK-based professional development programme on curriculum innovation and change in English Language Education (ELE) in Western China. Based on interviews, focus group discussions and observation of a total of 48 English teachers who had participated in an overseas professional development programme influenced…

Li, Daguo; Edwards, Viv

2013-01-01

145

Suicidal ideation and the prevalence of intimate partner violence against women in rural western China.  

PubMed

This study examined the extent of the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and suicidal ideation in a rural county in Western China. A sample of 1,771 women participated in the study. The lifetime prevalence of physical assault, psychological aggression, and sexual coercion was 34%, 68%, and 4%, respectively. The preceding-year prevalence of physical assault and psychological aggression was 8% and 32%, respectively. The prevalence of lifetime suicidal ideation was 15.9%, and 3.3% of the women had suicidal ideation during the preceding week. Physical abuse victims were at more than four times greater risk of having suicidal ideation than those who had not suffered physical assault. PMID:21997463

Yanqiu, Gao; Yan, Wang; Lin, An

2011-10-01

146

MAGNITUDE AND SEISMIC MOMENT SCALES IN WESTERN YUNNAN, PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF CHINA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seismograms and accelerograms from 77 earthquakes in 1982 to 1984 near the northwest end of the Red River fault in western Yunnan Province, Peoples Republic of China, have been used to calculate seismic moment, M//O, and local magnitude, M//L, using techniques established in California. For 1 1/2 APP 1STH M//L APP 1STH 3 1/2, log M//O equals 16. 97 plus (1. 17 plus or minus 0. 05)M//L, consistent with the log M//O minus M//L relation appropriate for central California. A comparison of these M//L values and the coda duration magnitudes M and S-wave amplitude magnitudes M assigned by the Seismological Bureau of Yunnan Province suggests that M and M values are generally larger than the M//L values.

Bakun, W.H.; Li, Yizheng; Fischer, F.G.; Jin, Yafu

1985-01-01

147

Structure of the lithosphere and Mesozoic sedimentary basins in western Liaoning, northern Liaoning, and Songliao, northeast China  

SciTech Connect

The western Liaoning, northern Liaoning, and Songliao areas represent three different tectonic units with different lithosphere thermal-mechanical properties in terms of composition, thickness of the thermal lithosphere, effective elastic thickness, depth of the detachment surface, and strength of the lithosphere. Western Liaoning is characterized by a thick lithosphere with high rigidity and strength, whereas Songliao and northern Liaoning are characterized by relatively thin lithosphere with low rigidity and strength. These differences controlled the development of distinct types of basins under an extensional regime during the Early Cretaceous. The basins in western Liaoning are controlled by faulting rather than by thermal subsidence. The Songliao basin in controlled both by faulting and by thermal subsidence, and thus both syn- and post-rift sequences developed with the same thickness in the center of the basin. In contrast, in northern Liaoning, the basins are mainly controlled by faulting, and to a lesser extent by subsequent thermal subsidence. As a part of east China, where more than 93% of the proven oil reserves of China are distributed, the western Liaoning-northern Liaoning-Songliao area also has attracted considerable attention for this hydrocarbon potential. The Songliao basin is proven to be the largest non-marine petroliferous basin and one of the most important oil- and gas-producing basins in China. In addition, the Tieling-Changtu basin and the Zhezhong depression in northern Liaoning show some petroleum potential. In contrast, basins in western Liaoning represent a limited prospect for oil and gas.

Xu, M.; Middleton, M.F.; Xue, L.F.; Wang, D.P.

2000-03-01

148

The use of propagation path corrections to improve regional seismic event location in western China  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to improve the ability to locate seismic events in western China using only regional data, the authors have developed empirical propagation path corrections (PPCs) and applied such corrections using both traditional location routines as well as a nonlinear grid search method. Thus far, the authors have concentrated on corrections to observed P arrival times for shallow events using travel-time observations available from the USGS EDRs, the ISC catalogs, their own travel-tim picks from regional data, and data from other catalogs. They relocate events with the algorithm of Bratt and Bache (1988) from a region encompassing China. For individual stations having sufficient data, they produce a map of the regional travel-time residuals from all well-located teleseismic events. From these maps, interpolated PPC surfaces have been constructed using both surface fitting under tension and modified Bayesian kriging. The latter method offers the advantage of providing well-behaved interpolants, but requires that the authors have adequate error estimates associated with the travel-time residuals. To improve error estimates for kriging and event location, they separate measurement error from modeling error. The modeling error is defined as the travel-time variance of a particular model as a function of distance, while the measurement error is defined as the picking error associated with each phase. They estimate measurement errors for arrivals from the EDRs based on roundoff or truncation, and use signal-to-noise for the travel-time picks from the waveform data set.

Steck, L.K.; Cogbill, A.H.; Velasco, A.A.

1999-03-01

149

Efficacy trial of Vi polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid fever in south-western China.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy of locally produced Vi vaccine over a time period of longer than one year. METHODS: A double-blinded, randomized field trial was performed in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in south-western China, using 30 micrograms doses of locally produced Vi. Enrolled subjects were 3-50 years of age, although the majority (92%) were school-aged children, who have the highest rate of typhoid fever in this setting. A total of 131,271 people were systematically allocated a single dose of 30 micrograms of Vi polysaccharide or saline placebo. The study population was followed for 19 months, with passive surveillance conducted in the Ministry of Health and the Regional Health and Anti-epidemic Centre (HAEC). Clinically suspected cases of typhoid fever were confirmed by blood culture, or by serological reaction with O-antigen (Widal tests). FINDINGS: After 19 months, there were 23 culture-confirmed cases of typhoid fever in the placebo group versus 7 cases in the Vi group (Protective efficacy (PE) = 69%; 95% CI = 28%, 87%). Most of the isolates were from school-aged children: 22 cases in the placebo group versus 6 in the Vi group (PE = 72%; 95% CI = 32%, 82%). No serious post-injection reactions were observed. The locally produced Vi polysaccharide vaccine showed levels of protective efficacy similar to those for Vi vaccine produced in industrial countries. CONCLUSION: The slightly higher dose of vaccine did not seem to alter efficacy significantly in China. PMID:11477965

Yang, H. H.; Wu, C. G.; Xie, G. Z.; Gu, Q. W.; Wang, B. R.; Wang, L. Y.; Wang, H. F.; Ding, Z. S.; Yang, Y.; Tan, W. S.; Wang, W. Y.; Wang, X. C.; Qin, M.; Wang, J. H.; Tang, H. A.; Jiang, X. M.; Li, Y. H.; Wang, M. L.; Zhang, S. L.; Li, G. L.

2001-01-01

150

Recent 121-year variability of western boundary upwelling in the northern South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

upwelling is typically related to the eastern boundary upwelling system, whereas the powerful southwest Asian summer monsoon can also generate significant cold, nutrient-rich deep water in western coastal zones. Here we present a sea surface temperature record (A.D. 1876-1996) derived from coral Porites Sr/Ca for an upwelling zone in the northern South China Sea. The upwelling-induced sea surface temperature anomaly record reveals prominent multidecadal variability driven by Asian summer monsoon dynamics with an abrupt transition from warmer to colder conditions in 1930, and a return to warmer conditions after 1960. Previous studies suggest the expected increase in atmospheric CO2 for the coming decades may result in intensification in the eastern boundary upwelling system, which could enhance upwelling of CO2-rich deep water thus exacerbating the impact of acidification in these productive zones. In contrast, the weakening trend since 1961 in the upwelling time series from the northern South China Sea suggests moderate regional ocean acidification from upwelling thus a stress relief for marine life in this region.

Liu, Yi; Peng, Zicheng; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Zhou, Renjun; Song, Shaohua; Shi, Zhengguo; Chen, Tegu; Wei, Gangjian; Delong, Kristine L.

2013-06-01

151

Factors Influencing Chinese Male's Willingness to Undergo Circumcision: A Cross-Sectional Study in Western China  

PubMed Central

Background Male circumcision (MC) has been shown to reduce the risk of female to male transmission of HIV. The goal of this survey was to explore the acceptability of MC among the Chinese and to identify factors associated with circumcision preference. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between September 2009 and December 2010. We interviewed 2,219 male community participants, from three high HIV prevalence provinces in western China. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on MC knowledge, willingness to accept MC, reasons to accept or refuse MC, and sexual behaviors and health. For those who refused MC, a health education intervention providing information on the benefits of circumcision was conducted. We used multiple logistic regression models to identify factors associated with the acceptability of MC. Results Of the respondents (n?=?2,219), 44.6% (989/2,219) reported they would accept MC for the following reasons: promotion of female partners' hygiene (60.3%), redundant foreskin (59.4%), prevention of penile cancer (50.2%), enhanced sexual pleasure (41.4%), and protection against HIV and STDs (34.2%). The multivariable logistic regression showed that five factors were associated with MC willingness: long foreskin (OR?=?15.98), residing in Xinjiang province (OR?=?3.69), being younger than 25 (OR?=?1.60), knowing hazards of redundant foreskin (OR?=?1.78), and having a friend who underwent circumcision (OR?=?1.36). Conclusion The acceptability of male circumcision was high among the general population in China. Our study elucidates the factors associated with circumcision preference and suggests that more health education campaigns about positive health effects are necessary to increase the MC rate in China. PMID:22253919

Yang, Xiaobo; Abdullah, Abu S.; Wei, Bo; Jiang, Junjun; Deng, Wei; Qin, Bo; Yan, Weili; Wang, Qianqiu; Zhong, Chaohui; Wang, Qian; Ruan, Yuhua; Zou, Yunfeng; Xie, Peiyan; Wei, Fumei; Xu, Na; Liang, Hao

2012-01-01

152

Mantle transition zone structure beneath India and Western China from migration of PP and SS precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the seismic structure of the upper-mantle and mantle transition zone beneath India and Western China using PP and SS underside reflections off seismic discontinuities, which arrive as precursors to the PP and SS arrival. We use high-resolution array seismic techniques to identify precursory energy and to map lateral variations of discontinuity depths. We find deep reflections off the 410 km discontinuity (P410P and S410S) beneath Tibet, Western China and India at depths of 410-440 km and elevated underside reflections of the 410 km discontinuity at 370-390 km depth beneath the Tien Shan region and Eastern Himalayas. These reflections likely correspond to the olivine to wadsleyite phase transition. The 410 km discontinuity appears to deepen in Central and Northern Tibet. We also find reflections off the 660 km discontinuity beneath Northern China at depths between 660 and 700 km (P660P and S660S) which could be attributed to the mineral transformation of ringwoodite to magnesiowuestite and perovskite. These observations could be consistent with the presence of cold material in the middle and lower part of the mantle transition zone in this region. We also find a deeper reflector between 700 and 740 km depth beneath Tibet which cannot be explained by a depressed 660 km discontinuity. This structure could, however, be explained by the segregation of oceanic crust and the formation of a neutrally buoyant garnet-rich layer beneath the mantle transition zone, due to subduction of oceanic crust of the Tethys Ocean. For several combinations of sources and receivers we do not detect arrivals of P660P and S660S although similar combinations of sources and receivers give well-developed P660P and S660S arrivals. Our thermodynamic modelling of seismic structure for a range of compositions and mantle geotherms shows that non-observations of P660P and S660S arrivals could be caused by the dependence of underside reflection coefficients on the incidence angle of the incoming seismic waves. Apart from reflections off the 410 and 660 km discontinuities, we observe intermittent reflectors at 300 and 520 km depth. The discontinuity structure of the study region likely reflects lateral thermal and chemical variations in the upper-mantle and mantle transition zone connected to past and present subduction and mantle convection processes.

Lessing, Stephan; Thomas, Christine; Rost, Sebastian; Cobden, Laura; Dobson, David P.

2014-04-01

153

Satellite observations of the small-scale cyclonic eddies in the western South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution ocean color observation offers an opportunity to investigate the oceanic small-scale processes. In this study, The Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) daily 300 m data are used to study small-scale processes in the western South China Sea. It is indicated that the cyclonic eddies with horizontal scales of the order of 10 km are frequently observed during upwelling season of each year over 2004-2009. These small-scale eddies are generated in the vicinity of the southern front of the cold tongue, and then propagate eastward with a speed of approximately 12 cm s-1. This propagation speed is consistent with the velocity of the western boundary current. As a result, the small-scale eddies keep rotating high levels of the phytoplankton away from the coastal areas, resulting in the accumulation of phytoplankton in the interior of the eddies. The generation of the small-scale eddies may be associated with strengthening of the relative movement between the rotation speed of the anticylconic mesoscale eddies and the offshore transport. With the increases of the normalized rotation speed of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies relative to the offshore transport, the offshore current become meander under the impacts of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies. The meandered cold tongue and instability front may stimulate the generation of the small-scale eddies. Unidirectional uniform wind along cold tongue may also contribute to the formation of the small-scale eddies.

Liu, F.; Tang, S.; Chen, C.

2014-09-01

154

Phytoplankton patchiness during spring intermonsoon in western coast of South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jet-like phytoplankton blooms usually occur off the southwestern coast of the South China Sea (SCS) caused by strong winds during summer monsoons. However a jet-like phytoplankton patch was observed in the western SCS in the spring intermonsoon of 2010 in both field and remote sensing data. The present study investigated the biological processes associated with this spring phytoplankton patchiness. The data showed that chlorophyll a concentrations increased in the surface water, extending out to the SCS, and the depth of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum uplifted from 75 m to 50 m depth; low dissolved oxygen, low pH and nutrient enrichment (nitrate+nitrite and soluble reactive phosphate) were observed in the subsurface water (50 to ~200 m depth). Data analysis showed that variations in chlorophyll a, nutrients and temperature in the water column were related to wind-stress curl: the spatial distribution pattern and vertical structure of the phytoplankton patchiness were controlled by vertical flux of nutrients caused by curl-driven upwelling through Ekman pumping. There was a high correlation between chlorophyll a concentration and wind-stress curl where the influence of nutrient influx from the coast was limited. This study shows the importance of wind-stress curl in providing nutrients to support phytoplankton growth during the spring intermonsoon along the western coast of SCS. It may help to better understand the role of wind in marine biological processes.

Wang, Jiu-Juan; Tang, Dan Ling

2014-03-01

155

Two new species of Itagonia Reitter (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Blaptini) from China  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two new species of Itagonia Reitter, 1887, Itagonia tibialis sp. n. and Itagonia litangensis sp. n. are described from Sichuan, China. A key to the known species of Itagonia from China is given. PMID:23794926

Shi, Ai-min

2013-01-01

156

New Mesozoic paleomagnetic results from the northeastern Sichuan basin and their implication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of a paleomagnetic study undertaken on samples from Lower Triassic and Lower Cretaceous sediments within the northeastern Sichuan Basin, China, in an area close to the Daba Mountains. Stepwise thermal demagnetization was used to isolate the characteristic higher temperature component (HTC) for these samples. These HTC (T1: D = 53.7°, I = 21.6°, ?95 = 6.5°; K1: D = 28.9°, I = 25.7°, ?95 = 6.6°) passed both fold and reversal tests, and indicate that these sediments have undergone sequential clockwise rotations relative to the Sichuan basin. These detected tectonic rotations were probably caused by the obstruction of the Hannan massif during Mesozoic thrusting within the southern Daba Mountains. The northeastern Sichuan Basin and the central Yangtze Fold Belt formed part of a continuous belt of basins (the northern Yangtze Basin), and acted as a coherent tectonic domain during the Early-Middle Jurassic. The Daba Mountains and the central Yangtze Fold Belt subsequently underwent rapid uplift and cooling around the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. This suggests that tectonic rotations within both the central Yangtze Fold Belt and the Daba Mountains were very probably caused by intra-continental deformation over a long period of time rather than a single tectonic event.

Wang, Bin; Zhang, Guowei; Yang, Zhenyu

2013-11-01

157

Remote sensing land use and land cover dynamics of Zhangye region in Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substantial changes in land use and land cover dynamics have occurred during the last several decades in western China, which include deforestation, desert expansion and intensified land use due primarily to an increasing population, industrialization and agricultural development. These changes have had great impact on ecosystem functions at both local and regional scales. The Gobi Desert area near Zhangye City, Gansu Province, P.R. China has been blamed for the frequent occurrence of dust and sand storms in remote areas such as the Beijing and HuaBei regions. A study was conducted to quantify the land cover dynamics using remotely sensed images from the Landsat MSS, TM and ETM+ sensors for the region near Zhangye city within the Heihe River watershed. The regional landscape ecology for 1977, 1989 and 2002 was quantified using both traditional classification techniques as well as the continuous field method, the latter being a measure of land degradation severity. These remote sensing products were used to quantify the magnitude of the land use and land cover changes over 25 years. The results indicate that agricultural areas increased from 6% to 15% due to increased human activities. At the same time, other land use areas decreased because of conversion into agriculture lands. Land degradation in the region was obvious as evidenced by the increase in lower vegetative areas (0 to 10% fractional vegetation cover) and disappearance of high vegetative areas (90% or more). One of the most noticeable changes is that Zhangye city expanded rapidly during the last 25 years and practically doubled its urban territory.

Zhao, Suling; Qi, Jiaguo; Baumeister, Richard; Gao, Wei; Gao, Zhiqiang; Pan, Xiaoling; Ma, Yingjun

2003-07-01

158

The effects of tectonic uplift, landslides, and debris-flow erosion driven by the Wenchuan (Ms 8.0) earthquake on the geomorphic growth of Longmen Mountain,Sichuan,China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longmen Mountain is a linear, asymmetric border mountain between the Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin. The plateau margin is the steepest topographic gradient in all edges of the modern plateau. On May 12, 2008, the Wenchuan (Ms 8.0) earthquake took place in the middle and northern sections of Longmen Mountain, and on April 20, 2013, the Lushan (Ms 7.0) earthquake occurred in the southern section of Longmen Mountain. The tectonic uplift resulting from the Wenchuan 8.0 earthquake changed the slope gradient instantly and caused massive landslides and debris flows. As a consequence, the geomorphology and the river system were modified. Therefore, the role of strong earthquake events in the geomorphic evolution of Longmen Mountain and its surface processes has become a topic of scientific concern. But the effects of tectonic uplift, landslides, and debris-flow erosion driven by the Wenchuan (Ms 8.0) earthquake on the geomorphic growth of Longmen Mountain are a current subject of debate. Many uncertainties need to be taken into account to estimate the relationship between the total landslide volume and the net growth of the Longmen Shan in the Wenchuan earthquake. In this research, tectonic uplift, landslides, and debris-flow in Hongchun Gully, which is located at the earthquake epicenter, has been studied. The aim of this study is to understand how the mass wasting triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake affected the growth of the Longmen Shan. Field data, aerial photographs, and digital elevation data are used to conduct quantitative analyses of the tectonic uplift driven by the Wenchuan earthquake and of landslide and debris-flow erosion processes, along with their effects on the geomorphic growth of Longmen Mountain. The preliminary insights obtained are the following: (1) Hongchun Gully is located at the earthquake epicenter in alpine valleys. The seismogenic fault was the Beichuan Fault, which cuts through the gully. (2) The Wenchuan earthquake triggered coseismic landslides of 380.01 × 104 m3, which was three times the volume before the earthquake. (3) The volume of debris flow resulting from heavy rainfall on August 13 and 18, 2010, after the earthquake was 70.5 × 104 m3, which meant that 20% of the volume of coseismic landslides after the earthquake was changed into debris flows because of heavy rainfall. (4) Hongchun Gully debris flow discharged 48.5 × 104 m3 of solid materials into the Minjiang River (the main river), leading to a narrowed watercourse, elevated riverbed, and increased riverbed gradient. (5) The conversion ratio between the sediment input into watercourses and the coseismic landslide sediments was about 13%. The conversion ratio between the sediment input into the watercourse and the debris-flow sediment was 70%. (6) The volume of coseismic landslides in Hongchun Gully (380.01 × 104 m3) was less than the volume of coseismic uplift (667 × 104 m3). Only about 57% of the uplift volume was converted into landslide volume, indicating a greater volume of tectonic uplift compared to the volume of landslides resulting from Wenchuan earthquake, which was characterized by thrust and strike-slip motions. This has caused new uplift and the geomorphic growth of the Longmen Mountain.

Li, Y.; Zhou, R.; Zhao, G.; Li, H.; Su, D.; Ding, H.; Yan, Z.; Yan, L.; Yun, K.; Ma, C.

2013-12-01

159

Present-day Focal Mechanisms and Stress Field of the Sichuan-Yunnan Active Block and Its Adjacent Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Focal mechanism solutions together with the depths of 66 M 3.5 moderate earthquakes occurred in the Sichuan Yunnan active block and its adjacent regions from Aug.1st, 2007 to Sep.15th, 2012was obtained by CAP method. Furthermore, by combining the results with the focal mechanism solutions from Harvard University, we investigated the characteristics of the stress field in the study area. We discussed the spatial distribution of the focal mechanisms and the focal depths, and then analyzed its dynamics. Four conclusions are drawn as follows. (1)Focal mechanism solutions show zoning characteristic. Along the ANH-ZMH-XJ faults(the eastern border of Sichuan-Yunnan block), the earthquakes are mostly left-lateral strike-slip mechanism. Along the HSH fault, the earthquakes are mostly right-lateral strike-slip mechanism. Around the XGLL block and in its interior, there exists remarkable normal fault mechanism with different fault striking and direction of P and T stress axis. Along the arc boundary of Sichuan-Yunnan block with the Sichuan basin, the earthquakes are reverse fault mechanism. (2) The inversed regional stress field shows complicated local feature. On and to the east side of the eastern border of Sichuan-Yunnan block, the stress field is similar with the stress field of the Eastern China block, which is from the relative motion of Philippine plate towards the Urasia plate. Whereas to the west side of the eastern border of Sichuan-Yunnan block, the stress field is much more complicated, indicting the strong influence of local structures to the stress field, especially the NE striking of JPS-YL over-thrusting tectonic structure located in the interior of Sichuan-Yunnan block.(3)The moment center depths of events occurred in the Sichuan-Yunnan active block are within 15km deep, and mostly among 5~15km, suggesting that the brittle seismic layer is among the depth of 5~15km in the upper and middle crust.

zhao, cuiping; luo, jun; zhou, lianqing

2013-04-01

160

A new type of rare earth elements deposit in weathering crust of Permian basalt in western Guizhou, NW China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of rare earth elements (REEs) deposit was discovered from the gaolinite mudstone in the weathering crust of Permian basalt, Bijie region, western Guizhou, China. It contained ?RE2O3 0.065%–1.086%. This type of REEs deposit was widely distributed with steady horizon and thickness of 3–4 m. The ore-bearing weathering crust (kaolinite) of the three discovered REEs deposits belonged to

Ruidong YANG; Wei WANG; Xiaodong ZHANG; Ling LIU; Huairui WEI; Miao BAO; Jingxin WANG

2008-01-01

161

When Western HRM constructs meet Chinese contexts: validating the pluralistic structures of human resource management systems in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study takes a contextualized approach to examine the structures, measures and predictive value of four human resource management (HRM) systems in China. Synthesizing the established concepts in the Western literature with the indigenous practices in the Chinese workplace, we contextually adapt the conceptual components of commitment-based, collaboration-based, controlled-based and contract-based HRM systems. Using data from 224 organizations, we found

Yu Zhou; Xiao-Yu Liu; Ying Hong

2012-01-01

162

An integrated analysis of dry-wet variability in western China for the last 4–5 centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dry-wet variability in western China and its spatiotemporal structure during the last 4–5 centuries was examined using\\u000a 24 climate proxies from sediments, ice cores, historical documents, and tree rings. Spatial patterns and temporal evolutions\\u000a of dryness and wetness were not only extracted from the proxy data using rotated empirical orthogonal function (REOF) analysis\\u000a for the last 4 centuries, but

Weihong Qian; Xiang Lin

2009-01-01

163

Stable isotopes of lake and fluid inclusion brines, Dabusun Lake, Qaidam Basin, western China: Hydrology and paleoclimatology in arid environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Qaidam Basin, underlain by salt, is the largest (120,000 km2) on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, western China. Numerous shallow to ephemeral saline lakes and dry saline pans are present on the Qarhan Salt Plain. Dabusun Lake, the largest (about 200 km2), contains high salinity Na?Mg?Cl brines. Whereas it precipitates halite, it is fringed by a potash salt flat.The dominant inflow

Wenbo Yang; Ronald J. Spencer; H. Roy Krouse; Tim K. Lowenstein; E. Casas

1995-01-01

164

Cyclic precipitation variation on the western Loess Plateau of China during the past four centuries  

PubMed Central

Precipitation variation on the Loess Plateau (LP) of China is not only important for rain-fed agriculture in this environmentally sensitive region, but also critical for the water and life securities over the whole Yellow River basin. Here we reconstruct high resolution precipitation variation on the western LP during the past 370 years by using two replicated, annually-laminated stalagmites. Spatial analysis suggests that the reconstruction can be also representative for the whole LP region. The precipitation variations show a significant quasi-50 year periodicity during the last 370 years, and have an important role in determining the runoff of the middle Yellow River. The main factor controlling the decadal scale variations and long-term trend in precipitation over this region is southerly water vapour transport associated with the Asian summer monsoon. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation is also an important influence on precipitation variation in this region, as it can affect the East Asian summer monsoon and the West Pacific Subtropical High. PMID:25223372

Tan, Liangcheng; An, Zhisheng; Huh, Chih-An; Cai, Yanjun; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Shiau, Liang-Jian; Yan, Libin; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence

2014-01-01

165

Cyclic precipitation variation on the western Loess Plateau of China during the past four centuries.  

PubMed

Precipitation variation on the Loess Plateau (LP) of China is not only important for rain-fed agriculture in this environmentally sensitive region, but also critical for the water and life securities over the whole Yellow River basin. Here we reconstruct high resolution precipitation variation on the western LP during the past 370 years by using two replicated, annually-laminated stalagmites. Spatial analysis suggests that the reconstruction can be also representative for the whole LP region. The precipitation variations show a significant quasi-50 year periodicity during the last 370 years, and have an important role in determining the runoff of the middle Yellow River. The main factor controlling the decadal scale variations and long-term trend in precipitation over this region is southerly water vapour transport associated with the Asian summer monsoon. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation is also an important influence on precipitation variation in this region, as it can affect the East Asian summer monsoon and the West Pacific Subtropical High. PMID:25223372

Tan, Liangcheng; An, Zhisheng; Huh, Chih-An; Cai, Yanjun; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Shiau, Liang-Jian; Yan, Libin; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R Lawrence

2014-01-01

166

Cyclic precipitation variation on the western Loess Plateau of China during the past four centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitation variation on the Loess Plateau (LP) of China is not only important for rain-fed agriculture in this environmentally sensitive region, but also critical for the water and life securities over the whole Yellow River basin. Here we reconstruct high resolution precipitation variation on the western LP during the past 370 years by using two replicated, annually-laminated stalagmites. Spatial analysis suggests that the reconstruction can be also representative for the whole LP region. The precipitation variations show a significant quasi-50 year periodicity during the last 370 years, and have an important role in determining the runoff of the middle Yellow River. The main factor controlling the decadal scale variations and long-term trend in precipitation over this region is southerly water vapour transport associated with the Asian summer monsoon. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation is also an important influence on precipitation variation in this region, as it can affect the East Asian summer monsoon and the West Pacific Subtropical High.

Tan, Liangcheng; An, Zhisheng; Huh, Chih-An; Cai, Yanjun; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Shiau, Liang-Jian; Yan, Libin; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence

2014-09-01

167

Urban–Rural Income Disparity and Urbanization: What Is the Role of Spatial Distribution of Ethnic Groups? A Case Study of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cao H. Urban–rural income disparity and urbanization: what is the role of spatial distribution of ethnic groups? A case study of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in Western China, Regional Studies. Since economic reforms in 1978, China's economic growth and urbanization has occurred alongside dramatic increases in regional inequality, and a corollary threat to sustainable development and social cohesion. Using the

Huhua Cao

2010-01-01

168

Equity in use of maternal health services in Western Rural China: a survey from Shaanxi province  

PubMed Central

Background The 20th century was marked by a significant improvement in worldwide human health and access to healthcare. However, these improvements were not completely or uniformly distributed among, or even within, nations. This study was designed to assess the use of maternal health services by pregnant women in China, with a focus on the inequity related to family income level. Methods Two population-based cross-sectional surveys were carried out in the Zhenan and Lantian counties in March 2007 and from December 2008 to March 2009. A total of 2562 women completed the questionnaires, including 948 who were pregnant in 2006 and 1614 from 2008–2009. The concentration index (CI) was calculated and used to analyze the parameters of maternal health care in the two counties surveyed. Results The responses in both 2006 and 2008–2009 indicated a bias towards higher (rich) economic statuses for the use of maternal and child health services. The CI of ‘delivery at health facility’ was 0.0206 (95% confidence interval between 0.0114 and 0.0299) for 2006 and 0.0053 (95% confidence interval between 0.0015 and 0.0091) for 2008, which represented a statistically significant inequity for women of lower (poor) economic statuses. Similar CI was observed in ‘receiving antenatal care within 12?weeks’ for 2006 (CI2006 =?0.0956, 95% confidence interval between 0.0516 and 0.1396). The CIs of ‘postnatal visit’ and ‘postnatal visit >3-times’ was positive (except for 2006), indicating that the poor used postnatal care less than the non-poor. In 2008, poor women had C-sections more often than non-poor women (CI2008 =??0.0629, 95% confidence interval between-0.1165 and ?0.0093), but such a difference was not observed in 2006. Conclusions In 2006 and 2008, the use of maternal health services in western rural China was significantly unequal between pregnant women of poor and non-poor economic statuses. Financial support that enables poorer pregnant women to use health services will be beneficial. Utilization of maternal healthcare services can be improved if out-of-pocket expenses can be minimized. PMID:24708641

2014-01-01

169

A Sea-Surface Radiation Data Set for Climate Applications in the Tropical Western Pacific and South China Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sea-surface shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes have been retrieved from the radiances measured by Japan's Geostationary Meteorological Satellite 5. The surface radiation data set covers the domain 40S-40N and 90E-170W. The temporal resolution is 1 day, and the spatial resolution is 0.5 deg x 0.5 deg latitude-longitude. The retrieved surface radiation have been validated with the radiometric measurements at the Atmospheric Radiation Measuring (ARM) site on Manus island in the equatorial western Pacific for a period of 15 months. It has also been validated with the measurements at the radiation site on Dungsha island in the South China Sea during the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) Intensive Observing Period (May and June 1998). The data set is used to study the effect of El Nino and East Asian Summer monsoon on the heating of the ocean in the tropical western Pacific and the South China Sea. Interannual variations of clouds associated with El Nino and the East Asian Summer monsoon have a large impact on the radiative heating of the ocean. It has been found that the magnitude of the interannual variation of the seasonal mean surface radiative heating exceeds 40 W/sq m over large areas. Together with the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) shortwave fluxes at top of the atmosphere and the radiative transfer calculations of clear-sky fluxes, this surface radiation data set is also used to study the impact of clouds on the solar heating of the atmosphere. It is found that clouds enhance the atmospheric solar heating by approx. 20 W/sq m in the tropical western Pacific and the South China Sea. This result is important for evaluating the accuracy of solar flux calculations in clear and cloudy atmospheres.

Chou, Ming-Dah; Chan, Pui-King; Yan, Michael M.-H.

2000-01-01

170

Geology and timing of mineralization at the Cangshang gold deposit, north-western Jiaodong Peninsula, China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cangshang gold deposit of the northwestern Jiaodong Peninsula contains reserves of greater than 50 tonnes (t) and is developed by the largest open pit gold mine in China. This deposit is a Jiaojia-style (i.e. disseminated-and-veinlet) deposit. It is controlled by the San-Cang fault zone, which trends ???040?? and dips 40-75??SE at the mine site. The main (no. 1) orebody lies between a hanging wall of Precambrian metamorphic rocks (mainly amphibolite) of the Fenzishan Group and a footwall composed of the Mesozoic Linglong granitoid. The ore zone is mainly composed of pyritized, sericitized and silicified granitoid, which has undergone variable degrees of cataclasis. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zircon indicates that the protolith of the hanging wall amphibolite was formed at 2530 ?? 17 Ma and underwent metamorphism at 1852 ?? 37 Ma. The footwall granodiorite has been dated at 166 ?? 4 Ma, whereas zircons from the ore zone yield a younger age of 154 ?? 5 Ma. Cathodoluminescence images of zircons from the granodiorite and ore zone show oscillatory zonation indicative of an igneous origin for both and the ages of these zircons, therefore, are all interpreted to be representative of magmatic crystallization. Dating of sericite by 40Ar-39Ar has been used to directly determine the timing of formation of the Cangshang deposit, providing the first time absolute age on formation of the Jiaojia-style gold deposits. The well-defined age of 121.3 ?? 0.2 Ma provides the precise timing of gold mineralization at the Cangshang deposit. This age is consistent with those of Linglong-style (vein type) gold mineralization, also from the north-western Jiaodong Peninsula, at between 126 and 120 Ma. Therefore, our work indicates that both styles of gold deposits in the Jiaodong Peninsula were formed during the same mineralization event.

Zhang, X.; Cawood, P.A.; Wilde, S.A.; Liu, R.; Song, H.; Li, W.; Snee, L.W.

2003-01-01

171

Change of microbial communities in glaciers along a transition of air masses in western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial community dynamics across glaciers in different climatic zones provide important information about the sources, transportation pathways, and deposition of microorganisms. To better understand the possible driving forces of microbial community shifts in glacier ice at a large spatial scale, 16S rRNA gene amplification was used to establish clone libraries containing 95 bacterial sequences from three different habitats in the Qiangyong Gacier in 2005. The libraries were used in phylogenetic comparison with 149 previously reported sequences from the surface samples collected from the Kuytun 51, and East Rongbuk glaciers in the same year. The results showed the presence of cosmopolitan and endemic species, and displayed a tendency of zonal distribution of bacterial communities at genera and community levels, corresponding to the geographic placement of the three glaciers. Data also showed a significant difference in the proportion of dominant phylogenetic groups in the three glaciers. Comamonadaceae/Polaromonas (Betaproteobacteria) and Flexibacteraceae (Bacteroidetes) were dominant in the Qiangyong Glacier, Cyanobacteria, Comamonadaceae/Polaromonas, and Rhodoferax (Betaproteobacteria) were dominant in the Kuytun 51 Glacier, and Acinetobacteria (Gammaproteobacteria) were dominant in the Rongbuk Glacier. In conclusion, the current study provides evidence of microbial biogeography in glacier ice at both the fine lineage and whole community levels. The biogeographical patterns were generally associated with the hydrological transition over the glaciers in the northern periphery and southern part of the Tibetan plateau. This supports our hypothesis of air mass behavior being one of the main drivers determining the zonal distribution of microbial communities across the mountain glaciers in western China.

Xiang, Shu-Rong; Chen, Yong; Shang, Tian-Cui; Jing, Ze-Fan; Wu, Guangjian

2010-12-01

172

Co-seismic ruptures of the 12 May 2008, Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan: East-west crustal shortening on oblique, parallel thrusts along the eastern edge of Tibet  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Ms 8.0, Wenchuan earthquake, which devastated the mountainous western rim of the Sichuan basin in central China, produced a surface rupture over 200??km-long with oblique thrust/dextral slip and maximum scarp heights of ~ 10??m. It thus ranks as one of the world's largest continental mega-thrust events in the last 150??yrs. Field investigation shows clear surface breaks along two of the main branches of the NE-trending Longmen Shan thrust fault system. The principal rupture, on the NW-dipping Beichuan fault, displays nearly equal amounts of thrust and right-lateral slip. Basin-ward of this rupture, another continuous surface break is observed for over 70??km on the parallel, more shallowly NW-dipping Pengguan fault. Slip on this latter fault was pure thrusting, with a maximum scarp height of ~ 3.5??m. This is one of the very few reported instances of crustal-scale co-seismic slip partitioning on parallel thrusts. This out-of-sequence event, with distributed surface breaks on crustal mega-thrusts, highlights regional, ~ EW-directed, present day crustal shortening oblique to the Longmen Shan margin of Tibet. The long rupture and large offsets with strong horizontal shortening that characterize the Wenchuan earthquake herald a re-evaluation of tectonic models anticipating little or no active shortening of the upper crust along this edge of the plateau, and require a re-assessment of seismic hazard along potentially under-rated active faults across the densely populated western Sichuan basin and mountains. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Liu-Zeng, J.; Zhang, Z.; Wen, L.; Tapponnier, P.; Sun, J.; Xing, X.; Hu, G.; Xu, Q.; Zeng, L.; Ding, L.; Ji, C.; Hudnut, K. W.; van, der, Woerd, J.

2009-01-01

173

Origin of back-arc basins and effects of western Pacific subduction systems on eastern China geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assuming that subduction initiation is a consequence of lateral compositional buoyancy contrast within the lithosphere [1], and recognizing that subduction initiation within normal oceanic lithosphere is unlikely [1], we can assert that passive continental margins that are locations of the largest compositional buoyancy contrast within the lithosphere are the loci of future subduction zones [1]. We hypothesize that western Pacific back-arc basins were developed as and evolved from rifting at passive continental margins in response to initiation and continuation of subduction zones. This hypothesis can be tested by demonstrating that intra-oceanic island arcs must have basement of continental origin. The geology of the Islands of Japan supports this. The highly depleted forearc peridotites (sub-continental lithosphere material) from Tonga and Mariana offer independent lines of evidence for the hypothesis [1]. The origin and evolution of the Okinawa Trough (back-arc basin) and Ryukyu Arc/Trench systems represents the modern example of subduction initiation and back-arc basin formation along a (Chinese) continental margin. The observation why back-arc basins exit behind some subduction zones (e.g., western Pacific) but not others (e.g., in South America) depends on how the overlying plate responds to subduction, slab-rollback and trench retreat. In the western Pacific, trench retreat towards east results in the development of extension in the upper Eurasian plate and formation of back-arc basins. In the case of South America, where no back-arc basins form because trench retreat related extension is focused at the 'weakest' South Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It is thus conceptually correct that the South Atlantic is equivalent to a huge 'back-arc basin' although its origin may be different. Given the negative Clayperon slope of the Perovskite-ringwoodite phase transition at the 660 km mantle seismic discontinuity (660-D), slab penetration across the 660-D is difficult and trench retreat in the western Pacific readily result in the horizontal stagnation of the Pacific plate in the transition zone beneath eastern Asian continent [2]. Dehydration of this slab supplies water, which rises and results in 'basal hydration weakening' of the eastern China lithosphere and its thinning by converting it into weak material of asthenospheric property [3]. We note the proposal that multiple subduction zones with more water (i.e., subduction of the South China Block beneath the North China Craton, NCC; subduction of the Siberian/Mongolian block beneath the NCC) all contribute to the lithosphere thinning beneath the NCC [4]. However, 'South China-NCC' and 'Siberian/Mongolian-NCC' represent two collisional tectonics involving no trench retreat, causing no transition-zone slab stagnation, supplying no water, and thus contributing little to lithosphere thinning beneath the NCC. Furthermore, lithosphere thinning happened to the entire eastern China, not just limited to the NCC, emphasizing the effects of the western Pacific subduction system on eastern China geology. References: [1] Niu et al., 2003, Journal of Petrology, 44, 851-866. [2] Kárason & van der Hilst, R., 2000, Geophysical Monograph, 121, 277-288. [3] Niu, 2005, Geological Journal of China Universities, 11, 9-46. [4] Windley et al., 2010, American Journal of Science, 310, 1250-1293.

Niu, Y.

2013-12-01

174

Prevalence of Eye Diseases and Causes of Visual Impairment in School-Aged Children in Western China  

PubMed Central

Background The present study investigated the prevalence of refractive error, visual impairment, and eye diseases in school-aged children in western China. Methods The survey was done in a representative county (Yongchuan District, Chongqing Municipality) of western China. Cluster random sampling was used to select children aged 6 to 15 years. We conducted door-to-door surveys and eye examinations including optometry, stereoscopic vision test, eye position and eye movement, slit lamp examination of the anterior segment, retinoscopy, and fundus examination after cycloplegia with 1% cyclopentolate. Results Among 3469 children, data were available for 3079 (88.76%). The prevalences of eye diseases were, in descending order, refractive error (20.69%; 637/3079), conjunctivitis (11.76%; 362/3079), amblyopia (1.88%; 58/3079), color vision defect (0.52%; 16/3079), keratitis (0.36%; 11/3079), strabismus (0.29%; 9/3079), cataract (0.23%; 7/3079), pathologic myopia (0.19%; 6/3079), and ocular trauma (0.13%; 4/3079). The prevalence of corneal leucoma, corneal staphyloma, optic neuropathy, macular degeneration, and myelinated nerve fibers was 0.03% (1/3079) for each. The prevalence of visual impairment was 7.70% (237/3079), and the major causes of visual impairment were uncorrected refractive error (86.08%; 204/237), amblyopia (9.70%; 23/237), pathologic myopia (1.27%; 3/237), congenital cataract (0.42%; 1/237), and others (2.11%; 5/237). Conclusions Among school-aged children in a less developed area of western China, refractive error was the most prevalent eye disorder, and uncorrected refractive error was the main cause of visual impairment. PMID:22123227

Pi, Lian-Hong; Chen, Lin; Liu, Qin; Ke, Ning; Fang, Jing; Zhang, Shu; Xiao, Jun; Ye, Wei-Jiang; Xiong, Yan; Shi, Hui; Zhou, Xi-Yuan; Yin, Zheng-Qin

2012-01-01

175

Precise U-Pb zircon-baddeleyite age of the Jinchuan sulfide ore-bearing ultramafic intrusion, western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion in western China hosts the third-largest magmatic Ni-Cu deposit in the world. The crystallization age of the intrusion has long been debated. Here, we present a U-Pb ID-TIMS zircon age of 831.8 ± 0.6 Ma obtained on thermally annealed and chemically etched zircons from a lherzolite sample. The coexisting baddeleyite in the sample is indistinguishable from the age of zircon. Our new results confirm that the emplacement of the Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion was temporally related to the breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent.

Zhang, Mingjie; Kamo, Sandra L.; Li, Chusi; Hu, Peiqing; Ripley, Edward M.

2010-01-01

176

Paleoenvironments and Paleoecologies of Cenozoic Mammals from Western China based on Stable Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three main objectives in this study were: 1) to examine climate variability throughout the Late Cenozoic and test hypotheses regarding the development of C4 ecosystems and the dynamics of the Asian monsoons in NW China; 2) to reconstruct the diets, habitats, and paleoclimates of fossil rhinocerotoids from the Linxia Basin, Gansu, China; and 3) to examine paleodiets, paleoecologies, and paleoclimates

Dana Michelle Biasatti

2009-01-01

177

Tectonic evolution and hydrocarbon accumulation in the Yabulai Basin, western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yabulai petroliferous basin is located at the north of Hexi Corridor, western China, striking NEE and covering an area of 1.5×104 km2. It is bounded on the south by Beidashan Mountain to the Chaoshui Basin, on the east by Bayanwulashan Mountain to the Bayanhaote Basin, and on the northwest by Yabulai Mountain to the Yingen-Ejinaqi Basin. It is a Meso-cenozoic compressive depression residual basin. In view of regional geotectonics, the Yabulai basin sits in the middle-southern transition belt of Arershan massif in North China Craton. Driven by Indosinian movement at the late Triassic, two near EW normal faults were developed under the regional extensional stress along the northern fringe of Beidashan Mountain and the southern fringe of Yabulai Mountain front in the Arershan massif, forming the embryonic form of the Yabulai rift lake basin. Since Yanshan period, the Yabulai basin evolved in two major stages: Jurassic rift lake basin and Cretaceous rift lake basin. During early Yanshan period, EW striking Yabulai tensional rift was formed. Its major controlling fault was Beidashan normal fault, and the depocenter was at the south of this basin. During middle Yanshan period, collision orogenesis led to sharp uplift at the north of this basin where the middle-lower Jurassic formations were intensely eroded. During late Yanshan period, the Alashan massif and its northern area covered in an extensional tectonic environment, and EW striking normal faults were generated at the Yabulai Mountain front. Such faults moved violently and subsided quickly to form a new EW striking extensional rift basin with the depocenter at the south of Yabulai Mountain. During Himalayan period, the Alashan massif remained at a SN horizontal compressional tectonic environment; under the compressional and strike slip actions, a NW striking and south dipping thrusting nappe structure was formed in the south of the Yabulai basin, which broke the Beidashan normal fault to provide the echelon fault system and finally present the current structural framework of "east uplift and west depression, south faulted and north overlapping". The Yabulai basin presented as a strike-slip pull-apart basin in Mesozoic and a compressional thrusting depression basin in Cenozoic. Particularly, the Mesozoic tectonic units were distributed at a big included angle with the long axis of the basin, while the Cenozoic tectonic units were developed in a basically consistent direction with the long axis. The sags are segmented. Major subsiding sags are located in the south, where Mesozoic Jurassic-Cretaceous systems are developed, with the thickest sedimentary rocks up to 5300m. Jurassic is the best developed system in this basin. Middle Jurassic provides the principal hydrocarbon-bearing assemblage in this basin, with Xinhe Fm. and Qingtujing Fm. dark mudstone and coal as the source rocks, Xinhe Fm. and Qingtujing Fm. sandstones as the reservoir formation, and Xinhe Fm. mudstones as the cap rocks. However, the early burial and late uplifting damaged the structural framework of the basin, thus leading to the early violent compaction and tightness of Jurassic sandstone reservoir and late hydrocarbon maturity. So, tectonic development period was unmatched to hydrocarbon expulsion period of source rocks. The hydrocarbons generated were mainly accumulated near the source rocks and entrapped in reservoir. Tight oil should be the major exploration target, which has been proved by recent practices.

Zheng, Min; Wu, Xiaozhi

2014-05-01

178

The effects and prospects of the integration of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine on andrology in China  

PubMed Central

Andrology has a long history in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) discussions concerning andropathies, and documentation of relevant therapeutic methods abound in the ancient literature on TCM. Integrated treatment combining TCM and Western medicine has seen both broad and in-depth development, with formidable status in the field of modern andrology in China. This article attempts to demonstrate the unique advantage of integrated treatment in the therapy of andropathies through a review of the ancient literature on andrology in the field of TCM and on the integrative treatment of prostatic diseases, sexual dysfunction, male infertility and late-onset hypogonadism. There is a need for the advancement of a medical theory that integrates TCM and Western medicine practices to create a new therapeutic system with standardized therapeutic and evaluative protocols for diseases involving male sexual health. PMID:21642998

Ma, Wei-Guo; Jia, Jin-Ming

2011-01-01

179

The effects and prospects of the integration of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine on andrology in China.  

PubMed

Andrology has a long history in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) discussions concerning andropathies, and documentation of relevant therapeutic methods abound in the ancient literature on TCM. Integrated treatment combining TCM and Western medicine has seen both broad and in-depth development, with formidable status in the field of modern andrology in China. This article attempts to demonstrate the unique advantage of integrated treatment in the therapy of andropathies through a review of the ancient literature on andrology in the field of TCM and on the integrative treatment of prostatic diseases, sexual dysfunction, male infertility and late-onset hypogonadism. There is a need for the advancement of a medical theory that integrates TCM and Western medicine practices to create a new therapeutic system with standardized therapeutic and evaluative protocols for diseases involving male sexual health. PMID:21642998

Ma, Wei-Guo; Jia, Jin-Ming

2011-07-01

180

Seroprevalence of Chlamydia psittaci infection in market-sold adult chickens, ducks and pigeons in north-western China.  

PubMed

Chlamydia psittaci, the agent of psittacosis in humans, infects a wide range of avian species. To assess the risk of psittacosis posed by domestic birds in the urban environment, the prevalence of C. psittaci antibodies in 413 chickens (Gallus domesticus; 305 caged and 108 free-range), 334 ducks (Anas spp.; 111 caged and 223 free-range) and 312 pigeons (Columba livia) in Lanzhou, north-western China, was detected using the indirect haemagglutination assay. The specific antibodies were found in sera of 55 (13.32?%) chickens, 130 (38.92?%) ducks and 97 (31.09?%) pigeons. Statistical analysis showed that the seroprevalence of C. psittaci infection in chickens was significantly lower than that in ducks and pigeons (P<0.05). The C. psittaci seroprevalence in caged and free-range chickens was 7.54?% and 29.63?%, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The C. psittaci seroprevalence in caged and free-range ducks was 26.13?% and 45.29?%, respectively (P<0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating the presence of C. psittaci infection in market-sold chickens, ducks and pigeons in north-western China. Close contact with these birds is associated with a risk of zoonotic transmission of C. psittaci. Public education should be implemented to reduce the risk of avian to human transmission of such a pathogenic agent. PMID:23699067

Cong, W; Huang, S Y; Zhang, X Y; Zhou, D H; Xu, M J; Zhao, Q; Song, H Q; Zhu, X Q; Qian, A D

2013-08-01

181

Effect of the strengthened western Pacific subtropical high on summer visibility decrease over eastern China since 1973  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily visibility (Vis) data from 354 meteorological stations are used to evaluate the seasonal Vis trends over China from 1973 to 2009, which show that Vis decline is most distinct over eastern China in summer, with a trend of -1.4 km per decade or -34% in the 37 years. This rapid decline of summertime Vis is found to be partially associated with the intensification and westward extension of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) that has occurred in recent years. Such a change in the strength and breadth of WPSH has resulted in more days with stable, hot, and humid weather, which is favorable for Vis decrease. Analysis through decomposing the trend of Vis into contributions respectively from days with and without WPSH-type meteorological conditions further shows that the intensification of WPSH leads to more episodes of Vis impairment and amplifies the effect of increased aerosol and precursor emissions on the summertime Vis decline in eastern China. Consequently, the difference of Vis between summer and winter follows a declining trend, although the Vis level in winter is still lower than that in summer. The result of this study underscores the importance of considering not only the variation of anthropogenic emissions, but also the change of climate and synoptic systems in the prediction and regulation of air quality and visibility.

Qu, Wenjun; Wang, Jun; Gao, Shanhong; Wu, Tongwen

2013-07-01

182

Applying Western Organization Development in China: Lessons from a Case of Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore a successful case of a Chinese state-owned enterprise (SOE) as it applied western organization development (OD) approaches. Specifically, this study seeks to answer two questions: How has western organization development and change (OD/C) been applied in one Chinese SOE? and What lessons can be…

Wang, Jia

2010-01-01

183

Are western community psychiatric models suitable for China? An examination of cultural and socio-economic foundations of western community psychiatry models using assertive community treatment as an example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western community psychiatry models, such as Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) and Case Management, are well-studied and considered to be effective and cost-effective; in particular, ACT is perceived as a gold standard for community treatment of severe and persistently mentally ill patients. With China's recent rapid economic reform and attendant cultural and healthcare system changes, it is timely to examine the

Samuel F. Law

2008-01-01

184

Characterizing the behavior and reproductive biology of zoo-housed Sichuan takin (Budorcas taxicolor tibetana) using non-invasive techniques.  

PubMed

The Sichuan takin (takin; Budorcas taxicolor tibetana) is distributed in the Gansu and Sichuan providences of southern China and along eastern Tibet. Because of their ecology, few data on takin reproductive biology exist, with the exception of its mating season in the Sichuan province, which occurs from July through August. Therefore, the objectives were to: 1) characterize reproductive hormones in zoo-housed male and female takin, including pregnancy in the female, using non-invasive fecal steroid hormonal monitoring; 2) characterize behaviors of zoo-housed takin, emphasizing reproductive behaviors and activity budget; and 3) assess the influence of season on births in North America and reproductive hormonal and behavioral activity. Fecal samples were collected 3 to 5 times per week from two adult males and three adult females. Extracted hormones were analyzed using an enzyme immunoassay for progestagen and androgen concentrations. Behavioral observations were collected for 2 yrs using an ethogram. In this study, season affected reproduction, specifically birth occurrences, reproductive cyclicity in females and androgen production in males. The duration of the estrous cycle was approximately 35 d and cycles occurred June through December. Androgen concentrations peaked in May through August. Season did not influence behavior; however, age and sex may affect some behaviors, including activity level, foraging and drinking, social affiliative behavior, and visibility from the visitor's viewpoint. In conclusion, fecal hormonal and behavioral analyses can provide information for management and conservation of this herd species. PMID:22626770

Adkin, A; Bernier, D; Santymire, R M

2012-08-01

185

Block rotation: Tectonic response of the Sichuan basin to the southeastward growth of the Tibetan Plateau along the Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

field and seismic data show that the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau is tectonically and seismically active. This activity is due to the southeastward extrusion of the Chuandian fragment, a large crustal block rotating clockwise around the northeastern syntaxis of the Himalayas. The eastern boundary fault of this fragment is defined by the left-lateral Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault, which abruptly truncates the Sichuan basin of the Yangtze block. Our paper presents evidence indicating that the Sichuan basin experienced right-lateral shear along its margin, including the Longmen Shan fault belt, as shown by the presence of a large number of interference deformation features, including S-shaped and Z-shaped folds and faults, aligned in an en echelon pattern. This study hypothesizes that the Sichuan basin experienced counterclockwise rotation, dragged by the left-lateral movement along the Xianshuihe fault, and it is this rotation that was the underlying cause of the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan Ms 7.9 earthquake. During the rotation, the Sichuan basin decoupled along a subhorizontal decollement fault zone that developed along Triassic gypsum- and coal-bearing rocks, at a mean depth of ~5000 m, below which the Paleozoic rocks experienced much more intense deformation than the overlying Mesozoic rocks, suggesting that the lower part of the basin experienced a larger-scale rotation relative to the uppermost part of the basin. Based on thermal data from the western margin of the Sichuan basin and from along the Xianshuihe fault, the counterclockwise bending/rotation of the Sichuan basin initiated in late Cenozoic time (~13 Ma).

Wang, Erchie; Meng, Kai; Su, Zhe; Meng, Qingren; Chu, Jean J.; Chen, Zhiliang; Wang, Gang; Shi, Xuhua.; Liang, Xinquan

2014-05-01

186

Prevalence and Trend of Major Transfusion-Transmissible Infections among Blood Donors in Western China, 2005 through 2010  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) in blood donations is important for evaluating blood safety and potential risks to the population. This study investigated the prevalence of TTIs among blood donors in Western China and suggested measures for policy-makers. Methods The screening results of 66,311 donations between 2005 and 2010 from a central blood center in Western China were analyzed. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and syphilis infections were expressed in percentages for the entire study group as well as groups by demographic characteristics and donation frequency, with differences analyzed using Fisher's exact or Chi-square test. Logistic regression was performed to identify the influencing factors of the detected results. Results 1,769 (2.67%, 95% CI 2.55–2.79%) of the donated blood had serological evidence of infection with at least one pathogen and 44 (0.07%, 95% CI 0.05–0.09%) showed evidence of multiple infections. The seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV, and syphilis infections was 0.87% (95% CI 0.80–0.94%), 0.86% (95% CI 0.79–0.93%), 0.31% (95% CI 0.26–0.35%), and 0.70% (95% CI 0.64–0.76%) respectively. Trend analysis for the prevalence of TTIs showed a significant increase from 2.44% to 3.71% (?2?=?100.72, p?=?0.00) over this 6-year period. The positive rates for TTIs varied along demographic lines. The top three risk factors in test-positive donors were identified as age, education level and donation frequency. The older age group and lower educated group were linked to a higher prevalence of TTIs. A decreasing prevalence was associated with an increasing frequency of blood donations (?2?=?562.78, p?=?0.00). Conclusions Hepatitis B and C were found most, and often in conjunction with syphilis. These were the primary threats to blood safety. The high positivity rate and the increasing prevalence of TTIs among blood donors in Western China call for further actions. PMID:24714490

Song, Yan; Bian, Ying; Petzold, Max; Ung, Carolina Oi Lam

2014-01-01

187

Comparison of Handaxes from Bose Basin (China) and the Western Acheulean Indicates Convergence of Form, Not Cognitive Differences  

PubMed Central

Alleged differences between Palaeolithic assemblages from eastern Asia and the west have been the focus of controversial discussion for over half a century, most famously in terms of the so-called ‘Movius Line’. Recent discussion has centered on issues of comparability between handaxes from eastern Asian and ‘Acheulean’ examples from western portions of the Old World. Here, we present a multivariate morphometric analysis in order to more fully document how Mid-Pleistocene (i.e. ?803 Kyr) handaxes from Bose Basin, China compare to examples from the west, as well as with additional (Mode 1) cores from across the Old World. Results show that handaxes from both the western Old World and Bose are significantly different from the Mode 1 cores, suggesting a gross comparability with regard to functionally-related form. Results also demonstrate overlap between the ranges of shape variation in Acheulean handaxes and those from Bose, demonstrating that neither raw material nor cognitive factors were an absolute impediment to Bose hominins in making comparable handaxe forms to their hominin kin west of the Movius Line. However, the shapes of western handaxes are different from the Bose examples to a statistically significant degree. Moreover, the handaxe assemblages from the western Old World are all more similar to each other than any individual assemblage is to the Bose handaxes. Variation in handaxe form is also comparatively high for the Bose material, consistent with suggestions that they represent an emergent, convergent instance of handaxe technology authored by Pleistocene hominins with cognitive capacities directly comparable to those of ‘Acheulean’ hominins. PMID:22536441

Wang, Wei; Lycett, Stephen J.; von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen; Jin, Jennie J. H.; Bae, Christopher J.

2012-01-01

188

Flux and composition of wind-eroded dust from different landscapes of an arid inland river basin in north-western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a simple æolian dust sampler, dust plumes generated from five landscape types (dry lakebed, gobi, farmland, seriously degraded grassland and sandy desert lands) in the inland basin of the Heihe River of north-western China, were monitored, along with wind velocity and temperature, from 2 April to 30 May 2001. Dust fluxes, conditions under which they occurred and an elemental

Genxu Wang; Tuo Wanquan; Du Mingyuan

2004-01-01

189

Glacier changes since the Little Ice Age maximum in the western Qilian Shan, northwest China, and consequences of glacier runoff for water supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on aerial photographs, topographical maps and the Landsat-5 image data, we have analyzed fluctuations of glaciers in the western Qilian Shan, northwest China, from the Little Ice Age (LIA) to 1990. The areas and volumes of glaciers in the whole considered region decreased 15% and 18%, respectively, from the LIA maximum to 1956.This trend of glacier shrinkage continued and

Liu Shiyin; Sun Wenxin; Shen Yongping; Li Gang

2003-01-01

190

Postgraduate Educational Aspirations and Policy Implications: A Case Study of University Students in Western China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

China's educational reform from the late 1990s, has substantially increased university capacity. This has been most evident in undergraduate enrolments. As an increasingly large cohort of university graduates enters the job market yearly, the demand for university graduates has not caught up with supply. Some university students plan to pursue…

Li, Peter S.; Li, Liming; Zong, Li

2007-01-01

191

Interannual variability of the eastward current in the western South China Sea associated with the summer Asian monsoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

interannual variability of the eastward current in the western South China Sea (SCS) during the summer of 1993-2012 is examined with satellite altimeter data and Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model output. It is found that the meridional location of the eastward current displays apparent interannual variability. The core of the eastward current shifts between 10.7°N and 17.6°N with a standard deviation of 1.6°. Results from Sverdrup theory and ROMS experiments demonstrate a close dynamic linkage between the north-south migration of the eastward current and the SCS summer monsoon anomaly on the interannual time scale. When the summer monsoon has southwesterly (northeasterly) anomaly, the eastward current moves southward (northward). With the southward (northward) shift of the eastward current, the summer cold filament in the SCS moves southward (northward) as well.

Chen, Changlin; Wang, Guihua

2014-09-01

192

Free and Forced Rossby Waves in the Western South China Sea Inferred from Jason-1 Satellite Altimetry Data  

PubMed Central

Data from a subsurface mooring deployed in the western South China Sea shows clear intra-seasonal oscillations (ISO) at the period of 40?70 days. Analysis of remotely-sensed sea surface height (SSH) anomalies in the same area indicates that these ISO signals propagate both eastward and westward. Time-longitude diagrams of ISO signals in SSH anomalies and wind-stress curl indicate that the eastward propagating SSH anomalies is forced by wind-stress curl. This is also confirmed by lag correlation between SSH anomalies and the wind-stress-curl index (wind stress curl averaged over 109.5°E -115°E and 12°N -13.5°N). Lag correlation of SSH anomaly suggests that the westward propagating signals are free Rossby waves.

Wu, Xiangyu; Xie, Qiang; He, Zhigang; Wang, Dongxiao

2008-01-01

193

Middle Triassic paleomagnetic results from Central Hubei Province, China and their tectonic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twenty one sites consisting of 4 to 7 samples per site were drilled from the redbeds of the Middle Triassic Badong Formation from central Hubei province, China. These samples were subjected to progressive thermal demagnetization which revealed two components of magnetization. The low temperature (A) component was probably acquired at a late stage of folding and is similar in direction to the late Mesozoic overprint widely observed in the eastern Yangtze Block. The high temperature (B) component is prefolding with dual polarity. Unlike the prefolding paleomagnetic directions observed in eastern Sichuan, western Hubei and northwestern Hunan, the B component resolved from central Hubei indicates no significant rotation with respect to other parts of the Yangtze Block. Since one of the two sampled sections is in the strongly deformed foreland fold-thrust belt of the Qinling Fold Belt, this would seem to negate the possibility that the differential rotations observed in the border area between Sichuan, Hubei, Hunan and Guizhou are associated with the collision of the Yangtze Block with the North China Block.

Huang, K.; Opdyke, N. D.

194

Palynological assemblages of non-marine rocks at the Permian Triassic boundary, western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan, South China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine and non-marine facies of the Permian-Triassic boundary stratigraphic set (PTBST) are well developed in South China. Palynological assemblages enable subdivision and correlation of the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) rocks. Three palynological assemblages are recognized across the PTBST in two terrestrial PTB sections in western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan, South China. Assemblage 1 (Xuanwei Formation) is a Late Permian palynological assemblage dominated by ferns and pteridosperms, with minor gymnosperms. Most taxa are typical long-ranging Paleozoic forms, but the appearance of Lueckisporites confirms a Late Permian age for this assemblage. Assemblage 2 (PTBST) is marked by an abrupt decrease in palynomorph abundance and diversity, and thriving fungal/algal(?) spores. Assemblage 2 is still dominated by ferns and pteridosperms, with a few gymnosperms, but is characterized by a mixed palynoflora containing both Late Permian and Early Triassic elements. Most taxa are typical Late Permian ones also found in Assemblage 1, however, some taxa of Early Triassic aspect, e.g. Lundbladispora and Taeniaesporites, appeared for the first time. In Assemblage 3 (top Xuanwei Formation and Kayitou Formation), the proportion of gymnosperm pollen increases rapidly, exceeding that of ferns and pteridosperms, but the abundance of palynomorphs is still low. Typical Early Triassic taxa (such as Lundbladispora, Aratrisporites and Taeniaesporites) are present in greater abundance and confirms an Early Triassic age for this assemblage.

Peng, Yuanqiao; Yu, Jianxin; Gao, Yongqun; Yang, Fengqing

2006-12-01

195

The public health system response to the 2008 Sichuan province earthquake: a literature review and interviews.  

PubMed

This paper describes and analyses the public health system response to the deadly earthquake in Sichuan province, China, in May 2008. Drawing on an experiential learning project consisting of a literature review and field research, including a series of interviews with medical and public health professionals, policy-makers and first responders, a conceptual framework was developed to describe the response. This approach emphasises the pre-existing preparedness level of the medical and public health systems, as well as social, economic and geo-political factors that had an impact on mitigation efforts. This framework was used to conduct post-disaster analyses addressing major response issues and examining methods employed during the public health response to the disaster. This framework could be used to describe and analyse the emergency response to other disasters. PMID:25196335

Lin, Leesa; Ashkenazi, Isaac; Dorn, Barry C; Savoia, Elena

2014-10-01

196

Bilateral transtibial amputation with concomitant thoracolumbar vertebral collapse in a Sichuan earthquake survivor  

PubMed Central

The devastating earthquake in Sichuan, China on 12 May 2008 left thousands of survivors requiring medical care and intensive rehabilitation. In view of this great demand, the Chinese Speaking Orthopaedic Society established the "Stand Tall" project to provide voluntary services to aid amputee victims in achieving total rehabilitation and social integration. This case report highlights the multidisciplinary rehabilitation of a girl who suffered thoracolumbar vertebral collapse and underwent bilateral transtibial amputation. The rehabilitation team was involved in all stages of the care process from the pre-operative phase, through amputation, into prosthetic training, and during her life thereafter. Despite this catastrophic event, early rehabilitation and specially designed bilateral prostheses allowed her a high level of functional ability. The joint efforts of the multidisciplinary team and the advancement of new technology have revolutionized the care process for amputees. PMID:20630054

2010-01-01

197

China's fuel gas sector: History, current status, and future prospects Chi-Jen Yang a,c,*, Yipei Zhou b  

E-print Network

China's fuel gas sector: History, current status, and future prospects Chi-Jen Yang a,c,*, Yipei Sichuan University, Chengdu, China c Nicholas School of the Environment, Box 90338, Duke University petroleum gas China a b s t r a c t China has a unique urban pipeline network of three types of fuel gases

Jackson, Robert B.

198

Mycorrhizal specificity, preference, and plasticity of six slipper orchids from South Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycorrhizal fungi of six endangered species, Paphiopedilum micranthum, Paphiopedilum armeniacum, Paphiopedilum dianthum, Cypripedium flavum, Cypripedium guttatum, and Cypripedium tibeticum, from two closely related genera in the Orchidaceae from Southwestern China, were characterized using the nuclear internal\\u000a transcribed spacer (ITS) and part of the large subunit gene of mitochondrial rDNA (mtLSU) sequences. The most frequently detected\\u000a fungi belonged to the Tulasnellaceae.

Li Yuan; Zhu L. Yang; Shu-Yun Li; Hong Hu; Jia-Lin Huang

2010-01-01

199

A new Mesozoic Ginkgo from western Liaoning, China and its evolutionary significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well-preserved Ginkgo ovulate organs and associated leaves are described from the fossil-bearing Yixian Formation of the Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous in Liaoning Province, China. The ovulate organs bear a cluster of (up to 6) ovules at the apex of peduncle. The ovules are seated each in a cup-shaped collar, terminating a short pedicel in the small juvenile organ, but

Shaolin Zheng; Zhiyan Zhou

2004-01-01

200

Assessment of wetland fragmentation in the Tarim River basin, western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wetlands in the middle and lower reaches of the Tarim River are a rich area of biodiversity and natural resources in the\\u000a inland arid region of China. However, this wetland area has decreased in size during the past several decades. Water quality\\u000a and biodiversity has declined due to expanded agricultural activities since 1960s. Using remote sensing (RS), geographic information

Ruifeng Zhao; Yaning Chen; Huarong Zhou; Yiqing Li; Yibing Qian; Lihua Zhang

2009-01-01

201

The Selection and Setting of Traffic Safety Facilities of Low-Grade Highway in Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the actual situations of economic and technical of low-grade highway in the western region, this paper followed the principle of ldquothe low cost, easy setting, easy maintenance, maximum benefitrdquo, and respectively analyzed and compared all kinds of common traffic safety facilities in form, function and cost. Sequentially, the paper put forward selection and setting methods of traffic safety

Yu-jia Tian; Hong Chen; Dian-liang Xiao

2009-01-01

202

Marriage and migration in transitional China: a field study of Gaozhou, western Guangdong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marriage and marriage migration are often downplayed in the migration literature. The role of location in the decisionmaking underlying marriage migration, and the relations between marriage and labor migration, are little understood. Research that focuses on international marriages and on Western or capitalist economies has highlighted marriage as a strategy, but little attention is given to domestic marriage migration and

C Cindy Fan; Ling Li

2002-01-01

203

Molecular, ethno-spatial epidemiology of leprosy in China: novel insights for tracing leprosy in endemic and non endemic provinces.  

PubMed

Leprosy continues to be detected at near stable rates in China even with established control programs, necessitating new knowledge and alternative methods to interrupt transmission. A molecular epidemiology investigation of 190 patients was undertaken to define Mycobacterium leprae strain types and discern genetic relationships and clusters in endemic and non-endemic regions spanning seventeen provinces and two autonomous regions. The findings support multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis as a useful tool in uncovering characteristic patterns across the multiethnic and divergent geographic landscape of China. Several scenarios of clustering of leprosy from township to provincial to regional levels were recognized, while recent occupational or remote migration showed geographical separation of certain strains. First, prior studies indicated that of the four major M. leprae subtypes defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), only type 3 was present in China, purportedly entering from Europe/West/Central Asia via the Silk Road. However, this study revealed VNTR linked strains that are of type 1 in Guangdong, Fujian and Guangxi in southern China. Second, a subset of VNTR distinguishable strains of type 3, co-exist in these provinces. Third, type 3 strains with rpoT VNTR allele of 4, detected in Japan and Korea were discovered in Jiangsu and Anhui in the east and in western Sichuan bordering Tibet. Fourth, considering the overall genetic diversity, strains of endemic counties of Qiubei, Yunnan; Xing Yi, Guizhou; and across Sichuan in southwest were related. However, closer inspection showed distinct local strains and clusters. Altogether, these insights, primarily derived from VNTR typing, reveal multiple and overlooked paths for spread of leprosy into, within and out of China and invoke attention to historic maritime routes in the South and East China Sea. More importantly, new concepts and approaches for prospective case finding and tracking of leprosy from county to national level have been introduced. PMID:23291419

Weng, Xiaoman; Xing, Yan; Liu, Jian; Wang, Yonghong; Ning, Yong; Li, Ming; Wu, Wenbin; Zhang, Lianhua; Li, Wei; Heiden, Jason Vander; Vissa, Varalakshmi

2013-03-01

204

Molecular, ethno-spatial epidemiology of leprosy in China: Novel insights for tracing leprosy in endemic and non endemic provinces  

PubMed Central

Leprosy continues to be detected at near stable rates in China even with established control programs, necessitating new knowledge and alternative methods to interrupt transmission. A molecular epidemiology investigation of 190 patients was undertaken to define M. leprae strain types and discern genetic relationships and clusters in endemic and non-endemic regions spanning seventeen provinces and two autonomous regions. The findings support multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis as a useful tool in uncovering characteristic patterns across the multiethnic and divergent geographic landscape of China. Several scenarios of clustering of leprosy from township to provincial to regional levels were recognized, while recent occupational or remote migration showed geographical separation of certain strains. First, prior studies indicated that of the four major M. leprae subtypes defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), only type 3 was present in China, purportedly entering from Europe/West/Central Asia via the Silk Road. However, this study revealed VNTR linked strains that are of type 1 in Guangdong, Fujian and Guangxi in southern China. Second, a subset of VNTR distinguishable strains of type 3, co-exist in these provinces. Third, type 3 strains with rpoT VNTR allele of 4, detected in Japan and Korea were discovered in Jiangsu and Anhui in the east and in western Sichuan bordering Tibet. Fourth, considering the overall genetic diversity, strains of endemic counties of Qiubei, Yunnan; Xing Yi, Guizhou; and across Sichuan in southwest were related. However, closer inspection showed distinct local strains and clusters. Altogether, these insights, primarily derived from VNTR typing, reveal multiple and overlooked paths for spread of leprosy into, within and out of China and invoke attention to historic maritime routes in the South and East China Sea. More importantly, new concepts and approaches for prospective case finding and tracking of leprosy from county to national level have been introduced. PMID:23291419

Weng, Xiaoman; Xing, Yan; Liu, Jian; Wang, Yonghong; Ning, Yong; Li, Ming; Wu, Wenbin; Zhang, Lianhua; Li, Wei; Heiden, Jason Vander; Vissa, Varalakshmi

2013-01-01

205

High Frequency Downhole Recordings of Sichuan Aftershocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On June 6th, 2008, during nine hours of downhole recording with a three component borehole seismic array tool put in place to monitor a hydraulic fracture stimulation, recordings were made of several dozen natural earthquakes. The duration, frequency content and S-P arrival time difference of these events indicated that they were not related to the anticipated microseismic activity from the hydraulic stimulation about 1km away; rather they were coming from a distance of about 300km, about the distance to the M=7.9 Sichuan event of May 12th, 2008. The tool used in the recordings was a commercial borehole seismic array tool composed (in this case) of seven shuttles separated by 50m, each equipped with three component (3C) sensor packages coupled to the well casing and thereby to the formation via annular cement. Acoustic isolation of the 3C sensor package from the main body of each shuttle is accomplished via a retractable spring system. This tool design and the exceptionally quiet recording environment at 1500-1800m depth below ground level provide a very low noise floor and excellent vector fidelity. The geophones themselves are omni-tilt accelerometers, with particle displacements obtained through response function removal and (twice) time integration. These nine hours of downhole 3C array data present a unique set of high frequency earthquake recordings. Bandwidth extends from 1Hz to greater than 60Hz with 40dB signal-to-noise ratio between 3-10Hz. Processing is being carried out using a new technique developed for hydraulic fracture monitoring. This technique (Leaney (2008)) employs least-squares time reversal with a ray-trace Green's function and waveform fitting. Data analysis will include anisotropic model calibration using selected master events from assumed known locations, events location and source function determination. Other possibilities include reduced or constrained moment tensor inversion and interferometric (relative S/P) Q estimation. It is not yet known whether deep crustal reflections are present in the data.

Leaney, S.; Voskamp, A.; Bennett, L.; Craven, M.; Li, Y. J.

2008-12-01

206

Study on land use/land cover change in Jintai and Weibing districts of Baoji city in Western China based on remote sensing technology and Markov method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research on land use / land cover change (LUCC) can provide an important means to understand the relationship between ecological environmental change and human being's activity. The study area, in this paper, Jintai District and Weibin District, is the suburban area of Baoji City, which is located at the frontier of Western Development in China. To explore the typical pattern of land cover change in western China, the LUCC of the study area from 1988 to 2004 is analyzed, using remote sensing technology. Based on these, Markov model is applied to predict the tendency of the LUCC of this area in the next 16 years, and the results indicate that human being's activity, especially in the western cities, will have an increasingly great influence on the regional ecological environment in the current pattern of land use. Faced with the contradiction between land and people and severe ecological environment, establishing land use regulation indices and spatial optimal designs favorable to ecological environment by setting up general land use planning scientifically is important to satisfy reasonable demand of land with economic development and accelerated urbanization and improve ecological environment in western cities in China.

Guo, Zhongyang; Dai, Xiaoyan; Wu, Jianping

2009-06-01

207

Preliminary study on PAH degradation by bacteria from contaminated sediments in Xiamen Western Sea, Fujian, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to estimate the biodegradation of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds, bacterial strains were\\u000a isolated from marine sediments in three heavily contaminated sites (Yuandang Lake, Dongdu Port and Aquacultural zones in Maluan\\u000a Bay) in Xiamen Western Sea. The results show three bacterial strains, which used pyrene as the sole carbon source, were identified\\u000a as strains ofAureobacterium sp., Arthrobacter

Maskaoui Khalid; Tianling Zheng; Huasheng Hong; Zhiming Yu; Jianjun Yuan; Zhong Hu

2004-01-01

208

Transformative State Capacity in Post-Collective China: The Introduction of the New Rural Cooperative Medical System in Two Counties of Western China, 2006-20081  

PubMed Central

In 2002, the Chinese leadership announced a turnaround in national welfare policy: Local insurance at county level, called the New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NRCMS), was to cover all counties by 2010. This paper addresses the main characteristics of NRCMS as an example of ‘transformative state capacity’ in decentralised policy fields and its feature ‘responsiveness’ as a market-based means of its introduction. Reviewing the modes of governance and comparing the introduction of local schemes based on two case studies of western China since 2006, this paper argues that the flexibility shown by local administrators in considering structural and procedural adjustments is the result not only of central directives but also of local initiatives. Forms of locally embedded responsiveness to the needs and perceptions of health care recipients are crucial in enhancing the accountability and responsiveness of local cadres. These new modes of ‘responsiveness’ or responsive regulation are important in understanding and conceptualising the transformative state capacity. Responsive settings using centrally defined local feedback loops are different from hierarchical control and the formal institutionalised representation of the interests of the local population, and are a rough but effective means of enhancing both flexibility and the efficiency of control and financing by the central state. These feedback loops, which are based on voluntary enrolment and on central state subsidies made dependent on contributions received from participants and local government, are complementary forms of governance at grassroots level. PMID:21984878

Klotzbucher, Sascha; Lassig, Peter

2011-01-01

209

Pseudohampsonella: A New Genus of Limacodidae (Lepidoptera: Zygaenoidea) from China, and Three New Species  

PubMed Central

A new genus, Pseudohampsonella gen. n. (type-species: Pseudohampsonella erlanga Solovyev & Saldaitis), and three new species, Pseudohampsonella erlanga sp. n. Solovyev & Saldaitis (from Sichuan Province, China), Pseudohampsonella hoenei sp. n. Solovyev & Saldaitis (Yunnan Province, China), and Pseudohampsonella argenta sp. n. Solovyev & Saldaitis (Yunnan Province, China) are described. The taxonomic position of the genus is discussed.

Solovyev, Alexey V.; Saldaitis, Aidas

2014-01-01

210

New records of tardigrades from China, with zoogeographical remarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tardigrades are small (0.05-1.20 mm), hygrophilous micrometazoans. This paper reports on 18 species of tardigrades found in Sichuan, Yunnan, and Xizang Provinces in China, primarily in lichens and mosses. Eight species are new records for China: Echiniscus nepalensis Dastych, E. reticulatus Murray, E. spiniger Richters, Isohypsibius sattleri (Richters), Diphascon (D.) pingue (Marcus), Diphascon (A.) prorsirostre Thulin, Mesocrista spitsbergensis (Richters), and

CLARK W. BEASLEY; UKASZ KACZMAREK; UKASZ MICHALCZYK

211

A new sericomyiine flower fly from China (Diptera: Syrphidae).  

PubMed

A new species of flower flies is described from China (Sichuan & Yunnan: Hengduan Mountains), Sericomyia khamensis Thompson & Xie). A key is provided to the species of the subtribe Sericomyiina found in China along with nomenclatural and taxonomical notes on them.  PMID:25283191

Xie, Hongyan; Cunningham, Saul A; Yeates, David K; Thompson, F Christian

2014-01-01

212

Landsat and SPOT data for oil exploration in North-Western China  

SciTech Connect

Satellite remote sensing technology has been employed by Japex to provide information related to oil exploration programs for many years. Since the beginning of the 1980`s, regional geological interpretation through to advanced studies using satellite imagery with high spectral and spatial resolutions (such as Landsat TM and SPOT HRV), have been carried out, for both exploration programs and for scientific research. Advanced techniques (including analysis of airborne hyper-multispectral imaging sensor data) as well as conventional photogeological techniques were used throughout these programs. The first program using remote sensing technology in China focused on the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and was carried out using Landsat MSS data. Landsat MSS imagery allows us to gain useful preliminary geological information about an area of interest, prior to field studies. About 90 Landsat scenes cover the entire Xinjiang Uygru Autonomous Region, this allowed us to give comprehensive overviews of 3 hydrocarbon-bearing basins (Tarim, Junggar, and Turpan-Hami) in NW China. The overviews were based on the interpretations and assessments of the satellite imagery and on a synthesis of the most up-to-date accessible geological and geophysical data as well as some field works. Pairs of stereoscopic SPOT HRV images were used to generate digital elevation data with a 40 in grid cover for part of the Tarim Basin. Topographic contour maps, created from this digital elevation data, at scales of 1:250,000 and 1:100,000 with contour intervals of 100 m and 50 m, allowed us to make precise geological interpretation, and to carry out swift and efficient geological field work. Satellite imagery was also utilized to make medium scale to large scale image maps, not only to interpret geological features but also to support field workers and seismic survey field operations.

Nishidai, Takashi [Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center, Tokyo (Japan); [Japex Geoscience Institute, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

1996-07-01

213

China.  

PubMed

This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary school. China's goal is to provide universal elementary school education by 1990. Since 1978 the premise of China's economic policy has been that consumer welfare, economic productivity, and political stability are indivisible. Emphasis has been placed on raising personal income and consumption and on introducing new productivity incentive and management systems. Since early 1982 China has placed increasing importance on building closer ties with the 3rd world. China's armed forces total about 4.2 million. In February 1981 the Reagan Administration reaffirmed the US commitment to respect the principles of the 1979 Communique on the Establishment of Diplomatic relations. PMID:12178089

1983-12-01

214

Trace element geochemistry of altered volcanic ash layers (tonsteins) in Late Permian coal-bearing formations of eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou Provinces, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace element compositions were determined (by instrumental neutron activation analysis; INAA) in 30 samples of synsedimentary volcanic ash-derived tonsteins and detrital claystones from coal seams within the late Permian coal-bearing formation of eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou Provinces, China. The characteristics of trace-element geochemistry in the tonsteins can be distinguished from those of detrital claystones because of the former's unique

Yiping Zhou; Bruce F. Bohor; Youliang Ren

2000-01-01

215

Sea surface temperature differences between the western equatorial Pacific and northern South China Sea since the Pliocene and their paleoclimatic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkenone sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the northern South China Sea (SCS) were reconstructed for the last ?3.8 Ma. The SST difference between the western equatorial Pacific and northern SCS was then estimated, showing a general increase since ?2.8 Ma. Three features of the SST-gradient evolution were prominent: 1) low values (<2°C) in the late Pliocene; 2) increased values during

Guodong Jia; Fajin Chen; Ping'an Peng

2008-01-01

216

Age and duration of eclogite-facies metamorphism, North Qaidam HP/UHP terrane, Western China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Amphibolite-facies para-and orthogneisses near Dulan, at the southeast end of the North Qaidam terrane, enclose minor eclogite and peridotite which record ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphism associated with the Early Paleozoic continental collision of the Qilian and Qaidam microplates. Field relations and coesite inclusions in zircons from paragneiss suggest that felsic, mafic, and ultramafic rocks all experienced UHP metamorphism and a common amphibolite-facies retrogression. SHRIMP-RG U-Pb and REE analyses of zircons from four eclogites yield weighted mean ages of 449 to 422 Ma, and REE patterns (flat HREE, no Eu anomaly) and inclusions of garnet, omphacite, and rutile indicate these ages record eclogite-facies metamorphism. The coherent field relations of these samples, and the similar range of individual ages in each sample suggests that the ???25 m.y. age range reflects the duration of eclogite-facies conditions in the studied samples. Analyses from zircon cores in one sample yield scattered 433 to 474 Ma ages, reflecting partial overlap on rims, and constrain the minimum age of eclogite protolith crystallization. Inclusions of Th + REE-rich epidote, and zircon REE patterns are consistent with prograde metamorphic growth. In the Lu??liang Shan, approximately 350 km northwest in the North Qaidam terrane, ages interpreted to record eclogite-facies metamorphism of eclogite and garnet peridotite are as old as 495 Ma and as young as 414 Ma, which suggests that processes responsible for extended high-pressure residence are not restricted to the Dulan region. Evidence of prolonged eclogite-facies metamorphism in HP/UHP localities in the Northeast Greenland eclogite province, the Western Gneiss Region of Norway, and the western Alps suggests that long eclogite-facies residence may be globally significant in continental subduction/collision zones.

Mattinson, C. G.; Wooden, J. L.; Liou, J. G.; Bird, D. K.; Wu, C. L.

2006-01-01

217

[Characteristics of fly ash particles deposition in the snowpack of Laohugou Glacier no. 12 in western Qilian Mountains, China].  

PubMed

This research aimed to identify and characterize individual spherical fly ash particles extracted from surface snow at Laohugou Glacier No. 12, western Qilian Mountains, China. Characterization of the spherical particles (i. e. morphology, chemical composition and genesis) was obtained by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX). Spherical particles and agglomerates were identified according to their morphology in nine snow samples. Prevalent particle types in all samples were granular spherical particles, hollow spherical particles, and agglomerates. The vast majority of spherical particles in our samples had mostly smooth and glossy surfaces. Individual particle analyses of elemental composition showed that particles formed in combustion were mainly composed of silicon, aluminum and trace elements. On the basis of chemical information obtained from EDX, the fly ash particles deposited in the snow could be classified into three types, which were Si-dominant particles, Fe-dominant particles, and Ti-dominant spherical particles. Backward air mass trajectory and dispersion analysis suggested that the developed urban regions of central Asia and surrounding Yumen city contributed the primary fly ash particles from industrial combustion to the study site through the high-level atmospheric circulation. PMID:24812940

Dong, Zhi-Wen; Qin, Da-He; Qin, Xiang; Du, Zhi-Heng; Chen, Ji-Zu; Ren, Jia-Wen

2014-02-01

218

Postglacial left slip rate and past occurrence of M{ge}8 earthquakes on the western Haiyuan fault, Gansu, China  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution (HR) air photographs and a 1-m horizontal and 2-m vertical resolution digital elevation model derived from them by stereophotogrammetry provide new constraints on the behavior of the western stretch of the active Haiyuan fault, in Gansu province, China. The photographs cover three swaths along the fault, each about 2-km-long and at least 500-m-wide, near the village of Songshan, at 103.5&hthinsp;{degree}E. This high-resolution data set is used to map and measure cumulative horizontal offsets of alluvial terraces and risers that range between 115 and 135 m, and 70 and 90 m, at two sites. Dating these terraces with {sup 14}C yields minimum and maximum ages of 8400 and 7600, and 14,200 years B.P., respectively. This leads to a postglacial slip rate of 12{plus_minus}4&hthinsp;mm/yr, with a most likely minimum value of 11.6{plus_minus}1.1&hthinsp;mm/yr. The smallest stream offsets observed on the HR photographs range between 8 and 16 m and are interpreted as coseismic displacements of the last few earthquakes with M{ge}8 that ruptured the 220-km-long Tianzhu gap of the fault, west of the Yellow River. Earthquakes of that size within this gap, which has been quiescent for at least 800 years, would recur at intervals of 1050{plus_minus}450 years. {copyright} 1999 American Geophysical Union

Lasserre, C.; Gaudemer, Y.; Tapponnier, P.; King, G.C.P.; Metivier, F. [Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, CNRS UMR 7578, Paris (France)] [Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, CNRS UMR 7578, Paris (France); Kasser, M. [Ecole Superieure des Geometres et Topographes, Le Mans (France)] [Ecole Superieure des Geometres et Topographes, Le Mans (France); Kashgarian, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States); Taiya, L.; Daoyang, Y. [Seismological Institute of Lanzhou, China Seismological Bureau, Lanzhou, Gansu (China)] [Seismological Institute of Lanzhou, China Seismological Bureau, Lanzhou, Gansu (China)

1999-08-01

219

Postglacial left slip rate and past occurrence of M[ge]8 earthquakes on the western Haiyuan fault, Gansu, China  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution (HR) air photographs and a 1-m horizontal and 2-m vertical resolution digital elevation model derived from them by stereophotogrammetry provide new constraints on the behavior of the western stretch of the active Haiyuan fault, in Gansu province, China. The photographs cover three swaths along the fault, each about 2-km-long and at least 500-m-wide, near the village of Songshan, at 103.5 hthinsp;[degree]E. This high-resolution data set is used to map and measure cumulative horizontal offsets of alluvial terraces and risers that range between 115 and 135 m, and 70 and 90 m, at two sites. Dating these terraces with [sup 14]C yields minimum and maximum ages of 8400 and 7600, and 14,200 years B.P., respectively. This leads to a postglacial slip rate of 12[plus minus]4 hthinsp;mm/yr, with a most likely minimum value of 11.6[plus minus]1.1 hthinsp;mm/yr. The smallest stream offsets observed on the HR photographs range between 8 and 16 m and are interpreted as coseismic displacements of the last few earthquakes with M[ge]8 that ruptured the 220-km-long Tianzhu gap of the fault, west of the Yellow River. Earthquakes of that size within this gap, which has been quiescent for at least 800 years, would recur at intervals of 1050[plus minus]450 years. [copyright] 1999 American Geophysical Union

Lasserre, C.; Gaudemer, Y.; Tapponnier, P.; King, G.C.P.; Metivier, F. (Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, CNRS UMR 7578, Paris (France)); Kasser, M. (Ecole Superieure des Geometres et Topographes, Le Mans (France)); Kashgarian, M. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States)); Taiya, L.; Daoyang, Y. (Seismological Institute of Lanzhou, China Seismological Bureau, Lanzhou, Gansu (China))

1999-08-01

220

Rural household income and inequality under the Sloping Land Conversion Program in western China  

PubMed Central

As payment for ecosystem services (PES) programs proliferate globally, assessing their impact upon households’ income and livelihood patterns is critical. The Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) is an exceptional PES program, in terms of its ambitious biophysical and socioeconomic objectives, large geographic scale, numbers of people directly affected, and duration of operation. The SLCP has now operated in the poor mountainous areas in China for 10 y and offers a unique opportunity for policy evaluation. Using survey data on rural households’ livelihoods in the southern mountain area in Zhouzhi County, Shaanxi Province, we carry out a statistical analysis of the effects of PES and other factors on rural household income. We analyze the extent of income inequality and compare the socio-demographic features and household income of households participating in the SLCP with those that did not. Our statistical analysis shows that participation in SLCP has significant positive impacts upon household income, especially for low- and medium-income households; however, participation also has some negative impacts on the low- and medium-income households. Overall, income inequality is less among households participating in the SLCP than among those that do not after 7 y of the PES program. Different income sources have different effects on Gini statistics; in particular, wage income has opposite effects on income inequality for the participating and nonparticipating households. We find, however, that the SLCP has not increased the transfer of labor toward nonfarming activities in the survey site, as the government expected. PMID:21518856

Li, Jie; Feldman, Marcus W.; Li, Shuzhuo; Daily, Gretchen C.

2011-01-01

221

Assessment of wetland fragmentation in the Tarim River basin, western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wetlands in the middle and lower reaches of the Tarim River are a rich area of biodiversity and natural resources in the inland arid region of China. However, this wetland area has decreased in size during the past several decades. Water quality and biodiversity has declined due to expanded agricultural activities since 1960s. Using remote sensing (RS), geographic information system (GIS) and global positioning system (GPS) techniques, we investigated the dynamics, spatial patterns and fragmentation of the wetlands in the middle and lower reaches of the Tarim River from 1980 to 2000. We found that the total area of the wetlands was reduced by 45.8% and the density of the patches increased four times from 1980 to 1990. From 1990 to 2000, though the total area of the wetlands slightly increased the number of the patches increased three times and the density of the patches doubled. Based on the analyses of transition matrixes, diversity and fragmentation indexes, and spatial distribution alternation of the wetlands, we found the landscape diversity and fragmentation indices increased while wetland dominance index decreased dramatically. Among the wetland types, the areas of the river-channel, reservoir and pond wetlands increased while the areas of the lake and marsh wetlands decreased continuously.

Zhao, Ruifeng; Chen, Yaning; Zhou, Huarong; Li, Yiqing; Qian, Yibing; Zhang, Lihua

2009-03-01

222

Knowledge of Thrombolytic Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke among Community Residents in Western Urban China  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Thrombolytic therapy rate for acute ischemic stroke remains low, and improving public awareness of thrombolytic therapy may be helpful to reduce delay and increase chances of thrombolytic therapy. Our purpose was to survey the level of knowledge about thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke among community residents in Yuzhong district, Chongqing, China. Methods In 2011, a population-based face-to-face interview survey was conducted in Yuzhong district, Chongqing. A total of 1500 potential participants aged ?18 years old were selected using a multi-stage sampling method. Results A total of 1101 participants completed the survey. Only 23.3% (95% CI?=?20.8 to 25.8) were aware of thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke, of whom 59.9% (95% CI?=?53.9 to 65.9) knew the time window. Awareness of thrombolytic therapy was higher among young people, those with higher levels of education and household income, those with health insurance, and those who knew all 5 stroke warning signs, while awareness of the time window was higher among those aged 75 years or older. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that awareness of thrombolytic therapy was independently associated with age, education level, health insurance and knowledge of stroke warning signs (P<0.05). Conclusions In this population-based survey the community residents have poor awareness of thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke. PMID:25222126

Yang, Juan; Zheng, Min; Chen, Shuqun; Ou, Shu; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Ni; Cao, Yingying; Wang, Jian

2014-01-01

223

Discovery of four new species of the genus Planaeschna from Southwestern China (Odonata: Anisoptera: Aeshnidae).  

PubMed

Four new species of the genus Planaeschna, P. robusta sp. nov. (holotype male; Mt. Emeishan, Emeishan City, Sichuan Province, China, 16. VIII. 2007), P. maculifrons sp. nov. (holotype male; Mt. Emeishan, Emeishan City, Sichuan Province, China, 20. VIII. 2007), P. caudispina sp. nov. (holotype male; Mt. Qingchengshan, Dujiangyan City, Sichuan Province, China, 30. VIII. 2007) and P. monticola sp. nov. (holotype male; Sanjiacun Stream, Fengyi Town, Dali City, Yunnan Province, China, 19. XI. 2012) are described and illustrated and diagnosed from their congeners. All the holotypes have been deposited in the Collection of Aquatic Animals, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. Brief notes on the biology of each species are also provided. PMID:25112987

Zhang, Hao-Miao; Cai, Qing-Hua

2013-01-01

224

Platform margins, reef facies, and microbial carbonates; a comparison of Devonian reef complexes in the Canning Basin, Western Australia, and the Guilin region, South China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Devonian reef complexes were well developed in Western Australia and South China, but no detailed direct comparison has been made between reef building in the two regions. The regions differ in several respects, including tectonic, stratigraphic and palaeoceanographic-palaeogeographic settings, and the reef building styles reflect minor differences in reef builders and reef facies. Similarities and differences between the two reef complexes provide insights into the characteristics of platform margins, reef facies and microbial carbonates of both regions. Here we present a comparison of platform margin types from different stratigraphic positions in the Late Devonian reef complex of the Canning Basin, Western Australia and Middle and Late Devonian margin to marginal slope successions in Guilin, South China. Comparisons are integrated into a review of the reefal stratigraphy of both regions. Reef facies, reef complex architecture, temporal reef builder associations, 2nd order stratigraphy and platform cyclicity in the two regions were generally similar where the successions overlap temporally. However, carbonate deposition began earlier in South China. Carbonate complexes were also more widespread in South China and represent a thicker succession overall. Platforms in the Canning Basin grew directly on Precambrian crystalline basement or early Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks, but in South China, carbonate complexes developed conformably on older Devonian siliciclastic strata. Pre-Frasnian reef facies in South China had more abundant skeletal frameworks than in Canning Basin reefs of equivalent age, and Famennian shoaling margins containing various microbial reefs may have been more common and probably more diverse in South China. However, Late Devonian platform margin types have been documented more completely in the Canning Basin. Deep intra-platform troughs (deep depressions containing non-carbonate pelagic sediments — Nandan-type successions) that developed along syndepositional faults characterize Devonian carbonate platforms in South China, but have no equivalent on the Lennard Shelf, Canning Basin where inter-reef areas were more shallow. The South China platform-to-depression pattern was generally continuous from the Lower to Upper Devonian, indicating that many pre-Devonian tectonic features continued to exercise considerable effect through deposition. Localized, fault-controlled subsidence was an important factor in both regions, but similarities in 2nd order aggradation-progradation cycles suggest that eustasy was also an important control on the larger scale stratigraphic development of both regions.

Shen, Jian-Wei; Webb, Gregory E.; Jell, John S.

2008-05-01

225

Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, Vol. 82, No. 6, pp. 1679--1693, 2004 1679 Impacts of Re-greening the Desertified Lands in Northwestern China  

E-print Network

southwesterly monsoonal flow. This causes strong ascending anomalies over southern China and the Sichuan Basin the land areas subject to de- sertification and deforestation expanded rap- idly during the last century (e

Wang, Yuqing

226

Preliminary study on PAH degradation by bacteria from contaminated sediments in Xiamen Western Sea, Fujian, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to estimate the biodegradation of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds, bacterial strains were isolated from marine sediments in three heavily contaminated sites (Yuandang Lake, Dongdu Port and Aquacultural zones in Maluan Bay) in Xiamen Western Sea. The results show three bacterial strains, which used pyrene as the sole carbon source, were identified as strains of Aureobacterium sp., Arthrobacter sp., Rhodococcus sp. The PAH-degrading bacteria isolated had a strong ability to degrade phenanhrene, fluoranthene and pyrene at different degradation rates. The highest degradation rate was observed when three PAH compounds were mixed with an individual strain in the medium. The three PAHs were degraded after one week with a degradation rate of 89.94% for phenanthrene and 93.4% for both of fluoranthene and pyrene. In addition, after 25 days of incubation, the degradation rate was 99.98% for phenanthrene and 99.97% for both of fluoranthene and pyrene. Optical density was measured to estimate bacterial growth during the degradation of PAHs. Highest levels of bacterial growth were observed with a three PAH mixture in the culture, suggesting that the concentration of PAHs influenced bacterial growth and the highest levels of degradation for most series were detected after one week of incubation.

Khalid, Maskaoui; Zheng, Tianling; Hong, Huasheng; Yu, Zhiming; Yuan, Jianjun; Hu, Zhong

2004-12-01

227

Spatial analysis of schizotypal personality traits in Chinese male youths: evidence from a GIS-based analysis of Sichuan  

PubMed Central

Background Schizotypal personality traits are associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, stating that schizotypal traits may represent a “prodrome” or other developmental precursor of schizophrenia. Genetic and environmental factors both play importanxt roles in the development of schizotypal traits. Different levels of schizotypal traits across regions may be indicative of similar differences in the incidence of schizophrenia. Aim The present study identifying where in a given region, schizotypal personality traits are more or less level of schizotypal personality scores in Chinese male youth of Sichuan province. Not only for research purposes but also for the evaluation of new draft and allocation policy initiatives intended to aid recruitment of mental health employees. Methods Data from the Psychological Selection Systems for Chinese Recruits, a mental health screening system used in China, collected in 2011 (67,558 copies) were used to map spatial distribution of schizotypal personality traits using geostatistics and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Correlation analyses were conducted to explore the effects of years of education and illiterate rate on schizotypal personality traits. Results Maps for three schizotypal personality clinical scales (dissociative, Dit; neurotic, Net and sensitive, Set) showed similar geographical trends. The highest T scores were distributed mainly in the eastern and northern counties of Sichuan, with scores decreasing successively from east to west, with the eastern counties generally showing higher scores. Correlation analysis showed that t-scores of Set were negatively correlated with years of education, whereas t-scores of Net were negatively correlated with illiteracy rate. Conclusions Schizotypal personality traits in male youth showed specific geographical trends in Sichuan province, providing some evidence that kriging based on GIS can be used to geographically localize genetic and environmental factors associated with schizotypal personality traits. This approach could be used to help allocate public health resources to specific areas and could also have personnel selection applications. PMID:24423022

2014-01-01

228

Black carbon aerosol characterization in a remote area of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, western China.  

PubMed

The concentrations, size distributions, and mixing states of refractory black carbon (rBC) aerosols were measured with a ground-based Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), and aerosol absorption was measured with an Aethalometer at Qinghai Lake (QHL), a rural area in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau of China in October 2011. The area was not pristine, with an average rBC mass concentration of 0.36 ?g STP-m(-3) during the two-week campaign period. The rBC concentration peaked at night and reached the minimal in the afternoon. This diurnal cycle of concentration is negatively correlated with the mixed layer depth and ventilation. When air masses from the west of QHL were sampled in late afternoon to early evening, the average rBC concentration of 0.21 ?g STP-m(-3) was observed, representing the rBC level in a larger Tibetan Plateau region because of the highest mixed layer depth. A lognormal primary mode with mass median diameter (MMD) of ~175 nm, and a small secondary lognormal mode with MMD of 470-500 nm of rBC were observed. Relative reduction in the secondary mode during a snow event supports recent work that suggested size dependent removal of rBC by precipitation. About 50% of the observed rBC cores were identified as thickly coated by non-BC material. A comparison of the Aethalometer and SP2 measurements suggests that non-BC species significantly affect the Aethalometer measurements in this region. A scaling factor for the Aethalometer data at a wavelength of 880 nm is therefore calculated based on the measurements, which may be used to correct other Aethalometer datasets collected in this region for a more accurate estimate of the rBC loading. The results present here significantly improve our understanding of the characteristics of rBC aerosol in the less studied Tibetan Plateau region and further highlight the size dependent removal of BC via precipitation. PMID:24561294

Wang, Qiyuan; Schwarz, J P; Cao, Junji; Gao, Rushan; Fahey, D W; Hu, Tafeng; Huang, R-J; Han, Yongming; Shen, Zhenxing

2014-05-01

229

Comparative Water Law and Management: The Yellow River Basin In Western China and the State of Kansas In the Western United States  

E-print Network

strengthening the social and economic connections between north and south. 4 From at least the sixth century A.D. onward, China maintained centralized control of large water projects, developed them as state enterprises, and managed them with its vast...

Griggs, Burke W.; Peck, John C.; Yupeng, Xue

2009-01-01

230

Socio-hydrologic Perspectives of the Co-evolution of Humans and Water in the Tarim River Basin, Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Socio-hydrology studies the co-evolution of coupled human-water systems, which is of great importance for long-term sustainable water resource management in basins suffering from serious eco-environmental degradation. Process socio-hydrology can benefit from the exploring the patterns of historical co-evolution of coupled human-water systems as a way to discovering the organizing principles that may underpin their co-evolution. As a self-organized entity, the human-water system in a river basin would evolve into certain steady states over a sufficiently long time but then could also experience sudden shifts due to internal or external disturbances that exceed system thresholds. In this study, we discuss three steady states (also called stages in the social sciences, including natural, human exploitation and recovery stages) and transitions between these during the past 1500 years in the Tarim River Basin of Western China, which a rich history of civilization including its place in the famous Silk Road that connected China to Europe. Specifically, during the natural stage with a sound environment that existed before the 19th century, shifts in the ecohydrological regime were mainly caused by environmental changes such river channel migration and climate change. During the human exploitation stages in the 5th and again in the 19th-20th centuries, however, humans gradually became the main drivers for system evolution, during which the basin experienced rapid population growth, fast socio-economic development and intense human activities. By the 1970s, after 200 years of colonization, the Tarim River Basin evolved into a new regime with vulnerable ecosystem and water system, and suffered from serious water shortages and desertification. Human society then began to take a critical look into the effects of their activities and reappraise the impact of human development on the ecohydrological system, which eventually led the basin into a treatment and recovery stage. Since then, the basin has shown a reverse trend of regime shift towards healing of the environmental damage that was inflicted in the previous stage of human development. In this paper we analyze the recasting effect of human activities on the water system and provide explanations on how human activities influence the co-evolution of human-water system from a broader perspective.

Liu, Ye; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Heping; Liu, Dengfeng; Sivapalan, Murugesu

2013-04-01

231

Focused Pliocene-Quaternary exhumation of the Eastern Pamir domes, western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kongur Shan and Muztagata domes are the most prominent topographic features in the Eastern Pamir indenter corner. In spite of several previous bedrock thermochronology studies, the extent, processes and mechanisms of dome exhumation remain unclear. We present 1158 detrital zircon fission-track (DZFT) ages from modern glacier and river sediments along the domes to better constrain the spatial distribution of exhumation. Our thermochronologic dataset from the Chakragil massif shows a sharp increase in the proportion of DZFT ages >10 Ma from basins that drain the peak region to those further to the north, which suggests that the Kalagile fault forms the northern boundary of the rapidly exhuming dome structure. A cluster of Middle Miocene DZFT ages in these samples documents pre-doming cooling, possibly associated with motion on the Main Pamir thrust and/or Oytag fault. Large fractions of DZFT grain ages <10 Ma in samples from catchments east of the divide likely originate from the Chakragil, Kongur Shan and Muztagata massifs, implying focused exhumation consistent with DZFT age distributions in samples from catchments draining the western flank of the range and bedrock geo- and thermochronologic data from the core of the domes. Furthermore, the majority of the samples contain two distinct DZFT age groups at ?6-4 Ma and ?3-1 Ma respectively. These ages are synchronous with major fluvial sedimentation phases at the outlets of the rivers draining northeastward into the Tarim Basin and suggest rapid Pliocene-Quaternary exhumation of the domes. We interpret the ?6-4 Ma age group to record the onset of extension along the entire Kongur Shan fault; its timing with respect to compressional deformation supports a model of gravitational collapse of over-thickened crust. The fraction of ?3-1 Ma DZFT ages is larger than what would be inferred from the bedrock data alone. We interpret this to reflect recent focused denudation in response to glaciation and fluvial incision of the domes and their possible feedback with extensional faulting.

Cao, Kai; Bernet, Matthias; Wang, Guo-Can; van der Beek, Peter; Wang, An; Zhang, Ke-Xin; Enkelmann, Eva

2013-02-01

232

Crustal flow in western Yunnan, China, and along the Mogok belt, Myanmar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mode of deformation along the eastern boundary of the northward moving Indian block during the Cenozoic is still controversial. Models considered are: (i) southward lateral extrusion of a single crustal block bounded by the right lateral Sagaing fault in Myanmar and the left-lateral Aialo-Shan shear zone (ASSZ) in Yunnan; (ii) southward lateral extrusion of at least two different crustal blocks between the right-lateral S(W)-striking Gaoligong Shan shear zone (GSSZ), the NW-trending Chong Shan shear zone (CSSZ), and the ASSZ. We present a radically different new model: the GSSZ and CSSZ constitute a folded sub-horizontal detachment separating the brittle upper crust from the middle-lower crust represented by the Mogok igneous and metamorphic belt. The kinematics of flow along the detachment was dominantly top-to-S. Folding of the detachment was coeval with and followed top-to-S flow. In the brittle crust, ~E-W shortening is expressed by a fold-thrust belt, and in the ductile crust by L>S tectonites. The deformation pattern is preliminary interpreted as reflecting gravitationally driven flow of upper crustal material from Tibet towards SE-Asia, reminiscent to what is observed by GPS geodesy today. New Mogok-belt granitoid U-Pb zircon dates span the Early to Late Cretaceous (peaks at ~125; 115; 90, and 65 Ma) and tie the Mogok belt to the Gangdese arc of the Lhasa block. New Tertiary magmatic and metamorphic U-Pb zircon dates are 40-30 Ma, similar to magmatism observed across SE-Asia and similar to the monazite age of dikes that we interpret as pre-tectonic along CSSZ [1]. Published and new 40Ar/39Ar dates show that rapid cooling, that we relate to onset of high-strain deformation along the shear zones, started at 20-15 Ma [2, 3]. Fission-track and (U-Th)/He thermochronology indicates that its activity continued at least to 6-3 Ma. References: [1] Akciz, S., Burchfiel, B. C., Crowley, J. L., Jiyun, Y., and Liangzhong, C. (2008): Geometry, kinematics, and regional significance of the Chong Shan shear zone, Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis, Yunnan, China: Geosphere, Febr. 2008, v. 4, p. 292-314. [2] Lin, T.-H., Lo, S.-L., Hsu, F.-J., Yeh, M.-W., Lee, T.-Y., Ji, J.-Q., Wang, Y.-Z., and Liu, D. (2009): 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Jiali and Gaoligong shear zones: Implications for crustal deformation around the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis: Journal of Asian Earth Science, v. 34, p. 674-685. [3] Zhang, B., Zhang, J, Zhong, D., Yang, L., Yue, Y., and Yan, S. (2012): Polystage deformation of the Gaoligong metamorphic zone: Structures, 40Ar/39Ar mica ages, and tectonic implications: Journal of Structural Geology v. 37, p. 1-18.

Sonntag, Benita-Lisette; Min, Myo; Enkelmann, Eva; Kornfeld, Daniela; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Pfänder, Jörg; Jonckheere, Raymond; Dunkl, István

2013-04-01

233

Climate and environmental changes during the past millennium in central western Guizhou, China as recorded by Stalagmite ZJD-21  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stalagmite ZJD-21 (12.3-cm long) was collected from Zhijin Cave in Zhijin County, Guizhou, China. Its 210Pb profile and seven 230Th/ 234U dates indicate that the stalagmite has grown continuously for the past 1100 years. The ?18O record of ZJD-21 indicates that ?18O in the stalagmite was mainly influenced by rainfall amount and/or summer/winter rain ratio, with lighter values corresponding to wetter climatic conditions and/or more summer monsoonal rains. The ZJD-21 ?18O record suggests: (1) dry/warm climates during AD 950-1100 (overlapping with most of the Medieval Warm Period, MWP, in Europe); (2) strengthening of the summer monsoon from the MWP toward the beginning of the Little Ice Age (LIA) at AD 1250; (3) relatively wet/cold conditions occurred between AD 1250 and 1500, shown by relatively light ?18O values; (4) the summer monsoon intensity strongly declined referred by the increase ?18O trend from AD 1500 to AD 1600, perhaps resulting in dry/cold conditions; and (5) a strongly enhancement of the summer monsoon intensity appeared from AD 1700 to 1950, reflecting wet/cold conditions during the late period of the LIA. On decadal scales the monsoonal climate of central western Guizhou can be either warm/wet and cold/dry, or warm/dry and cold/wet. The ?13C variations in ZJD-21 on decadal-to-centennial scales respond mainly to vegetation changes with heavier values reflecting lesser amount of forest coverage. Prior to AD 1700, the ?13C generally co-varied with ?18O reflecting the expected more extensive vegetation growth (lighter ?13C) under wetter climate (lighter ?18O). However, during the past 300 years the ?13C increased sharply showing an opposite trend to that of ?18O. This observation strongly suggests that a decline of surface vegetation due to an artificial deforestation might have occurred - an occurrence coincident with the large-scale immigration into central western Guizhou in connection with copper-mining activities during the reign of Emperor Yongzheng of Qing Dynasty. Since the late 1890s, especially in the past 50 years, population surge has led to serious karst rocky desertification in the area.

Kuo, Tz-Shing; Liu, Zi-Qi; Li, Hong-Chun; Wan, Nai-Jung; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Ku, Teh-Lung

2011-04-01

234

Remote sensing, paleoecology, and the archaeology of human migration during the Pleistocene in central Asia and western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing used in the context of global information systems has enormous applications within archaeology. This technology enables the discovery of new archaeological features and promotes an understanding of the relationship between ecosystem and cultural dynamics. Archaeologists are able to add a time dimension to 'creeping environmental changes' that other areas of scientific inquiry concerned with climate change often lack. Remote sensing and other aerial prospecting has been used successfully to model land use and population expansions during relatively recent archaeological eras, such as the Bronze and Iron Ages. Although satellite image databases exist for numerous areas of the New and Old World, very little research has been conducted in Central Asia or western China. This region is historically significant because of its position along the important trading route called the Silk Road. The purpose of the present research is to investigate another poorly understood period of human history that would benefit from the application of remote sensing and associated ground truthing techniques. The migration of hominids out of Africa during the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene and their subsequent colonization of north-central, east, and south-east Asia is relatively well documented in the archaeological record and marks the beginning of the long-term process of human impacts on the region. However, the trajectory of dispersal of Homo erectus, Neandertals, and early modern humans and the ways by which ecosystem vagaries affected this dispersal across Eurasia is unknown. Our purpose is to summarize what is currently known about the geological indicators of ecosystem changes that remote sensing techniques provide and how ecosystem variables may allow us to model human migration as that of an invasive species through this important geographic crossroads of the Old World.

Glantz, Michelle M.; Todd, Lawrence

2003-07-01

235

The Changes in Maternal Mortality in 1000 Counties in Mid-Western China by a Government-Initiated Intervention  

PubMed Central

Background Since 2000, the Chinese government has implemented an intervention program to reduce maternal mortality and eliminate neonatal tetanus in accordance with the Millennium Development Goals 5. To assess the effectiveness of this intervention program, we analyzed the level, trend and reasons defining the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in the 1,000 priority counties before and after implementation of the intervention between 1999 and 2007. Methodology/Principal Findings The data was obtained from the National Maternal and Child Health Routine Reporting System. The intervention included providing basic and emergency obstetric equipment and supplies to local medical hospitals, and also included providing professional training to local obstetric doctors, development of obstetric emergency centers and “green channel” express referral networks, reducing or waiving the cost of hospital delivery, and conducting community health education. Based on the initiation time of the intervention and the level of poverty, 1,000 counties, containing a total population of 300 million, were categorized into three groups. MMR significantly decreased by about 50%, with an average reduction rate of 9.24%, 16.06%, and 18.61% per year in the three county groups, respectively. The hospital delivery rate significantly increased. Obstetric hemorrhage was the leading cause of maternal deaths and significantly declined, with an average decrease in the MMR of 11.25%, 18.03%, and 24.90% per year, respectively. The magnitude of the MMR, the average reduction rate of the MMR, and the occurrence of the leading causes of death were closely associated with the percentage of poverty. Conclusions/Significance The intervention program implemented by the Chinese government has significantly reduced the MMR in mid-western China, suggesting that well-targeted interventions could be an efficient strategy to reducing MMR in resource-poor areas. Reduction of the MMR not only depends on conducting proven interventions, but also relies on economic development in rural areas with a high burden of maternal death. PMID:22629398

Dai, Li; Zeng, Weiyue; Li, Qi; Li, Mingrong; Zhou, Rong; He, Chunhua; Wang, Yanping; Zhu, Jun

2012-01-01

236

China's \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that China may be on the verge of a “Green Leap Forward” that could make it a global environmental leader. This article argues that two principal forces have contributed to this development. First, Chinese officials now realize that a global shift away from fossil fuels will create enormous business opportunities on a global scale. Chinese companies are

Robert V. Percival

2011-01-01

237

Neoproterozoic adakitic rocks from Mopanshan in the western Yangtze Craton: Partial melts of a thickened lower crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tectonic setting of South China during the Neoproterozoic remains a subject of debate. Neoproterozoic adakites from Xuelongbao and Datian along the western margin of the Yangtze Craton have been used to argue for an arc setting assuming that these rocks are the melting products of a subducted oceanic slab (Zhou, M.F., Yan, D.P., Wang, C.L., Qi, L., Kennedy, A., 2006a. Subduction-related origin of the 750 Ma Xuelongbao adakitic complex (Sichuan Province, China): Implications for the tectonic setting of the giant Neoproterozoic magmatic event in South China. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 248, 286-300.; Zhao, J.H., Zhou, M.F., 2007. Neoproterozoic Adakitic Plutons and Arc Magmatism along the Western Margin of the Yangtze Block, South China. The Journal of Geology 115, 675-689.). However, the slab-related petrogenetic model is unsuitable for the Neoproterozoic (782 ± 6 Ma) adakites from Mopanshan. The Mopanshan adakites are characterized by low MgO, Cr and Ni contents, high Rb/Sr and Sr/Y ratios and negative ? Nd( t) values (- 2.06 to - 0.43). These features, plus the presence of relict zircons (1.16-0.83 Ga) and Mesoproterozoic zircon Hf model ages (1.06-1.27 Ga), are inconsistent with a slab-melting origin, but favour an origin by melting of a thickened continental lower crust. It is likely that the crust associated with magma generation may have experienced continuous growth and reworking since the Sibao Orogeny. Sharing the main geochemical features with the Mopanshan rocks, the Xuelongbao and Datian adakites may also have been derived from a thickened lower crust. This interpretation casts doubts on the Neoproterozoic arc setting proposed for south China. Instead, the Neoproterozoic in south China may represent an intra-continental extensional setting.

Huang, Xiao-Long; Xu, Yi-Gang; Lan, Jiang-Bo; Yang, Qi-Jun; Luo, Zheng-Yu

2009-10-01

238

Contribution of water soluble organic nitrogen to total nitrogen in marine aerosols over the East China Sea and western North Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents information on concentrations, size distributions, geographical distributions and sources of water soluble organic nitrogen (ON ws) in aerosols over the East China Sea and western North Pacific to understand its impact on the atmospheric processes and the oceanic ecosystems in the autumn and spring in the East Asian region. Results revealed ON ws contributions to the total nitrogen in aerosols to be ˜24% and ˜10% over the East China Sea in the autumn and the spring, respectively. The particulate ON ws mainly existed in fine sized particles. Gas to particle conversion may be the major formation process for ON ws. Occurrence of particulate ON ws in both fine and coarse modes during the Kosa event suggests gaseous ON adsorption and/or adhesion to the coarse mode mineral. This behavior of ON ws is unique whereas NH4+ occurred dominantly in fine mode and NO3- in coarse mode.

Nakamura, Tokuhiro; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Maripi, Dileep Kumar; Uematsu, Mitsuo

239

Comparison of Three Intervention Models for Promoting Circumcision among Migrant Workers in Western China to Reduce Local Sexual Transmission of HIV  

PubMed Central

Objective Three models for promoting male circumcision (MC) as a preventative intervention against HIV infection were compared among migrant worker populations in western China. Methods A cohort study was performed after an initial cross-sectional survey among migrant workers in three provincial level districts with high HIV prevalence in western China. A total of 1,670 HIV seronegative male migrants were cluster-randomized into three intervention models, in which the dissemination of promotional materials and expert- and volunteer-led discussions are conducted in one, two, and three stage interventions. Changes in knowledge of MC, acceptability of MC, MC surgery uptake, and the costs of implementation were analyzed at 6-month and 9-month follow-up visits. Results All three models significantly increased the participants’ knowledge about MC. The three-stage model significantly increased the acceptability of MC among participants and led to greatest increase in MC uptake. At the end of follow-up, 9.2% (153/1,670) of participants underwent MC surgery; uptake among the one-, two-, and three-stage models were 4.9%, 9.3%, and 14.6%, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that three-stage model was the most effective method to scale up MC, with RR = 2.0 (95% CI, 1.3-3.1, P=0.002) compared to the on-site session model. The two-stage intervention model showed no significant difference with either the on-site session model (RR=1.5, 95% CI, 0.92-2.4, P=0.12) or three-stage model (P=0.10). Conclusions A three-stage intervention with gradual introduction of knowledge led to the significantly increase in MC uptake among migrant workers in western China, and was also the most cost-effective method among the three models. PMID:24098770

Ye, Li; Yang, Xiaobo; Wei, Bo; Deng, Wei; Wei, Suosu; Huang, Jiegang; Qin, Bo; Upur, Halmurat; Zhong, Chaohui; Wang, Qianqiu; Wang, Qian; Ruan, Yuhua; Wei, Fumei; Xu, Na; Xie, Peiyan; Hsi, Jenny H.; Shao, Yiming; Liang, Hao

2013-01-01

240

The Impact of Changes of the Internal Agricultural Structure in Sichuan Province on Farmers’ Income  

Microsoft Academic Search

After introducing the status quo of farmers’ net income and gross out value of agriculture of Sichuan Province, and the changes of agricultural output structure, the regression analysis was conducted on the impact of the changes in agricultural structure on the farmers’ net income per capita on strengthens of the data from Sichuan statistical yearbook and by the way of

Rui-fang Gao; Xian-wei Jia

2010-01-01

241

The China Connection: Western Institutions Meet Chinese Students and Alumni on the Country's Most Popular Social Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As one of the top U.S. choices for international students, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has a solid reputation in China and a history of educating Chinese students that goes back more than a century. But the university did not realize until last June that its nickname in China is the "Cornfield Ivy" and that Chinese…

Ramspott, Becca

2013-01-01

242

New characteristics of intensity assessment of Sichuan Lushan "4.20" M s7.0 earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The post-earthquake rapid accurate assessment of macro influence of seismic ground motion is of significance for earthquake emergency relief, post-earthquake reconstruction and scientific research. The seismic intensity distribution map released by the Lushan earthquake field team of the China Earthquake Administration (CEA) five days after the strong earthquake ( M7.0) occurred in Lushan County of Sichuan Ya'an City at 8:02 on April 20, 2013 provides a scientific basis for emergency relief, economic loss assessment and post-earthquake reconstruction. In this paper, the means for blind estimation of macroscopic intensity, field estimation of macro intensity, and review of intensity, as well as corresponding problems are discussed in detail, and the intensity distribution characteristics of the Lushan "4.20" M7.0 earthquake and its influential factors are analyzed, providing a reference for future seismic intensity assessments.

Sun, Baitao; Yan, Peilei; Chen, Xiangzhao

2014-08-01

243

How much does heat content of the western tropical Pacific Ocean modulate the South China Sea summer monsoon onset in the last four decades?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

role of the western tropical Pacific Ocean heat content in the South China Sea summer monsoon (SCSSM) onset is investigated in the present paper, by using atmospheric data from NCEP and ocean subsurface temperature data from Japan Meteorology Agency. It is showed from the result that the heat content (HC) of the upper 400 m layer in the western tropical Pacific (WTP), especially in the region of (130°E-150°E, 0°N-14°N) in the last four decades, is a good predictive indicator for the SCSSM onset. Positive (negative) HC anomalies can induce a strong (weak) convection over the WTP, leading to stronger (weaker) Walker circulation and weaker (stronger) western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) in the boreal spring. Consequently, the anomalous westerly (easterly) in the tropical Indian Ocean is favorable (unfavorable) for the airflow into the SCS and for an early (late) WNPSH retreat from the SCS and hence for an early (late) SCSSM onset. It is elucidated that the long-term trend of SCSSM onset changes its sign around 1993/94 from decline to rise, which is responding and attributed to the WTP HC trend. During the period of 1971-1993, the WTP HC shows a significant decrease trend. In particular, a significant decline trend is observed in the HC difference between the WTP and western tropical Indian Ocean, which causes an easterly trend in the SCS and strengthened WNPSH trend, leading to a late onset trend of SCSSM. The situation is reverse after 1993/94.

Feng, Junqiao; Hu, Dunxin

2014-07-01

244

The mating system of the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana).  

PubMed

This article reports the first genetic study of the mating system of the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana), an endemic and endangered species in China. The investigation was carried out in a population (WRT) in the Qinling Mountains using data from both field observation and paternity analysis through microsatellite DNA profiling. During a mating season, a male on an average copulated with 5.7 females. Approximately 18% of the females were observed to copulate with more than one male over the study period. The majority of copulations (94.5%) were initiated by females. Twenty-eight of 430 observed matings were extra-unit copulations. Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were used for paternity analysis. The number of alleles at each locus ranged from 3 to 7 (mean=4.3). Observed heterozygosity ranged between 0.32 and 0.79. None of the loci showed significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Results from paternity exclusion showed that 12 of 21 (57.1%) immature individuals were sired by extra-unit males. Although the basic social unit of snub-nosed monkeys is consistent with a polygynous mating system, both field observation and genetic data suggests that their mating system is polygamous. Infanticide and inbreeding avoidance are the most likely explanations for the promiscuity of female snub-nosed monkeys. PMID:19768744

Guo, Songtao; Ji, Weihong; Li, Ming; Chang, Hongli; Li, Baoguo

2010-01-01

245

Cultural attitudes to corruption : a perspective on the interplay between cultural and legal norms for Western businesses operating in China  

E-print Network

Corruption is an important challenge facing those who wish to do business in China. Beyond the commercial context, corruption and attitudes towards it are also more broadly relevant to politics, political economics and ...

Winters, Timothy (Timothy Mark)

2013-01-01

246

Two new species of Chelifera Macquart from China (Diptera: Empididae).  

PubMed

Two new Chelifera species, C. liuae sp. nov. from Sichuan and C. tibetensis sp. nov. from Tibet, are described. The genus Chelifera is recorded from Tibet for the first time. Cheliefera tibetensis is assigned to the C. rhombicercus-group. An updated key to the species of Chelifera from China is provided. PMID:24870472

Wang, Xiwei; Yan, Shanchun; Yang, Ding

2014-01-01

247

China.  

PubMed

China's census, scheduled for July 1, 1981, will be preceded by a pilot census at the end of the next month. According to Mr. Y.C. Yu, Statistician in the Demographic and Social Statistics Branch of the UN, the pretest will be held in Wu Xi, a resort area of about 1.6 million persons about a 2-hour train ride west of Shanghai. Mr. Yu and Mr. Varon Kannisto will be UN observers of the pilot census. The method of enumeration will be similar to that used in the 1953 and 1964 censuses, said Mr. Yu. Each head of household will report to an enumeration station to provide information on the characteristics of household members. The questionnaire will contain about 13 items, which will be asked of 100% of the population. The 5 million enumerators will be teachers, accountants, and others, generally residents of the local area in which they will act as enumerators. Census data will be processed by computers in each of the 29 provinces and autonomous regions. The UNFPA is providing computers, data entry and ancillary equipment, software and supplies, advisory services, and training in census methods and data processing. The computers supplied by IBM will be the 4300 series; a model 4341 will be installed at the State Statistical Bureau in Beijing and 15 model 4331s will go to individual provinces. Results of earlier censuses were processed manually and with the abacus. UNFPA also plans to provide support for the analysis of census data and for their dissemination to appropriate organizations and departments in China. PMID:12278426

1980-05-01

248

A Community Fault Model (CFM) for the Sichuan basin and Longmen Shan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake struck Sichuan Province, China, along the Longmen Shan fold-and-thrust belt. The rupture occurred in a region with no prior, historical earthquakes of comparable size, and in a region with low horizontal shortening. Thus, the event occurred with little prior warning based on current methods of seismic hazards assessment. In order to improve seismic hazards assessment, we have constructed a Community Fault Model (CFM) and Community Velocity Model (CVM) for the region, modeled after the Southern California CFM/CVM (Plesch et al., 2007). Here, we describe the CFM, which consists of 3D representations of the main active faults in the region. To facilitate model construction, we imported a variety of surface and subsurface datasets into Gocad, a 3D CAD tool. These include geological maps, fault maps, seismicity, focal mechanisms, well data, cross-sections, and seismic reflection profiles. We developed a quantitative technique for constructing fault surfaces using these datasets, described in Riesner et al. (2012). The region displays a variety of faulting styles. The Longmen Shan is a NE-SW-striking fold-and-thrust belt, characterized by a set of NW-dipping imbricated thrust ramps that sole into a deep detachment at ~15-20 km. This detachment rises to the SE along a blind thrust ramp (the Range Front thrust), and flattens to a shallower detachment that underlies much of the Sichuan basin (2-7 km depth). Many of the active faults in the basin sole to this shallow detachment, which is localized in a Triassic evaporite sequence. There is also evidence of deeper faulting within the Sichuan basin, as shown by the Weiyuan anticline and patches of seismicity at greater depth. These faults generally dip steeply, and may be thick-skinned or rise from a deeper detachment. The main fault that ruptured in the Wenchuan earthquake, the Beichuan fault, lies within the Longmen Shan and dips steeply. More shallowly dipping faults splay off of this fault to the SE; one of these (the Pengguan fault) also ruptured in the Wenchuan earthquake. Slip in the earthquake was highly oblique, with right-lateral motion. Consistent with this obliquity, we see evidence for the breakthrough of a new strike-slip fault to the NE of the mapped rupture in the Wenchuan earthquake based on seismicity patterns. To the north and south, the Longmen Shan is bounded by two large NW-SE to N-S-striking left-lateral strike-slip systems: the Kunlun to the north, and the Xianshuihe-Anninghe to the south. Although some faults are well-constrained by surface and subsurface data, others are represented only by a surface trace and sparse seismicity. When the geometry is unclear, we provide multiple alternative models. We plan to develop "quality rankings" for the faults based on data availability and community surveys. These rankings will be used to identify the preferred model when multiple alternatives are available. In addition to providing an integrative repository for fault studies and data, this model is intended to be used in a wide range of earthquake studies, including analysis of geodetic data to assess fault slip rates, simulations of the strong ground motion that will result from future earthquakes, and improvement of regional tomographic models. We will be releasing the fault model together with our 3D velocity model (Wang et al., 2012) to facilitate such studies.

Hubbard, J.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Riesner, M.; Smith, H.; Wang, M.; Durand-Riard, P.

2012-12-01

249

Abiogenic Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of methane at the Baogutu reduced porphyry copper deposit, western Junggar, NW-China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane is widely developed in hydrothermal fluids from reduced porphyry copper deposits, but its origin remains enigmatic. The occurrence of methane in fluid inclusions at the Late Carboniferous Baogutu reduced porphyry copper deposit in western Junggar, Xinjiang, NW-China, presents an excellent opportunity to address this problem. A systematic study including fluid inclusion Laser-Raman and CO2-CH4 carbon isotope analyses, igneous and hydrothermal mineral H-O isotope analyses, and in situ major, trace element and Sr isotopic analyses of hydrothermal epidote was conducted to constrain the origin of CH4 and CH4-rich fluids. The ?2H and ?18O of water in equilibrium with igneous biotite ranges from -65.0‰ to -66.0‰ and +7.2‰ to +7.4‰, respectively, indicating notable degassing of probably supercritical fluids in the magma chamber. The wide range of ?2H (-58.0‰ to -107.0‰, n = 23) for water within quartz suggests the existence of significant hydrothermal fluid boiling. Water-rock interaction is the most likely mechanism leading to the wide range of ?18O values for water in vein quartz with water/rock ratios (wt.% in O) of 0.15 to 0.75 and 0.13 to 0.46 for a closed and open system, respectively. Detailed Laser-Raman analyses indicate CO2 in apatite included in granodiorite porphyry phenocrystic biotite that records the carbon species of the early stage magmatic stage, whereas later hydrothermal fluids containing CH4 with trace or without CO2 are found in inclusions of vein quartz. We propose that CH4 is probably transformed from CO2 by Fischer-Tropsch type reactions at 500 °C, assumed from CO2-CH4 C isotope equilibrium. The (87Sr/86Sr)i of hydrothermal epidote yields values of 0.70369-0.70404, consistent with that reported for the whole rocks. The ?13CCH4 (-28.6‰ to -22.6‰) and ?2HCH4 (-108.0‰ to -59.5‰) are characteristic of abiogenic methane. The measured ?13CCO2 shows a slightly depleted 13C (-13.5‰ to -7.2‰) relative to upper mantle (-6‰), probably due to the combined effects of minor (less than 0.5%) sedimentary organic matter contamination in the mantle and carbon isotope fractionation occurring during late degassing. Combining the results indicates that CO2 likely originated from the upper mantle with trace addition of sedimentary organic matter. During the uplift or emplacement of the granitoids, significant degassing caused the depletion of 13C and 2H. As the granitoids cooled, notable hydrothermal fluid boiling and water-rock interaction produced the depletion of 2H and 18O, respectively, and the magmatic CO2 was reduced to CH4 by Fischer-Tropsch type reactions that probably occurred during Ca-Na and potassic hydrothermal alteration.

Cao, MingJian; Qin, KeZhang; Li, GuangMing; Evans, Noreen J.; Jin, LuYing

2014-09-01

250

Newspaper coverage of emergency response and government responsibility in domestic natural disasters: China-US and within-China comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a comparative approach, this article reports content analyses of news articles about a devastating earthquake that occurred in Sichuan province, China, from six Chinese newspapers, indicating that the Chinese media, in reporting the government’s emergency responses, had many similarities with the American media's coverage of Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Further comparisons, however, suggest that the claim of a

King-wa Fu; Ling Zhou; Qiang Zhang; Yuen-ying Chan; Ford Burkhart

2012-01-01

251

This research brief was produced as part of the China Environment Forum's partnership with Western Kentucky University on the USAID-supported China Environmental Health Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of China's environmental crises—from industrial contamination to desertification— have become government priorities and made news around the world. One serious pollution issue that is not yet heavily prioritized or making headlines is the waste produced in the country's 14,000 factory farms (a.k.a. concentrated animal feeding operations, CAFOs) that threaten the environment and human health.(1) In 2003, it was estimated

Linden Ellis; Jennifer L. Turner

252

Intron polymorphism (EPIC-PCR) reveals phylogeographic structure of Zacco platypus in China: a possible target for aquaculture development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims at a phylogeographic description of Zacco platypus from southeast China, in order to detect subdivisions within the nominal species. Two main basins were sampled: the Chang Jiang (Yangstze River) in central and east China (Hunan and Sichuan provinces) and the Xi Jiang, the more southern main tributary of the Zhu Jiang (Pearl River, Guangxi province). A

P Berrebi; E Boissin; F Fang; G Cattaneo-Berrebi

2005-01-01

253

The influences of surface water-overflowing disturbance on the fluctuations of Tamarix ramosissima community in Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this study is to examine the fluctuation characteristics of Tamarix ramosissima community from the year of 2007–2008 in desert riparian forest under human surface water-overflowing disturbance in the lower reaches of Tarim River, China. In this paper, community structure, species diversity and dominant species were chosen as the indicators which could reflect the characteristics of community

Yanrui Chen; Linke Yin; Xu Bai

2010-01-01

254

Palaeogeothermal response and record of the effusing of Emeishan basalts in the Sichuan basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal history of the Sichuan basin is reconstructed based on vitrinite reflectance from boreholes in the basin using a paleo-heat\\u000a flow method. The results show that the Sichuan basin experienced a relatively low heat flow period in the Early Paleozoic,\\u000a and an elevated paleo-heat flow, ranging 60?80 mW\\/m2 with a maximum as high as 100 mW\\/m2 around 259 Ma, from

ChuanQing Zhu; Ming Xu; YuSong Yuan; YongQing Zhao; JingNan Shan; ZhiGuo He; YunTao Tian; ShengBiao Hu

2010-01-01

255

Paleoenvironmental and archaeological investigations at Qinghai Lake, western China: Geomorphic and chronometric evidence of lake level history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qinghai Lake, located on the northeastern Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (Qing-Zang Gaoyuan), is China's largest extant closed-basin lake. Its position relative to major Asian climate systems makes it sensitive to global climate change. The lake has been the subject of numerous paleoenvironmental investigations including dating of shoreline features around the lake basin. Here we report new age estimates of shoreline features, geomorphic

David Rhode; Ma Haizhou; David B. Madsen; P. Jeffrey Brantingham; Steven L. Forman; John W. Olsen

2010-01-01

256

Paleoenvironmental and archaeological investigations at Qinghai Lake, western China: Geomorphic and chronometric evidence of lake level history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qinghai Lake, located on the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (Qing-Zang Gaoyuan), is China's largest extant closed-basin lake. Its position relative to major Asian climate systems makes it sensitive to global climate change. The lake has been the subject of numerous paleoenvironmental investigations including dating of shoreline features around the lake basin. Here we report new age estimates of shoreline features, geomorphic

David Rhode; Ma Haizhou; David B. Madsen; P. Jeffrey Brantingham; Steven L. Forman; John W. Olsen

2009-01-01

257

A meteorological analysis on a low tropospheric ozone event over Xining, North Western China on 26-27 July 1996  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pronounced low tropospheric ozone (O 3) event was observed over the Tibetan plateau in Xining (XN) (101.45°E, 36.43°N, 2296 m a.s.l), Northwestern China by electrochemical concentration cell ozonesonde from 25-27 July 1996. The event featured very low O 3 mixing ratio (<56 ppbv) below 15 km above ground and high relative humidity (30-100%). A comparison with the vertical distribution of tropospheric O 3 over Lhasa (91.03°E, 29.40°N, 3650 m a.s.l) has suggested that the low tropospheric O 3 mixing ratio over XN represented a common characteristic of tropospheric O 3 over the Tibetan plateau. Meteorological measurements from the regional radiosonde network in China and satellites revealed that the low O 3 event was associated with an anticyclone in the upper troposphere, which was characterized by an intensive upwelling transport. The dynamical processes of the transport were investigated using latitudinal cross-section analysis on the National Centre of Environmental Prediction data set and three-dimensional backward trajectories. The results showed that the O 3-depleted air originated from Southeast Asia or the marine boundary layer of the South China Sea and had travelled across the Tibetan plateau where an 'O 3 valley' was observed at the time during the long-range transport inland over XN.

Xiangdong, Zheng; Xiuji, Zhou; Jie, Tang; Yu, Qin; Chuenyu, Chan

258

Terrestriality and tree stratum use in a group of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys.  

PubMed

Morphological characters allow the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) to use multiple tree levels, but very few studies have quantified the terrestriality and tree stratum use of the species. I investigated the terrestriality and tree stratum use in a group of the monkeys from July 2003 to September 2004 (except February) in the Qianjiaping area of Shennongjia Nature Reserve, China. I collected data on the vertical position of individual monkeys in forest in relation to behavior types, diet, age/sex classes, vegetation types, tree height, and distribution of predators. The monkeys were much more arboreal than they were thought to be. They spent 97.1% of their time in trees (n=21,234 records) and 2.9% on the ground, and mainly used the middle (74.4%) and upper strata (17.4%). The monkeys displayed all behavioral types except searching in the middle and upper strata. The percentage of use of a stratum (except the low stratum) varied among months, and there was a difference in the percentage of use of a stratum among age/sex classes and between vegetation types. Approximately 94.2% of trees used by the monkeys were >6 m tall. They mainly fed on lichens, young leaves, mature leaves, flowers, fruits or seeds, and buds in the middle and upper strata, bark in the low and middle strata and herbs on the ground. Wolf (Canis lupus), leopard (Panthera pardus), and golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) are predators threatening the survival of individual monkeys in the study site. The results suggested that the seasonal vertical distribution of food items eaten in forest, predators, and vegetation types had important effects on the terrestriality and tree stratum use of the monkeys. PMID:17265009

Li, Yiming

2007-07-01

259

A 14?000-year record of paleoenvironmental change in the western basin of China's third largest lake, Lake Taihu  

Microsoft Academic Search

The longest vertical profile from the western basin of Taihu Lake ever taken was nearly 4 m (396 cm) in length and represented a time period of over 14?000 years. The core was analyzed for the following proxies, magnetic susceptibility, organic carbon isotope, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, total pigments, saturated hydrocarbons, carbon 14, thermolytic hydrogen (the hydrogen index, HI)

Wenchuan Qu; Bin Xue; M. D. Dickman; Sumin Wang; Chengxin Fan; Ruijin Wu; Pingzhong Zhang; Jianfa Chen; Yanhong Wu

2000-01-01

260

Water quality assessment by pollution-index method in the coastal waters of Hebei Province in western Bohai Sea, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sources of pollution discharges and water quality samples at 27 stations in 2006 in the coastal waters of Hebei Province, western Bohai Sea, have been analyzed in this study. Pollutant loads from industrial sewages have shown stronger impact on the water environment than those from the general sewages. Analysis indicates that pollution of COD is mainly resulted from land-based point

Shuguang Liu; Sha Lou; Cuiping Kuang; Wenrui Huang; Wujun Chen; Jianle Zhang; Guihui Zhong

2011-01-01

261

Trace gases, aerosols and their interactions with synoptic weather: An overview of in-situ measurements at the SORPES Station in the western Yangtze River Delta, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents an overview of 1 yr measurements of ozone (O3) and fine particular matter (PM2.5) and related trace gases at a recently developed regional background site, the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES), in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in eastern China. Ozone and PM2.5 showed strong seasonal cycles but with contrast patterns: O3 reached a maximum in warm seasons but PM2.5 in cold seasons. Correlation analysis suggests a VOC-sensitive regime for O3 chemistry and a formation of secondary aerosols under conditions of high O3 in summer. Compared with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in China, our measurements report 15 days of O3 exceedance and 148 days of PM2.5 exceedance during the 1 yr period, suggesting a severe air pollution situation in this region. A calculation of potential source contributions based on Lagrangian dispersion simulations suggests that emissions from the YRD contributed to over 70% of the O3 precursor CO, with a majority from the mid-YRD. North-YRD and the North China Plain are the main contributors to PM2.5pollution in this region. Case studies for typical O3 and PM2.5 episodes showed that synoptic weather played an important role in air pollution, especially for O3. Observation during the typical biomass burning seasons also shows clear air pollution - weather interactions. For the typical episode occurred on 10 June, 2012, the measurement suggest that the mixed agricultural burning plumes with fossil fuel combustion pollution resulted in a decrease of solar radiation by more than 70 %, of sensible heat flux over 85 %, a temperature drop by almost 10 K, and a change 10 of rainfall during daytime and nighttime. This work shows an important environmental impact from industrialization and urbanization in the YRD region, and suggests an urgent need for improving air quality in these areas through collaborative control measures among different administrative regions, and also highlights a cross-disciplinary need in both measurement and modeling to study the regional environmental, weather and climate problems in East China.

Ding, A.; Fu, C.; Yang, X.; Petaja, T.; Kerminen, V.; Kulmala, M. T.

2011-12-01

262

Trace gases, aerosols and their interactions with synoptic weather: An overview of in-situ measurements at the SORPES Station in the western Yangtze River Delta, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents an overview of 1 yr measurements of ozone (O3) and fine particular matter (PM2.5) and related trace gases at a recently developed regional background site, the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES), in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in eastern China. Ozone and PM2.5 showed strong seasonal cycles but with contrast patterns: O3 reached a maximum in warm seasons but PM2.5 in cold seasons. Correlation analysis suggests a VOC-sensitive regime for O3 chemistry and a formation of secondary aerosols under conditions of high O3 in summer. Compared with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in China, our measurements report 15 days of O3 exceedance and 148 days of PM2.5 exceedance during the 1 yr period, suggesting a severe air pollution situation in this region. A calculation of potential source contributions based on Lagrangian dispersion simulations suggests that emissions from the YRD contributed to over 70% of the O3 precursor CO, with a majority from the mid-YRD. North-YRD and the North China Plain are the main contributors to PM2.5pollution in this region. Case studies for typical O3 and PM2.5 episodes showed that synoptic weather played an important role in air pollution, especially for O3. Observation during the typical biomass burning seasons also shows clear air pollution - weather interactions. For the typical episode occurred on 10 June, 2012, the measurement suggest that the mixed agricultural burning plumes with fossil fuel combustion pollution resulted in a decrease of solar radiation by more than 70 %, of sensible heat flux over 85 %, a temperature drop by almost 10 K, and a change 10 of rainfall during daytime and nighttime. This work shows an important environmental impact from industrialization and urbanization in the YRD region, and suggests an urgent need for improving air quality in these areas through collaborative control measures among different administrative regions, and also highlights a cross-disciplinary need in both measurement and modeling to study the regional environmental, weather and climate problems in East China.

Ding, A.; Fu, C.; Yang, X.; Petaja, T.; Kerminen, V.; Kulmala, M. T.

2013-12-01

263

Sources and photochemistry of volatile organic compounds in the remote atmosphere of western China: results from the Mt. Waliguan Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemistry of the natural atmosphere and the influence by long-range transport of air pollution are key issues in the atmospheric sciences. Here we present two intensive field measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in late spring and summer of 2003 at Mt. Waliguan (WLG, 36.28° N, 100.90° E, 3816 m a.s.l.), a baseline station in the northeast part of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Most VOC species exhibited higher concentrations in late spring than in summer. A typical diurnal variation was observed with higher nighttime levels, in contrast to results from other mountainous sites. Five different air masses were identified from backward trajectory analysis showing distinct VOC speciation. Air masses originating from the central Eurasian continent contained the lowest VOC levels compared to the others that were impacted by anthropogenic emissions from China and the Indian sub-continent. The data were compared with the TRACE-P (Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific) data to examine the inflow and outflow of air pollution over the China sub-continent. The results show that the free troposphere over China may be affected by the inflow from the Eurasian continent in spring, and the emissions in China may not have a significant influence on the free tropospheric outflow. A photochemical box model based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (version 3.2) and constrained by a full suite of measurements was developed to probe the photochemistry of atmosphere at WLG. Our results show net ozone production from in-situ photochemistry during both late spring and summer. Oxidation of nitric oxide (NO) by the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) dominates the ozone production relative to the oxidation by the organic peroxy radicals (RO2), and the ozone is primarily destroyed by photolysis and reactions with the HOx(HOx = OH + HO2) radicals. Ozone photolysis is the predominant primary source of radicals (ROx = OH + HO2 + RO2), followed by the photolysis of oxygenated VOCs and hydrogen peroxides. The radical losses are governed by the self and cross reactions among the radicals. The findings can provide insights into the background chemistry and the impacts of pollution transport on the pristine atmosphere over the Eurasian continent.

Xue, L. K.; Wang, T.; Guo, H.; Blake, D. R.; Tang, J.; Zhang, X. C.; Saunders, S. M.; Wang, W. X.

2013-05-01

264

Petrology and U-Pb zircon dating of coesite-bearing metapelite from the Kebuerte Valley, western Tianshan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the petrology and U-Pb dating of coesite-bearing garnet-phengite schist from the Kebuerte Valley, Chinese western Tianshan. It mainly consists of porphyroblastic garnet, phengite, quartz and chlorite with minor amounts of paragonite, albite, zoisite and chloritoid. The well preserved coesite inclusions (˜100 ?m) in garnet are encircled by a narrow rim of quartz. They were identified by optical microscopy and confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Using the computer program THERMOCALC, the peak metamorphic conditions of 29 kbar and 565 °C were obtained via garnet isopleth geothermobarometry. The predicted UHP peak mineral assemblage comprises garnet + jadeite + lawsonite + carpholite + coesite + phengite. The metapelite records prograde quartz-eclogite-facies metamorphism, UHP coesite-eclogite-facies peak metamorphism, and a late greenschist-facies overprint. Phase equilibrium modeling predicts that garnet mainly grew in the mineral assemblages garnet + jadeite + lawsonite + chloritoid + glaucophane + quartz + phengite and garnet + jadeite + lawsonite + carpholite + glaucophane + quartz + phengite. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of the coesite-bearing metapelite yielded the peak metamorphic age 320.4 ± 3.7 Ma. For the first time, age data of coesite-bearing UHP metapelite from the Chinese western Tianshan are presented in this paper. They are in accord with published ages obtained from eclogite from other localities in the Chinese western Tianshan and the Kyrgyz South Tianshan and therefore prove a widespread occurrence of UHP metamorphism.

Yang, Xin; Zhang, Lifei; Tian, Zuolin; Bader, Thomas

2013-07-01

265

Factors associated with acceptability of circumcision among male drug users in western China: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

This study is aimed to investigate whether male circumcision (MC) is feasible among IDUs in China. 1304 drug users who attended methadone maintenance therapy clinics in Guangxi, Chongqing and Xinjiang were selected for participation by using convenience sampling, and completed a self-administered questionnaire. The factors associated with the acceptability of MC were examined via multiple logistic regression models. 45.2% (589/1304) of the participants reported an acceptance of MC. Many of the participants who were initially not willing to accept MC (715/1304) had changed their mind when they were informed that MC would reduce the risk of HIV and STDs (43.4%; 310/715), that MC is associated with few surgery-related complications (23.1%; 165/715), that the surgical procedure could be arranged free of charge (20.1%, 144/715). In the multivariate analysis, higher acceptability of MC was associated with knowledge of the hazards of phimosis (OR=2.22), the presence of phimosis (OR=14.87), and knowledge that MC can prevent AIDS and STDs (OR=1.49); while lower acceptability was associated with residing in Chongqing province (OR=0.41) and an educational level of junior (OR=0.64) and senior high (OR=0.63) school. The MC policy targeting IDUs in China should take into account these factors associated with MC acceptability. PMID:23970769

Huang, J; Jiang, J; Abdullah, A S; Yang, X; Wei, B; Deng, W; Qin, B; Upur, H; Zhong, C; Wang, Q; Wang, Q; Ruan, Y; Zou, Y; Ye, L; Xie, P; Wei, F; Xu, N; Liang, H

2013-07-01

266

[Spectral characteristics of Pinus tabulaeformis canopy with different damaged rates of needle leaf in western Liaoning Province, Northeast China].  

PubMed

Through the measurement of the spectral reflectance of large areas Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. ) canopy in western Liaoning Province, this paper analyzed the difference of the spectral reflectance of the canopies with different damaged rates of needle leaf. In visible band, the characteristics of the spectral reflectance of P. tabulaeformis canopies with healthy and damaged needle leaf were in accordance with the spectral characteristics of green plants, but the position of red valley was not obvious when the damaged rate of needle leaf was higher than 60%. In near-infrared band, with the decrease of the damaged rate of needle leaf, the canopy spectral reflectance increased at 780-1350 nm, but decreased at 1450-1800 and 1950-2350 nm. With the increase of the damaged rate, the position of red-edge inflection moved to the short-wave direction. There were significant correlations between the damaged rate of needle leaf and the red edge feature variables and some vegetation indices. The model based on DVI (1470, 860) could be more reliable for predicting the damaged rate of needle leaf in P. tabulaeformis canopy in western Liaoning Province. PMID:23173448

Feng, Rui; Zhang, Yu-Shu; Yu, Wen-Ying; Wu, Jin-Wen; Wang, Pei-Juan; Ji, Rui-Peng; Che, Yu-Sheng; Zhu, Yong-Ning

2012-07-01

267

Continental ultra-deep drilling locating research status and progress in the Jinchuan Ni-Cu ore-concentrated area,Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abstract is the initial achievements of "Continental ultra-deep drilling locating pre-study in the Jinchuan nickel-copper ore-concentrated area,Western China". 1 Some scientific problems faced by Jinchuan scientific drilling 1.1 Tectonic research of plates convergent margins Jinchuan ore-concentrated area locate in intersection of the south China plate, the north China plate, the tarim plate and convergent orogenic belts. Carrying out deep drilling could obtain informations such as deep material composition, fluid composition, rock fabric, structural features of the special region,etc.Then we can discuss tectonic evolution of the area between the plates. 1.2 Metallogenic theory research Ore-forming material source and extension of the deep rock situation are the key of resolving and verifying metallogenic theory. Carrying out scientific drilling research which will make some issues, that reasons of the huge amount of metal accumulation, formation mechanism of Cu-Ni-PGE sulfide deposits, relationships of metals accumulation process and the crust-mantle interaction and geological background, in particular, fluid role in this process, be resolved. And we could research mantle-derived magmatism and mineralization. 1.3 Perfect Jinchuan metallogenic model Jinchuan deposit is typical for the world's "formation of large deposit in a small intrusion". That establishing the metallogenic model is predominant in international field of mafic-ultramafic magmatic sulfide deposits. Scientific deep drilling could obtain informations which will enrich the theory system. 2 New achievements of continental ultra-deep drilling locating pre-study (1) Previous studies shown that Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic strata,to south of Ore-bearing rock, are monoclines, but this research reveals that which are incomplete complex anticlines, which controlled and destructed by several major regional faults. And there are several ductile shear zones in Sinian strata that increased complexity of regional structure,deformation and metamorphism. These findings have a significant impact on studies of regional diagenesis, mineralization,magmation and tectonic evolution. (2) Systematic sampling analysis revealed that the formation of copper-rich,,PGE-rich ore bodies related to the latest magma (Su et al.,2010). The magma mineralization concentrated in the midwestern portion of No.1 ore body, this part was probably the location of the occurrence of magma channel. It's worthy of exploring at depth with other factors. (3)The application of controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric sounding shown that spatial distribution of electromagnetic geological bodies of the mining area over 3200m under the surface.

Yan, H.; Tang, Z.; Yang, J.

2010-12-01

268

Phylogeography of the ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) in China.  

PubMed

The ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) are widely distributed in China. We used mitochondrial DNA control-region data to investigate the origin and past demographic changes in 139 ring-necked pheasants (P. colchicus) sampled from the species' distribution range. A total of 1078 nucleotides from the control region of mitochondrial DNA were sequenced, and 88 polymorphic positions defined 102 haplotypes. High level of genetic diversity was detected in all populations studied which could be associated with the wide ecological distributions and niche variation. Phylogenetic analyses of all haplotypes identified five major clades. The haplotypes of Gray-rumped Pheasants existed in the three clades: A (western clade), B (eastern clade) and C (Sichuan Basin clade). Two haplotypes of Kirghiz Pheasants were in the clade B, and the rest haplotype of Kirghiz Pheasants formed the clade D. Only one haplotype from White-winged Pheasants made up clade E. The results of AMOVA showed a low gene flow (Nm=0.44) and significant genetic differentiation (Fst=0.31, P<0.001) among all populations. Based on the divergence time, we speculate that the divergence of the ring-necked pheasant occurring in the late Pleistocene may have resulted from three events: (1) the uplift of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, (2) the existence of Qinling Mountains and Liupan Mountains, (3) the isolation of Sichuan Basin. Demographic population expansion was strongly confirmed by the non-significant mismatch distribution analysis. The described subspecies of the ring-necked pheasant could not be supported by the phylogeographical structuring. PMID:19328240

Qu, Jiangyong; Liu, Naifa; Bao, Xinkang; Wang, Xiaoli

2009-07-01

269

Atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from China.  

PubMed

A potential receptor influence function (PRIF) model, based on air mass forward trajectory calculations, was applied to simulate the atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from China. With a 10 day atmospheric transport time, most neighboring countries and regions, as well as remote regions, were influenced by PAH emissions from China. Of the total annual PAH emission of 114 Gg, 92.7% remained within the boundary of mainland China. The geographic distribution of PRIFs within China was similar to the geographic distribution of the source regions, with high values in the North China Plain, Sichuan Basin, Shanxi, and Guizhou province. The Tarim basin and Sichuan basin had unfavorable meteorological conditions for PAH outflow. Of the PAH outflow from China (8092 tons or 7.1% of the total annual PAH emission), approximately 69.9% (5655 tons) reached no further than the offshore environment of mainland China and the South China Sea. Approximate 227, 71, 746, and 131 tons PAHs reached North Korea, South Korea, Russia-Mongolia region, and Japan, respectively, 2-4 days after the emission. Only 1.4 tons PAHs reached North America after more than 9 days. Interannual variation in the eastward PAH outflow was positively correlated to cold episodes of El Niño/Southern Oscillation. However, trans-Pacific atmospheric transport of PAHs from China was correlated to Pacific North America index (PNA) which is associated with the strength and position of westerly winds. PMID:18754369

Lang, Chang; Tao, Shu; Liu, Wenxin; Zhang, Yanxu; Simonich, Staci

2008-07-15

270

A Juvenile Sichuan Golden Monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) Predated by a Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) in the Qinling Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that hawks, panthers, jackals, lynxes and wolves may prey on Sichuan golden monkeys in the wild [1, 2], but all these assumptions were based on observations of dead monkeys eaten by predators, and no direct attack of a living individual has been witnessed. During our field study on the behavioural ecology of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys in

Shuyi Zhang; Baoping Ren; Baoguo Li

1999-01-01

271

Post-Disaster Reconstruction Models in the Asia Pacific: the cases of China, Iran and  

E-print Network

incomplete #12;Iran ­ Family Policies Bam Islamic culture: Family reconstruction important GovernmentPost-Disaster Reconstruction Models in the Asia Pacific: the cases of China, Iran and Myanmar Helen ­ Sichuan Earthquake 2008 Iran ­ Bam Earthquake 2003; Tabriz Earthquake 2012 Myanmar ­ Cyclone Nargis 2008

Botea, Adi

272

Two new species of the genus Epuraea Erichson, 1843 from China (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae, Epuraeinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two new species belonging to the consobrina-group of the subgenus Micruria Reitter, 1875 (genus Epuraea Erichson, 1843), Epuraea (Micruria) lanuginosa sp. n. and Epuraea (Micruria) pulliginis sp. n., found in Sichuan Province, China, are described. Pictures and details of structures important for diagnostics of the new species, including external characters and genitalia are given.

Zhao, Mengjiao; Huang, Min; Yang, Xingke; Kirejtshuk, Alexander G.

2014-01-01

273

Current distribution, status and conservation of wild red pandas Ailurus fulgens in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The red panda is classed as a category II species under the Wild Animal Protection Law in China. Both subspecies, Ailurus fulgens fulgens and A. f. styani can be found there. However, the styani subspecies is more typical of the region. According to the survey conducted from 1994 to 1996, red pandas now can only be found in Sichuan, Yunnan

Fuwen Wei; Zuojian Feng; Zuwang Wang; Jinchu Hu

1999-01-01

274

Characterization of a ranavirus isolated from the Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus, Blanchard, 1871) in China  

E-print Network

-offs of farmed Chinese giant salamanders (Andrias davidianus) in Leshan, Sichuan Province, China. The farmed to the natural infections. Our data suggested that the virus isolate was a novel member of the genus Ranavirus, family Iridoviridae. We tentatively named the virus as Chinese giant salamander virus (CGSV-L). CGSV

Gray, Matthew

275

Simulating Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Sichuan Grassland Net Primary Productivity Using the CASA Model and In Situ Observations  

PubMed Central

Net primary productivity (NPP) is an important indicator for grassland resource management and sustainable development. In this paper, the NPP of Sichuan grasslands was estimated by the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model. The results were validated with in situ data. The overall precision reached 70%; alpine meadow had the highest precision at greater than 75%, among the three types of grasslands validated. The spatial and temporal variations of Sichuan grasslands were analyzed. The absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (APAR), light use efficiency (?), and NPP of Sichuan grasslands peaked in August, which was a vigorous growth period during 2011. High values of APAR existed in the southwest regions in altitudes from 2000?m to 4000?m. Light use efficiency (?) varied in the different types of grasslands. The Sichuan grassland NPP was mainly distributed in the region of 3000–5000?m altitude. The NPP of alpine meadow accounted for 50% of the total NPP of Sichuan grasslands. PMID:25250396

Tang, Chuanjiang; Fu, Xinyu; Jiang, Dong; Zhang, Xinyue; Zhou, Su

2014-01-01

276

Sustainable management of river oases along the Tarim River in North-Western China under conditions of climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tarim River Basin, located in Xinjiang, NW China, is the largest endorheic river basin of China and one of the largest in whole Central Asia. Due to the extremely arid climate with an annual precipitation of less than 100 mm, the water supply along the Aksu and Tarim River solely depends on river water. This applies for anthropogenic activities (e.g. agriculture) as well as for the natural ecosystems so that both compete for water. The on-going increase of water consumption by agriculture and other human activities in this region has been enhancing the competition for water between human needs and nature. Against this background, 11 German and 6 Chinese universities and research institutes formed the consortium SuMaRiO (www.sumario.de), which aims at gaining a holistic picture of the availability of water resources in the Tarim River Basin and the impacts on anthropogenic activities and natural ecosystems caused by the water distribution within the Tarim River Basin. The discharge of the Aksu River, which is the major tributary to the Tarim, has been increasing over the past 6 decades due to enhanced glacier melt. Alone from 1989 to 2011, the area under agriculture more than doubled. Thereby, cotton became the major crop and there was a shift from small-scale farming to large-scale intensive farming. The major natural ecosystems along the Aksu and Tarim River are riparian ecosystems: Riparian (Tugai) forests, shrub vegetation, reed beds, and other grassland. Within the SuMaRiO Cluster the focus was laid on the Tugai forests, with Populus euphratica as dominant tree, because the most productive and species-rich natural ecosystems can be found among those forests. On sites with groundwater distance of less than 7.5 m the annual increments correlated with river runoffs of the previous year. But, the further downstream along the Tarim River, the more the natural river dynamics ceased, which impacts on the recruitment of Populus euphratica. Household surveys revealed that there is a considerable willingness to pay for conservation of those riparian forests with the mitigation of dust and sandstorms considered as the most important ecosystem service. This interdisciplinary project will result in a decision support tool (DST), build on the participation of regional stakeholders and models based on results and field experiments. This DST finally shall assist stakeholders in balancing the water competition acknowledging the major external effects of any water allocation.

Rumbaur, C.; Thevs, N.; Disse, M.; Ahlheim, M.; Brieden, A.; Cyffka, B.; Doluschitz, R.; Duethmann, D.; Feike, T.; Frör, O.; Gärtner, P.; Halik, Ü.; Hill, J.; Hinnenthal, M.; Keilholz, P.; Kleinschmit, B.; Krysanova, V.; Kuba, M.; Mader, S.; Menz, C.; Othmanli, H.; Pelz, S.; Schroeder, M.; Siew, T. F.; Stender, V.; Stahr, K.; Thomas, F. M.; Welp, M.; Wortmann, M.; Zhao, X.; Chen, X.; Jiang, T.; Zhao, C.; Zhang, X.; Luo, J.; Yimit, H.; Yu, R.

2014-10-01

277

Glacier changes since the Little Ice Age maximum in the western Qilian Shan, northwest China, and consequences of glacier runoff for water supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on aerial photographs, topographical maps and the Landsat-5 image data, we have analyzed fluctuations of glaciers in the western Qilian Shan, northwest China, from the Little Ice Age (LIA) to 1990. The areas and volumes of glaciers in the whole considered region decreased 15% and 18%, respectively, from the LIA maximum to 1956.This trend of glacier shrinkage continued and accelerated between 1956 and 1990. These latest decreases in area and volume were about 10% in 34 years. The recent shrinkage may be due either to a combination of higher temperatures and lower precipitation during the period 1956-66, or to continuous warming in the high glacierized mountains from 1956 to 1990. As a consequence, glacier runoff from ice wastage between 1956 and 1990 has increased river runoff by 6.2 km3 in the four river basins under consideration. Besides, the equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) rise estimated from the mean terminus retreat of small glaciers <1km long is 46 m, which corresponds to a 0.3°C increase of mean temperatures in warm seasons from the LIA to the 1950s.

Shiyin, Liu; Wenxin, Sun; Yongping, Shen; Gang, Li

278

Inventory of the carabid beetle fauna of the Gaoligong Mountains, western Yunnan Province, China: species of the tribe Zabrini (Coleoptera, Carabidae).  

PubMed

A ten-year multidisciplinary, multi-national and multi-institutional biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region of western Yunnan Province, China generated more than 35,000 specimens of the beetle (Coleoptera) family Carabidae. In this report, first of a planned series, we focus on diversity in tribe Zabrini. Our study of just over 1300 specimens of zabrine carabids from the project, all in genus Amara Bonelli, found a total of 13 species, all previously described, to occur in the study area, with none of them strictly endemic. We present a key for identification of adults of these species, as well as nomenclatural data, diagnoses, illustrations of dorsal habitus and male genitalia, and information about geographical, altitudinal and habitat distributions within the study area and overall geographical distribution for each species. Distributions of the species within the study area are compared, and broader geographical range patterns are characterized. We also discuss a possible role of the Gaoligong Shan region as one source area for the present-day fauna of the Himalaya and southern edge of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau. PMID:24899831

Kavanaugh, David H; Hieke, Fritz; Liang, Hongbin; Dong, Dazhi

2014-01-01

279

Formation of tectonic peperites from alkaline magmas intruded into wet sediments in the Beiya area, western Yunnan, China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tertiary (3.78 Ma to 3.65 Ma) biotite-K-feldspar porphyritic bodies intrude Tertiary, poorly consolidated lacustrine sedimentary rocks in the Beiya mineral district in southwestern China. The intrusives are characterized by a microcrystalline and vitreous-cryptocrystalline groundmass, by replacement of some tabular K-feldspar phenocrysts with microcrystalline chlorite and calcite, and by Fe-rich rings surrounding biotite phenocrysts. Peculiar structures, such as contemporary contact faults and slickensides, ductile shear zones and flow folds, foliation and lineations, tension fractures, and banded and boudin peperites, are developed along the contact zones of the intrusives. These features are related to the forceful intrusion of the alkaline magmas into the wet Tertiary sediments. The partially consolidated magmas were deformed and flattened by continued forceful magma intrusion that produced boudinaged and banded peperites. These peperites characterized by containing oriented deformation fabrics are classified as tectonic peperites as a new type of peperite, and formation of these tectonic peperites was related to fracturing of magmas caused by forceful intrusion and shear deformation and to contemporary migration and injection of fluidized sediments along fractures that dismembered the porphyritic magma. Emplacement of the magma into the wet sediments in the Beiya area is interpreted to be related to a large pressure difference rather than to the buoyancy force. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Xu, X.-W.; Cai, X.-P.; Zhong, J.-Y.; Song, B.-C.; Peters, S.G.

2007-01-01

280

Complete Genome Sequence of a Coxsackievirus B3 Isolated from a Sichuan Snub-Nosed Monkey  

PubMed Central

Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is an enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae that is significant to human health, being associated with myocarditis, aseptic meningitis, and pancreatitis, among other conditions. In addition to humans, Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys can be infected and killed by CVB3. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of a novel coxsackievirus B3 strain, SSM-CVB3, which was isolated from a deceased Sichuan snub-nosed monkey with severe myocarditis. Our findings may aid in understanding the evolutionary characteristics and molecular pathogenesis of this virus. PMID:23118460

He, Wenqi; Lu, Huijun; Zhao, Kui; Song, Deguang; Gai, Xianying

2012-01-01

281

Trace element geochemistry of altered volcanic ash layers (tonsteins) in late Permian coal-bearing formations of eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou Provinces, China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trace element compositions were determined (by instrumental neutron activation analysis; INAA) in 30 samples of synsedimentary volcanic ash-derived tonsteins and detrital claystones from coal seams within the late Permian coal-bearing formation of eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou Provinces, China. The characteristics of trace-element geochemistry in the tonsteins can be distinguished from those of detrital claystones because of the former's unique volcanic-ash origin. The detrital claystones are characterized by their relatively high content of V, Ti, Sc, Cr, Co and Ni, relatively low content of Th and U, Th/U ratio, and small negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* 0.63-0.93). Overall, these trace element characteristics are consistent with a mafic source similar to the composition of basalt rocks in the erosional region on the western edge of the study area. In contrast, the tonsteins are low in V, Ti, Sc, Cr, Co and Ni contents and have a high Th/U ratio with a distinct negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* normally in the range of 0.2-0.4), consistent with a silicic magmatic source. Within the group of tonsteins, those from the lower section (P2.1) of the coal-bearing formation are relatively high in Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta and rare earth elements (REE), as compared to those from the middle and upper sections (P2.2+3). In trace-element discrimination diagrams (scatter plots) of Hf-Ta, Ti-Ta, Ti-V, Hf-Sc, Lu-Hf and Lu-Th, tonsteins from the P2.1 horizon always fall in isolated distribution areas, separate from the tonsteins of the P2.2+3 horizon. These results suggest that the source materials of tonsteins from the two separate horizons were probably derived from volcanic ash falls of two distinctly different natures. Based on a comparison of the concentrations and assemblages of trace elements between various magmatic rocks, the source materials of tonsteins from P2.1 horizon were mostly composed of calc-alkalic, silica-poor volcanic ash (similar to rhyodacitic magma), whereas those from P2.+3 were apparently more siliceous and K-rich (rhyolitic magma). Thus, tonsteins from the two different horizons are characterized by unique geochemical properties, which remain constant over a wide lateral extent. Integration of trace-elemental compositions with mineralogical and textural observations makes possible the establishment of tonstein stratigraphy, thus, facilitating more precise and reliable coal-seam correlations. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.Trace element compositions were determined in 30 samples of synsedimentary volcanic ash-derived tonsteins and detrital claystones from coal seams within the late Permian coal-bearing formation of eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou Provinces, China. The characteristics of trace-element geochemistry in the tonsteins can be distinguished from those of detrital claystones because of the former's unique volcanic-ash origin. The detrital claystones are characterized by their relatively high content of V, Ti, Sc, CR, Co and Ni, relatively low content of Th and U, Th/U ratio, and small negative Eu anomaly.

Zhou, Y.; Bohor, B. F.; Ren, Y.

2000-01-01

282

Attribution of satellite-observed vegetation trends in a hyper-arid region of the Heihe River basin, Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial vegetation dynamics are closely influenced by both climate and by both climate and by land use and/or land cover change (LULCC) caused by human activities. Both can change over time in a monotonic way and it can be difficult to separate the effects of climate change from LULCC on vegetation. Here we attempt to attribute trends in the fractional green vegetation cover to climate variability and to human activity in Ejina Region, a hyper-arid landlocked region in northwest China. This region is dominated by extensive deserts with relatively small areas of irrigation located along the major water courses as is typical throughout much of Central Asia. Variations of fractional vegetation cover from 2000 to 2012 were determined using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index data with 250 m spatial resolution over 16-day intervals. We found that the fractional vegetation cover in this hyper-arid region is very low but that the mean growing season vegetation cover has increased from 3.4% in 2000 to 4.5% in 2012. The largest contribution to the overall greening was due to changes in green vegetation cover of the extensive desert areas with a smaller contribution due to changes in the area of irrigated land. Comprehensive analysis with different precipitation data sources found that the greening of the desert was associated with increases in regional precipitation. We further report that the area of land irrigated each year can be predicted using the runoff gauged 1 year earlier. Taken together, water availability both from precipitation in the desert and runoff inflow for the irrigation agricultural lands can explain at least 52% of the total variance in regional vegetation cover from 2000 to 2010. The results demonstrate that it is possible to separate the satellite-observed changes in green vegetation cover into components due to climate and human modifications. Such results inform management on the implications for water allocation between oases in the middle and lower reaches and for water management in the Ejina oasis.

Wang, Y.; Roderick, M. L.; Shen, Y.; Sun, F.

2014-09-01

283

Shortening rates across the foothills of the Western Kunlun (Xinjiang, China) inferred from geomorphic measurements and cosmogenic 10Be dating.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Western Kunlun, which bounds north-western Tibetan Plateau, is one of the largest mountain range of Asia, with altitudes peaking at 6500-7500 m asl, and crustal thicknesses of up to ~70 km. North of the plateau, in the foreland of the range, an active fold-and-thrust belt extends 200 km into the Tarim basin, but remains poorly documented regarding amounts of shortening or deformation rates. We discuss the distribution of deformation on the basis of a study of specific foreland folds and faults using high resolution satellite imagery, digital elevation models, seismic reflection data, on-site topographic measurements and cosmogenic isotope dating. South of Hotan city, the 250 km-long Tekelike Fault - the mountain-front thrust that dips beneath the 45 km-wide, 5400m-high Tekelike Range, a basement ramp-anticline - cuts and offsets terraces abandoned by the Karakash River. 10Be concentrations of surface and sub-surface samples from these terraces upper-most deposits yield an exposure age of about 100 kyr for the upper terrace that lies 140 m above the present river bed, implying an incision rate of 1.4 mm/yr. Assuming a dip of 45 +/-15° and neglecting changes in river dynamics over this time period, this age would imply a minimum, average shortening rate of 1.4 +/- 0.7 mm/yr across the thrust. Farther North, 100 to 200 km-long WNW-ESE trending anticlines deform the thick Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary series lying in the foreland of the range. The 150 km-long, 35 km-wide Yecheng-Pishan anticline folds Plio-Quaternary molasses. Drainages crossing this growing anticline have abandoned flights of inset terraces on the sides of wind-gaps. The maximum elevation of the highest terrace above local drainage is about 350m. Near Pishan city, flat, well-preserved terrace surfaces are covered by thin loess, in turn capped by loose gravel pavement. On the uppermost two terraces of this valley, 70 and 120 meters-high, cosmogenic 10Be concentrations in surface and sub-surface samples are similarly high (> 8.106 at/g/yr), indicative of steady-state, with minimum ages of 500 kyr, and a maximum deflation rate of 0.001 mm/yr. Given these values, the maximum incision rate into the lower of these two terraces would have been 0.14 mm/yr. These preliminary results imply minimum foreland shortening rates only on order or 1-2 mm/yr, far less than might be expected for a Cenozoic mountain range of such height and width. More dating and geomorphic measurements are presently in progress across other active structures.

Coudroy, T.; van der Woerd, J.; Li, H.; Barrier, L.; Tapponnier, P.; Simoes, M.; Thuizat, R.; Pan, J.; Si, J.; Xu, T.

2009-04-01

284

Nonpoint Source Pollution Responses Simulation for Conversion Cropland to Forest in Mountains by SWAT in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several environmental protection policies have been implemented to prevent soil erosion and nonpoint source (NPS) pollutions\\u000a in China. After severe Yangtze River floods, the “conversion cropland to forest policy” (CCFP) was carried out throughout\\u000a China, especially in the middle and upper reaches of Yangtze River. The research area of the current study is located in Bazhong\\u000a City, Sichuan Province in

Wei Ouyang; Fang-Hua Hao; Xue-Lei Wang; Hong-Guang Cheng

2008-01-01

285

This research brief was produced as part of the China Environment Forum's partnership with Western Kentucky University on the U.S. AID-supported China Environmental Health Project (CEHP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is difficult to understate the influence of China's atmospheric pollution on the Asia Pacific region and beyond. Prevailing winds carry pollutants such as ozone, fine particulate matter, and mercury from continent to continent, and in this case, from Asia to North America. Although statistics on China's dismal air quality are dated, anecdotal, or limited in scope (e.g., China has

Juli S. Kim

286

Predominant lactic acid bacteria in traditional fermented yak milk products in the Sichuan Province  

E-print Network

. Yak milk is a highly nutritious product rich in fat, protein, essential minerals, and healthyNOTE Predominant lactic acid bacteria in traditional fermented yak milk products in the Sichuan bacteria (LAB) were obtained by traditional pure culture method and all strains were identified to species

Boyer, Edmond

287

Causes and counter measures of debris flow disaster in Sichuan Liangshan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the Liangshan Prefecture in Sichuan have three very significant conditions for debris flow formed: steep facilitating catchment, the collection content of landform, Rich loose material, short time could be formed lots of water. Then the article emphatically analyzes the formation of continuity and the circulation rainfall situation and influence factors, and choose July 14, 2006 presents the

Tiangui Xiao; Lijuan Wu; Heng Zhang; Guangliang Xiao; Jingfu He

2011-01-01

288

Beyond Information: The Sociocultural Role of the Internet in the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a preliminary and exploratory examination and analysis of the sociocultural role of the Internet during the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. The Internet has embedded in people's daily lives, paralleling with the traditional media as the information provider and human interaction medium. During an emergency, the Internet acts as a facilitator of social motivation, revealing the usefulness and power

Jieying Wang

2010-01-01

289

GIS-based climatic regionalization of potato late blight in mountain areas of Southwest Sichuan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the geographic insemination test in installments on five phases of potato late blight in four areas of Mianning and Zhaojue with the altitude of 1,600m, 1,800m, 2,100m and 2,500m respectively, this paper researches the meteorological causes, leading factors and climatic indexes for potato late blight in mountain areas of southwest Sichuan in detail. Based on that, short-term section climatic inspection data of mountain areas, observation data from meteorological post and latest data from automatic weather station are extensively collected, organized and processed by extension, based on which the Spatial Distribution Model of climatic indexes for potato late blight in mountain areas of southwest Sichuan is established in association with the routine surface observation data, y=f(h,?,l,?). With the geographic information data of 1:250000 and GIS technology, southwest Sichuan is divided into climatic liable region of potato blight, climatic secondary liable region and climatic non-liable region by factor setting and optimization method. Providing scientific basis for selection, distribution and prevention decision making for late blight resistant species of potato in southwest Sichuan, it has important value for production and application.

Luo, Qing; Peng, Guozhao; Ruan, Jun; Cao, Yanqiu; Fang, Peng; Li, Dazhong; Armuzhong, .; Huang, Doumin; Hu, Qiaojuan; Chen, Yuanzhi

2008-10-01

290

Petrogenesis of gold-mineralized magmatic rocks of the Taerbieke area, northwestern Tianshan (western China): Constraints from geochronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic compositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many Late Paleozoic Cu-Au-Mo deposits occur in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). However, their tectonic settings and associated geodynamic processes have been disputed. This study provides age, petrologic and geochemical data for andesites and granitic porphyries of the Taerbieke gold deposit from the Tulasu Basin, in the northwestern Tianshan Orogenic Belt (western China). LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the granitic porphyries have an Early Carboniferous crystallization age (349 ± 2 Ma) that is broadly contemporaneous with the eruption age (347 ± 2 Ma) of the andesites. The andesites have a restricted range of SiO2 (58.94-63.85 wt.%) contents, but relatively high Al2O3 (15.39-16.65 wt.%) and MgO (2.51-6.59 wt.%) contents, coupled with high Mg# (57-69) values. Geochemically, they are comparable to Cenozoic sanukites in the Setouchi Volcanic Belt, SW Japan. Compared with the andesites, the granitic porphyries have relatively high SiO2 (72.68-75.32 wt.%) contents, but lower Al2O3 (12.94-13.84 wt.%) and MgO (0.10-0.33 wt.%) contents, coupled with lower Mg# (9-21) values. The andesites and granitic porphyries are enriched in both large ion lithophile and light rare earth elements, but depleted in high field strength elements, similar to those of typical arc magmatic rocks. They also have similar Nd-Hf-Pb isotope compositions: ?Nd(t) (+0.48 to +4.06 and -0.27 to +2.97) and zircons ?Hf(t) (+3.4 to +8.0 and -1.7 to +8.2) values and high (206Pb/204Pb)i (18.066-18.158 and 17.998-18.055). We suggest that the Taerbieke high-Mg andesitic magmas were generated by the interaction between mantle wedge peridotites and subducted oceanic sediment-derived melts with minor basaltic oceanic crust-derived melts, and that the magmas then fractionated to produce the more felsic members (i.e., the Taerbieke granitic porphyries) during late-stage evolution. Taking into account the Carboniferous magmatic record from the western Tianshan Orogenic Belt, we suggest that the formation of the Early Carboniferous andesites and granitic porphyries in the Taerbieke area were related to the Paleo-Junggar Oceanic plate southward subduction under the Yili-Central Tianshan plate. The close association of the Early Carboniferous magmatic rocks and Au mineralization in the Taerbieke area suggests that the arc magmatic rocks in the Tulasu basin may have a high potential for Au mineralization.

Tang, Gong-Jian; Wang, Qiang; Wyman, Derek A.; Sun, Min; Zhao, Zhen-Hua; Jiang, Zi-Qi

2013-09-01

291

Depositional evolution of the Early Cretaceous Sihetun Lake and implications for regional climatic and volcanic history in western Liaoning, NE China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous well-known fossils of the Jehol Biota, including early birds, feathered theropods, primitive mammals, and putative early angiosperms, have been discovered in lacustrine deposits (Lake Sihetun) of the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of western Liaoning province, NE China. Based on extensive field investigations and four high-resolution excavations, we document in detail the spatio-temporal changes of sedimentary facies, facies associations and limnic community relicts, reconstruct the depositional history, and discuss the significance of these deposits regarding the regional climatic and volcanic history. Four phases are recognized in the history of Lake Sihetun. They are: (1) a phase of fluctuating but gradually rising water level indicated by subaerial and shallow-water lacustrine deposits, (2) a lake with beach-nearshore facies along the marginal areas and suspension-dominated lake floor facies in central areas, (3) a lake phase with a lake floor dominated by hyperpycnal flows, and (4) progradation of a fan delta. Two distinct depositional conditions are observed: stratified and unstratified lake intervals. The former occurred mainly during the second phase and produced clay-poor and clay-rich laminae, whereas the latter developed during the other three phases, and were dominated by deposition of subaqueous sedimentary density flows. These alternations of depositional conditions in offshore lacustrine deposits suggest that the Yixian Formation may have formed under a transitional climate regime fluctuating gradually from warm and dry to warm and humid conditions. Resurgent volcanism is inferred to have become stronger during the late phase of lake development based on distribution of deposits characterizing the unstratified lake interval and volcanic rocks of the overlying Upper Lava unit, a higher content of primary pyroclastic fragments, and evidence of strong syndepositional disturbance.

Jiang, Baoyu; Fürsich, Franz T.; Hethke, Manja

2012-06-01

292

Comparative analysis of land use/cover change trajectories and their driving forces in two small watersheds in the western Loess Plateau of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To prevent soil loss and achieve better ecological environments, soil conservation measures have been taken during the past decades in the western Loess Plateau of China. In this paper, a case study was taken in Luoyu valley and Lver valley, two sub-watersheds of Xihe watershed and comparison was carried out between them. The main object of this study is to monitor land use/cover changes in the two similar small watersheds utilizing SPOT5 imageries by object-oriented human-computer interactive classification method, further develop the method of spatio-temporal analysis of land use/cover change by using pattern metrics of change trajectories and relative land use suitability index (R) in smaller watersheds, and make comparisons between the two similar small watersheds, taking water and soil conservation measures into consideration. Results show that combining GIS and RS, this method can be perfectly applied to make comparisons between different small watersheds with similar geographical backgrounds. And land use/cover spatiotemporal dynamic change characteristics can be preferably expressed by pattern metrics of change trajectories and R values based on topographical data. Different emphases have been laid according to their own geological backgrounds in the two watersheds and human activities have different effects on the landscapes of the two watersheds. The main change pattern is from slope farmland to terrace (322, the largest in Luoyu valley) or to economic fruit forest (344, the largest in Lver valley). R value of every slope grade in both of the two watersheds drops with the rising of slope degree on the whole and it shows that there is still much to do for people in the two watersheds in consideration that all the R values are still lower than 0.7.

Wang, Dongchuan; Gong, Jianhua; Chen, Liding; Zhang, Lihui; Song, Yiquan; Yue, Yujuan

2013-04-01

293

Polyphase exhumation in the western Qinling Mountains, China: Rapid Early Cretaceous cooling along a lithospheric-scale tear fault and pulsed Cenozoic uplift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western sector of the Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt plays a key role in both Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous "Yanshanian" intracontinental tectonics and Cenozoic lateral escape triggered by India-Asia collision. The Taibai granite in the northern Qinling Mountains is located at the westernmost tip of a Yanshanian granite belt. It consists of multiple intrusions, constrained by new Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous U-Pb zircon ages (156 ± 3 Ma and 124 ± 1 Ma). Applying various geochronometers (40Ar/39Ar on hornblende, biotite and K-feldspar, apatite fission-track, apatite [U-Th-Sm]/He) along a vertical profile of the Taibai Mountain refines the cooling and exhumation history. The new age constraints record the prolonged pre-Cenozoic intracontinental deformation as well as the cooling history mostly related to India-Asia collision. We detected rapid cooling for the Taibai granite from ca. 800 to 100 °C during Early Cretaceous (ca. 123 to 100 Ma) followed by a period of slow cooling from ca. 100 Ma to ca. 25 Ma, and pulsed exhumation of the low-relief Cretaceous peneplain during Cenozoic times. We interpret the Early Cretaceous rapid cooling and exhumation as a result from activity along the southern sinistral lithospheric scale tear fault of the recently postulated intracontinental subduction of the Archean/Palaeoproterozoic North China Block beneath the Alashan Block. A Late Oligocene to Early Miocene cooling phase might be triggered either by the lateral motion during India-Asia collision and/or the Pacific subduction zone. Late Miocene intensified cooling is ascribed to uplift of the Tibetan Plateau.

Heberer, Bianca; Anzenbacher, Thomas; Neubauer, Franz; Genser, Johann; Dong, Yunpeng; Dunkl, István

2014-03-01

294

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in river sediments from the western and southern catchments of the Bohai Sea, China: toxicity assessment and source identification.  

PubMed

The concentration, distribution, and origin of 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in river sediments from the western and southern catchments of the Bohai Sea, China. A toxicity assessment of 28 sediment samples collected from 15 main rivers was conducted by utilizing threshold and probable effect concentrations (TEC and PEC, respectively) derived from consensus-based sediment quality guidelines. The concentrations of total PAHs (?PAH(16)) ranged from 0.14 to 10,757 ?g/kg dry weight (mean = 1,368.6 ?g/kg). The high concentrations of PAHs found in Binhai New Area of Tianjin and Binzhou City are likely the result of rapid population and heavy industry growth, resulting in elevated point and nonpoint source inputs of PAHs. Of the samples collected, samples 1 and 10 (7.1 % of the total) were categorized as toxic since some of the PAH concentrations exceeded the corresponding PECs. Twenty samples were classified as nontoxic, with both the individual PAH and the ?PAH(16) concentrations falling below the corresponding TECs. Analyses of selected PAH isomer ratios aided in the identification of PAH origins, allowing for a discrimination between pyrogenic and petrogenic sources. Spatial variability confirmed source heterogeneity within the study area. The most significant PAH-associated contamination was found in the Beitang River and Ji Canal, which are located in Binhai New Area. The magnitude of contamination and the likelihood of an ongoing influx of PAHs support the need for a better understanding of pollution sources and methods for both control and sediment restoration. PMID:22983614

Zeng, Siyu; Zeng, Lin; Dong, Xin; Chen, Jining

2013-05-01

295

Types of focal mechanism solutions and parameter consistency of the sub-blocks in Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on P-and S-wave amplitudes and some clear initial P-wave motion data, we calculated focal mechanism solutions of 928\\u000a M?2.5 earthquakes (1994–2005) in four sub-blocks of Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces, namely Sichuan-Qinghai, Yajiang, Central\\u000a Sichuan and Central Yunnan blocks. Combining these calculation results with those of the focal mechanism solutions of moderately\\u000a strong earthquakes, we analyzed the stress field characteristics

Wan-Zheng Cheng; Xiang Ruan; Yong-Jiu Zhang

2006-01-01

296

A new species of Frontodendroidopsis (Coleoptera: Pyrochroidae: Pyrochroinae) from China, with a key to males of the two known species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frontodendroidopsis gibbiceps, a new species of fire-colored beetle, is described from a single male taken in the Xiling Snow Mountains, in central Sichuan Province, China at an elevation of 1300–2100 meters. This is the second described Frontodendroidopsis, the other being the Japanese F. ocularis. A somewhat similar cranial modification, enlarged compound eyes, and strongly pectinate antennae with an elongate antennal

Daniel K. Young

2006-01-01

297

Teaching about Ethnicities in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A unit on China's ethnicities provides students rich opportunities to explore multiple themes in the social studies while helping them to develop a deeper understanding of recent events in western China. Studying China's ethnic minorities encompasses such topics as stereotyping, cultural diversity, the creation of ethnic identities, and key…

Stedman, Caryn White

2010-01-01

298

Teaching West in the East: An American University in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Having closed its door to Western ideas for centuries, China has always presented itself as a puzzle both for academicians and politicians. Westerners, though, have always been attracted by the natural resources and human power that China offers to the capitalistic world. This study explores the entrance of Western ideas in China from an…

Ozturgut, Osman

2007-01-01

299

Seismic signature of the collision between the east Tibetan escape flow and the Sichuan Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GPS displacement vectors show that the crust in east Tibet is being squeezed in an easterly direction by the northward motion of the Indian plate, and the Sichuan Basin is resisting this stream and redirecting it mainly towards Indochina. The Longmen Shan, containing the steepest rise to the high plateau anywhere in Tibet, results from the strong interaction between the east Tibetan escape flow and the rigid Yangtze block (Sichuan Basin), but the kinematics and dynamics of this interaction are still the subject of some debates. We herein present results from a dense passive-source seismic profile from the Sichuan Basin into eastern Tibet in order to study the deep structure of this collision zone. Using P and S receiver function images we observe a sudden rise of the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary (LAB) from 120 to 150 km beneath the Sichuan Basin and from 70 to 80 km beneath eastern Tibet. In contrast, the depth of the crust-mantle boundary (Moho) increases from 36 to 40 km beneath the Sichuan Basin and from 55 to 60 km beneath eastern Tibet. The 410 km discontinuity is depressed below eastern Tibet by about 30 km, although the 660 remains at nearly the same depth throughout the LMS. From these observations, we conclude that the mode of collision that occurs between Tibet and the Sichuan Basin is very different to that found between India and Tibet. In southern Tibet, we observe in essence the subduction of the Indian plate, which penetrates northwards for several hundred kilometers under central Tibet. The very thin mantle part of the lithosphere beneath eastern Tibet may indicate delamination or removal of the bottom of the lithosphere by hot asthenospheric escape flow. This process leads to the exceptionally steep topography at the eastern Tibetan margin as a result of gravitational buoyancy. This view is supported by the very unusual depression of the 410 km discontinuity beneath eastern Tibet, which could be caused by the dynamics of the sub-vertical downward asthenospheric flow.

Zhang, Zhongjie; Yuan, Xiaohui; Chen, Yun; Tian, Xiaobo; Kind, Rainer; Li, Xueqing; Teng, Jiwen

2010-04-01

300

The Epidemiology of Schistosomiasis Reinfection and Reemergence in Sichuan, China: Implications for Surveillance and Intervention  

E-print Network

Sex Female Male Age Occupation* Not farmer Farmer Education* Elementary schoolSex Female Male Age* test for trend, p-value† Occupation*‡ Farmer Other Education‡ Elementary schoolSex Female Male Age p-value, test for trend* Occupation† Not farmer Farmer Education† Elementary school

Carlton, Elizabeth Jean

2010-01-01

301

f max and fault zone property of Lushan earthquake of 20 April 2013, Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we determined f max from near-field accelerograms of the Lushan earthquake of April 20, 2013 through spectra analysis. The result shows that the values of f max derived from five different seismography stations are very close though these stations roughly span about 100 km along the strike. This implies that the cause of f max is mainly the seismic source process rather than the site effect. Moreover, according to the source-cause model of Papageorgiou and Aki (Bull Seism Soc Am 73:693-722, 1983), we infer that the cohesive zone width of the rupture of the Lushan earthquake is about 204 with an uncertainty of 13 m. We also find that there is a significant bulge between 30 and 45 Hz in the amplitude spectra of accelerograms of stations 51YAL and 51QLY, and we confirm that it is due to seismic waves' reverberation of the sedimentary soil layer beneath these stations.

Wen, Jian; Chen, Xiaofei

2013-08-01

302

Environmental geochemistry and ecological risk of vanadium pollution in Panzhihua mining and smelting area, Sichuan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vanadium is a trace element widely distributed in the Earth’s crust. Naturally high levels of vanadium are recognized mainly\\u000a in basic rocks and minerals, particularly in titaniferous magnetite. And the anthropogenic sources of vanadium include fossil\\u000a fuel combustion and wastes including steel-industry slags. In the last few years, the authors have made investigations and\\u000a assessments on the environmental geochemistry and

Yanguo Teng; Shijun Ni; Chengjiang Zhang; Jinsheng Wang; Xueyu Lin; Yi Huang

2006-01-01

303

Y-chromosome distributions among populations in Northwest China identify significant contribution from Central Asian pastoralists and lesser influence of western Eurasians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northwest China is closely adjacent to Central Asia, an intermediate region of the Eurasian continent. Moreover, the Silk Road through the northwest of China once had a vital role in the east–west intercommunications. Nevertheless, little has been known about the genetic makeup of populations in this region. We collected 503 male samples from 14 ethnic groups in the northwest of

Wei-Hua Shou; En-Fa Qiao; Chuan-Yu Wei; Yong-Li Dong; Si-Jie Tan; Hong Shi; Wen-Ru Tang; Chun-Jie Xiao; C-J Xiao

2010-01-01

304

Effective elastic thickness and mechanical anisotropy of South China and surrounding regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South China and surrounding regions extend from the eastern Tibetan plateau, through the tectonically stable Sichuan basin and the broad Mesozoic magmatic and fold belt, to the trench-arc-basin system in the western Pacific which provide an ideal place to study deformation of the continental lithosphere under long-term magmatism and oceanic subduction. We obtained the effective elastic thickness (Te) and its anisotropy of South China and surrounding regions from the analysis of coherence between topography and satellite gravity using wavelet methods. The Te values of the study area vary from 2 to 75 km, with relatively low Te values (? 30 km) along the tectonic boundaries, the North-South Gravity Lineament (NSGL) and seismic zones, and in the regions with high surface heat flow. The evenly low Te values in the Lower Yangtze region and the Cathaysia block can be attributed to the long-lived subduction of the Paleo-Tethys and the Paleo-Pacific ocean basins beneath the South China block (SCB). The NSGL in the SCB may separate the unmodified (high Te) and thermally weakened (low Te) continental lithosphere due to oceanic subduction. Despite different distances to the tectonic boundaries, earthquakes occur more frequently in regions with Te values of 10-30 km, implying strain concentration in the low-Te regions. A positive correlation between seismic activity and the magnitude of Te anisotropy suggests that a highly anisotropic mechanical structure will promote strain localization and brittle failure in the lithosphere. The poor correlation between the weak axis of Te anisotropy and the dynamic indicators of the present tectonic regime (the shear-wave splitting direction, the maximum horizontal compressive stress direction) confirms that Te anisotropy mainly reflects tectonic inheritance of the continental lithosphere.

Mao, Xiaolin; Wang, Qin; Liu, Shaowen; Xu, Minjie; Wang, Liangshu

2012-07-01

305

Environmental effects of the recent emission changes in China: implications for particulate matter pollution and soil acidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Driven by a rapid increase of energy consumption and emerging pollution control policies, air pollutant emissions have changed dramatically in China during 2005-2010. This study developed a multi-pollutant emission inventory, and used the community multi-scale air quality (CMAQ) modeling system to evaluate the impact of the emission changes on particulate matter pollution and soil acidification. During 2005-2010, the emissions of SO2, PM10 and PM2.5 decreased by 14.9%, 15.1% and 11.7%, respectively. In contrast, the emissions of NOX, NMVOC and NH3 increased by 33.8%, 21.0% and 10.4%, respectively. The emission trends differed notably in different regions. Driven by emission changes, PM2.5 concentrations decreased by 2-17 ?g m-3 in most of the North China Plain, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta, while increasing by 4.5-16 ?g m-3 in most of the Sichuan Basin and Eastern Hubei. The changes of PM2.5 emissions led to the decline of primary PM2.5 concentrations in most of Eastern China. As an effect solely of emission changes, nitrate concentrations increased across most of China; sulfate concentrations decreased in most of Eastern China, with the largest reduction in the North China Plain, while they increased in the Sichuan Basin and parts of the Pearl River Delta and Eastern Hubei. The concentrations of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA) and the extinction coefficient increased in most of China, especially in the Sichuan Basin and Eastern Hubei, implying that the NOX and NH3 emissions should be reduced simultaneously in China. Combining the acidification effects of S and N, the exceedance of critical loads decreased across the country, but increased in the Sichuan Basin, the Pearl River Delta and Eastern Hubei, where the soil acidification was the most serious. Different control policies need to be implemented in different regions.

Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Dong, Xinyi; Wang, Jiandong; Duan, Lei; Fu, Xiao; Hao, Jiming; Fu, Joshua

2013-06-01

306

Socio-hydrologic perspectives of the co-evolution of humans and water in the Tarim River Basin, Western China: the Taiji-Tire Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a historical socio-hydrological analysis of the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang Province, Western China, from the time of the opening of the Silk Road to the present. The analysis is aimed at exploring the historical co-evolution of coupled human-water systems and at identifying common patterns or organizing principles underpinning socio-hydrological systems (SHS). As a self-organized entity, the evolution of the human-water system in the Tarim Basin reached stable states for long periods of time, then punctuated by sudden shifts due to internal or external disturbances. In this study, we discuss three steady periods (i.e. natural, human exploitation, and degradation and recovery) and transitions in between during the past 2000 yr. During the "natural" stage that existed pre-18th century, with small-scale human society and sound environment, evolution of the SHS was mainly driven by natural environmental changes such as river channel migration and climate change. During the human exploitation stage, especially in the 19th and 20th centuries, it experienced rapid population growth, massive land reclamation and fast socio-economic development, and humans became the principal players of system evolution. By the 1970s, the Tarim Basin had evolved into a new regime with a vulnerable eco-hydrological system seemingly populated beyond its carrying capacity, and a human society that began to suffer from serious water shortages, land salinization and desertification. With intensified deterioration of river health and increased recognition of unsustainability of traditional development pattern, human intervention and recovery measures have been adopted. Since then, the basin has shown a reverse regime shift towards some healing of the environmental damage. Spatio-temporal variations of historical socio-hydrological co-evolution are classified into four types: primitive agricultural, traditional agricultural, industrial agricultural and urban SHSs. These co-evolutionary changes have been summarized in terms of the Taiji-Tire Model, a refinement of a special concept in Chinese philosophy, relating to the co-evolution of a system because of interactions among its components.

Liu, Y.; Tian, F.; Hu, H.; Sivapalan, M.

2013-10-01

307

Groundwater dynamics under water-saving irrigation and implications for sustainable water management in an oasis: Tarim River basin of western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is essential for life. Specifically in the oases of inland arid basins, water is a critically limited resource, essential for the development of the socio-economy and the sustainability of eco-environmental systems. Due to the unique hydrological regime present in arid oases, a moderate groundwater table is the goal of sustainable water management. A shallow water table induces serious secondary salinization and collapse of agriculture, while a deep water table causes deterioration of natural vegetation. From the hydrological perspective, the exchange flux between the unsaturated vadose zone and groundwater reservoir is a critical link to understanding regional water table dynamics. This flux is substantially influenced by anthropogenic activities. In the Tarim River basin of western China, where agriculture consumes over 90% of available water resources, the exchange flux between the unsaturated vadose zone and groundwater reservoir is influenced strongly by irrigation. Recently, mulched drip irrigation, a sophisticated water-saving irrigation method, was widely applied in the Tarim River basin, which greatly impacted the exchange flux and thus the regional groundwater dynamics. Capitalizing on recent progress in evaporation measurement techniques, we can now close the water balance and directly quantify the exchange flux at the field scale, thus gaining a better understanding of regional groundwater dynamics. In this study, comprehensive observations of water balance components in an irrigated cropland were implemented in 2012 and 2013 in a typical oasis within the Tarim River basin. The water balance analysis showed that the exchange flux and groundwater dynamics were significantly altered by the application of water-saving irrigation. The exchange flux at the groundwater table is mostly downward (310.5 mm year-1), especially during drip irrigation period and spring flush period, while the upward flux is trivial (16.1 mm year-1) due to the moderate groundwater table depth (annual average depth 2.9 m). Traditional secondary salinization caused by intense phreatic evaporation (fed by upward exchange flux) is alleviated. However, a new form of secondary salinization may be introduced unwittingly if there is lack of water for periodic flushing, especially when brackish water is used in the irrigation. Furthermore, the water saved via drip irrigation has been used in further growth of irrigated lands instead of supporting the ecological system. This could lead to an increased risk of eco-environmental degradation and calls for improved governance schemes. The insights gained from this study can be potentially applied to other arid inland areas (e.g., central Asia) which face similar water shortages and human development problems.

Zhang, Z.; Hu, H.; Tian, F.; Yao, X.; Sivapalan, M.

2014-10-01

308

Trace elements, U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes of zircons from Mesozoic granites in the western Nanling Range, South China: Implications for petrogenesis and W-Sn mineralization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The E-W trending Nanling Range, located in the southern part of the South China Block (SCB), is characterized by widespread intra-continental Mesozoic granitoids and accompanying W-Sn polymetallic ore deposits. Detailed studies are presented on trace elements, U-Pb ages and Lu-Hf isotopes in zircons from the Mesozoic A2-type like granitoids (including the Qianlishan, Qitianling, Xianghualing, Huashan, Guposhan, Niumiao, Tong'an, Jinziling and Jinjiling Plutons) from the western Nanling Range. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb analyses of zircon indicate that these granites intruded mainly from ca 160-150 Ma. Two types of zircon (magmatic and late-magmatic hydrothermal) with similar ages can be distinguished based on their zircon trace element compositions. The late-magmatic hydrothermal zircons have high contents of metallogenic elements (e.g., W and Sn) and may be closely related with the ore deposits. The ?Hf(t) values of zircons from the Mesozoic granitoids are mildly negative to positive, indicating the reworking of both old and young crustal components. The significant involvement of Mesozoic juvenile mantle-derived materials in the source can be excluded because of the rare occurrences of mafic rocks with radiogenic isotopic signatures in the area. The average crustal residence age patterns of the Mesozoic granites in the western Nanling Range are similar to those of the Neoproterozoic magmatic rocks in the eastern part of the Jiangnan orogen, which may represent the Neoproterozoic collisional belt between the Yangtze and Cathaysia blocks. Considering the specific isotopic and metallogenic features of the Mesozoic granitoids in the study area, we propose that the western Nanling Range may represent a western extension of Neoproterozoic arc-continent collisional belt in South China. The Mesozoic granitoids of this area may have been generated mainly by reworking of deeply-buried Neoproterozoic arc-related volcanic-sedimentary materials due to thermal perturbations triggered by the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate in Mesozoic time.

Shu, Xu-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Sun, Tao; Xu, Xisheng; Dai, Meng-Ning

2011-12-01

309

China Today IAS 2123.001  

E-print Network

China Today IAS 2123.001 Kevin Carrico Tuesdays & Thursdays 10:30 am -11:45 am Approved for Non-Western culture credit Everyone knows that China today is a "rising superpower," but the real story of China's modern history is considerably more complex. This course looks beyond the headlines to rediscover China

Oklahoma, University of

310

ULF Magnetic Ionosphere Precursor of Sichuan Earthquake Detected by [SQUID]2 System in LSBB-Rustrel  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hour before the Sichuan earthquake (Mw=7.9, 2008 May 12, 06:28~TU), amplified, recurrent and well-defined ionosphere excitations at the resonance frequency of the ionosphere floor were observed by the [SQUID]2 system, an ultra low-noise magnetometer with a rejection rate better than 3fT\\/&surd;Hz over 40~Hz installed within the LSBB underground laboratory of Rustrel, France, 60~km on the East of Avignon (43°56'26.04~N,

G. Waysand; P. Barroy; R. Blancon; J. Bois; S. Gaffet; J. Marfaing; E. Pozzo di Borgo; M. Pyée; M. Auguste; D. Boyer; A. Cavaillou

2008-01-01

311

A study on the competency model of professional sports coaches in sichuan province  

Microsoft Academic Search

Originated in the 1970s, the theory of competence has become today's leading issue in the field of management and psychology. The current research interviewed 20 provincial grade and higher sports coaches relating to 8 sports events using the Behavior Events Interview (BEI) in Sichuan province, after which ldquoThe Competency Dictionary of Sports Coaches of Chinardquo was utilized to rate\\/code the

Liu Liu; Xiaoshu Zhang

2009-01-01

312

Survival and Nesting Habitat use by Sichuan and Ring-necked Pheasants Released in Ohio1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) populations in the Midwestern United States have declined drastically since World War II. Population numbers in Ohio have leveled off since the establishment of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP); however, a return to historically abundant ring-necked pheasant populations is unlikely with current land-use practices. Studies by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (DNR) of released Sichuan

KATHRYN L. SHIPLEY; DAVID P. SCOTT

313

Structure and tectonic geomorphology of the Qujiang fault at the intersection of the Ailao Shan-Red River fault and the Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault system, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northwest-striking Qujiang fault is located at the southeastern tip of the Sichuan-Yunnan block, which is bounded by the Ailao Shan-Red River fault and the Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault system. The Qujiang fault is one of the most seismically active faults in western Yunnan, China and is considered to be the seismogenic fault of the 1970 Ms 7.7 Tonghai earthquake. In this study, we examine the geometry, kinematics, and geomorphology of this fault through field observations, satellite images, and DEMs. It is a Holocene active fault characterized by dextral strike-slip movements with dip-slip components. It can be divided into northwest and southeast segments depending on different kinematics. The northwest segment from Baiyizhai to Wujie shows right-lateral strike slip with normal components, whereas it is characterized by dextral movements with the northeast wall thrusting over the opposite in the southeast segment from Wujie to Miaobeishan. The geophysical data combined with our investigations indicate that the fault dips steeply to the NE at depth, while secondary faults with different dip directions developed at shallow surface owing to fault bifurcation. During the Tonghai earthquake, a blind fault may have developed on the southwest wall, resulting in aftershocks concentrated to the southwest of the surface raptures. Multiple tectonic landforms are developed along the fault. The right-lateral Holocene slip rate was determined to be 2.84-3.27 mm/year based on radiometrically dated offset gullies. Our analyses show that the present deformation at the intersection of the Ailao Shan-Red River fault and the Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault system is partitioned into a shortening distributed over a region ~ 150 km wide and a right-lateral strike slip localized on the Qujiang and Jianshui faults. Since the late Pleistocene, the Qujiang fault has been playing an important role in accommodating the ongoing SE-directed movements of the Sichuan-Yunnan block, creating strong earthquakes to release strain energy.

Wang, Yang; Zhang, Bo; Hou, Jianjun; Xu, Xiwei

2014-11-01

314

In Brief: China shaken by magnitude 7.9 earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A magnitude 7.9 earthquake that struck the eastern Sichuan region of China on 12 May 2008 at 0628 UTC has caused more than 22,000 fatalities as of press time, and Chinese government officials have indiciated that this figure could increase to 50,000. The quake also caused severe damage including landslides and cracks to 391 mostly small dams, according to an Associated Press report that cited the Xinhua News Agency and CCTV news. China's Ministry of Water Resources has dispatched several work teams to quake-hit localities ``to prevent dams that were damaged by the earthquake from bursting and endangering the lives of residents,'' the ministry stated.

Showstack, Randy

2008-05-01

315

Crust/mantle interaction during the construction of an extensional magmatic dome: Middle to Late Jurassic plutonic complex from western Liaoning, North China Craton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differentiating magmatic doming and low-angle normal faulting remains critical for fully understanding the thermal, mechanical and chemical evolution of continental landmasses under extension. This zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical study documents two Middle to Late Jurassic batholiths (Lüshan and Haitangshan) from the Yiwulüshan range of western Liaoning, North China Craton. They consist of a variety of lithologies including gabbro, diorite, granodiorite, monzogranite, together with microgranular magmatic enclaves (MME) and mafic dykes. Synthesizing petrologic, elemental, whole-rock Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopic data leads to the characterization of multiple mafic and felsic end-members and their concomitant interaction in building the magmatic dome. A subduction-related metasomatized lithospheric mantle source is fingerprinted by the gabbroic to dioritic rocks with enriched large ion lithophile elements, depleted high field strength elements and heterogeneous isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70541 to 0.70577, ?Nd(t) = - 1.78 to - 5.54 and zircon ?Hf(t) = - 6.0 to 8.1). One felsic magma end-member of ancient mafic lower crustal parentage is discernable from adakitic granites with high Sr/Y and evolved isotopic composition (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70533 to 0.70792, ?Nd(t) = - 18.8 to - 21.7, zircon ?Hf(t) = - 18.5 to - 28.8), whereas another felsic magma end-member of newly underplated crustal heritage manifests itself from some monzogranites with non-adakitic elemental affinity and juvenile isotopic composition (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70429 to 0.70587, ?Nd(t) = - 4.47 to - 5.87, zircon ?Hf(t) = 4.3 to 1.3). Hybridization processes between mantle-derived mafic magma and ancient crustal-derived felsic magma result in the formation of MME-bearing granodiorites with intermediate isotopic signatures (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70491 to 0.70499, ?Nd(t) = - 15.3 to - 15.8, zircon ?Hf(t) = - 12.7 to - 17.4). Subsequent fractional crystallization of the hybridized magmas endows the differentiated monzogranites with low Sr/Y and highly evolved isotopes (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70496 to 0.70605, ?Nd(t) = - 16.0 to - 18.7, zircon ?Hf(t) = - 14.3 to - 21.5). Apart from distinguishing Middle-Late Jurassic extensional magmatic doming from Early Cretaceous detachment faulting, this complex mafic-felsic magma association encapsulates a multi-level crust/mantle interaction leading to lithospheric thinning and concomitant crustal architectural reorganization in the Yanshan belt during the Late Mesozoic. Near-synchronization of a two-stage extensional pattern in the Yanshan belt and even across NE continental Asia accords well with gravitational collapse and convective removal of lithospheric mantle within an evolved post-collisional to within-plate extensional regime.

Zhang, Xiaohui; Yuan, Lingling; Wilde, Simon A.

2014-09-01

316

Y-chromosome distributions among populations in Northwest China identify significant contribution from Central Asian pastoralists and lesser influence of western Eurasians.  

PubMed

Northwest China is closely adjacent to Central Asia, an intermediate region of the Eurasian continent. Moreover, the Silk Road through the northwest of China once had a vital role in the east-west intercommunications. Nevertheless, little has been known about the genetic makeup of populations in this region. We collected 503 male samples from 14 ethnic groups in the northwest of China, and surveyed 29 Y-chromosomal biallelic markers and 8 short tandem repeats (STRs) loci to reconstruct the paternal architecture. Our results illustrated obvious genetic difference among these ethnic groups, and in general their genetic background is more similar with Central Asians than with East Asians. The ancestors of present northwestern populations were the admixture of early East Asians peopling northwestward and later Central Asians immigrating eastward. This population mixture was dated to occur within the past 10 000 years. The J2-M172 lineages likely entered China during the eastward migration of Central Asians. The influence from West Eurasia through gene flows on the extant ethnic groups in Northwest China was relatively weak. PMID:20414255

Shou, Wei-Hua; Qiao, En-Fa; Wei, Chuan-Yu; Dong, Yong-Li; Tan, Si-Jie; Shi, Hong; Tang, Wen-Ru; Xiao, Chun-Jie

2010-05-01

317

Early Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the Xing-Meng Orogenic Belt: constraints from detrital zircon geochronology of western Erguna-Xing'an Block, North China  

E-print Network

zircon U-Pb dating on the Ordovician to Devonian sedimentary strata along the southeastern China zoning and Th/U ratios higher than 0.1, indicating a magmatic origin. All these five Ordovician Ma, with some Meso- to Paleo-proterozoic and Neoarchean grains. This age distribution pattern

Boyer, Edmond

318

Trade-Offs between the Top-Down and Bottom-Up School Education Management Models: The Implementation of School Development Planning in Western China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the 1990s, numerous primary and secondary schools in China began experimental exploration and research on the implementation of school development planning (SDP). However, there has been a lack of self-criticism and reflection on the actual implementation situations and changes in SDP's concepts in the participating schools. This study assessed…

Zhu, Zhiyong

2008-01-01

319

Oligo-Miocene magnetostratigraphy and rock magnetism of the Xishuigou section, Subei (Gansu Province, western China) and implications for shallow inclinations in central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetostratigraphy of 222 remanent directions together with late Oligocene to early Miocene mammal and charophyte paleontology suggest that 2179 m of the Xishuigou section (Subei, Gansu Province, China) were deposited from ~26 to ~19 Ma. Stratigraphic patterns of bulk susceptibility, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility parameters, and natural and anhysteretic remanent magnetization intensities demonstrate that (1) faulting does not significantly affect

Stuart Gilder; Yan Chen; Sevket Sen

2001-01-01

320

Cultural and Gender Differences in Perceptions of Stressors and Coping Skills: A Study of Western and African College Students in China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests the universal nature of stress and coping behavior among overseas college students in China and provides basic information towards understanding the problems that result from stress and coping which can best be defined in cultural terms. Results indicated that academic and interpersonal sources of stress were the most common Stressors…

Hashim, Ismail Hussein

2003-01-01

321

Evidence of male-biased dispersal in the endangered Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithexus roxellana).  

PubMed

Although sex-biased dispersal has profound effects on the viability of small and isolated populations resulting from habitat change and anthropogenic disturbance, the direction and strength of sex-biased dispersal in the endangered Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithexus roxellana) remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated dispersal patterns of R. roxellana using 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Using noninvasive methods we obtained 337 fecal samples from individuals residing in four multilevel troops that inhabit the Shennongjia Nature Reserve (SNR). Our study site contains an isolated population of approximately 1,000 Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys located in the easternmost distribution of the species' range. Our results indicated that the mean coefficient of relatedness among troop members was low (mean relatedness?±?SE?=?0.038?±?0.025). However, the mean relatedness of monkeys residing in the same troop was significantly higher than the mean relatedness of monkeys belonging to different troops, suggesting that some members of the same troop were closely relatived. Sex-biased dispersal tests revealed that dispersal in R. roxellana was male-biased. Moreover, analysis of isolation-by-distance indicated that the correlation between pairwise genetic distance and geographical distance was positive for females, while it was negative for males. These data suggest that males tended to disperse further than females, although these values were not statistically significant. Considering previous field data collected on Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys from other sites, we suggest that mating competition among males and female mate choice represent the major causes of male-biased dispersal in R. roxellana. PMID:24038299

Chang, Zongfei; Yang, Banghe; Vigilant, Linda; Liu, Zhijin; Ren, Baoping; Yang, Jingyuan; Xiang, Zuofu; Garber, Paul A; Li, Ming

2014-01-01

322

Seismic imaging in the crust and upper mantle under Southwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We collected a large number of P-wave and S-wave arrival-time data from 14,474 local earthquakes and 4,782 teleseismic events to simultaneously invert the three-dimensional (3-D) P- and S-wave velocity structures under the Southwest (SW) China. The inverted Vp and Vs images are, in general, coherent with each other from the crust to a deep depth of the upper mantle. Our velocity models confirmed the major features delineated by previous global and local P-wave tomographic approaches as well as surface wave studies and revealed some new features of the structural heterogeneities in details in the crust and upper mantle. Low anomalous Vp and Vs are generally imaged at the shallow upper crust under the Sichuan foreland basin, being consistent with the surface geological study that the foreland basin contains primarily Mesozoic and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks with thickness greater than 10 km. Prominent high-velocity anomalies are clearly mapped at depths of 65-400 km under the Yangtze Platform in a sharp contrast to low-velocity perturbations beneath the regions of the Songpan-Ganzi Fold System, the Northwest Qiangtang Block as well as the Indochina Block at these depths. The Foreland Sichuan Basin is characterized as a lithospheric body with strong high-velocity anomalies with a southwestern dipping angle subducting into the southeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau to a depth of 400 km. These features of lithospheric heterogeneities are well consistent with the station delays of the relative travel-time residuals calculated from the teleseismic data in the study region. A low-velocity layer with Vp and Vs anomalies of 1-2% at around depth of the boundary between the crust and upper mantle is generally revealed in the western regions to the Sichuan Foreland Basin, including the Songpan-Ganzi Fold System and parts of the Chuan-Dian Fragment, which may reflect the presence of ductile flow in the lower crust. Such a feature of the rheological strength variation in the crust suggests that the crustal deformation of the southeast Tibetan Plateau is decoupled with the motion of the upper mantle. Beneath the Tongcheng volcano, prominent slow velocities of both Vp and Vs are imaged from the surface to an extended depth of 500 km, indicating that the root of the volcanism is probably from the upper mantle transition zone. The azimuths of the maximum compressional stress along the major tectonic plate boundaries and sutures estimated using 147 high-quality stress data revealed a characteristic regional stress fields in the study region. Our study suggests that, apart from the influence from the collision between the Indian and Eurasian continental plates, the present-data crustal stress field along the tectonic zones in SW China is significantly affected by ductile deformation in the crust.

Wang, Z.; Fukao, Y.

2009-12-01

323

3D thermal structure of the continental lithosphere beneath China and adjacent regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the Crust2.0 model and the topography data of Chinese continent and its adjacent regions, a three-dimensional finite element model is constructed in terms of the spherical coordinate system. In our numerical model, the average annual ground temperature from 195 meteorological stations and temperature of upper mantle derived from the seismic velocities are adopted as the top and bottom boundary conditions, respectively. The observed thermal conductivity and heat production from P wave velocity based on empirical formula are employed in our numerical model as well. The comparison between the calculated and observed surface heat flow proved that our results are reliable. The temperature beneath the Precambrian cratons is lower than that of other areas for 100-300 °C also. The typical temperature rang at the Moho is estimated to be 800-1000 °C beneath the Tibetan plateau and 500-700 °C beneath the Precambrian cratons (such as Indian plate, Sichuan basin, South China, North China and Tarim), respectively. The thermal state in the eastern part of Sino-Korean craton at the depth deeper than 60 km indicates that it was destructed. The thermal structure in center of Tibetan plateau (especially beneath Qiangtang area) supports the proposed flow of lower crustal or upper mantle material to the east. Generally, the distribution of volcanoes in Chinese continent is consistent with the high temperature areas in the crust or upper mantle. There are many obvious thermal transition zones across the orogenic belts. The thermal transition zone between eastern and western parts in the crust of Chinese continent is consistent with the north-south seismic zone.

Sun, Yujun; Dong, Shuwen; Zhang, Huai; Li, Han; Shi, Yaolin

2013-01-01

324

Drivers of Echinococcus multilocularis Transmission in China: Small Mammal Diversity, Landscape or Climate?  

PubMed Central

Background Human alveolar echinococcocosis (AE) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic disease caused by the larval stage of the cestode E. multilocularis. Its life-cycle includes more than 40 species of small mammal intermediate hosts. Therefore, host biodiversity losses could be expected to alter transmission. Climate may also have possible impacts on E. multilocularis egg survival. We examined the distribution of human AE across two spatial scales, (i) for continental China and (ii) over the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We tested the hypotheses that human disease distribution can be explained by either the biodiversity of small mammal intermediate host species, or by environmental factors such as climate or landscape characteristics. Methodology/findings The distributions of 274 small mammal species were mapped to 967 point locations on a grid covering continental China. Land cover, elevation, monthly rainfall and temperature were mapped using remotely sensed imagery and compared to the distribution of human AE disease at continental scale and over the eastern Tibetan plateau. Infection status of 17,589 people screened by abdominal ultrasound in 2002–2008 in 94 villages of Tibetan areas of western Sichuan and Qinghai provinces was analyzed using generalized additive mixed models and related to epidemiological and environmental covariates. We found that human AE was not directly correlated with small mammal reservoir host species richness, but rather was spatially correlated with landscape features and climate which could confirm and predict human disease hotspots over a 200,000 km2 region. Conclusions/Significance E. multilocularis transmission and resultant human disease risk was better predicted from landscape features that could support increases of small mammal host species prone to population outbreaks, rather than host species richness. We anticipate that our study may be a starting point for further research wherein landscape management could be used to predict human disease risk and for controlling this zoonotic helminthic. PMID:23505582

Giraudoux, Patrick; Raoul, Francis; Pleydell, David; Li, Tiaoying; Han, Xiuming; Qiu, Jiamin; Xie, Yan; Wang, Hu; Ito, Akira; Craig, Philip S.

2013-01-01

325

Large Lateral Variations of Seismic Anisotropy Observed along the North South Gravity Lineament in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present-day tectonic setting of China is featured by Indian-Eurasian collision in the west and Pacific subduction in the east. The interaction of the Eurasian, Indian, and Pacific Plates has resulted in a unique topographic contrast between eastern and western China. The two regions are bounded by a ~100 km wide, NNE trending lineament known as the North South Gravity Lineament (NSGL). Motion style of the upper mantle around this region is essential for understanding the evolution of China continent. Seismic waves in an anisotropic media travel at different speeds depending on their propagation and polarization directions. In the upper mantle, it is generally believed that seismic anisotropy is caused by a preferred orientation of olivine crystal. The fast direction is parallel to the maximum shear and maximum extension directions for simple shear and pure shear, respectively, and accordingly relates with the motion direction of the upper mantle. We employed a multi-event stacking method to measure the fast direction (?) and splitting time (?t) beneath NSGL with SKS waveform data recorded at epicentral distances of 90°-130°. A total of 219 regional seismic stations operated by the China Earthquake Administration (CEA) were used in this study. These stations covered the continental scarp that extends from the Great Xing'an Range in the northeast to the eastern edge of the Yunnan-Guizhou (Yungui) plateau in the south. From a total of 100 events, we chose 40 earthquakes with high SNR for analyzing. The measured seismic anisotropy exhibited large variations in both ? and ?t along the strike. The fast direction starts from nearly NS at the NE end of the Great Xing'an Range, changes to almost EW along the Yanshanian Orogenic Belt. It then rotates to NE through the Taihang mountain range, and changes back to EW within the Qinling mountain range. Along the eastern border of the Sichuan basin, the fast direction matches well with the NNE oriented mountain ranges in the region. At the eastern and southeastern corner of the Yungui plateau, we observed a nearly EW fast direction. Although the large variation in seismic anisotropy is difficult to be explained by a single deformation process, our results imply that there should be convection in the big mantle wedge beneath eastern China continent.

Ning, S.; Niu, F.; Tao, K.; Cai, C.; Ning, J.

2011-12-01

326

Distinct Genetic Diversity of Oncomelania hupensis, Intermediate Host of Schistosoma japonicum in Mainland China as Revealed by ITS Sequences  

PubMed Central

Background Oncomelania hupensis is the unique intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, which causes schistosomiasis endemic in the Far East, and especially in mainland China. O. hupensis largely determines the parasite's geographical range. How O. hupensis's genetic diversity is distributed geographically in mainland China has never been well examined with DNA sequence data. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we investigate the genetic variation among O. hupensis from different geographical origins using the combined complete internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. 165 O. hupensis isolates were obtained in 29 localities from 7 provinces across mainland China: lake/marshland and hill regions in Anhui, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi and Jiangsu provinces, located along the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, and mountainous regions in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. Phylogenetic and haplotype network analyses showed distinct genetic diversity and no shared haplotypes between populations from lake/marshland regions of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and populations from mountainous regions of Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. The genetic distance between these two groups is up to 0.81 based on Fst, and branch time was estimated as 2–6 Ma. As revealed in the phylogenetic tree, snails from Sichuan and Yunnan provinces were also clustered separately. Geographical separation appears to be an important factor accounting for the diversification of the two groups of O. hupensis in mainland China, and probably for the separate clades between snails from Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. In lake/marshland and hill regions along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, three clades were identified in the phylogenetic tree, but without any obvious clustering of snails from different provinces. Conclusions O. hupensis in mainland China may have considerable genetic diversity, and a more complex population structure than expected. It will be of significant importance to consider the genetic diversity of O. hupensis when assessing co-evolutionary interactions with S. japonicum. PMID:20209150

Zhao, Qin Ping; Jiang, Ming Sen; Littlewood, D. Timothy J.; Nie, Pin

2010-01-01

327

Seismic signature of the mantle transition zone beneath eastern Tibet and Sichuan Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strong interaction between the eastward flow escaping from Tibet and the rigid Sichuan Basin resulted in the rise of the Longmenshan. However, the detailed dynamics in the mantle remains controversial. In this study, the structure of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) beneath eastern Tibet and Sichuan Basin is investigated using 5080 receiver functions from 51 broadband stations. The depth of the 410 km discontinuity is close to the global average, except for the Longmenshan where the 410 and 660-km discontinuities are found to be depressed by up to 10-25 km and 5-10 km, respectively. The observed simultaneous depressions of the 410 and 660-km discontinuities distributed along the LMS, together with proofs from tomography and regional tectonics, suggest that asthenospheric flow sinks into the MTZ, resulting in a high velocity zone, as well as variation in the MTZ thickness. The depressions are not from the traditional Clapeyron slopes or temperature variation. Also, the depression of the 410 km discontinuity and the dehydration of wadsleyite are syngenetic, both of which originate from the dry mantle flow traveling across the old 410 km interface.

Hu, Jiafu; Yang, Haiyan; Li, Guangquan; Wen, Limin

2013-01-01

328

The NHV Rehabilitation Services Program Improves Long-Term Physical Functioning in Survivors of the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake: A Longitudinal Quasi Experiment  

PubMed Central

Background Long-term disability following natural disasters significantly burdens survivors and the impacted society. Nevertheless, medical rehabilitation programming has been historically neglected in disaster relief planning. ‘NHV’ is a rehabilitation services program comprised of non–governmental organizations (NGOs) (N), local health departments (H), and professional rehabilitation volunteers (V) which aims to improve long-term physical functioning in survivors of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the NHV program. Methods/Findings 510 of 591 enrolled earthquake survivors participated in this longitudinal quasi-experimental study (86.3%). The early intervention group (NHV–E) consisted of 298 survivors who received institutional-based rehabilitation (IBR) followed by community-based rehabilitation (CBR); the late intervention group (NHV–L) was comprised of 101 survivors who began rehabilitation one year later. The control group of 111 earthquake survivors did not receive IBR/CBR. Physical functioning was assessed using the Barthel Index (BI). Data were analyzed with a mixed-effects Tobit regression model. Physical functioning was significantly increased in the NHV–E and NHV–L groups at follow-up but not in the control group after adjustment for gender, age, type of injury, and time to measurement. We found significant effects of both NHV (11.14, 95% CI 9.0–13.3) and sponaneaous recovery (5.03; 95% CI 1.73–8.34). The effect of NHV-E (11.3, 95% CI 9.0–13.7) was marginally greater than that of NHV-L (10.7, 95% CI 7.9–13.6). It could, however, not be determined whether specific IBR or CBR program components were effective since individual component exposures were not evaluated. Conclusion Our analysis shows that the NHV improved the long-term physical functioning of Sichuan earthquake survivors with disabling injuries. The comprehensive rehabilitation program benefitted the individual and society, rehabilitation services in China, and international rehabilitation disaster relief planning. Similar IBR/CBR programs should therefore be considered for future large-scale rehabilitation disaster relief efforts. PMID:23308293

Gosney, James E.; Li, Jianan

2013-01-01

329

Tertiary evolution of the western Tarim basin, northwest China: A tectono-sedimentary response to northward indentation of the Pamir salient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

his paper deals with the Tertiary tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the western Tarim basin based on an integrated stratigraphic, sedimentary, structural, and tectonic analyses. Basin evolution is divided into three stages: Paleogene, Miocene, and Pliocene. The western Tarim basin was the easternmost part of the Tethyan realm from Late Cretaceous to Paleogene, and marine sedimentation continued into the Early Miocene. Miocene development of the western Tarim basin was chiefly governed by West Kunlun right-slip faulting and the simultaneous northward thrusting of the Pamir salient and Tianshuihai terrane. Yecheng subbasin developed as a pull-apart basin owing to synchronous activity of the West Kunlun and the Shache-Yangdaman right-slip faults. Hotan foreland basin formed in response to northward displacement of the Tianshuihai terrane, and another might have developed in front of the advancing Pamir salient in the Miocene. Basinward thrusting became predominant in the orogenic belts adjacent to the western Tarim basin in the Pliocene. North-directed displacement and uplift of the Tiklik thrust terrane fragmented the preexisting Hotan foreland basin, and collision of the Pamir with the southern Tian Shan deformational fronts caused complete destruction of the Miocene Pamir foreland basin. Eastward displacement of the Qimugen fold-thrust system led to flexural subsidence of the Yecheng subbasin in the Pliocene. Kashi subbasin developed as part of the southern Tian Shan foreland basin, and was controlled by the eastern Pamir as well. A tectonic scenario is proposed to illustrate complicated interplay of the western Tarim basin with its peripheral orogens in the Tertiary.

Wei, Hong-Hong; Meng, Qing-Ren; Ding, Lin; Li, Zhen-Yu

2013-06-01

330

Globalization of Education in China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under traditional Confucianism, China's school system became authoritarian, rigid, and undemocratic. In recent decades, China had one national curriculum and one unified set of textbooks. Now, text publication is more varied, curriculum planning and writing is becoming more democratic, and Western ideas are incorporated to spur economic…

An, Shuhua

2000-01-01

331

Source parameters of the 2013 Lushan, Sichuan, Ms7.0 earthquake and estimation of the near-fault strong ground motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract: The April 20, 2013 Ms 7.0 earthquake in Lushan city, Sichuan province of China occurred as the result of east-west oriented reverse-type motion on a north-south striking fault. The source location suggests the event occurred on the Southern part of Longmenshan fault at a depth of 13km. The Lushan earthquake caused a great of loss of property and 196 deaths. The maximum intensity is up to VIII to IX at Boxing and Lushan city, which are located in the meizoseismal area. In this study, we analyzed the dynamic source process and calculated source spectral parameters, estimated the strong ground motion in the near-fault field based on the Brune's circle model at first. A dynamical composite source model (DCSM) has been developed further to simulate the near-fault strong ground motion with associated fault rupture properties at Boxing and Lushan city, respectively. The results indicate that the frictional undershoot behavior in the dynamic source process of Lushan earthquake, which is actually different from the overshoot activity of the Wenchuan earthquake. Based on the simulated results of the near-fault strong ground motion, described the intensity distribution of the Lushan earthquake field. The simulated intensity indicated that, the maximum intensity value is IX, and region with and above VII almost 16,000km2, which is consistence with observation intensity published online by China Earthquake Administration (CEA) on April 25. Moreover, the numerical modeling developed in this study has great application in the strong ground motion prediction and intensity estimation for the earthquake rescue purpose. In fact, the estimation methods based on the empirical relationship and numerical modeling developed in this study has great application in the strong ground motion prediction for the earthquake source process understand purpose. Keywords: Lushan, Ms7.0 earthquake; near-fault strong ground motion; DCSM; simulated intensity

Meng, L.; Zhou, L.; Liu, J.

2013-12-01

332

Ethnic Differences in Prevalence of General Obesity and Abdominal Obesity among Low-Income Rural Kazakh and Uyghur Adults in Far Western China and Implications in Preventive Public Health  

PubMed Central

Background The global pandemic of obesity has become a disastrous public health issue that needs urgent attention. Previous studies have concentrated in high-income urban settings and few cover low-income rural settings especially nomadic residents in mountain areas. This study focused on low-income rural and nomadic minority people residing in China’s far west and investigated their prevalence and ethnic differences of obesity. Methods A questionnaire-based survey and physical examination of 8,036 individuals were conducted during 2009–2010, using stratified cluster random sampling method in nomadic Kazakhs and rural Uyghur residents (?18 years old) in 18 villages, Xinjiang, China, about 4,407 km away from capital Beijing. Obesity was defined by BMI and WC. Results The overall prevalence of general and abdominal obesity in Kazakh adults were 18.3% and 60.0%, respectively and in Uyghur, 7.6% and 54.5%, respectively. Female’s prevalence of obesity was higher than male’s for general obesity (45–54 age group in Uyghur, P?=?0.041) and abdominal obesity (?55 years in Kazakhs, P55??=?0.010, P65??=?0.001; and ?18 years in Uyghurs, P<0.001). Kazakh’s prevalence of obesity was higher than Uyghur’s (general obesity: ?35 years, P<0.001; abdominal obesity: ?25 years in males and ?65 years in females, P<0.01). The prevalence of obesity increased after 18 years old and subsequently decreased after 55 years old. Meat consumption, older age, and female gender had a higher risk of obesity in these two minorities. Conclusions Both general and abdominal obesity were common in rural ethnic Kazakhs and Uyghurs. The prevalence rates were different in these two minorities depending on ethnicity, gender, and age. Kazakhs, females and elderly people may be prioritized in prevention of obesity in western China. Because of cost-effectiveness in measuring BMI and WC, we recommend that BMI and WC be integrated into local preventive policies in public health toward screening obesity and related diseases in low-income rural minorities. PMID:25188373

He, Jia; Guo, Shuxia; Liu, Jiaming; Zhang, Mei; Ding, Yusong; Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Shugang; Xu, Shangzhi; Niu, Qiang; Guo, Heng; Ma, Rulin

2014-01-01

333

Searching for Oil China's Initiatives in the Middle East  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a world in which the supply of oil is limited both by geology and politics, China’s determination to fuel its rapidly growing economy is seen by many as a looming source of conflict. It is not simply the geographic breadth of China’s initiatives that cause anxiety in western capitals, but also its willingness to enter into economic arrangements with

Henry Lee; Dan A. Shalmon

2007-01-01

334

Carboniferous-Triassic subduction and accretion in the western Kunlun, China: Implications for the collisional and accretionary tectonics of the northern Tibetan Plateau  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly defined, 250 km by 500 km, Carboniferous-Triassic subduction-accretion complex, the Mazar accretionary prism in the western Kunlun, comprises two subduction complexes and a forearc-basin succession. (1) The Bazar Dara subduction complex contains imbricated blocks of sandstone, arenite, limestone, and metavolcanic rocks in a matrix of weakly metamorphosed Triassic deep-sea turbidites. The metavolcanic rocks include basalt, diabase, spilite, and

Wen Jiao Xiao; Brian F. Windley; Han Lin Chen; Guo Cheng Zhang; Ji Liang Li

2002-01-01

335

Timing of UHP metamorphism in the Hong’an area, western Dabie Mountains, China: evidence from zircon U–Pb age, trace element and Hf isotope composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hong’an area (western Dabie Mountains) is the westernmost terrane in the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogen that preserves UHP\\u000a eclogites. The ages of the UHP metamorphism have not been well constrained, and thus hinder our understanding of the tectonic\\u000a evolution of this area. LA-ICPMS U–Pb age, trace element and Hf isotope compositions of zircons of a granitic gneiss and an\\u000a eclogite from

Yuan-Bao Wu; Shan Gao; Hong-Fei Zhang; Sai-Hong Yang; Wen-Fang Jiao; Yong-Sheng Liu; Hong-Lin Yuan

2008-01-01

336

Genetic Diversity in Primula obconica (Primulaceae) from Central and South?west China as Revealed by ISSR Markers  

PubMed Central

Genetic diversity was investigated in 60 individuals of Primula obconica from four natural populations (from Hubei, central China, and Sichuan, south?west China) and from cultivated material. Inter?simple sequence repeat (ISSR) techniques produced 249 polymorphic bands and identified 60 ISSR genotypes. Based on Shannon’s index and Nei’s genetic diversity, the genetic diversity detected in all natural populations of P. obconica was much higher than that in the cultivated plants, and that in the three Dalaoling (Hubei) populations was higher than that in the Wawushan (Sichuan) population. UPGMA cluster analysis showed that there was no distinct genetic differentiation between populations from the Mt Dalaoling area and the Mt Wawushan area. This study provides a population?level genetic profile of P. obconica, which was previously poorly known but which is important for Primula breeding and cultivation. PMID:12547685

NAN, PENG; SHI, SUHUA; PENG, SHAOLIN; TIAN, CHUNJIE; ZHONG, YANG

2003-01-01

337

[How to launch the activity of propaganda month of family planning in Sichuan province].  

PubMed

In mid-July to the end of August 1982, the Sichuan Provincial Party Committee and the Sichuan Provincial People's Government launched a 1-time family planning propaganda month in all of its cities and villages. The purpose was to promote and to carry out consistently and thoroughly the "Going a Step Further in Family Planning Work Directive" of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party and the State Council. Through the propaganda efforts, cadres and masses of Sichuan became familiar with the Party's family planning policy and the basis for population theory, thereby benefitting the nation, its people and future generations. In addition, people sensed the urgency, glory, and responsibility of population control. Based on incomplete data, during the month of propaganda, there were 174,182 new applications for 1 Child Certificates, which was 94.82% of the certificates applied for in the 1st half of 1982; 419,696 cases of contraceptive use, or 43.32% of those using them in the 1st 6 months of the year; 247,808 cases of those taking remedial measures, or 35.62% of those doing so in the 1st half of the year. The 1 child rate rose from a June 1982 figure of 68.21% to 68.71%; the multiple child rate dropped from 8.24% to 8%. The projected birthrate for 1982 is 16-17/1000. The success of the propaganda month was attained through: 1) organized responsibility, clearly defined goals and complete preparations that existed at all provincial Party and provincial Governmental levels; 2) the propaganda effort that was a priority of all governmental leaders, who utilized every propaganda tool available; At every level, propaganda sessions of every kind were convened, the entire propaganda machine was mobilized, and propaganda was brought into the home and to individuals; 3) propaganda, experience, and implementation that were all utilized simultaneously; and 4) the organization and administration of propaganda work that was systematized. PMID:12312939

Wan, C; Tan, S S

1983-01-29

338

Comparative analysis of Chinese and western sporting goods enterprises' growth pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

After 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, sports industry is becoming an investment hotspot in China. And 2008 Beijing Olympic Games become a powerful springboard for China's domestic sporting goods enterprises to sprint world-class brand. In western countries sporting goods industry is mature industry, but in China it belongs to emerging industry. Big gaps exist between Chinese and western sporting goods enterprises.

Dong Qinqin

2011-01-01

339

Temporal and spatial distributions of total gaseous mercury concentrations in ambient air in a mountainous area in southwestern China: Implications for industrial and domestic mercury emissions in remote areas in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial and temporal distributions of total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in ambient air were investigated in the Mt. Gongga area (Sichuan province, PR China) from April 2006 to June 2007. The annual geometric mean TGM concentration at the Moxi baseline station was 3.90±1.20 ng m?3. Geometric mean TGM concentrations at 14 representative sampling sites during the warm season ranged from 1.60

Xuewu Fu; Xinbin Feng; Shaofeng Wang; S. Rothenberg; Lihai Shang; Zhonggen Li; Guangle Qiu

2009-01-01

340

Session A1: Bilateral cooperation and technology transfer between France and China at Daya-Bay, Qinshan II and Yibin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Daya-Bay nuclear power station in Guangdong Province, the Qinshan phase II nuclear power station (NPS) in Zhejiang Province, and the fuel manufacturing facility at Yibin in Sichuan Province have all afforded Framatome the opportunity to develop wide-ranging bilateral cooperation and technology transfer with the People`s Republic of China. These projects are all good examples of how a country with

Ma Fubang; Zeng Wen Xing; He Jia Cheng

1994-01-01

341

Coseismic Faults and Crust Deformation Accompanied the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China by Field Investigation and InSAR Interferogram  

Microsoft Academic Search

The devastated Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake occurred along the steep eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau in Sichuan, China, on 12 May 2008. Over 86,592 people were dead or missing, 374159 injured, and more than 4.8 million homeless. The ruptures possibly occurred over a length of 285 km along the northeast striking Longmen Shan (LMS) thrust belt. In order to

K. Hao; H. Si; H. Fujiwara; T. Ozawa

2008-01-01

342

Dysfunction and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Fracture Victims 50 Months after the Sichuan Earthquake  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a rehabilitation intervention on physical dysfunction (PDF) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in fracture victims 50 months after the Sichuan earthquake of 2008 and to identify risk factors for PTSD. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study. Four hundred and fifty-nine earthquake-related fracture victims from Mianzhu city, Sichuan Province who did not qualify for disability pension participated. Two hundred and forty-five subjects received regular rehabilitation and 214 did not. Muscle strength, joint range of motion (ROM),sensory function, and sit-to-stand balance capacity were evaluated to assess PDF. The PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) was administered to screen for PTSD. An ordinary least square regression was used to predict PTSD, and a logistic regression was used to predict PDF. In addition a Least Angle Regression (LARS) was carried out for PTSD to study the effects of rehabilitation and PDF at the same time. Results Unadjusted and adjusted group differences in physical dysfunction (p<0.01) and PTSD prevalence (p<0.05) were significant in favor of the rehabilitation group. In addition, being female, average or above family income, having witnessed death and fearfulness were found risk factors for PTSD symptoms 50 months after the earthquake. Both PDF and rehabilitation were selected predictors by LARS demonstrating opposite effects. Conclusion PDF and PTSD were significantly reduced by the rehabilitation intervention. Future medical intervention strategies should consider rehabilitation in order to assist survivors in dealing with both physical and psychological effects of natural disaster. PMID:24204861

Ni, Jun; Reinhardt, Jan D.; Zhang, Xia; Xiao, Mingyue; Li, Ling; Jin, Hong; Zeng, Xianmin; Li, Jianan

2013-01-01

343

The China Connection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the cooperative economic development program developed between the Maricopa Community Colleges, Arizona, and Chengdu, China. The colleges are assisting Chinese policy leaders in restructuring needed training for newer, modern, and usually western economic approaches, aided by U.S. community college training program models. Reports on…

Elsner, Paul A.

2003-01-01

344

Development potentials and policy options of biomass in China.  

PubMed

Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to10(6) tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts' energy distribution also varies from province to province in China. Based on the analysis of the market scale and industry development, the article argues that China's biomass energy industry is still at a very early stage of development and that Feed-in Tariffs (FIT) might be the best policy option for China to promote its development of biomass energy. A successful enforcement of FIT in China needs some policy combination of special capital subsidies, R&D funding, tax incentives and pricing. PMID:20372892

Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

2010-10-01

345

A polyphase metamorphic evolution for the Xitieshan paragneiss of the north Qaidam UHP metamorphic belt, western China: In-situ EMP monazite- and U-Pb zircon SHRIMP dating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-situ electron microprobe (EMP) U-Th-Pb monazite-, sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) zircon analyses, metamorphic phase equilibrium (Domino/Theriak)- and geothermobarometric calculations are performed on kyanite/sillimanite-bearing garnet biotite gneisses forming part of the dominant rock association in the Xitieshan ultra-high pressure metamorphic belt, north Qaidam, western China. Results are consistent with the following complex polyphase tectono-metamorphic evolution. The kyanite/sillimanite bearing garnet biotite gneisses contain monazite ages of 938 ± 23 Ma and zircon SHRIMP ages of 945 ± 7 Ma, referring to a Neoproterozoic metamorphism, i.e. similar to the age of the Jinning orogeny in the Yangtze block of southern China. This correlation suggests that the paragneiss has affinities with the Yangtze block (South China block). The Neoproterozoic monazites were found inside coarse grained porphyroblastic garnets containing amphibolite facies mineral inclusion assemblages. The kyanite/sillimanite-bearing garnet biotite gneisses also contain early Paleozoic monazite ages of 422-425 Ma and 455-460 Ma, detected in amphibolite facies mineral assemblages associated with matrix minerals. Using phase equilibrium- and geothermobarometric calculations, PT conditions of 560-610 °C/5.8-7.0 kbar and 610-675 °C/4.6-6.5 kbar were calculated respectively for both amphibolite facies assemblages. The early Paleozoic ages of 422-425 Ma and 455-460 Ma were detected in 8 monazite grains from the investigated paragneiss samples. Based on the Y and Eu contents variation of the early Paleozoic monazite domains (measured by EMP), the 422-425 Ma monazite ages are interpreted to have formed during an amphibolite facies tectono-metamorphic overprint that post-dates (U)HP metamorphism and can thus be related to exhumation of previously deeply subducted rocks. Alternatively, the 455-460 Ma monazite ages are interpreted to represent the age of the prograde subduction zone metamorphism. We conclude therefore that the mineral assemblage of the kyanite/sillimanite-bearing garnet-biotite gneiss (and associated retro-eclogite) was formed during an early Paleozoic subduction/collision event, which involved late Proterozoic (938-945 Ma) crystalline basement inliers of minimal mid amphibolite facies grade. Early Paleozoic deep subduction towards (U)HP depths occurred around 455-460 Ma followed by retrograde amphibolite facies metamorphism at 422-425 Ma during exhumation.

Zhang, Cong; van Roermund, Herman; Zhang, Lifei; Spiers, Chris

2012-04-01

346

Impacts of the North India Ocean SST on the extremely cold winters of 2011 and 2012 in the region of Da Hinggan Mountains and its western areas in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the winter temperatures, averaged from the records of 11 observatories in the Da Hinggan Mountains and its western areas in China (DHM-WA), identified 11 extremely cold (? - 1.5 °C) and 13 extremely warm winters (? + 1.5 °C) during the past 60 years (1951-2010). The winters of 2011 and 2012 are another two extremely cold events. Aimed at exploring the climate causes, a comprehensive investigation is carried out on variations of some major atmospheric circulation components. Additionally, opposite circulation regimes are verified by examining the mean 500-hPa circulation patterns and sea level pressure (SLP) corresponding to 14 warm and 18 cold sea surface temperature (SST) phases over the North India Ocean (NIO) during the period of 1951-2010. Composite of an extremely cold winter usually includes a large and strong Siberian High, a deep East Asian trough to the west, an small and weak western Pacific Subtropical High to the east, a large North Polar vortex and a weakened westerly stream over Eurasia continent accompanied by a strong meridional winds from the polar region to lower latitude. Moreover, it has been found that a favorable circulation condition associated with the extremely cold winters to DHM-WA is mainly controlled by the SST over NIO in the previous warm season (June-September); This is primarily related to changes in the intensity of the Walker and Anti-Walker circulations, which subsequently influence the major circulation components and result in an extremely cold winter in DHM-WA.

Gao, Tao; Han, Jingwei; Gao, Lian; Yan, Wei

2014-08-01

347

Family planning legislation and policy in China.  

PubMed

This article summarizes China's general state of family planning (FP) legislation and FP policy. Article 25 of the Chinese Constitution and Article 12 of the Marriage Law require that F¿ must be promoted by the State. There was only one national law on FP: "Measures for Management of FP of the Floating Population," which was established on December 26, 1991. The text of this law was reported in "China Population Today," Number 1, February, 1992. This law authorized provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities under central government control to establish their own FP regulations according to the conditions of their regions. The first province with regulations was Guangdong in 1980, followed by Qinghai, Shaanxi, and Ningxia in 1986. Sichuan regulations were published in 1987, followed by Guizhou, Hubei, Liaoning, Fujian, Shandong, Jilin, and Anhui in 1988. In 1989, the following states published regulations: Guangxi, Tianjin, Hebei, Hainan, and Zhejiang. The remaining 11 provinces and autonomous regions passed regulations in 1990 and 1991 to complete the total 28 administrative units for provinces with FP regulations. Only Tibet and Xianjiang do not have regulations. Regulations promote deferred marriage and deferred childbearing, fewer and healthier births, the practice of one couple and one child, and birth spacing for those suffering with only one child; genetic defects were to be prevented. Minorities, in general, ascribed to the following conditions: 1) one-child family, unless difficulties would arise as a result. This provision applied to Beijing, Tianjin, and Shanghai municipalities and Jiangsu and Sichuan provinces. Allowing a second birth for families with only daughters was allowed in 18 provinces and regions. 2) Two-child families were allowed in Ningxia, Yunnan, Qinghai, guangdong, and Hainan provinces. 3) Ethnic populations (8% or 90 million in 1990) have special policies, which are more lenient than policies governing the Han majority. The exception was Zhuang nationality, which has the same policy as the Han. FP policy in China is not unified as a "one-child policy." PMID:12286963

1992-10-01

348

Strong intracontinental lithospheric deformation in South China: Implications from seismic observations and geodynamic modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classical plate tectonics theory predicts concentrated deformation at plate boundaries and weak deformation within plates. Yet, the existence of intracontinental orogens shows that highly deformed regions can occur within continental plates, which is geodynamically incompletely understood. Shear wave splitting measurements in South China show belt-parallel (i.e. NE-SW) fast directions beneath the Wulingshan-Xuefengshan Belts, while no dominant fast direction is found in the cratonic Sichuan Basin. Tomographic studies in the mantle in the same area show that the thickness of lithosphere beneath the intracontinental orogen is larger than that beneath the cratonic Sichuan Basin. In order to better understand these seismic observations, we performed numerical experiments of intracontinental lithospheric deformation with the presence of cratonic basin.

Lu, Gang; Zhao, Liang; Zheng, Tianyu; Kaus, Boris J. P.

2014-06-01

349

Ca. 1.5 Ga mafic magmatism in South China during the break-up of the supercontinent Nuna/Columbia: The Zhuqing Fe-Ti-V oxide ore-bearing mafic intrusions in western Yangtze Block  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) zircon and baddeleyite U-Pb ages, elemental, and Nd isotopic data are reported for the Zhuqing Fe-Ti-V oxide ore-bearing mafic intrusions in western Yangtze Block, South China. The mafic intrusions are dated at 1494 ± 6 Ma (zircon U-Pb), 1486 ± 3 Ma (baddeleyite U-Pb) and 1490 ± 4 Ma (baddeleyite U-Pb). The intrusions are dominantly gabbros that experienced variable degrees of alteration. All the studied rocks are high-Ti and alkaline in composition, and exhibit light rare earth element enrichment and "humped" incompatible trace-element patterns with no obvious Nb-Ta depletion, similar to intraplate alkali basaltic rocks in continental flood basalt (CFB) and ocean island basalt (OIB) provinces. Negative ?Nd(T) values (- 0.97 to - 3.58) and fractionation of the HREE of these rocks indicate that they were derived from a time-integrated, slightly enriched asthenospheric mantle source with minor crustal contamination. Like other Fe-Ti oxide mineralized rocks in plume-related layered intrusions or large igneous provinces around the world, the Zhuqing gabbros likely occurred in an intraplate setting. The ~ 1.5 Ga mafic magmatism was likely part of the global 1.6-1.2 Ga anorogenic magmatism related to the break-up of the supercontinent Nuna/Columbia, suggesting that the Yangtze Block may have been a component of the supercontinent.

Fan, Hong-Peng; Zhu, Wei-Guang; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Zhong, Hong; Bai, Zhong-Jie; He, De-Feng; Chen, Cai-Jie; Cao, Chong-Yong

2013-05-01

350

ULF Magnetic Ionosphere Precursor of Sichuan Earthquake Detected by [SQUID]2 System in LSBB-Rustrel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One hour before the Sichuan earthquake (Mw=7.9, 2008 May 12, 06:28~TU), amplified, recurrent and well-defined ionosphere excitations at the resonance frequency of the ionosphere floor were observed by the [SQUID]2 system, an ultra low-noise magnetometer with a rejection rate better than 3fT/?Hz over 40~Hz installed within the LSBB underground laboratory of Rustrel, France, 60~km on the East of Avignon (43°56'26.04~N, 05°29'04.11~E), buried 550~m in a carbonate platform. The period of this resonance is about 80 seconds. At such extreme ULF frequency whatever is the distance from a signal source on Earth, one is in a near-field electromagnetic proximity. As a result, this non-invasive instrument detects world-wide ULF ionosphere emissions, as demonstrated by the detection of P waves arrival at the ionosphere floor for world-wide quakes M>3. The persistent excitation of May 12th started just after a magnetic jump. Two additional jumps of almost one nanoTesla were observed before the quake. These three jumps are in rather good time coincidence with appearances of luminous clouds colored like rainbows and documented by amateur videos taken in the Shaanxi Province at 500~km from epicenter, at the start of the excited regime, in the Gansu Province thirty minutes before the quake at Tian-Shui 450~km from epicenter for the second one, and again ten minutes before the quake at Mei-Xian in the Shaanxi Province. The extinction of the excited regime occurred 300 seconds after the quake, the delay it takes for a P wave to reach the ionosphere floor. The first aftershock, at 06:41, was marked by an instantaneous magnetic pulse, confirming the presence of strong electric fields associated to the quake. Comparing with similar manifestations (San Juan Bautista 1998, Kobe 1995) one can conclude that an ionosphere magnetic precursor of the Sichuan earthquake has been observed by remote sensing with much better sensitivity and time resolution than in previous cases.

Waysand, G.; Barroy, P.; Blancon, R.; Bois, J.; Gaffet, S.; Marfaing, J.; Pozzo di Borgo, E.; Pyée, M.; Auguste, M.; Boyer, D.; Cavaillou, A.

2008-12-01

351

Association of the IL-1B +3954 C/T polymorphism with the risk of gastric cancer in a population in Western China.  

PubMed

With an estimate of 380 000 new cases each year, gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most frequently occurring cancers in China. Genes encoding proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines are good candidates for the study of susceptibility to GC. We tested the hypothesis that the polymorphisms of interleukin 1B (IL-1B) and IL-1RN contribute toward host susceptibility to GC. In a matched case-control design, we enrolled 308 pairs of GC and control participants between October 2010 and August 2011. We sequenced IL-1B +3954 C/T, IL-1RN -9876 G/A, -9739 A/G, and IL-1RN -9091 A/C using MALDI-TOF MS and collected demographic data as well as lifestyle factors using a questionnaire. GC patients reported statistically significantly greater proportions with family history of cancer (29.9 vs. 10.7%, P<0.01) and alcohol drinking (54.5 vs. 43.2%, P<0.01) than the controls. The proportion of irregular eaters was statistically higher among the patients than among the controls (66.7 vs. 24.4%, P<0.01). The IL-1B +3954 CT or the TT variant genotype was statistically significantly associated with a risk of GC [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 2.94; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-8.15], whereas variants of IL-1RN -9876 G/A, IL-1RN -9739 A/G, and IL-1RN -9091 A/C were not associated (adjusted OR, 1.29, 95% CI, 0.77-2.16; adjusted OR, 1.25, 95% CI, 0.75-2.07; adjusted OR, 1.09, 95% CI, 0.71-1.67, respectively). Haplotypes established from the three polymorphisms of IL-1RN were not associated with a risk of GC. The IL-1B +3954 C/T polymorphism is associated with a risk of GC in our study. Lifestyle and environmental factors such as drinking, eating irregularly, and family history of cancer increase the risk. PMID:24080970

Wen, Yuan-Yuan; Pan, Xiong-Fei; Loh, Marie; Yang, Shu-Juan; Xie, Yao; Tian, Zhi; Huang, He; Lan, Hui; Chen, Feng; Soong, Richie; Yang, Chun-Xia

2014-01-01

352

Geochemistry and geochronology of Paleozoic intrusions in the Nalati (Narati) area in western Tianshan, Xinjiang, China: Implications for Paleozoic tectonic evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nalati (Narati) area in the Chinese western Tianshan is characterized by abundant Paleozoic intrusions, including granites, diorites and gabbros. They are not only indicators of the interaction between crust and mantle, but also useful clues for tracing the tectonic history of the Tianshan Orogen. Most Early Paleozoic granitoids (biotite monzonitic granites and muscovite granites) of this study are from the Yili Block. The biotite monzonitic granites (mixed-source-derived I-type granites) have a zircon U-Pb age of 497.0 ± 5.9 Ma, indicating the time of the subduction of the Terskey Oceanic crust in the Late Cambrian. The 427.2 ± 5.7 Ma Zircon U-Pb age of the S-type muscovite granites let us interpret that these granites may have been formed during the crust thickening process after the collision between the Yili Block and the Nalati Block. In western Tianshan the Late Paleozoic biotite granites, muscovite granites, quartz diorites, biotite monzonitic granites, granodiorites and alkali granites have respectively a LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb age of 371.8 ± 6 Ma, 357.2 ± 7.5 Ma, 313.9 ± 2.5 Ma and 296.9 ± 2.4 Ma. The biotite granites display I-type geochemical features and are considered to have been derived from a lower continental crust source. The muscovite granites have a pronounced S-type affinity and are considered to have been formed by the partial melting of thickened continental crust after the collision between the Central Tianshan Belt and the South Tianshan Belt. The quartz-diorites are adakite-like and have an I-type affinity, which are considered to have been formed by partial melting of a delaminated lower crust in a post-orogenic extension setting. The granodiorites also show some typical geochemical features of adakite. Their formation is considered to be related to the lower crustal delamination and the ascending of asthenosphere after the collision event. The alkali granites show an A-type granite affinity. They may have been formed in a within-plate tectonic setting and possibly related to rifting as a consequence of extension. The gabbros can be divided into two groups based on their geochemical characteristics and ages. The older gabbros (415-429 Ma) with lower TiO2 contents are formed in an arc-related setting. The younger ones (340-318 Ma) with higher TiO2 content are formed in an intracontinental setting and influenced by crustal contamination. Magmatic activities recorded by Paleozoic intrusions can constrain the tectonic history of the Tianshan region from subduction of oceanic crust to intraplate extensional collapse and to rifting, and can also corroborate that the final closure of the South Tianshan Ocean occurred in the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous time.

Xu, Xue-Yi; Wang, Hong-Liang; Li, Ping; Chen, Jun-Lu; Ma, Zhong-Ping; Zhu, Tao; Wang, Ning; Dong, Yun-Peng

2013-08-01

353

Origin of Middle Cambrian and Late Silurian potassic granitoids from the western Kunlun orogen, northwest China: a magmatic response to the Proto-Tethys evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents new SHRIMP zircon U-Pb chronology, major and trace element, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data of two Early Paleozoic granitic plutons (Yierba and North Kudi) from the western Kunlun orogen, in attempt to further constrain the Proto-Tethys evolution. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating shows that the Yierba pluton was emplaced in the Middle Cambrian (513 ± 7 Ma) and the North Kudi pluton was emplaced in the Late Silurian (420.6 ± 6.3 Ma). The Yierba pluton consists of quartz monzodiorite, quartz monzonite and granodiorite. These granitoids are metaluminous and potassic, with initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7072-0.7096, ?Nd (T) of -0.2 to -1.6 and ?Hf (T) (in-situ zircon) of -1.2. Elemental and isotopic data suggest that they were formed by partial melting of subducted sediments, with subsequent melts interacting with the overlying mantle wedge in an oceanic island arc setting in response to the intra-oceanic subduction of Proto-Tethys. The North Kudi pluton consists of syenogranite and alkali-feldspar granite. These granites are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous and potassic. They show an affinity of A1 subtype granite, with initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7077-0.7101, ?Nd (T) of -3.5 to -4.0 and ?Hf (T) (in-situ zircon) of -3.9. Elemental and isotopic data suggest that they were formed by partial melting of the Precambrian metamorphic basement at a shallow depth (<30 km) during the post-orogenic regime caused by Proto-Tethyan oceanic slab break-off. Our new data suggest that the subduction of the Proto-Tethyan oceanic crust was as early as Middle Cambrian (˜513 Ma) and the final closure of Proto-Tethys was not later than Late Silurian (˜421 Ma), most probably in Middle Silurian.

Liu, Zheng; Jiang, Yao-Hui; Jia, Ru-Ya; Zhao, Peng; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Guo-Chang; Ni, Chun-Yu

2014-02-01

354

Origin of Middle Cambrian and Late Silurian potassic granitoids from the western Kunlun orogen, northwest China: a magmatic response to the Proto-Tethys evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents new SHRIMP zircon U-Pb chronology, major and trace element, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data of two Early Paleozoic granitic plutons (Yierba and North Kudi) from the western Kunlun orogen, in attempt to further constrain the Proto-Tethys evolution. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating shows that the Yierba pluton was emplaced in the Middle Cambrian (513 ± 7 Ma) and the North Kudi pluton was emplaced in the Late Silurian (420.6 ± 6.3 Ma). The Yierba pluton consists of quartz monzodiorite, quartz monzonite and granodiorite. These granitoids are metaluminous and potassic, with initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7072-0.7096, ?Nd (T) of -0.2 to -1.6 and ?Hf (T) (in-situ zircon) of -1.2. Elemental and isotopic data suggest that they were formed by partial melting of subducted sediments, with subsequent melts interacting with the overlying mantle wedge in an oceanic island arc setting in response to the intra-oceanic subduction of Proto-Tethys. The North Kudi pluton consists of syenogranite and alkali-feldspar granite. These granites are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous and potassic. They show an affinity of A1 subtype granite, with initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7077-0.7101, ?Nd (T) of -3.5 to -4.0 and ?Hf (T) (in-situ zircon) of -3.9. Elemental and isotopic data suggest that they were formed by partial melting of the Precambrian metamorphic basement at a shallow depth (<30 km) during the post-orogenic regime caused by Proto-Tethyan oceanic slab break-off. Our new data suggest that the subduction of the Proto-Tethyan oceanic crust was as early as Middle Cambrian (˜513 Ma) and the final closure of Proto-Tethys was not later than Late Silurian (˜421 Ma), most probably in Middle Silurian.

Liu, Zheng; Jiang, Yao-Hui; Jia, Ru-Ya; Zhao, Peng; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Guo-Chang; Ni, Chun-Yu

2013-05-01

355

Zipingpu Concrete Face Rockfill Dam Failures caused by the 8.0R Earthquake on the 12th May 2008 (Chengdu, China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 8.0R earthquake that struck Sichuan on the 12th of May 2008, in the district of Chengdu of Southern China resulted in tenths of thousands casualties, the complete destruction of many towns and extended damages to public works. The earthquake was triggered by a reverse fault of NE-SW trend, more than 100 km long, that divides morphologically the affected area

E. Lekkas

2009-01-01

356

Sun, 26 Oct 2003 11:24:38 -0800 (PST) Sichuan -Four (si) Rivers (chuan)  

E-print Network

and it deserves few words and many pictures. The Yangtse, China's largest river, starts its way in the snow mountains, north of eastern Tibet, and does a long way across China until it empties its waters moving clouds, the amazing stream, the roar of the waters that crescendoed as we came closer and closer

Beimel, Amos

357

Co-seismic and Cumulative Offsets of the Recent Earthquakes along the Karakax Left-lateral Strike-slip Fault in Western Tibet, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 400 km-long Karakax left-lateral strike-slip fault is the westernmost segment of the Altyn Tagh fault. It separates northwestern Tibet to the south from the Tarim basin to the north. The western section of the Karakax fault exhibits clear co-seismic surface ruptures of past large earthquakes. Geomorphic offset measurements from the field and high-resolution Ikonos images along 1.5 km across the Sanshiliyingfang fan and along 55 km of the fault, range from 3 to 28 m, with distinct clusters at 6 × 2(3), 14 × 2, 19 × 2 and 24 × 3 m. The cluster of the smallest offsets around 6 m (full range from 3 to 10 m) distributed over a minimum length of 55 km, is attributed to the last largest surface rupturing event that testifies of the occurrence of a magnitude Mw 7.4-7.6 earthquake along the Karakax fault. We interpret the other offset clusters as the possible repetition of similarly sized events thus favoring a characteristic slip model for the Karakax fault. In a 3 m-deep trench dug across the active trace of the fault we can identify the main rupture strands of the last and penultimate events. The penultimate event horizon, a silty-sand layer, has been radiocarbon dated at 975-1020 A.D. (AMS 14C age). Estimating that the most recent event occurred in the last century (or 200 yrs at most), it may be related to the historical events of 1902 or 1882 located south of Pishan and Hotan. It is proposed that large Mw 7.4-7.6 events with co-seismic slip of about 6 m rupture the Karakax fault with a return time of about 900 years implying an average slip-rate of about 6-7 mm/yr during the late Holocene. These results suggest that the Karakax fault is the largest left-lateral strike-slip fault at the rim of northwestern Tibet accommodating eastward movement of Tibet due to the India-Eurasia collision.

Li, H.; Van der Woerd, J.; Sun, Z.; Pan, J.; Tapponnier, P.; Liu, D.; Si, J.; Chevalier, M.; Zhang, W.

2013-12-01

358

Characteristics of the regional meteorological drought events in Southwest China during 1960-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An objective identification technique for regional extreme events (OITREE) and the daily compositedrought index (CI) at 101 stations in Southwest China (including Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, and Chongqing) are used to detect regional meteorological drought events between 1960 and 2010. Values of the parameters of the OITREE method are determined. A total of 87 drought events are identified, including 9 extreme events. The 2009-2010 drought is the most serious in Southwest China during the past 50 years. The regional meteorological drought events during 1960-2010 generally last for 10-80 days, with the longest being 231 days. Droughts are more common from November to next April, and less common in the remaining months. Droughts occur more often and with greater intensity in Yunnan and southern Sichuan than in other parts of Southwest China. Strong (extreme and severe) regional meteorological drought events can be divided into five types. The southern type has occurred most frequently, and Yunnan is the area most frequently stricken by extreme and severe drought events. The regional meteorological drought events in Southwest China have increased in both frequency and intensity over the study period, and the main reason appears to be a significant decrease in precipitation over this region, but a simultaneous increase in temperature also contributes.

Li, Yunjie; Ren, Fumin; Li, Yiping; Wang, Pengling; Yan, Hongming

2014-06-01

359

Lithospheric flexure in the Sichuan Basin and Longmen Shan at the eastern edge of Tibet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mountain range at the steep eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, the Longmen Shan, was deformed by a Mw 7.9 earthquake with oblique thrust and strike-slip motion in 2008. The tectonic processes and structure of the lithosphere beneath this range have been controversial. Gravity measurements reflect the distribution of mass within the Earth, including the large load of rock above the geoid in mountain ranges. We investigate the response of the lithosphere to the load of the Longmen Shan and estimate the flexural rigidity or effective elastic thickness Te using new gravity data acquired by recent satellites and the combined GOCO2S and EIGEN-6c datasets. The free-air gravity anomalies over the Longmen Shan show that its mass is supported by flexure of the adjacent Sichuan Basin lithosphere, similar to the flexural support of the Himalayas. Analysis of a stacked profile of the free-air anomalies shows that the effective elastic thickness of the basin lithosphere is greater than 10 km, but has a broad minimum misfit function with no upper limit on the thickness. Two-dimensional admittance analysis shows the Te of easternmost Tibet is very low, approximately 7 km.

Fielding, Eric J.; McKenzie, Dan

2012-05-01

360

The 20 April 2013 Lushan, Sichuan, mainshock, and its aftershock sequence: tectonic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the double-difference relocation algorithm, we relocated the 20 April 2013 Lushan, Sichuan, earthquake ( M S 7.0), and its 4,567 aftershocks recorded during the period between 20 April and May 3, 2013. Our results showed that most aftershocks are relocated between 10 and 20 km depths, but some large aftershocks were relocated around 30 km depth and small events extended upward near the surface. Vertical cross sections illustrate a shovel-shaped fault plane with a variable dip angle from the southwest to northeast along the fault. Furthermore, the dip angle of the fault plane is smaller around the mainshock than that in the surrounding areas along the fault. These results suggest that it may be easy to generate the strong earthquake in the place having a small dip angle of the fault, which is somewhat similar to the genesis of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The Lushan mainshock is underlain by the seismically anomalous layers with low-VP, low-VS, and high-Poisson's ratio anomalies, possibly suggesting that the fluid-filled fractured rock matrices might significantly reduce the effective normal stress on the fault plane to bring the brittle failure. The seismic gap between Lushan and Wenchuan aftershocks is suspected to be vulnerable to future seismic risks at greater depths, if any.

Lei, Jianshe; Zhang, Guangwei; Xie, Furen

2014-02-01

361

Innovation and Development of Foreign Language Teaching in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Foreign language teaching has been playing a dominant role in China's curriculum reform, especially in the present globalization of Chinese society and economy. However, the insufficient research into foreign language teaching and blindly adopting western theory demand China learn from its own experience and also develop western foreign language…

Zhang, Zheng-dong

2006-01-01

362

Age-structure and dynamic of dominant population of castanopsis carlesii community in Dujiangyan city, Sichuan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

It analyses theCastanopsis carlesii, Camellia oleifera andSymplocos laurina populations' status and role in theCastanopsis carlesii community basing on the study on the dominant population size structure, survival curve and dynamic. It reveals theCastanopsis carlesi population acts as a main role in the community which maintains the stabilization and renovation of the community. The populations\\u000a ofCamellia oleifera andSymplocos laurina act as

Cai Xiao-hu; Zhong Xiang-hao; Wang Jin-xi; He Fei; Liu Xing-Iiang

2005-01-01

363

Timescale of emplacement of the Panzhihua gabbroic layered intrusion recorded in giant plagioclase at Sichuan Province, SW China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Giant plagioclase crystals carried into the Panzhihua gabbroic layered intrusion from a deeper magma chamber can help constrain the timescales of emplacement of the Panzhihua intrusion in the Emeishan large igneous province (LIP). In this study, we present the petrographic textures and chemical compositions of giant plagioclase and fine-grained gabbro samples along a ~ 50 m horizontal outcrop of the low zone of the Panzhihua deposit. The giant plagioclase gabbro (GPG) dykes mostly intrude into the fine-grained gabbros without significant contact. Both types of gabbros have the similar bulk-rock major and trace element compositions. However, the mineral composition shows that most of the plagioclase megacrysts contain less An than the plagioclase in fine-grained gabbro samples. In situ analyses of Sr isotopes from core-to-rim transects of plagioclase megacrysts are constant, indicating that there are no recycled crystals. The textural characteristics of samples combined with petrological modeling using MELTS suggest that the plagioclase megacrysts should crystallize and grow in a deeper magma chamber. Textual studies of the GPG indicate that these plagioclase megacrysts mostly plot as straight lines on a classic crystal size distribution (CSD) diagram. For a plagioclase growth range of 10- 11-10- 10 mm/s, the plagioclase should have a growth time of 530-8118 years. In a 100 km3 magma chamber releasing thermal energy at a rate of 1000 MW, the Panzhihua intrusion should reach 50% crystallization after ~ 2400 years. The growth time recorded by the megacrysts in the GPG and numerical modeling may indicate that the emplacement and crystallization of the Panzhihua intrusion may have taken place in thousands of years. In the Emeishan LIP, therefore the combination of large volumes of Fe-rich magma flux and efficient metal precipitation led to the formation of a giant Fe-Ti-V oxide deposit in a short period.

Cheng, Lilu; Zeng, Ling; Ren, Zhongyuan; Wang, Yu; Luo, Zhaohua

2014-09-01

364

Policy Evaluation in China's Housing Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation activities in China are examined, focusing on housing reform. How evaluation functions in justifying the political initiatives of the Chinese Communist Party is explored, and the possibility that evaluation research can become an academic field in China using Western methodology is discussed. (SLD)

Xu, Xinyi

1993-01-01

365

Territorial Competition in China and the West  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chien S.-S. and Gordon I. Territorial competition in China and the West, Regional Studies. In modern western societies, and most other economies to which it has spread, territorial economic competition is associated with a combination of competitive electoral politics and private land-ownership. In mainland China, however, a very strong form of this competition has emerged without either of these supports.

Shiuh-Shen Chien; Ian Gordon

2008-01-01

366

Flooding in Central China  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the summer of 2002, frequent, heavy rains gave rise to floods and landslides throughout China that have killed over 1,000 people and affected millions. This false-color image of the western Yangtze River and Dongting Lake in central China was acquired on August 21, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. (right) The latest flooding crisis in China centers on Dingtong Lake in the center of the image. Heavy rains have caused it to swell over its banks and swamp lakefront towns in the province of Hunan. As of August 23, 2002, more than 250,000 people have been evacuated, and over one million people have been brought in to fortify the dikes around the lake. Normally the lake would appear much smaller and more defined in the MODIS image. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

2002-01-01

367

Forest structure, stand composition, and climate-growth response in montane forests of Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China.  

PubMed

Montane forests of western China provide an opportunity to establish baseline studies for climate change. The region is being impacted by climate change, air pollution, and significant human impacts from tourism. We analyzed forest stand structure and climate-growth relationships from Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve in northwestern Sichuan province, along the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We conducted a survey to characterize forest stand diversity and structure in plots occurring between 2050 and 3350 m in elevation. We also evaluated seedling and sapling recruitment and tree-ring data from four conifer species to assess: 1) whether the forest appears in transition toward increased hardwood composition; 2) if conifers appear stressed by recent climate change relative to hardwoods; and 3) how growth of four dominant species responds to recent climate. Our study is complicated by clear evidence of 20(th) century timber extraction. Focusing on regions lacking evidence of logging, we found a diverse suite of conifers (Pinus, Abies, Juniperus, Picea, and Larix) strongly dominate the forest overstory. We found population size structures for most conifer tree species to be consistent with self-replacement and not providing evidence of shifting composition toward hardwoods. Climate-growth analyses indicate increased growth with cool temperatures in summer and fall. Warmer temperatures during the growing season could negatively impact conifer growth, indicating possible seasonal climate water deficit as a constraint on growth. In contrast, however, we found little relationship to seasonal precipitation. Projected warming does not yet have a discernible signal on trends in tree growth rates, but slower growth with warmer growing season climates suggests reduced potential future forest growth. PMID:23951188

Schwartz, Mark W; Dolanc, Christopher R; Gao, Hui; Strauss, Sharon Y; Schwartz, Ari C; Williams, John N; Tang, Ya

2013-01-01

368

Forest Structure, Stand Composition, and Climate-Growth Response in Montane Forests of Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China  

PubMed Central

Montane forests of western China provide an opportunity to establish baseline studies for climate change. The region is being impacted by climate change, air pollution, and significant human impacts from tourism. We analyzed forest stand structure and climate-growth relationships from Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve in northwestern Sichuan province, along the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We conducted a survey to characterize forest stand diversity and structure in plots occurring between 2050 and 3350 m in elevation. We also evaluated seedling and sapling recruitment and tree-ring data from four conifer species to assess: 1) whether the forest appears in transition toward increased hardwood composition; 2) if conifers appear stressed by recent climate change relative to hardwoods; and 3) how growth of four dominant species responds to recent climate. Our study is complicated by clear evidence of 20th century timber extraction. Focusing on regions lacking evidence of logging, we found a diverse suite of conifers (Pinus, Abies, Juniperus, Picea, and Larix) strongly dominate the forest overstory. We found population size structures for most conifer tree species to be consistent with self-replacement and not providing evidence of shifting composition toward hardwoods. Climate-growth analyses indicate increased growth with cool temperatures in summer and fall. Warmer temperatures during the growing season could negatively impact conifer growth, indicating possible seasonal climate water deficit as a constraint on growth. In contrast, however, we found little relationship to seasonal precipitation. Projected warming does not yet have a discernible signal on trends in tree growth rates, but slower growth with warmer growing season climates suggests reduced potential future forest growth. PMID:23951188

Schwartz, Mark W.; Dolanc, Christopher R.; Gao, Hui; Strauss, Sharon Y.; Schwartz, Ari C.; Williams, John N.; Tang, Ya

2013-01-01

369

Dynamic Source Parameters of the 2008 Wenchuan 8.0, China, Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On May 12, 2008, a huge earthquake with magnitude Ms 8.0 occurred in the Wenchuan, Sichuan Province of China. This event was the most devastating earthquake in the mainland of China since the Great 1976 M7.8 Tangshan earthquake. It resulted in tremendous losses of life and property. Due to occur in the mountainous area, this great earthquake and the following thousands aftershocks also caused many other geological disasters, such as landslide, mud-rock flow and "quake lakes" which formed by landslide-induced reservoirs. This earthquake occurred along the Longmenshan fault, as the result of motion on a northeast striking reverse fault or thrust fault on the northwestern margin of the Sichuan Basin. The earthquake's epicenter and focal-mechanism are consistent with it having occurred as the result of movement on the Longmenshan fault or a tectonically related fault. The earthquake reflects tectonic stresses resulting from the convergence of crustal material slowly moving from the high Tibetan Plateau, to the west, against strong crust underlying the Sichuan Basin and southeastern China. In this study, the spatial and temporal distribution of the stress on the fault plane of this great earthquake is estimated from the inversion results (Qin & Zhang, 2013) by solving the elastodynamic equations. Then, the dynamic source parameters are determined and the relations between the shear stress and the slip, the shear stress and the slip-rate for all grid positions on the fault are investigated. Finally, the frictional law for the source rupture is inferred from the dynamic source parameters. Based on the obtained dynamic source parameters, we try to rebuild the dynamic rupture process of this event and discuss the characteristics of this great earthquake.

Yu, X.; Zhang, W.

2013-12-01

370

Local and inter-regional contributions to PM2.5 nitrate and sulfate in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of NOx, SO2 and primary nitrate and sulfate from seven regions in China (North, Northeast, East, Central, South, Southwest and Northwest) were separately tracked in a source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to quantify the local and inter-regional contributions to PM2.5 nitrate and sulfate concentrations in different cities and provinces. In January, high concentrations of nitrate (?30 ?g m-3) occurred in the North China Plain (NCP) and the Middle and Lower Yangtze Plain (MLYP), as well as the Sichuan Basin. NOx emissions from North, Central and East China were transported over long distances to form rather uniform concentration of nitrate in the NCP and MLYP regions and significantly impacted nitrate concentrations in downwind regions as far as the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in South China. Wintertime sulfate concentrations demonstrated a more significant inter-regional southward transport pattern and wider spatial distributions than nitrate. The top-five ranked provinces with combined nitrate and sulfate concentrations (Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Anhui and Hunan) were all affected by emissions from the North, Central and East China, in addition to their local region emissions. In August, slower northerly and northeasterly wind reduced inter-regional transport. Nitrate and sulfate concentrations peaked in North China as dilution was more severely restricted by mountain ranges further north. Three of the top five high concentration provinces (Tianjin, Hebei and Beijing) were located in North China and had more than 55% of local region contributions. Emissions from North China accounted for ?20% in the remaining two provinces (Shandong in East China and Henan in Central China). In addition to emissions from North China, ?30% or more of the nitrate and sulfate concentrations in four of the top five high concentration provinces (Tianjin, Henan, Hebei and Shandong) were due to emissions from East China. Time series of daily regional contributions in three megacities (Beijing, Shanghai and Chongqing) and a large city cluster (PRD) also indicated stronger and more frequent inter-regional transport in winter than in summer. Although the cities were mostly affected by local region emissions, influences of long range transport were especially obvious for sulfate concentration in the PRD region in winter, where emissions from North, East and Central China often accounted for more than 80% of the total concentrations. The results from this study suggest that provincial or region-level emission controls alone may not be sufficient to effectively reduce nitrate and sulfate concentrations in many areas and coordinated local and inter-regional emission control strategies are necessary for the country.

Ying, Qi; Wu, Li; Zhang, Hongliang

2014-09-01

371

The Roman Law Tradition and Its Future Development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Late Qing Dynasty, the Chinese Law Family was disintegrated and the Western Law was introduced into China. Finally, China\\u000a adopted the European continental Roman law tradition. This paper analyzes the reason for China’s borrowing of such legal system\\u000a and probes its development and reform in the later years. It also tries to answer the question of what will be

Zhenmin Wang

2006-01-01

372

China's battle to save the environment.  

PubMed

By the year 2000 a Great Green Wall of forests may be crossing the country from northwest to northeast, a total of 53 million hectares of green protection from encroaching deserts and erosion, stretching through 12 provinces to increase the nation's forest cover, which now stands at a mere 12.7% of China's territory. Soils have been degraded to a critical level only within the past 150 years. At present, about one-sixth of the total land is affected by erosion. In 1988 more than 11 million hectares of farmland, one-tenth of the total sown acreage, suffered from severe drought. Another 7.5 million hectares of crops were flooded, and grain output has been dropping steadily. China is now importing more than 1 billion tons of food staples to feed its population. In all big cities including the capital Beijing, sulphur dioxide and dust levels in the atmosphere surpass the norm set by the State. The most seriously polluted city in China is Benxi, situated in Liaoning Province, which contains some 420 factories. Shanghai has become a preview of what is in store for many Chinese cities unless urgent anti-pollution measures are designed and implemented. Much of the city's municipal and industrial wastes are simply flushed untreated into rivers and shallow coastal waters. Some 34 billion tons of municipal and industrial wastes are flushed into China's rivers and streams every year. A highly lauded forest farm in Sichuan Province credits afforestation with increased precipitation in the dry season, reduced soil erosion, and a halt to the flooding of some 10 rivers in the region. Many of China's 32,000 species of higher plants are endangered; and similarly, many of the nation's 2200 species of birds and animals, like the giant panda, are threatened with extinction. The country's gigantic population remains the key problem as well as the key to its solution. PMID:12291351

Nash, N

1989-01-01

373

Marginal land-based biomass energy production in China.  

PubMed

Fast economic development in China has resulted in a significant increase in energy demand. Coal accounts for 70% of China's primary energy consumption and its combustion has caused many environmental and health problems. Energy security and environmental protection requirements are the main drivers for renewable energy development in China. Small farmland and food security make bioenergy derived from corn or sugarcane unacceptable to China: the focus should be on generating bioenergy from ligno-cellulosic feedstock sources. As China cannot afford biomass energy production from its croplands, marginal lands may play an important role in biomass energy production. Although on a small scale, marginal land has already been used for various purposes. It is estimated that some 45 million hm(2) of marginal land could be brought into high potential biomass energy production. For the success of such an initiative, it will likely be necessary to develop multipurpose plants. A case study, carried out on marginal land in Ningnan County, Sichuan Province with per capita cropland of 0.07 ha, indicated that some 380,000 tons of dry biomass could be produced each year from annual pruning of mulberry trees. This study supports the feasibility of producing large quantities of biomass from marginal land sources. PMID:20074145

Tang, Ya; Xie, Jia-Sui; Geng, Shu

2010-01-01

374

Organochlorine pesticide residues in surface water from Sichuan Basin to Aba Prefecture profile, east of the Tibetan Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) found in rivers from the Sichuan Basin to Aba Prefecture profile were analyzed to assess possible health risks to adults and children who use the river as a source of drinking water. OCP concentrations in surface water ranged between 22.29-274.28 ng·L-1. Compared with other published data around the world, OCP levels in this study were moderate. Among all OCPs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the predominant compounds. Higher concentrations of OCPs were attributed close to the agricultural fields of the Sichuan Basin, current OCPs inputs, and long-range atmospheric transport from abroad. Various spatial patterns of OCPs in the profile might be affected by the usage and physicochemical properties of the pesticides, in addition to the adjacent geographical environment. The health risk assessment indicated that most OCPs had little impact on human health according to the acceptable risk level for carcinogens (10-6) recommended by the US EPA. However, carcinogenic effects caused by heptachlor, Aldrin, HCB, and ?-HCH might occur in drinking water. The risk of negative impacts caused by OCPs is much higher for children than for adults.

Liu, Hongxia; Hu, Ying; Qi, Shihua; Xing, Xinli; Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Dan; Qu, Chengkai

2014-09-01

375

On the Phase Relations between the Western North Pacific, Indian, and Australian Monsoons*  

E-print Network

On the Phase Relations between the Western North Pacific, Indian, and Australian Monsoons* DEJUN GU Guangzhou Institute of Tropical and Marine Meteorology, and Key Open Laboratory for Tropical Monsoon, China Laboratory for Tropical Monsoon, China Meteorological Administration, Guangzhou, China (Manuscript received

Li, Tim

376

Analysis on the Influencing Factors of the Quality Traceable System Established by Edible Agricultural Products Enterprises—Taking Sichuan as an example  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the investigation data from 81 edible agricultural products enterprises in Sichuan Province, the influence factors of establishing quality tracing system are empirically analyzed from four aspects, including the enterprise features, the attitudes of operators, management and market competition by using the Logistic model. The results show that the enterprise can establish the quality tracing system after the comprehensive

Xiao Xie; Xiu-min Wu; Zhi-jing Zhao

2011-01-01

377

Nationalities of China Province of China  

E-print Network

Outline Nationalities of China Province of China Language of China #12;Nationalities of China 56 of China A province is an administrative division of China. 33 province level divisions. 22 Provinces 4-level cities in China direct- controlled by the central government Beijing Tianjin Shanghai Chongqing #12

Li, Xiang

378

Segmentation and millennium recurrence interval of morphogenic earthquakes of the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt, central China (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnitude (Mw) 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake occurred on 12 May 2008 in the Longmen Shan region of China, the transition zone between the Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin, rupturing ~285-300 km segment along the active fault zone of the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt (LSTB), which resulted in widespread damage throughout central and western China. Although many studies undertaken since the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake have made substantial progress in terms of understanding the co-seismic ground deformation features along the major active faults of the southwestern and central segments of the LSTB, and the current activity, only a few studies have examined northeast- and southwest-most segments and the paleoseismicity along the 500-km-long LSTB. The structural features, therefore, including its slip sense and paleoseismicity, are still unclear due to a lack of geologic data. In this study, based on the geological structures, tectonic landforms, slip sense and paleoseismic data, co-seismic surface deformation features of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, the active fault zone of the LSTB can be divided into four segments: Qingchuan, (the northeast-most), Beichuan (northeast-central), Dujiangyan (southwest-central) and Lingguan (the southwest-most). The northeast-most Qingchuan segment is dominated by right-lateral strike-slip with a little thrust component. The slip rate of this segment is estimated to be ca.4-8 mm/yr with an average rate of 6 mm/yr. In contrast, the central Beichuan and Dujiangyan segments are dominated by folding and thrusting with a little right-lateral and left-lateral displacement component, respectively. The vertical slip rate of these two segments is estimated to be ca.1-3 mm/yr with an average amount of 2 mm/yr. While the southwest-most Lingguan segment is dominated by folding and thrusting with a distinct left-lateral displacement component. Recently, the Mw 6.6 Ya-An earthquake occurred on 20 April 2013, which ruptured ~60 km along this segment. Field investigation, paleoseismic and archaeological evidence, and radiocarbon dating results reveal that at least four large morphogenic earthquakes including the 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquakes occurred in the Sichuan region during the late Tang-Song (AD 800-1000), Han (206 BC to AD 220), and late Shang-Chunqiu (1200-800 BC) dynasties, comparable with the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in its seismic intensity, suggesting an average millennium recurrence interval for Wenchuan-magnitude (M = ˜8) earthquakes in the late Holocene within the LSTB. This finding is in contrast with previous estimates of 2,000-10,000 years for the recurrence interval of morphogenic earthquakes within the LSTB, as obtained from long-term slip rates based on the Global Positioning System and geological data, thereby necessitating substantial modifications to existing seismic-hazard models for the densely populated region at the eastern marginal zone of the Tibetan Plateau. Our results confirm that the present-day shortening strain upon the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau is mostly released by seismic thrusting and folding with strike-slip partitioning along the active faults within the LSTB. References Lin et al., 2009, Tectonophysics, 471, 203-215; 2) Lin et al., 2010, J. Seismol., 14, 615-628; 3) Lin et al., 2010, Tectonophysics, 491, 21-34; 4) Lin, A., 2011, Geology, 39, 547-550; 5) Lin et al., 2012. Tectonophysics, 522-523, 243-252; 6) Lin et al., 2013, Tectonophysics, submitted.

Lin, A.

2013-12-01

379

Development and Current Status of Clinical Pharmacy Education in China  

PubMed Central

Objective. To describe the current status and developing trend of clinical pharmacy education in China. Methods. Descriptive analysis of data and information about the clinical pharmacy specialty, pharmacy colleges, and curriculum from literature, college websites, and statistics from the Ministry of Health (MOH) and Ministry of Education (MOE) websites was conducted. Results. Clinical pharmacy programs were established in China in 1989 but developed more fully after 2006. In 2012, there were 30 pharmacy colleges with clinical pharmacy undergraduate programs, which included a bachelor’s degree in clinical pharmacy and a clinical pharmacy concentration within the BS programs of pharmacy or medicine. More than 40 colleges within the university system offer 4 types of master’s degree programs in clinical pharmacy. Five universities offer a PhD program in clinical pharmacy. Three postgraduate programs exist, which train hospital pharmacists and clinical pharmacists: the 3+2 year Hospital Pharmacist Standardized Training Program at Peking hospitals; the 1-year Clinical Pharmacist Training Program sponsored by the MOH; and the 2-year Clinical Pharmacist Residency Program provided by West China Hospital at Sichuan University. Conclusion. A growing clinical pharmacy education system has been established and has become an important subfield in Chinese pharmacy education. Measures should be taken to further promote the development of clinical pharmacy education in China. PMID:25386022

Yee, Gary; Zhou, Naitong; Yang, Nan; Jiang, Xuehua; Klepser, Donald

2014-01-01

380

Ground-Motion Simulations of the 2008 Ms8.0 Wenchuan, China, Earthquake Using Empirical Green's Function Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On May 12, 2008, a huge earthquake with magnitude Ms8.0 occurred in the Wenhuan, Sichuan Province of China. This event was the most devastating earthquake in the mainland of China since the 1976 M7.8 Tangshan earthquake. It resulted in tremendous losses of life and property. There were about 90,000 persons killed. Due to occur in the mountainous area, this great earthquake and the following thousands aftershocks also caused many other geological disasters, such as landslide, mud-rock flow and “quake lakes” which formed by landslide-induced reservoirs. This earthquake occurred along the Longmenshan fault, as the result of motion on a northeast striking reverse fault or thrust fault on the northwestern margin of the Sichuan Basin. The earthquake's epicenter and focal-mechanism are consistent with it having occurred as the result of movement on the Longmenshan fault or a tectonically related fault. The earthquake reflects tectonic stresses resulting from the convergence of crustal material slowly moving from the high Tibetan Plateau, to the west, against strong crust underlying the Sichuan Basin and southeastern China. In this study, we simulate the near-field strong ground motions of this great event based on the empirical Green’s function method (EGF). Referring to the published inversion source models, at first, we assume that there are three asperities on the rupture area and choose three different small events as the EGFs. Then, we identify the parameters of the source model using a genetic algorithm (GA). We calculate the synthetic waveforms based on the obtained source model and compare with the observed records. Our result shows that for most of the synthetic waveforms agree very well with the observed ones. The result proves the validity and the stability of the method. Finally, we forward the near-field strong ground motions near the source region and try to explain the damage distribution caused by the great earthquake.

Zhang, W.; Zhang, Y.; Yao, X.

2010-12-01

381

Changes in the ultra-low frequency wave field during the precursor phase to the Sichuan earthquake: DEMETER observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic phenomena observed in association with increases in seismic activity have been studied for several decades. These phenomena are generated during the precursory phases of an earthquake as well as during the main event. Their occurrence during the precursory phases may be used in short-term prediction of a large earthquake. In this paper, we examine ultra-low frequency (ULF) electric field data from the DEMETER satellite during the period leading up to the Sichuan earthquake. It is shown that there is an increase in ULF wave activity observed as DEMETER passes in the vicinity of the earthquake epicentre. This increase is most obvious at lower frequencies. Examination of the ULF spectra shows the possible occurrence of geomagnetic pearl pulsations, resulting from the passage of atmospheric gravity waves generated in the vicinity of the earthquake epicentre.

Walker, S. N.; Kadirkamanathan, V.; Pokhotelov, O. A.

2013-09-01

382

Lithospheric Flexure in the Sichuan Basin and Longmen Shan at the Eastern Edge of Tibet Estimated from Gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mountain range at the steep eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, the Longmen Shan, was deformed by a Mw 7.9 earthquake with oblique thrust and strike-slip motion in 2008. The tectonic processes and structure of the lithosphere beneath this range have been controversial. Gravity measurements reflect the distribution of mass within the Earth, including the large load of rock above the geoid in mountain ranges. We investigate the response of the lithosphere to the load of the Longmen Shan and estimate the flexural rigidity or effective elastic thickness Te using new gravity data acquired by recent satellites, including GOCE and GRACE, and the combined GOCO2S and EIGEN-6c datasets. GOCO2S is a combination of available satellite gravity datasets, while the EIGEN-6C combination also includes ground observations that provide finer spatial resolution in many areas. The free-air gravity anomalies over the Longmen Shan show that its mass is supported by flexure of the adjacent Sichuan Basin lithosphere, similar to the flexural support of the Himalayas. The finer spatial resolution of GOCE reveals the flexural signals that were not well resolved by earlier satellites. Analysis of a stacked profile of the free-air anomalies shows that the effective elastic thickness of the basin lithosphere is greater than 10 km, but has a broad minimum misfit function with no upper limit on the thickness. Two-dimensional admittance analysis shows the Te of easternmost Tibet is very low, approximately 7 km. Our results are consistent with tectonic theories for the formation and maintenance of the Longmen Shan by thrusting over the edge of the Sichuan Basin lithosphere.

Fielding, E. J.; McKenzie, D. P.

2012-12-01

383

Polyphasic characterization of rhizobia isolated from Leucaena leucocephala from Panxi, China.  

PubMed

Leucaena leucocephala was introduced into Panxi, Sichuan, China, in the 1980s and 1990s for afforestation and preventing water loss and soil erosion in this area. The co-introduction of rhizobial symbionts of introduced plants has drawn attention since they may influence local soil communities. We studied the phylogenetic position of the L. leucocephala isolates and assessed if the rhizobia were introduced together with the host to Panxi, Sichuan, China. The glnII and atpD genes of fifteen representative isolates were sequenced and analyzed, and applied multilocus sequence analyses in which the housekeeping genes recA, glnII and atpD were included. Furthermore, we estimated the within species diversity directly with 23S rDNA and IGS RFLP and indirectly through phenotypic analysis of forty L. leucocephala isolates. The isolates represented seven species and 38 diversified strains in the genera Ensifer, Mesorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium. The within species diversity of the Ensifer isolates was large, proposing a potential to occupy novel niches. There was not conclusive evidence to show that any of the strains would have been co-introduced with L. leucocephala. On the contrary, we came to a conclusion that the possible introduction should not be inferred from sequence data alone. PMID:23749221

Xu, Kai Wei; Penttinen, Petri; Chen, Yuan Xue; Zou, Lan; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Xiaoping; Hu, Chao; Liu, Fan

2013-12-01

384

75 FR 39911 - Aerospace Supplier Development Mission to China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...own, will enhance the companies' ability to secure...Chinese aerospace companies have rapidly developed...in new airframe and engine development programs...with other aerospace companies doing business in China...venture companies with key Western aerospace...

2010-07-13

385

From “Long Yang” and “Dui Shi” to Tongzhi: Homosexuality in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homosexuality was widespread, recognized and fairly tolerated, although not entirely accepted, in ancient China. After being invaded and defeated by the Western powers in the mid- to late nineteenth century, “progressive” Chinese intellectuals at the turn of the twentieth century believed that Chinese traditions were “backward” and the actual cause of China's defeat; they looked to Westernization as a cure

Jing Wu

2003-01-01