Sample records for wet granular matter

  1. Arrest stress of uniformly sheared wet granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimnazhad Rahbari, S. H.; Brinkmann, M.; Vollmer, J.

    2015-06-01

    We conduct extensive independent numerical experiments considering frictionless disks without internal degrees of freedom (rotation, etc.) in two dimensions. We report here that for a large range of the packing fractions below random-close packing, all components of the stress tensor of wet granular materials remain finite in the limit of zero shear rate. This is direct evidence for a fluid-to-solid arrest transition. The offset value of the shear stress characterizes plastic deformation of the arrested state which corresponds to dynamic yield stress of the system. Based on an analytical line of argument, we propose that the mean number of capillary bridges per particle, ? , follows a nontrivial dependence on the packing fraction, ? , and the capillary energy, ? . Most noticeably, we show that ? is a generic and universal quantity which does not depend on the driving protocol. Using this universal quantity, we calculate the arrest stress, ?a, analytically based on a balance of the energy injection rate due to the external force driving the flow and the dissipation rate accounting for the rupture of capillary bridges. The resulting prediction of ?a is a nonlinear function of the packing fraction, ? , and the capillary energy, ? . This formula provides an excellent, parameter-free prediction of the numerical data. Corrections to the theory for small and large packing fractions are connected to the emergence of shear bands and of contributions to the stress from repulsive particle interactions, respectively.

  2. Role of contact-angle hysteresis for fluid transport in wet granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Roman; Semprebon, Ciro; Kadau, Dirk; Herrmann, Hans J.; Brinkmann, Martin; Herminghaus, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    The stability of sand castles is determined by the structure of wet granulates. Experimental data on the size distribution of fluid pockets are ambiguous with regard to their origin. We discovered that contact-angle hysteresis plays a fundamental role in the equilibrium distribution of bridge volumes, and not geometrical disorder as commonly conjectured. This has substantial consequences on the mechanical properties of wet granular beds, including a history-dependent rheology and lowered strength. Our findings are obtained using a model in which the Laplace pressures, bridge volumes, and contact angles are dynamical variables associated with the contact points. While accounting for contact line pinning, we track the temporal evolution of each bridge. We observe a crossover to a power-law decay of the variance of capillary pressures at late times and a saturation of the variance of bridge volumes to a finite value connected to contact line pinning. Large-scale simulations of liquid transport in the bridge network reveal that the equilibration dynamics at early times is well described by a mean-field model. The spread of final bridge volumes can be directly related to the magnitude of contact-angle hysteresis.

  3. Role of contact-angle hysteresis for fluid transport in wet granular matter.

    PubMed

    Mani, Roman; Semprebon, Ciro; Kadau, Dirk; Herrmann, Hans J; Brinkmann, Martin; Herminghaus, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    The stability of sand castles is determined by the structure of wet granulates. Experimental data on the size distribution of fluid pockets are ambiguous with regard to their origin. We discovered that contact-angle hysteresis plays a fundamental role in the equilibrium distribution of bridge volumes, and not geometrical disorder as commonly conjectured. This has substantial consequences on the mechanical properties of wet granular beds, including a history-dependent rheology and lowered strength. Our findings are obtained using a model in which the Laplace pressures, bridge volumes, and contact angles are dynamical variables associated with the contact points. While accounting for contact line pinning, we track the temporal evolution of each bridge. We observe a crossover to a power-law decay of the variance of capillary pressures at late times and a saturation of the variance of bridge volumes to a finite value connected to contact line pinning. Large-scale simulations of liquid transport in the bridge network reveal that the equilibration dynamics at early times is well described by a mean-field model. The spread of final bridge volumes can be directly related to the magnitude of contact-angle hysteresis. PMID:25974481

  4. Erosion dynamics of a wet granular medium.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Gautier; Jop, Pierre

    2013-09-01

    Liquid may give strong cohesion properties to a granular medium, and confer a solidlike behavior. We study the erosion of a fixed circular aggregate of wet granular matter subjected to a flow of dry grains inside a half-filled rotating drum. During the rotation, the dry grains flow around the fixed obstacle. We show that its diameter decreases linearly with time for low liquid content, as wet grains are pulled out of the aggregate. This erosion phenomenon is governed by the properties of the liquids. The erosion rate decreases exponentially with the surface tension while it depends on the viscosity to the power -1. We propose a model based on the force fluctuations arising inside the flow, explaining both dependencies: The capillary force acts as a threshold and the viscosity controls the erosion time scale. We also provide experiments using different flowing grains, confirming our model. PMID:24125259

  5. Erosion dynamics of a wet granular medium

    E-print Network

    Gautier Lefebvre; Pierre Jop

    2014-12-08

    Liquid may give strong cohesion properties to a granular medium, and confer a solid-like behavior. We study the erosion of a fixed circular aggregate of wet granular matter subjected to a flow of dry grains inside a half-filled rotating drum. During the rotation, the dry grains flow around the fixed obstacle. We show that its diameter decreases linearly with time for low liquid content, as wet grains are pulled-out of the aggregate. This erosion phenomenon is governed by the properties of the liquids. The erosion rate decreases exponentially with the surface tension while it depends on the viscosity to the power -1. We propose a model based on the force fluctuations arising inside the flow, explaining both dependencies: the capillary force acts as a threshold and the viscosity controls the erosion time scale. We also provide experiments using different flowing grains confirming our model.

  6. Granular flow: Dry and wet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitarai, N.; Nakanishi, H.

    2012-04-01

    Granular material is a collection of macroscopic particles that are visible with naked eyes. The non-equilibrium nature of the granular materials makes their rheology quite different from that of molecular systems. In this minireview, we present the unique features of granular materials focusing on the shear flow of dry granular materials and granule-liquid mixture.

  7. On capillary bridges in wet granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohonen, Mika M.; Geromichalos, Dimitrios; Scheel, Mario; Schier, Christof; Herminghaus, Stephan

    2004-08-01

    The properties of wet granular materials are significantly influenced by the presence of microscopic liquid (capillary) bridges between the constituent granules. However, despite the progress which has been made in recent years the dependence of the mechanical properties of such materials on the amount and type of liquid present is still not completely understood. At a very basic level, a better understanding of the distribution of liquid between particle contacts and particle surfaces is required. Here we describe some of our observations on liquid bridge coordination numbers and liquid bridge volumes in model granular materials consisting of glass beads. We also describe experiments on the dynamic deformation of a wet granular material, which reveal a type of shear-thinning behavior that we attribute to the shear-rate dependence of liquid bridge volumes.

  8. Shear strength properties of wet granular materials.

    PubMed

    Richefeu, Vincent; El Youssoufi, Moulay Saïd; Radjaï, Farhang

    2006-05-01

    We investigate shear strength properties of wet granular materials in the pendular state (i.e., the state where the liquid phase is discontinuous) as a function of water content. Sand and glass beads were wetted and tested in a direct shear cell and under various confining pressures. In parallel, we carried out three-dimensional molecular dynamics simulations by using an explicit equation expressing capillary force as a function of interparticle distance, water bridge volume, and surface tension. We show that, due to the peculiar features of capillary interactions, the major influence of water content over the shear strength stems from the distribution of liquid bonds. This property results in shear strength saturation as a function of water content. We arrive at the same conclusion by a microscopic analysis of the shear strength. We propose a model that accounts for the capillary force, the granular texture, and particle size polydispersity. We find fairly good agreement of the theoretical estimate of the shear strength with both experimental data and simulations. From numerical data, we analyze the connectivity and anisotropy of different classes of liquid bonds according to the sign and level of the normal force as well as the bond direction. We find that weak compressive bonds are almost isotropically distributed whereas strong compressive and tensile bonds have a pronounced anisotropy. The probability distribution function of normal forces is exponentially decreasing for strong compressive bonds, a decreasing power-law function over nearly one decade for weak compressive bonds, and an increasing linear function in the range of tensile bonds. These features suggest that different bond classes do not play the same role with respect to the shear strength. PMID:16802930

  9. Frictional mechanics of wet granular material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Géminard, Jean-Christophe; Losert, Wolfgang; Gollub, Jerry P.

    1999-05-01

    The mechanical response of a wet granular layer to imposed shear is studied experimentally at low applied normal stress. The granular material is immersed in water and the shear is applied by sliding a plate resting on the upper surface of the layer. We monitor simultaneously the horizontal and the vertical displacements of the plate to submicron accuracy with millisecond time resolution. The relations between the plate displacement, the dilation of the layer and the measured frictional force are analyzed in detail. When slip begins, the dilation increases exponentially over a slip distance comparable to the particle radius. We find that the total dilation and the steady state frictional force do not depend on the driving velocity, but do depend linearly on the applied normal stress. The frictional force also depends linearly on the dilation rate (rather than the dilation itself), and reaches a maximum value during the transient acceleration. We find that the layer can temporarily sustain a shear stress that is in excess of the critical value that will eventually lead to slip. We describe an empirical model that describes much of what we observe. This model differs in some respects from those used previously at stresses 106 times larger.

  10. Mechanical properties of wet granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Z.; Geromichalos, D.; Herminghaus, S.; Kohonen, M. M.; Mugele, F.; Scheel, M.; Schulz, M.; Schulz, B.; Schier, Ch; Seemann, R.; Skudelny, A.

    2005-03-01

    We elaborate on the impact of liquids upon the mechanical properties of granular materials. We find that most of the experimental and simulation results may be accounted for by a simple model assuming frictionless, spherical grains, with a hysteretic attractive interaction between neighbouring grains due to capillary forces.

  11. Uniform Shock Waves in Disordered Granular Matter

    E-print Network

    L. R. Gomez; A. M. Turner; V. Vitelli

    2012-08-01

    The confining pressure $P$ is perhaps the most important parameter controlling the properties of granular matter. Strongly compressed granular media are, in many respects, simple solids in which elastic perturbations travel as ordinary phonons. However, the speed of sound in granular aggregates continuously decreases as the confining pressure decreases, completely vanishing at the jamming-unjamming transition. This anomalous behavior suggests that the transport of energy at low pressures should not be dominated by phonons. In this work we use simulations and theory to show how the response of granular systems becomes increasingly nonlinear as pressure decreases. In the low pressure regime the elastic energy is found to be mainly transported through nonlinear waves and shocks. We numerically characterize the propagation speed, shape, and stability of these shocks, and model the dependence of the shock speed on pressure and impact intensity by a simple analytical approach.

  12. Penetration depth scaling for impact into wet granular packings

    E-print Network

    Theodore A. Brzinski III; Jorin Schug; Kelly Mao; Douglas J. Durian

    2015-01-25

    We present experimental measurements of penetration depths for the impact of spheres into wetted granular media. We observe that the penetration depth in the liquid saturated case scales with projectile density, size, and drop height in a fashion consistent with the scaling observed in the dry case, but that penetration depths into saturated packings tend to be smaller. This result suggests that, for the range of impact energies observed, the stopping force is set by static contact forces between grains within the bed, and that the presence of liquid serves, primarily, to enhance these contact forces. The enhancement to the stopping force has a complicated dependence on liquid fraction, accompanied by a change in the drop-height dependence, that must be the consequence of accompanying changes in the conformation of the liquid phase in the interstices.

  13. Extraterrestrial sink dynamics in granular matter

    E-print Network

    E. Altshuler; H. Torres; A. González-Pita; G. Sánchez-Colina; C. Pérez-Penichet; S. Waitukaitis; R. C. Hidalgo

    2013-06-04

    A loosely packed bed of sand sits precariously on the fence between mechanically stable and flowing states. This has especially strong implications for animals or vehicles needing to navigate sandy environments, which can sink and become stuck in a "dry quicksand" if their weight exceeds the yield stress of this fragile matter. While it is known that the contact stresses in these systems are loaded by gravity, very little is known about the sinking dynamics of objects into loose granular systems under gravitational accelerations different from the Earth's (g). A fundamental understanding of how objects sink in different gravitational environments is not only necessary for successful planetary navigation and engineering, but it can also improve our understanding of celestial impact dynamics and crater geomorphology. Here we perform and explain the first systematic experiments of the sink dynamics of objects into granular media in different gravitational accelerations. By using an accelerating experimental apparatus, we explore gravitational conditions ranging from 0.4g to 1.2g. With the aid of discrete element modeling simulations, we reproduce these results and extend this range to include objects as small as asteroids and as large as Jupiter. Surprisingly, we find that the final sink depth is independent of the gravitational acceleration, an observation with immediate relevance to the design of future extraterrestrial structures land-roving spacecraft. Using a phenomenological equation of motion that includes a gravity-loaded frictional term, we are able to quantitatively explain the experimental and simulation results.

  14. Quantitatively mimicking wet colloidal suspensions with dry granular media

    PubMed Central

    Messina, René; Aljawhari, Sarah; Bécu, Lydiane; Schockmel, Julien; Lumay, Geoffroy; Vandewalle, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Athermal two-dimensional granular systems are exposed to external mechanical noise leading to Brownian-like motion. Using tunable repulsive interparticle interaction, it is shown that the same microstructure as that observed in colloidal suspensions can be quantitatively recovered at a macroscopic scale. To that end, experiments on granular and colloidal systems made up of magnetized particles as well as computer simulations are performed and compared. Excellent agreement throughout the range of the magnetic coupling parameter is found for the pair distribution as well as the bond-orientational correlation functions. This finding opens new ways to efficiently and very conveniently explore phase transitions, crystallization, nucleation, etc in confined geometries. PMID:26030718

  15. Quantitatively mimicking wet colloidal suspensions with dry granular media.

    PubMed

    Messina, René; Aljawhari, Sarah; Bécu, Lydiane; Schockmel, Julien; Lumay, Geoffroy; Vandewalle, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Athermal two-dimensional granular systems are exposed to external mechanical noise leading to Brownian-like motion. Using tunable repulsive interparticle interaction, it is shown that the same microstructure as that observed in colloidal suspensions can be quantitatively recovered at a macroscopic scale. To that end, experiments on granular and colloidal systems made up of magnetized particles as well as computer simulations are performed and compared. Excellent agreement throughout the range of the magnetic coupling parameter is found for the pair distribution as well as the bond-orientational correlation functions. This finding opens new ways to efficiently and very conveniently explore phase transitions, crystallization, nucleation, etc in confined geometries. PMID:26030718

  16. Mixing and condensation in a wet granular medium.

    PubMed

    Geromichalos, Dimitrios; Kohonen, Mika M; Mugele, Frieder; Herminghaus, Stephan

    2003-04-25

    We have studied the effect of small amounts of added liquid on the dynamic behavior of a granular system consisting of a mixture of glass beads of two different sizes. Segregation of the large beads to the top of the sample is found to depend in a nontrivial way on the liquid content. A transition to viscoplastic behavior occurs at a critical liquid content, which depends upon the bead size. We show that this transition can be interpreted as a condensation due to the hysteretic liquid bridge forces connecting the beads, and we provide the corresponding phase diagram. PMID:12732020

  17. Granular Matter manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Granular Matter manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) A. Karrech · D. Duhamel · G. Bonnet · F. Chevoir · J.-N. Roux · J. Canou · J.-C. Dupla · A discrete element study of settlement-mail: duhamel@lami.enpc.fr Prof G. Bonnet: Universit Paris-Est, Laboratoire de Modlisation et Simulation Multi

  18. Controlled preparation of wet granular media reveals limits to lizard burial ability.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Sarah S; Kuckuk, Robyn; Goldman, Daniel I

    2015-01-01

    Many animals move within ground composed of granular media (GM); the resistive properties of such substrates can depend on water content and compaction, but little is known about how such parameters affect locomotion or the physics of drag and penetration. Using apparatus to control compaction of GM, our recent studies of movement in dry GM have revealed locomotion strategies of specialized dry-sand-swimming reptiles. However, these animals represent a small fraction of the diversity and presumed burial strategies of fossorial reptilian fauna. Here we develop a system to create states of wet GM of varying moisture content and compaction in quantities sufficient to study the burial and subsurface locomotion of the Ocellated skink (C. ocellatus), a generalist lizard. X-ray imaging revealed that in wet and dry GM the lizard slowly buried ([Formula: see text] s) propagating a wave from head to tail, while moving in a start-stop motion. During forward movement, the head oscillated, and the forelimb on the convex side of the body propelled the animal. Although body kinematics and 'slip' were similar in both substrates, the burial depth was smaller in wet GM. Penetration and drag force experiments on smooth cylinders revealed that wet GM was [Formula: see text] more resistive than dry GM. In total, our measurements indicate that while the rheology of the dry and wet GM differ substantially, the lizard's burial motor pattern is conserved across substrates, while its burial depth is largely constrained by environmental resistance. PMID:26109565

  19. Controlled preparation of wet granular media reveals limits to lizard burial ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Sarah S.; Kuckuk, Robyn; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2015-07-01

    Many animals move within ground composed of granular media (GM); the resistive properties of such substrates can depend on water content and compaction, but little is known about how such parameters affect locomotion or the physics of drag and penetration. Using apparatus to control compaction of GM, our recent studies of movement in dry GM have revealed locomotion strategies of specialized dry-sand-swimming reptiles. However, these animals represent a small fraction of the diversity and presumed burial strategies of fossorial reptilian fauna. Here we develop a system to create states of wet GM of varying moisture content and compaction in quantities sufficient to study the burial and subsurface locomotion of the Ocellated skink (C. ocellatus), a generalist lizard. X-ray imaging revealed that in wet and dry GM the lizard slowly buried (? 30 s) propagating a wave from head to tail, while moving in a start-stop motion. During forward movement, the head oscillated, and the forelimb on the convex side of the body propelled the animal. Although body kinematics and ‘slip’ were similar in both substrates, the burial depth was smaller in wet GM. Penetration and drag force experiments on smooth cylinders revealed that wet GM was ? 4× more resistive than dry GM. In total, our measurements indicate that while the rheology of the dry and wet GM differ substantially, the lizard's burial motor pattern is conserved across substrates, while its burial depth is largely constrained by environmental resistance.

  20. Runaway electrification of friable self-replicating granular matter.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Julyan H E; Escribano, Bruno; Grothe, Hinrich; Piro, Oreste; Sainz Díaz, C Ignacio; Tuval, Idan

    2013-10-15

    We establish that the nonlinear dynamics of collisions between particles favors the charging of an insulating, friable, self-replicating granular material that undergoes nucleation, growth, and fission processes; we demonstrate with a minimal dynamical model that secondary nucleation produces a positive feedback in an electrification mechanism that leads to runaway charging. We discuss ice as an example of such a self-replicating granular material: We confirm with laboratory experiments in which we grow ice from the vapor phase in situ within an environmental scanning electron microscope that charging causes fast-growing and easily breakable palmlike structures to form, which when broken off may form secondary nuclei. We propose that thunderstorms, both terrestrial and on other planets, and lightning in the solar nebula are instances of such runaway charging arising from this nonlinear dynamics in self-replicating granular matter. PMID:24041221

  1. Runaway Electrification of Friable Self-Replicating Granular Matter

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We establish that the nonlinear dynamics of collisions between particles favors the charging of an insulating, friable, self-replicating granular material that undergoes nucleation, growth, and fission processes; we demonstrate with a minimal dynamical model that secondary nucleation produces a positive feedback in an electrification mechanism that leads to runaway charging. We discuss ice as an example of such a self-replicating granular material: We confirm with laboratory experiments in which we grow ice from the vapor phase in situ within an environmental scanning electron microscope that charging causes fast-growing and easily breakable palmlike structures to form, which when broken off may form secondary nuclei. We propose that thunderstorms, both terrestrial and on other planets, and lightning in the solar nebula are instances of such runaway charging arising from this nonlinear dynamics in self-replicating granular matter. PMID:24041221

  2. Runaway electrification of friable self-replicating granular matter

    E-print Network

    Julyan H. E. Cartwright; Bruno Escribano; Hinrich Grothe; Oreste Piro; C. Ignacio Sainz Díaz; Idan Tuval

    2014-11-19

    We establish that the nonlinear dynamics of collisions between particles favors the charging of a insulating, friable, self-replicating granular material that undergoes nucleation, growth, and fission processes; we demonstrate with a minimal dynamical model that secondary nucleation produces a positive feedback in an electrification mechanism that leads to runaway charging. We discuss ice as an example of such a self-replicating granular material: We confirm with laboratory experiments in which we grow ice from the vapor phase in situ within an environmental scanning electron microscope that charging causes fast-growing and easily breakable palm-like structures to form, which when broken off may form secondary nuclei. We propose that thunderstorms, both terrestrial and on other planets, and lightning in the solar nebula are instances of such runaway charging arising from this nonlinear dynamics in self-replicating granular matter.

  3. Strength and failure of cemented granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topin, V.; Delenne, J.-Y.; Radja?, F.; Brendel, L.; Mabille, F.

    2007-08-01

    Cemented granular materials (CGMs) consist of densely packed solid particles and a pore-filling solid matrix sticking to the particles. We use a sub-particle lattice discretization method to investigate the particle-scale origins of strength and failure properties of CGMs. We show that jamming of the particles leads to highly inhomogeneous stress fields. The stress probability density functions are increasingly wider for a decreasing matrix volume fraction, the stresses being more and more concentrated in the interparticle contact zones with an exponential distribution as in cohesionless granular media. Under uniaxial loading, pronounced asymmetry can occur between tension and compression both in strength and in the initial stiffness as a result of the presence of bare contacts (with no matrix interposed) between the particles. Damage growth is analyzed by considering the evolution of stiffness degradation and the number of broken bonds in the particle phase. A brutal degradation appears in tension as a consequence of brittle fracture in contrast to the more progressive nature of damage growth in compression. We also carry out a detailed parametric study in order to assess the combined influence of the matrix volume fraction and particle-matrix adherence. Three regimes of crack propagation can be distinguished corresponding to no particle damage, particle abrasion and particle fragmentation, respectively. We find that particle damage scales well with the relative toughness of the particle-matrix interface with respect to the particle toughness. This relative toughness is a function of both matrix volume fraction and particle-matrix adherence and it appears therefore to be the unique control parameter governing transition from soft to hard behavior.

  4. Numerical investigation of the cylinder movement in granular matter.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue; Sheng, Daichao; Kouretzis, George P; Krabbenhoft, Kristian; Sloan, Scott W

    2015-02-01

    We investigate numerically the mechanisms governing horizontal dragging of a rigid cylinder buried inside granular matter, with particular emphasis on enumerating drag and lift forces that resist cylinder movement. The recently proposed particle finite element method is employed, which combines the robustness of classical continuum mechanics formulations in terms of representing complex aspects of the material constitutive behavior, with the effectiveness of discrete element methods in simulating ultralarge deformation problems. The investigation focuses on the effect of embedment depth, cylinder roughness, granular matter macromechanical properties, and of the magnitude of the cylinder's horizontal displacement on the amplitude of the resisting forces, which are discussed in light of published experimental data. Interpretation of the results provides insight on how the material flow around the cylinder affects the developing resistance, and a mechanism is proposed to describe the development of a steady-state drag force at large horizontal movements of the cylinder. PMID:25768495

  5. Force transmission in dry and wet granular media Vincent Richefeu a,b,, Moulay Said El Youssoufi a

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    in dry and wet granular systems from 3D simulations by molecular dynamics and contact dynamics methods- lastic experiments [11,12]. The carbon paper tech- nique was used later to record the force prints, the organization of the force network into strong and weak networks, and the exponential distribution of strong

  6. Discrete particle simulations and experiments on the collapse of wet granular columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrieli, Fabio; Artoni, Riccardo; Santomaso, Andrea; Cola, Simonetta

    2013-10-01

    Small quantities of liquid in a granular material control the flow dynamics as well as the triggering and jamming phases. In order to study this problem, some experimental collapse tests conducted in a rectangular box were reproduced with a 1:1 scale numerical model using the Discrete Element Method. In simulations the effect of the capillary bridges has been investigated implementing a mid-range attractive force between particles based on the minimum energy approach. Also a bonding-debonding mechanism was incorporated in the algorithm and the volume of each sessile drop on the particle surface was considered during its motion. The influence of some variables was investigated with respect to the final slope profiles and the runout lengths: the initial liquid content, the particle size, the solid density, the liquid surface tension, and the liquid-solid contact angle. Also the crucial effect of the confinement walls on the collapse phenomenon was investigated: wet particles adhere to the lateral walls providing a higher flow resistance in comparison to the same material in dry conditions. It was observed that particles with largest path-lengths are localized near the movable wall at a middle-height of the initial column sample. Other particles at the surface moves in a rigid way especially if they were wet and with a low solid density. The "fidelity" of each particle with respect to the nearest neighbours was evaluated allowing to recognize the emergence of clusters of particles and rigid parts, to extract the failure surface and to localize where debonding mechanisms concentrate in the wet case.

  7. Stress-dependent normal-mode frequencies from the effective mass of granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yanqing; Johnson, David L.; Valenza, John J.; Santibanez, Francisco; Makse, Hernán A.

    2014-06-01

    A zero-temperature critical point has been invoked to control the anomalous behavior of granular matter as it approaches jamming or mechanical arrest. Criticality manifests itself in an anomalous spectrum of low-frequency normal modes and scaling behavior near the jamming transition. The critical point may explain the peculiar mechanical properties of dissimilar systems such as glasses and granular materials. Here we study the critical scenario via an experimental measurement of the normal modes frequencies of granular matter under stress from a pole decomposition analysis of the effective mass. We extract a complex-valued characteristic frequency which displays scaling |?*(?)|˜??' with vanishing stress ? for a variety of granular systems. The critical exponent is smaller than that predicted by mean-field theory opening new challenges to explain the exponent for frictional and dissipative granular matter. Our results shed light on the anomalous behavior of stress-dependent acoustics and attenuation in granular materials near the jamming transition.

  8. Time-resolved dynamics of granular matter by random laser emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folli, Viola; Ghofraniha, Neda; Puglisi, Andrea; Leuzzi, Luca; Conti, Claudio

    2013-07-01

    Because of the huge commercial importance of granular systems, the second-most used material in industry after water, intersecting the industry in multiple trades, like pharmacy and agriculture, fundamental research on grain-like materials has received an increasing amount of attention in the last decades. In photonics, the applications of granular materials have been only marginally investigated. We report the first phase-diagram of a granular as obtained by laser emission. The dynamics of vertically-oscillated granular in a liquid solution in a three-dimensional container is investigated by employing its random laser emission. The granular motion is function of the frequency and amplitude of the mechanical solicitation, we show how the laser emission allows to distinguish two phases in the granular and analyze its spectral distribution. This constitutes a fundamental step in the field of granulars and gives a clear evidence of the possible control on light-matter interaction achievable in grain-like system.

  9. Micro-macro transition and simplified contact models for wet granular materials

    E-print Network

    Sudeshna Roy; Abhinendra Singh; Stefan Luding; Thomas Weinhart

    2015-05-27

    Wet granular materials in a quasi-static steady state shear flow have been studied with discrete particle simulations. Macroscopic quantities, consistent with the conservation laws of continuum theory, are obtained by time averaging and spatial coarse-graining. Initial studies involve understanding the effect of liquid content and liquid properties like the surface tension on the macroscopic quantities. Two parameters of the liquid bridge contact model have been studied as the constitutive parameters that define the structure of this model (i) the rupture distance of the liquid bridge model, which is proportional to the liquid content, and (ii) the maximum adhesive force, as controlled by the surface tension of the liquid. Subsequently a correlation is developed between these micro parameters and the steady state cohesion in the limit of zero confining pressure. Furthermore, as second result, the macroscopic torque measured at the walls, which is an experimentally accessible parameter, is predicted from our simulation results as a dependence on the micro-parameters. Finally, the steady state cohesion of a realistic non-linear liquid bridge contact model scales well with the steady state cohesion for a simpler linearized irreversible contact model with the same maximum adhesive force and equal energy dissipated per contact.

  10. Micro-macro transition and simplified contact models for wet granular materials

    E-print Network

    Sudeshna Roy; Abhinendra Singh; Stefan Luding; Thomas Weinhart

    2015-06-21

    Wet granular materials in a quasi-static steady state shear flow have been studied with discrete particle simulations. Macroscopic quantities, consistent with the conservation laws of continuum theory, are obtained by time averaging and spatial coarse-graining. Initial studies involve understanding the effect of liquid content and liquid properties like the surface tension on the macroscopic quantities. Two parameters of the liquid bridge contact model have been studied as the constitutive parameters that define the structure of this model (i) the rupture distance of the liquid bridge model, which is proportional to the liquid content, and (ii) the maximum adhesive force, as controlled by the surface tension of the liquid. Subsequently a correlation is developed between these micro parameters and the steady state cohesion in the limit of zero confining pressure. Furthermore, as second result, the macroscopic torque measured at the walls, which is an experimentally accessible parameter, is predicted from our simulation results as a dependence on the micro-parameters. Finally, the steady state cohesion of a realistic non-linear liquid bridge contact model scales well with the steady state cohesion for a simpler linearized irreversible contact model with the same maximum adhesive force and equal energy dissipated per contact.

  11. The glass and jamming transitions in dense granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Candelier, Raphaël; Dauchot, Olivier

    2013-06-01

    Everyday life tells us that matter acquires rigidity either when it cools down, like lava flows which turn into solid rocks, or when it is compacted, like tablets simply formed by powder compression. As suggested by these examples, solidification is not the sole privilege of crystals but also happens for disordered media such as glass formers, granular media, foams, emulsions and colloidal suspensions. Fifteen years ago the "Jamming paradigm" emerged to encompass in a unique framework the glass transition and the emergence of yield stress, two challenging issues in modern condensed matter physics. One must realize how bold this proposal was, given that the glass transition is a finite temperature transition governing the dynamical properties of supercooled liquids, while Jamming is essentially a zero temperature, zero external stress and purely geometric transition which occurs when a given packing of particles reaches the maximum compression state above which particles start to overlap. More recently, the observation of remarkable scaling properties on the approach to jamming led to the conjecture that this zero temperature "critical point" could determine the properties of dense particle systems within a region of the parameter space to be determined, which in principle could include thermal and stressed systems. Fifteen years of intense theoretical and experimental work later, what have we learned about Jamming and glassy dynamics? In this paper, we discuss these issues in the light of the experiments we have been conducting with vibrated grains.

  12. Angle of repose and segregation in cohesive granular matter.

    PubMed

    Samadani, A; Kudrolli, A

    2001-11-01

    We study the effect of fluids on the angle of repose and the segregation of granular matter poured into a silo. The experiments are conducted in two regimes where: (i) the volume fraction of the fluid (liquid) is small and it forms liquid bridges between particles thus giving rise to cohesive forces, and (ii) the particles are completely immersed in the fluid. The data is obtained by imaging the pile formed inside a quasi-two-dimensional silo through the transparent glass side walls and using color-coded particles. In the first series of experiments, the angle of repose is observed to increase sharply with the volume fraction of the fluid and then saturates at a value that depends on the size of the particles. We systematically study the effect of viscosity by using water-glycerol mixtures to vary it over at least three orders of magnitude while keeping the surface tension almost constant. Besides surface tension, the viscosity of the fluid is observed to have an effect on the angle of repose and the extent of segregation. In case of bidisperse particles, segregation is observed to decrease and finally saturate depending on the size ratio of the particles and the viscosity of the fluid. The sharp initial change and the subsequent saturation in the extent of segregation and angle of repose occurs over similar volume fraction of the fluid. Preferential clumping of small particles causes layering to occur when the size of the clumps of small particles exceeds the size of large particles. We calculate the azimuthal correlation function of particle density inside the pile to characterize the extent of layering. In the second series of experiments, particles are poured into a container filled with a fluid. Although the angle of repose is observed to be unchanged, segregation is observed to decrease with an increase in the viscosity of the fluid. The viscosity at which segregation decreases to zero depends on the size ratio of the particles. PMID:11735912

  13. Stress-dependent normal mode frequencies from the effective mass of granular matter

    E-print Network

    Yanqing Hu; David L. Johnson; John J. Valenza; Francisco Santibanez; Hernán A. Makse

    2014-10-20

    A zero-temperature critical point has been invoked to control the anomalous behavior of granular matter as it approaches jamming or mechanical arrest. Criticality manifests itself in an anomalous spectrum of low-frequency normal modes and scaling behavior near the jamming transition. The critical point may explain the peculiar mechanical properties of dissimilar systems such as glasses and granular materials. Here, we study the critical scenario via an experimental measurement of the normal modes frequencies of granular matter under stress from a pole decomposition analysis of the effective mass. We extract a complex-valued characteristic frequency which displays scaling $|\\omega^*(\\sigma)|\\sim\\sigma^{\\Omega'}$ with vanishing stress $\\sigma$ for a variety of granular systems. The critical exponent is smaller than that predicted by mean-field theory opening new challenges to explain the exponent for frictional and dissipative granular matter. Our results shed light on the anomalous behavior of stress-dependent acoustics and attenuation in granular materials near the jamming transition.

  14. Time-resolved dynamics of granular matter by random laser emission

    PubMed Central

    Folli, Viola; Ghofraniha, Neda; Puglisi, Andrea; Leuzzi, Luca; Conti, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Because of the huge commercial importance of granular systems, the second-most used material in industry after water, intersecting the industry in multiple trades, like pharmacy and agriculture, fundamental research on grain-like materials has received an increasing amount of attention in the last decades. In photonics, the applications of granular materials have been only marginally investigated. We report the first phase-diagram of a granular as obtained by laser emission. The dynamics of vertically-oscillated granular in a liquid solution in a three-dimensional container is investigated by employing its random laser emission. The granular motion is function of the frequency and amplitude of the mechanical solicitation, we show how the laser emission allows to distinguish two phases in the granular and analyze its spectral distribution. This constitutes a fundamental step in the field of granulars and gives a clear evidence of the possible control on light-matter interaction achievable in grain-like system. PMID:23872642

  15. Time-resolved dynamics of granular matter by random laser emission.

    PubMed

    Folli, Viola; Ghofraniha, Neda; Puglisi, Andrea; Leuzzi, Luca; Conti, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Because of the huge commercial importance of granular systems, the second-most used material in industry after water, intersecting the industry in multiple trades, like pharmacy and agriculture, fundamental research on grain-like materials has received an increasing amount of attention in the last decades. In photonics, the applications of granular materials have been only marginally investigated. We report the first phase-diagram of a granular as obtained by laser emission. The dynamics of vertically-oscillated granular in a liquid solution in a three-dimensional container is investigated by employing its random laser emission. The granular motion is function of the frequency and amplitude of the mechanical solicitation, we show how the laser emission allows to distinguish two phases in the granular and analyze its spectral distribution. This constitutes a fundamental step in the field of granulars and gives a clear evidence of the possible control on light-matter interaction achievable in grain-like system. PMID:23872642

  16. Free-volume kinetic models of granular matter

    PubMed

    Sellitto; Arenzon

    2000-12-01

    We show that the main dynamical features of granular media can be understood by means of simple models of fragile-glass-forming liquid [Kob and Andersen, Phys. Rev. E 48, 4364 (1993)] provided that gravity alone is taken into account. In such lattice-gas models of cohesionless and frictionless particles, the compaction and segregation phenomena appear as purely nonequilibrium effects unrelated to the Boltzmann-Gibbs measure, which in this case is trivial. They provide a natural framework in which slow relaxation phenomena in granular and glassy systems can be explained in terms of a common microscopic mechanism given by a free-volume kinetic constraint. PMID:11138055

  17. Observing brownian motion in vibration-fluidized granular matter

    E-print Network

    Weeks, Eric R.

    .............................................................. Observing brownian motion ............................................................................................................................................................................. Observation of the rotational brownian motion1,2 of a very fine wire immersed in a gas led to one of the most in the granular medium we briefly recall the Langevin formalism for the brownian motion of a torsion oscillator

  18. Continuous shearing of dense and wet granular materials in a torsional rheometer

    E-print Network

    Kannan, Raguraman

    2002-01-01

    and applied to granular materials by Cundall and Strack [4]. In the phenomenological approach the material is treated as a continuum which is widely used in engineering approaches. Drucker and Prager [5] developed a continuum model for soil based..., " Geotechnique, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 47 ? 65, 1979. [5] D. C. Drucker and W. Prager, "Soil mechanics and plastic analysis for limit design, " Quarterly of Applied Mathematics, vol. 10, pp. 157 ? 165, 1952. [6] O. Pouliquen and F. Chevoir, "Dense flows of dry...

  19. Mechanisms for acoustic absorption in dry and weakly wet granular media.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Th; Jia, X; Mills, P

    2008-09-26

    The dissipation of an elastic wave in dry and wet glass bead packings is measured using multiple sound scattering. The interplay of a linear viscoelastic loss and a nonlinear frictional one is observed in dry media. The Mindlin model provides a qualitative description of the experiment, but fails to quantitatively account for the data due to grain roughness. In weakly wet media, we find that the dissipation is dominated by a linear viscous loss due to the liquid films trapped at the grain surface asperities. Adding more liquid enables us to form the capillary menisci but does not increase the energy loss. PMID:18851495

  20. Particle Shape and Dynamics of Granular Matter: Swarming to Swirling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudrolli, Arshad

    2007-03-01

    We will discuss a series of experiments performed with granular rods, dimers, and flexible chains on a vibrated plate to illustrate the effect of particle shape on self-organization. A non-spherical shape is shown to lead to not only states which resemble nematic and smectic phases but also causes novel dynamics [1]. The ratchet mechanism which leads to vortex motion in a collection of rods on a vibrated plate and drift motion in a bouncing dimer will be discussed [2, 3]. The friction at the point of contact between particle and the substrate, and the coupling about the center of mass of a non-spherical is proposed to lead to observed motion. Exploiting this mechanism we construct mechanical self-propelled particles (SPP) using rods with asymmetric mass distributions. We then investigate the SSP number fluctuations, flow fields, and orientation order inside a container as a function of number density and excitation, and compare their statistics with recent models of active nematic particles and living cells.1. ``Vortices in vibrated granular rods," D.L. Blair, T. Neicu, and A. Kudrolli, Phys. Rev. E 67, 031303 (2003).2. ``Anisotropy driven dynamics in vibrated granular rods," D. Volfson, A. Kudrolli, and L.S. Tsimring, Phys. Rev. E 70, 051312 (2004).3. ``Dynamics of a bouncing dimer," S. Dorbolo, D. Volfson, L. Tsimring, and A. Kudrolli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 044101 (2005).

  1. "Lock in accelerometry" to follow sink dynamics in shaken granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Cecile; Sanchez-Colina, Gustavo; Alonso-Llanes, Laciel; Martinez-Roman, Etien; Batitsta-Leyva, Alfo-Jose; Toussaint, Renaud; Altshuler, Ernesto

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the penetration dynamics of intruders in granular beds is relevant not only for fundamental Physics, but also for geophysical processes and construction on granular soils in earthquake areas. Indeed a phenomenon named soil liquefaction can cause buildings to sink or tilt in areas separated of 1000 km from the epicentre in the worst cases. The damages on the constructions, the pipes and the roads may be huge. There is a conventional understanding of liquefaction from which scientists made theoretical and empirical laws for geotechnical use and building construction, but the dynamical penetration of buildings into the soil is still not well understood. While the penetration of intruders in 2D laboratory granular beds can be followed using video recording, it is useless in 3D beds of non-transparent materials such as common sand. Wireless accelerometry constitutes a natural alternative that has been used in very few occasions, however, it has never been used to quantify the penetration into horizontally shaken granular beds. Here we propose a method to quantify the sink dynamics of an intruder into laterally shaken, fluidized granular bed. We developped an embarked accelerometer small enough to fit into a modelized building. This sensor allows us to follow the intruder in realistic conditions namely buried in a 3D box of sand. Our method is based on the temporal correlations between the signals from a reference accelerometer fixed to the shaken granular bed, and the accelerometer deployed inside the intruder. We demonstrate that our method is able to determine the time interval of sinking of an intruder into shaken granular beds for both quasi-2D and 3D systems [1]. Due to its analogy with the working principle of a lock in amplifier, we call this technique Lock in accelerometry (LIA). In the experiments the intruder stops at a depth that we assume to be the beginning of the "jammed" granular phase. We are now developing numerical simulations based on a molecular dynamic algorithm to confirm or not this assumption. We modelized a granular bed with particles of the same size than the one used in the experiments. Because we have access to the velocity of every particles we can quantify the dynamic of each layers of the granular medium and find its "jammed" boundary. Reference [1] G Sánchez-Colina, L Alonso-Llanes, E Martínez, AJ Batista-Leyva, C Clement, C Fliedner, R Toussaint, and E Altshuler. Note :"lock-in accelerometry" to follow sink dynamics in shaken granular matter. Review of Scientific Instruments, 85(12) :126101, 2014.

  2. Continuous shearing of dense and wet granular materials in a torsional rheometer 

    E-print Network

    Kannan, Raguraman

    2002-01-01

    ORTHOGONAL RHEOMETER A. Principle of operation . B, Design of orthogonal rheometer 1. Test cell . . 2. Motor . 3. Transducers . . 4. Signal conditioner 5. DAQ board . . C. Calibration 1. Torque sensor 2. Uni-axial load cell IV DESCRIPTION OF TEST... are fed into a data acqui- sition hardware through a signal conditioner to a DAQ board where it is converted to digital form. The test material is filled in the cup and compacted with the disk. 1. Test cell DISK dH CUP Granular MaMnal ara...

  3. Ultrasound propagation in wet and airless non-consolidated granular materials.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, S; Rescaglio, A; Melo, F

    2010-02-01

    This paper deals with an experimental description of the acoustic behaviour of non-consolidated granular materials submitted to static force. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of a small amount of an interstitial fluid on the acoustic propagation. Measurements of the velocity and of the transmission of the coherent wave are performed for different values of the applied force. It is shown that the behaviour of the speed of the ultrasonic coherent wave according to pressure have a slope close to the one of the Hertz-Mindlin's model in the case of a dry medium. When a small amount of a low viscosity fluid is added in a mono-disperse granular medium, the speed of the ultrasonic wave increases according to the power 1/6 to the force applied following the Hertz-Mindlin law (v approximately P(1/6)). Moreover, measurements of the velocity and of the transmission of the ultrasonic wave are strongly dependent on the nature of the interstitial fluid. In order to quantify its effect on the propagation, measurements are performed using various fluids having different characteristics. In a first step, silicon oils of different viscosities (from 50 x 10(-3) to 10 Pa s) are used, showing that with increasing viscosity, the wave velocity no longer varies according to the power law 1/6. The transmission coefficient also increases with the viscosity, showing a better propagation of the wave through the medium. Then, measurements are done in the vacuum allowing a comparison with ultrasonic propagation in presence of an interstitial fluid. This experiment shows a strong increase of the transmission coefficient while velocity remains the same as in the dry case. The study of scattered waves in vacuum shows also a significant increase in amplitude and duration of these typical waves. Then, different saturating inert gases are added to the medium showing that the propagation of the scattered wave is not influenced by their different characteristics. PMID:19854458

  4. Organic matter inputs shift soil enzyme activity and allocation patterns in a wet tropical forest

    E-print Network

    Cleveland, Cory

    Organic matter inputs shift soil enzyme activity and allocation patterns in a wet tropical forest enzymes mediate organic matter turnover and nutrient cycling yet remain little studied in one of Earth properties and enzyme activities in a lowland tropical forest. We assayed six hydrolytic soil enzymes

  5. Granular Matter (2013) 15:357366 DOI 10.1007/s10035-013-0414-z

    E-print Network

    Daraio, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    as novel information and/or energy carriers. L. Cai · P. Rizzo (B) · X. Ni Laboratory for Nondestructive spheres, are balanced. We refer to such ordered granular chains as one-dimensional (1D) granular crystals detectors in granular sys- tems [3,7], nozzle-free ink-jet printer [5], acoustic lenses [20], impact

  6. Simulation of electron-matter interaction during wet-STEM electron tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Septiyanto, Rahmat Firman, E-mail: karine.masenelli-varlot@insa-lyon.fr [MATEIS, INSA-Lyon, CNRS UMR5510, F-69621, France and Physics of Electronic Material, Departement of Physics, Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Sciences, ITB Jalan Ganesha No. 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Masenelli-Varlot, Karine [MATEIS, INSA-Lyon, CNRS UMR5510, F-69621 (France); Iskandar, Ferry [Physics of Electronic Material, Departement of Physics, Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Sciences, ITB Jalan Ganesha No. 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24

    Tomography is an efficient tool to probe the 3 dimensional (3D) structure of materials. In the laboratory, a device has been developed to perform electron tomography in an environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The configuration of Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) in Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) provides a novel approach for the characterization of the 3D structure of materials and optimizes a compromise between the resolution level of a few nm and the large tomogram due to the high thickness of transparency. Moreover, STEM allows the observation in 2D of wet samples in an ESEM by finely controlling the sample temperature and the water pressure of the sample environment. It has been recently demonstrated that it was possible to acquire image series of hydrated objects and thus to attain 3D characterization of wet samples. In order to get reliable and quantitative data, the present study deals with the simulation of electron-matter interactions. From such simulation on the MCM-41 material, we determine the minimum quantity of water layer which can be detected on wet materials.

  7. Note: "Lock-in accelerometry" to follow sink dynamics in shaken granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Colina, G.; Alonso-Llanes, L.; Martínez, E.; Batista-Leyva, A. J.; Clement, C.; Fliedner, C.; Toussaint, R.; Altshuler, E.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the penetration dynamics of intruders in granular beds is relevant not only for fundamental physics, but also for geophysical processes and construction on sediments or granular soils in areas potentially affected by earthquakes. While the penetration of intruders in two dimensional (2D) laboratory granular beds can be followed using video recording, this is useless in three dimensional (3D) beds of non-transparent materials such as common sand. Here, we propose a method to quantify the sink dynamics of an intruder into laterally shaken granular beds based on the temporal correlations between the signals from a reference accelerometer fixed to the shaken granular bed, and a probe accelerometer deployed inside the intruder. Due to its analogy with the working principle of a lock-in amplifier, we call this technique lock-in accelerometry.

  8. Efficient numerical simulation of granular matter using the Bottom-To-Top Reconstruction method

    E-print Network

    Thomas Schwager; Thorsten Poeschel

    2006-11-24

    The numerical simulation of granular systems of even moderate size is a challenging computational problem. In most investigations, either Molecular Dynamics or Event-driven Molecular Dynamics is applied. Here we show that in certain cases, mainly (but not exclusively) for static granular packings, the Bottom-to-top Reconstruction method allows for the efficient simulation of very large systems. We apply the method to heap formation, granular flow in a rotating cylinder and to structure formation in nano-powders. We also present an efficient implementation of the algorithm in C++, including a benchmark.

  9. Grain- and Pore-level Analysis of Drainage in Fractionally-wet Granular Media using Synchrotron X-ray Computed Microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willson, C. S.; Bradley, S.; Thompson, K. E.

    2011-12-01

    Numerous lab- and field-scale experimental studies have shown the strong impact of wettability on multiphase flow constitutive relations and how increased water repellency can lead to preferential flow paths and a heterogeneous water distribution. In conjunction, theoretical and pore-scale modeling work has been performed seeking to improve our understanding of the impact of grain-level wettability properties. Advances in high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (XCT) techniques now make it possible to nondestructively image opaque materials providing previously hard-to-observe qualitative and quantitative data and information. Furthermore, the characteristics of synchrotron X-rays make it possible to monochromatize the incident energy allowing for both k-edge absorption differencing and segmentation of fluids and materials that have even slightly different chemical composition. Concurrent with these advances has been the development of methods to extract granular packing and pore network structure data from XCT images. In this talk, we will present results from a series of experiments designed to obtain grain-, pore- and fluid-scale details during the drainage of water in fractionally-wet glass bead systems. Here, two sets of glass beads were used each having slightly different chemical compositions and thus, different X-ray absorption properties. One set was treated so that the bead surface was water neutral while the other set remained hydrophilic. Three sets of drainage experiments were conducted on three fractionally-wet systems: 100, 90, and 75% hydrophilic by weight. First, traditional lab-scale drainage experiments were performed to obtain a baseline set of characteristic drainage curves for the three systms. Next, a set of tomography-scale (i.e., 5.5 mm inner diameter column) drainage experiments were conducted in the lab to ensure that the drainage curves in the smaller columns were consistent with the lab-scale curves. Finally, tomography-scale drainage experiments were performed at the APS/GSECARS 13-BMD tomography beamline to obtain ~10 micron voxel resolution 3D images at specific capillary suction heads. Results will be presented that show that, at these levels of fractional-wettability, the drainage curves from the tomography-scale columns are consistent with the larger scale data and therefore, the fluid phase distribution imaged at the various drainage steps is also representative. Next, granular packing and pore network structure results will be discussed highlight our ability to characterize and uniquely identify the packing and distribution of different grain types and ensuring consistent pore morphology. Finally, the water phase distribution at different stages of drainage is correlated to the pore network structure and the individual water-wet and water-repellant grains providing valuable insights into the impact of grain- and pore-level wettability variations. These quantitative results show that grain-level differences in wettability captured using this approach have an impact on the connectivity of the water phase during drainage and should provide valuable insights for further development of theoretical and numerical approaches.

  10. Granular Matter (2012) 14:229234 DOI 10.1007/s10035-012-0339-y

    E-print Network

    Huppert, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    that the steady flow of granular material down a rough inclined plane has a surface that is not parallel plane inclined at a range of angles, a steady flow develops between static levées down the slope [1­3]. Remarkably, however, the surface of the flowing region is not parallel to the inclined plane, but is curved

  11. A simple wet chemical extraction procedure to characterize soil organic matter (SOM). I. application and recovery rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Beyer; C. Wachendorf; C. Koebbemann

    1993-01-01

    The knowledge of soil organic matter (SOM) composition is important for research in soil science. This is why two classical wet chemical extraction procedures were tested and combined to characterize SOM. Twenty?five samples from typical forest and arable soils in Schleswig?Holstein, Northwest Germany, were investigated in the laboratory. Lipids were extracted using a pre?step method. Several polysaccharide fractions were extracted

  12. Collection of ultrafine diesel particulate matter (DPM) in cylindrical single-stage wet electrostatic precipitators.

    PubMed

    Saiyasitpanich, Phirun; Keener, Tim C; Lu, Mingming; Khang, Soon-Jai; Evans, Douglas E

    2006-12-15

    Long-term exposures to diesel particulate matter (DPM) emissions are linked to increasing adverse human health effects due to the potential association of DPM with carcinogenicity. Current diesel vehicular particulate emission regulations are based solely upon total mass concentration, albeit it is the submicrometer particles that are highly respirable and the most detrimental to human health. In this study, experiments were performed with a tubular single-stage wet electrostatic precipitator (wESP) to evaluate its performance for the removal of number-based DPM emissions. A nonroad diesel generator utilizing a low sulfur diesel fuel (500 ppmw) operating under varying load conditions was used as a stationary DPM emission source. An electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) was used to quantify the number concentration distributions of diesel particles in the diluted exhaust gas at each tested condition. The wESP was evaluated with respect to different operational control parameters such as applied voltage, gas residence time, etc., to determine their effect on overall collection efficiency, as well as particle size dependent collection efficiency. The results show that the total DPM number concentrations in the untreated diesel exhaust are in the magnitude of approximately108/cm(3) at all engine loads with the particle diameter modes between 20 and 40 nm. The measured collection efficiency of the wESP operating at 70 kV based on total particle numbers was 86% at 0 kW engine load and the efficiency decreased to 67% at 75 kW due to a decrease in gas residence time and an increase in particle concentrations. At a constant wESP voltage of 70 kV and at 75 kW engine load, the variation of gas residence time within the wESP from approximately 0.1 to approximately 0.4 s led to a substantial increase in the collection efficiency from 67% to 96%. In addition, collection efficiency was found to be directly related to the applied voltage, with increasing collection efficiency measured for increases in applied voltage. The collection efficiency based on particle size had a minimum for sizes between 20 and 50 nm, but at optimal wESP operating conditions it was possible to remove over 90% of all particle sizes. A comparison of measured and calculated collection efficiencies reveals that the measured values are significantly higher than the predicted values based on the well-known Deutsch equation. PMID:17256544

  13. Removal of Particulate Matter in a Tubular Wet Electrostatic Precipitator Using a Water Collection Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Ho; Yoo, Hee-Jung; Hwang, You-Seong; Kim, Hyeok-Gyu

    2012-01-01

    As one of the effective control devices of air pollutants, the wet electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is an effective technique to eliminate acid mist and fine particles that are re-entrained in a collection electrode. However, its collection efficiency can deteriorate, as its operation is subject to water-induced corrosion of the collection electrode. To overcome this drawback, we modified the wet ESP system with the installation of a PVC dust precipitator wherein water is supplied as a replacement of the collection electrode. With this modification, we were able to construct a compact wet ESP with a small specific collection area (SCA, 0.83?m2/(m3/min)) that can acquire a high collection efficiency of fine particles (99.7%). PMID:22577353

  14. Removal of particulate matter in a tubular wet electrostatic precipitator using a water collection electrode.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Ho; Yoo, Hee-Jung; Hwang, You-Seong; Kim, Hyeok-Gyu

    2012-01-01

    As one of the effective control devices of air pollutants, the wet electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is an effective technique to eliminate acid mist and fine particles that are re-entrained in a collection electrode. However, its collection efficiency can deteriorate, as its operation is subject to water-induced corrosion of the collection electrode. To overcome this drawback, we modified the wet ESP system with the installation of a PVC dust precipitator wherein water is supplied as a replacement of the collection electrode. With this modification, we were able to construct a compact wet ESP with a small specific collection area (SCA, 0.83 m(2)/(m(3)/min)) that can acquire a high collection efficiency of fine particles (99.7%). PMID:22577353

  15. Coherent Transport and Symmetry Breaking - Laser Dynamics of Constrained Granular Matter

    E-print Network

    Andreas Lubatsch; Regine Frank

    2014-08-14

    We present diagrammatic transport theory including self-consistent nonlinear enhancement and dissipation in the multiple scattering regime. Our model of Vollhardt-W\\"olfle transport of photons is fit-parameter-free and raises the claim that the results hold up to the closest packed volume of randomly arranged ZnO Mie scatterers. We find that a symmetry breaking caused by dissipative effects of a lossy underlying substrate leads to qualitatively different physics of coherence and lasing in granular amplifying media. According to our results, confined and extended mode and their laser thresholds can be clearly attributed to unbroken and broken spatial symmetry. The diameters and emission profiles of random laser modes, as well as their thresholds and the positional-dependent degree of coherence can be checked experimentally.

  16. Significance of wet deposition to removal of atmospheric particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: A case study in Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ling-Chuan; Bao, Lian-Jun; She, Jian-Wen; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2014-02-01

    Rainwater samples were simultaneously collected from three locations in Guangzhou, a mega metropolitan center in South China, during the entire year of 2010, and analyzed for particulate matter (PM), total organic carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with the objectives of assessing the seasonality of washout effects and efficiency for removal of pollutants from the atmosphere by wet deposition. The contents of PM, particulate organic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon were in the ranges of 0.74-420 (average: 8.1 mg L-1), 0.16-40 (average: 1.3 mg L-1), and 0.34-6.9 mg L-1 (average: 1.4 mg L-1), respectively. Concentrations of ?15PAH (sum of the 16 priority PAH compounds defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency minus naphthalene) in wet deposition samples ranged from 39 to 1580 ng L-1 with an average of 170 ng L-1. The PAH concentration levels were slightly abated compared to those acquired previously in Guangzhou during the year of 2005, probably indicating a favorable change of energy consumption patterns in the region. There were moderately significant negative correlations between washout ratios and rainfall intensities (0-4.3 mm h-1). The total annual fluxes of wet and dry depositions combined for PM and PAHs in the urban area of Guangzhou were 34 g m-2 yr-1 and 6.0 × 102 ?g m-2 yr-1 with 50 and 57% being contributed from wet deposition, respectively. The monthly capacity for removal (CR) of PM and PAHs (calculated as the wet deposition flux dividing the total flux) varied widely with different months, and was lower during the dry weather season (January-March and October-December) than during the wet weather season (April-September). Finally, the air quality index related to PM10 was negatively correlated to CR values of PM and PAHs, indicating the need to control the emissions of anthropogenically derived pollutants during the dry weather season.

  17. The effect of water temperature on the adsorption equilibrium of dissolved organic matter and atrazine on granular activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Bernd Schreiber; Viktor Schmalz; Thomas Brinkmann; Eckhard Worch [Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany). Institute of Water Chemistry

    2007-09-15

    The influence of water temperature on the adsorption of natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) on activated carbon has not been investigated intensively yet. In this study, batch experiments with granular activated carbon (GAC) F300, from bituminous coal, have been carried out at three temperatures (5, 20, 35{sup o} C) using a humic acid model water and different types of surface water (lake, river, canal). Furthermore, the adsorption of an anthropogenic contaminant, atrazine, was quantified in the absence and presence of DOM. The results indicate a significant influence of water temperature on the adsorption equilibrium of DOM and atrazine. Contrary to expectations, DOM and atrazine adsorption in surface water tends to be increased with increasing water temperature, whereas the extent of this effect is dependent on the type and concentration of DOM. Furthermore, the temperature effect on atrazine adsorption is controlled by competition of DOM and atrazine on adsorption sites. Some assumptions are proposed and discussed for explaining the temperature effects observed in the batch studies. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Pesticide adsorption by granular activated carbon adsorbers. 1. Effect of natural organic matter preloading on removal rates and model simplification.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yoshihiko; Knappe, Detlef R U; Takagi, Ryuichi

    2002-08-01

    The adsorptive removal of periodic spikes of the trace synthetic organic chemicals (SOCs) simazine and asulam from water containing natural organic matter (NOM) was studied in pilot-scale granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorbers over a period of nearly 3 years. The SOC removal percentage obtained at any preloading time and bed depth was independent of the liquid-phase SOC concentration, and equations derived from the ideal adsorbed solution theory and a pore surface diffusion model validated this observation. The pseudo-steady-state SOC removal rate, (dC/dz), at each preloading time and bed depth was therefore first order with respectto the liquid-phase SOC concentration, C. Furthermore, the removal modulus, k, in the resulting SOC removal rate expression was a reflection of the solid-phase concentration of the NOM fraction that interfered with the adsorption of SOCs. Analysis of the removal modulus values indicated that the mass transfer zone of the NOM fraction competing with asulamtraveled more rapidlythrough the GAC adsorber than that competing with simazine. Given the similar molecular sizes of the targeted SOCs, this result was primarily explained by differences in SOC adsorbabilities, where the more weakly adsorbing asulam was less capable of displacing preloaded NOM. Consequently, the NOM fraction competing with asulam constituted a larger percentage of the total NOM than that competing with simazine. PMID:12188375

  19. Effects of surface-active organic matter on carbon dioxide nucleation in atmospheric wet aerosols: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Daskalakis, Vangelis; Charalambous, Fevronia; Panagiotou, Fostira; Nearchou, Irene

    2014-11-21

    Organic matter (OM) uptake in cloud droplets produces water-soluble secondary organic aerosols (SOA) via aqueous chemistry. These play a significant role in aerosol properties. We report the effects of OM uptake in wet aerosols, in terms of the dissolved-to-gas carbon dioxide nucleation using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Carbon dioxide has been implicated in the natural rainwater as well as seawater acidity. Variability of the cloud and raindrop pH is assumed in space and time, as regional emissions, local human activities and geophysical characteristics differ. Rain scavenging of inorganic SOx, NOx and NH3 plays a major role in rain acidity in terms of acid-base activity, however carbon dioxide solubility also remains a key parameter. Based on the MD simulations we propose that the presence of surface-active OM promotes the dissolved-to-gas carbon dioxide nucleation in wet aerosols, even at low temperatures, strongly decreasing carbon dioxide solubility. A discussion is made on the role of OM in controlling the pH of a cloud or raindrop, as a consequence, without involving OM ionization equilibrium. The results are compared with experimental and computational studies in the literature. PMID:25272147

  20. Permittivity of porous granular matter, in relation with Rosetta cometary mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouet, Y.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Encrenaz, P.; Gulkis, S.

    2014-11-01

    We report measurements in laboratory conditions of the relative complex permittivity (hereafter permittivity) of porous material on a large range of frequencies from 50 MHz to 190 GHz. Such measurements, developed in preparation of the Rosetta mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, specifically for the MIRO radiometric experiment, were obtained with different instrumentations in three frequency bands: 50-500 MHz, 2.45 - 12 GHz and 190 GHz (center-band frequency of the millimeter receiver of MIRO, specially developed for our purpose). Considering the expected properties of cometary nuclei, they were carried out with porous granular materials of volcanic origin, with various sizes ranging from a few to 500 ?m, i.e. Etna's ashes and NASA JSC Mars-1 martian soil simulant. The samples were split into several sub-samples with different size ranges and bulk densities. The real part and the imaginary part of the permittivity remain respectively in the 2.1 - 4.0 range and in the 0.05 - 0.31 range. Volume scattering becomes significant for the measurements at 190 GHz when the mean grain size of sub-samples is greater than about 200 ?m and implies an increase of the real part and the imaginary part of the permittivity. Without this effect, for any sub-sample, the results are consistent over the frequency range. From 50 MHz to 190 GHz, evidence is provided for a slight decrease of the real part of the permittivity. Bulk densities of the sub-samples, being in the 800-1300 kg m-3 range, were determined during the measurements at 190 GHz. Taking into account the expected bulk density of the nucleus (100-370 kg m-3), as well as temperature for the surface and subsurface (in the 30-300 K range) and its composition (consisting both of silica-rich dust and ices, mostly of water), these first series of results allow an estimate of the real part and the imaginary part of the permittivity of the near-surface of the cometary nucleus: the real part is likely to be lower than 1.6 for non-icy regions and lower than 1.4 for icy regions; the imaginary part is likely to be below 0.09. These estimates represent upper limits relevant for the interpretation of the future data of MIRO.

  1. COMBINED USE OF ION EXCHANGE RESINS AND GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON FOR THE CONTROL OF ORGANIC MATTER AND DISINFECTION BY PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of anion exchange resin as a pretreatment step to granular activated carbon is evaluated. erformance is evaluated by DOC, SAC, TOXFP, and THMFP parameters. hio River water and Palm Beach groundwater are used. he results show that resin pretreatment is significant in exten...

  2. PREFACE: Granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicodemi, Mario

    2005-06-01

    Granular materials are of great importance to many industrial and natural processes, and thus attract considerable attention over a broad range of disciplines, from engineering to chemical and physical sciences. As their physical properties are different from known thermal systems, they also raise deep basic scientific issues. This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter collects together a group of papers from leading researchers in the physics community which discuss recent new findings and ideas introduced in this rapidly evolving field. Although many topics are still not fully developed, the last decade has witnessed an increasing understanding of a variety of theoretical and experimental issues, ranging from the properties of granular packing, stress distribution and force networks to the dynamics and rheology of granular flow, instabilities and jamming; from the statistical mechanics of granular packs, fluids and gases to applications to problems of geophysical and industrial relevance. The papers in this issue provide an introduction to these topics, summarizing the state-of-the-art and addressing some of the many, still open, questions by featuring an up-to-date presentation of new developments. A deeper test of the theories discussed here and an understanding of the new experimental results reported are certainly among the relevant open research directions ahead in this field. I wish to thank all the contributing authors to this special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter devoted to granular media.

  3. Liquid migration in sheared unsaturated granular media

    E-print Network

    Roman Mani; Dirk Kadau; Hans J. Herrmann

    2012-06-25

    We show how liquid migrates in sheared unsaturated granular media using a grain scale model for capillary bridges. Liquid is redistributed to neighboring contacts after rupture of individual capillary bridges leading to redistribution of liquid on large scales. The liquid profile evolution coincides with a recently developed continuum description for liquid migration in shear bands. The velocity profiles which are linked to the migration of liquid as well as the density profiles of wet and dry granular media are studied.

  4. WET SOLIDS FLOW ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-03-25

    The yield locus, tensile strength and fracture mechanisms of wet granular materials were studied. The yield locus of a wet material was shifted to the left of that of the dry specimen by a constant value equal to the compressive isostatic stress due to pendular bridges. for materials with straight yield loci, the shift was computed from the uniaxial tensile strength, either measured in a tensile strength tester or calculated from the correlation, and the angle of internal friction of the material. The predicted shift in the yield loci due to different moisture contents compare well with the measured shift in the yield loci of glass beads, crushed limestone, super D catalyst and Leslie coal. Measurement of the void fraction during the shear testing was critical to obtain the correct tensile strength theoretically or experimentally.

  5. Bioturbation and dissolved organic matter enhance contaminant fluxes from sediment treated with powdered and granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Kupryianchyk, D; Noori, A; Rakowska, M I; Grotenhuis, J T C; Koelmans, A A

    2013-05-21

    Sediment amendment with activated carbon (AC) is a promising technique for in situ sediment remediation. To date it is not clear whether this technique sufficiently reduces sediment-to-water fluxes of sediment-bound hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) in the presence of bioturbators. Here, we report polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) pore water concentrations, fluxes, mass transfer coefficients, and survival data of two benthic species, for four treatments: no AC addition (control), powdered AC addition, granular AC addition and addition and subsequent removal of GAC (sediment stripping). AC addition decreased mass fluxes but increased apparent mass transfer coefficients because of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) facilitated transport across the benthic boundary layer (BBL). In turn, DOC concentrations depended on bioturbator activity which was high for the PAC tolerant species Asellus aquaticus and low for AC sensitive species Lumbriculus variegatus. A dual BBL resistance model combining AC effects on gradients, DOC facilitated transport and biodiffusion was evaluated against the data and showed how the type of resistance differs with treatment and chemical hydrophobicity. Data and simulations illustrate the complex interplay between AC and contaminant toxicity to benthic organisms and how differences in species tolerance affect mass fluxes from sediment to the water column. PMID:23590290

  6. Dynamics of wetting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary S Grest; Gleb Oshanin; Edmund B Webb

    2009-01-01

    Capillary phenomena associated with fluids wetting other condensed matter phases have drawn great scientific interest for hundreds of years; consider the recent bicentennial celebration of Thomas Young's paper on equilibrium contact angles, describing the geometric shape assumed near a three phase contact line in terms of the relevant surface energies of the constituent phases [1]. Indeed, nearly a century has

  7. Continuum modelling of granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staron, L.; Lagrée, P.-Y.

    2011-10-01

    The continuum modelling of transient granular flows is of primary importance in the context of predicting the behaviour of many natural systems involving granular matter. In this perspective, the granular column collapse experiment provides an interesting benchmark due to its challenging complexity (Lajeunesse et al 2004, Lube et al 2004), and form a trying test for candidate rheological models. In this contribution, we present 2D continuum simulations of granular column collapse using Navier-Stokes solver Gerris (Popinet 2003). The rheology implemented to model the granular media is the so-called ?(I)-rheology, relating the frictional properties and the viscosity of the material to the pressure and shear rate. In addition, discrete simulations using the Contact Dynamics method are performed for systematic comparison between the granular flow dynamics and its continuum counterpart (Staron & Hinch 2005). We find a good agreement, recovering the shape of the flow in the course of time as well as experimental scaling laws for the run-out. A systematic underestimation of the latter is nevertheless observed, and discussed in terms of physical and numerical modeling.

  8. Estimating Losses of Dry Matter from Wetted Alfalfa-Orchardgrass Mixtures Using Cell Wall Components as Internal Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods previously used to measure recoveries of dry matter (DM) from forages following natural or simulated rainfall often have relied upon simple gravimetric techniques, which yielded inconclusive estimates of DM recovery. Our objective was to evaluate insoluble cell-wall constituents as internal ...

  9. Harnessing the instabilities of soft matter: Dynamically tuning of wetting, assembly and pattern transformation in polymer microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying

    2008-10-01

    In this dissertation, we have investigated the fabrication, mechanical instability and applications of two kinds of polymer micro/nano-structures: high-aspect-ratio (HAR) polymer pillar arrays, and periodic porous elastomer membranes. For HAR polymer pillar arrays, we demonstrated the fabrication of high-aspect-ratio (up to 18) polymer micropillars with different shapes and dimensions by replica molding. Capillary force lithography (CFL) is also demonstrated as a simple and flexible method to fabricate microstructures with controlled aspect ratios. Meanwhile, by introducing conventional photoresist SU-8, CFL is successfully coupled with photolithography and used to create hierarchical 2D or 3D structures, which greatly expand the capability of current capillary force lithography. The mechanical stability of HAR structures with varied materials and different aspect ratio, density and shape were also studied and the results show that the adhesive forces from environment are the major cause of structure collapsing. When HAR polymer pillars are subjected to different solvents treatment, both capillary force and solvent swelling need to be considered to completely understand the structure instability. On HAR micropillar array, thermoresponsive polymer brushes, poly ( N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm), were selectively grafted at different locations for dynamically tuning surface wetting or pattern assembly. When the temperature changed from 40°C to 20°, depending on the location of polymer brushes, different wetting transitions, either from a composite solid/air state (Cassie state) to a composite solid/liquid state (Hemi-wicking state) or a transition between two Cassie states were observed. Meanwhile, the dynamically tuning of water contact angle enables us to control capillary drying force and thus harness pattern collapse to create superlattice micropatterns. For periodic porous elastomer membrane, a novel pattern transformation effect is discovered due to the mechanical instability of membrane under solvent swelling. To harness this elastic instability, we convectively assemble nanoparticles onto a swollen membrane and capture this dynamic pattern transformation process. By using the nanoparticle film that imprinted with deformed pattern as a master mold, the complex pattern formed by elastic deformation can be transferred into other materials through replica molding, capillary imprinting & selective etching. The unique 3D morphology of the elastic deformation pattern allows us to perform gradient etching, allowing more flexibility to control pattern morphology.

  10. Zipping Wetting

    E-print Network

    Sbragaglia, Mauro; Pirat, Christophe; Borkent, Bram M; Lammertink, Rob G H; Wessling, Matthias; Lohse, Detlef

    2007-01-01

    Water droplets can completely wet micro-structured superhydrophobic surfaces. The {\\it dynamics} of this rapid process is analyzed by ultra-high-speed imaging. Depending on the scales of the micro-structure, the wetting fronts propagate smoothly and circularly or -- more interestingly -- in a {\\it stepwise} manner, leading to a growing {\\it square-shaped} wetted area: entering a new row perpendicular to the direction of front propagation takes milliseconds, whereas once this has happened, the row itself fills in microseconds ({\\it ``zipping''}). Numerical simulations confirm this view and are in quantitative agreement with the experiments.

  11. Wet Adhesion and Adhesive Locomotion of Snails on AntiAdhesive Non-Wetting Surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil J. Shirtcliffe; Glen McHale; Michael I. Newton

    2012-01-01

    Creating surfaces capable of resisting liquid-mediated adhesion is extremely difficult due to the strong capillary forces that exist between surfaces. Land snails use this to adhere to and traverse across almost any type of solid surface of any orientation (horizontal, vertical or inverted), texture (smooth, rough or granular) or wetting property (hydrophilic or hydrophobic) via a layer of mucus. However,

  12. PREFACE: Wetting: introductory note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herminghaus, S.

    2005-03-01

    The discovery of wetting as a topic of physical science dates back two hundred years, to one of the many achievements of the eminent British scholar Thomas Young. He suggested a simple equation relating the contact angle between a liquid surface and a solid substrate to the interfacial tensions involved [1], ?lg cos ? = ?sg - ?sl (1) In modern terms, ? denotes the excess free energy per unit area of the interface indicated by its indices, with l, g and s corresponding to the liquid, gas and solid, respectively [2]. After that, wetting seems to have been largely ignored by physicists for a long time. The discovery by Gabriel Lippmann that ? may be tuned over a wide range by electrochemical means [3], and some important papers about modifications of equation~(1) due to substrate inhomogeneities [4,5] are among the rare exceptions. This changed completely during the seventies, when condensed matter physics had become enthusiastic about critical phenomena, and was vividly inspired by the development of the renormalization group by Kenneth Wilson [6]. This had solved the long standing problem of how to treat fluctuations, and to understand the universal values of bulk critical exponents. By inspection of the critical exponents of the quantities involved in equation~(1), John W Cahn discovered what he called critical point wetting: for any liquid, there should be a well-defined transition to complete wetting (i.e., ? = 0) as the critical point of the liquid is approached along the coexistence curve [7]. His paper inspired an enormous amount of further work, and may be legitimately viewed as the entrance of wetting into the realm of modern physics. Most of the publications directly following Cahn's work were theoretical papers which elaborated on wetting in relation to critical phenomena. A vast amount of interesting, and in part quite unexpected, ramifications were discovered, such as the breakdown of universality in thin film systems [8]. Simultaneously, a number of very specific and quantitative predictions were put forward which were aimed at direct experimental tests of the developed concepts [9]. Experimentally, wetting phenomena proved to be a rather difficult field of research. While contact angles seem quite easy to measure, deeper insight can only be gained by assessing the physical properties of minute amounts of material, as provided by the molecularly thin wetting layers. At the same time, the variations in the chemical potential relevant for studying wetting transitions are very small, such that system stability sometimes poses hard to solve practical problems. As a consequence, layering transitions in cryogenic systems were among the first to be thoroughly studied [10] experimentally, since they require comparably moderate stability. First-order wetting transitions were not observed experimentally before the early nineties, either in (cryogenic) quantum systems [11,12] or in binary liquid mixtures [13,14]. The first observation of critical wetting, a continuous wetting transition, in 1996 [15] was a major breakthrough [16]. In the meantime, a detailed seminal paper by Pierre Gilles de Gennes published in 1985 [17] had spurred a large number of new research projects which were directed to wetting phenomena other than those related to phase transitions. More attention was paid to non-equilibrium physics, as it is at work when oil spreads over a surface, or a liquid coating beads off (`dewets') from its support and forms a pattern of many individual droplets. This turned out to be an extremely fruitful field of research, and was more readily complemented by experimental efforts than was the case with wetting transitions. It was encouraging to find effects analogous to layering (as mentioned above) in more common systems such as oil films spreading on a solid support [18,19]. Long standing riddles such as the divergence of dissipation at a moving contact line were now addressed both theoretically and experimentally [20,21]. However, the requirements concerning resolution of the measurements, as well as the sta

  13. ccsd00000978, Relation between dry granular ow regimes and morphology of deposits: formation of

    E-print Network

    granular matter owing down an inclined plane are performed in order to study the dynamics of dense ux and on the inclination of the plane. Each ow regime corresponds to a particular morphology/channel morphology; frictional granular ow regimes on inclined planes PACS numbers: 45.70.Mg Granular ows - 45

  14. A constitutive law for dense granular flows

    E-print Network

    Pierre Jop; Yoël Forterre; Olivier Pouliquen

    2006-12-05

    A continuum description of granular flows would be of considerable help in predicting natural geophysical hazards or in designing industrial processes. However, the constitutive equations for dry granular flows, which govern how the material moves under shear, are still a matter of debate. One difficulty is that grains can behave like a solid (in a sand pile), a liquid (when poured from a silo) or a gas (when strongly agitated). For the two extreme regimes, constitutive equations have been proposed based on kinetic theory for collisional rapid flows, and soil mechanics for slow plastic flows. However, the intermediate dense regime, where the granular material flows like a liquid, still lacks a unified view and has motivated many studies over the past decade. The main characteristics of granular liquids are: a yield criterion (a critical shear stress below which flow is not possible) and a complex dependence on shear rate when flowing. In this sense, granular matter shares similarities with classical visco-plastic fluids such as Bingham fluids. Here we propose a new constitutive relation for dense granular flows, inspired by this analogy and recent numerical and experimental work. We then test our three-dimensional (3D) model through experiments on granular flows on a pile between rough sidewalls, in which a complex 3D flow pattern develops. We show that, without any fitting parameter, the model gives quantitative predictions for the flow shape and velocity profiles. Our results support the idea that a simple visco-plastic approach can quantitatively capture granular flow properties, and could serve as a basic tool for modelling more complex flows in geophysical or industrial applications.

  15. Granular temperature field of monodisperse granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollin, Devis; Bowman, Elisabeth; Shepley, Paul

    2015-04-01

    For dry granular flows as well as solid-fluid mixtures such as debris avalanches, the momentum transfer is carried by frictional and collisional stresses. The latter may be described by the granular temperature, which provides a measure of the energy contained within the fluctuating nature of the granular motion. Thus, granular temperature can be used as a valuable means to infer the ability of a granular system to flow. Granular materials are known for the difficulties they pose in obtaining accurate microscale laboratory measurements. This is why many theories, such as the kinetic theory of granular gases, are primarily compared to numerical simulations. However, thanks to recent advancements in optical techniques along with high-speed recording systems, experimentalists are now able to obtain robust measurements of granular temperature. At present, the role of granular temperature in granular flows still entails conjecture. As a consequence, it is extremely important to provide experimental data against which theories and simulations can be judged. This investigation focuses on dry granular flows of sand and spherical beads performed on a simple inclined chute geometry. Fluctuation velocity, granular temperature and velocity patterns are obtained by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV). Flow behaviour is probed for different spatial (interrogation sizes) and temporal (frame rates) resolutions. Through the variation of these parameters an attempt to demonstrate the consistency of the degree of unsteadiness within the flow is made. In many studies a uniform stationary flow state is usually sought or preferably assumed for the simplicity it provides in the calculations. If one tries to measure microscale fields such as granular temperature, this assumption may be inappropriate. Thus, a proper definition of the flow regime should be made in order to estimate the correct flow properties. In addition, PIV analysis is compared against particle tracking velocimetry (PTV). This alternative technique provides high-accuracy measurements and allows individual flow tracer particles to be tracked. In comparison, PIV provides exhaustive analyses although some limitations exist. The interrogation size plays an important role in determining the achievable spatial resolution of the flow. There is a limit on how large or small this region can be for adequate measurements. A further limitation is encountered when velocity gradients are presents which apt to bias the displacement estimate. Ultimately, the above techniques and analysis will be applied to 3D polydisperse granular systems. This is extremely valuable to gain a more complete understanding and move towards more realistic flows. The overall aim of this study lies in obtaining a clearer understanding of the micromechanical processes governing granular flows and improving the modelling of debris avalanche hazards.

  16. Granular collumn collapse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Lube; R. S. J. Sparks; H. E. Huppert; M. A. Hallworth

    2003-01-01

    Through a series of analogue experiments we developed and tested a model in order to understand the fundamental problem of the collapse of granular columns. The study was motivated by the need to understand granular flows in the environment, such as pyroclastic flows and rock avalanches. Granular columns were prepared in containers that rest on a flat surface, before an

  17. Granular statistical mechanics - a personal perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenfeld, R.; Edwards, S. F.

    2014-10-01

    The science of granular matter has expanded from an activity for specialised engineering applications to a fundamental field in its own right. This has been accompanied by an explosion of research and literature, which cannot be reviewed in one paper. A key to progress in this field is the formulation of a statistical mechanical formalism that could help develop equations of state and constitutive relations. This paper aims at reviewing some milestones in this direction. An essential basic step toward the development of any static and quasi-static theory of granular matter is a systematic and useful method to quantify the grain-scale structure and we start with a review of such a method. We then review and discuss the ongoing attempt to construct a statistical mechanical theory of granular systems. Along the way, we will clarify a number of misconceptions in the field, as well as highlight several outstanding problems.

  18. Wet Adhesion and Adhesive Locomotion of Snails on Anti-Adhesive Non-Wetting Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Shirtcliffe, Neil J.; McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    Creating surfaces capable of resisting liquid-mediated adhesion is extremely difficult due to the strong capillary forces that exist between surfaces. Land snails use this to adhere to and traverse across almost any type of solid surface of any orientation (horizontal, vertical or inverted), texture (smooth, rough or granular) or wetting property (hydrophilic or hydrophobic) via a layer of mucus. However, the wetting properties that enable snails to generate strong temporary attachment and the effectiveness of this adhesive locomotion on modern super-slippy superhydrophobic surfaces are unclear. Here we report that snail adhesion overcomes a wide range of these microscale and nanoscale topographically structured non-stick surfaces. For the one surface which we found to be snail resistant, we show that the effect is correlated with the wetting response of the surface to a weak surfactant. Our results elucidate some critical wetting factors for the design of anti-adhesive and bio-adhesion resistant surfaces. PMID:22693563

  19. Wet adhesion and adhesive locomotion of snails on anti-adhesive non-wetting surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shirtcliffe, Neil J; McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael I

    2012-01-01

    Creating surfaces capable of resisting liquid-mediated adhesion is extremely difficult due to the strong capillary forces that exist between surfaces. Land snails use this to adhere to and traverse across almost any type of solid surface of any orientation (horizontal, vertical or inverted), texture (smooth, rough or granular) or wetting property (hydrophilic or hydrophobic) via a layer of mucus. However, the wetting properties that enable snails to generate strong temporary attachment and the effectiveness of this adhesive locomotion on modern super-slippy superhydrophobic surfaces are unclear. Here we report that snail adhesion overcomes a wide range of these microscale and nanoscale topographically structured non-stick surfaces. For the one surface which we found to be snail resistant, we show that the effect is correlated with the wetting response of the surface to a weak surfactant. Our results elucidate some critical wetting factors for the design of anti-adhesive and bio-adhesion resistant surfaces. PMID:22693563

  20. INTERFACE MOTION IN A VIBRATED GRANULAR Submitted by I. Aranson,1

    E-print Network

    Blair, Daniel

    recognized as a distinct state of matter, and studies of their behavior form a fascinating interdisciplinary matter apart from the conventional gaseous, liquid, or solid states.8 Thin layers of granular materials

  1. Granular Volcano Group

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    S'bastien Dartevelle, a Ph.D. student at Michigan Tech, created this Web site devoted to the understanding of "granular flows, granular processes, fluid dynamic, supercomputer modeling, and grain-size analysis of Volcanology, Geophysics, and Physics." Providing challenging materials in an accurate and simple manner, students can easily learn about topics including granular theory and granular medium. Users will find essential facts about viscous phenomenon in the newly added link, All I Wanna Know 'bout Viscous Stress. Educators and students can view the Plinian Cloud simulations. The author also provides mathematical equations, atmospheric profiles, and much more.

  2. Granular Volcano Group

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dartevelle, Sébastien

    Sébastien Dartevelle, a Ph.D. student at Michigan Tech, created this Web site devoted to the understanding of "granular flows, granular processes, fluid dynamic, supercomputer modeling, and grain-size analysis of Volcanology, Geophysics, and Physics." Providing challenging materials in an accurate and simple manner, students can easily learn about topics including granular theory and granular medium. Users will find essential facts about viscous phenomenon in the newly added link, All I Wanna Know 'bout Viscous Stress. Educators and students can view the Plinian Cloud simulations. The author also provides mathematical equations, atmospheric profiles, and much more.

  3. Fast granular superconducting bolometer

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, S.A.; Strom, U.; Weiser, K.

    1984-08-07

    A granular superconducting thin film bolometer made by anodizing a thin film of such materials as niobium nitride to form a thin granular film separated by and covered with the anodized oxide. The bolometer is cooled to its superconducting state and electrically connected to a biasing and detecting network. Its temporal response is better than 1 ns.

  4. On granular elasticity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qicheng; Jin, Feng; Wang, Guangqian; Song, Shixiong; Zhang, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Mesoscopic structures form in dense granular materials due to the self-organisation of the constituent particles. These structures have internal structural degrees of freedom in addition to the translational degree of freedom. The resultant granular elasticity, which exhibits intrinsic variations and inevitable relaxation, is a key quantity that accounts for macroscopic solid- or fluid-like properties and the transitions between them. In this work, we propose a potential energy landscape (PEL) with local stable basins and low elastic energy barriers to analyse the nature of granular elasticity. A function for the elastic energy density is proposed for stable states and is further calibrated with ultrasonic measurements. Fluctuations in the elastic energy due to the evolution of internal structures are proposed to describe a so-called configuration temperature T(c) as a counterpart of the classical kinetic granular temperature T(k) that is attributed to the translational degrees of freedom. The two granular temperatures are chosen as the state variables, and a fundamental equation is established to develop non-equilibrium thermodynamics for granular materials. Due to the relatively low elastic energy barrier in the PEL, granular elasticity relaxes more under common mechanical loadings, and a simple model based on mean-field theory is developed to account for this behaviour. PMID:25951049

  5. Wet Sand flows better than dry sand

    E-print Network

    Jorge E. Fiscina; Christian Wagner

    2007-11-19

    We investigated the yield stress and the apparent viscosity of sand with and without small amounts of liquid. By pushing the sand through a tube with an enforced Poiseuille like profile we minimize the effect of avalanches and shear localization. We find that the system starts to flow when a critical shear of the order of one particle diameter is exceeded. In contrast to common believe, we observe that the resistance against the flow of wet sand is much smaller than that of dry sand. For the dissipative flow we propose a non-equilibrium state equation for granular fluids.

  6. Matter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Houghton Mifflin Science

    This self-contained module on matter includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

  7. Dynamics of Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behringer, Robert P.

    1996-01-01

    Granular materials exhibit a rich variety of dynamical behavior, much of which is poorly understood. Fractal-like stress chains, convection, a variety of wave dynamics, including waves which resemble capillary waves, l/f noise, and fractional Brownian motion provide examples. Work beginning at Duke will focus on gravity driven convection, mixing and gravitational collapse. Although granular materials consist of collections of interacting particles, there are important differences between the dynamics of a collections of grains and the dynamics of a collections of molecules. In particular, the ergodic hypothesis is generally invalid for granular materials, so that ordinary statistical physics does not apply. In the absence of a steady energy input, granular materials undergo a rapid collapse which is strongly influenced by the presence of gravity. Fluctuations on laboratory scales in such quantities as the stress can be very large-as much as an order of magnitude greater than the mean.

  8. Hydrodynamics of soft active matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, M. C.; Joanny, J. F.; Ramaswamy, S.; Liverpool, T. B.; Prost, J.; Rao, Madan; Simha, R. Aditi

    2013-07-01

    This review summarizes theoretical progress in the field of active matter, placing it in the context of recent experiments. This approach offers a unified framework for the mechanical and statistical properties of living matter: biofilaments and molecular motors in vitro or in vivo, collections of motile microorganisms, animal flocks, and chemical or mechanical imitations. A major goal of this review is to integrate several approaches proposed in the literature, from semimicroscopic to phenomenological. In particular, first considered are “dry” systems, defined as those where momentum is not conserved due to friction with a substrate or an embedding porous medium. The differences and similarities between two types of orientationally ordered states, the nematic and the polar, are clarified. Next, the active hydrodynamics of suspensions or “wet” systems is discussed and the relation with and difference from the dry case, as well as various large-scale instabilities of these nonequilibrium states of matter, are highlighted. Further highlighted are various large-scale instabilities of these nonequilibrium states of matter. Various semimicroscopic derivations of the continuum theory are discussed and connected, highlighting the unifying and generic nature of the continuum model. Throughout the review, the experimental relevance of these theories for describing bacterial swarms and suspensions, the cytoskeleton of living cells, and vibrated granular material is discussed. Promising extensions toward greater realism in specific contexts from cell biology to animal behavior are suggested, and remarks are given on some exotic active-matter analogs. Last, the outlook for a quantitative understanding of active matter, through the interplay of detailed theory with controlled experiments on simplified systems, with living or artificial constituents, is summarized.

  9. Biomarker and stable carbon isotope analyses of sedimentary organic matter from Lake Tswaing: evidence for deglacial wetness and early Holocene drought from South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Kristen; H. Wilkes; A. Vieth; K.-G. Zink; B. Plessen; J. Thorpe; T. C. Partridge; H. Oberhänsli

    2010-01-01

    Comparing the organic matter (OM) composition of modern and past lake sediments contributes to the understanding of changes\\u000a in lacustrine environments over time. We investigate modern plant and lake-water samples as well as modern and ancient sediment\\u000a samples from the Tswaing Crater in South Africa using biomarker and stable carbon isotope analyses on bulk OM and specific\\u000a biomarker compounds. The

  10. Bifurcation and nonlinear behavior of compartmentalized granular gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Meiying; Liu, Rui; Li, Yinchang; Zhang, Yin; Shah, Sajjad Hussain

    2014-12-01

    Different from the molecular gas, clustering is a most commonly observed feature of the granular gas. A review is given of our previous work on the clustering, especially the oscillatory clustering for shaken fluidized granular matter in connected compartments, as examples for pattern formation and bifurcations in far from equilibrium systems. Flux model is presented and discussed for mono-disperse and bi-disperse granular systems. Comparison of the flux model with simulation results is given. They show reasonably well agreements. Besides the homogeneous (HOM), segregation (SEG), and oscillatory (OSC) states, two new stationary states (d-OSC and s-HOM) in the bi-disperse granular system are predicted by our simulation. In our recent work these two new states are observed experimentally, and their flow diagrams are obtained based on the flux model. The transition from degenerate oscillation state to oscillation state demonstrates a homoclinic gluing bifurcation.

  11. Multiscale modeling in granular flow

    E-print Network

    Rycroft, Christopher Harley

    2007-01-01

    Granular materials are common in everyday experience, but have long-resisted a complete theoretical description. Here, we consider the regime of slow, dense granular flow, for which there is no general model, representing ...

  12. Anaerobic Granular Sludge Bioreactor Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon McHugh; Caroline O'Reilly; Thérèse Mahony; Emer Colleran; Vincent O'Flaherty

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a mature wastewater treatment technology, with worldwide application. The predominantly applied bioreactor designs, such as the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket and expanded granular sludge bed, are based on the spontaneous formation of granular sludge. Despite the exploitation of granular reactors at full-scale for more than two decades, the mechanisms of granulation are not completely understood and numerous

  13. Introduction Examples of Granular Behavior

    E-print Network

    Kuhn, Matthew R.

    Introduction Examples of Granular Behavior Origins and Scaling of Behavior Summary Scaling http:// www.egr.up.edu / contrib / kuhn LATEX #12;Introduction Examples of Granular Behavior Origins and Scaling of Behavior Summary Outline 1 Introduction 2 Examples of Granular Behavior Softening examples

  14. Performance of aerobic granular sludge in different bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xia; Chen, Zhonglin; Shen, Jimin; Wang, Xiaochun

    2014-01-01

    Inoculated sludge from the Brewery wastewater treatment plant was cultured in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The granular sludge was then used to process the artificial simulation wastewater to compare the performance and efficiency of the granular sludge in organic matter removal by using SBR and granular membrane bioreactor (GMBR). Results showed that the granular sludge in the SBR exhibited desirable characteristics and good removal efficiency. The mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and the sludge volume index (SVI) were approximately 2.56 g/L and 78.13 mL/g, respectively, and it exhibited a satisfactory settling ability. The removal efficiency of the resulting chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH3-N and total phosphorus (TP) reached 89.35%, 96.49% and 83.76%, respectively. The removal efficiency of both nitrate nitrogen and total nitrogen (TN) reached 90%. The performance of the granular sludge as well as the removal efficiency of the organic matter in the GMBR was subsequently observed. Results showed that the process influenced the characteristics and microbial biomass of the granular sludge. The SVI and the MLSS were about 175.82 mL/g and 1.14 g/L, respectively. The removal efficiency of COD and TP increased to 93.17% and 90.42%, respectively. The removal efficiency of NH3-N was slightly affected, whereas that of both nitrate nitrogen and TN increased to 95%. In this study, the physical properties and the removal efficiency of granular sludge in different bioreactors were compared. The comparison demonstrated that granulation membrane bioreactors perform more efficiently compared with SBR in wastewater treatment for organic matter removal. PMID:24645477

  15. Definition of temperature in dense granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colizza, Vittoria; Barrat, Alain; Loreto, Vittorio

    2002-05-01

    In this paper we report the measurement of a pseudotemperature for compacting granular media on the basis of the fluctuation-dissipation relations in the aging dynamics of a model system. From the violation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem emerges an effective temperature (a dynamical temperature Tdyn) whose value depends on the particle density. We compare the results for Tdyn at several densities with the values of Edwards' compactivity at the corresponding densities [S. F. Edwards, in Granular Matter: An Interdisciplinary Approach, edited by A. Mehta (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994) and references therein]. It turns out that the dynamical temperature and Edwards' compactivity coincide on a large range of densities, opening in this way the door to experimental checks as well as theoretical constructions.

  16. GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON INSTALLATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a compilation and summary of design criteria, performance, and cost data from 22 operating municipal and industrial granular activated carbon (GAC) installations that treat water and wastewater or process food and beverage products. Guidance for using this inf...

  17. From liquid to solid bonding in cohesive granular Jean-Yves Delenne

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ], and geomaterials like mortars, concrete and as- phalt (aggregates of various sizes glued to each other by a cement of a granular packing from liquid to solid bonding in the course of drying. The particles are initially wetted by a liquid brine and the cohesion of the packing is ensured by capillary forces, but the crystallization

  18. Stokes' Cradle: Oblique Collisions between Wetted Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, Carly; Hrenya, Christine; Davis, Robert; Brewer, William

    2010-11-01

    Granular particles can be made more cohesive by applying a viscous liquid to the surface of the particle. Such wetted particles are naturally involved in pollen capture and avalanches and can be found in industrial processes such as granulation and filtration. The focus here is on collisions between wetted particles in which lubrication forces dominate over capillary forces (i.e., high capillary number). Previous experiments with such systems have been limited to normal (head-on) collisions of spheres and collisions between a sphere and an immobile wall. In these cases, rebound (de-agglomeration) was found to depend upon the surface roughness of the solids, the elastohydrodynamic interaction, or the pressure-dependent viscosity. In this effort, we experimentally investigate collisions between two wetted particles impacting at an oblique angle. Now, in addition to the above interactions, the presence of a centrifugal force also contributes to the mechanism for rebounded-agglomeration. A theoretical analysis of the associated regime maps provides useful insight to unravel the relevant physical processes that occur in oblique collisions.

  19. Adsorption and wetting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. M. Schlangen

    1995-01-01

    Adsorption and wetting are related phenomena. In order to improve knowledge of both and their relations, experiments, thermodynamics and a theoretical interpretation have been connected, starring n-alkanes.Starting from the Gibbs adsorption equation thermodynamic relations between vapour adsorption and wetting are derived. The surface pressure of a film, formed by vapour adsorption on a solid surface, is calculated by integrating the

  20. MODELED WET NITRATE DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeled data on nitrate wet deposition was obtained from Dr. Jeff Grimm at Penn State Univ. Nitrate wet depostion causes acidification and eutrophication of surface water bodies. See below regarding decriptions on how original data was produced. These data will be part of futur...

  1. Dynamic wetting on superhydrophobic surfaces: Droplet impact and wetting hysteresis

    E-print Network

    Smyth, Katherine M.

    We study the wetting energetics and wetting hysteresis of sessile and impacting water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces as a function of surface texture and surface energy. For sessile drops, we find three wetting ...

  2. Laboratory Earthquakes: Granular Friction and Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecke, Robert; Geller, Drew; Gerashchenko, Sergiy; Backhaus, Scott

    2014-03-01

    Geological processes drive shear motion between tectonic plates over 10-100 km. The rupture gap, of order meters, contains granular matter - fault gouge - produced by the grinding motion of the plates over millennia. The complex behavior of natural earthquakes and the difficulty in making in situ measurements, has led to laboratory experiments that allow more control. We describe a laboratory experiment to model the physics of earthquakes that involves the interaction of continuum and granular behavior around a fault. Two photo-elastic plates confine about 3000 bi-disperse rods in a gap with a length-to-width ratio 50. The plates are held rigidly along their outer edges with one held fixed while the other is driven at constant speed at strain rates of 10-5/s. We measure strains from the motions of small spheres on the plate surface, stresses from plate photo-elastic response, and granular motion using particle tracking. We determine the dependence of the friction and the moment distribution of the system on the normal force. The moment distribution scales with a power law close to -1.5. There is an increasing probability for large events with a non-random recurrence time at higher normal force.

  3. Introduction & Scope Examples of Granular Behavior

    E-print Network

    Kuhn, Matthew R.

    Introduction & Scope Examples of Granular Behavior Origins and Scaling of Behavior Summary Discrete;Introduction & Scope Examples of Granular Behavior Origins and Scaling of Behavior Summary Outline 1 Introduction & Scope 2 Examples of Granular Behavior Softening examples Instability examples Localization

  4. Kinetics of Reactive Wetting

    SciTech Connect

    YOST, FREDERICK G.

    1999-09-09

    The importance of interfacial processes in materials joining has a long history. A significant amount of work has suggested that processes collateral to wetting can affect the extent of wetting and moderate or retard wetting rate. Even very small additions of a constituent, known to react with the substrate, cause pronounced improvement in wetting and are exploited in braze alloys, especially those used for joining to ceramics. The wide diversity of processes, such as diffusion, chemical reaction, and fluxing, and their possible combinations suggest that various rate laws should be expected for wetting kinetics depending on the controlling processes. These rate laws are expected to differ crucially from the standard fluid controlled wetting models found in the literature. Voitovitch et al. and Mortensen et al. have shown data that suggests diffusion control for some systems and reaction control for others. They also presented a model of wetting kinetics controlled by the diffusion of a constituent contained by the wetting fluid. In the following a model will be constructed for the wetting kinetics of a small droplet of metal containing a constituent that diffuses to the wetting line and chemically reacts with a flat, smooth substrate. The model is similar to that of Voitovitch et al. and Mortensen et al. but incorporates chemical reaction kinetics such that the result contains both diffusion and reaction kinetics. The model is constructed in the circular cylinder coordinate system, satisfies the diffusion equation under conditions of slow flow, and considers diffusion and reaction at the wetting line to be processes in series. This is done by solving the diffusion equation with proper initial and boundary conditions, computing the diffusive flux at the wetting line and equating this to both the convective flux and reaction flux. This procedure is similar to equating the current flowing in components of a series circuit. The wetting rate will be computed versus time for a variety of diffusion and reaction conditions. A transition is observed from nonlinear (diffusive) to linear (reactive) behavior as the control parameters (such as the diffusion coefficient) are modified. This is in agreement with experimental observations. The adequacy of the slow flow condition, used in this type of analysis, is discussed and an amended procedure is suggested.

  5. Constitutive relations for steady, dense granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vescovi, D.; Berzi, D.; di Prisco, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    In the recent past, the flow of dense granular materials has been the subject of many scientific works; this is due to the large number of natural phenomena involving solid particles flowing at high concentration (e.g., debris flows and landslides). In contrast with the flow of dilute granular media, where the energy is essentially dissipated in binary collisions, the flow of dense granular materials is characterized by multiple, long-lasting and frictional contacts among the particles. The work focuses on the mechanical response of dry granular materials under steady, simple shear conditions. In particular, the goal is to obtain a complete rheology able to describe the material behavior within the entire range of concentrations for which the flow can be considered dense. The total stress is assumed to be the linear sum of a frictional and a kinetic component. The frictional and the kinetic contribution are modeled in the context of the critical state theory [8, 10] and the kinetic theory of dense granular gases [1, 3, 7], respectively. In the critical state theory, the granular material approaches a certain attractor state, independent on the initial arrangement, characterized by the capability of developing unlimited shear strains without any change in the concentration. Given that a disordered granular packing exists only for a range of concentration between the random loose and close packing [11], a form for the concentration dependence of the frictional normal stress that makes the latter vanish at the random loose packing is defined. In the kinetic theory, the particles are assumed to interact through instantaneous, binary and uncorrelated collisions. A new state variable of the problem is introduced, the granular temperature, which accounts for the velocity fluctuations. The model has been extended to account for the decrease in the energy dissipation due to the existence of correlated motion among the particles [5, 6] and to deal with non-instantaneous collisions [4]. We have shown that the present theory is capable of reproducing, qualitatively and quantitatively, the numerical simulations on disks [2] and the experiments on incline flows of glass spere [9]. [1] C. S. Campbell, Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 22, 57 (1990) [2] F. da Cruz, S. Emam, M. Prochnow, J. Roux, and F. Chevoir, Physical Review E 72, 021309 (2005) [3] I. Goldhirsch, Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 35, 267 (2003). [4] H. Hwang and K. Hutter, Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics 7, 357 (1995) [5] J. T. Jenkins, Granular Matter 10, 47 (2007) [6] J. T. Jenkins, Physics of Fluids 18, 103307 (2006) [7] J. T. Jenkins and M. W. Richman, Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis 87, 355 (1985) [8] D. Muir Wood, Geotechnical modelling (Spon Press, New York, 2004) [9] O. Pouliquen, Physics of Fluids 11, 542 (1999) [10] A. N. Schofield and C. P. Wroth, Critical state soil mechanics (McGraw-Hill, London, U.K., 1968) [11] C. Song, P. Wang, and H. A. Makse, Nature 453, 629 (2008)

  6. Spreading of triboelectrically charged granular matter.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Sane, A; Gohil, Smita; Bandaru, P R; Bhattacharya, S; Ghosh, Shankar

    2014-01-01

    We report on the spreading of triboelectrically charged glass particles on an oppositely charged surface of a plastic cylindrical container in the presence of a constant mechanical agitation. The particles spread via sticking, as a monolayer on the cylinder's surface. Continued agitation initiates a sequence of instabilities of this monolayer, which first forms periodic wavy-stripe-shaped transverse density modulation in the monolayer and then ejects narrow and long particle-jets from the tips of these stripes. These jets finally coalesce laterally to form a homogeneous spreading front that is layered along the spreading direction. These remarkable growth patterns are related to a time evolving frictional drag between the moving charged glass particles and the countercharges on the plastic container. The results provide insight into the multiscale time-dependent tribolelectric processes and motivates further investigation into the microscopic causes of these macroscopic dynamical instabilities and spatial structures. PMID:24919483

  7. Spreading of triboelectrically charged granular matter

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Sane, A.; Gohil, Smita.; Bandaru, P. R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Ghosh, Shankar

    2014-01-01

    We report on the spreading of triboelectrically charged glass particles on an oppositely charged surface of a plastic cylindrical container in the presence of a constant mechanical agitation. The particles spread via sticking, as a monolayer on the cylinder's surface. Continued agitation initiates a sequence of instabilities of this monolayer, which first forms periodic wavy-stripe-shaped transverse density modulation in the monolayer and then ejects narrow and long particle-jets from the tips of these stripes. These jets finally coalesce laterally to form a homogeneous spreading front that is layered along the spreading direction. These remarkable growth patterns are related to a time evolving frictional drag between the moving charged glass particles and the countercharges on the plastic container. The results provide insight into the multiscale time-dependent tribolelectric processes and motivates further investigation into the microscopic causes of these macroscopic dynamical instabilities and spatial structures. PMID:24919483

  8. Stationary Shear Flow of Granular Matter,

    E-print Network

    Lagrée, Pierre-Yves

    is only part of the stress D2 ( Vx z )2 zz xz xz = µ()zz present model: at incipient motion #12;normal shear stress xz z +gsin() = 0 zz z -gcos() = 0 Equations of motion for given F,µ,µN,µT,we obtain (z

  9. Spreading of triboelectrically charged granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Deepak; Sane, A.; Gohil, Smita.; Bandaru, P. R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Ghosh, Shankar

    2014-06-01

    We report on the spreading of triboelectrically charged glass particles on an oppositely charged surface of a plastic cylindrical container in the presence of a constant mechanical agitation. The particles spread via sticking, as a monolayer on the cylinder's surface. Continued agitation initiates a sequence of instabilities of this monolayer, which first forms periodic wavy-stripe-shaped transverse density modulation in the monolayer and then ejects narrow and long particle-jets from the tips of these stripes. These jets finally coalesce laterally to form a homogeneous spreading front that is layered along the spreading direction. These remarkable growth patterns are related to a time evolving frictional drag between the moving charged glass particles and the countercharges on the plastic container. The results provide insight into the multiscale time-dependent tribolelectric processes and motivates further investigation into the microscopic causes of these macroscopic dynamical instabilities and spatial structures.

  10. THMs precursor removal by an integrated process of ozonation and biological granular activated carbon for typical Northern China water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mingquan Yan; Dongsheng Wang; Xiaona Ma; Jinren Ni; Hansong Zhang

    2010-01-01

    The removal of trihalomethanes (THMs) precursor and natural organic matter (NOM) by an integrated process of ozonation and biological granular activated carbon filtration (BGAC) as a deep water treatment process was investigated in pilot-scale tests. A comparison is also made with granular activated carbon filtration (GAC). The characteristics of the THMs precursor and the THMs formation potential (THMFP) were investigated

  11. Granular cell astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Morgenstern, Nora

    2008-12-01

    Granular cell astrocytoma (GCA) is a rare type of malignant brain tumor with distinct morphologic features and aggressive clinical behavior. Almost all GCAs occur in the cerebral hemispheres. It is characterized by a prominent component of bland-looking granular cells. The tumor cells are usually positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein, S100, CD68, and epithelial membrane antigen. The most important differential diagnoses include a number of reactive lesions such as cerebral infarction, multiple sclerosis, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Electron microscopic study reveals that the granules of GCA correspond to an increased number of intracytoplasmic lysosomes. The histogenesis of GCA is still unclear, but most people believe it originates from astrocytes. Loss of 9p and 10q were identified in almost all cases of GCA, but they are not specific for this tumor. Surgical excision plus postoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy is the choice for most patients with GCA. PMID:19061297

  12. Large granular lymphocyte leukemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lubomir Sokol; Thomas P. Loughran

    2007-01-01

    Clonal diseases of large granular lymphocytes (LGLs) represent a spectrum of clinically rare lymphoproliferative malignancies\\u000a arising from either mature T-cell (CD3+) or natural killer (NK)-cell (CD3?) lineages. The clinical behavior of these disorders ranges from indolent to very aggressive. Patients with symptomatic indolent\\u000a T-cell or NK-cell LGL leukemia are usually treated with immunosuppressive therapies; in contrast, aggressive T-cell or NK-cell

  13. The Big Wet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on a particular climate found in Northern Australia, known as the tropical wet and dry. This lesson goes over the 12 categories of climates, and looks at the specifics of the 'big wet', or tropical wet and dry climate. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, performing extensions, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, audio vocabulary, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

  14. Wet Oxidation Process

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this YouTube video, created by Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME), viewers can watch an animation on the wet oxidation process. This animation "illustrates the chemistry of a wet thermal oxidation process that is used to grow silicon dioxide (SiO2) on a silicon (Si) wafer. In a wet oxidation process, water vapor (H2O) interacts with the silicon atoms at the SiO2-Si interface to form SiO2. This process is discussed in more detail in the Deposition Overview for MEMS Learning Module" found on the SCME website.

  15. Kinetic Theory and Hydrodynamics for Rapid Granular Flow - A Perspective

    E-print Network

    James W. Dufty

    2001-08-27

    These are notes prepared for presentation at the workshop "Challenges in Granular Matter" at the Abdus Salam Institute for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, August 2001. Revisions and figures will be added at a later date. Many features of real granular fluids under rapid flow are replicated by a system of smooth hard spheres with inelastic collisions. For such a system, it is tempting to apply standard methods of kinetic theory and hydrodynamics to calculate properties of interest. The domain of validity for such methods is a priori uncertain due to the inelasticity, but recent systemmatic studies continue to support the utility of kinetic theory and hydrodynamics as both qualitative and quantitative descriptions for many physical states. The current status of kinetic theory and hydrodynamics is reviewed and interpreted, with the optimistic conclusion that much existing phenomenology can be placed on firm grounds for further understanding of complex states observed in rapid granular flow.

  16. What is soil organic matter worth?

    PubMed

    Sparling, G P; Wheeler, D; Vesely, E-T; Schipper, L A

    2006-01-01

    The conservation and restoration of soil organic matter are often advocated because of the generally beneficial effects on soil attributes for plant growth and crop production. More recently, organic matter has become important as a terrestrial sink and store for C and N. We have attempted to derive a monetary value of soil organic matter for crop production and storage functions in three contrasting New Zealand soil orders (Gley, Melanic, and Granular Soils). Soil chemical and physical characteristics of real-life examples of three pairs of matched soils with low organic matter contents (after long-term continuous cropping for vegetables or maize) or high organic matter content (continuous pasture) were used as input data for a pasture (grass-clover) production model. The differences in pasture dry matter yields (non-irrigated) were calculated for three climate scenarios (wet, dry, and average years) and the yields converted to an equivalent weight and financial value of milk solids. We also estimated the hypothetical value of the C and N sequestered during the recovery phase of the low organic matter content soils assuming trading with C and N credits. For all three soil orders, and for the three climate scenarios, pasture dry matter yields were decreased in the soils with lower organic matter contents. The extra organic matter in the high C soils was estimated to be worth NZ$27 to NZ$150 ha(-1) yr(-1) in terms of increased milk solids production. The decreased yields from the previously cropped soils were predicted to persist for 36 to 125 yr, but with declining effect as organic matter gradually recovered, giving an accumulated loss in pastoral production worth around NZ$518 to NZ$1239 ha(-1). This was 42 to 73 times lower than the hypothetical value of the organic matter as a sequestering agent for C and N, which varied between NZ$22,963 to NZ$90,849 depending on the soil, region, discount rates, and values used for carbon and nitrogen credits. PMID:16510699

  17. Scaling of the Critical Slip Distance in Granular Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatano, T.

    2009-12-01

    A natural fault has the cataclasite core zone, along which shear deformation concentrates. Rheology of these granular matters thus provides us an important insight in considering the nature of friction on faults from a microscopic point of view. Unfortunately, to this date, our understanding of the rheological properties of granular matter is still poor except for dilute flow to which the kinetic theory of gases can apply. Thus, a computational approach has played a considerable role in investigating dense granular rheology to propose some constitutive laws for steady shear flow [1]. However, a transient state is still a frontier in the sense that we do not have any constitutive laws. The description of transient states is particularly important in the context of seismology because an earthquake is essentially a nonstationary process. An important quantity is the critical slip distance, over which a fault looses its frictional strength with the coseismic slip, because it determines the maximum acceleration of the seismic ground motion as well as the rupture nucleation process. However, regardless of its importance, we still cannot explain the critical slip distance ranging from 0.1 to 1 m, which is obtained by the seismic inversion. It is rather paradoxical that the critical slip distance obtained in a typical experiment is of the order of micrometers. Understanding the physics that determines the critical slip distance to explain the wide gap between a natural fault and a laboratory is thus a central problem in seismology. Here we show a novel constitutive law that describes a transient process in granular layers using discrete element simulation [2]. In particular, analyzing a transient process in which the sliding velocity is instantaneously changed, we find that the critical slip distance is proportional to the sliding velocity. We thus define the relaxation time, which is independent of the sliding velocity. It is found that the relaxation time is proportional to the layer thickness and inversely proportional to the square root of the pressure. An evolution law for the relaxation process is proposed, which does not contain any length constants describing the surface geometry but the relaxation time of the bulk granular matter. As a result, the critical slip distance is scaled with a typical length scale of a system. It is proportional to the layer thickness in an instantaneous velocity change experiment, whereas it is scaled with the total slip distance in a spring-block system on granular layers. References [1] Hatano, T., Power-law friction in closely-packed granular materials, Phys. Rev. E 75, 060301(R) (2007) [2] Hatano, T., Scaling of the critical slip distance in granular layers, to appear in Geophys. Res. Lett. (2009)

  18. Granular collapse in two dimensions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Kerswell

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation is conducted into the collapse of granular columns inside rectangular channels. The final shape is documented for slumps inside relatively wide channels, and for collapses inside much narrower slots. In both cases, the collapse is initiated by withdrawing a swinging gate or sliding door, and the flow remains fairly two-dimensional. Four different granular media are used; the

  19. Noise activated granular dynamics

    E-print Network

    Fabio Cecconi; A. Puglisi; Umberto Marini Bettolo Marconi; Angelo Vulpiani

    2003-02-12

    We study the behavior of two particles moving in a bistable potential, colliding inelastically with each other and driven by a stochastic heat bath. The system has the tendency to clusterize, placing the particles in the same well at low drivings, and to fill all of the available space at high temperatures. We show that the hopping over the potential barrier occurs following the Arrhenius rate, where the heat bath temperature is replaced by the granular temperature. Moreover, within the clusterized ``phase'' one encounters two different scenarios: for moderate inelasticity, the jumps from one well to the other involve one particle at a time, whereas for strong inelasticity the two particles hop simultaneously.

  20. Granular Avalanches in Fluids

    E-print Network

    S. Courrech du Pont; P. Gondret; B. Perrin; M. Rabaud

    2002-09-03

    Three regimes of granular avalanches in fluids are put in light depending on the Stokes number St which prescribes the relative importance of grain inertia and fluid viscous effects, and on the grain/fluid density ratio r. In gas (r >> 1 and St > 1, e.g., the dry case), the amplitude and time duration of avalanches do not depend on any fluid effect. In liquids (r ~ 1), for decreasing St, the amplitude decreases and the time duration increases, exploring an inertial regime and a viscous regime. These regimes are described by the analysis of the elementary motion of one grain.

  1. Granular mechanics and rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reber, Jacqueline E.; Hayman, Nicholas W.; Lavier, Luc L.

    2013-04-01

    Numerical models have proved useful in the interpretation of seismic-scale images of rifted margins. In an effort to both test and further illuminate predictions of numerical models, workers have made some strides using map-scale field relations, microstructures, and strain analyses. Yet, fundamental predictions of modeling and tectonic restorations are not able to capture critical observations. For example, many models and interpretations call on continuous faults with restorable kinematic histories. In contrast, s-reflectors and other interpreted shear fabrics in the middle crust tend to be discontinuous and non-planar across a margin. Additionally, most rift-evolution models and interpretations call on end-member ductile flow laws over a range of mechanical and thermal conditions. In contrast, field observations have found that a range of "brittle" fault rocks (e.g., cataclasites and breccias) form in the deeper crust. Similarly, upper crustal materials in deep basins and fault zones can deform through both distributed and localized deformation. Altogether, there appears to be reason to bring a new perspective to aspects of the structural evolution of rifted margins. A granular mechanics approach to crustal deformation studies has several important strengths. Granular materials efficiently localize shear and exhibit a range of stick-slip behaviors, including quasi-viscous rheological responses. These behaviors emerge in discrete element models, analog-materials experiments, and natural and engineered systems regardless of the specific micromechanical flow law. Yet, strictly speaking, granular deformation occurs via failure of frictional contacts between elastic grains. Here, we explore how to relate granular-mechanics models to mesoscale (outcrop) structural evolution, in turn providing insight into basin- and margin- scale evolution. At this stage we are focusing on analog-materials experiments and micro-to-mesoscale observations linking theoretical predictions to structural geological observations. With this combined approach we seek to establish characteristic length scales such as grain sizes and shear zone thicknesses, and time-scales such as stick-slip event dynamics. This would allow us to define a flow law at the mesoscale from comparing the experimental results and the field observations. This rheology could eventually be used to model the strain localization history of rifted margins

  2. WET AND DRY SCRUBBERS FOR EMISSION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generally speaking, absorption equipment includes two major categories: Wet adsorption scrubbers (or wet scrubbers); Dry absorption scrubbers (or dry scrubbers). Wet scrubbers: As the name implies, wet scrubbers (also known as wet collectors) are devices which use a liquid fo...

  3. Granular Materials Research at NASA-Glenn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.; Daidzic, Nihad; Green, Robert D.; Nakagawa, Masami; Nayagam, Vedha; Rame, Enrique; Wilkinson, Allen

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs of granular materials research at NASA-Glenn. The topics include: 1) Impulse dispersion of a tapered granular chain; 2) High Speed Digital Images of Tapered Chain Dynamics; 3) Impulse Dispersion; 4) Three Dimensional Granular Bed Experimental Setup; 5) Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Fluid Flow in Porous Media; and 6) Net Charge on Granular Materials (NCharG).

  4. Particle-based simulation of granular materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan Bell; Yizhou Yu; Peter J. Mucha

    2005-01-01

    Granular materials, such as sand and grains, are ubiquitous. Simulating the 3D dynamic motion of such materials represents a challenging problem in graphics because of their unique physical properties. In this paper we present a simple and effective method for granular material simulation. By incorporating techniques from physical models, our approach describes granular phenomena more faithfully than previous methods. Granular

  5. a Review of Mesoscale Simulations of Granular Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, J. P.; Vogler, T. J.; Fraser, A.

    2009-12-01

    With the advent of increased computing power, mesoscale simulations have been used to explore grain level phenomenology of dynamic compaction events of various heterogenous systems including foams, reactive materials and porous granular materials. This paper presents an overview of several mesoscale studies on a variety of materials including tungsten carbide, wet and dry sand, and an inert mixture of Al-MnO2-Epoxy. This paper focuses on relating bulk and compaction wave phenomenology from the mesoscale modeling to experimental results and exploring the nature of the compaction wave. In addition, lessons learned during these explorations, modeling techniques, strengths and weaknesses of hydrodynamic mesoscale simulations are also discussed.

  6. The Underlying Physics in Wetted Particle Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, Carly; Hrenya, Christine; Davis, Robert

    2008-11-01

    Wetted granular particles are relevant in many industries including the pharmaceutical and chemical industries and has applications to granulation, filtration, coagulation, spray coating, drying and pneumatic transport. In our current focus, we investigate the dynamics of a three-body normal wetted particle collision. In order to conduct collisions we use an apparatus called a ``Stokes Cradle,'' similar to the Newton's Cradle (desktop toy) except that the target particles are covered with oil. Here, we are able to vary the oil thickness, oil viscosity, and material properties. With a three particle collision there are four possible outcomes: fully agglomerated (FA); Newton's Cradle (NC), the striker and the first target ball are agglomerated and the last target ball is separated; Reverse Newton's Cradle (RNC), the striker is separated and the two targets are agglomerated; and fully separated (FS). Varying the properties of the collisions, we have observed all four outcomes. We use elastohydrodynamics as a theoretical basis for modeling the system. We also have considered the glass transition of the oil as the pressure increases upon impact and the cavitation of the oil as the pressure drops below the vapor pressure upon rebound. A toy model has been developed where the collision is modeled as a series of two-body collisions. A qualitative agreement between the toy model and experiments gives insight into the underlying physics.

  7. Vulvar granular cell tumor

    PubMed Central

    Rivlin, Michel E; Meeks, G Rodney; Ghafar, Mohamed A; Lewin, Jack R

    2013-01-01

    Granular cell tumors are rare, usually benign, soft tissue neoplasms of neural origin. They occur more often in females than males, the peak age incidence is in the fourth through fifth decades. They can occur anywhere in the body with up to 15% situated in the vulva. The commonest presentation is as an asymptomatic mass. Microscopic findings are usually sufficient, but immunohistochemistry can also be helpful in confirming the diagnosis. The vulvar tumors are benign in 98% of cases with 2% reported as malignant. In this case report we describe a woman with a granular cell tumor confirmed by biopsy who underwent excision of the mass but with focal extension to the resection margin on microscopy. Our recommendation of re-excision was declined. Since it is not uncommon with these tumors to find groups of tumor cells extending beyond the macroscopic limits of growth, we conclude that it is advisable to have margins assessed intraoperatively by frozen section such that further excision can be performed for positive margins. Our patient has been followed for 18 mo without recurrence, should the tumor recur, re-excision, with frozen section control, is indicated. Recurrence rates are reported as 2%-8% with clear margins and 20% with positive margins. PMID:24303488

  8. Wet storage integrity update

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    This report includes information from various studies performed under the Wet Storage Task of the Spent Fuel Integrity Project of the Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. An overview of recent developments in the technology of wet storage of spent water reactor fuel is presented. Licensee Event Reports pertaining to spent fuel pools and the associated performance of spent fuel and storage components during wet storage are discussed. The current status of fuel that was examined under the CSFM Program is described. Assessments of the effect of boric acid in spent fuel pool water on the corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel and the stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel piping containing stagnant water at spent fuel pools are discussed. A list of pertinent publications is included. 84 references, 21 figures, 11 tables.

  9. Granular collumn collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lube, G.; Sparks, R. S. J.; Huppert, H. E.; Hallworth, M. A.

    2003-04-01

    Through a series of analogue experiments we developed and tested a model in order to understand the fundamental problem of the collapse of granular columns. The study was motivated by the need to understand granular flows in the environment, such as pyroclastic flows and rock avalanches. Granular columns were prepared in containers that rest on a flat surface, before an unhindered axisymmetric flow was suddenly released by lifting the container. The aspect ratio a of the column (defined by its ratio of initial height h_i to radius r_i) was varied by over 3 orders of magnitude. Some experiments started with a cylinder raised at height H above the ground. We observed two flow regimes dependent on the aspect ratio. For atan ? the entire free surface is in motion. The subdivision is supported by the kinematics of the flow front. For flows with atan ? the front moves at constant velocity between its initial acceleration and final deceleration. Our theory is based on dimensional arguments and that the maximum runout r?, maximum deposit height h? and total flow duration t? are functions only of h_i, r_i and g. Hence, no other internal parameters (e.g. friction between grains) play an essential role in the flow dynamics. The theory leads to different expressions in the two flow regimes: For atan ?: r?= r_i(1+c_3a1/2); h?= c_4r_ia1/6; t? = c_5(r_i/g)1/2a2/3, which is in good agreement with our experimental data for c_1=1.3, c_2=3.9; c_3=1.6, c_4=0.88, c_5=2.6. The results of our preliminary study have lead us to extend the set-up in order to create flow situations more similar to nature. They can be used as a test for computational and theoretical models.

  10. Simulations of collision times in gravity driven granular flow

    E-print Network

    John J. Drozd; Colin Denniston

    2006-09-13

    We use simulations to investigate collision time distributions as one approaches the static limit of steady-state flow of dry granular matter. The collision times fall in a power-law distribution with an exponent dictated by whether the grains are ordered or disordered. Remarkably, the exponents have almost no dependence on dimension. We are also able to resolve a disagreement between simulation and experiments on the exponent of the collision time power-law distribution.

  11. Wetting transparency of graphene.

    PubMed

    Rafiee, Javad; Mi, Xi; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Thomas, Abhay V; Yavari, Fazel; Shi, Yunfeng; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Koratkar, Nikhil A

    2012-03-01

    We report that graphene coatings do not significantly disrupt the intrinsic wetting behaviour of surfaces for which surface-water interactions are dominated by van der Waals forces. Our contact angle measurements indicate that a graphene monolayer is wetting-transparent to copper, gold or silicon, but not glass, for which the wettability is dominated by short-range chemical bonding. With increasing number of graphene layers, the contact angle of water on copper gradually transitions towards the bulk graphite value, which is reached for ~6 graphene layers. Molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical predictions confirm our measurements and indicate that graphene's wetting transparency is related to its extreme thinness. We also show a 30-40% increase in condensation heat transfer on copper, as a result of the ability of the graphene coating to suppress copper oxidation without disrupting the intrinsic wettability of the surface. Such an ability to independently tune the properties of surfaces without disrupting their wetting response could have important implications in the design of conducting, conformal and impermeable surface coatings. PMID:22266468

  12. PREFACE: Wetting: introductory note

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Herminghaus

    2005-01-01

    The discovery of wetting as a topic of physical science dates back two hundred years, to one of the many achievements of the eminent British scholar Thomas Young. He suggested a simple equation relating the contact angle between a liquid surface and a solid substrate to the interfacial tensions involved [1], gammalg cos theta = gammasg - gammasl (1) In

  13. Wet and Wild Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    This guide uses a thematic approach to show the integration of subjects (reading, mathematics, language arts, science/fine arts) and skills to create a context for learning. The contents of this guide are presented in a holistic format. There are six major topics in the guide, each with subtopics: (1) "Getting Your Feet Wet--An Introduction to…

  14. Noise activated granular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Cecconi, Fabio; Puglisi, Andrea; Marconi, Umberto Marini Bettolo; Vulpiani, Angelo

    2003-02-14

    We study the behavior of two particles moving in a bistable potential, colliding inelastically with each other and driven by a stochastic heat bath. The system has the tendency to clusterize, placing the particles in the same well at low drivings, and to fill all of the available space at high temperatures. We show that the hopping over the potential barrier occurs following the Arrhenius rate, where the heat bath temperature is replaced by the granular temperature. Moreover, within the clusterized "phase" one encounters two different scenarios: For moderate inelasticity, the jumps from one well to the other involve one particle at a time, whereas for strong inelasticity the two particles hop simultaneously. PMID:12633295

  15. Capillary Fracturing in Granular Media

    E-print Network

    Holtzman, Ran

    We study the displacement of immiscible fluids in deformable, noncohesive granular media. Experimentally, we inject air into a thin bed of water-saturated glass beads and observe the invasion morphology. The control ...

  16. The effect of wettability on capillary fracturing in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trojer, M.; Szulczewski, M.; Juanes, R.

    2012-12-01

    During multiphase flow in a granular medium, capillary pressures can overcome cohesive forces between the grains and cause grain displacements that macroscopically resemble fracture patterns. These patterns were recently studied in experiments of air displacing water in a thin bed of glass beads, for which air is a strongly non-wetting fluid (Holtzman et al. 2012). The experiments showed that the transition from viscous fingering and capillary fingering to capillary fracturing could be predicted by a single dimensionless number called the fracturing number, which is the ratio of the capillary forces that promote grain displacements to the frictional forces that resist displacements. Here, we extend those experiments to study exclusively how the wettability of the invading fluid affects fracturing by visually observing the morphology of the pattern. As in the previous work, we inject a less viscous fluid into a thin bed of glass beads saturated with a more viscous fluid. However, we now vary the fluids to change the wettability of the invading fluid from perfectly non-wetting to wetting. We hypothesize that the emergence of fracturing can be predicted by a modified fracturing number that includes the contact angle to account for the effect of wettability on the capillary pressure. Since the contact angle is a function of the capillary number, we expect the emergence of fracturing will depend on the capillary number when the invading fluid is partially wetting.

  17. Wetting of alkanes on water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Bertrand; D. Bonn; D. Broseta; H. Dobbs; J. O. Indekeu; J. Meunier; K. Ragil; N. Shahidzadeh

    2002-01-01

    The wetting behavior of oil on water (or brine) has important consequences for the transport properties of oil in water-containing porous reservoirs, and consequently for oil recovery. The equilibrium wetting behavior of model oils composed of pure alkanes or alkane mixtures on brine is reviewed in this paper. Intermediate between the partial wetting state, in which oil lenses coexist on

  18. Experimental Investigation of Plastic Deformations Before Granular Avalanche

    E-print Network

    Axelle Amon; Roman Bertoni; Jérôme Crassous

    2012-11-23

    We present an experimental study of the deformation inside a granular material that is progressively tilted. We investigate the deformation before the avalanche with a spatially resolved Diffusive Wave Spectroscopy setup. At the beginning of the inclination process, we first observe localized and isolated events in the bulk, with a density which decreases with the depth. As the angle of inclination increases, series of micro-failures occur periodically in the bulk, and finally a granular avalanche takes place. The micro-failures are observed only when the tilt angles are larger than a threshold angle much smaller than the granular avalanche angle. We have characterized the density of reorganizations and the localization of micro-failures. We have also explored the effect of the nature of the grains, the relative humidity conditions and the packing fraction of the sample. We discuss those observations in the framework of the plasticity of granular matter. Micro-failures may then be viewed as the result of the accumulation of numerous plastic events.

  19. Direct observation of medium-range crystalline order in granular liquids near the glass transition.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Keiji; Tanaka, Hajime

    2008-04-18

    Collective behavior of driven granular matter is often strikingly analogous to that of thermal systems. Here we use a vibrated quasi-two-dimensional granular matter as a model system and investigate the mechanism of the liquid-glass transition. We demonstrate by direct observation the existence of long-lived medium-range crystalline order, which is found to be closely related to both dynamic heterogeneity and slow dynamics. Our findings are remarkably similar to recent numerical results on model thermal liquids and thus open an intriguing possibility of understanding the dynamic arrest in both thermal and athermal systems in a unified manner. PMID:18518153

  20. Active microrheology of driven granular particles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Grob, Matthias; Zippelius, Annette; Sperl, Matthias

    2014-04-01

    When pulling a particle in a driven granular fluid with constant force Fex, the probe particle approaches a steady-state average velocity v. This velocity and the corresponding friction coefficient of the probe ?=Fex/v are obtained within a schematic model of mode-coupling theory and compared to results from event-driven simulations. For small and moderate drag forces, the model describes the simulation results successfully for both the linear as well as the nonlinear region: The linear response regime (constant friction) for small drag forces is followed by shear thinning (decreasing friction) for moderate forces. For large forces, the model demonstrates a subsequent increasing friction in qualitative agreement with the data. The square-root increase of the friction with force found in [Fiege et al., Granul. Matter 14, 247 (2012)] is explained by a simple kinetic theory. PMID:24827243

  1. OpenWetWare

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    OpenWetWare is a research oriented site that promotes the â??sharing of information, know-how, and wisdom among researchers and groups who are working in biology and biological engineering.â? The site contains help forums, course information, protocols, links to career resources, strains/vectors information and safety info. These resources are contributed by scientists all over the world â??ranging from Boston University to U.C. Berkeleyâ? to foreign institutions such as Imperial College and the Indian Institute of Sciences. OpenWetWare is attempting to do for biotechnology information what the open source movement has done for the software industry. This site is particularly useful for biological engineers and biological manufacturers.

  2. Wet chemistry instrument prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A wet chemistry instrument prototype for detecting amino acids in planetary soil samples was developed. The importance of amino acids and their condensation products to the development of life forms is explained. The characteristics of the instrument and the tests which were conducted to determine the materials compatibility are described. Diagrams are provided to show the construction of the instrument. Data obtained from the performance tests are reported.

  3. Restricting Scalability with Granularity H. R. Schmidtke

    E-print Network

    Bennett, Brandon

    Restricting Scalability with Granularity H. R. Schmidtke July 31, 2003 Granularity as described like vector graphics, if we cannot restrict scalability. Bennett [2] introduces a concept of forest. Bennett. A cate

  4. Granular Superconductors and Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David; Koczor, Ron

    1999-01-01

    As a Bose condensate, superconductors provide novel conditions for revisiting previously proposed couplings between electromagnetism and gravity. Strong variations in Cooper pair density, large conductivity and low magnetic permeability define superconductive and degenerate condensates without the traditional density limits imposed by the Fermi energy (approx. 10(exp -6) g cu cm). Recent experiments have reported anomalous weight loss for a test mass suspended above a rotating Type II, YBCO superconductor, with a relatively high percentage change (0.05-2.1%) independent of the test mass' chemical composition and diamagnetic properties. A variation of 5 parts per 104 was reported above a stationary (non-rotating) superconductor. In experiments using a sensitive gravimeter, bulk YBCO superconductors were stably levitated in a DC magnetic field and exposed without levitation to low-field strength AC magnetic fields. Changes in observed gravity signals were measured to be less than 2 parts in 108 of the normal gravitational acceleration. Given the high sensitivity of the test, future work will examine variants on the basic magnetic behavior of granular superconductors, with particular focus on quantifying their proposed importance to gravity.

  5. Fingering, Fracturing and Dissolution in Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juanes, R.; Cueto-Felgueroso, L.; Trojer, M.; Zhao, B.; Fu, X.

    2014-12-01

    The displacement of one fluid by another in a porous medium give rise to a rich variety of hydrodynamic instabilities. Beyond their scientific value as fascinating models of pattern formation, unstable porous-media flows are essential to understanding many natural and man-made processes, including water infiltration in the vadose zone, carbon dioxide injection and storage in deep saline aquifers, and hydrocarbon recovery. Here, we review the pattern-selection mechanisms of a wide spectrum of porous-media flows that develop hydrodynamic instabilities, discuss their origin and the mathematical models that have been used to describe them. We point out many challenges that remain to be resolved in the context of multiphase flows, and suggest modeling approaches that may offer new quantitative understanding. In particular, I will present experimental, theoretical and computational results for: (1) fluid spreading under partial wetting; (2) the impact of wettability on viscously unstable multiphase flow in porous media; (3) capillary fracturing in granular media; and (4) rock dissolution during convective mixing in porous media.

  6. Silo Collapse under Granular Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, G.; Colonnello, C.; Boltenhagen, P.; Darias, J. R.; Peralta-Fabi, R.; Brau, F.; Clément, E.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate, at a laboratory scale, the collapse of cylindrical shells of radius R and thickness t induced by a granular discharge. We measure the critical filling height for which the structure fails upon discharge. We observe that the silos sustain filling heights significantly above an estimation obtained by coupling standard shell-buckling and granular stress distribution theories. Two effects contribute to stabilize the structure: (i) below the critical filling height, a dynamical stabilization due to granular wall friction prevents the localized shell-buckling modes to grow irreversibly; (ii) above the critical filling height, collapse occurs before the downward sliding motion of the whole granular column sets in, such that only a partial friction mobilization is at play. However, we notice also that the critical filling height is reduced as the grain size d increases. The importance of grain size contribution is controlled by the ratio d /?{R t }. We rationalize these antagonist effects with a novel fluid-structure theory both accounting for the actual status of granular friction at the wall and the inherent shell imperfections mediated by the grains. This theory yields new scaling predictions which are compared with the experimental results.

  7. Silo collapse under granular discharge.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, G; Colonnello, C; Boltenhagen, P; Darias, J R; Peralta-Fabi, R; Brau, F; Clément, E

    2015-01-01

    We investigate, at a laboratory scale, the collapse of cylindrical shells of radius R and thickness t induced by a granular discharge. We measure the critical filling height for which the structure fails upon discharge. We observe that the silos sustain filling heights significantly above an estimation obtained by coupling standard shell-buckling and granular stress distribution theories. Two effects contribute to stabilize the structure: (i) below the critical filling height, a dynamical stabilization due to granular wall friction prevents the localized shell-buckling modes to grow irreversibly; (ii) above the critical filling height, collapse occurs before the downward sliding motion of the whole granular column sets in, such that only a partial friction mobilization is at play. However, we notice also that the critical filling height is reduced as the grain size d increases. The importance of grain size contribution is controlled by the ratio d/?[Rt]. We rationalize these antagonist effects with a novel fluid-structure theory both accounting for the actual status of granular friction at the wall and the inherent shell imperfections mediated by the grains. This theory yields new scaling predictions which are compared with the experimental results. PMID:25615503

  8. Silo collapse under granular discharge

    E-print Network

    G. Gutiérrez; C. Colonnello; P. Boltenhagen; J. R. Darias; R. Peralta-Fabi; F. Brau; E. Clément

    2014-12-05

    We investigate, at a laboratory scale, the collapse of cylindrical shells of radius $R$ and thickness $t$ induced by a granular discharge. We measure the critical filling height for which the structure fails upon discharge. We observe that the silos sustain filling heights significantly above an estimation obtained by coupling standard shell-buckling and granular stress distribution theories. Two effects contribute to stabilize the structure: (i) below the critical filling height, a dynamical stabilization due to granular wall friction prevents the localized shell-buckling modes to grow irreversibly; (ii) above the critical filling height, collapse occurs before the downward sliding motion of the whole granular column sets in, such that only a partial friction mobilization is at play. However, we notice also that the critical filling height is reduced as the grain size, $d$, increases. The importance of grain size contribution is controlled by the ratio $d/\\sqrt{R t}$. We rationalize these antagonist effects with a novel fluid/structure theory both accounting for the actual status of granular friction at the wall and the inherent shell imperfections mediated by the grains. This theory yields new scaling predictions which are compared with the experimental results.

  9. Granular drag and the kinetics of jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzinski, Theodore A., III

    The first part of this thesis focuses on the study of the force exerted by a granular packing on an intruder. During impact, this force can be described by the linear combination of an inertial drag and a rate-independent frictional force that is proportional to depth. We measure the torque acting on a rod rotated perpendicular to its axis in a granular bed at steady state, and demonstrate that the resisting force is of the same form, though smaller. We then alter the hydrostatic loading on the bed by generating a homogenized airflow through the bed, and show that for horizontal motion the frictional force is due to friction acting at gravity-loaded contacts. Next we directly measure the force acting on quasistatically, vertically lowered intruders under two sets of varied conditions. First we vary the shape of the projectile in order to alter the fraction of the projectile surface that moves parallel vs perpendicular to the medium, and find that the frictional force acts primarily normal to the intruder surface. Second, we alter the hydrostatic loading as above, and confirm that gravity-loading of the grains sets the magnitude of the resisting force for quasi-static vertical motion as well. Finally, we consider the case of impact onto wet grains. We conduct conventional impact experiments wherein a spherical projectile impacts onto a granular packing with a known impact speed. We vary the liquid, impact speed, and degree of saturation, and find that the penetration depth is decreased for all wetting fractions, and that the penetration depth has a non-monotonic dependence on liquid saturation. In the fully saturated case, we recover the same scaling of penetration depth with geometry, impact speed and packing density as in the dry case, though the penetrations are shallower, suggesting a hydrodynamic contribution to the net stopping force. The second part of this thesis focuses on the kinetics of the jamming transition. In particular, we observe a dispersion of spheres sedimenting in a fluid until all grains form a packing. In a Newtonian fluid, the dispersion is roughly homogeneous in space and time except at two well-defined interfaces: a dispersion-supernatant interface, and a jamming front below which grains form a jammed packing. This system is ideal for the study of jamming kinetics because the jamming front is stationary: it moves upwards with a constant speed and shape. To characterize the concentration profile at the front, we utilize x-ray absorption to directly measure volume fraction as a function of height and time. To characterize the grain-scale dynamics across the front, we utilize a light scattering technique, speckle-visibility spectroscopy, to directly measure fluctuations of the grain velocities as a function of height and time. In order to alter the kinetics of jamming in this model system, we change the dispersion concentration, grain size, and perturb the hydrodynamic interactions between grains by using a viscoelastic fluid.

  10. A Logic Language of Granular Computing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiyu Yao; Bing Zhou

    2007-01-01

    Granular computing concerns human thinking and problem solving, as well as their implications to the de- sign of knowledge intensive systems. It simplifies com- plex real world problems by considering different lev- els of granularity. Basic granules represent the elemen- tary units of human knowledge. A granular structure re- flects structural connections of different pieces of knowl- edge. The main

  11. Superstable Granular Heap in a Thin Channel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Taberlet; Patrick Richard; Alexandre Valance; Wolfgang Losert; José Miguel Pasini; James T. Jenkins; Renaud Delannay

    2003-01-01

    We observed experimentally a new regime for granular flows in an inclined channel with a flow-rate-controlled system. For high flow rates, the flow occurs atop a static granular heap whose angle is considerably higher than those usually exhibited by granular heaps. The properties of such superstable heaps (SSH) are drastically affected by a change in the channel width W. This

  12. Granular computing in programming language design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trong Wu

    2005-01-01

    The principles of granular computing have been applied in many fields. With currently renewed and fast growing of interest, it is the time to address the commonly needs for various applications of granular computing in related to programming language design. The errands of granular computing are including the extending of application domain, subdividing the problem, building of reliability features, dealing

  13. Simulations of granular gravitational collapse.

    PubMed

    Kachuck, Samuel B; Voth, Greg A

    2013-12-01

    A freely cooling granular gas in a gravitational field undergoes a collapse to a multicontact state in a finite time. Previous theoretical [D. Volfson et al., Phys. Rev. E 73, 061305 (2006)] and experimental work [R. Son et al., Phys. Rev. E 78, 041302 (2008)] have obtained contradictory results about the rate of energy loss before the gravitational collapse. Here we use a molecular dynamics simulation in an attempt to recreate the experimental and theoretical results to resolve the discrepancy. We are able to nearly match the experimental results, and find that to reproduce the power law predicted in the theory we need a nearly elastic system with a constant coefficient of restitution greater than 0.993. For the more realistic velocity-dependent coefficient of restitution, there does not appear to be a power-law decay and the transition from granular gas to granular solid is smooth, making it difficult to define a time of collapse. PMID:24483431

  14. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, L.C.; Simpson, M.L.

    1995-01-17

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically. 4 figures.

  15. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is an illustration of the analytical procedure of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) on board the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument. By dissolving small amounts of soil in water, WCL can determine the pH, the abundance of minerals such as magnesium and sodium cations or chloride, bromide and sulfate anions, as well as the conductivity and redox potential.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is an illustration of soil analysis on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) on board the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument. By dissolving small amounts of soil in water, WCL will attempt to determine the pH, the abundance of minerals such as magnesium and sodium cations or chloride, bromide and sulfate anions, as well as the conductivity and redox potential.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN); Simpson, Marc L. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically.

  18. HYPERELASTIC MODELS FOR GRANULAR MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Humrickhouse, Paul W; Corradini, Michael L

    2009-01-29

    A continuum framework for modeling of dust mobilization and transport, and the behavior of granular systems in general, has been reviewed, developed and evaluated for reactor design applications. The large quantities of micron-sized particles expected in the international fusion reactor design, ITER, will accumulate into piles and layers on surfaces, which are large relative to the individual particle size; thus, particle-particle, rather than particle-surface, interactions will determine the behavior of the material in bulk, and a continuum approach is necessary and justified in treating the phenomena of interest; e.g., particle resuspension and transport. The various constitutive relations that characterize these solid particle interactions in dense granular flows have been discussed previously, but prior to mobilization their behavior is not even fluid. Even in the absence of adhesive forces between particles, dust or sand piles can exist in static equilibrium under gravity and other forces, e.g., fluid shear. Their behavior is understood to be elastic, though not linear. The recent “granular elasticity” theory proposes a non-linear elastic model based on “Hertz contacts” between particles; the theory identifies the Coulomb yield condition as a requirement for thermodynamic stability, and has successfully reproduced experimental results for stress distributions in sand piles. The granular elasticity theory is developed and implemented in a stand- alone model and then implemented as part of a finite element model, ABAQUS, to determine the stress distributions in dust piles subjected to shear by a fluid flow. We identify yield with the onset of mobilization, and establish, for a given dust pile and flow geometry, the threshold pressure (force) conditions on the surface due to flow required to initiate it. While the granular elasticity theory applies strictly to cohesionless granular materials, attractive forces are clearly important in the interaction of micron-sized particles; extension of the theory to account for these effects is also considered. A set of continuum models are proposed for use in the future dust transport modeling.

  19. Initiation of immersed granular avalanches.

    PubMed

    Mutabaruka, Patrick; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Soga, Kenichi; Radjai, Farhang

    2014-05-01

    By means of coupled molecular dynamics-computational fluid dynamics simulations, we analyze the initiation of avalanches in a granular bed of spherical particles immersed in a viscous fluid and inclined above its angle of repose. In quantitative agreement with experiments, we find that the bed is unstable for a packing fraction below 0.59 but is stabilized above this packing fraction by negative excess pore pressure induced by the effect of dilatancy. From detailed numerical data, we explore the time evolution of shear strain, packing fraction, excess pore pressures, and granular microstructure in this creeplike pressure redistribution regime, and we show that they scale excellently with a characteristic time extracted from a model based on the balance of granular stresses in the presence of a negative excess pressure and its interplay with dilatancy. The cumulative shear strain at failure is found to be ? 0.2, in close agreement with the experiments, irrespective of the initial packing fraction and inclination angle. Remarkably, the avalanche is triggered when dilatancy vanishes instantly as a result of fluctuations while the average dilatancy is still positive (expanding bed) with a packing fraction that declines with the initial packing fraction. Another nontrivial feature of this creeplike regime is that, in contrast to dry granular materials, the internal friction angle of the bed at failure is independent of dilatancy but depends on the inclination angle, leading therefore to a nonlinear dependence of the excess pore pressure on the inclination angle. We show that this behavior may be described in terms of the contact network anisotropy, which increases with a nearly constant connectivity and levels off at a value (critical state) that increases with the inclination angle. These features suggest that the behavior of immersed granular materials is controlled not only directly by hydrodynamic forces acting on the particles but also by the influence of the fluid on the granular microstructure. PMID:25353783

  20. Unifying suspension and granular rheology.

    PubMed

    Boyer, François; Guazzelli, Élisabeth; Pouliquen, Olivier

    2011-10-28

    Using an original pressure-imposed shear cell, we study the rheology of dense suspensions. We show that they exhibit a viscoplastic behavior similarly to granular media successfully described by a frictional rheology and fully characterized by the evolution of the friction coefficient ? and the volume fraction ? with a dimensionless viscous number I(v). Dense suspension and granular media are thus unified under a common framework. These results are shown to be compatible with classical empirical models of suspension rheology and provide a clear determination of constitutive laws close to the jamming transition. PMID:22107679

  1. Momentum Transport in Granular Flows

    E-print Network

    Gregg Lois; Anael Lemaitre; Jean M. Carlson

    2006-02-10

    We investigate the error induced by only considering binary collisions in the momentum transport of hard-sphere granular materials, as is done in kinetic theories. In this process, we first present a general microscopic derivation of the momentum transport equation and compare it to the kinetic theory derivation, which relies on the binary collision assumption. These two derivations yield different microscopic expressions for the stress tensor, which we compare using simulations. This provides a quantitative bound on the regime where binary collisions dominate momentum transport and reveals that most realistic granular flows occur in the region of phase space where the binary collision assumption does not apply.

  2. Contact line motion for partially wetting fluids Jens Eggers

    E-print Network

    Eggers, Jens

    Contact line motion for partially wetting fluids Jens Eggers School of Mathematics, University a coordinate system in which the contact line is at rest. The local description 2 applies for x/L 1, i.e., at a distance from the contact line where microscopic details no longer matter. The distinguishing feature of 2

  3. Particle deposition in granular media: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Tien, Chi

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses topics on particle deposition in granular media. The six topics discussed are: experimental determination of initial collection efficiency in granular beds - an assessment of the effect of instrument sensitivity and the extent of particle bounce-off; deposition of polydispersed aerosols in granular media; in situ observation of aerosol deposition in a two-dimensional model filter; solid velocity in cross-flow granular moving bed; aerosol deposition in granular moving bed; and aerosol deposition in a magnetically stabilized fluidized bed. (LSP)

  4. Shear strength of vibrated granular\\/granular-fluid mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Utter; Ralph Herman; Ben Foltz

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of dense granular materials can be characterized by the continuous forming and breaking of a strong force network resisting flow. This jamming\\/unjamming behavior is typical of a variety of systems and is influenced by factors such as grain packing fraction, applied shear stress, and the random kinetic energy of the particles. We present experiments on shear strength of

  5. Wetting of Nanopatterned Grooved Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, T.; Ocko, B.; Tasinkevych, M.; Checco, A.; E. Dobisz, E.; Dietrich, S.

    2010-03-12

    The wetting by perfluoromethylcyclohexane of a well-defined silicon grating with a channel width of 16 nm has been studied using transmission small angle x-ray scattering. Prefilling, capillary filling, and postfilling wetting regimes have been identified. A detailed comparison of the data with theory reveals the importance of long-ranged substrate-fluid and fluid-fluid interactions for determining the wetting behavior on these length scales, especially at the onset of capillary condensation and in the prefilling regime.

  6. Controlling conditions for wet welding

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.

    1985-11-01

    Wet welding is finding increased use for repairing and maintaining vessel hulls around the world. Users are developing new methods and procedures to expand the technology. A wet welded joint underwater can be made as strong as one welded in a dry habitat, but at a greatly reduced cost. The design of the joint for wet welding and the procedures that need to be followed are outlined. In designing for wet welding, high tensile strength, ease of access, and over-design should be considered.

  7. Entropy and Temperature of a Static Granular Assembly: An Ab Initio Approach Silke Henkes,1

    E-print Network

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    ­5]. In this Letter we establish a statistical theory of blocked states starting from a conservation law and a maximum statistical mechanics but with a conservation principle based on the mechanical stress tensor. We define- termines properties such as flow and mechanical strength of granular matter [1,2]. The dissipative nature

  8. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alshibli, Khalid A.; Costes, Nicholas C.; Porter, Ronald F.

    1996-01-01

    The constitutive behavior of uncemented granular materials such as strength, stiffness, and localization of deformations are to a large extend derived from interparticle friction transmitted between solid particles and particle groups. Interparticle forces are highly dependent on gravitational body forces. At very low effective confining pressures, the true nature of the Mohr envelope, which defines the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion for soils, as well as the relative contribution of each of non-frictional components to soil's shear strength cannot be evaluated in terrestrial laboratories. Because of the impossibility of eliminating gravitational body forces on earth, the weight of soil grains develops interparticle compressive stresses which mask true soil constitutive behavior even in the smallest samples of models. Therefore the microgravity environment induced by near-earth orbits of spacecraft provides unique experimental opportunities for testing theories related to the mechanical behavior of terrestrial granular materials. Such materials may include cohesionless soils, industrial powders, crushed coal, etc. This paper will describe the microgravity experiment, 'Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM)', scheduled to be flown on Space Shuttle-MIR missions. The paper will describe the experiment's hardware, instrumentation, specimen preparation procedures, testing procedures in flight, as well as a brief summary of the post-mission analysis. It is expected that the experimental results will significantly improve the understanding of the behavior of granular materials under very low effective stress levels.

  9. Reduction of bromate by granular activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Kirisits, M.J.; Snoeyink, V.L.; Kruithof, J.C.

    1998-07-01

    Ozonation of waters containing bromide can lead to the formation of bromate, a probable human carcinogen. Since bromate will be regulated at 10 {micro}g/L by the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection By-Products Rule, there is considerable interest in finding a suitable method of bromate reduction. Granular activated carbon (GAC) can be used to chemically reduce bromate to bromide, but interference from organic matter and anions present in natural water render this process inefficient. In an effort to improve bromate reduction by GAC, several modifications were made to the GAC filtration process. The use of a biologically active carbon (BAC) filter ahead of a fresh GAC filter with and without preozonation, to remove the biodegradable organic matter, did not substantially improve the bromate removal of the GAC filter. The use of the BAC filter for biological bromate reduction proved to be the most encouraging experiment. By lowering the dissolved oxygen in the influent to the BAC from 8.0 mg/L to 2.0 mg/L, the percent bromate removal increased from 42% to 61%.

  10. On the equations of fully fluidized granular materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoru Ogawa; Akira Umemura; Nobunori Oshima

    1980-01-01

    Equations for fully fluidized granular materials are proposed and are solved in a simple case. In fully fluidized granular materials, the granular particles slip or collide with each other and energy is dissipated. In describing the energy dissipation process characteristic to granular materials, a measure of random motion of granular particles is introduced as a new internal variable. We derive

  11. MODELING THE WET MILLING PROCESS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Process engineering and cost models for a conventional corn wet milling process have been developed to aid research being conducted by the USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center. Information on the corn wet milling process was obtained from various technical sources i...

  12. Underwater wet welding of steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, S. [Amoco Corporation Research, Naperville, IL (United States); Liu, S.; Olson, D.L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Underwater wet welding is conducted directly in water with the shielded metal arc (SMA) and flux cored arc (FCA) welding processes. Underwater wet welding has been demonstrated as an acceptable repair technique down to 100 meters (325 ft.) in depth, but wet welds have been attempted on carbon steel structures down to 200 meters (650 ft.). The primary purpose of this interpretive report is to document and evaluate current understanding of metallurgical behavior of underwater wet welds so that new welding consumables can be designed and new welding practices can be developed for fabrication and repair of high strength steel structures at greater depths. First the pyrometallurgical and physical metallurgy behaviors of underwater weldments are discussed. Second, modifications of the welding consumables and processes are suggested to enhance the ability to apply wet welding techniques.

  13. A review of mesoscale simulations of granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, John

    2009-06-01

    With the advent of increased computing power, mesoscale simulations have been used to explore grain level phenomenology of dynamic compaction events of various heterogenous systems including foams, reactive materials and porous granular materials. This paper presents an overview of several mesoscale studies on a variety of materials include tungsten carbide and epoxy mixtures, wet and dry sand, and reactive materials (Al-MnO2-Epoxy mixtures). The simulations encompass a variety of geometries including one-dimensional planar and spherical shock configurations. This talk will focus on relating mesoscale modeling to experimental data and the role of material constitutive relations in this effort. In addition, lessons learning during these explorations, modeling techniques, strengths and weaknesses of hydrodynamic mesoscale simulations will also be presented.

  14. 77 FR 59979 - Pure Magnesium (Granular) From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ...731-TA-895 (Second Review)] Pure Magnesium (Granular) From China Determination...of the antidumping duty order on pure magnesium (granular) from China would be likely...4350 (September 2012), entitled Pure Magnesium (Granular) from China:...

  15. 76 FR 4936 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade...resin (``granular PTFE resin'') from Italy...duty orders on granular PTFE resin from Italy and Japan (75 FR 67082-67083 and...

  16. 76 FR 39896 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ...Review)] Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy Determination On the basis of...order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy would be likely to lead to continuation...entitled Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin from Italy: Investigation No....

  17. From Elasticity to Hypoplasticity: Dynamics of Granular Solids

    E-print Network

    Yimin Jiang; Mario Liu

    2007-06-10

    "Granular elasticity," useful for calculating static stress distributions in granular media, is generalized by including the effects of slowly moving, deformed grains. The result is a hydrodynamic theory for granular solids that agrees well with models from soil mechanics.

  18. Impact of Wettability on Fracturing of Nano-Granular Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trojer, M.; Juanes, R.

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, is a well-known reservoir stimulation technique, by which the permeability of the near-wellbore region is enhanced through the creation of tensile fractures within the rock, formed in the direction perpendicular to the least principal stress. While it is well known that fracturing of granular media strongly depends on the type of media, the pore fluids, and the fracking fluids, the interplay between multiphase flow, wettability and fracture mechanics of shale-like (nano-granular) materials remains poorly understood. Here, we study experimentally the dynamics of multiphase-flow fracking in nano-porous media and its dependence on the wetting properties of the system. The experiments consist in saturating a thin bed of glass beads with a viscous fluid, injecting a less viscous fluid, and imaging the invasion morphology. We investigate three control parameters: the injection rate of the less-viscous invading phase, the confining stress, and the contact angle, which we control by altering the surface chemistry of the beads and the Hele-Shaw cell. We quantify the dynamic fracture pattern by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV), and elucidate the role of wettability on the emerging flow physics at the length scale of the viscous-frictional instability.

  19. Collective workload organization in confined excavation of granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaenkova, Daria; Linevich, Vadim; Goodisman, Michael A.; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2015-03-01

    Many social insects collectively construct large nests in complex substrates; such structures are often composed of narrow tunnels. The benefits of collective construction, including reduced construction costs per worker come with challenges of navigation in crowded, confined spaces. Here we study the workforce organization of groups of S. invicta fire ants creating tunnels in wet granular media. We monitor the activity levels of marked (painted) workers-defined as a number of tunnel visits over 12 hours- during initiation of tunnels. The activity levels are described by a Lorenz curve with a Gini coefficient of ~ 0 . 7 indicating that a majority of the excavation is performed by a minority of workers. We hypothesize that this workload distribution is beneficial for excavation in crowded conditions, and use a 2D cellular automata (CA) model to reproduce behaviors of the excavating ants. CA simulations reveal that tunnel construction rates decrease in groups of equally active animals compared to groups with the natural workload distribution. We use predictions of the CA model to organize collective excavation of granular material by teams of digging robots, and use the robots to test hypotheses of crowded excavation in the physical world. We acknowledge support of National Science Foundation, Physics of Living Systems division.

  20. Three-dimensional (3D) experimental realization and observation of a granular gas in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harth, Kirsten; Trittel, Torsten; May, Kathrin; Wegner, Sandra; Stannarius, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Experiments with granular gases do not only provide statistical information on multi-particle systems undergoing random dissipative interactions, they may also help to test predictions of numerical simulations and to gain understanding of the self-organization of dilute granular matter to clusters and stable assemblies. We shortly review an experiment under zero gravity conditions on different platforms. Implementations on a sounding rocket flight, parabolic flights and drop tower shots are analyzed. We evaluate general experimental requirements, judge the appropriateness of the different platforms, and present quantitative results.

  1. Shock wave propagation in vibrofluidized granular materials.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kai; Miao, Guoqing; Zhang, Peng; Yun, Yi; Wei, Rongjue

    2006-04-01

    Shock wave formation and propagation in vertically vibrated quasi-two-dimensional granular materials are studied by digital high speed photography. Steep density and temperature wave fronts form at the bottom of the granular layer when the layer collides with vibrating plate. Then the fronts propagate upwards through the layer. The temperature front is always in the transition region between the upward and downward granular flows. The effects of driving parameters and particle number on the shock are also explored. PMID:16711788

  2. Shock wave propagation in vibrofluidized granular materials

    E-print Network

    Kai Huang; Guoqing Miao; Peng Zhang; Yi Yun; Rongjue Wei

    2005-11-29

    Shock wave formation and propagation in two-dimensional granular materials under vertical vibration are studied by digital high speed photography. The steepen density and temperature wave fronts form near the plate as granular layer collides with vibrating plate and propagate upward through the layer. The temperature front is always in the transition region between the upward and downward granular flows. The effects of driving parameters and particle number on the shock are also explored.

  3. Congenital gingival granular cell tumour.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, P J; Kirkland, P; Schafler, K; Moss, A L

    1996-01-01

    Congenital gingival granular cell tumours are rare lesions which have only occasionally been reported in the UK. Clinical features are of a benign lesion which occurs almost exclusively in newborn, Caucasian females and the anterior maxilla is the commonest site. Treatment consists of local excision and is curative.The terminology concerning this condition has been rather confused because of uncertainty regarding the histogenesis of these tumours and the similar histological appearance to adults granular cell myoblastoma occurring at other intraoral sites. The exact histogenesis of these tumours remains unsolved and they may be hamartomata. We describe a new case occurring within the UK, which illustrates many of the common clinical features of the condition, with an accompanying literature review. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8709088

  4. Experimental quantification of a granular crater induced by a liquid-to-granular impact using a 3D scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyser, Emmanuel; Abellan, Antonio; Carrea, Dario; Rudaz, Benjamin; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Granular impacts have been extensively studied but much remains to be investigated regarding the complex topic of liquid-to-granular impact. Its applications to Geosciences are of interest regarding recent advances in the investigation of the raindrop erosion or the sediment flux. In our study, we focus on the quantification of both the excavated and deposited volumes resulting from a water-droplet impact onto a fine granular. The quantification of the existing relationships between the impact energy, the packing fraction and the excavated volume is also of interest. Indeed, the relationship between the packing fraction and the excavated volume has still to be investigated for constant impact energy (fixed height of fall and droplet size). Moreover, the volume distribution of the granular matter around the impact target has still to be achieved regarding the previous studies. Much of the previous work was focused on the ejected particles distribution but less is known about the volume distribution of the ejected mass. In this study, we have developed a specific methodology in order to investigate these two topics, as follows: a) First of all, we carried out experimental investigations in laboratory on a setup inspired by the previous works of Long et al. (2014) and Furbish et al. (2007). Granular samples were prepared using a compaction device in order to produce various packing fractions. Pre- and post-impact surface geometries were recorded using a high precision 3D scanner (KONICA MINOLTA VIVID 9i). This provided an accurate point cloud of the impact crater and ejecta deposits. b) Afterwards, we processed each point cloud pairs using different softwares (PolyWorks & MATLAB). We used an accurate change detection method by computing orthogonal distance from points (post-geometry) to reference meshed surface (pre-geometry) to extract the points belonging to deposits (positive distance) or crater (negative distance). Then, we used the computational geometry toolbox provided by MATLAB to compute the excavated and deposited volumes. Results show that both excavated and deposited volumes seem to be dependent on the packing fraction (e.g the higher the packing the lower the volume) for a constant impact energy. The radial volume distribution is more likely to be a Burr XII distribution rather than an exponential distribution. Following our experimental results, numerical modeling for the cratering process has yet to be established coupling different numerical methods (Computational Fluid Dynamic and Discrete Element Method) in order to reproduce similar volume distribution. Such numerical methods are promising techniques for further simulations of liquid-to-granular impact.

  5. FNA of thyroid granular cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Harp, Eric; Caraway, Nancy P

    2013-09-01

    Granular cell tumor rarely occurs in the thyroid. This case report describes the cytologic features of a granular cell tumor seen in a fine needle aspirate obtained from a 27-year-old woman with a gradually enlarging thyroid nodule. The aspirate showed single as well as syncytial clusters of cells with abundant granular cytoplasm. The differential diagnosis in this case included granular cell tumor, Hurthle cell lesion/neoplasm, and a histiocytic reparative process. Immunohistochemical studies, including S-100 protein and CD68, performed on a cell block preparation were helpful in supporting the diagnosis. PMID:22508678

  6. Wet vs. Dry Oxidation Processes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this YouTube video, created by Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME), viewers can watch an animation on the the difference between wet and dry thermal oxidation processes. This animation "shows a side by side comparison of a wet oxidation process vs. a dry oxidation process. Both processes use an oxygen source to grow silicon dioxide (SiO2) on a silicon wafer heated furnace. Wet thermal oxidation uses water vapor. Dry thermal oxidation uses oxygen gas." Viewers can learn more on this topic in the Deposition Overview for MEMS Learning Module which can be found on the SCME website along with supplementary materials. 

  7. Role of defects in the onset of wall-induced granular convection

    E-print Network

    Andrea Fortini; Kai Huang

    2015-03-23

    We investigate the onset of the wall-induced convection in vertically vibrated granular matter by means of experiments and two-dimensional computer simulations. In both simulations and experiments we find that the wall-induced convection occurs inside the bouncing bed region of the parameter space in which the granular bed behaves like a bouncing ball. A good agreement between experiments and simulations is found for the peak vibration acceleration at which convection starts. By comparing the results of simulations initialised with and without defects, we find that the onset of convection occurs at lower vibration strengths in the presence of defects. Furthermore, we find that the convection of granular particles initialised in a perfect hexagonal lattice is related to the nucleation of defects and the process is described by an Arrhenius law.

  8. Wet to dry dressing changes

    MedlinePLUS

    Dressing changes; Wound care - dressing change ... Your doctor or nurse may ask you to change your dressing at home. By placing a wet ( ... nurse will tell you how often you should change your dressing at home. As the wound heals, ...

  9. SETAC-U.S. EPA WET INITIATIVES: ALL WET AND NOTHING BUT WET

    EPA Science Inventory

    To ensure that sould scientific principles and sound science are applied to the challenging issues in t he Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) process, the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Foundation for Environmental Education was awarded a cooperative agreem...

  10. Applying MDL to learn best model granularity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiong Gao; M ing Lib; Paul Vitányi

    1994-01-01

    The Minimum Description Length (MDL) principle is solidly based on a provably ideal method of inference using Kolmogorov complexity. We test how the theory behaves in practice on a general problem in model selection: that of learning the best model granularity. The performance of a model depends critically on the granularity, for example the choice of precision of the parameters.

  11. KNOWLEDGE GRANULARITY AND REPRESENTATION OF KNOWLEDGE: TOWARDS

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    KNOWLEDGE GRANULARITY AND REPRESENTATION OF KNOWLEDGE: TOWARDS KNOWLEDGE GRID Maria A. Mach.owoc}@ue.wroc.pl ABSTRACT. Knowledge granularity, usually identified with the size of knowledge granules, seems to be real challenge for knowledge consumers as well as for knowledge creators. In this paper, relationships between

  12. Ring Kinetic Theory for Granular Response Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufty, James

    2010-03-01

    The response functions for an isolated (cooling or thermostated) granular gas are described by kinetic theory [1]. The linear kinetic equation is obtained by a systematic expansion of the dimensionless BBGKY hierarchy scaled relative to the mean free time and mean free path [2]. At first order beyond Boltzmann the effects of ring (repeated) collisions and associated mode coupling are included. Qualitative differences from the Boltzmann approximation are described. [4pt] [1] ``Kinetic Theory of Response Functions for the Hard Sphere Granular Fluid,'' A. Baskaran, J. Dufty, and J. Brey, J. Stat. Mech. 12, p12002 (2007); ``Linear Response for Granular Fluids,'' J. Dufty, in Frontiers in Nonequilibrium Physics, Prog. of Theor. Phys. Supp., (to appear). [0pt] [2] ``Kinetic Theory and Hydrodynamics for a Low Density Granular Gas,'' J. Dufty in Challenges in Granular Physics, T. Halsey and A. Mehta, eds. (World Scientific, N. J. 2002).

  13. Dynamics of Sheared Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondic, Lou; Utter, Brian; Behringer, Robert P.

    2002-01-01

    This work focuses on the properties of sheared granular materials near the jamming transition. The project currently involves two aspects. The first of these is an experiment that is a prototype for a planned ISS (International Space Station) flight. The second is discrete element simulations (DES) that can give insight into the behavior one might expect in a reduced-g environment. The experimental arrangement consists of an annular channel that contains the granular material. One surface, say the upper surface, rotates so as to shear the material contained in the annulus. The lower surface controls the mean density/mean stress on the sample through an actuator or other control system. A novel feature under development is the ability to 'thermalize' the layer, i.e. create a larger amount of random motion in the material, by using the actuating system to provide vibrations as well control the mean volume of the annulus. The stress states of the system are determined by transducers on the non-rotating wall. These measure both shear and normal components of the stress on different size scales. Here, the idea is to characterize the system as the density varies through values spanning dense almost solid to relatively mobile granular states. This transition regime encompasses the regime usually thought of as the glass transition, and/or the jamming transition. Motivation for this experiment springs from ideas of a granular glass transition, a related jamming transition, and from recent experiments. In particular, we note recent experiments carried out by our group to characterize this type of transition and also to demonstrate/ characterize fluctuations in slowly sheared systems. These experiments give key insights into what one might expect in near-zero g. In particular, they show that the compressibility of granular systems diverges at a transition or critical point. It is this divergence, coupled to gravity, that makes it extremely difficult if not impossible to characterize the transition region in an earth-bound experiment. In the DE modeling, we analyze dynamics of a sheared granular system in Couette geometry in two (2D) and three (3D) space dimensions. Here, the idea is to both better understand what we might encounter in a reduced-g environment, and at a deeper level to deduce the physics of sheared systems in a density regime that has not been addressed by past experiments or simulations. One aspect of the simulations addresses sheared 2D system in zero-g environment. For low volume fractions, the expected dynamics of this type of system is relatively well understood. However, as the volume fraction is increased, the system undergoes a phase transition, as explained above. The DES concentrate on the evolution of the system as the solid volume fraction is slowly increased, and in particular on the behavior of very dense systems. For these configurations, the simulations show that polydispersity of the sheared particles is a crucial factor that determines the system response. Figures 1 and 2 below, that present the total force on each grain, show that even relatively small (10 %) nonuniformity of the size of the grains (expected in typical experiments) may lead to significant modifications of the system properties, such as velocity profiles, temperature, force propagation, and formation shear bands. The simulations are extended in a few other directions, in order to provide additional insight to the experimental system analyzed above. In one direction, both gravity, and driving due to vibrations are included. These simulations allow for predictions on the driving regime that is required in the experiments in order to analyze the jamming transition. Furthermore, direct comparison of experiments and DES will allow for verification of the modeling assumptions. We have also extended our modeling efforts to 3D. The (preliminary) results of these simulations of an annular system in zero-g environment will conclude the presentation.

  14. Granular collapse in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmforth, N. J.; Kerswell, R. R.

    2005-08-01

    An experimental investigation is conducted into the collapse of granular columns inside rectangular channels. The final shape is documented for slumps inside relatively wide channels, and for collapses inside much narrower slots. In both cases, the collapse is initiated by withdrawing a swinging gate or sliding door, and the flow remains fairly two-dimensional. Four different granular media are used; the properties of the materials vary significantly, notably in their angles of friction for basal sliding and internal deformation. If H is the initial height of the column, h_{infty} the maximum final height of the column and a the initial aspect ratio, then the data suggest that H/h_{infty} {˜} a(0.6) in wide channels and H/h_{infty} {˜} a(0.5) for narrow slots. For the runout, we find that (l_{infty} {-} L)/L {˜} a({0.9±) 0.1} for wide channels, and (l_{infty} {-} L)/L {˜} a(0.65±0.05) or l_infty/L {˜} a(0.55±0.05) for narrow slots, where l_{infty} is the maximum runout of the material and L the initial length of the column along the channel (a {:=} H/L). In all cases, the numerical constant of proportionality in these scaling relations shows clear material dependence. In wide slots, there is no obvious universal scaling behaviour of the final profile, but such a behaviour is evident in narrow slots. The experimental results are compared with theoretical results based on a shallow granular-flow model. The qualitative behaviour of the slump in the wide slot is reproduced by the theoretical model. However, there is qualitative disagreement between theory and the experiments in the narrow slot because of the occurrence of secondary surface avalanching.

  15. Theoretical model of granular compaction

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Naim, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Knight, J.B. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics; Nowak, E.R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). James Franck Inst.; Jaeger, H.M.; Nagel, S.R. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). James Franck Inst.

    1997-11-01

    Experimental studies show that the density of a vibrated granular material evolves from a low density initial state into a higher density final steady state. The relaxation towards the final density follows an inverse logarithmic law. As the system approaches its final state, a growing number of beads have to be rearranged to enable a local density increase. A free volume argument shows that this number grows as N = {rho}/(1 {minus} {rho}). The time scale associated with such events increases exponentially e{sup {minus}N}, and as a result a logarithmically slow approach to the final state is found {rho} {infinity} {minus}{rho}(t) {approx_equal} 1/lnt.

  16. WHERE THE GRANULAR FLOWS BEND

    SciTech Connect

    Khomenko, E.; Martinez Pillet, V.; Bonet, J. A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, 38205 C/VIa Lactea, s/n, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Solanki, S. K.; Gandorfer, A.; Barthol, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Del Toro Iniesta, J. C. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Apdo. de Correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Domingo, V. [Grupo de AstronomIa y Ciencias del Espacio, Universidad de Valencia, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Schmidt, W. [Kiepenheuer-Institut fuer Sonnenphysik, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Knoelker, M., E-mail: khomenko@iac.e [High Altitude Observatory (NCAR), Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)

    2010-11-10

    Based on IMaX/SUNRISE data, we report on a previously undetected phenomenon in solar granulation. We show that in a very narrow region separating granules and intergranular lanes, the spectral line width of the Fe I 5250.2 A line becomes extremely small. We offer an explanation of this observation with the help of magneto-convection simulations. These regions with extremely small line widths correspond to the places where the granular flows bend from upflow in granules to downflow in intergranular lanes. We show that the resolution and image stability achieved by IMaX/SUNRISE are important requisites to detect this interesting phenomenon.

  17. A RESISTIVE FORCE MODEL FOR LEGGED LOCOMOTION ON GRANULAR MEDIA*

    E-print Network

    Goodisman, Michael

    the net forces on both an L-leg and a reversed L-leg rotated through granular media with better accuracy1 A RESISTIVE FORCE MODEL FOR LEGGED LOCOMOTION ON GRANULAR MEDIA* CHEN LI, TINGNAN ZHANG on granular surfaces like sand and gravel. Understanding the mechanics of legged locomotion on granular media

  18. BOOK REVIEW: Kinetic Theory of Granular Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trizac, Emmanuel

    2005-11-01

    Granular gases are composed of macroscopic bodies kept in motion by an external energy source such as a violent shaking. The behaviour of such systems is quantitatively different from that of ordinary molecular gases: due to the size of the constituents, external fields have a stronger effect on the dynamics and, more importantly, the kinetic energy of the gas is no longer a conserved quantity. The key role of the inelasticity of collisions has been correctly appreciated for about fifteen years, and the ensuing consequences in terms of phase behaviour or transport properties studied in an increasing and now vast body of literature. The purpose of this book is to help the newcomer to the field in acquiring the essential theoretical tools together with some numerical techniques. As emphasized by the authors—who were among the pioneers in the domain— the content could be covered in a one semester course for advanced undergraduates, or it could be incorporated in a more general course dealing with the statistical mechanics of dissipative systems. The book is self-contained, clear, and avoids mathematical complications. In order to elucidate the main physical ideas, heuristic points of views are sometimes preferred to a more rigorous route that would lead to a longer discussion. The 28 chapters are short; they offer exercises and worked examples, solved at the end of the book. Each part is supplemented with a relevant foreword and a useful summary including take-home messages. The editorial work is of good quality, with very few typographical errors. In spite of the title, kinetic theory stricto sensu is not the crux of the matter covered. The authors discuss the consequences of the molecular chaos assumption both at the individual particle level and in terms of collective behaviour. The first part of the book addresses the mechanics of grain collisions. It is emphasized that considering the coefficient of restitution ? —a central quantity governing the inelasticity of inter-grain encounters—as velocity independent is inconsistent with the mechanical point of view. An asymptotic expression for the impact velocity dependence of ? is therefore derived for visco-elastic spheres. The important inelastic Boltzmann equation is introduced in part II and the associated velocity distribution characterized for a force-free medium (so-called free cooling regime). Transport processes can then be analyzed in part III at the single particle level, and part IV from a more macroscopic viewpoint. The corresponding Chapman Enskog-like hydrodynamic approach is worked out in detail, in a clear fashion. Finally, the tendency of granular gases to develop instabilities is illustrated in part V where the hydrodynamic picture plays a pivotal role. This book clearly sets the stage. For the sake of simplicity, the authors have discarded some subtle points, such as the open questions underlying the hydrodynamic description (why include the temperature among the hydrodynamic modes, and what about the separation of space and time scales between kinetic and hydrodynamic excitations?). Such omissions are understandable. To a certain extent however, the scope of the book is centered on previous work by the authors, and I have a few regrets. Special emphasis is put on the (variable ?) visco-elastic model, which enhances the technical difficulty of the presentation. On the other hand, the important physical effects including scaling laws, hydrodynamic behaviour and structure formation, can be understood in two steps, from the results derived within the much simpler constant ? model, allowing subsequently \\varepsilon to depend on the granular temperature. The authors justify their choice with the inconsistency of the constant ? route. The improvements brought by the visco-elastic model remain to be assessed, since the rotational degrees of freedom, discarded in the book, play an important role and require due consideration of both tangential and normal restitution coefficients, that are again velocity dependent. This seems to be the price of a cons

  19. Surface structure determines dynamic wetting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiayu; Do-Quang, Minh; Cannon, James J.; Yue, Feng; Suzuki, Yuji; Amberg, Gustav; Shiomi, Junichiro

    2015-01-01

    Liquid wetting of a surface is omnipresent in nature and the advance of micro-fabrication and assembly techniques in recent years offers increasing ability to control this phenomenon. Here, we identify how surface roughness influences the initial dynamic spreading of a partially wetting droplet by studying the spreading on a solid substrate patterned with microstructures just a few micrometers in size. We reveal that the roughness influence can be quantified in terms of a line friction coefficient for the energy dissipation rate at the contact line, and that this can be described in a simple formula in terms of the geometrical parameters of the roughness and the line-friction coefficient of the planar surface. We further identify a criterion to predict if the spreading will be controlled by this surface roughness or by liquid inertia. Our results point to the possibility of selectively controlling the wetting behavior by engineering the surface structure. PMID:25683872

  20. Centrifuge modelling of granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Wu, Wei

    2015-04-01

    A common characteristic of mass flows like debris flows, rock avalanches and mudflows is that gravity is their main driving force. Gravity defines the intensity and duration of the main interactions between particles and their surrounding media (particle-particle, particle-fluid, fluid-fluid). At the same time, gravity delimits the occurrence of phase separation, inverse segregation, and mass consolidation, among other phenomena. Therefore, in the understanding of the flow physics it is important to account for the scaling of gravity in scaled models. In this research, a centrifuge model is developed to model free surface granular flows down an incline at controlled gravity conditions. Gravity is controlled by the action of an induced inertial acceleration field resulting from the rotation of the model in a geotechnical centrifuge. The characteristics of the induced inertial acceleration field during flow are discussed and validated via experimental data. Flow heights, velocity fields, basal pressure and impact forces are measured for a range of channel inclinations and gravity conditions. Preliminary results enlighten the flow characteristics at variable gravity conditions and open a discussion on the simulation of large scale processes at a laboratory scale. Further analysis on the flow physics brings valuable information for the validation of granular flows rheology.

  1. Compaction Waves in Granular HMX

    SciTech Connect

    E. Kober; R. Menikoff

    1999-01-01

    Piston driven compaction waves in granular HMX are simulated with a two-dimensional continuum mechanics code in which individual grains are resolved. The constitutive properties of the grains are modeled with a hydrostatic pressure and a simple elastic-plastic model for the shear stress. Parameters are chosen to correspond to inert HMX. For a tightly packed random grain distribution (with initial porosity of 19%) we varied the piston velocity to obtain weak partly compacted waves and stronger fully compacted waves. The average stress and wave speed are compatible with the porous Hugoniot locus for uni- axial strain. However, the heterogeneities give rise to stress concentrations, which lead to localized plastic flow. For weak waves, plastic deformation is the dominant dissipative mechanism and leads to dispersed waves that spread out in time. In addition to dispersion, the granular heterogeneities give rise to subgrain spatial variation in the thermodynamic variables. The peaks in the temperature fluctuations, known as hot spots, are in the range such that they are the critical factor for initiation sensitivity.

  2. Granular filtration in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, J.S.; Yue, P.C.; Halow, J.S.

    1995-12-01

    Successful development of advanced coal-fired power conversion systems often require reliable and efficient cleanup devices which can remove particulate and gaseous pollutants from high-temperature high-pressure gas streams. A novel filtration concept for particulate cleanup has been developed at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the U.S. Department of Energy. The filtration system consists of a fine metal screen filter immersed in a fluidized bed of granular material. As the gas stream passes through the fluidized bed, a layer of the bed granular material is entrained and deposited at the screen surface. This material provides a natural granular filter to separate fine particles from the gas stream passing through the bed. Since the filtering media is the granular material supplied by the fluidized bed, the filter is not subjected to blinding like candle filters. Because only the inflowing gas, not fine particle cohesive forces, maintains the granular layer at the screen surface, once the thickness and permeability of the granular layer is stabilized, it remains unchanged as long as the in-flowing gas flow rate remains constant. The weight of the particles and the turbulent nature of the fluidized bed limits the thickness of the granular layer on the filter leading to a self-cleaning attribute of the filter. This paper presents work since then on a continuous filtration system. The continuous filtration testing system consisted of a filter, a two-dimensional fluidized-bed, a continuous powder feeder, a laser-based in-line particle counting, sizing, and velocimeter (PCSV), and a continuous solids feeding/bed material withdrawal system. The two-dimensional, transparent fluidized-bed allowed clear observation of the general fluidized state of the granular material and the conditions under which fines are captured by the granular layer.

  3. Cohesion, granular solids, granular liquids, and their connection to small near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, P.; Scheeres, D.

    2014-07-01

    During the last 15 years or so, the Planetary Sciences community has been using Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulation codes to study small near-Earth objects (NEOs). In general, these codes treat gravitational aggregates as conglomerates of spherical particles; a good approximation given that many asteroids are self-gravitating granular media. Unfortunately, the degree of sophistication of these codes, and our own understanding, has not been high enough as to appropriately represent realistic physical properties of granular matter. In particular, angles of friction (?) and cohesive strength (?_c) of the aggregates were rarely taken in consideration and this could have led to unrealistic dynamics, and therefore, unrealistic conclusions about the dynamical evolution of small NEOs. In our research, we explore the failure mechanics of spherical (r=71 m) and ellipsoidal (r_1=92 m) self-gravitating aggregates with different angles of friction and values for their cohesive strength, in order to better understand the geophysics of rubble-pile asteroids. In particular we focused on the deformation and different disruption modes provoked by an always increasing angular velocity (spin rate). Scaling arguments allow us to regard simulations with the same aggregate size and different ?_c as equivalent to simulations of aggregates of different size and the same ?_c. We use a computational code that implements a Soft-Sphere DEM. The aggregates are composed by 3,000 spherical solid spheres (7--10 m) with 6 degrees of freedom. The code calculates normal, as well as, frictional (tangential) contact forces by means of soft potentials and the aggregate as a whole mimics the effect of non- spherical particles through the implementation of rolling friction. Cohesive forces, and a cohesive stress, are calculated as the net effect of the sum of the van der Waals forces between the smaller regolith, sand and dust (powder) that are present in real asteroids [1]. These finer materials form a matrix of sorts that holds the bigger boulders together. The aggregates were slowly spun up to disruption controlling for angle of friction, cohesion and global shape. Systems with no frictional forces had ?? 12° and are in effect granular liquids in the best case scenario. Systems with only surface-surface friction had ?? 25°, which is typical in laboratory experiments with spherical glass beads. Systems that also implemented rolling friction had ?? 35°, which is typical of non-cohesive granular media on the Earth. How much each aggregate deformed before disruption was directly related to the angle of friction. The greater ? allowed for much less deformation before disruption. Cohesive forces on the other hand controlled the mode of disruption and maximum spin rate and showed that the change from shedding to fission is continuous and therefore, they should not be seen as different disruption processes. The figure shows the deformation and disruption of three initially spherical aggregates (left) and three initially ellipsoidal aggregates (right) with increasing cohesive strength from left to right (?? 35°). Through scaling arguments we could also see these aggregates as having the exact same ?_c=25 Pa but different sizes. If we do that, the aggregates measure about 1.6 km, 5 km, and 22 km, and the particles, or groups of particles being detached now have similar sizes. This has now become a problem of resolution, i.e., the number and size of particles used in a simulation. These results start to raise fundamental questions regarding the difference between shedding and fission. Is it shedding when it is dust grain by dust grain ejection from the main body or when it is in groups of 10, 100, or 100,000 dust particles? Is it fission when a 1-m piece of the asteroid detaches or when it splits in the middle? Which values of ? and ?_c are realistic? These and other questions will be explored.

  4. A new mechanism for granular segregation

    E-print Network

    D. C. Rapaport

    2001-09-02

    A novel process is described that produces horizontal size segregation in a vertically vibrated layer of granular material. The behavior is a consequence of two distinct phenomena that are unique to excited granular media: vibration which causes the larger particles to rise to the top of the layer, and a vibrating base with a sawtooth surface profile which can produce stratified flows in opposite directions at different heights within the layer. The result of combining these effects is that large and small particles are horizontally driven in opposite directions. The observations reported here are based on computer simulations of granular models in two and three dimensions.

  5. Continuum description of avalanches in granular media.

    SciTech Connect

    Aranson, I. S.; Tsimring, L. S.

    2000-12-05

    A continuum theory of partially fluidized granular flows is proposed. The theory is based on a combination of the mass and momentum conservation equations with the order parameter equation which describes the transition between flowing and static components of the granular system. We apply this model to the dynamics of avalanches in chutes. The theory provides a quantitative description of recent observations of granular flows on rough inclined planes (Daerr and Douady 1999): layer bistability, and the transition from triangular avalanches propagating downhill at small inclination angles to balloon-shaped avalanches also propagating uphill for larger angles.

  6. PPCPs removal by aerobic granular sludge membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xia; Chen, Zhong-Lin; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Shen, Ji-Min; Xu, Hao

    2014-12-01

    An aerobic granular sludge membrane bioreactor (GMBR) was applied to the treatment of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) wastewater. The influence of granular sludge on five antibiotic and antiphlogistic PPCPs wastewater and the removal effect of methyl alcohol and conventional organic matter were investigated while constantly reducing the density of inflow organic matter. The results showed that the sludge granulation process in the system was rapid but unstable, and that the system exhibits a dissolution-reunion dynamic equilibrium. The reactor demonstrated varying removal effects of PPCPs on different objects. The use of a GMBR was more effective for the removal of prednisolone, naproxen, and ibuprofen; the first two drugs were lower the average removal rate of which reached 98.46 and 84.02 %, respectively; whereas the average removal rate of ibuprofen was 63.32 %. By contrast, the GMBR has an insignificant degradation effect on antibiotics such as amoxicillin, indicating that such antibiotic medicine is not easily degraded by microorganisms, which plays different roles in system operation. Because of the different chemical structures and characteristics of drugs that result in various degradation behavior. During the GMBR granulation process, the value of mixed liquor volatility suspended solids (MLVSS) gradually increases from 1.5 to 4.1 g/L during the GMBR granulation process, and the removal rate of CODCr reaches up to 87.98 %. After reducing the density of organic matter is reduced, the removal rates of NH3-N and TP both reach more than 90 %, respectively. Moreover, the proposed technique is considerably effective in the removal of methanol. PMID:25038925

  7. Solidification of underwater wet welds

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, A.M.; Medeiros, R.C. de; Liu, S. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Center for Welding and Joining Research

    1995-12-31

    It is well known that the shape of a weld pool can influence the microstructure and segregation pattern of the final solidified weld metal. Mechanical properties and susceptibility to defects are consequently affected by the solidification mode of the weld. In this work the solidification behavior of weld beads deposited in air and underwater wet welding using rutile electrodes were compared. The welds were deposited by gravity feed, on low carbon, manganese steel plates using similar welding conditions. Macroscopic observation of the weld craters showed that welds deposited in air presented an elliptical weld pool. The underwater wet welds, on the other hand, solidified with a tear drop shape. Although the welds differed in shape, their lengths were approximately the same. Microscopic examinations carried out on transverse, normal and longitudinal sections revealed a coarser columnar grain structure in the underwater welds. These results suggest that the tear-drop shaped pool induced solidification in a preferred orientation with segregation more likely in welds deposited under wet conditions. This change in weld pool geometry can be explained by the surface heat loss conditions that occur in a wet weld: slower when covered by the steam bubble and faster in the region in contact with water behind the pool.

  8. Point release wet snow avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero, C. Vera; Bühler, Y.; Bartelt, P.

    2015-04-01

    Wet snow avalanches can initiate from large fracture slabs or small point releases. Point release wet snow avalanches can reach dangerous proportions when they (1) initiate on steep and long avalanche paths and (2) entrain warm moist snow. In this paper we investigate the dynamics of point release wet snow avalanches by applying a numerical model to simulate documented case studies on high altitude slopes in the Chilean Andes (33° S). The model predicts avalanche flow temperature as well as meltwater production, given the thermal initial conditions of the release mass and snowcover entrainment. As the release mass is small, avalanche velocity and runout are primarily controlled by snowcover temperature and moisture content. We demonstrate how the interaction between terrain and entrainment processes influence the production of meltwater and therefore lubrication processes leading to longer runout. This information is useful to avalanche forecasters. An understanding of wet snow avalanche dynamics is important to study how climate change scenarios will influence land usage in mountain regions in the near future.

  9. Wetting of textured hydrophobic surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Hancock; John Bush

    2008-01-01

    Water repellency in nature and technology typically results from textured hydrophobic surfaces. The roughness elements of such surfaces typically have edges that pin the contact lines of advancing droplets. We present the results of a numerical investigation that relates the contact angle hysteresis and adhesive force to the geometrical, wetting, and elastic properties of the substrate. A number of generic

  10. Capillary bonding of wet surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel C. Colbeck

    1996-01-01

    Adhesion of wet surfaces to one another through a water film is common and important for a variety of problems. The nature of this adhesion is explored through a simple model of a grooved polyethylene surface adhering to ice. The effects of contact angle and geometry are included. A set of experiments was performed to show how contact area and

  11. CEILCOTE IONIZING WET SCRUBBER EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of a Ceilcote ionizing wet scrubber installed on a refractory brick kiln. Tests involved particulate mass emission, particle size distribution, and opacity. Overall efficiency was 93% with an average outlet opacity determined with a heate...

  12. Model studies on granular activated carbon adsorption in fixed bed filtration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Jusoh; M. J. M. M. Noor; S. B. Piow

    The removal of natural organic matter (NOM) using a continuous flow fixed bed granular activated carbon (GAC) column was studied and the results were then fitted with the Adams-Bohart, Bed-Depth- Service-Time and Clarks models. The GAC, KI-6070 and KI-8085 used in the study had external surface areas of 277 m2\\/g and 547 m2\\/g, respectively. Adsorption of NOM by the GAC

  13. Granular activated algae for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Tiron, O; Bumbac, C; Patroescu, I V; Badescu, V R; Postolache, C

    2015-01-01

    The study used activated algae granules for low-strength wastewater treatment in sequential batch mode. Each treatment cycle was conducted within 24 h in a bioreactor exposed to 235 ?mol/m(2)/s light intensity. Wastewater treatment was performed mostly in aerobic conditions, oxygen being provided by microalgae. High removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was achieved (86-98%) in the first hours of the reaction phase, during which the indicator's removal rate was 17.4 ± 3.9 mg O2/g h; NH4(+) was removed during organic matter degradation processes with a rate of 1.8 ± 0.6 mg/g h. After almost complete COD removal, the NH4(+) remaining in the liquor was removed through nitrification processes promoted by the increase of the liquor's oxygen saturation (O2%), the transformation rate of NH4(+) into NO3(-) increasing from 0.14 ± 0.05 to 1.5 ± 0.4 mg NH4(+)/g h, along with an O2% increase. A wide removal efficiency was achieved in the case of PO4(3-) (11-85%), with the indicator's removal rate being 1.3 ± 0.7 mg/g h. In the provided optimum conditions, the occurrence of the denitrifying activity was also noticed. A large pH variation was registered (5-8.5) during treatment cycles. The granular activated algae system proved to be a promising alternative for wastewater treatment as it also sustains cost-efficient microalgae harvesting, with microalgae recovery efficiency ranging between 99.85 and 99.99% after granules settling with a velocity of 19 ± 3.6 m/h. PMID:25812091

  14. Aerofractures in Confined Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksen, Fredrik K.; Turkaya, Semih; Toussaint, Renaud; Måløy, Knut J.; Flekkøy, Eirik G.

    2015-04-01

    We will present the optical analysis of experimental aerofractures in confined granular media. The study of this generic process may have applications in industries involving hydraulic fracturing of tight rocks, safe construction of dams, tunnels and mines, and in earth science where phenomena such as mud volcanoes and sand injectites are results of subsurface sediment displacements driven by fluid overpressure. It is also interesting to increase the understanding the flow instability itself, and how the fluid flow impacts the solid surrounding fractures and in the rest of the sample. Such processes where previously studied numerically [Niebling 2012a, Niebling 2012b] or in circular geometries. We will here explore experimentally linear geometries. We study the fracturing patterns that form when air flows into a dense, non-cohesive porous medium confined in a Hele-Shaw cell - i.e. into a packing of dry 80 micron beads placed between two glass plates separated by ~1mm. The cell is rectangular and fitted with a semi-permeable boundary to the atmosphere - blocking beads but not air - on one short edge, while the other three edges are impermeable. The porous medium is packed inside the cell between the semi-permeable boundary and an empty volume at the sealed side where the air pressure can be set and kept at a constant overpressure (1-2bar). Thus, for the air trapped inside the cell to release the overpressure it has to move through the solid. At high enough overpressures the air flow deforms the solid and increase permeability in some regions along the air-solid interface, which results in unstable flow and aerofracturing. Aerofractures are thought to be an analogue to hydrofractures, and an advantage of performing aerofracturing experiments in a Hele-Shaw cell is that the fracturing process can easily be observed in the lab. Our experiments are recorded with a high speed camera with a framerate of 1000 frames per second. In the analysis, by using various image processing techniques, we segment out and study the aerofractures over time looking at growth dynamics, fractal dimension and characteristics such as average finger thickness as function of depth into the solid. Also, by performing image correlation on two subsequent frames we estimate displacement fields and investigate the surrounding stress and strain fields in the solid around the fractures. Several experiments are performed with various overpressures and packing densities, and we compare the results. In a directly related project, acoustic emissions are recorded on a cell plate during experiments, and one of our goals is to correlate acoustic events and observations. We will also compare the dependence of the patterns on the saturation of the initial deformable porous material, by comparing experiments performed by air injection in air saturated granular media, to some in liquid saturated granular media. References: MJ Niebling, R Toussaint, EG Flekkøy, KJ Måløy, 2012, Dynamic aerofracture of dense granular packings, 2012, Physical Review E 86 (6), 061315 M Niebling, R Toussaint, EG Flekkøy, KJ Måløy, 2012, Numerical studies of aerofractures in porous media, Revista Cubana de Fisica 29 (1E), pp. 1E66-1E70

  15. Capillary fracturing in granular media.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, Ran; Szulczewski, Michael L; Juanes, Ruben

    2012-06-29

    We study the displacement of immiscible fluids in deformable, noncohesive granular media. Experimentally, we inject air into a thin bed of water-saturated glass beads and observe the invasion morphology. The control parameters are the injection rate, the bead size, and the confining stress. We identify three invasion regimes: capillary fingering, viscous fingering, and "capillary fracturing," where capillary forces overcome frictional resistance and induce the opening of conduits. We derive two dimensionless numbers that govern the transition among the different regimes: a modified capillary number and a fracturing number. The experiments and analysis predict the emergence of fracturing in fine-grained media under low confining stress, a phenomenon that likely plays a fundamental role in many natural processes such as primary oil migration, methane venting from lake sediments, and the formation of desiccation cracks. PMID:23004989

  16. Capillary Fracturing in Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtzman, Ran; Szulczewski, Michael L.; Juanes, Ruben

    2012-06-01

    We study the displacement of immiscible fluids in deformable, noncohesive granular media. Experimentally, we inject air into a thin bed of water-saturated glass beads and observe the invasion morphology. The control parameters are the injection rate, the bead size, and the confining stress. We identify three invasion regimes: capillary fingering, viscous fingering, and “capillary fracturing,” where capillary forces overcome frictional resistance and induce the opening of conduits. We derive two dimensionless numbers that govern the transition among the different regimes: a modified capillary number and a fracturing number. The experiments and analysis predict the emergence of fracturing in fine-grained media under low confining stress, a phenomenon that likely plays a fundamental role in many natural processes such as primary oil migration, methane venting from lake sediments, and the formation of desiccation cracks.

  17. Slow relaxation in granular compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Knight, J. B.; Nowak, E. R.; Jaeger, H. M.; Nagel, S. R.

    1998-11-01

    Experimental studies show that the density of a vibrated granular material evolves from a low density initial state into a higher density final steady state. The relaxation towards the final density follows an inverse logarithmic law. As the system approaches its final state, a growing number of beads have to be rearranged to enable a local density increase. A free volume argument shows that this number grows as N = {?}/{(1-?)}. The time scale associated with such events increases exponentially ? e N, and as a result a logarithmically slow approach to the final state is found ? ? - ?(t) ? {1}/{lnt }. Furthermore, a one-dimensional toy model that captures this relaxation dynamics as well as the observed density fluctuations is discussed.

  18. Strain localisation in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desrues, Jacques; Andò, Edward

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses strain localisation in granular media by presenting experimental, full-field analysis of mechanical tests on sand, both at a continuum level, as well as at the grain scale. At the continuum level, the development of structures of localised strain can be studied. Even at this scale, the characteristic size of the phenomena observed is in the order of a few grains. In the second part of this paper, therefore, the development of shear bands within specimen of different sands is studied at the level of the individual grains, measuring grains kinematics with x-ray tomography. The link between grain angularity and grain rotation within shear bands is shown, allowing a grain-scale explanation of the difference in macroscopic residual stresses for materials with different grain shapes. Finally, rarely described precursors of localisation, emerging well before the stress peak are observed and commented.

  19. Noise Activated Granular Dynamics Fabio Cecconi,1

    E-print Network

    Cecconi, Fabio

    Noise Activated Granular Dynamics Fabio Cecconi,1 Andrea Puglisi,1 Umberto Marini Bettolo Marconi,2 temperatures. We show that the hopping over the potential barrier occurs following the Arrhenius rate, where

  20. Stability of Granular Materials under Vertical Vibrations

    E-print Network

    Deng, Rensheng

    The influence of periodic vibrations on the granular flow of materials is of great interests to scientists and engineers due to both theoretical and practical reasons. In this paper, the stability of a vertically vibrated ...

  1. Granularity in Software Product Lines Christian Kstner

    E-print Network

    Apel, Sven

    Granularity in Software Product Lines Christian Kästner School of Computer Science University]: Software Engineering--Programming Environments; D.3.3 [Soft- ware]: Software Engineering--Language Constructs and Features General Terms: Design, Languages Keywords: Software product lines, virtual separation

  2. Constitutive relations for cohesionless frictional granular materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sia Nemat-Nasser; Juhua Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Based on the micro-mechanical model recently developed by Nemat-Nasser S. (J. Mech. Phys. Solids 48 (2000) 1541), a three-dimensional continuum mechanics model is presented for the deformation of granular materials which carry the applied load through frictional contacts. The model incorporates the anisotropy (or fabric) which develops as a frictional granular mass is deformed in shear, and includes the coupling

  3. Interaction effects in magnetic granular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobel, M.; Nunes, W. C.; Brandl, A. L.; Vargas, J. M.; Socolovsky, L. M.; Zanchet, D.

    2004-12-01

    Interactions in magnetic granular systems are difficult to address in real systems. Several experimental results have been obtained along the last 50 years, but few theoretical approaches have been developed to account for these extremely complex systems. A brief review on the role of interactions on the magnetic properties of granular magnetic systems is given, with a focus on a novel approach known as interacting superparamagnetic model. Two different systems are tested, and the results are discussed in terms of such phenomenological model.

  4. Spatiotemporal Structure of a Coupled Continuum-Granular Earthquake Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecke, R. E.; Geller, D.; Backhaus, S.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquake faults are complicated and hard to access experimentally. To complement field studies, laboratory and numerical models that focus on the universal features of natural earthquakes are extremely valuable. We have developed a laboratory experiment that includes sheared elastic plates separated by a narrow gap filled with a quasi-two-dimensional granular material. Local measurement of strain displacements of the plates at over 400 spatial points located adjacent to the gap allows direct determination of the moments and their spatial and temporal distributions. We show that events consist of laterally coherent, larger motions that we label as "brittle" events and spatially distributed, smaller "non-brittle" events. The non-brittle events have a probability distribution of event moment consistent with an M-3/2 power law scaling and a Poisson distributed recurrence time distribution. Brittle events have a broad, log-normal moment distribution and a mean repetition time. As the applied normal force increases, there are fractionally more (less) brittle (non-brittle) events, and the brittle moment distribution broadens. The magnitude of the slip motion of the plates is well correlated with the RMS displacements of the granular matter. Our results are consistent with mean field descriptions of statistical models of earthquakes and avalanches.

  5. Granular gas of ellipsoids: analytical collision detection implemented on GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio-Largo, S. M.; Lind, P. G.; Maza, D.; Hidalgo, R. C.

    2015-05-01

    We present a hybrid GPU-CPU implementation of an accurate discrete element model for a system of ellipsoids. The ellipsoids have three translational degrees of freedom, their rotational motion being described through quaternions and the contact interaction between two ellipsoids is described by a force which accounts for the elastic and dissipative interactions. Further we combine the exact derivation of contact points between ellipsoids (Wang et al. in Computing 72(1-2):235-246, 2004) with the advantages of the GPU-NVIDIA parallelization strategy (Owens et al. in Comput Graph Forum 26:80-113, 2007). This novelty makes the analytical algorithm computationally feasible when dealing with several thousands of particles. As a benchmark, we simulate a granular gas of frictionless ellipsoids identifying a classical homogeneous cooling state for ellipsoids. For low dissipative systems, the behavior of the granular temperature indicates that the cooling dynamics is governed by the elongation of the ellipsoids and the restitution coefficient. Our outcomes comply with the statistical mechanical laws and the results are in agreement with previous findings for hard ellipsoids (Bereolos et al. in J Chem Phys 99:6087, 1993; Villemot and Talbot in Granul Matter 14:91-97, 2012). Additionally, new insight is provided namely suggesting that the mean field description of the cooling dynamics of elongated particles is conditioned by the particle shape and the degree of energy equipartition.

  6. Thermodynamics and kinetic theory of granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, Gilberto M.

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work is two-fold, first a kinetic theory is developed to determine the entropy balance equation for granular gases and second a thermodynamic theory of granular materials is established within the framework of continuum thermodynamics. Unlike to the entropy inequality of a simple fluid, the one obtained from the Boltzmann equation for a granular gas has a term which can be identified as the entropy density rate. For processes closed to equilibrium the entropy density, its flux, the entropy density and production rates are obtained from a non-equilibrium distribution function. A spatially homogeneous problem is also analyzed and it is shown that the entropy decay of a granular gas is associated with its temperature decay. A thermodynamic theory of granular materials is developed where the constitutive laws are restricted by the principle of material frame indifference and by the entropy principle. The results that follow from the exploitation of the entropy principle with the method of Lagrange multipliers are compared with those obtained from the kinetic theory of granular gases.

  7. 7 CFR 51.897 - Wet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...United States Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions...51.897 Wet. Wet means that the grapes are wet from moisture from crushed, leaking, or decayed berries or from rain. Grapes which are moist from dew or other...

  8. 7 CFR 51.897 - Wet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...United States Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions...51.897 Wet. Wet means that the grapes are wet from moisture from crushed, leaking, or decayed berries or from rain. Grapes which are moist from dew or other...

  9. High temperature fuel cell wet seal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. G. Marianowski; T. D. Claar

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a high temperature fuel cell wet seal within high temperature fuel cell of the type consisting of oxidant and fuel gas compartments at least partially bounded by a metal separator plate having peripheral upstanding wet seal strips. The face of the wet seal strips are removed from the separator plate in contact with an electrolyte. The improvement

  10. Granular Shear Zone Formation: Acoustic Emission Measurements and Fiber-bundle Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michlmayr, Gernot; Or, Dani

    2013-04-01

    We couple the acoustic emissions method with conceptual models of granular material behavior for investigation of granular shear zone formation and to assess eminence of landslide hazard. When granular materials are mechanically loaded or sheared, they tend to produce discrete events of force network restructuring, and frictional interaction at grain contacts. Such abrupt perturbations within the granular lattice release part of the elastic energy stored in the strained material. Elastic waves generated by such events can be measured as acoustic emissions (AE) and may be used as surrogates for intermittent structural transitions associated with shear zone formation. To experimentally investigate the connection between granular shearing and acoustic signals we performed an array of strain-controlled shear-frame tests using glass beads. AE were measured with two different systems operating at two frequency ranges. High temporal resolution measurements of the shear stresses revealed the presence of small fluctuations typically associated with low-frequency (< 20 kHz) acoustic bursts. Shear stress jumps and linked acoustic signals give account of discrete events of grain network rearrangements and obey characteristic exponential frequency-size distributions. We found that statistical features of force jumps and AE events depend on mechanical boundary conditions and evolve during the straining process. Activity characteristics of high-frequency (> 30 kHz) AE events is linked to friction between grains. To interpret failure associated AE signals, we adapted a conceptual fiber-bundle model (FBM) that describes some of the salient statistical features of failure and associated energy production. Using FBMs for the abrupt mechanical response of the granular medium and an associated grain and force chain AE generation model provides us with a full description of the mechanical-acoustical granular shearing process. Highly resolved AE may serve as a diagnostic tool not only for detection of shear zone development and straining in granular matter and but also for investigating internal grain scale mechanical processes. The AE method could be integrated into monitoring networks of landslide-prone slopes and other early warning systems for abrupt mass release (snow avalanches).

  11. Granular friction in a wide range of shear rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwano, Osamu; Ando, Ryosuke; Hatano, Takahiro

    2013-06-01

    We conduct an experiment on the frictional properties of granular matter over a wide range of shear rate that covers both the quasistatic and the inertial regimes. We show that the friction coefficient exhibits negative shear-rate dependence in the quasistatic regime, whereas the shear-rate dependence is positive in the inertial regime. The crossover shear rate is determined in terms of the competition between two physical processes, namely frictional healing and anelasticity. We confirm that these results are independent of the grain shape by using angular sand and spherical beads. We also show that the behavior in the inertial regime is quantitatively the same as that in numerical simulations. As an application, we derive the exponential velocity profiles that are often observed in the quasistatic heap flow.

  12. Heterogeneous structure of granular aggregates with capillary interactions.

    PubMed

    Berhanu, Michael; Kudrolli, Arshad

    2010-08-27

    We investigate the spatial structure of cohesive granular matter with spheres floating at an air-liquid interface that form disordered close packings with pores in between. The interface is slowly lowered in a conical container to uniformly compress and study the system as a function of area fraction ?. We find that the free area distributions associated with Voronoi cells show significant exponential tails indicating greater heterogeneity compared with random distributions at low ? with a crossover towards a ? distribution as ? is increased. Further, we find significant short range order as measured by the radial correlation function and the orientational order parameter even at low and intermediate ?, which is absent when particles interact only sterically. PMID:20868197

  13. Heterogeneous structure of granular aggregates with capillary interactions

    E-print Network

    Michael Berhanu; Arshad Kudrolli

    2010-07-23

    We investigate the spatial structure of cohesive granular matter with spheres floating at an air-liquid interface that form disordered close packings with pores in between. The interface is slowly lowered in a conical container to uniformly compress and study the system as a function of area fraction $\\phi$. We find that the free area distributions associated with Voronoi cells show significant exponential tails indicating greater heterogeneity compared with random distributions at low $\\phi$ with a crossover towards a $\\Gamma$-distribution as $\\phi$ is increased. Further, we find significant short range order as measured by the radial correlation function and the orientational order parameter even at low and intermediate $\\phi$, which is absent when particles interact only sterically.

  14. Tap density equations of granular powders based on the rate process theory and the free volume concept.

    PubMed

    Hao, Tian

    2015-02-28

    The tap density of a granular powder is often linked to the flowability via the Carr index that measures how tight a powder can be packed, under an assumption that more easily packed powders usually flow poorly. Understanding how particles are packed is important for revealing why a powder flows better than others. There are two types of empirical equations that were proposed to fit the experimental data of packing fractions vs. numbers of taps in the literature: the inverse logarithmic and the stretched exponential. Using the rate process theory and the free volume concept under the assumption that particles will obey similar thermodynamic laws during the tapping process if the "granular temperature" is defined in a different way, we obtain the tap density equations, and they are reducible to the two empirical equations currently widely used in literature. Our equations could potentially fit experimental data better with an additional adjustable parameter. The tapping amplitude and frequency, the weight of the granular materials, and the environmental temperature are grouped into this parameter that weighs the pace of the packing process. The current results, in conjunction with our previous findings, may imply that both "dry" (granular) and "wet" (colloidal and polymeric) particle systems are governed by the same physical mechanisms in term of the role of the free volume and how particles behave (a rate controlled process). PMID:25589375

  15. Random Close Packing of Granular Matter Charles Radin *

    E-print Network

    to reproducible lower and upper limits on the volume fraction, called, respectively, random loose packing (0 of monodisperse spheres has volume frac­ tion #/ # 18 # 0.74.) We will not discuss random loose packing any, in the sense that higher volume fractions require the introduction of some crystal­like clusters (which

  16. Granular Matter manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Luding, Stefan

    -tests. As an example, as the basis for silo-design, the Jenike procedure to measure the so-called "incipient yield lo of Newton's equations of motion [4; 5] of all particles. Finding the connection between the micro

  17. Computing Granular Avalanches Over Complex Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmoeller, P.; Dedner, A.; Ancey, C.

    2004-12-01

    Rapid Granular mass movement phenomena such as snow avalanches, rock avalanches and debris flows are natural phenomena that occur in mountainous areas throughout the world. Whereas the physical understanding of their release is quite complex, depend of many very different parameters and hence difficult to understand, the understanding of motion and stopping is less difficult and is investigated in this work using numerical simulations. Savage and Hutter (1989) proposed a one-dimensional continuum model for the numerical simulation of dry granular mixtures. It assumes an incompressible shallow flow behaviour and that the flowing mass behaves as a Mohr-Coulomb plastic material when yielding. This was extended by Gray et al. (1998) and Iverson & Denlinger on multi dimensions and by Iverson & Denlinger (2001) and Savage & Iverson (2003) for rapid two-phase flow phenomena. In this paper we are presenting a new numerical model approach for the solution of the Iverson & Denlinger equations in the case of dry rapid granular flows, with the following characteristics: - it solves the conservation laws for rapid dry granular flows. - it operates on unstructured triangular grids in the finite volume context. - it works with a dynamic adaptive grid strategy. - it operates with a higher order approximate Riemann solver and a new source term balancing technique. - it operates in a parallelized environment. We tested the numerical model against several numerical testproblems and laboratory experiments such as: - the classical lake at rest problem; - a dry granular flow down an inclined chute; - a dry granular flow down an inclined plane with and without a flow diverting obstacle; - a dry granular flow down an unregular laboratory topography .

  18. Stochastic and deterministic models for dense granular flow

    E-print Network

    Kamrin, Kenneth Norman

    2008-01-01

    Granular materials such as sand or gravel surround us everyday and yet remain poorly understood. In this thesis, two models are developed for dense granular flow, each capable of predicting flows with accuracy in multiple ...

  19. Continuum Modeling of Secondary Rheology in Dense Granular Materials

    E-print Network

    Henann, David L.

    Recent dense granular flow experiments have shown that shear deformation in one region of a granular medium fluidizes its entirety, including regions far from the sheared zone, effectively erasing the yield condition ...

  20. 76 FR 8774 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ...731-TA-386 (Third Review)] Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission...the antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  1. Achieving progressive fine granularity scalable coding in H.26L 

    E-print Network

    Shanmugampillai, Muthukumar

    2001-01-01

    Fine granularity scalable (FGS) coding and progressive fine granularity scalable (PFGS) coding are novel scalable video schemes which are ideally suited for streaming multimedia over networks with varying bandwidth, network conditions and receiver...

  2. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The packing of particles can change radically during cyclic loading such as in an earthquake or when shaking a container to compact a powder. A large hole (1) is maintained by the particles sticking to each other. A small, counterclockwise strain (2) collapses the hole, and another large strain (3) forms more new holes which collapse when the strain reverses (4). Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (after T.L. Youd, Packing Changes and Liquefaction Susceptibility, Journal of the Geotechnical Engieering Division, 103: GT8,918-922, 1977)(Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center.)(Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder).

  3. Chemotaxis of large granular lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Pohajdak, B.; Gomez, J.; Orr, F.W.; Khalil, N.; Talgoy, M.; Greenberg, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis that large granular lymphocytes (LGL) are capable of directed locomotion (chemotaxis) was tested. A population of LGL isolated from discontinuous Percoll gradients migrated along concentration gradients of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (f-MLP), casein, and C5a, well known chemoattractants for polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes, as well as interferon-..beta.. and colony-stimulating factor. Interleukin 2, tuftsin, platelet-derived growth factor, and fibronectin were inactive. Migratory responses were greater in Percoll fractions with the highest lytic activity and HNK-1/sup +/ cells. The chemotactic response to f-MLP, casein, and C5a was always greater when the chemoattractant was present in greater concentration in the lower compartment of the Boyden chamber. Optimum chemotaxis was observed after a 1 hr incubation that made use of 12 ..mu..m nitrocellulose filters. LGL exhibited a high degree of nondirected locomotion when allowed to migrate for longer periods (> 2 hr), and when cultured in vitro for 24 to 72 hr in the presence or absence of IL 2 containing phytohemagluttinin-conditioned medium. LGL chemotaxis to f-MLP could be inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by the inactive structural analog CBZ-phe-met, and the RNK tumor line specifically bound f-ML(/sup 3/H)P, suggesting that LGL bear receptors for the chemotactic peptide.

  4. Solderability of Electroless Nickel Alloys Using Wetting Balance Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chwan-Ying Lee; Kwang-Lung Lin

    1994-01-01

    Solderability of electroless nickel-alloy deposits was investigated by the wetting balance technique. The wetting time, wetting force and dewetting can be obtained from the wetting curve. Four parameters, wetting time, percentage of theoretical force, stability of wetting and solderability index, were applied to determine the effects of the soldering variables including two kinds of flux, substrates of electroless nickel-alloy deposits

  5. 30-MHz Power Inductor Using Nano-Granular Magnetic Material

    E-print Network

    -granular metal-nonmetal soft magnetic materials con- sist of nano-grains of a magnetic metal in a ceramic matrix30-MHz Power Inductor Using Nano-Granular Magnetic Material Shanshan Lu Yuqin Sun M. Goldbeck D. R be obtained from the IEEE. #12;30-MHz Power Inductor Using Nano-Granular Magnetic Material Shanshan Lu, Yuqin

  6. Granular fuzzy Web intelligence techniques for profitable data mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan-Qing Zhang; M. Shteynberg; S. K. Prasad; R. Sunderraman

    2003-01-01

    Data mining has a lot of e-commerce applications. The key problem is how to find useful hidden patterns for better business applications. For these problems, granular fuzzy Web intelligence techniques are used to implement the granular fuzzy Web data mining system for available historical data of the credit company customers. Fuzzy computing and granular computing are used to design the

  7. Statistical mechanics for static granular media: open questions

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Statistical mechanics for static granular media: open questions Massimo Pica Ciamarra Patrick existence of a statistical mechanics of static granular systems, which would permit the description of macroscopic properties of mechanically stable granular assemblies from just a few parameters. The formulation

  8. Wetting of flexible fibre arrays.

    PubMed

    Duprat, C; Protière, S; Beebe, A Y; Stone, H A

    2012-02-23

    Fibrous media are functional and versatile materials, as demonstrated by their ubiquity both in natural systems such as feathers and adhesive pads and in engineered systems from nanotextured surfaces to textile products, where they offer benefits in filtration, insulation, wetting and colouring. The elasticity and high aspect ratios of the fibres allow deformation under capillary forces, which cause mechanical damage, matting self-assembly or colour changes, with many industrial and ecological consequences. Attempts to understand these systems have mostly focused on the wetting of rigid fibres or on elastocapillary effects in planar geometries and on a fibre brush withdrawn from an infinite bath. Here we consider the frequently encountered case of a liquid drop deposited on a flexible fibre array and show that flexibility, fibre geometry and drop volume are the crucial parameters that are necessary to understand the various observations referred to above. We identify the conditions required for a drop to remain compact with minimal spreading or to cause a pair of elastic fibres to coalesce. We find that there is a critical volume of liquid, and, hence, a critical drop size, above which this coalescence does not occur. We also identify a drop size that maximizes liquid capture. For both wetting and deformation of the substrates, we present rules that are deduced from the geometric and material properties of the fibres and the volume of the drop. These ideas are applicable to a wide range of fibrous materials, as we illustrate with examples for feathers, beetle tarsi, sprays and microfabricated systems. PMID:22358841

  9. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  10. Single-metalloprotein wet biotransistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandrini, Andrea; Salerno, Marco; Frabboni, Stefano; Facci, Paolo

    2005-03-01

    Metalloproteins are redox molecules naturally shuttling electrons with high efficiency between molecular partners. As such, they are candidates of choice for bioelectronics. In this work, we have used bacterial metalloprotein azurin, hosted in a nanometer gap between two electrically biased gold electrodes, to demonstrate an electrochemically gated single-molecule transistor operating in an aqueous environment. Gold-chemisorbed azurin shows peaks in tunneling current upon changing electrode potential and a related variation in tunneling barrier transparency which can be exploited to switch an electron current through it. These results suggest the wet approach to molecular electronics as a viable method for exploiting electron transfer of highly specialized biomolecules.

  11. A simple lattice model for the effect of voids on slip avalanches in sheared granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahmen, K.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Uhl, J. T.

    2009-12-01

    It is well known that densely packed granular materials respond to slow shear with slip avalanches. Experiments and simulations show that the avalanche statistics depend strongly on the granular volume fraction v and grain shape related properties [1]. Previous studies have focused on force chain properties [2-6]. Here we use a mean field technique to construct an analytic model of the universal (i.e. detail-independent) slip avalanche statistics. For large v, and small frictional weakening ?, the model predicts solid-like behavior, with power-law avalanche size distributions and universal exponents and scaling functions. For large v and large ? it predicts mode switching between stick slip behavior and power law avalanche size distributions. For small v it predicts fluid-like flow. The results are presented in a (v, ?) phase diagram. They agree with published experiments [6-10] and simulations [2-4]. They complement recent studies on static properties, such as the shear modulus as a function of v near the jamming transition [2-4,7-10]. References: [1] V. Frette et al., “Avalanche Dynamics in a Pile of Rice”, Nature 379, 49-52 (1996). [2] E. Aharonov and D. Sparks, “Rigidity phase transition in granular packings”, Phys. Rev E, 60, 6890-6896 (1999). [3] E. Aharonov and D. Sparks, “Stick-slip motion in simulated granular layers”, J. Geophys. Res, 109, B09306 (2004). [4] E. Aharonov and D. Sparks, “Shear profiles and localization in simulations of granular materials”, Phys. Rev. E 65, 051302/1-12 (2002). [5] M.E. Cates, J.P. Wittmer, J.-P. Bouchaud, and P. Claudin, “Jamming, Force Chains, and Fragile Matter”, Phys. Rev. Lett., 81, 1841 (1998) and references therein. [6

  12. Granular flow transitions on sinusoidal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caicedo-Carvajal, Carlos E.; Glasser, Benjamin J.; Shinbrot, Troy

    2006-06-01

    We report on a newly discovered bifurcation that occurs in dry grains flowing down a chute with a wavy bottom. We find that the bifurcation outwardly resembles the long-known fluid analogue of inviscid channel flow over a wavy bottom reported in 1886 by Lord Kelvin; however, in detail, the two situations differ significantly. We compare three distinct states seen in the granular system: a ‘regular’ flow in phase with the bottom wave; an ‘antiregular’ flow that is out of phase; and a ‘flat’ flow in which the surface slides nearly uniformly downhill. Additionally, we discuss evidence that sustained subsurface circulation in the granular bed, accompanied by strong fluctuations in flow velocities, can appear in granular flows over wavy surfaces.

  13. Image Superresolution Reconstruction via Granular Computing Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongbing; Zhang, Fan; Wu, Chang-an; Huang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The problem of generating a superresolution (SR) image from a single low-resolution (LR) input image is addressed via granular computing clustering in the paper. Firstly, and the training images are regarded as SR image and partitioned into some SR patches, which are resized into LS patches, the training set is composed of the SR patches and the corresponding LR patches. Secondly, the granular computing (GrC) clustering is proposed by the hypersphere representation of granule and the fuzzy inclusion measure compounded by the operation between two granules. Thirdly, the granule set (GS) including hypersphere granules with different granularities is induced by GrC and used to form the relation between the LR image and the SR image by lasso. Experimental results showed that GrC achieved the least root mean square errors between the reconstructed SR image and the original image compared with bicubic interpolation, sparse representation, and NNLasso. PMID:25610456

  14. Vibration-induced compaction of granular suspensions.

    PubMed

    Kiesgen de Richter, S; Hanotin, C; Marchal, P; Leclerc, S; Demeurie, F; Louvet, N

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the compaction dynamics of vibrated granular suspensions using both digital imaging technique and MRI measurements. Starting from initialy loose packings, our experimental data suggest the existence of two stages in the compaction dynamics: a fast stage at short times where a rising compaction front propagates through the granular suspension and a slow stage at large times where the packing compacts slowly and homogeneously. The compaction dynamics in each stage can be well fitted to usual stretched exponential laws with stretching exponents equal to 2 and 0.45, respectively. The transition time between these two stages, ? c , depends on the fluid viscosity, vibration intensity and grain diameter. We show that ? c (-1) and the velocity of the front decrease roughly linearly with the lubrication Peclet number, Pe lub related to the competition between the lubrication stress induced by vibrations and the granular pressure. PMID:26164824

  15. Image superresolution reconstruction via granular computing clustering.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbing; Zhang, Fan; Wu, Chang-an; Huang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The problem of generating a superresolution (SR) image from a single low-resolution (LR) input image is addressed via granular computing clustering in the paper. Firstly, and the training images are regarded as SR image and partitioned into some SR patches, which are resized into LS patches, the training set is composed of the SR patches and the corresponding LR patches. Secondly, the granular computing (GrC) clustering is proposed by the hypersphere representation of granule and the fuzzy inclusion measure compounded by the operation between two granules. Thirdly, the granule set (GS) including hypersphere granules with different granularities is induced by GrC and used to form the relation between the LR image and the SR image by lasso. Experimental results showed that GrC achieved the least root mean square errors between the reconstructed SR image and the original image compared with bicubic interpolation, sparse representation, and NNLasso. PMID:25610456

  16. Fate of carbon and nitrogen from animal manure and crop residues in wet and cold soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin H Chantigny; Denis A Angers; Philippe Rochette

    2002-01-01

    Organic matter transformations take place in snow-covered soils during winter but in ways still poorly understood. Given the generally high soil water content and possible formation of ice layers during this period, anaerobic zones could develop and have determinant effects on soil C and N dynamics. The fate of C and N under wet and cold conditions was monitored in

  17. Axisymmetric granular collapse: a transient 3D flow test of viscoplasticity.

    PubMed

    Lacaze, Laurent; Kerswell, Rich R

    2009-03-13

    A viscoplastic continuum theory has recently been proposed to model dense, cohesionless granular flows [P. Jop, Nature (London) 441, 727 (2006)10.1038/nature04801]. We confront this theory for the first time with a transient, three-dimensional flow situation--the simple collapse of a cylinder of granular matter onto a horizontal plane--by extracting stress and strain rate tensors directly from soft particle simulations. These simulations faithfully reproduce the different flow regimes and capture the observed scaling laws for the final deposit. Remarkably, the theoretical hypothesis that there is a simple stress-strain rate tensorial relationship does seem to hold across the whole flow even close to the rough boundary provided the flow is dense enough. These encouraging results suggest viscoplastic theory is more generally applicable to transient, multidirectional, dense flows and open the way for quantitative predictions in real applications. PMID:19392169

  18. Melting a granular glass by cooling

    E-print Network

    Jan Plagge; Claus Heussinger

    2013-02-05

    Driven granular systems readily form glassy phases at high particle volume fractions and low driving amplitudes. We use computer simulations of a driven granular glass to evidence a re-entrance melting transition into a fluid state, which, contrary to intuition, occurs by \\emph{reducing} the amplitude of the driving. This transition is accompanied by anomalous particle dynamics and super-diffusive behavior on intermediate time-scales. We highlight the special role played by frictional interactions, which help particles to escape their glassy cages. Such an effect is in striking contrast to what friction is expected to do: reduce particle mobility by making them stick.

  19. Magnetomigration in granular Co-Cu films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchin, E. Yu.; Kokanov, D. A.

    2015-05-01

    The effect of an applied dc inhomogeneous magnetic field on the structure and the composition of granular Co-Cu films is studied during their deposition by an ion-plasma method and during low-temperature vacuum annealing. Magnetomigration, which consists in the oppositely directed mass transfer of paramagnetic and diamagnetic phases, is detected in both cases. The magnetomigration effect is clearly detected at a temperature of 200-220°C and an applied magnetic field of 500-550 Oe due to a fine-grained structure of the films and, correspondingly, a high granular medium mobility.

  20. Internal Avalanches in a Granular Medium

    E-print Network

    S. S. Manna; D. V. Khakhar

    1998-08-04

    Avalanches of grain displacements can be generated by creating local voids within the interior of a granular material at rest in a bin. Modeling such a two-dimensional granular system by a collection of mono-disperse discs, the system on repeated perturbations, shows all signatures of Self-Organized Criticality. During the propagation of avalanches the competition among grains creates arches and in the critical state a distribution of arches of different sizes is obtained. Using a cellular automata model we demonstrate that the existence of arches determines the universal behaviour of the model system.

  1. Particle Scale Dynamics in Granular Impact

    E-print Network

    Abram. H. Clark; Lou Kondic; Robert P. Behringer

    2012-12-05

    We perform an experimental study of granular impact, where intruders strike 2D beds of photoelastic disks from above. High-speed video captures the intruder dynamics and the local granular force response, allowing investigation of grain-scale mechanisms in this process. We observe rich acoustic behavior at the leading edge of the intruder, strongly fluctuating in space and time, and we show that this acoustic activity controls the intruder deceleration, including large force fluctuations at short time scales. The average intruder dynamics match previous studies using empirical force laws, suggesting a new microscopic picture, where acoustic energy is carried away and dissipated.

  2. Shock Waves in Weakly Compressed Granular Media

    E-print Network

    Siet van den Wildenberg; Rogier van Loo; Martin van Hecke

    2013-04-23

    We experimentally probe nonlinear wave propagation in weakly compressed granular media, and observe a crossover from quasi-linear sound waves at low impact, to shock waves at high impact. We show that this crossover grows with the confining pressure $P_0$, whereas the shock wave speed is independent of $P_0$ --- two hallmarks of granular shocks predicted recently. The shocks exhibit powerlaw attenuation, which we model with a logarithmic law implying that local dissipation is weak. We show that elastic and potential energy balance in the leading part of the shocks.

  3. Compaction force in a confined granular column.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Cetto, D; Pulos, G; Zenit, R; Jiménez-Zapata, M A; Wassgren, C R

    2003-11-01

    Experiments to determine the force required to push a granular column confined within a cylinder were performed. The experimental apparatus was mounted on a material testing system machine in order to obtain force and displacement measurements simultaneously. Experiments were performed for two different sphere diameters, two different cylinder diameters and for a range of piston displacement velocities. The force necessary to displace the column increases rapidly with the column height, in accordance with Janssen's theory. More importantly, we found that this force also increases with the displacement velocity. This unexpected behavior is an indication of the transition to rate-dependent behavior in dense granular flows. PMID:14682792

  4. Challenges in Predicting Planetary Granular Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, Philip T.

    2005-01-01

    Through the course of human history, our needs in agriculture, habitat construction, and resource extraction have driven us to gain more experience working with the granular materials of planet Earth than with any other type of substance in nature, with the possible exception being water. Furthermore, throughout the past two centuries we have seen a dramatic and ever growing interest among scientists and engineers to understand and predict both its static and rheological properties. Ironically, however, despite this wealth of experience we still do not have a fundamental understanding of the complex physical phenomena that emerge even as just ordinary sand is shaken, squeezed or poured. As humanity is now reaching outward through the solar system, not only robotic ally but also with our immediate human presence, the need to understand and predict granular mechanics has taken on a new dimension. We must learn to farm, build and mine the regoliths of other planets where the environmental conditions are different than on Earth, and we are rapidly discovering that the effects of these environmental conditions are not trivial. Some of the relevant environmental features include the regolith formation processes throughout a planet's geologic and hydrologic history, the unknown mixtures of volatiles residing within the soil, the relative strength of gravitation, d the atm9spheric pressure and its seasonal variations. The need to work with soils outside our terrestrial experience base provides us with both a challenge and an opportunity. The challenge is to learn how to extrapolate our experience into these new planetary conditions, enabling the engineering decisions that are needed right now as we take the next few steps in solar system exploration. The opportunity is to use these new planetary environments as laboratories that will help us to see granular mechanics in new ways, to challenge our assumptions, and to help us finally unravel the elusive physics that lie behind complex granular phenomena. Toward these goals, a workshop was held recently at NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center, attracting over a hundred scientists and engineers from around the world and from a broad crosssection of scientific and engineering disciplines. This talk will provide an out-briefing from that workshop, communicating some of its early findings in regard to lunar and Martian exploration: (1) the requirements for working with granular materials, (2) the challenges that granular materials will pose, (3) the environmental conditions that affect granular mechanics, (4) instruments and measurements that are needed on the Moon and Mars to support granular material research, and (5) some of the possible research avenues that should be pursued.

  5. Elucidating the mysteries of wetting.

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Edmund Blackburn, III (,; ); Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Grillet, Anne Mary; Sackinger, Philip A.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Emerson, John Allen; Ash, Benjamin Jesse; Heine, David R.; Brooks, Carlton, F.; Gorby, Allen D.

    2005-11-01

    Nearly every manufacturing and many technologies central to Sandia's business involve physical processes controlled by interfacial wetting. Interfacial forces, e.g. conjoining/disjoining pressure, electrostatics, and capillary condensation, are ubiquitous and can surpass and even dominate bulk inertial or viscous effects on a continuum level. Moreover, the statics and dynamics of three-phase contact lines exhibit a wide range of complex behavior, such as contact angle hysteresis due to surface roughness, surface reaction, or compositional heterogeneities. These thermodynamically and kinetically driven interactions are essential to the development of new materials and processes. A detailed understanding was developed for the factors controlling wettability in multicomponent systems from computational modeling tools, and experimental diagnostics for systems, and processes dominated by interfacial effects. Wettability probed by dynamic advancing and receding contact angle measurements, ellipsometry, and direct determination of the capillary and disjoining forces. Molecular scale experiments determined the relationships between the fundamental interactions between molecular species and with the substrate. Atomistic simulations studied the equilibrium concentration profiles near the solid and vapor interfaces and tested the basic assumptions used in the continuum approaches. These simulations provide guidance in developing constitutive equations, which more accurately take into account the effects of surface induced phase separation and concentration gradients near the three-phase contact line. The development of these accurate models for dynamic multicomponent wetting allows improvement in science based engineering of manufacturing processes previously developed through costly trial and error by varying material formulation and geometry modification.

  6. This technology is all wet

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The wet oxidation technology developed by Conor Pacific Environmental Technologies Inc. (CPET; Vancouver, British Columbia) is designed to eliminate hazardous and nonhazardous organic contaminants from liquid effluent. The technology, which originated in Denmark, uses oxygen homogeneously dissolved in water to treat organic contaminants. According to the company, the process eliminates hazardous and nonhazardous contaminants without generating pollutant emissions, making it relatively easy to permit. CPET says wet oxidation eliminates some inorganic compounds, such as cyanides, and all hazardous and nonhazardous organic pollutants, including those found in petroleum products, aromatic solvents, tar compounds, pesticides and plasticizers. The process also handles relatively high concentrations of such contaminants as phenol, oil, and coal, tar and wood preservatives. The technology can achieve up to 99.9999% destruction efficiencies. The process is exothermic, generating its own heat, and allows energy to be recovered and recycled. Some heating is required at start-up, and heat exchangers are used to overcome heat build-up later in the process.

  7. Evaporation problems in wetting film theory

    SciTech Connect

    Belonogov, A.G.; Kiseev, V.M. [Ural State Univ., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    An experimental study of process of evaporation from wetting meniscus surface in glass capillary was carried out. A new physical model of wetting, taking into account thermal and concentrational Marangoni convection is set forth. The physical model set forth here explains completely all the experimental observations in capillaries. It seems interesting to discuss again the capillary limitations during incomplete wetting in heat pipes, taking into account the possibility of hydrodynamic film generation both in cylindrical capillaries and in groove capillary structures.

  8. DOWNFLOW GRANULAR FILTRATION OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of downflow granular filters subjected to effluents from activated sludge processes was investigated at the EPA-DC Pilot Plant in Washington, D.C. Several media combinations were investigated, including both single anthracite and dual anthracite-sand configuration...

  9. Structural signature of jamming in granular media.

    PubMed

    Corwin, Eric I; Jaeger, Heinrich M; Nagel, Sidney R

    2005-06-23

    Glasses are rigid, but flow when the temperature is increased. Similarly, granular materials are rigid, but become unjammed and flow if sufficient shear stress is applied. The rigid and flowing phases are strikingly different, yet measurements reveal that the structures of glass and liquid are virtually indistinguishable. It is therefore natural to ask whether there is a structural signature of the jammed granular state that distinguishes it from its flowing counterpart. Here we find evidence for such a signature, by measuring the contact-force distribution between particles during shearing. Because the forces are sensitive to minute variations in particle position, the distribution of forces can serve as a microscope with which to observe correlations in the positions of nearest neighbours. We find a qualitative change in the force distribution at the onset of jamming. If, as has been proposed, the jamming and glass transitions are related, our observation of a structural signature associated with jamming hints at the existence of a similar structural difference at the glass transition--presumably too subtle for conventional scattering techniques to uncover. Our measurements also provide a determination of a granular temperature that is the counterpart in granular systems to the glass-transition temperature in liquids. PMID:15973404

  10. Localized fluidization in a granular medium.

    PubMed

    Philippe, P; Badiane, M

    2013-04-01

    We present here experimental results on the progressive development of a fluidized zone in a bed of grains, immersed in a liquid, under the effect of a localized upward flow injected through a small orifice at the bottom of the bed. Visualization inside the model granular medium consisting of glass beads is made possible by the combined use of two optical techniques: refractive index matching between the liquid and the beads and planar laser-induced fluorescence. Gradually increasing the injection rate, three regimes are successively observed: static bed, fluidized cavity that does not open to the upper surface of the granular bed, and finally fluidization over the entire height of the granular bed inside a fluidized chimney. The phase diagram is plotted and partially interpreted using a model previously developed by Zoueshtiagh and Merlen [F. Zoueshtiagh and A. Merlen, Phys. Rev. E 75, 053613 (2007)]. A typical sequence, where the flow rate is first increased and then decreased back to zero, reveals a strong hysteretic behavior since the stability of the fluidized cavity is considerably strengthened during the defluidization phase. This effect can be explained by the formation of force arches within the granular packing when the chimney closes up at the top of the bed. A study of the expansion rate of the fluidized cavity was also conducted as well as the analysis of the interaction between two injection orifices with respect to their spacing. PMID:23679406

  11. Submarine granular flows down inclined planes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Cassar; M. Nicolas; O. Pouliquen

    2005-01-01

    Submarine flows of granular material down a rough inclined plane are experimentally investigated. We focus on the dense flow regime when the whole sediment layer is flowing down the slope and when no deposition nor entrainment occurs. In this regime, steady uniform flows are observed for which we systematically measure the depth-averaged velocity, the thickness, and the excess pore pressure

  12. Congenital Granular Cell Tumor – A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Yuwanati, Monal; Mhaske, Shubhangi; Mhaske, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Congenital granular cell tumor is a rare benign neoplastic growth affecting the gingival mucosa of neonates. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis has recently come to focus and in spite of several reports on immune-histochemical and other advanced marker studies, the cause and origin of the lesion remains debatable till date. Review of literature on prenatal diagnosis and histopathology along with immunohistochemistry is discussed.

  13. Shock waves attenuation by granular filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Britan; G Ben-Dor; O Igra; H Shapiro

    2001-01-01

    Proper design of protecting filters mitigates the effect of blast and shock waves and thereby makes such filters effective protection against both accidental and planned explosions. The main goal of the present study was to clarify the filter performance in reducing the loading on structures as well as reducing the strength of the transmitted shock. While most of the granular

  14. Assessing granular pit construction from larval Neuroptera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Shea; Jeffrey S. Olafsen; Catherine Loudon; Don W. Steeples

    2002-01-01

    Antlion larvae, Myrmeleon carolinus, build cone-shaped pits in dry sand for prey capture. The surface of these pits are prone to avalanches that can depend upon the physical properties of the sand in the local environment. The antlion larvae are observed to be capable of assessing both sand depth and particle size. In a polydisperse granular environment, the antlion demonstrates

  15. Invertebrate colonization of granular activated carbon filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Schreiber; D. Schoenen; W. Traunspurger

    1997-01-01

    Results of biological sampling of granular activated carbon (GAC) filtrate taken between May 1994 and August 1995 at three different treatment plants along the river Rhine indicate that GAC filters are colonized by invertebrates. Dominating organism groups were rotifers and nematodes. Depending on operational characteristics, mainly regeneration intervals and backwashing procedures, the filter colonization can lead to an output of

  16. EPA'S RESEARCH PROGRAM IN GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research into Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) for use in drinking water treatment has a long history in the Drinking Water Research Division and its predecessor organizations. tudies were conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service in the late fifties and early sixties to examine...

  17. Acoustic properties of unconsolidated granular mixes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V Voronina; K. V Horoshenkov

    2004-01-01

    Simple empirical relations have been proposed to relate a limited number of directly measurable non-acoustic properties of an unconsolidated granular mix to its characteristic acoustic impedance and propagation constant. These properties are: characteristic particle dimension, porosity, tortuosity and the density of the grain base. It is believed that the model accounts heuristically for the mechanical friction between the elements of

  18. USE OF SODIUM CHLORIDE IN GRANULAR BASES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oscar Javier; Reyes Ortiz; Javier Fernando; Camacho Tauta; Juan Ricardo Troncoso Rivera

    The purpose of this work is to study the mechanical properties of granular bases added with NaCl. After conventional characterization tests, including Atterberg limits and grain size distribution, compaction tests were carried out to find optimal water contents and maximum dry densities. Finally, by use of mechanical tests such as CBR, non-confined compression and diametral compression tests, strength differences between

  19. Gaussian kinetic model for granular gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James W. Dufty; Aparna Baskaran; Lorena Zogaib

    2004-01-01

    A kinetic model for the Boltzmann equation is proposed and explored as a practical means to investigate the properties of a dilute granular gas. It is shown that all spatially homogeneous initial distributions approach a universal ``homogeneous cooling solution'' after a few collisions. The homogeneous cooling solution (HCS) is studied in some detail and the exact solution is compared with

  20. Trajectory entanglement in dense granular materials

    E-print Network

    James G. Puckett; Frédéric Lechenault; Karen E. Daniels; Jean-Luc Thiffeault

    2012-02-23

    The particle-scale dynamics of granular materials have commonly been characterized by the self-diffusion coefficient $D$. However, this measure discards the collective and topological information known to be an important characteristic of particle trajectories in dense systems. Direct measurement of the entanglement of particle space-time trajectories can be obtained via the topological braid entropy $\\Sbraid$, which has previously been used to quantify mixing efficiency in fluid systems. Here, we investigate the utility of $\\Sbraid$ in characterizing the dynamics of a dense, driven granular material at packing densities near the static jamming point $\\phi_J$. From particle trajectories measured within a two-dimensional granular material, we typically observe that $\\Sbraid$ is well-defined and extensive. However, for systems where $\\phi \\gtrsim 0.79$, we find that $\\Sbraid$ (like $D$) is not well-defined, signifying that these systems are not ergodic on the experimental timescale. Both $\\Sbraid$ and $D$ decrease with either increasing packing density or confining pressure, independent of the applied boundary condition. The related braiding factor provides a means to identify multi-particle phenomena such as collective rearrangements. We discuss possible uses for this measure in characterizing granular systems.

  1. Kinetic theory for sheared granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaran, Viswanathan

    2015-01-01

    Rapid granular flows are far-from-equilibrium-driven dissipative systems where the interaction between the particles dissipates energy, and so a continuous supply of energy is required to agitate the particles and facilitate the rearrangement required for the flow. This is in contrast to flows of molecular fluids, which are usually close to equilibrium, where the molecules are agitated by thermal fluctuations. Sheared granular flows form a class of flows where the energy required for agitating the particles in the flowing state is provided by the mean shear. These flows have been studied using the methods of kinetic theory of gases, where the particles are treated in a manner similar to molecules in a molecular gas, and the interactions between particles are treated as instantaneous energy-dissipating binary collisions. The validity of the assumptions underlying kinetic theory, and their applicability to the idealistic case of dilute sheared granular flows are first discussed. The successes and challenges for applying kinetic theory for realistic dense sheared granular flows are then summarised.

  2. Characteristic state plasticity for granular materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aylin Ahadi; Steen Krenk

    2000-01-01

    A non-associated plasticity theory for granular materials has been developed in Part 1 based on the concept of a characteristic stress state of vanishing incremental dilation. The model is fully three-dimensional and is defined by six material parameters: two for elastic stiffness, one for plastic stiffness, two for the shapes of yield and plastic potential surfaces and one for the

  3. Granular slumping on a horizontal surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Lajeunesse; J. B. Monnier; G. M. Homsy

    2005-01-01

    We report the results of an experimental investigation of the flow induced by the collapse of a column of granular material (glass beads of diameter d) over a horizontal surface. Two different setups are used, namely, a rectangular channel and a semicircular tube, allowing us to compare two-dimensional and axisymmetric flows, with particular focus on the internal flow structure. In

  4. A numerical laboratory for granular solids

    SciTech Connect

    Trent, B.C.; Margolin, L.G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The behavior of cemented granular material is complex and difficult to characterize. Physical tests on laboratory-size specimens are time consuming and often inconclusive, due to the variable nature of the bulk material. As an alternate approach, we have used the distinct element method to construct numerical samples of cemented granular material. The model allows us to verify which are the important microphysical processes determining material behavior. We can do parameter studies, continuously varying the material properties of the bonding material and the topology of the bonds themselves, to see how the macroscopic properties depend upon the microscopic structure. We illustrate our program with two types of calculations. The first series consists of measuring the macroscopic p-wave and the s-wave speeds of the numerical sample, and using them to infer elastic properties of the bulk material. We also investigate how the number and size of the bonds influence bulk response. In the second series, we look at crack growth in granular materials. The Griffith theory of crack growth assumes an ideally flat crack. In granular materials and in our simulation, the crack is formed when many consecutive bonds in the material are broken.

  5. The fractal crushing of granular materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. McDowell; M. D. Bolton; D. Robertson

    1996-01-01

    A study has been made of the micro mechanical origins of the irrecoverable compression of aggregates which comprise brittle grains. The terms “yielding” and “plastic hardening” are used in the discipline of soil mechanics to describe the post-elastic behaviour of granular media. These “plastic” phenomena are here related to the successive splitting of grains.Grains are taken to split probabilistically; the

  6. Internal avalanche in a granular media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. de Ryck; O. Louisnard

    2009-01-01

    The flow shape of a layer of granular material entrained by the motion of a bottom plate is studied. The flow is assumed steady, unidirectional and iso-volume, and is modeled by the Navier-Stokes equation, along with a simple constitutive law based on a constant friction coefficient. Under these assumptions, the problem can be tackled with the characteristics method, which yields

  7. Segregation in granular binary mixtures: Thermal diffusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Garzó

    2006-01-01

    A solution of the inelastic Boltzmann equation that applies for strong dissipation and takes into account non-equipartition of energy is used to derive an explicit expression for the thermal diffusion factor. This parameter provides a criterion for segregation that involves all the parameters of the granular binary mixture (composition, masses, sizes, and coefficients of restitution). The present work is consistent

  8. Bipotential continuum models for granular mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Joe

    2014-03-01

    Most currently popular continuum models for granular media are special cases of a generalized Maxwell fluid model, which describes the evolution of stress and internal variables such as granular particle fraction and fabric,in terms of imposed strain rate. It is shown how such models can be obtained from two scalar potentials, a standard elastic free energy and a ``dissipation potential'' given rigorously by the mathematical theory of Edelen. This allows for a relatively easy derivation of properly invariant continuum models for granular media and fluid-particle suspensions within a thermodynamically consistent framework. The resulting continuum models encompass all the prominent regimes of granular flow, ranging from the quasi-static to rapidly sheared, and are readily extended to include higher-gradient or Cosserat effects. Models involving stress diffusion, such as that proposed recently by Kamrin and Koval (PRL 108 178301), provide an alternative approach that is mentioned in passing. This paper provides a brief overview of a forthcoming review articles by the speaker (The Princeton Companion to Applied Mathematics, and Appl. Mech. Rev.,in the press, 2013).

  9. Granular dynamics under shear with deformable boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Drew; Backhaus, Scott; Ecke, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Granular materials under shear develop complex patterns of stress as the result of granular positional rearrangements under an applied load. We consider the simple planar shear of a quasi two-dimensional granular material consisting of bi-dispersed nylon cylinders confined between deformable boundaries. The aspect ratio of the gap width to total system length is 50, and the ratio of particle diameter to gap width is about 10. This system, designed to model a long earthquake fault with long range elastic coupling through the plates, is an interesting model system for understanding effective granular friction because it essentially self tunes to the jamming condition owing to the hardness of the grains relative to that of the boundary material, a ratio of more than 1000 in elastic moduli. We measure the differential strain displacements of the plates, the inhomogeneous stress distribution in the plates, the positions and angular orientations of the individual grains, and the shear force, all as functions of the applied normal stress. There is significant stick-slip motion in this system that we quantify through our quantitative measurements of both the boundary and the grain motion, resulting in a good characterization of this sheared 2D hard sphere system.

  10. Time Granularities and Ultimately Periodic Automata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Davide Bresolin; Angelo Montanari; Gabriele Puppis

    2004-01-01

    The relevance of the problem of managing periodic phenom- ena is widely recognized in the area of knowledge representation and rea- soning. One of the most eectiv e attempts at dealing with this problem has been the addition of a notion of time granularity to knowledge rep- resentation systems. Dieren t formalizations of such a notion have been proposed in

  11. Structure and stability of methanogenic granular sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. C. Grotenhuis

    1992-01-01

    Immobilization of anaerobic bacteria was essential for the development of high rate anaerobic systems for the treatment of waste waters. The most widely applied anaerobic reactor type in which solids retention time is uncoupled from the hydraulic retention time is the Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor. In this reactor type methanogenic granular sludge is formed by self-immobilization of methanogenic

  12. The Wet-Dog Shake

    E-print Network

    Dickerson, Andrew; Bauman, Jay; Chang, Young-Hui; Hu, David

    2010-01-01

    The drying of wet fur is a critical to mammalian heat regulation. In this fluid dynamics video, we show a sequence of films demonstrating how hirsute animals to rapidly oscillate their bodies to shed water droplets, nature's analogy to the spin cycle of a washing machine. High-speed videography and fur-particle tracking is employed to determine the angular position of the animal's shoulder skin as a function of time. X-ray cinematography is used to track the motion of the skeleton. We determine conditions for drop ejection by considering the balance of surface tension and centripetal forces on drops adhering to the animal. Particular attention is paid to rationalizing the relationship between animal size and oscillation frequency required to self-dry.

  13. Granular slumping on a horizontal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajeunesse, E.; Monnier, J. B.; Homsy, G. M.

    2005-10-01

    We report the results of an experimental investigation of the flow induced by the collapse of a column of granular material (glass beads of diameter d) over a horizontal surface. Two different setups are used, namely, a rectangular channel and a semicircular tube, allowing us to compare two-dimensional and axisymmetric flows, with particular focus on the internal flow structure. In both geometries the flow dynamics and the deposit morphologies are observed to depend primarily on the initial aspect ratio of the granular column a =Hi/Li, where Hi is the height of the initial granular column and Li its length along the flow direction. Two distinct regimes are observed depending on a: an avalanche of the column flanks producing truncated deposits for small a and a column free fall leading to conical deposits for large a. In both geometries the characteristic time scale is the free fall of the granular column ?c=?Hi/g . The flow initiated by Coulomb-like failure never involves the whole granular heap but remains localized in a surface layer whose size and shape depend on a and vary in both space and time. Except in the vicinity of the pile foot where the flow is pluglike, velocity profiles measured at the side wall are identical to those commonly observed in steady granular surface flows: the velocity varies linearly with depth in the flowing layer and decreases exponentially with depth in the static layer. Moreover, the shear rate is constant, ??=0.3?g /d , independent of the initial aspect ratio, the flow geometry, position along the heap, or time. Despite the rather complex flow dynamics, the scaled deposit height Hf/Li and runout distance ?L /Li both exhibit simple power laws whose exponents depend on a and on the flow geometry. We show that the physical origin of these power laws can be understood on the basis of a dynamic balance between acceleration, pressure gradient, and friction forces at the foot of the granular pile. Two asymptotic behaviors can be distinguished: the flow is dominated by friction forces at small a and by pressure forces at large a. The effect of the flow geometry is determined primarily by mass conservation and becomes important only for large a.

  14. From principal curves to granular principal curves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyun; Pedrycz, Witold; Miao, Duoqian; Wei, Zhihua

    2014-06-01

    Principal curves arising as an essential construct in dimensionality reduction and data analysis have recently attracted much attention from theoretical as well as practical perspective. In many real-world situations, however, the efficiency of existing principal curves algorithms is often arguable, in particular when dealing with massive data owing to the associated high computational complexity. A certain drawback of these constructs stems from the fact that in several applications principal curves cannot fully capture some essential problem-oriented facets of the data dealing with width, aspect ratio, width change, etc. Information granulation is a powerful tool supporting processing and interpreting massive data. In this paper, invoking the underlying ideas of information granulation, we propose a granular principal curves approach, regarded as an extension of principal curves algorithms, to improve efficiency and achieve a sound accuracy-efficiency tradeoff. First, large amounts of numerical data are granulated into C intervals-information granules developed with the use of fuzzy C-means clustering and the two criteria of information granulation, which significantly reduce the amount of data to be processed at the later phase of the overall design. Granular principal curves are then constructed by determining the upper and the lower bounds of the interval data. Finally, we develop an objective function using the criteria of information confidence and specificity to evaluate the granular output formed by the principal curves. We also optimize the granular principal curves by adjusting the level of information granularity (the number of clusters), which is realized with the aid of the particle swarm optimization. A number of numeric studies completed for synthetic and real-world datasets provide a useful quantifiable insight into the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:23996588

  15. Wet Scrubbing Experience for Steel Mill Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Steiner; R. J. Thompson

    1977-01-01

    Wet scrubbing experiences at a variety of steel mill applications including sinter plant, blast furnace, open hearth, and industrial boiler installations are discussed. A number of case studies are examined. For each, the process, emission characteristics, and wet scrubber system design are described. Actual performance is compared with design values, and particular emphasis is placed on water chemistry control and

  16. Ensuring message embedding in wet paper steganography

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Ensuring message embedding in wet paper steganography Daniel Augot1, Morgan Barbier1, and Caroline of this new scheme in the case of perfect codes. Keywords: steganography, syndrome coding problem, wet paper codes. 1 Introduction Hiding messages in innocuous-looking cover-media in a stealthy way, steganography

  17. Wet runways. [aircraft landing and directional control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft stopping and directional control performance on wet runways is discussed. The major elements affecting tire/ground traction developed by jet transport aircraft are identified and described in terms of atmospheric, pavement, tire, aircraft system and pilot performance factors or parameters. Research results are summarized, and means for improving or restoring tire traction/aircraft performance on wet runways are discussed.

  18. The SEASAT Altimeter Wet Tropospheric Range Correction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byron D. Tapley; John B. Lundberg; George H. Born

    1982-01-01

    The wet tropospheric path delay for the SEASAT altimeter height measurements is on the order of 10-50 cm. The model for the tropospheric range correction must be accurate to 5 cm or better to achieve an overall 10 cm accuracy for the SEASAT altimeter height measurements. The wet tropospheric range correction is calculated either by using Fleet Numerical Oceanographic Center

  19. Walking on water: why your feet get wet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelley, Michael; Fontana, Jake; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    2009-03-01

    Walking on wet pavement during or after heavy rain results in wet shoes, and often, wet feet. We describe a peculiar transport process associated with walking on wet surfaces which results in the vamps, and frequently, the insides, of shoes getting wet. We discuss details of this process and compare experimental results with simple model predictions. Strategies for keeping feet dry will be considered.

  20. Onset of Stationary Flows of a Cohesive Granular Material in a Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ryck, A.; Louisnard, O.

    The handling of bulk materials and powders in process engineering remains an important issue. To obtain reliable gravitational flows, starting and remaining stationary, the hoppers and transport channels must be designed at a scale appropriate for the friction and cohesive properties of the granular material. To describe such dense flows (the interaction with the surrounding ambient fluid is negligible compared to the weight of the particles and interparticles forces), they can be modelled by continuum mechanics, associated with a constitutive equation taking into account the friction behaviour (Mohr-Coulomb or Druger-Prager plasticity criterion). We use here the rheology proposed by Jop et al. (Nature 441: 727-730, 2006) which combines this with an associated flow rule (co-linearity of the stress and strain tensors) (Jenike, Powder Technol. 50: 229-236, 1987) and a viscous dependency of the coefficient of friction on the strain (Da Cruz et al., Phys. Rev. E 72: 021309, 2005).Using the method of characteristics to describe the flow structure (de Ryck, Granular Matter 10: 361-367, 2008), we deduce the minimal slope to obtain a stationary flow of cohesive granular materials on a finite width channel, whose lateral walls are rough or smooth. We also obtain the depth of the flow (maximal at the centre of the channel). In the case of weak cohesive materials, these results are formulated with simple analytical expressions.

  1. Collapse and revival of the matter wave field of a Bose-Einstein condensate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Greiner; Olaf Mandel; Theodor W. Hänsch; Immanuel Bloch

    2002-01-01

    A Bose-Einstein condensate represents the most `classical' form of a matter wave, just as an optical laser emits the most classical form of an electromagnetic wave. Nevertheless, the matter wave field has a quantized structure owing to the granularity of the discrete underlying atoms. Although such a field is usually assumed to be intrinsically stable (apart from incoherent loss processes),

  2. Microgravity Experiments to Evaluate Electrostatic Forces in Controlling Cohesion and Adhesion of Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, J.; Weislogel, M.; Jacobson, T.

    1999-01-01

    The bulk behavior of dispersed, fluidized, or undispersed stationary granular systems cannot be fully understood in terms of adhesive/cohesive properties without understanding the role of electrostatic forces acting at the level of the grains themselves. When grains adhere to a surface, or come in contact with one another in a stationary bulk mass, it is difficult to measure the forces acting on the grains, and the forces themselves that induced the cohesion and adhesion are changed. Even if a single gain were to be scrutinized in the laboratory, it might be difficult, perhaps impossible, to define the distribution and character of surface charging and the three- dimensional relationship that charges (electrons, holes) have to one another. The hypothesis that we propose to test in microgravity (for dielectric materials) is that adhesion and cohesion of granular matter are mediated primarily by dipole forces that do not require the presence of a net charge; in fact, nominally electrically neutral materials should express adhesive and cohesive behavior when the neutrality results from a balance of positive and negative charge carriers. Moreover, the use of net charge alone as a measure of the electrical nature of grain-to-grain relationships within a granular mass may be misleading. We believe that the dipole forces arise from the presence of randomly-distributed positive and negative fixed charge carriers on grains that give rise to a resultant dipole moment. These dipole forces have long-range attraction. Random charges are created whenever there is triboelectrical activity of a granular mass, that is, whenever the grains experience contact/separation sequences or friction. Electrostatic forces are generally under-estimated for their role in causing agglomeration of dispersed grains in particulate clouds, or their role in affecting the internal frictional relationships in packed granular masses. We believe that electrostatic, in particular dipole-mediated processes, are pervasive and probably affect, at some level, everything from astrophysical-scale granular systems such as interstellar nebulae, protoplanetary dust and debris disks, planetary-scale systems such as debris palls from meteorite impact, volcanic eruptions, and aeolian dust storms, all the way to industrial-scale systems in mining, powder and grain processing, pharmaceuticals, and smoke-stack technologies. NASA must concern itself with the electrostatic behavior of dust and sand on Mars because of its potentially critical importance to human exploration. The motion and adhesion of martian surface materials will affect the design and performance of spacesuits, habitats, processing plants, solar panels, and any externally exposed equipment such as surface rovers or communication and weather stations. Additionally, the adhesion of dust and sand could greatly enhance contact with the potentially toxic components of the martian soil.

  3. EFFECT OF UV IRRADIATION ON ORGANIC MATTER EXTRACTED FROM TREATED OHIO RIVER WATER STUDIED THROUGH THE USE OF ELECTROSPRAY MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ohio River water was treated by settling, sand filtration, and granular activated carbon filtration. It was then irradiated by low pressure (monochromatic) and medium pressure (polychromatic) UV lamps to investigate the effects of UV irradiation of natural organic matter (NOM). ...

  4. Frosted granular flow: A new hypothesis for mass wasting in martian gullies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugenholtz, Chris H.

    2008-09-01

    Recent gully deposits on Mars have been attributed to both wet and dry mass wasting processes. In this paper frosted granular flow (FGF) is presented as a new hypothesis for recent mass wasting activity in martian gullies. FGF is a rare type of granular flow observed on a talus slope in the Province of Québec, Canada [Hétu, B., van Steijn, H., Vandelac, P., 1994. Géogr. Phys. Quat. 48, 3-22]. Frost reduces dynamic inter-particle friction, enabling flows to mobilize onto relatively low slope gradients (25-30°) compared to those involving dry granular flow of the same material (35-41°). Resulting erosional and depositional features include straight to sinuous channels, levees and digitate to branching arrangements of terminal deposits. Similar features are commonly found in association with geologically-young gully systems on Mars. Based on terrestrial observations of FGF processes the minimum criteria required for their occurrence on Mars include: (i) readily mobilized, unconsolidated sediment at the surface; (ii) an upper slope gradient at or near the angle of repose; (iii) frost accumulation at the surface; and (iv) triggering by rock fall. All four conditions appear to be met in many areas on present-day Mars though triggering mechanisms may vary. Compared to terrestrial FGFs, which are lubricated by thin liquid films at inter-particle contacts, those occurring on Mars are more likely lubricated by vaporization of CO 2 and small amounts of H 2O frost that becomes incorporated in the translating mass. Some recent mass wasting activity in martian gullies, therefore, could be interpreted as the product of FGF.

  5. 76 FR 28455 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade...granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy would be likely to lead to...

  6. 76 FR 27663 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade...granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy would be likely to lead to...

  7. Slowly sheared dense granular flows: Crystallization and nonunique final states J.-C. Tsai1

    E-print Network

    Gollub, Jerry P.

    structure, granular volume, and boundary shear force are reported for dense granular packing steadily. This structural change is accompanied by a significant decrease of granular volume and shear force, with a more

  8. Tap Density Equations of Granular Powders Based on the Rate Process Theory and the Free Volume Concept

    E-print Network

    Tian Hao

    2014-09-05

    Tap density of a granular powder is often linked to the flowability via Carr Index that measures how tight a powder can be packed, under an assumption that more easily packed powders usually flow poorly. Understanding how particles are packed is important for revealing why a powder flows better than others. There are two types of empirical equations that were proposed to fit the experimental data of packing fractions vs. numbers of taps in literature: The inverse logarithmic and the stretched exponential. Using the rate process theory and the free volume concept, we obtain the tap density equations and they can be reducible to the two empirical equations currently widely used in literature. Our equations could potentially fit experimental data better with an additional adjustable parameter. The tapping amplitude and frequency, the weight of the granular materials, and the environment temperature are grouped into one parameter that weighs the pace of packing process. The current results, in conjunction with our previous findings, may imply that both dry(granular)and wet(colloidal and polymeric) particle systems are governed by the same physical mechanisms in term of the role of the free volume and how particles behave (a rate controlled process).

  9. Acoustic probing of elastic behavior and damage in weakly cemented granular media.

    PubMed

    Langlois, V; Jia, X

    2014-02-01

    We investigate the elastic behavior and damage of weakly cemented granular media under external load with ultrasound. The cementation controlled experiments are performed by freezing the capillary liquid at the bead contact in a dense glass or polymeric [poly(methyl methacrylate)] bead pack wet by tetradecane of volume fraction ? = 0.1%-4%. When the pendular rings are solidified, an abrupt increase by a factor of 2 in the compressional wave velocity is observed. We interpret the data in terms of effective medium models in which the contact stiffnesses are derived by either a bonded contact model [P. J. Digby, J. Appl. Mech. 48, 803 (1981)] or a cemented contact model [J. Dvorkin, A. Nur, and H. Yin, Mech. Mater. 18, 351 (1994)]. The former fails to quantitatively account for the results with a soft cement relative to the grain, whereas the latter considering the mechanical properties of the cement does apply. Moreover, we monitor the irreversible behavior of the cemented granular packs under moderate uniaxial loading (1.3 MPa) with the correlation method of ultrasound scattering. The damage of the cemented materials is accompanied by a compressional wave velocity decrease up to 60%, likely due to the fractures induced at the grain-cement interfaces. PMID:25353594

  10. Order of wetting transitions in electrolyte solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ibagon, Ingrid, E-mail: ingrid@is.mpg.de; Bier, Markus, E-mail: bier@is.mpg.de; Dietrich, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Intelligente Systeme, Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany and IV. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut für Intelligente Systeme, Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany and IV. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-05-07

    For wetting films in dilute electrolyte solutions close to charged walls we present analytic expressions for their effective interface potentials. The analysis of these expressions renders the conditions under which corresponding wetting transitions can be first- or second-order. Within mean field theory we consider two models, one with short- and one with long-ranged solvent-solvent and solvent-wall interactions. The analytic results reveal in a transparent way that wetting transitions in electrolyte solutions, which occur far away from their critical point (i.e., the bulk correlation length is less than half of the Debye length) are always first-order if the solvent-solvent and solvent-wall interactions are short-ranged. In contrast, wetting transitions close to the bulk critical point of the solvent (i.e., the bulk correlation length is larger than the Debye length) exhibit the same wetting behavior as the pure, i.e., salt-free, solvent. If the salt-free solvent is governed by long-ranged solvent-solvent as well as long-ranged solvent-wall interactions and exhibits critical wetting, adding salt can cause the occurrence of an ion-induced first-order thin-thick transition which precedes the subsequent continuous wetting as for the salt-free solvent.

  11. Critical point wetting drop tower experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, William F.

    1990-01-01

    The 100 m Drop Tower at NASA-Marshall was used to provide the step change in acceleration from 1.0 to 0.0005 g. An inter-fluid meniscus oscillates vertically within a cylindrical container when suddenly released from earth's gravity and taken into a microgravity environment. Oscillations damp out from energy dissipative mechanisms such as viscosity and interfacial friction. Damping of the oscillations by the later mechanism is affected by the nature of the interfacial junction between the fluid-fluid interface and the container wall. In earlier stages of the project, the meniscus shape which developed during microgravity conditions was applied to evaluations of wetting phenomena near the critical temperature. Variations in equilibrium contact angle against the container wall were expected to occur under critical wetting conditions. However, it became apparent that the meaningful phenomenon was the damping of interfacial oscillations. This latter concept makes up the bulk of this report. Perfluoromethyl cyclohexane and isopropanol in glass were the materials used for the experiment. The wetting condition of the fluids against the wall changes at the critical wetting transition temperature. This change in wetting causes a change in the damping characteristics of the interfacial excursions during oscillation and no measurable change in contact angle. The effect of contact line friction measured above and below the wetting transition temperature was to increase the period of vertical oscillation for the vapor-liquid interface when below the wetting transition temperature.

  12. Granular Computing for Text Mining: New Research Challenges and Opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liping Jing; Raymond Y. K. Lau

    2009-01-01

    As an emerging computational methodology, granular computing provides an effective strategy for solving many real world problems\\u000a such as mining latent relationships from text. This paper examines the relationship between granular computing and text mining\\u000a from a theoretical perspective. Firstly, we analyzes the granular structure of text data which is the key step for textual\\u000a data representation. Secondly, some granule-based

  13. Pressure measurement in two-dimensional horizontal granular gases.

    PubMed

    Géminard, J-C; Laroche, C

    2004-08-01

    A two-dimensional granular gas is produced by vibrating vertically a partial layer of beads on a horizontal plate. Measurements of the force applied by the granular gas to the sidewalls of the container, or granular pressure, are used to study the effect of the shaking strength, density, bead-plate restitution coefficient, and particle size on the steady properties of the gas. PMID:15447484

  14. Granular cell foci of the uterus in Donryu rats.

    PubMed

    Sasahara, K; Ando-Lu, J; Nishiyama, K; Takahashi, M; Yoshida, M; Maekawa, A

    1998-08-01

    Eleven cases of uterine granular cell foci were observed in a total of 855 female Donryu rats. All the lesions were microscopical and focal or multifocal in nature, and composed of uniformly large cells with abundant granulated eosinophilic cytoplasm. Histopathologically, immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally they resembled granular cell tumours of the uterus reported in rats and mice. The development of granular cell foci may be the result of hormonal stimulation. PMID:9749365

  15. Effect of surface ionization on wetting layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayser, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    A surface ionization model due to Langmuir is generalized to liquid mixtures of polar and nonpolar components in contact with ionizable substrates. When a predominantly nonpolar mixture is near a miscibility gap, thick wetting layers of the conjugate polar phase form on the substrate. Such charged layers can be much thicker than similar wetting layers stabilized by dispersion forces. This model may explain the 0.4- to 0.6-micron-thick wetting layers formed in stirred mixtures of nitromethane and carbon disulfide in contact with glass.

  16. Wetting reversal in colloid-polymer systems.

    PubMed

    Blokhuis, Edgar M; Kuipers, Joris

    2010-05-01

    The wetting of a phase-separated colloid-polymer mixture in contact with a hard wall is analyzed using free volume theory in a Nakanishi-Fisher-type approach. We present results for the wetting phase diagram for several model approximations. Our analysis is compared with a previous analysis by Aarts [J. Chem. Phys. 120, 1973 (2004)]. We find that there is a crossover from wetting to drying at a threshold value for the colloid-polymer size ratio and that the transitions are close to the critical point and of second order in nature. PMID:20866234

  17. Mass transfer in a wetted wall column

    E-print Network

    Platt, Allison M

    1950-01-01

    MASS TRANSPER IM A WETTED WALL COLDMM A Thesis Allison M. Platt June, 1950 MASS TRANSFER IN A WETTED WALL COLUMN A Thesis Allison M. Platt June~ 1950 Approved as to st@i and content recommended: Head of the Department of C cal Engineering... MASS TRANSFER IN A WETTED WALL COLUMN A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural snd Mechanical College oi' Texas Partial FulfiUment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science ~or Sub)ect: Chemical Engineering Allison M...

  18. Multifractal Analysis of Turbulence and Granular Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimitsu, T.; Arimitsu, N.

    2005-09-01

    The probability density function of velocity fluctuations of granular turbulence (granulence) observed by Radjai and Roux in their two-dimensional simulation of a slow granular flow under homogeneous quasi-static shearing is studied by multifractal analysis (MFA) proposed by the authors. MFA is a unified self-consistent approach for the systems with large deviations, which has been constructed based on the Tsallis-type distribution function that provides an extremum of the extensive Rény or the non-extensive Tsallis entropy under appropriate constraints. It is shown by the present precise analysis that the system of granulence and of turbulence indeed have common scaling characteristics as was pointed out by Radjai and Roux.

  19. Heat flux in a granular gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, J. J.; Ruiz-Montero, M. J.

    2012-11-01

    A peculiarity of the hydrodynamic Navier-Stokes equations for a granular gas is the modification of the Fourier law, with the presence of an additional contribution to the heat flux that is proportional to the density gradient. Consequently, the constitutive relation involves, in the case of a one-component granular gas, two transport coefficients: the usual (thermal) heat conductivity and a diffusive heat conductivity. A very simple physical interpretation of this effect, in terms of the mean free path and the mean free time is provided. It leads to the modified Fourier law with an expression for the diffusive Fourier coefficient that differs in a factor of the order of unity from the expression obtained by means of the inelastic Boltzmann equation. Also, some aspects of the Chapman-Enskog computation of the new transport coefficients as well as of the comparison between simulation results and theory are discussed.

  20. New boundary conditions for granular fluids

    E-print Network

    Mark D. Shattuck

    2007-03-22

    We present experimental evidence, which contradicts the the standard boundary conditions used in continuum theories of non-cohesive granular flows for the velocity normal to a boundary u.n=0, where n points into the fluid. We propose and experimentally verify a new boundary condition for u.n, based on the observation that the boundary cannot exert a tension force Fb on the fluid. The new boundary condition is u.n=0 if Fb.n>=0 else n.P.n=0, where P is the pressure tensor. This is the analog of cavitation in ordinary fluids, but due the lack of attractive forces and dissipation it occurs frequently in granular flows.

  1. Movers and shakers: Granular damping in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannerman, M. N.; Kollmer, J. E.; Sack, A.; Heckel, M.; Mueller, P.; Pöschel, T.

    2011-07-01

    The response of an oscillating granular damper to an initial perturbation is studied using experiments performed in microgravity and granular dynamics simulations. High-speed video and image processing techniques are used to extract experimental data. An inelastic hard sphere model is developed to perform simulations and the results are in excellent agreement with the experiments. In line with previous work, a linear decay of the amplitude is observed. Although this behavior is typical for a friction-damped oscillator, through simulation it is shown that this effect is still present even when friction forces are absent. A simple expression is developed which predicts the optimal damping conditions for a given amplitude and is independent of the oscillation frequency and particle inelasticities.

  2. Movers and shakers: granular damping in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Bannerman, M N; Kollmer, J E; Sack, A; Heckel, M; Mueller, P; Pöschel, T

    2011-07-01

    The response of an oscillating granular damper to an initial perturbation is studied using experiments performed in microgravity and granular dynamics simulations. High-speed video and image processing techniques are used to extract experimental data. An inelastic hard sphere model is developed to perform simulations and the results are in excellent agreement with the experiments. In line with previous work, a linear decay of the amplitude is observed. Although this behavior is typical for a friction-damped oscillator, through simulation it is shown that this effect is still present even when friction forces are absent. A simple expression is developed which predicts the optimal damping conditions for a given amplitude and is independent of the oscillation frequency and particle inelasticities. PMID:21867158

  3. Maximizing energy transfer in vibrofluidized granular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windows-Yule, C. R. K.; Rosato, A. D.; Parker, D. J.; Thornton, A. R.

    2015-05-01

    Using discrete particle simulations validated by experimental data acquired using the positron emission particle tracking technique, we study the efficiency of energy transfer from a vibrating wall to a system of discrete, macroscopic particles. We demonstrate that even for a fixed input energy from the wall, energy conveyed to the granular system under excitation may vary significantly dependent on the frequency and amplitude of the driving oscillations. We investigate the manner in which the efficiency with which energy is transferred to the system depends on the system variables and determine the key control parameters governing the optimization of this energy transfer. A mechanism capable of explaining our results is proposed, and the implications of our findings in the research field of granular dynamics as well as their possible utilization in industrial applications are discussed.

  4. Structural evolution of granular systems: Theory

    E-print Network

    Raphael Blumenfeld

    2015-05-01

    A first-principles theory is developed for the general evolution of a key structural characteristic of planar granular systems - the cell order distribution. The dynamic equations are constructed and solved in closed form for a number of examples: dense systems undergoing progressive compaction; initial dilation of very dense systems; and the approach to steady state of general systems. It is shown that the convergence to steady state is exponential, except when contacts are only broken and no new contacts are made, in which case the approach is algebraic in time. Where no closed form solutions are possible, illustrative numerical solutions of the evolution are shown. These show that the dynamics are sensitive to the cell event rates, which are process dependent. The formalism can be extended to other structural characteristics, paving the way to a general theory of structural organisation of granular systems, parameterised by the contact event rates.

  5. Amplitude dependent damping from granular viscoelastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darabi, B.; Rongong, J. A.

    2012-08-01

    The ability of a granular medium to dissipate vibrational energy is studied at different frequencies and amplitudes. The filler comprises relatively large particles with significant viscoelasticity and is placed in a rectangular box-shaped container and vibrated perpendicular to the direction of gravity. The performance of a model based on wave behaviour that is suitable for very low amplitude vibrations is compared with discrete elements and experimental results. Frequency dependent behaviour for the viscoelastic material is taken into account. The effects of vibration amplitude on performance are considered carefully - especially at the point where particles begin to move relative to each other. One interesting finding is that internal and interface loss mechanisms are closely interrelated - reduction in internal loss increases the mobility of individual particles and therefore more energy dissipation via friction. As a result, the overall effectiveness of the granular medium is less sensitive to material and configurationally parameters than might be expected.

  6. Compaction of granular material inside confined geometries

    E-print Network

    Benjy Marks; Bjørnar Sandnes; Guillaume Dumazer; Jon Alm Eriksen; Knut Jørgen Måløy

    2015-05-15

    In both nature and engineering, loosely packed granular materials are often compacted inside confined geometries. Here, we explore such behaviour in a quasi-two dimensional geometry, where parallel rigid walls provide the confinement. We use the discrete element method to investigate the stress distribution developed within the granular packing as a result of compaction due to the displacement of a rigid piston. We observe that the stress within the packing increases exponentially with the length of accumulated grains, and show an extension to current analytic models which fits the measured stress. The micromechanical behaviour is studied for a range of system parameters, and the limitations of existing analytic models are described. In particular, we show the smallest sized systems which can be treated using existing models. Additionally, the effects of increasing piston rate, and variations of the initial packing fraction, are described.

  7. Microgravity Experiments to Evaluate Electrostatic Forces in Controlling Cohesion and Adhesion of Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, J.; Weislogel, M.; Jacobson, T.

    1999-01-01

    The bulk behavior of dispersed, fluidized, or undispersed stationary granular systems cannot be fully understood in terms of adhesive/cohesive properties without understanding the role of electrostatic forces acting at the level of the grains themselves. When grains adhere to a surface, or come in contact with one another in a stationary bulk mass, it is difficult to measure the forces acting on the grains, and the forces themselves that induced the cohesion and adhesion are changed. Even if a single grain were to be scrutinized in the laboratory, it might be difficult, perhaps impossible, to define the distribution and character of surface charging and the three-dimensional relationship that charges (electrons, holes) have to one another. The hypothesis that we propose to test in microgravity (for dielectric materials) is that adhesion and cohesion of granular matter are mediated primarily by dipole forces that do not require the presence of a net charge; in fact, nominally electrically neutral materials should express adhesive and cohesive behavior when the neutrality results from a balance of positive and negative charge carriers. Moreover, the use of net charge alone as a measure of the electrical nature of grain-to-grain relationships within a granular mass may be misleading. We believe that the dipole forces arise from the presence of randomly-distributed positive and negative fixed charge carriers on grains that give rise to a resultant dipole moment. These dipole forces have long-range attraction. Random charges are created whenever there is triboelectrical activity of a granular mass, that is, whenever the grains experience contact/separation sequences or friction.

  8. Full-scale granular sludge Anammox process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. Abma; C. E. Schultz; J. W. Mulder; W. R. L. van der Star; M. Strous; T. Tokutomi; M. C. M. van Loosdrecht

    2007-01-01

    The start-up of the first full scale Anammox reactor is complete. The reactor shows stable operation, even at loading rates of 10 kg N\\/m3.d. This performance is the result of the formation of Anammox granules, which have a high density and settling velocities exceeding 100 m\\/h. With this performance, the Anammox granular sludge technology has been proven on full scale.

  9. Deflagration to detonation experiments in granular HMX

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Burnside; S. F. Son; B. W. Asay; P. M. Dickson

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the authors report on continuing work involving a series of deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) experiments in which they study the piston-initiated DDT of heavily confined granular cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX). These experiments were designed to he useful in model development and evaluation. A main focus of these experiments is the effect of density on the DDT event. Particle size distribution

  10. Covering Based Granular Computing for Conflict Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Zhu; Fei-yue Wang

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a Conflicts are widespread in our society owing to the scarcity of physical resources, different cultures and religions. The\\u000a Chinese Wall security policy is a conflicts model originally proposed by Brewer and Nash for information access control. The\\u000a rapid development of intelligence and security informatics prompts us to revisit this policy and we use granular computing\\u000a based on covering rough set

  11. Segregation in granular binary mixtures: Thermal diffusion

    E-print Network

    Vicente Garzo

    2006-06-27

    A recent solution of the inelastic Boltzmann equation that applies for strong dissipation and takes into account non-equipartition of energy is used to derive an explicit expression for the thermal diffusion factor. This parameter provides a criterion for segregation that involves all the parameters of the granular binary mixture (composition, masses, sizes, and coefficients of restitution). The present work is consistent with recent experimental results and extends previous results obtained in the intruder limit case.

  12. Cystic granular cell tumor mimicking Rathke cleft cyst.

    PubMed

    Mumert, Michael L; Walsh, Michael T; Chin, Steven S; Couldwell, William T

    2011-02-01

    Symptomatic granular cell tumors of the neurohypophysis are a rarely reported entity. To the authors' knowledge, they report the first fully described case of a symptomatic granular cell tumor with a large cystic component. A 31-year-old woman presented with headaches and visual complaints with imaging findings confirming a cystic sellar and suprasellar mass. The lesion was resected, and histological examination confirmed the diagnosis. The literature has shown that granular cell tumors are rarely reported as being symptomatic but may actually be a fairly common finding in autopsy studies. The authors review the literature with a specific focus on radiographic findings in patients with symptomatic granular cell tumors. PMID:20509726

  13. Dynamic Behaviors of Supersonic Granular Media under Vertical Vibration

    E-print Network

    Kai Huang; Peng Zhang; Guoqing Miao; Rongjue Wei

    2005-11-29

    We present experimental study of vibrofluidized granular materials by high speed photography. Statistical results present the averaged dynamic behaviors of granular materials in one cycle, including the variations of height, velocity and mechanical energy of the center of mass. Furthermore, time-space distribution of granular temperature which corresponds to the random kinetic energy shows that a temperature peak forms in the compression period and propagates upward with a steepened front. The Mach number in the steepened front is found to be greater than unity, indicating a shock propagating in the supersonic granular media.

  14. Vibratory Shock Compaction of Granular Nuclear Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amme, Robert C.

    2004-05-01

    Vibratory Shock Compaction (VSC) is a proven means for quickly forming strong, durable solids from a wide variety of granular materials[1]. Calcination of tank and other forms of high level radioactive wastes results in fine granular material that is quite amenable to volume reduction and stabilization. We have employed utilities coal ash as a calcine waste surrogate, blended with a quartz/feldspar-rich sand and 0-20% proportions of a borosilicate glass. The blends were compacted at room temperature and fired so that the glass melt could form an efficient binder. Included in the blend are small quantities of three RCRA metals, chromium, cadmium and lead, to permit testing for heavy metal stability. The VSC process is described and the results presented in terms of the waste form dissolution rates, compressive strengths, elastic moduli as determined from resonant frequency measurements, and heavy metal leach rates from Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure measurements. Vibratory shock compaction employing glass binders appears to be a viable alternative to traditional vitrification processes for granular waste forms. [1] See http://www.resonantshockcompact.com

  15. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Test Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A test cell for Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is tested for long-term storage with water in the system as plarned for STS-107. This view shows the top of the sand column with the metal platten removed. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that cannot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder

  16. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Test Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A test cell for Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is shown approximately 20 and 60 minutes after the start of an experiment on STS-89. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  17. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Test Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A test cell for Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is tested for long-term storage with water in the system as plarned for STS-107. This view shows the compressed sand column with the protective water jacket removed. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that cannot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder

  18. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A test cell for the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is shown in its on-orbit configuration in Spacehab during preparations for STS-89. The twin locker to the left contains the hydraulic system to operate the experiment. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Note: Because the image on the screen was muted in the original image, its brightness and contrast are boosted in this rendering to make the test cell more visible. Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  19. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    One of three Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) test cells after flight on STS-79 and before impregnation with resin. Note that the sand column has bulged in the middle, and that the top of the column is several inches lower than the top of the plastic enclosure. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder

  20. Mechanics of Granular Materials Test Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A test cell for Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is shown from all three sides by its video camera during STS-89. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  1. Hydrodynamic modes in a confined granular fluid

    E-print Network

    Ricardo Brito; Dino Risso; Rodrigo Soto

    2013-02-14

    Confined granular fluids, placed in a shallow box that is vibrated vertically, can achieve homogeneous stationary states thanks to energy injection mechanisms that take place throughout the system. These states can be stable even at high densities and inelasticities allowing for a detailed analysis of the hydrodynamic modes that govern the dynamics of granular fluids. Analyzing the decay of the time correlation functions it is shown that there is a crossover between a quasielastic regime in which energy evolves as a slow mode, to a inelastic regime, with energy slaved to the other conserved fields. The two regimes have well differentiated transport properties and, in the inelastic regime, the dynamics can be described by a reduced hydrodynamics with modified longitudinal viscosity and sound speed. The crossover between the two regimes takes place at a wavevector that is proportional to the inelasticity. A two dimensional granular model, with collisions that mimic the energy transfers that take place in a confined system is studied by means of microscopic simulations. The results show excellent agreement with the theoretical framework and allows the validation of hydrodynamic-like models.

  2. A study of bubble wetting on surfaces

    E-print Network

    Day, Julia Katherine

    2010-01-01

    In microfluidics, the formation of bubbles within devices obstructs flow and can damage the microfluidic chip or the samples contained therein. This thesis works toward a better understand of bubble wetting on surfaces, ...

  3. 7 CFR 29.3567 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3567 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3567 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3567 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco...

  5. 7 CFR 29.3567 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3567 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3567 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3567 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco...

  7. 7 CFR 29.3567 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3567 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco...

  8. Breakdown in the Wetting Transparency of Graphene

    E-print Network

    Shih, Chih-Jen

    We develop a theory to model the van der Waals interactions between liquid and graphene, including quantifying the wetting behavior of a graphene-coated surface. Molecular dynamics simulations and contact angle measurements ...

  9. A WET TALE: TOXICITY OF COMPLEX EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This course covers standards, regulations, policy, guidance and technical aspects of implementing the whole effluent toxicity program. The curriculum incorporates rationale and information on WET test requirements from USEPA documents, such as the Technical Support Document for W...

  10. Wafer Backside Anisotropic Wet Etching of Silicon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This animation, created by Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME), illustrates how the "wafer backside anisotropic wet etching of silicon is used to form the pressure sensor chamber." Further information and resources can be found on the SCME website.

  11. National Ignition Facility wet weather construction plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kugler, A N

    1998-01-01

    This report presents a wet weather construction plan for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) construction project. Construction of the NIF commenced in mid- 1997, and excavation of the site was completed in the fall. Preparations for placing concrete foundations began in the fall, and above normal rainfall is expected over the tinter. Heavy rainfall in late November impacted foundation construction, and a wet weather construction plan was determined to be needed. This wet weather constiction plan recommends a strategy, techniques and management practices to prepare and protect the site corn wet weather effects and allow construction work to proceed. It is intended that information in this plan be incorporated in the Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) as warranted.

  12. ESTIMATING URBAN WET-WEATHER POLLUTANT LOADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents procedures for estimating pollutant loads in urban watersheds emanating from wet-weather flow discharge. Equations for pollutant loading estimates will focus on the effects of wastewater characteristics, sewer flow carrying velocity, and sewer-solids depositi...

  13. Reducing the atmospheric impact of wet slaking

    SciTech Connect

    B.D. Zubitskii; G.V. Ushakov; B.G. Tryasunov; A.G.Ushakov [Kuznetsk Basin State Technical University, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15

    Means of reducing the atmospheric emissions due to the wet slaking of coke are considered. One option, investigated here, is to remove residual active silt and organic compounds from the biologically purified wastewater sent for slaking, by coagulation and flocculation.

  14. Structure of Wet Specimens in Electron Microscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, D. F.

    1974-01-01

    Discussed are past work and recent advances in the use of electron microscopes for viewing structures immersed in gas and liquid. Improved environmental chambers make it possible to examine wet specimens easily. (Author/RH)

  15. Photoresponsive superhydrophobic surfaces for effective wetting control.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shuaijun; Guo, Rui; Xu, Weijian

    2014-12-01

    Dynamically tuning the surface wettability has long been a scientific challenge, but of great importance in surface science. Robust superhydrophobic surfaces, displaying switchable and tunable extreme wetting behaviors, are successfully developed by spraying photoresponsive hydrophobic nanoparticles onto various substrates. The surface wettability can be intelligently adjusted by applying irradiation with UV or visible light, which is assumed to initiate large conformation changes of azobenzene units at the coating surface, resulting in distinct surface energy change and thus controlled wetting behaviors. The underlying wetting mechanism about the resulting surfaces is systematically investigated and supported by the estimation of water contact angles using newly rewritten Cassie-Baxter and Wenzel relations and also by the evaluation of solid surface free energy adopting the Owens-Wendt approach. The methodology proposed may provide a novel way of tuning surface wettability and investigating the wetting transition mechanism and also promote applications in self-cleaning and smart fluid control. PMID:25322263

  16. Mutiscale Modeling of Segregation in Granular Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Sun

    2007-08-03

    Modeling and simulation of segregation phenomena in granular flows are investigated. Computational models at different scales ranging from particle level (microscale) to continuum level (macroscale) are employed in order to determine the important microscale physics relevant to macroscale modeling. The capability of a multi-fluid model to capture segregation caused by density difference is demonstrated by simulating grain-chaff biomass flows in a laboratory-scale air column and in a combine harvester. The multi-fluid model treats gas and solid phases as interpenetrating continua in an Eulerian frame. This model is further improved by incorporating particle rotation using kinetic theory for rapid granular flow of slightly frictional spheres. A simplified model is implemented without changing the current kinetic theory framework by introducing an effective coefficient of restitution to account for additional energy dissipation due to frictional collisions. The accuracy of predicting segregation rate in a gas-fluidized bed is improved by the implementation. This result indicates that particle rotation is important microscopic physics to be incorporated into the hydrodynamic model. Segregation of a large particle in a dense granular bed of small particles under vertical. vibration is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Wall friction is identified as a necessary condition for the segregation. Large-scale force networks bearing larger-than-average forces are found with the presence of wall friction. The role of force networks in assisting rising of the large particle is analyzed. Single-point force distribution and two-point spatial force correlation are computed. The results show the heterogeneity of forces and a short-range correlation. The short correlation length implies that even dense granular flows may admit local constitutive relations. A modified minimum spanning tree (MST) algorithm is developed to asymptotically recover the force statistics in the force networks. This algorithm provides a possible route to constructing a continuum model with microstructural information supplied from it. Microstructures in gas fluidized beds are also analyzed using a hybrid method, which couples the discrete element method (DEM) for particle dynamics with the averaged two-fluid (TF) equations for the gas phase. Multi-particle contacts are found in defluidized regions away from bubbles in fluidized beds. The multi-particle contacts invalidate the binary-collision assumption made in the kinetic theory of granular flows for the defluidized regions. Large ratios of contact forces to drag forces are found in the same regions, which confirms the relative importance of contact forces in determining particle dynamics in the defluidized regions.

  17. Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einasto, Jaan

    2013-12-01

    I review the development of the concept of dark matter. The dark matter story passed through several stages, from a minor observational puzzle to a major challenge for theory of elementary particles. Modern data suggest that dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe and that it consists of some unknown non-baryonic particles. Dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe; therefore, properties of dark matter particles determine the structure of the cosmic web.

  18. Characterization of wet aggregate stability of soils by (1) H-NMR relaxometry.

    PubMed

    Buchmann, C; Meyer, M; Schaumann, G E

    2014-10-10

    For the assessment of soil structural stability against hydraulic stress, wet sieving or constant head permeability tests are typically used but rather limited in their intrinsic information value. The multiple applications of several tests is the only possibility to assess important processes and mechanisms during soil aggregate breakdown, e.g. the influences of soil fragment release or differential swelling on the porous systems of soils or soil aggregate columns. Consequently, the development of new techniques for a faster and more detailed wet aggregate stability assessment is required. (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry ((1) H-NMR relaxometry) might provide these requirements because it has already been successfully applied on soils. We evaluated the potential of (1) H-NMR relaxometry for the assessment of wet aggregate stability of soils, with more detailed information on occurring mechanisms at the same time. Therefore, we conducted single wet sieving and constant head permeability tests on untreated and 1% polyacrylic acid-treated soil aggregates of different textures and organic matter contents, subsequently measured by (1) H-NMR relaxometry after percolation. The stability of the soil aggregates were mainly depending on their organic matter contents and the type of aggregate stabilization, whereby additional effects of clay swelling on the measured wet aggregate stability were identified by the transverse relaxation time (T2 ) distributions. Regression analyses showed that only the percentage of water stable aggregates could be determined accurately from percolated soil aggregate columns by (1) H-NMR relaxometry measurements. (1) H-NMR relaxometry seems a promising technique for wet aggregate stability measurements but should be further developed for nonpercolated aggregate columns and real soil samples. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25303035

  19. The energy content of wet corn distillers grains for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Birkelo, C P; Brouk, M J; Schingoethe, D J

    2004-06-01

    Forty-five energy balances were completed with 12 multiparous, lactating Holstein cows in a study designed to determine the energy content of wet corn distillers grains. Treatments were applied in a repeated switchback design and consisted of total mixed diets containing 31.4% corn silage, 18.4% alfalfa hay, and either 30.7% rolled corn and 16.7% soybean meal or 17.0% rolled corn and 31.2% wet corn distillers grains (dry matter basis). Replacement of corn and soybean meal with wet corn distillers grains reduced dry matter intake 10.9% but did not affect milk production. Neither digestible nor metabolizable energy were affected by diet composition. Heat and milk energy output did not differ by diet, but body energy retained was 2.8 Mcal/d less in cows fed the wet corn distillers grains diet. Multiple regression estimates of maintenance metabolizable energy requirement and partial efficiencies of metabolizable energy used for lactation and body energy deposition did not differ by diet. Pooled estimates were 136.2, 0.66, and 0.85, kcal of metabolizable energy/ body weight0.75 per day, respectively. Calculated by difference, wet corn distillers grains was estimated to contain 4.09, 3.36, and 2.27 Mcal/kg of dry matter as digestible, metabolizable, and lactational net energy, respectively. These energy estimates were 7 to 11% and 10 to 15%, respectively, greater than those reported for dried corn distillers grains by the 1989 and 2001 dairy NRC publications. PMID:15453497

  20. Soil aggregate formation: the role of wetting-drying cycles in the genesis of interparticle bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albalasmeh, Ammar; Ghezzehei, Teamrat

    2013-04-01

    Soil structure influences many soil properties including aeration, water retention, drainage, bulk density, and resistance to erosion and indirectly influences most biological and chemical processes that occur in and around soil. In nature, soil is continually exposed to wetting (e.g., rainfall and diffusive flow) and drying (e.g., evaporation, diffusive flow and plant uptake). These natural wetting and drying cycles of soils are physical events that profoundly affect the development of soil structure, aggregate stability, carbon (C) flux and mineralization. We hypothesize that drying of capillary water transports suspended and/or dissolved cementing agents toward inter-particle contacts and eventually deposits part of the colloidal mass forming inter-particle bonds. Here, we will show the role of wetting and drying cycles on soil aggregation and stabilization and how these cycles transport and deposit organic cementing agents at the inter-particle contact. We found that aggregates of sand and silt particles can be formed by subjecting loose particles to wetting-drying cycles in the presence of dilute solutions of organic matter that mimic root or microbial exudates. Moreover, majority of the organic matter was deposited in the contact region between the sand particles, where the water accumulates during drying. The model predictions and aggregate stability measurements are supported by scanning electron micrographs that clearly show the process of aggregate formation.

  1. Scaled experiments to determine the role of density on granular flows behavior: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Sedano, L. A.; Sarocchi, D.; Borselli, L.; Segura, O.

    2013-12-01

    Geological granular flows are very complex, gravity driven phenomena which can show different behaviors depending on its origin and the characteristics of the constituent material. Due to their dangerous nature, and multiple scientific and technological applications, these phenomena has being studied deeply in order to have a better comprehension, however, after more than one century of scientific research it remains as an open topic with more questions than answers. One of the aspects that still need exhaustive research is the effect of clast density on the flowing granular material, as pointed out by previous laboratory and field studies. There are anyway few studies which have tried to explain the role of bulk density, as well the density of different phases, as it increasing or decreasing on the kinematic and the rheological characteristics of geological granular flows. The content of low density juvenile material seems to condition the processes of transformations of debris flows to more diluted phases, as well the transport and emplacing mechanisms. It is well known that the content of clay in debris flows has great influence on its behavior, physical processes and the deposits characteristics for this reason lahars has being subdivided in base of this parameter. Our hypothesis is that, in like manner, the presence of low density material inside the granular flows (dry and wet) could conditioning its physical characteristics and its behavior. In order to put this to the test, we made some laboratory experiments using a five meter long and 0.3 m wide experimental flume equipped with a wide range of sensors and laser barriers to precisely measure the rheological properties and kinematic of the sliding avalanches. A special effort was devoted to determine a threshold or critical level in the amount of low density material at which the avalanche behavior suffer appreciable changes. The obtained preliminary results confirm our hypothesis and encouraged to perform further experiments. Such studies are important because they could provide useful information for developing analog models that take into account this important physical property.

  2. Impact of wettability on two-phase displacement patterns in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juanes, Ruben; Trojer, Mathias; Szulczewski, Michael; Holtzman, Ran

    2013-11-01

    Two phase flow in porous media controls many natural processes like geological CO2 sequestration, enhanced oil recovery, water infiltration in soil, and methane venting from organic-rich sediments. While the wetting properties of rocks can vary drastically, the effect of wettability on fluid displacement in porous media remains poorly understood. Here, we study experimentally how wettability affects the fluid-fluid displacement pattern in rigid granular media within the capillary and viscous fingering regime. We inject a less viscous fluid into a thin bed of glass beads, initially fully saturated with a more viscous one. By keeping all control parameters constant and changing the contact angle of the substrate systematically, we visually explore and quantify the impact of the wetting properties on the invasion morphology. For fixed capillary number, we show that the invasion pattern becomes more stable as the contact angle increases (i.e., as we transition from drainage to imbibition) both in the capillary-fingering and in the viscous-fingering regime. We quantify the dependence of the lengthscale of the instability on contact angle, and propose a mechanistic pore-scale model that explains the macroscopic observations.

  3. [Enrichment of anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria by expanded-granular sludge bed reactor].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoli; Gao, Dawen; Cong, Yan; Wang, Xiaolong

    2014-12-01

    An expanded-granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor was set-up with artificial water by seeding a 60 d stored ANAMMOX sludge. The nitrogen removal efficiency of ANAMMOX enrichment culture in the reactor was determined. In addition, the main microbial populations and the relative abundance of ANAMMOX bacteria were investigated by molecular approaches. Results show that the maximum nitrogen removal rate was 3.0 kg-N·m(-3)·d(-1) after 185 d, and the ammonium and nitrite removal efficiencies were all over 85%. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene-cloning indicates that the main microbial population in the ANAMMOX enrichment culture was changed from Candidatus Brocadiafulgid and Candidatus Brocadia brasiliensis (0 day) to Candidatus Jettenia asiatica (185 day). Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis shows that the relative abundance of ANAMMOX bacteria was increased from (57.69 ± 4.79)% to (83.32 ± 4.40)%. The results of qPCR further indicate that the gene copies of ANAMMOX bacteria in the granules were increased from 1.14 x 10(11) copies/g wet weight to 3.69 x 10(11) copies/g wet weight. PMID:26016374

  4. Dynamics of granular stratification Hernan A. Makse,1,2

    E-print Network

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    Dynamics of granular stratification Herna´n A. Makse,1,2 Robin C. Ball,1 H. Eugene Stanley,2 02215 Received 20 January 1998 Spontaneous stratification in granular mixtures--i.e., the formation to spontaneous stratification. We divide the process in three stages: a avalanche of grains and segregation

  5. Minimal mass transfer across dolomitic granular fault cores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Billi; Paolo Primavera; Michele Soligo; Paola Tuccimei

    2008-01-01

    The role of chemical changes and mass transfer in the formation of granular fault cores across carbonate strata is still unclear. Thirteen granular fault cores across strata of dolostone from Sperlonga, central Italy, are analyzed by chemical and physical methods. The analyzed faults are reverse or transpressional, up to about 1 m thick, and flanked by a host rock affected

  6. Experimental study of collisional granular flows down an inclined plane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel Azanza; François Chevoir; Pascal Moucheront

    1999-01-01

    The collisional flow of a slightly inelastic granular material down a rough inclined plane is usually described by kinetic theories. We present an experimental study aimed at analysing the assumptions and the quantitative predictions of such theories. A two-dimensional channel coupled to a model granular material and image analysis allow detailed and complete measurement of the kinematics and structure of

  7. Monodisperse dry granular flows on inclined planes: Role of roughness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Celine GOUJON; Nathalie THOMAS; Blanche DALLOZ-DUBRUJEAUD

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies have pointed out the importance of the basal friction on the dynamics of granular flows. We present experimental results on the influence of the roughness of the inclined plane on the dynamics of a monodisperse dry granular flow. We found experimentally that there exists a maximum of the friction for a given relative roughness. This maximum is shown

  8. Hydrothermal Modification of Granular Steel Slag for Phosphate Removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangwei Wang; Liping Qiu; Shoubin Zhang; Xuedong Zhai; Jun Ma

    2011-01-01

    The performance of phosphate removal using hydrothermal modified granular steel slag was evaluated. The effects of steel slag dosage, reaction time, solution pH and initial phosphate concentration of synthesized wastewater on phosphate removal were also investigated. The results show that the modified steel slag is more efficient than raw granular steel slag in phosphate removal. The residual phosphate concentration decreased

  9. Particle shape effects on the stress response of granular packings

    E-print Network

    Haller, Gary L.

    -convex geometries such as hexapods with various arm lengths, dolos, and tetrahedral frames. All particles were 3D-printed that particle shape plays a signicant role in controlling a granular material's microstructure,1­5 most work interactions lead to opportunities to generate granular materials with special properties. Gener- ally, as more

  10. Simulation of Gravity Flow of Granular Materials in Silos

    E-print Network

    Simulation of Gravity Flow of Granular Materials in Silos Pierre A. Gremaud1 and John V. Matthews1 materials in silos under the action of gravity is considered. In the case of a Mohr-Coulomb material, the steady state flow of incompressible granular materials un- der the action of gravity is investigated

  11. Granular phase changing composites for thermal energy storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Zhang; Jianming Zhou; Keru Wu; Zongjin Li

    2005-01-01

    Granular phase changing composites for thermal energy storage were made of granular porous materials and organic phase changing materials by means of vacuum impregnation method. Experimental studies on the vacuum impregnation method, phase changing behavior, chemical compatibility between porous materials and phase changing materials, and sealing performance of coating materials arrived in the following conclusions. Firstly, the vacuum impregnation method

  12. Network model of survival signaling in large granular lymphocyte leukemia

    E-print Network

    Albert, Réka

    Network model of survival signaling in large granular lymphocyte leukemia Ranran Zhang , Mithun granular lymphocyte (T-LGL) leukemia features a clonal expansion of antigen-primed, competent, cytotoxic-LGL leukemia, we constructed a T-LGL survival signaling network by integrating the signaling pathways involved

  13. Geological and mathematical framework for failure modes in granular rock

    E-print Network

    Borja, Ronaldo I.

    Geological and mathematical framework for failure modes in granular rock Atilla Aydina, *, Ronaldo processes in granular rock and provide a geological framework for the corresponding structures. We describe show that sharp structures overlap older narrow tabular structures in the same rock. This switch

  14. Silo music and silo quake: granular flow-induced vibration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benson K. Muite; Shandon F. Quinn; Sankaran Sundaresan; K. Kesava Rao

    2004-01-01

    Acceleration and sound measurements during granular discharge from silos are used to show that silo music is a sound resonance produced by silo quake. In tall and narrow silos, the latter is produced by stick–slip friction between the wall and the granular material. For the discharge rates studied, the occurrence of flow pulsations is determined primarily by the surface properties

  15. BACKWASH OF GRANULAR FILTERS USED IN WASTEWATER FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of deep granular filters in waste treatment is of growing importance. The key to long-term operating success of such filters is proper bed design and adequate bed cleaning during backwashing. Cleaning granular filters by water backwash alone to fluidize the filter bed is ...

  16. Granular Leidenfrost Effect: Experiment and Theory of Floating Particle Clusters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Eshuis; Ko van der Weele; Devaraj van der Meer; Detlef Lohse

    2005-01-01

    Granular material is vertically vibrated in a 2D container: above a critical shaking strength, and for a sufficient number of beads, a crystalline cluster is elevated and supported by a dilute gaseous layer of fast beads underneath. We call this phenomenon the granular Leidenfrost effect. The experimental observations are explained by a hydrodynamic model featuring three dimensionless control parameters: the

  17. Physical Properties of Various Materials Relevant to Granular Flow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of the ubiquitous nature of granular materials, ranging from natural avalanches to industrial storage and processing operations, interest in quantifying and predicting the dynamics of granular flow continues to increase. The objective of this study was to investigate various physical proper...

  18. Granular Avalanches in Fluids Sylvain Courrech du Pont,1

    E-print Network

    Weeks, Eric R.

    Granular Avalanches in Fluids Sylvain Courrech du Pont,1 Philippe Gondret,1 Bernard Perrin,2 2003) Three regimes of granular avalanches in fluids are put in light depending on the Stokes number St of avalanches do not depend on any fluid effect. In liquids (r 1), for decreasing St, the amplitude decreases

  19. Particle trajectories in 2D granular avalanches with imposed vibrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nora Swisher; Brian Utter

    2011-01-01

    We study particle trajectories of photoelastic grains in a 2D circular rotating drum subjected to imposed vertical vibrations in order to characterize the jamming behavior of granular materials. Jamming appears in many systems (grain silos & chutes, landslides, mixing industrial materials, etc.) and vibration (granular temperature) is a primary factor in the jamming\\/unjamming transition. Images are taken and each particle's

  20. Granular bed filtration of high temperature biomass gasification gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Stanghelle; Torbjørn Slungaard; Otto K. Sønju

    2007-01-01

    High temperature cleaning of producer gas from biomass gasification has been investigated with a granular filter. Field tests were performed for several hours on a single filter element at about 550°C. The results show cake filtration on the granular material and indicate good filtration of the biomass gasification producer gas. The relatively low pressure drop over the filter during filtration

  1. Experimental study of bedrock erosion by granular flows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslie Hsu; William E. Dietrich; Leonard S. Sklar

    2008-01-01

    Field studies suggest that bedrock incision by granular flows may be the primary process cutting valleys in steep, unglaciated landscapes. An expression has been proposed for debris flow incision into bedrock which posits that erosion rate depends on stresses due to granular interactions at the snout of debris flows. Here, we explore this idea by conducting laboratory experiments to test

  2. Hybrid intelligent fault diagnosis based on granular computing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhaowen Hou; Zhousuo Zhang

    2009-01-01

    To solve the problem of lacking hybrid modes and common algorithms in hybrid intelligent diagnosis, this paper presents a new approach to hybrid intelligent fault diagnosis of the mechanical equipment based on granular computing. The hybrid intelligent diagnosis model based on neighborhood rough set is constructed in different granular levels, and the results of support vector machines (SVMS) and artificial

  3. Entropy, entropy flux and entropy rate of granular materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilberto M. Kremer

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the entropy, entropy flux and entropy rate of granular materials within the frameworks of the Boltzmann equation and continuum thermodynamics. It is shown that the entropy inequality for a granular gas that follows from the Boltzmann equation differs from the one of a simple fluid due to the presence of a term

  4. BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON PARTICLES IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sampling protocol was developed to examine particles released from granular activated carbon filter beds. A gauze filter/Swinnex procedure was used to collect carbon fines from 201 granular activated carbon-treated drinking water samples over 12 months. Application of a homogen...

  5. Effect of sampling rate and monitoring granularity on anomaly detectability

    E-print Network

    Rejaie, Reza

    Effect of sampling rate and monitoring granularity on anomaly detectability Keisuke Ishibashi of anomalies to be detected. We show that by changing the measurement granularity, we can detect anomalies even and victim of the detected anomaly. On the other hand, the latter method gives rich information but lacks

  6. Vector lattice model for stresses in granular materials Onuttom Narayan

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Vector lattice model for stresses in granular materials Onuttom Narayan Physics Department A vector lattice model for stresses in granular materials is proposed. A two-dimensional pile built to solve for a tensor stress field which cannot be expressed in terms of a vector displace- ment field

  7. Measurement of chemical composition in wet whole maize silage by visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Cozzolino; A. Fassio; E. Fernández; E. Restaino; A. La Manna

    2006-01-01

    Visible (Vis) and near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy were used to predict dry matter (DM), acid and neutral detergent fibre (ADFom and aNDFom), ash, crude protein (CP) and pH in wet whole maize (WWM) silage samples. Samples were analysed by reference methods and spectra collected using a NIR spectrophotometer in reflectance (400–2500nm). Predictive equations were developed using modified partial least

  8. A rheological approach to analyze aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yun-Jie; Xia, Cheng-Wang; Yang, Hai-Yang; Zeng, Raymond J

    2014-03-01

    Aerobic granular sludge is one promising biotechnology in wastewater treatment. Despite intensive researches on granular architecture and strategies to improve treatment efficiency, there are still some elusive material parameters needed to stimulate the granulation process. The main aim of this study was to evaluate aerobic granular sludge innovatively using the universal rheology methodology, in terms of processability or quality and texture. Steady shear and oscillatory measurements were performed. Basic rheological characterization showed that aerobic granular sludge was a shear-thinning Herschel-Bulkley fluid with yield pseudoplasticity. Meanwhile, granular sludge presented characterized viscoelastic behaviors in dynamic sweeps highlighting its superiority to flocculent sludge. Furthermore, a Wagner-type constitutive model incorporating a relaxation and damping function was introduced and able to describe the time-dependent and non-linear viscoelastic behaviors. This study could make a further step on predicting rheological properties, helping improve the actual sludge treatment process and the operation of sludge dewatering. PMID:24374128

  9. Matter may matter

    E-print Network

    Haghani, Zahra; Sepangi, Hamid Reza; Shahidi, Shahab

    2014-01-01

    We propose a gravitational theory in which the effective Lagrangian of the gravitational field is given by an arbitrary function of the Ricci scalar, the trace of the matter energy-momentum tensor, and the contraction of the Ricci tensor with the matter energy-momentum tensor. The matter energy-momentum tensor is generally not conserved, thus leading to the appearance of an extra-force, acting on massive particles in a gravitational field. The stability conditions of the theory with respect to local perturbations are also obtained. The cosmological implications of the theory are investigated, representing an exponential solution. Hence a Ricci tensor - energy-momentum tensor coupling may explain the recent acceleration of the Universe, without resorting to the mysterious dark energy.

  10. Underwater wet welding made simple: benefits of Hammerhead ® wet-spot welding process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J Keats

    2009-01-01

    A new method of wet welding was investigated to evaluate potential improvements in weld quality, ease of use, increased welding speed and the elimination of welding skill. The new welding process, which has been called Hammerhead 'wet-spot' welding, eliminates the need for skilled welder-divers as well as traditional cleaning and preparation techniques normally associated with conventional manual metal arc (MMA)

  11. SOFT MATTER INTERFACES (SMI) SCIENTIFIC SCOPE

    E-print Network

    Ohta, Shigemi

    SOFT MATTER INTERFACES (SMI) SCIENTIFIC SCOPE BEAMLINE CHARACTERISTICS Molecular templates (above), liquids and wetting, hierarchical biomaterials ­ soft materials play crucial roles to advance technology. To create and control soft materials with new properties and functions, it is essential to probe structure

  12. Adsorption of chlorophenols on granular activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, M.

    1993-12-31

    Studies were undertaken of the adsorption of chlorinated phenols from aqueous solution on granular activated carbon (Filtrasorb-400, 30 x 40 mesh). Single-component equilibrium adsorption data on the eight compounds in two concentration ranges at pH 7.0 fit the Langmuir equation better than the Freundlich equation. The adsorptive capacities at pH 7.0 increase from pentachlorophenol to trichlorophenols and are fairly constant from trichlorophenols to monochlorophenols. The adsorption process was found to be exothermic for pentachlorophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and endothermic for 2,4-dichlorophenol and 4-chlorophenol. Equilibrium measurements were also conducted for 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and 4-chlorophenol over a wide pH range. A surface complexation model was proposed to describe the effect of pH on adsorption equilibria of chlorophenols on activated carbon. The simulations of the model are in excellent agreement with the experimental data. Batch kinetics studies were conducted of the adsorption of chlorinated phenols on granular activated carbon. The results show that the surface reaction model best describes both the short-term and long-term kinetics, while the external film diffusion model describes the short-term kinetics data very well and the linear-driving-force approximation improved its performance for the long-term kinetics. Multicomponent adsorption equilibria of chlorophenols on granular activated carbon was investigated in the micromolar equilibrium concentration range. The Langmuir competitive and Ideal Adsorbed Solution (IAS) models were tested for their performance on the three binary systems of pentachlorophenol/2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol/2,4-dichlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol/4-chlorophenol, and the tertiary system of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol/2,4-dichlorophenol/4-chlorophenol, and found to fail to predict the two-component adsorption equilibria of the former two binary systems and the tertiary system.

  13. Imaging of avalanches in granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretz, Michael; Cunningham, Jevne B.; Kurczynski, Peter L.; Nori, Franco

    1992-10-01

    Dry, noncohesive granular materials were very slowly driven to the threshold of instability where they produced avalanches. We have used digital image analysis to record avalanches that occurred on the surface of the incline. Results show large slides every 10-13 min which reset the surface from the maximum angle of stability, ?c, back to the angle of repose, ?r. We also find a power-law distribution of sizes for smaller avalanches occurring between the large sliding events. The number of these small avalanches follows a power-law dependence on the reduced angle, (?c-?)/(?c-?r), or time, which demonstrates that ?c behaves like a critical point.

  14. Uphill solitary waves in granular flows.

    PubMed

    Martínez, E; Pérez-Penichet, C; Sotolongo-Costa, O; Ramos, O; Måløy, K J; Douady, S; Altshuler, E

    2007-03-01

    We have experimentally observed uphill solitary waves in the surface flow on a granular material. A heap is constructed by injecting sand between two vertical glass plates separated by a distance much larger than the average grain size, with an open boundary. As the heap reaches the open boundary, solitary fluctuations appear on the flowing layer and move "up the hill" (i.e., against the direction of the flow). We explain the phenomenon in the context of stop-and-go traffic models. PMID:17500689

  15. Signal propagation through dense granular systems

    E-print Network

    L. Kondic; O. M. Dybenko; R. P. Behringer

    2008-05-14

    The manner in which signals propagate through dense granular systems in both space and time is not well understood. In order to learn more about this process, we carry out discrete element simulations of the system response to excitations where we control the driving frequency and wavelength independently. Fourier analysis shows that properties of the signal depend strongly on the spatial and temporal scales introduced by the perturbation. The features of the response provide a test-bed for any continuum theory attempting to predict signal properties. We illustrate this connection between micro-scale physics and macro-scale behavior by comparing the system response to a simple elastic model with damping.

  16. Granular Cell Astrocytoma: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyu Ho; Song, Ju Young; Choi, Chang Hwan; Kim, Lucia; Choi, Suk Jin; Han, Jee Young; Kim, Joon Mee; Chu, Young Chae

    2012-01-01

    We report here a rare case of granular cell astrocytoma. A 75-year-old man was admitted to Inha University Hospital with a three-month history of language deterioration. In a magnetic resonance imaging, a 6.5 cm-sized heterogeneous enhancing mass was seen in both the frontal lobes and the anterior genu of the corpus callosum. A stereotactic biopsy was performed. The tumor was composed of large and small round cells with abundant intracytoplasmic granules. The nuclei were bland, round to oval, and often eccentrically located. The cytoplasm of the tumor cells was positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100 protein. PMID:23110030

  17. What determines force chains in granular media?

    E-print Network

    Oleg Gendelman; Yoav G. Pollack; Itamar Procaccia; Shiladitya Sengupta; Jacques Zylberg

    2015-05-25

    The determination of the normal and transverse (frictional) inter-particle forces within a granular medium is a long standing, taunting, and yet unresolved problem. We present a new formalism which employs the knowledge of the external forces and the orientations of contacts between particles (of any given sizes), to compute all the inter-particle forces. Having solved this problem we exemplify the efficacy of the formalism showing that the force chains in such systems are determined by an expansion in the eigenfunctions of a newly defined operator.

  18. Granular instability in a vibrated U tube

    E-print Network

    I. Sánchez; J. R. Darias; R. Paredes; C. J. Lobb; G. Gutiérrez

    2007-05-19

    We study experimentally the collective motion of grains inside a U shaped tube undergoing vertical oscillations, and we develop a very simple quantitative model that captures relevant features of the observed behaviour. The height difference between the granular columns grows with time when the system is shaken at sufficiently low frequencies. The system exhibits two types of growth: exponentially divergent (type I) and exponentially saturating (type II), depending on the size of the grains. The type I growth can be quenched by removing the air whereas the type II behavior can occur in the absence of air. There is a good agreement between the model proposed and our experimental results.

  19. Seismo-hypoplasticity with a granular temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerd Gudehus

    2006-01-01

    Skeletons of hard grains reveal rate-dependence, creep and relaxation almost as soils with soft particles. This non-linear\\u000a viscosity is explained with a granular temperature T\\u000a \\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 g instead of T. The framework of hypoplasticity is used and briefly outlined, first without viscosity and then with it. Biaxial test results\\u000a with monotonous deformations can be matched with a suitable T\\u000a \\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 g. This

  20. Fluidization of a horizontally driven granular monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckel, Michael; Sack, Achim; Kollmer, Jonathan E.; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2015-06-01

    We consider the transition of a horizontally vibrated monodisperse granular monolayer between its condensed state and its three-dimensional gaseous state as a function of the vibration parameters, amplitude, and frequency as well as particle number density. The transition is characterized by an abrupt change of the dynamical state which leaves its fingerprints in several measurable quantities including dissipation rate, sound emission, and a gap size which characterizes the sloshing motion of the material. The transition and its pronounced hysteresis is explained through the energy due to the collective motion of the particles relative to the container.

  1. Nonequilibrium liquid theory for sheared granular liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Hisao; Chong, Song-Ho; Otsuki, Michio

    2010-05-01

    A nonequilibrium liquid theory for uniformly sheared granular liquids is developed starting from SLLOD equations. We derive a generalized Green-Kubo formula and demonstrate that it yields the nonequilibrium steady-state average which is essentially independent of the choice of the initial condition. It is also shown that the fluctuating hydrodynamics can be derived from Mori-type equations for density and current-density fluctuations if one considers a weak-shear and small-dissipation limit along with the Markovian approximation.

  2. Starting to move through a granular medium

    E-print Network

    D. J. Costantino; T. J. Scheidemantel; M. B. Stone; C. Conger; K. Klein; M. Lohr; Z. Modig; P. Schiffer

    2010-12-10

    We explore the process of initiating motion through a granular medium by measuring the force required to push a flat circular plate upward from underneath the medium. In contrast to previous measurements of the drag and penetration forces, which were conducted during steady state motion, the initiation force has a robust dependence on the diameter of the grains in the medium. We attribute this dependence to the requirement for local dilation of the grains around the circumference of the plate, as evidenced by an observed linear dependence of the initiation force on the plate diameter.

  3. Biological and robotic movement through granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    We discuss laboratory experiments and numerical simulations of locomotion of biological organisms and robots on and within a granular medium. Terrestrial locomotion on granular media (like desert and beach sand) is unlike locomotion on rigid ground because during a step the material begins as a solid, becomes a fluid and then re-solidifies. Subsurface locomotion within granular media is unlike swimming in water for similar reasons. The fluidization and solidification depend on the packing properties of the material and can affect limb penetration depth and propulsive force. Unlike aerial and aquatic locomotion in which the Navier-Stokes equations can be used to model environment interaction, models for limb interaction with granular media do not yet exist. To study how the fluidizing properties affect speed in rapidly running and swimming lizards and crabs, we use a trackway composed of a fluidized bed of of 250 ?m glass spheres. Pulses of air to the bed set the solid volume fraction 0.59

  4. Impact of wettability on two-phase displacement patterns in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trojer, M.; Szulczewski, M.; Holtzman, R.; Juanes, R.

    2013-12-01

    Two-phase flow in porous media is important in many natural and industrial processes like geologic CO2 sequestration, enhanced oil recovery, water infiltration in soil, and methane venting from organic-rich sediments. While the wetting properties of porous media can vary drastically depending on the type of media and the pore fluids, the effect of wettability on the fluid displacement remains poorly understood. Here, we study experimentally how wettability affects fluid displacement patterns in rigid granular media within the capillary and viscous fingering regimes. The experiments consist of saturating a thin bed of glass beads with a viscous fluid, injecting a less viscous fluid, and imaging the invasion morphology. There are two control parameters: the injection rate of the less viscous fluid and the contact angle, which we control by modifying the surface chemistry of the beads. When the contact angle is fixed at zero (drainage), we recover the well-known transition from capillary fingering to viscous fingering as the injection rate is increased. When the injection rate is fixed, we show that the invasion pattern becomes more stable as the contact angle increases (i.e., as the system transitions from drainage to imbibition), both in the capillary-fingering and viscous-fingering regimes. We quantify the effect of the contact angle on the length scale of the instability, and propose a mechanistic pore-scale model that explains the macroscopic observations. The results demonstrate that wettability can significantly impact multiphase flow in porous media, and highlight the need to better understand the specific effects in many processes such as CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery. Air displacing a water/glycerol mixture within a radial Hele-Shaw cell filled with glass beads. Varying the wetting properties of the solid matrix (horizontal axis) as well as the injection rate (vertical axis) systematically, the invasion pattern stabilizes as the invading phase (air) becomes more wetting.

  5. Advanced tests of wet welded joints

    SciTech Connect

    Pachniuk, I. [Stolt Comex Seaway S.A., Marseille (France); Petershagen, H.; Pohl, R. [Univ. Hamburg (Germany); Szelagowski, P.; Drews, O. [GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Wet Welding has in former times only been applied to secondary structural components. Nowadays wet welding has become an upcoming repair process due to high process flexibility, its low investment costs and its high versatility. Even the quality of the wet welded joints has been improved remarkably due to intensive and concentrated development activities. However, especially in the North Sea regions owners of offshore structures and classifying authorities still hesitate to recognize the process as a reliable alternative to dry hyperbaric welding repair methods. It therefore requires further activities especially in the field of data development for life prediction of such repaired components. Advanced testing methods are necessary, additional design criteria are to be developed and achievable weldment quality data are to be included in acknowledged and approved standards and recommendations to improve the credibility of the process and to solve the problem of quality assurance for wet welded joints. A comprehensive project, sponsored by the European Community under the Thermie Programme, is in progress to develop new testing procedures to generate the required data and design criteria for the future application of the wet welding process to main components of offshore structures. It is the aim of the project to establish additional fitness for purpose data for this process.

  6. Design consideration for wet welded joints

    SciTech Connect

    Szelagowski, P.; Osthus, V. [GKSS Research Center, Geesthacht (Germany); Petershagen, H.; Pohl, R. [Univ. Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Schiffbau; Lafaye, G. [Stolt Comex Seaway S.A., Marseille (France)

    1996-12-01

    Wet welding has become a joining technique that under certain circumstances can provide results which cannot be distinguished between wet or dry production and the achievable mechanical quality is comparable to dry atmospheric welds. Wet welding is not a process which can be applied easily and which can be properly handled by untrained diver welders. Wet welding is more than any other kind of welding process or procedure a joining technique that requires the full job-concentration and -knowledge of an excellent trained and skilled diver welder throughout the whole production time, who is 100% identifying himself with his task. Furthermore he must be fully aware of the production requirements and possible metallurgical/environmental reactions and outcomes. He must be able to be fully concentrated on the process performance throughout his total work shift. In short: he must be an outstanding expert in his field. The following paper will highlight these subjects and show the necessity of their exact observation to achieve excellent quality in wet welding.

  7. Observations of mercury wet deposition in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anne M; Gay, David A

    2013-12-01

    We provide a longer-term record of Hg wet deposition at two tropical latitude monitoring sites in Mexico, selected to provide regionally representative data. Weekly wet deposition samples were collected over 2 years, from September 2003 to November 2005. Based on this data set, we discuss the magnitude and seasonal variation of Hg in wet deposition and compare the results to other measurement sites and to several model estimates. With precipitation-weighted mean (PWM) concentrations of 8.2 and 7.9 ng L(-1), respectively, during the sampling period from Sep 30 2003 to Oct 11 2005, and median weekly concentrations of 9.4 ± 1 ng L(-1) for both sites, the wet Hg concentrations and deposition at HD01 were much lower than those observed at the US Gulf Coast MDN sites while the wet Hg deposition at OA02 was much lower than most MDN sites, but somewhat similar to US MDN sites along the Pacific Coast. Based on the limited available data, we conclude that the approximately 30 % higher average precipitation at HD01 and roughly equal PWM concentrations lead to the higher deposition at HD01 versus OA02. We believe that these observations may offer scientists and modelers additional understanding of the depositional fluxes in the lower latitudes of North America. PMID:24062061

  8. Epimacular brachytherapy for wet AMD: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Casaroli-Marano, Ricardo P; Alforja, Socorro; Giralt, Joan; Farah, Michel E

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is considered the most common cause of blindness in the over-60 age group in developed countries. There are basically two forms of presentation: geographic (dry or atrophic) and wet (neovascular or exudative). Geographic atrophy accounts for approximately 85%–90% of ophthalmic frames and leads to a progressive degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium and the photoreceptors. Wet AMD causes the highest percentage of central vision loss secondary to disease. This neovascular form involves an angiogenic process in which newly formed choroidal vessels invade the macular area. Today, intravitreal anti-angiogenic drugs attempt to block the angiogenic events and represent a major advance in the treatment of wet AMD. Currently, combination therapy for wet AMD includes different forms of radiation delivery. Epimacular brachytherapy (EMBT) seems to be a useful approach to be associated with current anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents, presenting an acceptable efficacy and safety profile. However, at the present stage of research, the results of the clinical trials carried out to date are insufficient to justify extending routine use of EMBT for the treatment of wet AMD. PMID:25210436

  9. Different Effects of Roughness (Granularity) and Hydrophobicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil Shirtcliffe; Glen McHale; Christopher Hamlett; Michael Newton

    2010-01-01

    With thanks to Stefan Doerr and Jorge Mataix-Solera for their invitation Superhydrophobicity is an interesting effect that appears to be simple on the outset; increased surface area from roughness increases interfacial area and therefore energy loss or gain. More extreme roughness prevents total wetting, resulting in gas pockets present at the surface and a drastic change in the properties of

  10. A Granular Computing Paradigm for Concept Yiyu Yao and Xiaofei Deng

    E-print Network

    Yao, Yiyu

    twofold benefits. Results from concept formulation and learning enrich granular computing and a granularA Granular Computing Paradigm for Concept Learning Yiyu Yao and Xiaofei Deng Abstract The problem of concept formation and learning is examined from the viewpoint of granular computing. Correspondences

  11. Wet granulation in a twin-screw extruder: implications of screw design.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M R; Sun, J

    2010-04-01

    Wet granulation in twin-screw extrusion machinery is an attractive technology for the continuous processing of pharmaceuticals. The performance of this machinery is integrally tied to its screw design yet little fundamental knowledge exists in this emerging field for granulation to intelligently create, troubleshoot, and scale-up such processes. This study endeavored to systematically examine the influence of different commercially available screw elements on the flow behavior and granulation mechanics of lactose monohydrate saturated at low concentration (5-12%, w/w) with an aqueous polyvinyl-pyrrolidone binder. The results of the work showed that current screw elements could be successfully incorporated into designs for wet granulation, to tailor the particle size as well as particle shape of an agglomerate product. Conveying elements for cohesive granular flows were shown to perform similar to their use in polymer processing, as effective transport units with low specific mechanical energy input. The conveying zones provided little significant change to the particle size or shape, though the degree of channel fill in these sections had a significant influence on the more energy-intensive mixing elements studied. The standard mixing elements for this machine, kneading blocks and comb mixers, were found to be effective for generating coarser particles, though their mechanisms of granulation differed significantly. PMID:19890935

  12. Wet powder seal for gas containment

    DOEpatents

    Stang, Louis G. (Sayville, NY)

    1982-01-01

    A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

  13. Wet welding qualification trials at 35 MSW

    SciTech Connect

    Dos Santos, V.R.; Teixeira, C.J. [Petrobras/CENPES, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Szelagowski, P.J.F. [GKSS Research Center, Geesthacht (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    Wet welding is gaining increased attention and attraction for application on marine buildings and offshore structures all over the world because of its versatility, flexibility and mobility in combination with low investment costs. In a common research and development project between PETROBRAS/CENPES, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht, Germany wet welding qualification trials have been performed in different water depths up to 35 msw. The tests have been performed with newly developed electrodes in two different wet welding procedures. The experiments have been carried out on SS- as well as on 5F-specimens acc. ANSI/AWS D 3.6-89. Results will be presented in respect to the performance of the two welding procedures especially with regard to the avoidance of hydrogen induced cold cracking and high hardness values.

  14. A snow wetness retrieval algorithm for SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Jian-Cheng; Dozier, Jeff

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (1) to evaluate the backscattering signals response to snow wetness; and (2) to develop an algorithm for snow wetness measurement using C-band polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR). In hydrological investigations, modeling and forecasting of snowmelt runoff requires information about snowpack properties and their spatial variability. In particular, timely measurement of snow parameters is needed for operational hydrology. The liquid water content of snowpack is one of the important parameters. Active microwave sensors are highly sensitive to liquid water in the snowpack because of the large dielectric contrast between ice and water in the microwave spectrum. They are not affected by weather and have a spatial resolution compatible with the topographic variation in alpine regions. However, a quantitative algorithm for retrieval snow wetness has not yet been developed.

  15. Wetting and layering transitions in liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somoza, A. M.; Mederos, L.; Sullivan, D. E.

    1995-11-01

    Interfacial structure in the isotropic phase of a liquid-crystalline material near a wall is studied by a mean-field density-functional theory. With increasing strength of the wall anchoring potential, the theory predicts a first-order transition from incomplete to complete wetting by the smectic-A phase at bulk isotropic-smectic coexistence, with an associated prewetting transition occurring away from bulk coexistence. The incomplete wetting case is accompanied by a small number (between 0 and and 2) of discrete layer transitions, while an infinite number of such transitions occurs at complete wetting. An analysis of the underlying physical mechanisns for layer transitions reveals that these transitions tend to disappear as the system is moved both sufficiently close to and sufficiently far from the bulk isotropic-nematic-smectic-A triple point by varying the model coupling parameters. These results reconcile findings from previous theories and experiments.

  16. Wetting and layering transitions in magnetic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.; Bahmad, L.

    2006-09-01

    The understanding of the surface effect on wetting and layering transitions was explained both theoretically and experimentally. Indeed, using different spin system models and different numerical and approximate methods such as mean field and effective field theories, real space renormalization technique and Monte-Carlo simulations, it is found that the wetting and layering transitions depend on the nature of the surface magnetic field, the surface coupling strength, the surface crystal field, the geometry of surface, the in-homogeneity of substrate and the quantum fluctuations at the surface. It is also found that the layering transition temperature increases or decreases as a function of the film thickness depending on the surface coupling values. The wetting transition temperature can be greater or smaller than the layering temperature. In the case of a variable surface crystal field, an order-disorder layering reentrance is found with new critical exponents behaviour. The wetting phenomena are also influenced by the nature of the surface. In fact the intra-layer transitions appear under the effect of an edge on the surface and/or corrugated surfaces. However, the intra-layering transitions are found for a surface temperature above, which the surface and the intra-layer surface occur. While the bulk layering and intra-layering transitions appear above another finite temperature which is greater than the former one. Such result is not found in the case of a perfect surface. Beside this, and under the corrugation effect, the pre-wetting phenomena and layering transitions occur at zero temperature, even in the case of a uniform magnetic field. In this case the wetting temperature depends strongly on the width of the corrugated-steps but weakly on its number.

  17. Nonlocal modeling of granular flows down inclines.

    PubMed

    Kamrin, Ken; Henann, David L

    2015-01-01

    Flows of granular media down a rough inclined plane demonstrate a number of nonlocal phenomena. We apply the recently proposed nonlocal granular fluidity model to this geometry and find that the model captures many of these effects. Utilizing the model's dynamical form, we obtain a formula for the critical stopping height of a layer of grains on an inclined surface. Using an existing parameter calibration for glass beads, the theoretical result compares quantitatively to existing experimental data for glass beads. This provides a stringent test of the model, whose previous validations focused on driven steady-flow problems. For layers thicker than the stopping height, the theoretical flow profiles display a thickness-dependent shape whose features are in agreement with previous discrete particle simulations. We also address the issue of the Froude number of the flows, which has been shown experimentally to collapse as a function of the ratio of layer thickness to stopping height. While the collapse is not obvious, two explanations emerge leading to a revisiting of the history of inertial rheology, which the nonlocal model references for its homogeneous flow response. PMID:25376561

  18. Force Chains in a Granular Piston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, R. R.; Behringer, R. P.; Kolb, E.; Ovarlez, G.; Clément, E.

    2000-11-01

    We present experimental studies of force distributions and PIV analysis of granular particles driven by a 2D piston.(E. Kolb, et. al. Europhys. J. B). 8, 483-491 (1999). The particles, ~ 1/2 cm photoelastic disks, are confined by rigid sidewalls while being pushed against gravity with a piston whose speed is 10-100 ? m/s. The piston is confined to vertical motion by linear bearings but does not otherwise touch the sidewalls. Friction prevents the free rotation and displacement of particles within the bulk of the material and leads to the buildup of stress chains resisting motion. Photoelasticity of the particles allows us to visualize the local stress by observing the experiment through circular polarizers. We describe the buildup and relaxation of global stress in the system, and explain overshoots in the data as the orientation of stress chains changes from largely vertical to largely horizontal, and vice-versa. Pressure profiles as a function of depth are nearly hydrostatic before the piston is raised, but show many peaks and bumps when the piston is set into motion. Lastly, particle tracking gives quantitative information on dilation of the granular layer along the sidewalls when the piston is in motion.

  19. Compaction wave profiles in granular HMX

    SciTech Connect

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2001-01-01

    Meso-scale simulations of a compaction wave in a granular bed of HMX have been performed. The grains are fully resolved in order that the change in porosity across the wave front is determined by the elastic-plastic response of the grains rather than an empirical law for the porosity as a function of pressure. Numerical wave profiles of the pressure and velocity are compared with data from a gas gun experiment. The experiment used an initial porosity of 36%, and the wave had a pressure comparable to the yield strength of the grains. The profiles are measured at the front and back of the granular bed. The transit time for the wave to travel between the gauges together with the Hugoniot jump conditions determines the porosity behind the wave front. In the simulations the porosity is determined by the yield strength and stress concentrations at the contact between grains. The value of the yield strength needed to match the experiment is discussed. Analysis of the impedance match of the wave at the back gauge indicates that the compaction wave triggers a small amount of burn, less than 1% mass fraction, on the micro-second time scale of the experiment.

  20. Unjamming and jamming transitions of granular avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Ziwei

    2014-03-01

    Study of the jamming transitions of granular materials has become an active field of research in recent years. A closely related inverse process is the unjamming transition, where granular systems may suddenly lose rigidity and start to flow freely. Understanding such a process is of crucial implication towards the understanding of natural disasters such as snow avalanches, landslides and earthquakes. Recent work by Banigan and colleagues (Nature Physics 2013) has provided a new perspective in the study of unjamming and jamming transitions by applying nonlinear dynamical methods. To test their proposition experimentally, we have designed a rotating drum filled with bidisperse photo-elastic disks to create particle avalanches. In unjamming transition, Lyapunov vector and velocity fields are indeed strongly correlated in spatial domain, whereas in jamming transition no such a strong correlation is observed. The Lyapunov exponents are positive in unjamming transition and negative in jamming transition. In addition, the total stress variation, kinetic energy, and non-affine motion of particles all show strong correlations in the time domain during avalanches. Their spatial correlations have also been analyzed.

  1. Three-phase fracturing in granular material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, James; Sandnes, Bjornar

    2015-04-01

    There exist numerous geo-engineering scenarios involving the invasion of a gas into a water-saturated porous medium: in fracking, this may occur during the fracking process itself or during subsequent gas penetration into propant beds; the process is also at the heart of carbon dioxide sequestration. We use a bed of water-saturated glass beads confined within a Hele-Shaw cell as a model system to illuminate these processes. Depending on packing density, injection rate and other factors, air injected into this system may invade in a broad variety of patterns, including viscous fingering, capillary invasion, bubble formation and fracturing. Here we focus primarily on the latter case. Fracturing is observed when air is injected into a loosely packed bed of unconsolidated granular material. Our approach allows us to image the complete fracture pattern as it forms, and as such to study both the topographical properties of the resulting pattern (fracture density, braching frequency etc) and the dynamics of its growth. We present an overview of the fracturing phenomenon within the context of pattern formation in granular fluids as a whole. We discuss how fracturing arises from an interplay between frictional, capillary and viscous forces, and demonstrate the influence of various parameters on the result.

  2. Dynamic effective mass of granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David; Ingale, Rohit; Valenza, John; Hsu, Chaur-Jian; Gland, Nicolas; Makse, Hernan

    2009-03-01

    We report an experimental and theoretical investigation of the frequency-dependent effective mass, M(?), of loose granular particles which occupy a rigid cavity to a filling fraction of 48%, the remaining volume being air of differing humidities. We demonstrate that this is a sensitive and direct way to measure those properties of the granular medium that are the cause of the changes in acoustic properties of structures containing grain-filled cavities. Specifically, we apply this understanding to the case of the flexural resonances of a rectangular bar with a grain-filled cavity within it. The dominant features of M(?) are a sharp resonance and a broad background, which we analyze within the context of simple models. We find that: a) These systems may be understood in terms of a height-dependent and diameter-dependent effective sound speed (˜130 m/s) and an effective viscosity (˜2x10^4 Poise). b) There is a dynamic Janssen effect in the sense that, at any frequency, and depending on the method of sample preparation, approximately one-half of the effective mass is borne by the side walls of the cavity and one-half by the bottom. c) On a fundamental level, dissipation is dominated by adsorbed films of water at grain-grain contacts in our experiments.

  3. A new rheology for dense granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jop, Pierre

    2005-11-01

    Recent experiments and numerical simulations of dry and dense granular flows suggest that a simple rheological description, in terms of a shear rate dependent friction coefficient, may be sufficient to capture the major flow properties [1,2]. In this work we generalize this approach by proposing a tensorial form of this rheology leading to 3D hydrodynamic equations for granular flows. We show that quantitative predictions can be obtained with this model by studying the flow of grains on a pile confined between two lateral walls. In this configuration we have experimentally measured the free surface velocity profile, the flowing thickness for different flow rates and channel widths. The results are compared with numerical simulations of the hydrodynamic model and quantitative agreement is observed. This study strongly supports the relevance of the proposed rheology. 1. F. da Cruz, S. Emam, M. Prochnow, J.-N. Roux and F. Chevoir, cond-mat/ 0503682 (2005)2. G.D.R. Midi, EPJE14 367-371 (2004)

  4. Fingering and fracturing in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juanes, R.; Holtzman, R.; Szulczewski, M.

    2012-12-01

    Here, we describe the phenomenon of capillary fracturing in granular media. We study the displacement of immiscible fluids in deformable, non-cohesive granular media. Experimentally, we inject air into a thin bed of water-saturated glass beads and observe the invasion morphology. The control parameters are the injection rate, the bead size, and the confining stress. We identify three invasion regimes: capillary fingering, viscous fingering, and "capillary fracturing", where capillary forces overcome frictional resistance and induce the opening of conduits. We derive two dimensionless numbers that govern the transition among the different regimes: a modified capillary number and a fracturing number. The experiments and analysis predict the emergence of fracturing in fine-grained media under low confining stress, a phenomenon that likely plays a fundamental role in many natural processes such as primary oil migration, methane venting from lake sediments, and the formation of desiccation cracks.Examples of experimentally observed patterns. We classify these patterns into three regimes: viscous fingering, capillary fingering, and fracturing.

  5. Mechanics of Granular Materials labeled hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) flight hardware takes two twin double locker assemblies in the Space Shuttle middeck or the Spacehab module. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: NASA/MSFC).

  6. Mechanic of Granular Materials (MGM) Investigator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Key persornel in the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment are Mark Lankton (Program Manager at University Colorado at Boulder), Susan Batiste (research assistance, UCB), and Stein Sture (principal investigator). Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that cannot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder).

  7. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Investigators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Key persornel in the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment at the University of Colorado at Boulder include Tawnya Ferbiak (software engineer), Susan Batiste (research assistant), and Christina Winkler (graduate research assistant). Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that cannot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder).

  8. Machanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Investigator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Key persornel in the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment include Khalid Alshibli, project scientist at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that cannot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: MSFC).

  9. Statistics from granular stick-slip experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abed Zadeh, Aghil; Bares, Jonathan; Behringer, Robert

    2015-03-01

    We carry out experiments to characterize stick-slip for granular materials. In our experiment, a constant speed stage pulls a slider which rests on a vertical bed of circular photoelastic particles in a 2D system. The stage is connected to the slider by a spring. We measure the force on the spring as well as the slider's acceleration by a force sensor attached to the spring and accelerometers on the slider. The distributions of energy release and time duration of avalanches during slip obey power laws. We apply a novel event recognition approach using wavelets to extract the avalanche properties. We compare statistics from the wavelet approach with those obtained by typical methods, to show how noise can change the distribution of events. We analyze the power spectrum of various quantities to understand the effect of the loading speed and of the spring stiffness on the statistical behavior of the system. Finally, from a more local point of view and by using a high speed camera and the photoelastic properties of our particles, we characterize the internal granular structure during avalanches. This work is supported by NSF Grant DMR1206351 and NASA Grant NNX10AU01G.

  10. Lizard locomotion in heterogeneous granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiebel, Perrin; Goldman, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Locomotion strategies in heterogeneous granular environments (common substrates in deserts), are relatively unexplored. The zebra-tailed lizard (C. draconoides) is a useful model organism for such studies owing to its exceptional ability to navigate a variety of desert habitats at impressive speed (up to 50 body-lengths per second) using both quadrapedal and bidepal gaits. In laboratory experiments, we challenge the lizards to run across a field of boulders (2.54 cm diameter glass spheres or 3.8 cm 3D printed spheres) placed in a lattice pattern and embedded in a loosely packed granular medium of 0.3 mm diameter glass particles. Locomotion kinematics of the lizard are recorded using high speed cameras, with and without the scatterers. The data reveals that unlike the lizard's typical quadrupedal locomotion using a diagonal gait, when scatterers are present the lizard is most successful when using a bipedal gait, with a raised center of mass (CoM). We propose that the kinematics of bipedal running in conjunction with the lizard's long toes and compliant hind foot are the keys to this lizard's successful locomotion in the presence of such obstacles. NSF PoLS

  11. Adhesion: elastocapillary coalescence in wet hair.

    PubMed

    Bico, José; Roman, Benoît; Moulin, Loïc; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2004-12-01

    We investigated why wet hair clumps into bundles by dunking a model brush of parallel elastic lamellae into a perfectly wetting liquid. As the brush is withdrawn, pairs of bundles aggregate successively, forming complex hierarchical patterns that depend on a balance between capillary forces and the elasticity of the lamellae. This capillary-driven self-assembly of flexible structures, which occurs in the tarsi of insects and in biomimetic adhesives but which can also damage micro-electromechanical structures or carbon nanotube 'carpets', represents a new type of coalescence process. PMID:15592402

  12. Equilibrating Nanoparticle Monolayers Using Wetting Films

    SciTech Connect

    Pontoni, Diego; Alvine, Kyle J.; Checco, Antonio; Gang, Oleg; Ocko, Ben M.; Pershan, Peter S.

    2009-01-09

    Monolayers of bimodal gold nanoparticles on silicon are investigated by a combination of microscopy (dry monolayers) and x-ray diffraction (dry and wet monolayers). In the presence of an excess of small particles, the nanoscale packing structure closely resembles the small-particle-rich scenario of the structural crossover transition that has been predicted and also observed with micron-scale hard-sphere colloids. Structural morphology is monitored in situ during monolayer dissolution and reassembly within the thin liquid wetting film. This approach allows investigation of size and solvent effects on nanoparticles in quasi-two-dimensional confinement.

  13. Wet air oxidation of propellant wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, T.L.; Copa, W.M.; Deitrich, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Wet Air Oxidation studies have been conducted on a number of propellant wastewaters, to assess destruction levels of specific propellant components. OTTO fuel, used as a torpedo propellant, and hydrazine based rocket fuels were propellants of interest. OTTO fuel wastewaters contain substantial amounts of propylene glycol dinitrate. Hydrazine based rocket fuel wastewaters contain hydrazine and unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine. Laboratory Wet Air Oxidation studies on OTTO fuel wastewaters indicated that a 99+ percent destruction of propylene glycol dinitrate can be achieved at an oxidation temperature of 280/sup 0/C.

  14. A new approach to assess sediment impairment due to urban wet-weather discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, L.; Fankhauser, R.; Chèvre, N.

    2009-04-01

    Sediment represents an important compartment of surface waters as it constitutes a habitat or spawning site for organisms. It may be impacted by anthropogenic activities, particularly through urban wet-weather discharges. In fact, during rain events a lot of particles accumulated on impervious areas and washed-off by rain (stormwater) or originating from wastewater (combined sewer overflows) end up in receiving waters. Numerous pollutants are attached to these particles (organic matter, heavy metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), biocides, etc) and may generate adverse effects in the receiving waters. In this study, we propose an approach to estimate the risk of urban wet-weather discharge for sediments based on three assessment criteria: a) the clogging of the riverbed, b) the oxygen demand due to organic matter accumulation and c) the accumulation of contaminants on the riverbed (heavy metals, PAHs). These assessment criteria are defined in term of equivalent total suspended solids (TSS), a parameter classically measured in urban wet-weather discharge studies. We have implemented these criteria in a stochastic model in order to calculate TSS behaviour in receiving waters. The processes incorporated in the model are accumulation/sedimentation, transport and erosion of particles. In the stochastic approach, all parameters of the processes are randomly selected in a given distribution for each run (Monte-Carlo approach). As results, a probability curve is generated, giving the probability of exceeding the defined sediment criteria. Impact assessment of urban wet-weather discharges on riverbeds can thus be used as basis for planning efficient urban wet-weather protection measures. This approach, however, should be considered as a screening tool and in situ measurements should confirm the results.

  15. Enhanced selection of micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol degrading granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yuancai; Chen, Yuancai; Song, Wenzhe; Hu, Yongyou

    2014-09-15

    Column-type combined reactors were designed to cultivate micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1-0.2 mgL(-1)) over 39-day experimental period. Micro-aerobic granular had both anaerobic activity (SMA: 2.34 mMCH4/hg VSS) and aerobic activity (SOUR: 2.21 mMO2/hg VSS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that PCP was sequentially dechlorinated to TCP, DCP, and eventually to MCP. Methanogens were not directly involved in the dechlorination of PCP, but might played a vital role in stabilizing the overall structure of the granule sludge. For Eubacteria, the Shannon Index (2.09 in inoculated granular sludge) increased both in micro-aerobic granular sludge (2.61) and PCP-degradation granular sludge (2.55). However, for Archaea, it decreased from 2.53 to 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Although the Shannon Index demonstrated slight difference between micro-aerobic granular sludge and PCP-degradation granular sludge, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated obvious variance of the microbial composition, revealing significant effect of micro-aerobic condition and PCP on microbial community. Furthermore, nucleotide sequencing indicated that the main microorganisms for PCP degradation might be related to Actinobacterium and Sphingomonas. These results provided insights into situ bioremediation of environments contaminated by PCP and had practical implications for the strategies of PCP degradation. PMID:25151236

  16. Wettability alteration by trimeric cationic surfactant at water-wet/oil-wet mica mineral surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Qin, Ni; Peng, Lin; Tang, Ke; Ye, Zhongbin

    2012-08-01

    The wettability of oil reservoir rock affects the efficiency of the oil recovery process by reducing the capillary force. Methyldodecylbis [2-(dimethyldodecylammonio) ethyl] ammonium tribromide is a trimeric cationic surfactant that contains three dodecyl chains and three quaternary ammonium head groups connected by divinyl groups. The surfactant was synthesized, purified and used as a new wetting alteration agent. This paper focuses on the ability of this trimeric cationic surfactant to alter the wettability of water-wet and oil-wet mica mineral surfaces. The contact angle data of the solid-liquid interface in oil/water/solid three-phase system show that the trimeric cationic surfactant, when compared with single- and double-chain cationic surfactant, is a more effective wetting agent for water-wet and oil-wet mica surfaces at lower concentration. Measurements by atomic force microscopy (AFM) show that the surfactant molecules have formed a monolayer to reverse the wetting properties. On the water-wet surface, the surface is suffused with negative charge, which could attract the cationic head of surfactant, and leave the hydrophobic tails exposed. In contrast, on the oil-wet surface, the hydrophobic tails were attracted by hydrophobic interactions to the oil film between the surfactant and the crude oil. The hydrophilic heads were left outside to form a hydrophilic layer, which could explain the wettable to hydrophilic trend. Alteration to the degree of wettability is mainly dependent on the adsorption areas of the surfactant. The data show that the ability of the trimeric cationic surfactant affect the wettability is independent of surface tension.

  17. Determination of total nitrogen in atmospheric wet and dry deposition samples.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Sathrugnan; He, Jun; Palani, Sundarambal; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar; Burger, David

    2009-01-15

    A microwave-assisted persulfate oxidation method followed by ion chromatographic determination of nitrate was developed for total nitrogen determination in atmospheric wet and dry deposition samples. Various operating parameters such as oxidation reagent concentrations, microwave power, and extraction time were optimized to maximize the conversion of total nitrogen to nitrate for subsequent chemical analysis. Under optimized conditions, 0.012 M K(2)S(2)O(8) and 0.024 M NaOH were found to be necessary for complete digestion of wet and dry deposition samples at 400 W for 7 min using microwave. The optimized extraction method was then validated by testing different forms of organic nitrogen loaded to pre-baked filter substrates and NIST SRM 1648 (urban particulate matter), and satisfactory results were obtained. In the case of wet deposition samples, standard addition experiments were performed. The suitability of the method for real-world application was assessed by analyzing a number of wet and dry deposition samples collected in Singapore during the period of March-April 2007. The organic nitrogen content was 15% (wet) and 30% (dry) of the total nitrogen. During the study period, the estimated wet fluxes for nitrate (NO(3)(-)), ammonium (NH(4)(+)), organic nitrogen (ON), and total nitrogen (TN) were 16.1+/-6.5 kg ha(-1)year(-1), 11.5+/-5.7 kg ha(-1)year(-1), 3.8+/-1.5 kg ha(-1)year(-1)and 31.5+/-13.2 kg ha(-1)year(-1), respectively, while the dry fluxes were 2.5+/-0.8 kg ha(-1)year(-1), 1.4+/-0.9 kg ha(-1)year(-1), 2.3+/-1.4 kg ha(-1)year(-1) and 7.5+/-2.6 kg ha(-1)year(-1), respectively. PMID:19064078

  18. When matter matters

    SciTech Connect

    Easson, Damien A. [Department of Physics and School of Earth and Space Exploration and Beyond Center, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85287-1504 (United States); Sawicki, Ignacy [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Vikman, Alexander, E-mail: easson@asu.edu, E-mail: ignacy.sawicki@uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: alexander.vikman@cern.ch [CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01

    We study a recently proposed scenario for the early universe:Subluminal Galilean Genesis. We prove that without any other matter present in the spatially flat Friedmann universe, the perturbations of the Galileon scalar field propagate with a speed at most equal to the speed of light. This proof applies to all cosmological solutions — to the whole phase space. However, in a more realistic situation, when one includes any matter which is not directly coupled to the Galileon, there always exists a region of phase space where these perturbations propagate superluminally, indeed with arbitrarily high speed. We illustrate our analytic proof with numerical computations. We discuss the implications of this result for the possible UV completion of the model.

  19. Drag force scaling for penetration into granular media

    E-print Network

    H. Katsuragi; D. J. Durian

    2013-05-16

    Impact dynamics is measured for spherical and cylindrical projectiles of many different densities dropped onto a variety non-cohesive granular media. The results are analyzed in terms of the material-dependent scaling of the inertial and frictional drag contributions to the total stopping force. The inertial drag force scales similar to that in fluids, except that it depends on the internal friction coefficient. The frictional drag force scales as the square-root of the density of granular medium and projectile, and hence cannot be explained by the combination of granular hydrostatic pressure and Coulomb friction law. The combined results provide an explanation for the previously-observed penetration depth scaling.

  20. Dynamics of electrostatically-driven granular media. Effects of Humidity

    E-print Network

    D. W. Howell; I. S. Aranson; G. W. Crabtree

    2000-11-03

    We performed experimental studies of the effect of humidity on the dynamics of electrostatically-driven granular materials. Both conducting and dielectric particles undergo a phase transition from an immobile state (granular solid) to a fluidized state (granular gas) with increasing applied field. Spontaneous precipitation of solid clusters from the gas phase occurs as the external driving is decreased. The clustering dynamics in conducting particles is primarily controlled by screening of the electric field but is aided by cohesion due to humidity. It is shown that humidity effects dominate the clustering process with dielectric particles.

  1. Granular gas mediated attraction of intruders in a granular Casimir effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkes, George; Utter, Brian

    2015-03-01

    When two objects are submerged in a granular gas, entropic effects due to inelastic collisions lead to attractions between the objects. This has been referred to as an analog to the Casimir effect, though arises via a different mechanism. In this experiment, we place two objects (such as vertical plates or spheres) in either a strongly driven granular gas or dense fluid. We find that when the plates are closely spaced, there is a net attractive force. By analyzing high-speed video, we track the distance between these plates and characterize the effective force versus distance with changes in the vibration parameters and initial separation. A 2D simulation is also used to further explore parameter space.

  2. Effect of repeated drying-wetting-freezing-thawing cycles on the active soil organic carbon pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, V. M.; Kogut, B. M.; Lukin, S. M.

    2014-04-01

    Samples of soddy-podzolic soil (long-term overgrown fallow and continuous bare fallow), gray forest soil (forest, farming agrocenosis), and a typical chernozem (virgin steppe, forest area, farming agrocenosis, continuous bare fallow) have been incubated under stable conditions; other samples of these soils have been subjected to six drying-wetting-incubation-freezing-thawing-incubation cycles during 136 days. The wetting of dried soils and the thawing of frozen soils result in an abrupt but short increase in the emission rate of C-CO2 by 2.7-12.4 and 1.6-2.7 times, respectively, compared to the stable incubation conditions. As the soil is depleted in potentially mineralizable organic matter, the rate of the C-CO2 emission pulses initiated by disturbing impacts decreases. The cumulative extra production of C-CO2 by soils of natural lands for six cycles makes up 21-40% of that in the treatments with stable incubation conditions; the corresponding value for cultivated soils, including continuous clean fallow, is in the range of 45-82%. The content of potentially mineralizable organic matter in the soils subjected to recurrent drying-wetting-freezingthawing cycles decreased compared to the soils without disturbing impacts by 1.6-4.4 times, and the mineralization constants decreased by 1.9-3.6 times. It has been emphasized that the cumulative effect of drying-wetting-freezing-thawing cycles is manifested not only in the decrease in the total Corg from the soil but also in the reduction of the mineralization potential of the soil organic matter.

  3. Ionizing wet scrubber for air pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheppard

    1986-01-01

    Air pollution control equipment manufacturers are continually developing sophisticated systems designed to dramatically reduce plant emissions. One such system, the ionizing wet scrubber (IWS), has demonstrated outstanding air pollution control characteristics while meeting the challenge of energy efficiency. The IWS system removes fine solid and liquid particulate down to 0.05 micron at high collection efficiencies and low energy comsumption. It

  4. Amoco Trinidad selects wet welding repair option

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, S.J. [Amoco Corp., Naperville, IL (United States); Reynolds, T.J. [Global Divers and Contractors, Inc., New Iberia, LA (United States); Gabriel, V. [Amoco Trinidad Oil Co., Port of Spain (Trinidad and Tobago); Haymaker, G.A. [Amoco Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-01

    A recent underwater inspection of Amoco Trinidad Oil Company`s Samaan A Production platform revealed a separated horizontal brace at a water depth of 125 feet (38.1 m). A closer inspection showed that the 16 in (.4 m) diameter horizontal brace had completely separated from the Leg on the member side. A drilling program scheduled to commence from the Samaan A platform was to begin in about two months. A fast track analysis of the structure and a subsequent repair plan was immediately organized. A computer aided structural analysis was completed for the structure with the horizontal brace removed. Structural engineers decided that the brace must be reinstalled before being loaded with a drilling unit. A clamped brace repair assembly was not practical due to a multi member node at one of the legs. Wet welding was selected over dry hyperbaric welding as the best, safest, most cost effective and quickest option. A wet welding procedure and welder divers were qualified at depth according to AWS D3.6. A repair assembly was designed and fabricated. Personnel, wet welding equipment and the fabrication were shipped by air from New Iberia, LA to Galeota Point, Trinidad. This is the first time that wet welding techniques were employed for structural repairs directly to the leg of an offshore structure at any Amoco location.

  5. CFD simulation of wet cooling towers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafat Al-Waked; Masud Behnia

    2006-01-01

    Heat and mass transfer inside a natural draft wet cooling tower (NDWCT) have been investigated numerically under different operating and crosswind conditions. The three-dimensional CFD model has utilized the standard k–? turbulence model as the turbulence closure. The current simulation has adopted both the Eulerian approach for the air phase and the Lagrangian approach for the water phase. The film

  6. OVERVIEW OF WET-WEATHER RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an overview of EPA,s wet-weather flow (WWF) research program, which was expanded in October 1995 with the establishment of the Urban Watershed Management Branch at Edison, New Jersey. Research priorities for 1998-1999 are presented as well as efforts to col...

  7. WET/DRY COOLING TOWER TEST MODULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the engineering performance of a single-cell wet/dry cooling tower (about 25 MW) in an 18-month field test at San Bernardino, CA. Test objectives included determination of the water conservation and operating characteristics, and verif...

  8. Capturing wetting states in nanopatterned silicon.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiumei; Vereecke, Guy; Chen, Chang; Pourtois, Geoffrey; Armini, Silvia; Verellen, Niels; Tsai, Wei-Kang; Kim, Dong-Wook; Lee, Eunsongyi; Lin, Chang-You; Van Dorpe, Pol; Struyf, Herbert; Holsteyns, Frank; Moshchalkov, Victor; Indekeu, Joseph; De Gendt, Stefan

    2014-01-28

    Spectacular progress in developing advanced Si circuits with reduced size, along the track of Moore's law, has been relying on necessary developments in wet cleaning of nanopatterned Si wafers to provide contaminant free surfaces. The most efficient cleaning is achieved when complete wetting can be realized. In this work, ordered arrays of silicon nanopillars on a hitherto unexplored small scale have been used to study the wetting behavior on nanomodulated surfaces in a substantial range of surface treatments and geometrical parameters. With the use of optical reflectance measurements, the nanoscale water imbibition depths have been measured and the transition to the superhydrophobic Cassie-Baxter state has been accurately determined. For pillars of high aspect ratio (about 15), the transition occurs even when the surface is grafted with a hydrophilic functional group. We have found a striking consistent deviation between the contact angle measurements and the straightforward application of the classical wetting models. Molecular dynamics simulations show that these deviations can be attributed to the long overlooked atomic-scale surface perturbations that are introduced during the nanofabrication process. When the transition condition is approached, transient states of partial imbibition that characterize intermediate states between the Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter states are revealed in our experiments. PMID:24380402

  9. Construction materials for wet scrubbers. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. S. Rosenberg; H. H. Krause; L. J. Nowacki; C. W. Kistler; J. A. Beavers; R. B. Engdahl; R. J. Dick; J. H. Oxley

    1981-01-01

    This report is a comprehensive documentation and analysis of utility experience with materials of construction in full-scale lime\\/limestone wet FGD systems on boilers burning eastern or western coals. Information was collected for the following FGD system components; prescrubbers, absorbers, spray nozzles, mist eliminators, reheaters, fans, ducts, expansion joints, dampers, stacks, storage silos, ball mills and slakers, pumps, piping and valves,

  10. Factors affecting wet core rot of apples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Spotts; A R. J. HolmesB; W. S. WashingtonC

    1988-01-01

    The effects of preharvest and postharvest inoculation of apple fruits with core rot fungi and the relationships between fruit\\u000a shape and sinus opening on wet core rot were studied. Preharvest inoculation with Mucor piriformis, Penicillium roquefortii and Alternaria sp. did not cause core rot, but postharvest inoculation with M. piriformis and P. expansum caused extensive rot, particularly if spores were

  11. Dripping Wet or Dry as a Bone?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-06-30

    Learners investigate the concept of humidity by using a dry and wet sponge as a model. They determine a model for 100% humidity, a sponge saturated with water. From this, they understand that percent humidity is the percent saturation of the air. Resource contains vocabulary definitions and suggestions for assessment, extensions, and scaling for different levels of learners.

  12. ESTIMATING URBAN WET WEATHER POLLUTANT LOADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents procedures for estimating pollutant loads emanating from wet-weather flow discharge in urban watersheds. Equations are presented for: annual volume of litter and floatables; the quantity of sand from highway runoff; the quantity of dust-and-dirt accumulation ...

  13. Wetting of Liquid Droplets on Living Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valérie Ravaine; Jérôme Bibette; Nelly Henry

    2002-01-01

    We report here the formation of adhesive conjugates between living cells and properly tailored colloidal liquid droplets bearing a cationic surfactant. We show that the droplets could wet cell surface with a well-defined contact angle, allowing direct determination of the energy of adhesion. We also describe the effect of cationic surfactant concentration on adhesion efficiency. This provides new tools to

  14. Wetting under chemical equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Aksay; Carl E. Hoge; Joseph A. Pask

    1974-01-01

    The thermodynamics of a solid-liquid-vapor system both under chemical equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions, based on the model of Gibbs, is discussed. Under chemical equilibrium conditions, the degree of wetting or nonwetting of a flat and nondeformable solid by the liquid is defined by Young's equation in terms of the static interfacial tensions. Under chemical nonequilibrium conditions, mass transfer across an

  15. Perturbed Quantization Steganography with Wet Paper Codes

    E-print Network

    Fridrich, Jessica

    Perturbed Quantization Steganography with Wet Paper Codes Jessica Fridrich SUNY Binghamton.edu ABSTRACT In this paper, we introduce a new approach to passive-warden steganography in which the sender, security, steganalysis, steganography 1. MOTIVATION The primary goal of steganography is to build

  16. Nematic wetting and filling of crenellated surfaces.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, N M; Eskandari, Z; Patrício, P; Romero-Enrique, J M; Telo da Gama, M M

    2012-07-01

    We investigate nematic wetting and filling transitions of crenellated surfaces (rectangular gratings) by numerical minimization of the Landau-de Gennes free energy as a function of the anchoring strength, for a wide range of the surface geometrical parameters: depth, width, and separation of the crenels. We have found a rich phase behavior that depends in detail on the combination of the surface parameters. By comparison to simple fluids, which undergo a continuous filling or unbending transition, where the surface changes from a dry to a filled state, followed by a wetting or unbinding transition, where the thickness of the adsorbed fluid becomes macroscopic and the interface unbinds from the surface, nematics at crenellated surfaces reveal an intriguingly rich behavior: in shallow crenels only wetting is observed, while in deep crenels, only filling transitions occur; for intermediate surface geometrical parameters, a new class of filled states is found, characterized by bent isotropic-nematic interfaces, which persist for surfaces structured on large scales, compared to the nematic correlation length. The global phase diagram displays two wet and four filled states, all separated by first-order transitions. For crenels in the intermediate regime re-entrant filling transitions driven by the anchoring strength are observed. PMID:23005433

  17. "EVERY WET YEAR IS A MIRACLE"

    E-print Network

    "EVERY WET YEAR IS A MIRACLE" Drought, Climate, and Water Use in Colorado Cat Shrier Colorado State University/Colorado Climate Center Little Thompson Water District Water Forum March 15, 2003 #12;Presentation Outline · how we define drought · Colorado's climate and variations · Colorado's water uses · drought

  18. Role of Erythrocyte Deformability During Capillary Wetting

    E-print Network

    Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    Role of Erythrocyte Deformability During Capillary Wetting Ronghui Zhou, Jason Gordon, Andre F.interscience.wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/bit.20672 Abstract: Deformability of erythrocyte was found to fundamentally alter than a critical value that is dependent on the erythrocyte concentration (about 50 mm for whole blood

  19. Silver Management for Wet Chemistry Photo Processing

    E-print Network

    Jia, Songtao

    Silver Management for Wet Chemistry Photo Processing Procedure: 8.44 Created: 9/25/2013 Version: 1 silver recovery units in processing the wastewater effluent generated in the processing of films and use "scrap film" collection containers for capturing silver-containing solid waste. All dark rooms and image

  20. Wet sand flows better than dry sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Wet sand that does not contain too much water is known to be stiff enough to build sand castles or in physical words has a significant yield stress. However, we could recently show that there are quite a few conditions under which such wet sand opposes less resistant to flow than its dry counterpart. This effect might have been already known to the old Egyptians: The Ancient painting of El Bersheh at the tomb of Tehutihetep shows that there was liquid poured in front of the sledge that was used to transport heavy weight stones and statues. While archeologist have attributed this to a sacral ceremony, our data clearly show that wetting the sand ground drastically decreases the effective sliding friction coefficient. We first study the stress-strain behavior of sand with and without small amounts of liquid under steady and oscillatory shear. Using a technique to quasistatically push the sand through a tube with an enforced parabolic (Poiseuille-like) profile, we minimize the effect of avalanches and shear localization. We observe that the resistance against deformation of the wet (partially saturated) sand is much smaller than that of the dry sand, and that the latter dissipates more energy under flow. Second we show experimentally that the sliding friction on sand is greatly reduced by the addition of some--but not too much--water. The formation of capillary water bridges increases the shear modulus of the sand, which facilitates the sliding.

  1. Modeling Superhydrophobic Contact Angles and Wetting Transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nan Gao; Yuying Yan

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that surface roughness has a very important effect on superhydrophobicity. The Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter models, which correspond to the homogeneous and heterogeneous wetting respectively, are currently primary instructions for designing superhydrophobic surfaces. However, the particular drop shape that a drop exhibits might depend on how it is formed. A water drop can occupy multiple equilibrium states,

  2. Degradation of RDX using granular iron and nickel-plated granular iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lai Gui; Heather L. R. Fenton; R. W. Gillham

    2009-01-01

    Using granular iron (Fe) and nickel-plated iron (Ni\\/Fe), this paper examines the effectiveness of these two types of reactive materials for the treatment of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a common groundwater and soil contaminant at military facilities. RDX degraded very rapidly in the presence of both Fe and Ni\\/Fe in column and batch experiments. Enhancement by Ni\\/Fe did not prove to be

  3. NMRI Measurements of Flow of Granular Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakagawa, Masami; Waggoner, R. Allen; Fukushima, Eiichi

    1996-01-01

    We investigate complex 3D behavior of granular mixtures in shaking and shearing devices. NMRI can non-invasively measure concentration, velocity, and velocity fluctuations of flows of suitable particles. We investigate origins of wall-shear induced convection flow of single component particles by measuring the flow and fluctuating motion of particles near rough boundaries. We also investigate if a mixture of different size particles segregate into their own species under the influence of external shaking and shearing disturbances. These non-invasive measurements will reveal true nature of convecting flow properties and wall disturbance. For experiments in a reduced gravity environment, we will design a light weight NMR imager. The proof of principle development will prepare for the construction of a complete spaceborne system to perform experiments in space.

  4. Granular discharge rate for submerged hoppers

    E-print Network

    T. J. Wilson; C. R. Pfeifer; N. Mesyngier; D. J. Durian

    2014-10-28

    The discharge of spherical grains from a hole in the bottom of a right circular cylinder is measured with the entire system underwater. We find that the discharge rate depends on filling height, in contrast to the well-known case of dry non-cohesive grains. It is further surprising that the rate increases up to about twenty five percent, as the hopper empties and the granular pressure head decreases. For deep filling, where the discharge rate is constant, we measure the behavior as a function of both grain and hole diameters. The discharge rate scale is set by the product of hole area and the terminal falling speed of isolated grains. But there is a small-hole cutoff of about two and half grain diameters, which is larger than the analogous cutoff in the Beverloo equation for dry grains.

  5. Granular Couette Flow at High Shear Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voth, Greg; Sundquist, Jamie; Gollub, Jerry

    2002-11-01

    We present an experimental study of couette flow of granular material at very high shear rates. Wall velocities up to 9.4 m/s and shear rates up to 2400 s-1 (based on a shear band that is 4 particle diameters thick) are achieved. We find a surprising non-monotonic dependence of the torque on the shear rate. This effect shows large variability even when the obvious variables such as temperature, humidity and preparation history are controlled. We interpret the variability as arising from particle wear that changes the frictional interactions that dominate the torque at lower shear rates. At very high shear rates, the torque increases monotonically with shear rate and is quite reproducible. We interpret this behavior as reflecting collisional dynamics at high shear rates. Non-dimensional parameters that control the change from friction dominated to collision dominated interactions will be discussed. (Work supported by NSF Division of Materials Research)

  6. Dense annular flows of granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ryck, Alain; Louisnard, Olivier

    2013-06-01

    Dense granular flows constitute an important topic for geophysics and process engineering. To describe them, a rheology based on the coaxiality between the stress and strain tensors with a Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion has been proposed. We propose here an analytic study of flows in an annular cell, with this rheology. This geometry is relevant for a series of powder rheometers or mixing devices, but the discussion is focused on the split-bottom geometry, for which the internal flow has been investigated by NMR technique. In this case, the full resolution of the velocity and stress fields allow to localize the shear deformations. The theoretical results obtained for the latter are compared with the torque measurements by Dijksman et al. [Phys. Rev. E, 82 (2010) 060301].

  7. Dynamics of Gas-Fluidized Granular Rods

    E-print Network

    L. J. Daniels; Y. Park; T. C. Lubensky; D. J. Durian

    2008-11-17

    We study a quasi-two-dimensional monolayer of granular rods fluidized by a spatially and temporally homogeneous upflow of air. By tracking the position and orientation of the particles, we characterize the dynamics of the system with sufficient resolution to observe ballistic motion at the shortest time scales. Particle anisotropy gives rise to dynamical anisotropy and superdiffusive dynamics parallel to the rod's long axis, causing the parallel and perpendicular mean squared displacements to become diffusive on different timescales. The distributions of free times and free paths between collisions deviate from exponential behavior, underscoring the non-thermal character of the particle motion. The dynamics show evidence of rotational-translational coupling similar to that of an anisotropic Brownian particle. We model rotational-translation coupling in the single-particle dynamics with a modified Langevin model using non-thermal noise sources. This suggests a phenomenological approach to thinking about collections of self-propelling particles in terms of enhanced memory effects.

  8. Similarities between protein folding and granular jamming

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Prasanth P; Andricioaei, Ioan

    2012-01-01

    Grains and glasses, widely different materials, arrest their motions upon decreasing temperature and external load, respectively, in common ways, leading to a universal jamming phase diagram conjecture. However, unified theories are lacking, mainly because of the disparate nature of the particle interactions. Here we demonstrate that folded proteins exhibit signatures common to both glassiness and jamming by using temperature- and force-unfolding molecular dynamics simulations. Upon folding, proteins develop a peak in the interatomic force distributions that falls on a universal curve with experimentally measured forces on jammed grains and droplets. Dynamical signatures are found as a dramatic slowdown of stress relaxation upon folding. Together with granular similarities, folding is tied not just to the jamming transition, but a more nuanced picture of anisotropy, preparation protocol and internal interactions emerges. Results have implications for designing stable polymers and can open avenues to link protein folding to jamming theory. PMID:23093180

  9. Lightweight robot locomotion on granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tingnan; Qian, Feifei; Shen, Jeffrey; Li, Chen; Hoover, Aaron; Birkmeyer, Paul; Fearing, Ronald; Goldman, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    We present an experimental and computer simulation study of a small, light-weight, biologically inspired robot running on a model granular medium (GM), 3 mm diameter glass particles. The six-legged RoACH robot (10 cm long, 25 grams) utilizes an alternating tripod gait to run at speeds up to 25 cm/sec. Forward speed increases with increasing limb frequency 0 < f < 12 Hz. An experimentally validated discrete element method (DEM) simulation of the device captures the observed mechanics. Observation from high speed video and simulation reveals that at low f, there is little slip of the limb through the GM, and forward speed is set by step length. At higher f, limbs slip continuously through the GM and fluidize the surrounding material. In this regime, speed is dominated by fluid-like thrust forces.

  10. Frictional granular mechanics: A variational approach

    SciTech Connect

    Holtzman, R.; Silin, D.B.; Patzek, T.W.

    2009-10-16

    The mechanical properties of a cohesionless granular material are evaluated from grain-scale simulations. Intergranular interactions, including friction and sliding, are modeled by a set of contact rules based on the theories of Hertz, Mindlin, and Deresiewicz. A computer generated, three-dimensional, irregular pack of spherical grains is loaded by incremental displacement of its boundaries. Deformation is described by a sequence of static equilibrium configurations of the pack. A variational approach is employed to find the equilibrium configurations by minimizing the total work against the intergranular loads. Effective elastic moduli are evaluated from the intergranular forces and the deformation of the pack. Good agreement between the computed and measured moduli, achieved with no adjustment of material parameters, establishes the physical soundness of the proposed model.

  11. Sound pulse broadening in stressed granular media.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Vincent; Jia, Xiaoping

    2015-02-01

    The pulse broadening and decay of coherent sound waves propagating in disordered granular media are investigated. We find that the pulse width of these compressional waves is broadened when the disorder is increased by mixing the beads made of different materials. To identify the responsible mechanism for the pulse broadening, we also perform the acoustic attenuation measurement by spectral analysis and the numerical simulation of pulsed sound wave propagation along one-dimensional disordered elastic chains. The qualitative agreement between experiment and simulation reveals a dominant mechanism by scattering attenuation at the high-frequency range, which is consistent with theoretical models of sound wave scattering in strongly random media via a correlation length. PMID:25768496

  12. Thermoelectric and Seebeck coefficients of granular metals.

    SciTech Connect

    Glatz, A.; Beloborodov, I. S.; Materials Science Division; California State Univ.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we present a detailed study and derivation of the thermopower and thermoelectric coefficient of nanogranular metals at large tunneling conductance between the grains, g{sub T} >> 1. An important criterion for the performance of a thermoelectric device is the thermodynamic figure of merit which is derived using the kinetic coefficients of granular metals. All results are valid at intermediate temperatures, E{sub c} >> T/g{sub T} > {delta}, where {delta} is the mean energy-level spacing for a single grain and E{sub c} is its charging energy. We show that the electron-electron interaction leads to an increase in the thermopower with decreasing grain size and discuss our results in light of future generation thermoelectric materials for low-temperature applications. The behavior of the figure of merit depending on system parameters such as grain size, tunneling conductance, and temperature is presented.

  13. Thermal conductivity of a granular metal.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, V; Loh, Y L

    2006-02-01

    Using the Kubo formula approach, we study the effect of electron interaction on thermal transport in the vicinity of a metal-insulator transition, with a granular metal as our model. For small values of dimensionless intergrain tunneling conductance, g<1, we find that the thermal conductivity surprisingly shows a phononlike algebraic decrease, kappa(T) approximately g2T3/E2c even though the electrical conductivity obeys an Arrhenius law, sigma(T) approximately ge-Ec/T ; therefore the Wiedemann-Franz (WF) law is seriously violated. We explicitly show that this violation arises from nonmagnetic bosonic excitations of low energy that transport heat but not charge. At large values of intergrain tunneling, we find it plausible that the WF law weakly deviates from the free-electron theory due to potential fluctuations. Implications for experiment are discussed. PMID:16486870

  14. Granular acoustic switches and logic elements.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Anzel, Paul; Yang, Jinkyu; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G; Daraio, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Electrical flow control devices are fundamental components in electrical appliances and computers; similarly, optical switches are essential in a number of communication, computation and quantum information-processing applications. An acoustic counterpart would use an acoustic (mechanical) signal to control the mechanical energy flow through a solid material. Although earlier research has demonstrated acoustic diodes or circulators, no acoustic switches with wide operational frequency ranges and controllability have been realized. Here we propose and demonstrate an acoustic switch based on a driven chain of spherical particles with a nonlinear contact force. We experimentally and numerically verify that this switching mechanism stems from a combination of nonlinearity and bandgap effects. We also realize the OR and AND acoustic logic elements by exploiting the nonlinear dynamical effects of the granular chain. We anticipate these results to enable the creation of novel acoustic devices for the control of mechanical energy flow in high-performance ultrasonic devices. PMID:25354587

  15. Penetration drag in loosely packed granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bless, Stephan; Omidvar, Mehdi; Iskander, Magued; New York University Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    The drag coefficient for penetration of granular materials by conical-nosed penetrators was computed by assuming the particles are non-interacting and rebound elastically off of the advancing penetrator. The solution was C =4 [sin(theta)]**2, where theta is the half angle of the cone. Experiments were conducted in which the drag coefficient was measured over the range 30 to 80 m/s for four types of sand: Ottawa silica sand, crushed quartz glass, coral sand, and aragonite sand. The sands were tested at relative densities of 40 and 80%. The drag coefficients for the low density materials were in excellent agreement with this simple model. The high density material had a drag considerably larger than predicted, presumably because of particle-to-particle interactions.

  16. Nonlinear Force Propagation During Granular Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Abram H.; Petersen, Alec J.; Kondic, Lou; Behringer, Robert P.

    2015-04-01

    We experimentally study nonlinear force propagation into granular material during impact from an intruder, and we explain our observations in terms of the nonlinear grain-scale force relation. Using high-speed video and photoelastic particles, we determine the speed and spatial structure of the force response just after impact. We show that these quantities depend on a dimensionless parameter, M'=tcv0/d , where v0 is the intruder speed at impact, d is the particle diameter, and tc is the collision time for a pair of grains impacting at relative speed v0. The experiments access a large range of M' by using particles of three different materials. When M'?1 , force propagation is chainlike with a speed, vf, satisfying vf?d /tc. For larger M', the force response becomes spatially dense and the force propagation speed departs from vf?d /tc, corresponding to collective stiffening of a strongly compressed packing of grains.

  17. Congenital granular cell tumor in newborn

    PubMed Central

    Zerener, Tamer; Sencimen, Metin; Altun, Ceyhan; Altug, Hasan Ayberk

    2013-01-01

    The congenital granular cell tumor (CGCT) is quite scarce at the infant. The patient, who has a 2-day-old female newborn, was admitted to the Department of Pediatric Dentistry. Baby had a smooth surfaced, non-fixated mass, found on the anterior part of the mandibular alveole, developing from the gingival mucosa. Clinical examination showed a 1 cm × 1 cm × 1.8 cm pedunculated, regular, pink colorful soft-tissue gob on the alveolar crest to the left side of the mandible. The gob was removed on the seventh postnatal day under general anesthesia. Then, the specimen was evaluated histopathologically. Post-operative recovery and surgical site healing was satisfactory. The CGCT is a rare, degenerative or reactive lesion of the oral cavity. The mass may surgically remove if the diagnosis is not definite clinically and this can lead therapeutic effect. PMID:24932127

  18. Granular acoustic switches and logic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng; Anzel, Paul; Yang, Jinkyu; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Daraio, Chiara

    2014-10-01

    Electrical flow control devices are fundamental components in electrical appliances and computers; similarly, optical switches are essential in a number of communication, computation and quantum information-processing applications. An acoustic counterpart would use an acoustic (mechanical) signal to control the mechanical energy flow through a solid material. Although earlier research has demonstrated acoustic diodes or circulators, no acoustic switches with wide operational frequency ranges and controllability have been realized. Here we propose and demonstrate an acoustic switch based on a driven chain of spherical particles with a nonlinear contact force. We experimentally and numerically verify that this switching mechanism stems from a combination of nonlinearity and bandgap effects. We also realize the OR and AND acoustic logic elements by exploiting the nonlinear dynamical effects of the granular chain. We anticipate these results to enable the creation of novel acoustic devices for the control of mechanical energy flow in high-performance ultrasonic devices.

  19. Defining and testing a granular continuum element

    SciTech Connect

    Rycroft, Chris H.; Kamrin, Ken; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2007-12-03

    Continuum mechanics relies on the fundamental notion of amesoscopic volume "element" in which properties averaged over discreteparticles obey deterministic relationships. Recent work on granularmaterials suggests a continuum law may be inapplicable, revealinginhomogeneities at the particle level, such as force chains and slow cagebreaking. Here, we analyze large-scale Discrete-Element Method (DEM)simulations of different granular flows and show that a "granularelement" can indeed be defined at the scale of dynamical correlations,roughly three to five particle diameters. Its rheology is rather subtle,combining liquid-like dependence on deformation rate and solid-likedependence on strain. Our results confirm some aspects of classicalplasticity theory (e.g., coaxiality of stress and deformation rate),while contradicting others (i.e., incipient yield), and can guide thedevelopment of more realistic continuum models.

  20. Granular Segregation Driven by Particle Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, C.; Zuriguel, I.; Garcimartín, A.; Mullin, T.

    2015-05-01

    We report the results of an experimental study of particle-particle interactions in a horizontally shaken granular layer that undergoes a second order phase transition from a binary gas to a segregation liquid as the packing fraction C is increased. By focusing on the behavior of individual particles, the effect of C is studied on (1) the process of cluster formation, (2) cluster dynamics, and (3) cluster destruction. The outcomes indicate that the segregation is driven by two mechanisms: attraction between particles with the same properties and random motion with a characteristic length that is inversely proportional to C . All clusters investigated are found to be transient and the probability distribution functions of the separation times display a power law tail, indicating that the splitting probability decreases with time.

  1. Granular cell leiomyosarcoma of the skin

    SciTech Connect

    Suster, S.; Rosen, L.B.; Sanchez, J.L.

    1988-06-01

    A case is presented of a multifocal malignant neoplasm involving the skin of the upper back in a 10-year-old boy following radiation therapy to the head and neck for a cerebellar medulloblastoma. Histologically, the neoplastic cells were remarkable for the presence of abundant periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive diastase-resistant intracytoplasmic eosinophilic granules. Immunoperoxidase procedures revealed strong positive staining of the tumor cells with desmin, vimentin, and smooth muscle myosin antibodies, and negative staining for myoglobin, S-100 protein and keratin, thus supporting a smooth muscle line of differentiation for this neoplasm. Electronmicroscopy demonstrated numerous intracytoplasmic autophagic vacuoles that corresponded to the granules observed under the light microscope. Leiomyosarcoma should be entertained in the differential diagnosis of poorly differentiated cutaneous neoplasms histologically characterized by a proliferation of cells containing abundant granular eosinophilic cytoplasm.

  2. Dispersion and dry and wet deposition of PAHs in an atmospheric environment.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, N; Nitta, K; Fukushima, T

    2006-01-01

    The atmospheric concentration and dry and wet deposition were measured for particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from August to December in Higashi-Hiroshima City, Japan. PM concentration of fine particles (0.6-7 microm) was 5.7-75.1 micro m(-3), and coarse particles (> 7 microm) was 2.2-22.3 microg m(-3). Total PAHs concentration of fine particles was 0.14-16.3 ng m(-3), and coarse particles was 0.01-0.77 ng m(-3). Their concentration increased on non-rainy days and decreased rapidly on rainy days. For seasonal fluctuations of PAHs, their concentrations decreased from summer to winter, and the rate of decrease was more distinct for fine particles. For total (dry + wet) depositions, the PM flux was 1.9-11.2 mg m(-2) d(-1), and the total PAHs flux was 1.9-97.2 ng m(-3) d(-1). From these measurements, the yearly total loading of PAHs was estimated for the particle phase. Total loading was 28 microg m(-2) y(-1) for the dry deposition and 52 mg m(-2) y(-1) for the wet deposition. The loading of the wet deposition was comparable to those of the dry deposition for all ring numbers. PMID:16594340

  3. Small-amplitude acoustics in bulk granular media

    E-print Network

    Valenza, John J.

    We propose and validate a three-dimensional continuum modeling approach that predicts small-amplitude acoustic behavior of dense-packed granular media. The model is obtained through a joint experimental and finite-element ...

  4. Assessing continuum postulates in simulations of granular flow

    E-print Network

    Rycroft, Chris H.

    Continuum mechanics relies on the fundamental notion of a mesoscopic volume “element” in which properties averaged over discrete particles obey deterministic relationships. Recent work on granular materials suggests that ...

  5. Brownian motion in granular gases of viscoelastic particles

    SciTech Connect

    Bodrova, A. S., E-mail: bodrova@polly.phys.msu.ru; Brilliantov, N. V.; Loskutov, A. Yu. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2009-12-15

    A theory is developed of Brownian motion in granular gases (systems of many macroscopic particles undergoing inelastic collisions), where the energy loss in inelastic collisions is determined by a restitution coefficient {epsilon}. Whereas previous studies used a simplified model with {epsilon} = const, the present analysis takes into account the dependence of the restitution coefficient on relative impact velocity. The granular temperature and the Brownian diffusion coefficient are calculated for a granular gas in the homogeneous cooling state and a gas driven by a thermostat force, and their variation with grain mass and size and the restitution coefficient is analyzed. Both equipartition principle and fluctuation-dissipation relations are found to break down. One manifestation of this behavior is a new phenomenon of 'relative heating' of Brownian particles at the expense of cooling of the ambient granular gas.

  6. REPEATED REDUCTIVE AND OXIDATIVE TREATMENTS ON GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fenton oxidation and Fenton oxidation preceded by reduction solutions were applied to granular activated carbon (GAC) to chemically regenerate the adsorbent. No adsorbate was present on the GAC so physicochemical effects from chemically aggressive regeneration of the carbon coul...

  7. Defect modes in one-dimensional granular crystals

    E-print Network

    Boechler, Nicholas Sebastian

    We study the vibrational spectra of one-dimensional statically compressed granular crystals (arrays of elastic particles in contact) containing light-mass defects. We focus on the prototypical settings of one or two spherical ...

  8. Multiview Intelligent Data Analysis based on Granular Computing

    E-print Network

    Yao, Yiyu

    Multiview Intelligent Data Analysis based on Granular Computing Yaohua Chen, Yiyu Yao Abstract-- Multiview intelligent data analysis explores data from different perspectives to reveal various types solving and information processing. Its application to data analysis results in hierarchical knowledge

  9. Supercritical Shallow Granular and Slurry Flows through a Contraction

    E-print Network

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    of carrier fluid ("the Rhine") and floating granular material suggests following simplification: What flowo glass beads: inelastic, diameter: S0) d [.5, .6]mm, S) d [.28, .42]mm, M) d [.4, .6]mm, L) d

  10. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section 133.145...SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  11. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section 133.145...SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  12. Numerical investigation of granular flow and dynamic pressure in silos 

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yin

    2012-06-25

    Although the flow of granular material in silos and the pressure acting on the silo walls have been studied for over a century, many challenges still remain in silo design. In particular, during the discharge process ...

  13. GROWTH AND PERSISTENCE OF PATHOGENS ON GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON FILTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three enteric pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica 0:8, Salmonella typhimurium, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, were examined for their ability to colonize granular activated carbon (GAC) in pure cultures and in the presence of autochthonous river water organisms. All three or...

  14. A taxonomy of granular partitions Thomas Bittner and Barry Smith

    E-print Network

    Forbus, Kenneth D.

    (the subdivision of the animal kingdom into species and subspecies, the subdivision of heavenly bodies. This classification is used to characterize three types of granular partitions that play an important role in spatial

  15. Resilient modulus and permanent deformation testing of unbound granular materials 

    E-print Network

    Kancherla, Anuroopa

    2005-11-01

    Numerous research efforts have been devoted to characterizing the behavior of granular materials, which is one of the main concerns of pavement engineers. For better understanding of this behavior, laboratory tests where ...

  16. Reduction of compaction force in a confined bidisperse granular media.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Arévalo, F M; Tapia-McClung, H; Pulos, G; Zenit, R

    2013-05-01

    Experiments and simulations of the compaction force in a confined binary granular mixture column were conducted. We measured the resistance force encountered by a piston pushing a vertical granular mixture in this confined arrangement. Granular mixtures with two different particle sizes were considered; the size ratio and the size fraction were both varied. An important decrease of the compaction force was found for volumetric fractions between 15% and 40% and size ratios larger than 3. By conducting some supplementary discrete element simulations, we found that the force chain network is fractured and redistributed when small particles are present. Hence we argue that the reduction of compaction force results from the redistribution of force within the granular column. PMID:23767533

  17. Drag coefficients on razor clams in slightly fluidized granular media

    E-print Network

    Becker, Christopher R. (Christopher Ryan)

    2008-01-01

    Razor clams are able to burrow deeply into granular media with only a small fraction of force required by traditional anchoring devices. It is hypothesized that the collapse of their shell and subsequent localized fluidization ...

  18. On the Electrostatics of Pneumatic Conveying of Granular Materials

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Kewu

    In this work the electrostatics of the pneumatic conveying of granular materials in a non-conducting (PVC) vertical pipe is studied using Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) system. The non-conducting wall in general ...

  19. Evaporation-induced non-wetting droplets on superhydrophilic surfaces

    E-print Network

    Adera, Solomon (Solomon E.)

    2012-01-01

    A droplet deposited on a rough, lyophilic surface satisfying the imbibition condition, results in spontaneous spreading and hence complete wetting. However, in this thesis, we demonstrate that this wetting behavior can be ...

  20. Characterization of force chains in granular material.

    PubMed

    Peters, J F; Muthuswamy, M; Wibowo, J; Tordesillas, A

    2005-10-01

    It has been observed that the majority of particles in a granular material carries less than the average load and that the number of particles carrying larger than the average load decreases exponentially with increasing contact force. The particles carrying above average load appear to form a strong network of forces while the majority of particles belong to a weak network. The strong network of forces appear to have a spatial characteristic whereby the stronger forces are carried though chainlike particle groups referred to as force chains. There is a strong case for a connection between force chains of the discrete medium and the trajectory of the most compressive principal stress in its continuous idealization. While such properties seem obvious from descriptive analysis of physical and numerical experiments in granular media, progress in quantification of the force chain statistics requires an objective description of what constitutes a force chain. A procedure to quantify the occurrence of force chains is built on a proposed definition having two parts: first, the chain is a quasilinear arrangement of three or more particles, and second, along the chain, stress concentration within each grain is characterized by the vector delineating the most compressive principal stress. The procedure is incorporated into an algorithm that can be applied to large particle assemblies to compile force chain statistics. The procedure is demonstrated on a discrete element simulation of a rigid punch into a half space. It was found that only approximately half of the particles within the group of so-called strong network particles are part of force chains. Throughout deformation, the average length of force chains varied slightly but the number of force chains decreased as the punch advanced. The force chain lengths follow an exponential distribution. The procedure provides a tool for objective analysis of force chains, although future work is required to incorporate branching of force chains into the analysis. PMID:16383373