Science.gov

Sample records for wet granular matter

  1. Equation of state of wet granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fingerle, A.; Herminghaus, S.

    2008-01-01

    An expression for the near-contact pair correlation function of D -dimensional weakly polydisperse hard spheres is presented, which arises from elementary free-volume arguments. Its derivative at contact agrees very well with our simulations for D=2 . For jammed states, the expression predicts that the number of exact contacts is equal to 2D, in agreement with established simulations. When the particles are wetted, they interact by the formation and rupture of liquid capillary bridges. Since formation and rupture events of capillary bonds are well separated in configuration space, the interaction is hysteretic with a characteristic energy loss Ecb . The pair correlation is strongly affected by this capillary interaction depending on the liquid-bond status of neighboring particles. A theory is derived for the nonequilibrium probability currents of the capillary interaction which determines the pair correlation function near contact. This finally yields an analytic expression for the equation of state, P=P(N/V,T) , of wet granular matter for D=2 , valid in the complete density range from gas to jamming. Driven wet granular matter exhibits a van der Waals-like unstable branch at granular temperatures Tgranular droplets reported for the free cooling of one-dimensional wet granular matter [A. Fingerle and S. Herminghaus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 078001 (2006)], and extends the effect to higher dimensional systems. Since the limiting case of sticky bonds, Ecb≫T , is of relevance for aggregation in general, simulations have been performed which show very good agreement with the theoretically predicted coordination K of capillary bonds as a function of the bond length scrit . This result implies that particles that stick at the surface, scrit=0 , form isostatic clusters. An extension of the theory in which the bridge coordination number K plays the role of a self-consistent mean-field is proposed.

  2. Pattern formation in wet granular matter under vertical vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butzhammer, Lorenz; Vlkel, Simeon; Rehberg, Ingo; Huang, Kai

    2015-07-01

    Experiments on a thin layer of cohesive wet granular matter under vertical vibrations reveal kink-separated domains that collide with the container at different phases. Due to the strong cohesion arising from the formation of liquid bridges between adjacent particles, the domains move collectively upon vibrations. Depending on the periodicity of this collective motion, the kink fronts may propagate, couple with each other, and form rotating spiral patterns in the case of period tripling or stay as standing wave patterns in the case of period doubling. Moreover, both patterns may coexist with granular "gas bubbles"phase separation into a liquidlike and a gaslike state. Stability diagrams for the instabilities measured with various granular layer mass m and container height H are presented. The onsets for both types of patterns and their dependency on m and H can be quantitatively captured with a model considering the granular layer as a single particle colliding completely inelastically with the container.

  3. Granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, H. J.

    2002-10-01

    This is an introductory course into some aspects of the physics of granular materials. Three theoretical questions are looked into more detail corresponding to the 3 h of the course: I present some statistical models to describe the shape of a heap under impact and present a way to calculate the angle of repose from the first principle. The second part contains the theoretical framework of a hydrodynamic description of fluid sand and the calculation of transport properties using kinetic gas theory. Cooling and clustering are given as example and counter-example. The last part focusses on packings and in particular on lattice models for compaction dynamics.

  4. Role of contact-angle hysteresis for fluid transport in wet granular matter.

    PubMed

    Mani, Roman; Semprebon, Ciro; Kadau, Dirk; Herrmann, Hans J; Brinkmann, Martin; Herminghaus, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    The stability of sand castles is determined by the structure of wet granulates. Experimental data on the size distribution of fluid pockets are ambiguous with regard to their origin. We discovered that contact-angle hysteresis plays a fundamental role in the equilibrium distribution of bridge volumes, and not geometrical disorder as commonly conjectured. This has substantial consequences on the mechanical properties of wet granular beds, including a history-dependent rheology and lowered strength. Our findings are obtained using a model in which the Laplace pressures, bridge volumes, and contact angles are dynamical variables associated with the contact points. While accounting for contact line pinning, we track the temporal evolution of each bridge. We observe a crossover to a power-law decay of the variance of capillary pressures at late times and a saturation of the variance of bridge volumes to a finite value connected to contact line pinning. Large-scale simulations of liquid transport in the bridge network reveal that the equilibration dynamics at early times is well described by a mean-field model. The spread of final bridge volumes can be directly related to the magnitude of contact-angle hysteresis. PMID:25974481

  5. Role of contact-angle hysteresis for fluid transport in wet granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Roman; Semprebon, Ciro; Kadau, Dirk; Herrmann, Hans J.; Brinkmann, Martin; Herminghaus, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    The stability of sand castles is determined by the structure of wet granulates. Experimental data on the size distribution of fluid pockets are ambiguous with regard to their origin. We discovered that contact-angle hysteresis plays a fundamental role in the equilibrium distribution of bridge volumes, and not geometrical disorder as commonly conjectured. This has substantial consequences on the mechanical properties of wet granular beds, including a history-dependent rheology and lowered strength. Our findings are obtained using a model in which the Laplace pressures, bridge volumes, and contact angles are dynamical variables associated with the contact points. While accounting for contact line pinning, we track the temporal evolution of each bridge. We observe a crossover to a power-law decay of the variance of capillary pressures at late times and a saturation of the variance of bridge volumes to a finite value connected to contact line pinning. Large-scale simulations of liquid transport in the bridge network reveal that the equilibration dynamics at early times is well described by a mean-field model. The spread of final bridge volumes can be directly related to the magnitude of contact-angle hysteresis.

  6. Erosion dynamics of a wet granular medium.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Gautier; Jop, Pierre

    2013-09-01

    Liquid may give strong cohesion properties to a granular medium, and confer a solidlike behavior. We study the erosion of a fixed circular aggregate of wet granular matter subjected to a flow of dry grains inside a half-filled rotating drum. During the rotation, the dry grains flow around the fixed obstacle. We show that its diameter decreases linearly with time for low liquid content, as wet grains are pulled out of the aggregate. This erosion phenomenon is governed by the properties of the liquids. The erosion rate decreases exponentially with the surface tension while it depends on the viscosity to the power -1. We propose a model based on the force fluctuations arising inside the flow, explaining both dependencies: The capillary force acts as a threshold and the viscosity controls the erosion time scale. We also provide experiments using different flowing grains, confirming our model. PMID:24125259

  7. Granular matter: Charges dropped

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spahn, Frank; Sei?, Martin

    2015-09-01

    Granular charging can create some spectacular interactions, but gravity obscures our ability to observe and understand them. A neat desktop experiment circumvents this problem, shining a light on granular clustering -- and perhaps even planet formation.

  8. Compaction dynamics of wet granular packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandewalle, Nicolas; Ludewig, Francois; Fiscina, Jorge E.; Lumay, Geoffroy

    2013-03-01

    The extremely slow compaction dynamics of wet granular assemblies has been studied experimentally. The cohesion, due to capillary bridges between neighboring grains, has been tuned using different liquids having specific surface tension values. The characteristic relaxation time for compaction τ grows strongly with cohesion. A kinetic model, based on a free volume kinetic equations and the presence of a capillary energy barrier (due to liquid bridges), is able to reproduce quantitatively the experimental curves. This model allows one to describe the cohesion in wet granular packing. The influence of relative humidity (RH) on the extremely slow compaction dynamics of a granular assembly has also been investigated in the range 20 % - 80 % . Triboelectric and capillary condensation effects have been introduced in the kinetic model. Results confirm the existence of an optimal condition at RH ~ 45 % for minimizing cohesive interactions between glass beads.

  9. Morphological clues to wet granular pile stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheel, M.; Seemann, R.; Brinkmann, M.; di Michiel, M.; Sheppard, A.; Breidenbach, B.; Herminghaus, S.

    2008-03-01

    When a granular material such as sand is mixed with a certain amount of liquid, the surface tension of the latter bestows considerable stiffness to the material, which enables, for example, sand castles to be sculpted. The geometry of the liquid interface within the granular pile is of extraordinary complexity and strongly varies with the liquid content. Surprisingly, the mechanical properties of the pile are largely independent of the amount of liquid over a wide range. We resolve this puzzle with the help of X-ray microtomography, showing that the remarkable insensitivity of the mechanical properties to the liquid content is due to the particular organization of the liquid in the pile into open structures. For spherical grains, a simple geometric rule is established, which relates the macroscopic properties to the internal liquid morphologies. We present evidence that this concept is also valid for systems with non-spherical grains. Hence, our results provide new insight towards understanding the complex physics of a large variety of wet granular systems including land slides, as well as mixing and agglomeration problems.

  10. Entropy of jammed granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, Christopher

    Granular matter can be considered a non-equilibrium system, such that equilibrium statistics is insufficient to describe the dynamics. A phase transition occurs when granular materials are compressed such that a nonzero stress develops in response to a strain deformation. This transition, referred to as the jamming transition, occurs at a critical volume fraction, ?c depending on friction and preparation protocol. Analysis of the jamming transition produces a phase diagram of jammed granular matter for identical spheres, characterized by the critical volume fraction, ?c and the average coordination number, Z. The boundaries of the phase diagram are related to well-defined upper and lower limits in the density of disordered packings; random close packing (RCP) and random loose packing (RLP). Frictional systems, such as granular matter, exhibit an inherent path dependency resulting in the loss of energy conservation, an important facet of equilibrium statistics. It has been suggested Edwards that the volume-force (V-F) ensemble, wherein volume replaces energy as the conservative quantity, may provide a sufficient framework to create a statistical ensemble for jammed granular matter. Treating a jammed system via the V-F ensemble introduces an analogue to temperature in equilibrium systems. This analogue, "compactivity", measures how compact a system could be and governs fluctuation in the volume statistics. Randomness in statistical systems is typically characterized by entropy, the equation of state derived from the number of microstates available to the system. In equilibrium statistical mechanics, entropy provides the link between these microstates and the macroscopic thermodynamic properties of the system. Therefore, calculating the entropy within the V-F ensemble can relate the available microscopic volume for each grain to the macroscopic system properties. The entropy is shown to be minimal at RCP and maximal at the minimum RLP limit, via several methods utilizing simulations and theoretical models. Within this framework RCP is achieved in the limit of minimal compactivity and RLP is achieved in the limit of maximal compactivity. The boundaries of a phase diagram for jammed matter could thereby be defined by the limits of zero and infinite compactivities, characterizing the RCP and RLP limits of granular matter.

  11. Maximum angle of stability of a wet granular pile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Sarah; Samadani, Azadeh; Kudrolli, Arshad

    2005-10-01

    Anyone who has built a sandcastle recognizes that adding liquid to the sand grains increases the overall stability. However, measurements of the stability in wet granular materials often conflict with theory and with each other. The friction-based Mohr-Coulomb model distinguishes between granular friction and interparticle friction, but uses the former without providing a physical mechanism. A frictionless model for the geometric stability of dry particles on the surface of a pile is in excellent agreement with experiment. However, the same model applied to wet grains overestimates the stability and predicts no dependence on system size. Here we take a frictionless liquid-bridge model and perform a stability analysis within the pile. We reproduce our experimentally observed dependence of the stability angle on system size, particle size and surface tension. Furthermore, we account for past discrepancies in experimental reports by showing that sidewalls can significantly increase the stability of granular material.

  12. Characterizing the rheology of fluidized granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmond, Kenneth W.; Villa, Umberto; Newey, Mike; Losert, Wolfgang

    2013-09-01

    In this study we characterize the rheology of fluidized granular matter subject to secondary forcing. Our approach consists of first fluidizing granular matter in a drum half filled with grains via simple rotation and then superimposing oscillatory shear perpendicular to the downhill flow direction. The response of the system is mostly linear, with a phase lag between the grain motion and the oscillatory forcing. The rheology of the system can be well characterized by the GDR MiDi model if the system is forced with slow oscillations. The model breaks down when the forcing time scale becomes comparable to the characteristic time for energy dissipation in the flow.

  13. Erosion of a wet/dry granular interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jop, Pierre; Lefebvre, Gautier

    2013-04-01

    To model the dynamic of landslides, the evolution of the interface between the erodible ground and the flowing material is still studied experimentally or numerically (ie. Mangeney et al. 2010, Iverson 2012). In some cases, the basal material is more cohesive than the flowing one. Such situation arises for example due to cementation or humidity. What are the exchange rates between these phases? What is the coupling between the evolution of the interface and the flow? We studied the erosion phenomenon and performed laboratory experiments to focus on the interaction between a cohesive unsaturated granular material and a dry granular flow. Both materials were spherical grains, the cohesion being induced by adding a given mass of liquid to the grains. Two configurations were explored: a circular aggregate submitted to a dry flow in a rotating drum, and a granular flow eroding a wet granular pile. First, we focused on the influence of the cohesion, controlled by the liquid properties, such as the surface tension and the viscosity. Then the flow characteristics were modified by varying the grain size and density. These results allowed us to present a model for the erosion mechanisms, based on the flow and fluid properties. The main results are the need to take into account the whole probability distribution the stress applied on the wet grains and that both the surface tension and the viscosity are important since they play a different roles. The latter is mainly responsible of the time scale of the dynamic of a wet grain, while the former acts as a threshold on the force distribution. In the second configuration, we could also control the inclination of the slope. This system supported the previous model and moreover revealed an interface instability, leading the formation of steep steps, which is a reminiscence of the cyclic-steps observed during river-channel incision (Parker and Izumi 2000). We will present the dynamics of such granular steps. [1] Mangeney, A., O. Roche, O. Hungr, N. Mangold, G. Faccanoni, and A. Lucas (2010), Erosion and mobility in granular collapse over sloping beds, J. Geophys. Res., 115, F03040, doi:10.1029/2009JF001462. [2] Iverson, R. M. (2012), Elementary theory of bed-sediment entrainment by debris flows and avalanches, J. Geophys. Res., 117, F03006, doi:10.1029/2011JF002189. [3] Parker G.and Izumi N., Purely erosional cyclic and solitary steps created by flow over a cohesive bed, J. Fluid Mech. (2000), vol. 419, pp. 203-238.

  14. Penetration depth scaling for impact into wet granular packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzinski, T. A.; Schug, J.; Mao, K.; Durian, D. J.

    2015-02-01

    We present experimental measurements of penetration depths for the impact of spheres into wetted granular media. We observe that the penetration depth in the liquid saturated case scales with projectile density, size, and drop height in a fashion consistent with the scaling observed in the dry case, but with smaller penetrations. Neither viscous drag nor density effects can explain the enhancement to the stopping force. The penetration depth exhibits a complicated dependence on liquid fraction, accompanied by a change in the drop-height dependence, that must be the consequence of accompanying changes in the conformation of the liquid phase in the interstices.

  15. Penetration depth scaling for impact into wet granular packings.

    PubMed

    Brzinski, T A; Schug, J; Mao, K; Durian, D J

    2015-02-01

    We present experimental measurements of penetration depths for the impact of spheres into wetted granular media. We observe that the penetration depth in the liquid saturated case scales with projectile density, size, and drop height in a fashion consistent with the scaling observed in the dry case, but with smaller penetrations. Neither viscous drag nor density effects can explain the enhancement to the stopping force. The penetration depth exhibits a complicated dependence on liquid fraction, accompanied by a change in the drop-height dependence, that must be the consequence of accompanying changes in the conformation of the liquid phase in the interstices. PMID:25768493

  16. Locomotion and drag in wet and dry granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Daniel; Kuckuk, Robyn; Sharpe, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Many animals move within substrates such as soil and dry sand; the resistive properties of such granular materials (GM) can depend on water content and compaction, but little is known about how such parameters affect locomotion or the relevant physics of drag and penetration. We developed a system to create homogeneous wet GM of varying moisture content and compaction in quantities sufficient to study the burial and subsurface locomotion of the Ocellated skink (C. ocellatus) a desert-generalist lizard. X-ray imaging revealed that in wet and dry GM the lizard slowly buried (~ 30 seconds) propagating a wave from head to tail, while moving in a start-stop motion. During forward movement, the head oscillated, and the forelimb on the convex side of the body propelled the animal. Although body kinematics (and ``slip'') were similar in both substrates, the burial depth was smaller in wet GM. Penetration and drag force experiments on smooth cylinders revealed that wet GM was ~ 3 × more resistive than dry GM, suggesting that during burial the lizard operated near its maximum force producing capability and was thus constrained by environmental properties. work supported by NSF PoLS.

  17. Shear strength and stress distribution in wet granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richefeu, Vincent; Radja, Farhang; El Youssoufi, Moulay Sad

    2009-06-01

    We investigate the shear strength and stress distribution properties of wet granular media in the pendular state where the liquid is mainly in the form of capillary bonds between particles. This work is based on a 3D discrete-element approach (molecular dynamics) with spherical particles enriched by a capillary force law. We show that the capillary force can be expressed as an explicit function of the gap and volume of the liquid bridge. The length scales involved in this expression are analyzed by comparing with direct integration of the Laplace-Young equation. In the simulations, we consider a maximum number density of liquid bonds in the bulk in agreement with equilibrium of each liquid bridge. This liquid bond number is a decisive parameter for the overall cohesion of wet granular materials. It is shown that the shear strength can be expressed as a function of liquid bond characteristics. The expression proposed initially by Rumpf is thus generalized to account for size polydispersity We show that this expression is in good agreement with our experimental data that will be briefly described. At low confining stress, the tensile action of capillary bonds induces a self-stressed particle network organized in a bi-percolating structure of positive and negative particle pressures. Various statistical descriptors of the microstructure and bond force network are used to characterize this partition. Two basic properties emerge: (i) The highest particle pressure is located in the bulk of each phase (positive and negative particle pressures); (ii) The lowest pressure level occurs at the interface between the two phases, involving also the largest connectivity of the particles via tensile and compressive bonds.

  18. Bottom pressure scaling of vibro-fluidized granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuragi, Hiroaki

    2015-11-01

    Vibrated granular beds show various interesting phenomena such as convection, segregation, and so on. However, its fundamental physical properties (e.g., internal pressure structure) have not yet been understood well. Thus, in this study, the bottom wall pressure in a vertically vibrated granular column is experimentally measured and used to reveal the nature of granular fluidization. The scaling method allows us to elucidate the fluidization (softening) degree of a vibrated granular column. The peak value of the bottom pressure pm is scaled as ?, where pJ, d, g, ?, H, and ? are the Janssen pressure, grain diameter, gravitational acceleration, angular frequency, height of the column, and dimensionless vibrational acceleration, respectively. This scaling implies that the pressure of vibrated granular matter is quite different from the classical pressure forms: static and dynamic pressures. This scaling represents the importance of geometric factors for discussing the behavior of vibro-fluidized granular matter. The scaling is also useful to evaluate the dissipation degree in vibro-fluidized granular matter.

  19. Bottom pressure scaling of vibro-fluidized granular matter.

    PubMed

    Katsuragi, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Vibrated granular beds show various interesting phenomena such as convection, segregation, and so on. However, its fundamental physical properties (e.g., internal pressure structure) have not yet been understood well. Thus, in this study, the bottom wall pressure in a vertically vibrated granular column is experimentally measured and used to reveal the nature of granular fluidization. The scaling method allows us to elucidate the fluidization (softening) degree of a vibrated granular column. The peak value of the bottom pressure pm is scaled as ?, where pJ, d, g, ?, H, and ? are the Janssen pressure, grain diameter, gravitational acceleration, angular frequency, height of the column, and dimensionless vibrational acceleration, respectively. This scaling implies that the pressure of vibrated granular matter is quite different from the classical pressure forms: static and dynamic pressures. This scaling represents the importance of geometric factors for discussing the behavior of vibro-fluidized granular matter. The scaling is also useful to evaluate the dissipation degree in vibro-fluidized granular matter. PMID:26602973

  20. Bottom pressure scaling of vibro-fluidized granular matter

    PubMed Central

    Katsuragi, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Vibrated granular beds show various interesting phenomena such as convection, segregation, and so on. However, its fundamental physical properties (e.g., internal pressure structure) have not yet been understood well. Thus, in this study, the bottom wall pressure in a vertically vibrated granular column is experimentally measured and used to reveal the nature of granular fluidization. The scaling method allows us to elucidate the fluidization (softening) degree of a vibrated granular column. The peak value of the bottom pressure pm is scaled as Γ, where pJ, d, g, ω, H, and Γ are the Janssen pressure, grain diameter, gravitational acceleration, angular frequency, height of the column, and dimensionless vibrational acceleration, respectively. This scaling implies that the pressure of vibrated granular matter is quite different from the classical pressure forms: static and dynamic pressures. This scaling represents the importance of geometric factors for discussing the behavior of vibro-fluidized granular matter. The scaling is also useful to evaluate the dissipation degree in vibro-fluidized granular matter. PMID:26602973

  1. Penetration of spherical projectiles into wet granular media.

    PubMed

    Birch, S P D; Manga, M; Delbridge, B; Chamberlain, M

    2014-09-01

    We measure experimentally the penetration depth d of spherical particles into a water-saturated granular medium made of much smaller sand-sized grains. We vary the density, size R, and velocity U of the impacting spheres, and the size δ of the grains in the granular medium. We consider velocities between 7 and 107 m/s, a range not previously addressed, but relevant for impacts produced by volcanic eruptions. We find that d∝R(1/3)δ(1/3)U(2/3). The scaling with velocity is similar to that identified in previous, low-velocity collisions, but it also depends on the size of the grains in the granular medium. We develop a model, consistent with the observed scaling, in which the energy dissipation is dominated by the work required to rearrange grains along a network of force chains in the granular medium. PMID:25314438

  2. Quantitatively mimicking wet colloidal suspensions with dry granular media.

    PubMed

    Messina, Ren; Aljawhari, Sarah; Bcu, Lydiane; Schockmel, Julien; Lumay, Geoffroy; Vandewalle, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Athermal two-dimensional granular systems are exposed to external mechanical noise leading to Brownian-like motion. Using tunable repulsive interparticle interaction, it is shown that the same microstructure as that observed in colloidal suspensions can be quantitatively recovered at a macroscopic scale. To that end, experiments on granular and colloidal systems made up of magnetized particles as well as computer simulations are performed and compared. Excellent agreement throughout the range of the magnetic coupling parameter is found for the pair distribution as well as the bond-orientational correlation functions. This finding opens new ways to efficiently and very conveniently explore phase transitions, crystallization, nucleation, etc in confined geometries. PMID:26030718

  3. Scaling of liquid-drop impact craters in wet granular media.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianyun; Gao, Ming; Zhao, Runchen; Cheng, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    Combining high-speed photography with laser profilometry, we study the dynamics and the morphology of liquid-drop impact cratering in wet granular media-a ubiquitous phenomenon relevant to many important geological, agricultural, and industrial processes. By systematically investigating important variables such as impact energy, the size of impinging drops, and the degree of liquid saturation in granular beds, we uncover a scaling law for the size of impact craters. We show that this scaling can be explained by considering the balance between the inertia of impinging drops and the strength of impacted surface. Such a theoretical understanding confirms that the unique energy partition originally proposed for liquid-drop impact cratering in dry granular media also applies for impact cratering in wet granular media. Moreover, we demonstrate that compressive stresses, instead of shear stresses, control the process of granular impact cratering. Our study enriches the picture of generic granular impact cratering and sheds light on the familiar phenomena of raindrop impacts in granular media. PMID:26565233

  4. Scaling of liquid-drop impact craters in wet granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qianyun; Gao, Ming; Zhao, Runchen; Cheng, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    Combining high-speed photography with laser profilometry, we study the dynamics and the morphology of liquid-drop impact cratering in wet granular media—a ubiquitous phenomenon relevant to many important geological, agricultural, and industrial processes. By systematically investigating important variables such as impact energy, the size of impinging drops, and the degree of liquid saturation in granular beds, we uncover a scaling law for the size of impact craters. We show that this scaling can be explained by considering the balance between the inertia of impinging drops and the strength of impacted surface. Such a theoretical understanding confirms that the unique energy partition originally proposed for liquid-drop impact cratering in dry granular media also applies for impact cratering in wet granular media. Moreover, we demonstrate that compressive stresses, instead of shear stresses, control the process of granular impact cratering. Our study enriches the picture of generic granular impact cratering and sheds light on the familiar phenomena of raindrop impacts in granular media.

  5. DEM study on the interaction between wet cohesive granular materials and tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Takuya; Matsui, Yu; Nakagawa, Yuta; Kadono, Yuuichi; Tanaka, Toshitsugu

    2013-06-01

    A model based on discrete element method has been developed for the interaction between wet cohesive granular materials and mechanical tools with complex geometry. To obtain realistic results, the motion of 52.5 million particles has been simulated and the formation of multiple shear bands during an excavation process by a bulldozer blade was observed.

  6. Runaway Electrification of Friable Self-Replicating Granular Matter

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We establish that the nonlinear dynamics of collisions between particles favors the charging of an insulating, friable, self-replicating granular material that undergoes nucleation, growth, and fission processes; we demonstrate with a minimal dynamical model that secondary nucleation produces a positive feedback in an electrification mechanism that leads to runaway charging. We discuss ice as an example of such a self-replicating granular material: We confirm with laboratory experiments in which we grow ice from the vapor phase in situ within an environmental scanning electron microscope that charging causes fast-growing and easily breakable palmlike structures to form, which when broken off may form secondary nuclei. We propose that thunderstorms, both terrestrial and on other planets, and lightning in the solar nebula are instances of such runaway charging arising from this nonlinear dynamics in self-replicating granular matter. PMID:24041221

  7. Reflections on the mechanics of granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gennes, P. G.

    During recent years, a rather basic conflict has emerged between departments of mechanics/physics concerning the description of granular media. Experts from mechanics measure stress/strain relations, using the so-called triaxial tests, and then use these data to predict the behavior of a sample under given boundary conditions. Some physicists have a different view: they have claimed that it is not possible to define a proper displacement field in a heap of sand, and that the notion of strains is thus ambiguous. In the present text, we conclude that the crucial features are the following: (a) a heap is usually formed from a flowing phase of sand, (b) there is (empirically) a sharp interface between the flowing phase and the frozen heap below, (c) we may define for each grain a displacement, which is measured from the moment when it froze. (This displacement is due, for instance, to a compaction of the heap under its own weight.) We also present some aspects of the dynamics, including dune motions and surface flows of grains. Bouchaud, Cates and coworkers have constructed a very compact description for thin flows. We discuss the practical consequences of this picture, emphasizing some possible extensions for thicker flows. This suggests a number of possible experiments on avalanches.

  8. Numerical investigation of the cylinder movement in granular matter.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue; Sheng, Daichao; Kouretzis, George P; Krabbenhoft, Kristian; Sloan, Scott W

    2015-02-01

    We investigate numerically the mechanisms governing horizontal dragging of a rigid cylinder buried inside granular matter, with particular emphasis on enumerating drag and lift forces that resist cylinder movement. The recently proposed particle finite element method is employed, which combines the robustness of classical continuum mechanics formulations in terms of representing complex aspects of the material constitutive behavior, with the effectiveness of discrete element methods in simulating ultralarge deformation problems. The investigation focuses on the effect of embedment depth, cylinder roughness, granular matter macromechanical properties, and of the magnitude of the cylinder's horizontal displacement on the amplitude of the resisting forces, which are discussed in light of published experimental data. Interpretation of the results provides insight on how the material flow around the cylinder affects the developing resistance, and a mechanism is proposed to describe the development of a steady-state drag force at large horizontal movements of the cylinder. PMID:25768495

  9. Controlled preparation of wet granular media reveals limits to lizard burial ability.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Sarah S; Kuckuk, Robyn; Goldman, Daniel I

    2015-07-01

    Many animals move within ground composed of granular media (GM); the resistive properties of such substrates can depend on water content and compaction, but little is known about how such parameters affect locomotion or the physics of drag and penetration. Using apparatus to control compaction of GM, our recent studies of movement in dry GM have revealed locomotion strategies of specialized dry-sand-swimming reptiles. However, these animals represent a small fraction of the diversity and presumed burial strategies of fossorial reptilian fauna. Here we develop a system to create states of wet GM of varying moisture content and compaction in quantities sufficient to study the burial and subsurface locomotion of the Ocellated skink (C. ocellatus), a generalist lizard. X-ray imaging revealed that in wet and dry GM the lizard slowly buried (?30 s) propagating a wave from head to tail, while moving in a start-stop motion. During forward movement, the head oscillated, and the forelimb on the convex side of the body propelled the animal. Although body kinematics and 'slip' were similar in both substrates, the burial depth was smaller in wet GM. Penetration and drag force experiments on smooth cylinders revealed that wet GM was ?4 more resistive than dry GM. In total, our measurements indicate that while the rheology of the dry and wet GM differ substantially, the lizard's burial motor pattern is conserved across substrates, while its burial depth is largely constrained by environmental resistance. PMID:26109565

  10. Controlled preparation of wet granular media reveals limits to lizard burial ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Sarah S.; Kuckuk, Robyn; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2015-07-01

    Many animals move within ground composed of granular media (GM); the resistive properties of such substrates can depend on water content and compaction, but little is known about how such parameters affect locomotion or the physics of drag and penetration. Using apparatus to control compaction of GM, our recent studies of movement in dry GM have revealed locomotion strategies of specialized dry-sand-swimming reptiles. However, these animals represent a small fraction of the diversity and presumed burial strategies of fossorial reptilian fauna. Here we develop a system to create states of wet GM of varying moisture content and compaction in quantities sufficient to study the burial and subsurface locomotion of the Ocellated skink (C. ocellatus), a generalist lizard. X-ray imaging revealed that in wet and dry GM the lizard slowly buried (≈ 30 s) propagating a wave from head to tail, while moving in a start-stop motion. During forward movement, the head oscillated, and the forelimb on the convex side of the body propelled the animal. Although body kinematics and ‘slip’ were similar in both substrates, the burial depth was smaller in wet GM. Penetration and drag force experiments on smooth cylinders revealed that wet GM was ≈ 4× more resistive than dry GM. In total, our measurements indicate that while the rheology of the dry and wet GM differ substantially, the lizard's burial motor pattern is conserved across substrates, while its burial depth is largely constrained by environmental resistance.

  11. Universality of slip avalanches in flowing granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, D. V.; Lörincz, K. A.; Uhl, J. T.; Dahmen, K. A.; Schall, P.

    2016-02-01

    The search for scale-bridging relations in the deformation of amorphous materials presents a current challenge with tremendous applications in material science, engineering and geology. While generic features in the flow and microscopic dynamics support the idea of a universal scaling theory of deformation, direct microscopic evidence remains poor. Here, we provide the first measurement of internal scaling relations in the deformation of granular matter. By combining macroscopic force fluctuation measurements with internal strain imaging, we demonstrate the existence of robust scaling relations from particle-scale to macroscopic flow. We identify consistent power-law relations truncated by systematic pressure-dependent cutoff, in agreement with recent mean-field theory of slip avalanches in elasto-plastic materials, revealing the existence of a mechanical critical point. These results experimentally establish scale-bridging relations in the flow of matter, paving the way to a new universal theory of deformation.

  12. Universality of slip avalanches in flowing granular matter

    PubMed Central

    Denisov, D. V.; Lörincz, K. A.; Uhl, J. T.; Dahmen, K. A.; Schall, P.

    2016-01-01

    The search for scale-bridging relations in the deformation of amorphous materials presents a current challenge with tremendous applications in material science, engineering and geology. While generic features in the flow and microscopic dynamics support the idea of a universal scaling theory of deformation, direct microscopic evidence remains poor. Here, we provide the first measurement of internal scaling relations in the deformation of granular matter. By combining macroscopic force fluctuation measurements with internal strain imaging, we demonstrate the existence of robust scaling relations from particle-scale to macroscopic flow. We identify consistent power-law relations truncated by systematic pressure-dependent cutoff, in agreement with recent mean-field theory of slip avalanches in elasto-plastic materials, revealing the existence of a mechanical critical point. These results experimentally establish scale-bridging relations in the flow of matter, paving the way to a new universal theory of deformation. PMID:26883071

  13. Universality of slip avalanches in flowing granular matter.

    PubMed

    Denisov, D V; Lörincz, K A; Uhl, J T; Dahmen, K A; Schall, P

    2016-01-01

    The search for scale-bridging relations in the deformation of amorphous materials presents a current challenge with tremendous applications in material science, engineering and geology. While generic features in the flow and microscopic dynamics support the idea of a universal scaling theory of deformation, direct microscopic evidence remains poor. Here, we provide the first measurement of internal scaling relations in the deformation of granular matter. By combining macroscopic force fluctuation measurements with internal strain imaging, we demonstrate the existence of robust scaling relations from particle-scale to macroscopic flow. We identify consistent power-law relations truncated by systematic pressure-dependent cutoff, in agreement with recent mean-field theory of slip avalanches in elasto-plastic materials, revealing the existence of a mechanical critical point. These results experimentally establish scale-bridging relations in the flow of matter, paving the way to a new universal theory of deformation. PMID:26883071

  14. Stress-dependent normal-mode frequencies from the effective mass of granular matter.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanqing; Johnson, David L; Valenza, John J; Santibanez, Francisco; Makse, Hernn A

    2014-06-01

    A zero-temperature critical point has been invoked to control the anomalous behavior of granular matter as it approaches jamming or mechanical arrest. Criticality manifests itself in an anomalous spectrum of low-frequency normal modes and scaling behavior near the jamming transition. The critical point may explain the peculiar mechanical properties of dissimilar systems such as glasses and granular materials. Here we study the critical scenario via an experimental measurement of the normal modes frequencies of granular matter under stress from a pole decomposition analysis of the effective mass. We extract a complex-valued characteristic frequency which displays scaling |? (?)| ? ??' with vanishing stress ? for a variety of granular systems. The critical exponent is smaller than that predicted by mean-field theory opening new challenges to explain the exponent for frictional and dissipative granular matter. Our results shed light on the anomalous behavior of stress-dependent acoustics and attenuation in granular materials near the jamming transition. PMID:25019765

  15. Time-resolved dynamics of granular matter by random laser emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folli, Viola; Ghofraniha, Neda; Puglisi, Andrea; Leuzzi, Luca; Conti, Claudio

    2013-07-01

    Because of the huge commercial importance of granular systems, the second-most used material in industry after water, intersecting the industry in multiple trades, like pharmacy and agriculture, fundamental research on grain-like materials has received an increasing amount of attention in the last decades. In photonics, the applications of granular materials have been only marginally investigated. We report the first phase-diagram of a granular as obtained by laser emission. The dynamics of vertically-oscillated granular in a liquid solution in a three-dimensional container is investigated by employing its random laser emission. The granular motion is function of the frequency and amplitude of the mechanical solicitation, we show how the laser emission allows to distinguish two phases in the granular and analyze its spectral distribution. This constitutes a fundamental step in the field of granulars and gives a clear evidence of the possible control on light-matter interaction achievable in grain-like system.

  16. Micro-macro transition and simplified contact models for wet granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sudeshna; Singh, Abhinendra; Luding, Stefan; Weinhart, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Wet granular materials in a quasistatic steady-state shear flow have been studied with discrete particle simulations. Macroscopic quantities, consistent with the conservation laws of continuum theory, are obtained by time averaging and spatial coarse graining. Initial studies involve understanding the effect of liquid content and liquid properties like the surface tension on the macroscopic quantities. Two parameters of the liquid bridge contact model have been identified as the constitutive parameters that influence the macroscopic rheology (i) the rupture distance of the liquid bridge model, which is proportional to the liquid content, and (ii) the maximum adhesive force, as controlled by the surface tension of the liquid. Subsequently, a correlation is developed between these microparameters and the steady-state cohesion in the limit of zero confining pressure. Furthermore, as second result, the macroscopic torque measured at the walls, which is an experimentally accessible parameter, is predicted from our simulation results with the same dependence on the microparameters. Finally, the steady- state cohesion of a realistic non-linear liquid bridge contact model scales well with the steady-state cohesion for a simpler linearized irreversible contact model with the same maximum adhesive force and equal energy dissipated per contact.

  17. Time-resolved dynamics of granular matter by random laser emission

    PubMed Central

    Folli, Viola; Ghofraniha, Neda; Puglisi, Andrea; Leuzzi, Luca; Conti, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Because of the huge commercial importance of granular systems, the second-most used material in industry after water, intersecting the industry in multiple trades, like pharmacy and agriculture, fundamental research on grain-like materials has received an increasing amount of attention in the last decades. In photonics, the applications of granular materials have been only marginally investigated. We report the first phase-diagram of a granular as obtained by laser emission. The dynamics of vertically-oscillated granular in a liquid solution in a three-dimensional container is investigated by employing its random laser emission. The granular motion is function of the frequency and amplitude of the mechanical solicitation, we show how the laser emission allows to distinguish two phases in the granular and analyze its spectral distribution. This constitutes a fundamental step in the field of granulars and gives a clear evidence of the possible control on light-matter interaction achievable in grain-like system. PMID:23872642

  18. Behaviour of granular matter under reduced-gravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, J.; Brucks, A.

    2007-08-01

    We present a study on low-gravity surface flows of granular materials. Planetary surfaces of small solar-system bodies are usually covered by granulates called regolith. We are interested in the static and dynamic characteristics of regolith under the lowgravity conditions prevailing on the surfaces of small bodies in the solar system. We are particularly interested at which lower boundary in g-level particles become dominated by cohesive forces. We investigated the effect of the reduction of the gravitational acceleration on the granular-flow behaviour. The experiments were performed under microgravity conditions in the Bremen Drop Tower and were using a slowly rotating centrifuge for simulating low-gravity environments. Surface flow effects were simulated in two flat (quasi-2D) sand glass experiments, in a rotating tumbler and in an avalanche box. We will present results from 15 microgravity experiments in an acceleration range between 0.01 g and 1 g.

  19. Particle Shape and Dynamics of Granular Matter: Swarming to Swirling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudrolli, Arshad

    2007-03-01

    We will discuss a series of experiments performed with granular rods, dimers, and flexible chains on a vibrated plate to illustrate the effect of particle shape on self-organization. A non-spherical shape is shown to lead to not only states which resemble nematic and smectic phases but also causes novel dynamics [1]. The ratchet mechanism which leads to vortex motion in a collection of rods on a vibrated plate and drift motion in a bouncing dimer will be discussed [2, 3]. The friction at the point of contact between particle and the substrate, and the coupling about the center of mass of a non-spherical is proposed to lead to observed motion. Exploiting this mechanism we construct mechanical self-propelled particles (SPP) using rods with asymmetric mass distributions. We then investigate the SSP number fluctuations, flow fields, and orientation order inside a container as a function of number density and excitation, and compare their statistics with recent models of active nematic particles and living cells.1. ``Vortices in vibrated granular rods," D.L. Blair, T. Neicu, and A. Kudrolli, Phys. Rev. E 67, 031303 (2003).2. ``Anisotropy driven dynamics in vibrated granular rods," D. Volfson, A. Kudrolli, and L.S. Tsimring, Phys. Rev. E 70, 051312 (2004).3. ``Dynamics of a bouncing dimer," S. Dorbolo, D. Volfson, L. Tsimring, and A. Kudrolli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 044101 (2005).

  20. "Lock in accelerometry" to follow sink dynamics in shaken granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Cecile; Sanchez-Colina, Gustavo; Alonso-Llanes, Laciel; Martinez-Roman, Etien; Batitsta-Leyva, Alfo-Jose; Toussaint, Renaud; Altshuler, Ernesto

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the penetration dynamics of intruders in granular beds is relevant not only for fundamental Physics, but also for geophysical processes and construction on granular soils in earthquake areas. Indeed a phenomenon named soil liquefaction can cause buildings to sink or tilt in areas separated of 1000 km from the epicentre in the worst cases. The damages on the constructions, the pipes and the roads may be huge. There is a conventional understanding of liquefaction from which scientists made theoretical and empirical laws for geotechnical use and building construction, but the dynamical penetration of buildings into the soil is still not well understood. While the penetration of intruders in 2D laboratory granular beds can be followed using video recording, it is useless in 3D beds of non-transparent materials such as common sand. Wireless accelerometry constitutes a natural alternative that has been used in very few occasions, however, it has never been used to quantify the penetration into horizontally shaken granular beds. Here we propose a method to quantify the sink dynamics of an intruder into laterally shaken, fluidized granular bed. We developped an embarked accelerometer small enough to fit into a modelized building. This sensor allows us to follow the intruder in realistic conditions namely buried in a 3D box of sand. Our method is based on the temporal correlations between the signals from a reference accelerometer fixed to the shaken granular bed, and the accelerometer deployed inside the intruder. We demonstrate that our method is able to determine the time interval of sinking of an intruder into shaken granular beds for both quasi-2D and 3D systems [1]. Due to its analogy with the working principle of a lock in amplifier, we call this technique Lock in accelerometry (LIA). In the experiments the intruder stops at a depth that we assume to be the beginning of the "jammed" granular phase. We are now developing numerical simulations based on a molecular dynamic algorithm to confirm or not this assumption. We modelized a granular bed with particles of the same size than the one used in the experiments. Because we have access to the velocity of every particles we can quantify the dynamic of each layers of the granular medium and find its "jammed" boundary. Reference [1] G Sánchez-Colina, L Alonso-Llanes, E Martínez, AJ Batista-Leyva, C Clement, C Fliedner, R Toussaint, and E Altshuler. Note :"lock-in accelerometry" to follow sink dynamics in shaken granular matter. Review of Scientific Instruments, 85(12) :126101, 2014.

  1. Applying the model of Soft Glassy Rheology to slowly driven dense granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Dapeng; Chakraborty, Bulbul

    2009-03-01

    In recent work by S. Henkes and B. Chakraborty (PRL 95, 198002 (2005)), a new statistical framework is proposed to describe static granular packings. In this framework, stress replaces energy as the conserved quantity and fluctuations in the stress are controlled by a quantity analogous to the thermodynamic temperature. We adapt this framework in the quasi-static limit and the model of Soft Glassy Rheology (P. Sollich, PRE 78, 2020 (1997)) to describe the rheological behavior of slowly driven dense granular matter. The model explains the experimental observation of R. P. Behringer et al. (Nature 421, 928 (2003)). We will describe ongoing efforts to apply this model to different categories of slowly driven granular media, and to relate the model to threshold critical dynamics in other driven random media.

  2. Mechanisms for Acoustic Absorption in Dry and Weakly Wet Granular Media

    SciTech Connect

    Brunet, Th.; Jia, X.; Mills, P.

    2008-09-26

    The dissipation of an elastic wave in dry and wet glass bead packings is measured using multiple sound scattering. The interplay of a linear viscoelastic loss and a nonlinear frictional one is observed in dry media. The Mindlin model provides a qualitative description of the experiment, but fails to quantitatively account for the data due to grain roughness. In weakly wet media, we find that the dissipation is dominated by a linear viscous loss due to the liquid films trapped at the grain surface asperities. Adding more liquid enables us to form the capillary menisci but does not increase the energy loss.

  3. A community-detection based approach to identification of inhomogeneities in granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navakas, Robertas; Džiugys, Algis; Peters, Bernhard

    2014-08-01

    Interparticle interactions in granular matter are commonly represented by appropriate graphs, therefore, inhomogeneities in granular matter can be possibly reflected by community structure in the respective graphs. Approaches and algorithms for community detection are being actively developed and the achievements in this area can be utilized for analysis of granular systems, where bridging the gap from microscopic configuration to macroscopic phenomena is of great interest. Here, we analyse applicability of graph community detection algorithms for identification of inhomogeneities of particle parameter distribution in granular matter, in order to explore the relevance of the selected approach in general. As an example application, we analyse identification of temperature distribution inhomogeneities in a simulated packed bed of fuel particles on a moving grate. We build a graph based on particle parameter similarity from the particle temperature data, available from Discrete Element/Particle Modelling, and the problem of identification of particle temperature inhomogeneities is thereby made equivalent to community detection in graphs. We apply a number of well-known community detection algorithms: Edge Betweenness, Walktrap, Infomap, Label Propagation, Spinglass and compare the resulting partitions. We apply this approach to a number of graphs, corresponding to different particle configurations, in order to identify regularities characteristic of partitions produced by different algorithms. We propose a procedure for additional postprocessing of the partitions in order to improve the quality of clusterization. In addition, we apply two alternative algorithms (not related to community detection in graphs) to identify particle distribution inhomogeneities. We also introduce a parameter to evaluate the cluster structure in particle systems.

  4. Flocking at a distance in active granular matter.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nitin; Soni, Harsh; Ramaswamy, Sriram; Sood, A K

    2014-01-01

    The self-organized motion of vast numbers of creatures in a single direction is a spectacular example of emergent order. Here, we recreate this phenomenon using actuated nonliving components. We report here that millimetre-sized tapered rods, rendered motile by contact with an underlying vibrated surface and interacting through a medium of spherical beads, undergo a phase transition to a state of spontaneous alignment of velocities and orientations above a threshold bead area fraction. Guided by a detailed simulation model, we construct an analytical theory of this flocking transition, with two ingredients: a moving rod drags beads; neighbouring rods reorient in the resulting flow like a weathercock in the wind. Theory and experiment agree on the structure of our phase diagram in the plane of rod and bead concentrations and power-law spatial correlations near the phase boundary. Our discovery suggests possible new mechanisms for the collective transport of particulate or cellular matter. PMID:25181961

  5. Surface roughness effects in granular matter: influence on angle of repose and the absence of segregation.

    PubMed

    Pohlman, Nicholas A; Severson, Benjamin L; Ottino, Julio M; Lueptow, Richard M

    2006-03-01

    We investigate the effect of nanoscale variations in the surface roughness of individual particles on macroscale granular flow characteristics. Experiments were conducted in circular rotating tumblers with smooth and rough 2 and 3 mm steel particles. The smooth beads had a rms surface roughness of approximately 30 to 60 nm; rough beads had a surface roughness of approximately 240 to 350 nm. The dynamic angle of repose for rough particles increased by 10 degrees to 25 degrees over that of smooth particles over a wide range of rotation speeds. Even though surface roughness affects the angle of repose, we were unable to detect any segregation of bidisperse mixtures of rough and smooth particles in the radial direction in two-dimensional (2D) tumblers. Furthermore, no axial banding segregation occurred in 3D tumblers, both cylindrical and spherical. For mixtures of smooth and rough particles, the angle of repose increased monotonically with increasing concentration of rough particles. Particle dynamics simulations verified that the dependence of the angle of repose on the concentration of rough particles can be directly related to the coefficient of friction of the particles. Simulations over a broad range of friction parameters failed to induce segregation solely from differences in the angle of repose. These results indicate that nanoscale surface roughness can affect the flowability and angle of repose of granular matter without driving demixing of the bulk granular material. PMID:16605514

  6. Granular Matter Transport in Vertical Pipes: The Influence of Pipe Outlet Conditions on Gravity-driven Granular Flow.

    PubMed

    Jaklič, Miha; Kočevar, Klemen; Srčič, Stanko; Dreu, Rok

    2016-01-01

    Gravity transport of granular materials in vertical pipes is one of the most fundamental steps in bulk powder handling and processing. Presented study investigates powder flow characteristics in vertical pipes with open and closed outlets and condition of free powder fall. Powder flow of pharmaceutical grade powders was observed in transparent, vertical pipe model. Description of flow structures was performed. Powder volume flow rate, acceleration, and dilatation were quantified and correlated with powder properties. The results show that in pipes with a closed outlet the escaping air slows down the powder flow, resulting in a much slower flow than in pipes with an open outlet. A dense granular flow was detected in an open outlet condition, whereas in a closed outlet condition two concurrent flow regimes were observed: a slow moving, dense powder bed, and a fast dilute powder flow. Differences in flow regimes may promote segregation, with important implications to industrial processes. PMID:26970790

  7. Attractive emulsion droplets probe the phase diagram of jammed granular matter.

    PubMed

    Jorjadze, Ivane; Pontani, Lea-Laetitia; Newhall, Katherine A; Brujic, Jasna

    2011-03-15

    It remains an open question whether statistical mechanics approaches apply to random packings of athermal particles. Although a jamming phase diagram has recently been proposed for hard spheres with varying friction, here we use a frictionless emulsion system in the presence of depletion forces to sample the available phase space of packing configurations. Using confocal microscopy, we access their packing microstructure and test the theoretical assumptions. As a function of attraction, our packing protocol under gravity leads to well-defined jammed structures in which global density initially increases above random close packing and subsequently decreases monotonically. Microscopically, the fluctuations in parameters describing each particle, such as the coordination number, number of neighbors, and local packing fraction, are for all attractions in excellent agreement with a local stochastic model, indicating that long-range correlations are not important. Furthermore, the distributions of local cell volumes can be collapsed onto a universal curve using the predicted k-gamma distribution, in which the shape parameter k is fixed by the polydispersity while the effect of attraction is captured by rescaling the average cell volume. Within the Edwards statistical mechanics framework, this result measures the decrease in compactivity with global density, which represents a direct experimental test of a jamming phase diagram in athermal systems. The success of these theoretical tools in describing yet another class of materials gives support to the much-debated statistical physics of jammed granular matter. PMID:21368191

  8. A k-{\\varepsilon} turbulence closure model of an isothermal dry granular dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chung

    2015-07-01

    The turbulent flow characteristics of an isothermal dry granular dense matter with incompressible grains are investigated by the proposed first-order k-{\\varepsilon} turbulence closure model. Reynolds-filter process is applied to obtain the balance equations of the mean fields with two kinematic equations describing the time evolutions of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are used to derive the equilibrium closure relations satisfying turbulence realizability conditions, with the dynamic responses postulated by a quasi-linear theory. The established closure model is applied to analyses of a gravity-driven stationary flow down an inclined moving plane. While the mean velocity decreases monotonically from its value on the moving plane toward the free surface, the mean porosity increases exponentially; the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation evolve, respectively, from their minimum and maximum values on the plane toward their maximum and minimum values on the free surface. The evaluated mean velocity and porosity correspond to the experimental outcomes, while the turbulent dissipation distribution demonstrates a similarity to that of Newtonian fluids in turbulent shear flows. When compared to the zero-order model, the turbulent eddy evolution tends to enhance the transfer of the turbulent kinetic energy and plane shearing across the flow layer, resulting in more intensive turbulent fluctuation in the upper part of the flow. Solid boundary as energy source and sink of the turbulent kinetic energy becomes more apparent in the established first-order model.

  9. Attractive emulsion droplets probe the phase diagram of jammed granular matter

    PubMed Central

    Jorjadze, Ivane; Pontani, Lea-Laetitia; Newhall, Katherine A.; Bruji?, Jasna

    2011-01-01

    It remains an open question whether statistical mechanics approaches apply to random packings of athermal particles. Although a jamming phase diagram has recently been proposed for hard spheres with varying friction, here we use a frictionless emulsion system in the presence of depletion forces to sample the available phase space of packing configurations. Using confocal microscopy, we access their packing microstructure and test the theoretical assumptions. As a function of attraction, our packing protocol under gravity leads to well-defined jammed structures in which global density initially increases above random close packing and subsequently decreases monotonically. Microscopically, the fluctuations in parameters describing each particle, such as the coordination number, number of neighbors, and local packing fraction, are for all attractions in excellent agreement with a local stochastic model, indicating that long-range correlations are not important. Furthermore, the distributions of local cell volumes can be collapsed onto a universal curve using the predicted k-gamma distribution, in which the shape parameter k is fixed by the polydispersity while the effect of attraction is captured by rescaling the average cell volume. Within the Edwards statistical mechanics framework, this result measures the decrease in compactivity with global density, which represents a direct experimental test of a jamming phase diagram in athermal systems. The success of these theoretical tools in describing yet another class of materials gives support to the much-debated statistical physics of jammed granular matter. PMID:21368191

  10. Note: "Lock-in accelerometry" to follow sink dynamics in shaken granular matter.

    PubMed

    Snchez-Colina, G; Alonso-Llanes, L; Martnez, E; Batista-Leyva, A J; Clement, C; Fliedner, C; Toussaint, R; Altshuler, E

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the penetration dynamics of intruders in granular beds is relevant not only for fundamental physics, but also for geophysical processes and construction on sediments or granular soils in areas potentially affected by earthquakes. While the penetration of intruders in two dimensional (2D) laboratory granular beds can be followed using video recording, this is useless in three dimensional (3D) beds of non-transparent materials such as common sand. Here, we propose a method to quantify the sink dynamics of an intruder into laterally shaken granular beds based on the temporal correlations between the signals from a reference accelerometer fixed to the shaken granular bed, and a probe accelerometer deployed inside the intruder. Due to its analogy with the working principle of a lock-in amplifier, we call this technique lock-in accelerometry. PMID:25554337

  11. Fiat or Bona Fide BoundaryA Matter of Granular Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Lars; Grobe, Peter; Quast, Bjrn; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background Distinguishing bona fide (i.e. natural) and fiat (i.e. artificial) physical boundaries plays a key role for distinguishing natural from artificial material entities and is thus relevant to any scientific formal foundational top-level ontology, as for instance the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO). In BFO, the distinction is essential for demarcating two foundational categories of material entity: object and fiat object part. The commonly used basis for demarcating bona fide from fiat boundary refers to two criteria: (i) intrinsic qualities of the boundary bearers (i.e. spatial/physical discontinuity, qualitative heterogeneity) and (ii) mind-independent existence of the boundary. The resulting distinction of bona fide and fiat boundaries is considered to be categorial and exhaustive. Methodology/Principal Findings By referring to various examples from biology, we demonstrate that the hitherto used distinction of boundaries is not categorial: (i) spatial/physical discontinuity is a matter of scale and the differentiation of bona fide and fiat boundaries is thus granularity-dependent, and (ii) this differentiation is not absolute, but comes in degrees. By reducing the demarcation criteria to mind-independence and by also considering dispositions and historical relations of the bearers of boundaries, instead of only considering their spatio-structural properties, we demonstrate with various examples that spatio-structurally fiat boundaries can nevertheless be mind-independent and in this sense bona fide. Conclusions/Significance We argue that the ontological status of a given boundary is perspective-dependent and that the strictly spatio-structural demarcation criteria follow a static perspective that is ignorant of causality and the dynamics of reality. Based on a distinction of several ontologically independent perspectives, we suggest different types of boundaries and corresponding material entities, including boundaries based on function (locomotion, physiology, ecology, development, reproduction) and common history (development, heredity, evolution). We argue that for each perspective one can differentiate respective bona fide from fiat boundaries. PMID:23251333

  12. Role and significance of extracellular polymeric substances from granular sludge for simultaneous removal of organic matter and ammonia nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lilong; Liu, Yu; Wen, Yan; Ren, Yuan; Hao, Guoxin; Zhang, Ying

    2015-03-01

    This study analyzed the organics and content of metal ions in extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), tightly (TB-EPSs) and loosely (LB-EPSs) bound EPSs of granular sludge with simultaneous removal of organic matters and ammonia nitrogen, studied the dynamic variation of metal ions in EPSs from granular sludge with different particle sizes and the change of zeta potential before and after cation exchange resin (CER) treatment. Results showed, with particle size increasing, the protein content gradually increased, the content of polysaccharide basically unchanged; the content of Ca, Mg, K, Na and Zn also increased, whereas others did not show a consistent regularity. The existence of metal ions reduced zeta potential of EPSs. The existence of metal ions helped to the adhesion among granules, in order to form a granule with bigger particle size. PMID:25575205

  13. From force distribution to average coordination number in frictional granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Song, Chaoming; Briscoe, Christopher; Wang, Kun; Makse, Hernn A.

    2010-10-01

    We study the joint probability distribution of normal and tangential frictional forces in jammed granular media, P?(ft,fn), for various values of the friction coefficient ?, especially when ?=?. A universal scaling law is found to collapse the data for ?=0 to ?, demonstrating a link between the force distribution P?(ft,fn) and the average coordination number, zc?. The results determine zc? for a finite friction coefficient, extending the constraint-counting argument of isostatic granular packing to finite frictional packings.

  14. Critical Phenomena in Driven Granular Matter: Jamming and Glassy Behavior - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Teitel, Stephen

    2013-02-20

    Granular materials, such as powders, seeds, grains, sand, rocks, etc., are ubiquitous both in nature and in industrial processes. At the scale of individual grains, granular systems are particularly simple: particles interact only when they touch. But when viewed in the aggregate, granular systems can display complex behavior. In particular, as the volume packing fraction of the grains increases, the system undergoes a jamming transition from a flowing liquid to a disordered but rigid solid. We study the critical behavior of such systems near the jamming transition using numerical simulations of a simple model of soft-core, bidisperse, frictionless disks in two dimensions. We seek to understand the structural and transport properties of such systems under a variety of physical perturbations such as steady state shear driven flow, and finite thermal fluctuations.

  15. Compaction of highly porous granular matter by impacts on a hard wall.

    PubMed

    Ringl, Christian; Gunkelmann, Nina; Bringa, Eduardo M; Urbassek, Herbert M

    2015-04-01

    Using a granular-mechanics code, we study the impact of a highly porous granular body on a hard wall. The projectile consists of monodisperse adhesive micrometer-sized silica grains. For the impact velocities studied, v<0.5m/s, the sample does not fragment, but is compacted. We find that the compaction is proportional to the impact speed. The proportionality constant increases with decreasing porosity. However, the compaction is inhomogeneous and decreases with distance from the target. A compaction wave runs through the aggregate; it slows down while the compaction becomes less efficient. PMID:25974482

  16. Simulation of electron-matter interaction during wet-STEM electron tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Septiyanto, Rahmat Firman; Masenelli-Varlot, Karine; Iskandar, Ferry

    2014-02-24

    Tomography is an efficient tool to probe the 3 dimensional (3D) structure of materials. In the laboratory, a device has been developed to perform electron tomography in an environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The configuration of Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) in Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) provides a novel approach for the characterization of the 3D structure of materials and optimizes a compromise between the resolution level of a few nm and the large tomogram due to the high thickness of transparency. Moreover, STEM allows the observation in 2D of wet samples in an ESEM by finely controlling the sample temperature and the water pressure of the sample environment. It has been recently demonstrated that it was possible to acquire image series of hydrated objects and thus to attain 3D characterization of wet samples. In order to get reliable and quantitative data, the present study deals with the simulation of electron-matter interactions. From such simulation on the MCM-41 material, we determine the minimum quantity of water layer which can be detected on wet materials.

  17. "EGM" (Electrostatics of Granular Matter): A Space Station Experiment to Examine Natural Particulate Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, J.; Sauke, T.; Buehler, M.; Farrell, W.; Green, R.; Birchenough, A.

    1999-01-01

    A granular-materials experiment is being developed for a 2002 launch for Space Station deployment. The experiment is funded by NASA HQ and managed through NASA Lewis Research Center. The experiment will examine electrostatic aggregation of coarse granular materials with the goals of (a) obtaining proof for an electrostatic dipole model of grain interactions, and (b) obtaining knowledge about the way aggregation affects the behavior of natural particulate masses: (1) in unconfined dispersions (clouds such as nebulae, aeolian dust palls, volcanic plumes), (2) in semi-confined, self-loaded masses as in fluidized flows (pyroclastic surges, avalanches) and compacted regolith, or (3) in semi-confined non-loaded masses as in dust layers adhering to solar cells or space suits on Mars. The experiment addresses both planetary/astrophysical issues as well as practical concerns for human exploration of Mars or other solar system bodies. Additional information is contained in the original.

  18. Grain- and Pore-level Analysis of Drainage in Fractionally-wet Granular Media using Synchrotron X-ray Computed Microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willson, C. S.; Bradley, S.; Thompson, K. E.

    2011-12-01

    Numerous lab- and field-scale experimental studies have shown the strong impact of wettability on multiphase flow constitutive relations and how increased water repellency can lead to preferential flow paths and a heterogeneous water distribution. In conjunction, theoretical and pore-scale modeling work has been performed seeking to improve our understanding of the impact of grain-level wettability properties. Advances in high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (XCT) techniques now make it possible to nondestructively image opaque materials providing previously hard-to-observe qualitative and quantitative data and information. Furthermore, the characteristics of synchrotron X-rays make it possible to monochromatize the incident energy allowing for both k-edge absorption differencing and segmentation of fluids and materials that have even slightly different chemical composition. Concurrent with these advances has been the development of methods to extract granular packing and pore network structure data from XCT images. In this talk, we will present results from a series of experiments designed to obtain grain-, pore- and fluid-scale details during the drainage of water in fractionally-wet glass bead systems. Here, two sets of glass beads were used each having slightly different chemical compositions and thus, different X-ray absorption properties. One set was treated so that the bead surface was water neutral while the other set remained hydrophilic. Three sets of drainage experiments were conducted on three fractionally-wet systems: 100, 90, and 75% hydrophilic by weight. First, traditional lab-scale drainage experiments were performed to obtain a baseline set of characteristic drainage curves for the three systms. Next, a set of tomography-scale (i.e., 5.5 mm inner diameter column) drainage experiments were conducted in the lab to ensure that the drainage curves in the smaller columns were consistent with the lab-scale curves. Finally, tomography-scale drainage experiments were performed at the APS/GSECARS 13-BMD tomography beamline to obtain ~10 micron voxel resolution 3D images at specific capillary suction heads. Results will be presented that show that, at these levels of fractional-wettability, the drainage curves from the tomography-scale columns are consistent with the larger scale data and therefore, the fluid phase distribution imaged at the various drainage steps is also representative. Next, granular packing and pore network structure results will be discussed highlight our ability to characterize and uniquely identify the packing and distribution of different grain types and ensuring consistent pore morphology. Finally, the water phase distribution at different stages of drainage is correlated to the pore network structure and the individual water-wet and water-repellant grains providing valuable insights into the impact of grain- and pore-level wettability variations. These quantitative results show that grain-level differences in wettability captured using this approach have an impact on the connectivity of the water phase during drainage and should provide valuable insights for further development of theoretical and numerical approaches.

  19. A theoretical model for the stress distribution in granular matter. II. Forces in pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mounfield, C. C.; Edwards, S. F.

    1996-02-01

    As an application of the model we have developed for the stress within a granular material we consider the force distribution within vertical and horizontal pipes. For a vertical pipe (with rough walls) the average forces in the system follow the arch of a catenary between the walls. For a horizontal pipe pressure exerted at one end of the pipe is transmitted in right cones to the walls with the stress free region ending in a cone whose apex is the face of the open end.

  20. Exact traveling wave solutions of the van der Waals normal form for fluidized granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abourabia, A. M.; Morad, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    Analytical solutions of the van der Waals normal form for fluidized granular media have been done to study the phase separation phenomenon by using two different exact methods. The Painlevé analysis is discussed to illustrate the integrability of the model equation. An auto-Bäcklund transformation is presented via the truncated expansion and symbolic computation. The results show that the exact solutions of the model introduce solitary waves of different types. The solutions of the hydrodynamic model and the van der Waals equation exhibit a behavior similar to the one observed in molecular dynamic simulations such that two pairs of shock and rarefaction waves appear and move away, giving rise to the bubbles. The dispersion properties and the relation between group and phase velocities of the model equation are studied using the plane wave assumption. The diagrams are drawn to illustrate the physical properties of the exact solutions, and indicate their stability and bifurcation.

  1. Coherent transport and symmetry breakinglaser dynamics of constrained granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubatsch, Andreas; Frank, Regine

    2014-08-01

    We present diagrammatic transport theory including self-consistent nonlinear enhancement and dissipation in the multiple scattering regime. Our model of Vollhardt-Wlfle transport of photons is fit-parameter-free and raises the claim that the results hold up to the closest packed volume of randomly arranged ZnO Mie scatterers. We find that a symmetry breaking caused by dissipative effects through the lossy underlying silicon (SI) substrate leads to qualitatively different physics of coherence and lasing in granular amplifying media. According to our results, confined and extended random laser modes and their laser thresholds can be clearly attributed to unbroken and broken spatial symmetry. The diameters and emission profiles of the modes, as well as their thresholds and the positional-dependent degree of coherence, can be checked experimentally.

  2. The effect of water temperature on the adsorption equilibrium of dissolved organic matter and atrazine on granular activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Bernd Schreiber; Viktor Schmalz; Thomas Brinkmann; Eckhard Worch

    2007-09-15

    The influence of water temperature on the adsorption of natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) on activated carbon has not been investigated intensively yet. In this study, batch experiments with granular activated carbon (GAC) F300, from bituminous coal, have been carried out at three temperatures (5, 20, 35{sup o} C) using a humic acid model water and different types of surface water (lake, river, canal). Furthermore, the adsorption of an anthropogenic contaminant, atrazine, was quantified in the absence and presence of DOM. The results indicate a significant influence of water temperature on the adsorption equilibrium of DOM and atrazine. Contrary to expectations, DOM and atrazine adsorption in surface water tends to be increased with increasing water temperature, whereas the extent of this effect is dependent on the type and concentration of DOM. Furthermore, the temperature effect on atrazine adsorption is controlled by competition of DOM and atrazine on adsorption sites. Some assumptions are proposed and discussed for explaining the temperature effects observed in the batch studies. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Impact of natural organic matter on monochloramine reduction by granular activated carbon: the role of porosity and electrostatic surface properties

    SciTech Connect

    Julian L. Fairey; Gerald E. Speitel Jr.; Lynn E. Katz

    2006-07-01

    Steady-state monochloramine reduction in fixed-bed reactors (FBRs) was quantified on five types of granular activated carbon (GAC) using two background waters - one natural source water (LAW) containing 2.5-3.5 mg/L organic carbon and one synthetic organic-free water (NW). GACs used were coal-based Filtrasorb 400, Filtrasorb 600, Centaur and Medical Grade, and wood-based AquaGuard. While more monochloramine was reduced at steady-state using NW compared to LAW for each GAC and empty-bed contact time studied, the differences in removal varied considerably among the GACs tested. Physical characterization of the GACs suggested that the degree of interference caused by natural organic matter (NOM) increased with increasing GAC surface area contained within pores greater than 2 nm in width. Acid/base and electrostatic properties of the GACs were not found to be significant in terms of NOM uptake, which indicated that size exclusion effects of the GAC pores overwhelmed the impact of the GAC surface chemistry. Therefore, selection of GAC to limit the impact of NOM on monochloramine reduction in FBRs should be based on pore size distribution alone, with the impact of NOM decreasing with decreasing mesoporosity and macroporosity. 23 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Collection of ultrafine diesel particulate matter (DPM) in cylindrical single-stage wet electrostatic precipitators.

    PubMed

    Saiyasitpanich, Phirun; Keener, Tim C; Lu, Mingming; Khang, Soon-Jai; Evans, Douglas E

    2006-12-15

    Long-term exposures to diesel particulate matter (DPM) emissions are linked to increasing adverse human health effects due to the potential association of DPM with carcinogenicity. Current diesel vehicular particulate emission regulations are based solely upon total mass concentration, albeit it is the submicrometer particles that are highly respirable and the most detrimental to human health. In this study, experiments were performed with a tubular single-stage wet electrostatic precipitator (wESP) to evaluate its performance for the removal of number-based DPM emissions. A nonroad diesel generator utilizing a low sulfur diesel fuel (500 ppmw) operating under varying load conditions was used as a stationary DPM emission source. An electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) was used to quantify the number concentration distributions of diesel particles in the diluted exhaust gas at each tested condition. The wESP was evaluated with respect to different operational control parameters such as applied voltage, gas residence time, etc., to determine their effect on overall collection efficiency, as well as particle size dependent collection efficiency. The results show that the total DPM number concentrations in the untreated diesel exhaust are in the magnitude of approximately108/cm(3) at all engine loads with the particle diameter modes between 20 and 40 nm. The measured collection efficiency of the wESP operating at 70 kV based on total particle numbers was 86% at 0 kW engine load and the efficiency decreased to 67% at 75 kW due to a decrease in gas residence time and an increase in particle concentrations. At a constant wESP voltage of 70 kV and at 75 kW engine load, the variation of gas residence time within the wESP from approximately 0.1 to approximately 0.4 s led to a substantial increase in the collection efficiency from 67% to 96%. In addition, collection efficiency was found to be directly related to the applied voltage, with increasing collection efficiency measured for increases in applied voltage. The collection efficiency based on particle size had a minimum for sizes between 20 and 50 nm, but at optimal wESP operating conditions it was possible to remove over 90% of all particle sizes. A comparison of measured and calculated collection efficiencies reveals that the measured values are significantly higher than the predicted values based on the well-known Deutsch equation. PMID:17256544

  5. Granularity in granular cell ameloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Yamunadevi, Andamuthu; Madhushankari, G. S.; Selvamani, Manickam; Basandi, Praveen S.; Yoithapprabhunath, Thukanayyakanpalayam Ragunathan; Ganapathy, N.

    2014-01-01

    Granular cell ameloblastoma (GCA) is one of the rare histological variants of ameloblastoma (1.5-3.5%), identified by Krompechner in 1918 and is diagnosed by the characteristic presence of granular cells. These granular cells are seen in several physiological and pathological conditions and the granularity in GCA is due to lysosomal aggregates. This review is about the clinical features, histopathological features and differential diagnosis of GCA and also adds the theories for occurrence of granularity, electron microscopic findings, cell signaling pathways and immunohistochemistry findings related to these granular cells in GCA. PMID:25210361

  6. COMBINED USE OF ION EXCHANGE RESINS AND GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON FOR THE CONTROL OF ORGANIC MATTER AND DISINFECTION BY PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of anion exchange resin as a pretreatment step to granular activated carbon is evaluated. erformance is evaluated by DOC, SAC, TOXFP, and THMFP parameters. hio River water and Palm Beach groundwater are used. he results show that resin pretreatment is significant in exten...

  7. Significance of wet deposition to removal of atmospheric particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: A case study in Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ling-Chuan; Bao, Lian-Jun; She, Jian-Wen; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2014-02-01

    Rainwater samples were simultaneously collected from three locations in Guangzhou, a mega metropolitan center in South China, during the entire year of 2010, and analyzed for particulate matter (PM), total organic carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with the objectives of assessing the seasonality of washout effects and efficiency for removal of pollutants from the atmosphere by wet deposition. The contents of PM, particulate organic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon were in the ranges of 0.74-420 (average: 8.1 mg L-1), 0.16-40 (average: 1.3 mg L-1), and 0.34-6.9 mg L-1 (average: 1.4 mg L-1), respectively. Concentrations of ?15PAH (sum of the 16 priority PAH compounds defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency minus naphthalene) in wet deposition samples ranged from 39 to 1580 ng L-1 with an average of 170 ng L-1. The PAH concentration levels were slightly abated compared to those acquired previously in Guangzhou during the year of 2005, probably indicating a favorable change of energy consumption patterns in the region. There were moderately significant negative correlations between washout ratios and rainfall intensities (0-4.3 mm h-1). The total annual fluxes of wet and dry depositions combined for PM and PAHs in the urban area of Guangzhou were 34 g m-2 yr-1 and 6.0 102 ?g m-2 yr-1 with 50 and 57% being contributed from wet deposition, respectively. The monthly capacity for removal (CR) of PM and PAHs (calculated as the wet deposition flux dividing the total flux) varied widely with different months, and was lower during the dry weather season (January-March and October-December) than during the wet weather season (April-September). Finally, the air quality index related to PM10 was negatively correlated to CR values of PM and PAHs, indicating the need to control the emissions of anthropogenically derived pollutants during the dry weather season.

  8. Controlling cohesive forces in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    G"Ogelein, Christoph; Schr"Oter, Matthias; Brinkmann, Martin; Herminghaus, Stephan

    2009-11-01

    When adding a small amount of water to a pile of granular matter, e.g., sand heap, close-by grains can be connected by liquid bridges [1]. Thus, the material becomes plastically and can sustain a larger stress as compared to dry sand. Our general aim is to compare the mechanical properties of wet and dry granular media. For this purpose, we use a suspension of micrometer large glass or Latex spheres dispersed in a binary liquid mixture. The suspending water-lutidine(oil) mixture exhibits a lower critical solution temperature leading to a water-oil-like phase separation slightly above ambient temperature. Close to this demixing region, the oil-like phase undergoes a pre-wetting transition on the particle glass surface inducing liquid bridges [2]. Thus, by varying the temperature we can switch the liquid bridges on and off. We will report on our attempts to directly visualize the formation and control of liquid bridges using confocal and non- confocal microscopy. [4pt] [1] M. Scheel, et al., Nature Materials 7, 174 (2008)[0pt] [2] D. Beysens, and D. Esteve, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2123 (1985)

  9. Effects of surface-active organic matter on carbon dioxide nucleation in atmospheric wet aerosols: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Daskalakis, Vangelis; Charalambous, Fevronia; Panagiotou, Fostira; Nearchou, Irene

    2014-11-21

    Organic matter (OM) uptake in cloud droplets produces water-soluble secondary organic aerosols (SOA) via aqueous chemistry. These play a significant role in aerosol properties. We report the effects of OM uptake in wet aerosols, in terms of the dissolved-to-gas carbon dioxide nucleation using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Carbon dioxide has been implicated in the natural rainwater as well as seawater acidity. Variability of the cloud and raindrop pH is assumed in space and time, as regional emissions, local human activities and geophysical characteristics differ. Rain scavenging of inorganic SOx, NOx and NH3 plays a major role in rain acidity in terms of acid-base activity, however carbon dioxide solubility also remains a key parameter. Based on the MD simulations we propose that the presence of surface-active OM promotes the dissolved-to-gas carbon dioxide nucleation in wet aerosols, even at low temperatures, strongly decreasing carbon dioxide solubility. A discussion is made on the role of OM in controlling the pH of a cloud or raindrop, as a consequence, without involving OM ionization equilibrium. The results are compared with experimental and computational studies in the literature. PMID:25272147

  10. Bioturbation and dissolved organic matter enhance contaminant fluxes from sediment treated with powdered and granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Kupryianchyk, D; Noori, A; Rakowska, M I; Grotenhuis, J T C; Koelmans, A A

    2013-05-21

    Sediment amendment with activated carbon (AC) is a promising technique for in situ sediment remediation. To date it is not clear whether this technique sufficiently reduces sediment-to-water fluxes of sediment-bound hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) in the presence of bioturbators. Here, we report polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) pore water concentrations, fluxes, mass transfer coefficients, and survival data of two benthic species, for four treatments: no AC addition (control), powdered AC addition, granular AC addition and addition and subsequent removal of GAC (sediment stripping). AC addition decreased mass fluxes but increased apparent mass transfer coefficients because of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) facilitated transport across the benthic boundary layer (BBL). In turn, DOC concentrations depended on bioturbator activity which was high for the PAC tolerant species Asellus aquaticus and low for AC sensitive species Lumbriculus variegatus. A dual BBL resistance model combining AC effects on gradients, DOC facilitated transport and biodiffusion was evaluated against the data and showed how the type of resistance differs with treatment and chemical hydrophobicity. Data and simulations illustrate the complex interplay between AC and contaminant toxicity to benthic organisms and how differences in species tolerance affect mass fluxes from sediment to the water column. PMID:23590290

  11. Granular physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valance, Alexandre; Louge, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Granular media play a major role in geophysics and industrial processes. Their interactions are complicated by relatively small-scale separation between individual particles and system size, by the presence of other interpenetrating phases such as water or air, by the large number of grains involved in realistic applications, and by the importance of microscopic contact forces, such as solid friction, which are challenging to measure or control. Yet significant progress has been made in the last two decades toward the understanding of granular media, thanks to the curiosity of physicists and engineers. This thematic issue gathers contributions from researchers dealing with diverse aspects of granular mechanics, from static assemblies to flowing suspensions, and from theory to natural phenomena. These review articles illustrate rather different approaches to these complicated systems.

  12. Stabilization of Stormwater Biofilters: Impacts of Wetting and Drying Phases and the Addition of Organic Matter to Filter Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniam, D. N.; Egodawatta, P.; Mather, P.; Rajapakse, J. P.

    2015-09-01

    Ripening period refers to a phase of stabilization in sand filters in water treatment systems that follow a new installation or cleaning of the filter. Intermittent wetting and drying, a unique property of stormwater biofilters, would similarly be subjected to a phase of stabilization. Suspended solids are an important parameter that is often used to monitor the stabilization of sand filters in water treatment systems. Stormwater biofilters, however, contain organic material that is added to the filter layer to enhance nitrate removal, the dynamics of which is seldom analyzed in stabilization of stormwater biofilters. Therefore, in this study of stormwater biofiltration in addition to suspended solids (turbidity), organic matter (TOC, DOC, TN, and TKN) was also monitored as a parameter for stabilization of the stormwater biofilter. One Perspex bioretention column (94 mm internal diameter) was fabricated with filter layer that contained 8 % organic material and fed with tapwater with different antecedent dry days (0-40 day) at 100 mL/min. Samples were collected from the outflow at different time intervals between 2 and 150 min and were tested for total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen, total Kjeldhal nitrogen, and turbidity. The column was observed to experience two phases of stabilization, one at the beginning of each event that lasted for 30 min, while the other phase was observed across subsequent events that are related to the age of filter.

  13. Stabilization of Stormwater Biofilters: Impacts of Wetting and Drying Phases and the Addition of Organic Matter to Filter Media.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, D N; Egodawatta, P; Mather, P; Rajapakse, J P

    2015-09-01

    Ripening period refers to a phase of stabilization in sand filters in water treatment systems that follow a new installation or cleaning of the filter. Intermittent wetting and drying, a unique property of stormwater biofilters, would similarly be subjected to a phase of stabilization. Suspended solids are an important parameter that is often used to monitor the stabilization of sand filters in water treatment systems. Stormwater biofilters, however, contain organic material that is added to the filter layer to enhance nitrate removal, the dynamics of which is seldom analyzed in stabilization of stormwater biofilters. Therefore, in this study of stormwater biofiltration in addition to suspended solids (turbidity), organic matter (TOC, DOC, TN, and TKN) was also monitored as a parameter for stabilization of the stormwater biofilter. One Perspex bioretention column (94 mm internal diameter) was fabricated with filter layer that contained 8 % organic material and fed with tapwater with different antecedent dry days (0-40 day) at 100 mL/min. Samples were collected from the outflow at different time intervals between 2 and 150 min and were tested for total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen, total Kjeldhal nitrogen, and turbidity. The column was observed to experience two phases of stabilization, one at the beginning of each event that lasted for 30 min, while the other phase was observed across subsequent events that are related to the age of filter. PMID:25971737

  14. WET SOLIDS FLOW ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hugo S. Caram; Natalie Foster

    1997-03-31

    The objective was to visualize the flow of granular materials in flat bottomed silo. This was done by for dry materials introducing mustard seeds and poppy seeds as tracer particles and imaging them using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The region sampled was a cylinder 25 mm in diameter and 40 mm in length. Eight slices containing 128*128 to 256*256 pixels were generated for each image. The size of the silo was limited by the size of the high resolution NMR imager available. Cross-sections of 150mm flat bottomed silos, with the tracer layers immobilized by a gel, showed similar qualitative patterns for both dry and wet granular solids.

  15. Granular Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shattuck, M. D.; Ingale, R. A.; Reis, P. M.

    2009-06-01

    We present experimental evidence for a strong analogy between quasi-2D uniform non-equilibrium steady states (NESS) of excited granular materials and equilibrium thermodynamics. Under isochoric conditions we find that the structure of granular NESS, as measured by the radial distribution function, the bond order parameter, and the distribution of Voronoi cells, is the same as that found in equilibrium simulations of hard disks. Three distinct states are found corresponding to a gas, a dense gas, and a crystal. The dynamics of the dense gas is characterized by sub-diffusive behavior on intermediate time scales (caging). Under isobaric conditions we find a sharp first-order phase transition characterized by a discontinuous change in density and granular temperature as a function of excitation strength. The transition shows rate dependent hysteresis but is completely reversible if the excitation strength changes quasi-statically. All of these behaviors are analogous to equilibrium thermodynamics. The one difference is the velocity distributions, which are well described by P(c) = fMB[1+a2S2(c2)], in the range -2granular temperature, fmb is a Maxwell-Boltzmann and S2 is a second order Sonine polynomial. The single adjustable parameter, a2, is a function of the filling fraction, but not T. For |c|?2, P(c)?exp(-Ac-3/2) as observed in many other experiments.

  16. Effect of granular activated carbon concentration on the content of organic matter and salt, influencing E. coli activity and survival in fluidized bed disinfection reactor.

    PubMed

    Racyte, Justina; Langenhoff, Alette A M; Ribeiro, Ana F M M R; Paulitsch-Fuchs, Astrid H; Bruning, Harry; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2014-10-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) is used in water treatment systems, typically to remove pollutants such as natural organic matter, volatile organic compounds, chlorine, taste, and odor. GAC is also used as a key component of a new technology that combines a fluidized bed reactor with radio frequency electric fields for disinfection. So far, the effects of GAC on bacteria in these fluidized bed reactors are unclear. This paper describes a systematic study of the physico-chemical changes in five microbial media compositions caused by different concentrations (23-350 g/L) of GAC, and the effects of these physico-chemical changes on the metabolic activity and survival of a model microorganism (Escherichia coli YMc10) in a fluidized bed reactor. The chemical adsorption taking place in suspensions with specific GAC changed nutritional, osmotic, and pH conditions in the investigated microbial media (LB, diluted LB, PBS, diluted PBS, and tap water), leading to a decay of the metabolic activity and survival of E. coli. Especially media that are poor in organic and mineral compounds (e.g., PBS) with suspended GAC showed a concentration decay of 3.5 Log CFU/mL E. coli after 6 h. Organic compounds depletion and severe pH variation were enhanced in the presence of higher GAC concentrations. PMID:24729067

  17. Interfacial Instability during Granular Erosion.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Gautier; Merceron, Aymeric; Jop, Pierre

    2016-02-12

    The complex interplay between the topography and the erosion and deposition phenomena is a key feature to model granular flows such as landslides. Here, we investigated the instability that develops during the erosion of a wet granular pile by a dry dense granular flow. The morphology and the propagation of the generated steps are analyzed in relation to the specific erosion mechanism. The selected flowing angle of the confined flow on a dry heap appears to play an important role both in the final state of the experiment, and for the shape of the structures. We show that the development of the instability is governed by the inertia of the flow through the Froude number. We model this instability and predict growth rates that are in agreement with the experiment results. PMID:26919014

  18. Interfacial Instability during Granular Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Gautier; Merceron, Aymeric; Jop, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    The complex interplay between the topography and the erosion and deposition phenomena is a key feature to model granular flows such as landslides. Here, we investigated the instability that develops during the erosion of a wet granular pile by a dry dense granular flow. The morphology and the propagation of the generated steps are analyzed in relation to the specific erosion mechanism. The selected flowing angle of the confined flow on a dry heap appears to play an important role both in the final state of the experiment, and for the shape of the structures. We show that the development of the instability is governed by the inertia of the flow through the Froude number. We model this instability and predict growth rates that are in agreement with the experiment results.

  19. Granular parakeratosis.

    PubMed

    Martn, Jos M; Pinazo, Isabel; Molina, Inmaculada; Monteagudo, Carlos; Villaln, Guillermo; Jord, Esperanza

    2008-07-01

    A healthy 62-year-old woman was referred to our dermatology department with a 1-month history of a pruritic axillary eruption. On examination, multiple erythematous and brownish hyperkeratotic papules were seen in both axillae. Some of these lesions coalesced into plaques, with small areas of sparing, and a background erythematous color was also found in the axillary vaults (Fig. 1). There was no involvement of other intertriginous sites and there were no associated systemic symptoms. The patient was not obese. The patient had removed the hair from her axillae with wax 3 weeks before the development of the eruption. Moreover, she had changed her antiperspirant 1 week before the onset of the lesions. A cutaneous biopsy for histologic analysis was performed. Histologically, the stratum corneum was thickened, with persistent nuclei together with countless small basophilic granules. The granular layer was preserved and, in some areas, hypergranulosis was found (Fig. 2). These findings were characteristic of granular parakeratosis. The cutaneous lesions resolved completely after 1 week of treatment with topical betamethasone dipropionate and gentamicin sulfate (twice daily). The patient was urged to discontinue her use of deodorants. PMID:18613879

  20. Flowing layer thickness in a granular tumbler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lueptow, Richard M.; Pignatel, Florent; Asselin, Caroline; Krieger, Lucas; Ottino, Julio M.

    2011-11-01

    The thickness of the flowing layer in a tumbler varies substantially depending on flow conditions, but no predictive approach is available. We have studied monodisperse granular flows in air, water, and glycerine in a quasi-2D tumbler, focusing on the rolling regime to highlight common features and differences between dry and wet granular flows. For dry granular flows, the flowing layer thickness measured in units of particle diameter scales with a dimensionless flow rate based on the tumbler rotational speed and radius as well as the particle diameter. Using appropriate characteristic time scales, the data for the dry and liquid experiments also collapse fairly well. The Stokes number is a key dimensionless parameter to characterize the flow of granular material in liquids.

  1. Dilatancy in Slow Granular Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabla, Alexandre J.; Senden, Tim J.

    2009-06-01

    When walking on wet sand, each footstep leaves behind a temporarily dry impression. This counterintuitive observation is the most common illustration of the Reynolds principle of dilatancy: that is, a granular packing tends to expand as it is deformed, therefore increasing the amount of porous space. Although widely called upon in areas such as soil mechanics and geotechnics, a deeper understanding of this principle is constrained by the lack of analytical tools to study this behavior. Using x-ray radiography, we track a broad variety of granular flow profiles and quantify their intrinsic dilatancy behavior. These measurements frame Reynolds dilatancy as a kinematic process. Closer inspection demonstrates, however, the practical importance of flow induced compaction which competes with dilatancy, leading more complex flow properties than expected.

  2. Dilatancy in slow granular flows.

    PubMed

    Kabla, Alexandre J; Senden, Tim J

    2009-06-01

    When walking on wet sand, each footstep leaves behind a temporarily dry impression. This counterintuitive observation is the most common illustration of the Reynolds principle of dilatancy: that is, a granular packing tends to expand as it is deformed, therefore increasing the amount of porous space. Although widely called upon in areas such as soil mechanics and geotechnics, a deeper understanding of this principle is constrained by the lack of analytical tools to study this behavior. Using x-ray radiography, we track a broad variety of granular flow profiles and quantify their intrinsic dilatancy behavior. These measurements frame Reynolds dilatancy as a kinematic process. Closer inspection demonstrates, however, the practical importance of flow induced compaction which competes with dilatancy, leading more complex flow properties than expected. PMID:19658906

  3. Survey on granularity clustering.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shifei; Du, Mingjing; Zhu, Hong

    2015-12-01

    With the rapid development of uncertain artificial intelligent and the arrival of big data era, conventional clustering analysis and granular computing fail to satisfy the requirements of intelligent information processing in this new case. There is the essential relationship between granular computing and clustering analysis, so some researchers try to combine granular computing with clustering analysis. In the idea of granularity, the researchers expand the researches in clustering analysis and look for the best clustering results with the help of the basic theories and methods of granular computing. Granularity clustering method which is proposed and studied has attracted more and more attention. This paper firstly summarizes the background of granularity clustering and the intrinsic connection between granular computing and clustering analysis, and then mainly reviews the research status and various methods of granularity clustering. Finally, we analyze existing problem and propose further research. PMID:26557926

  4. Granular temperature field of monodisperse granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollin, Devis; Bowman, Elisabeth; Shepley, Paul

    2015-04-01

    For dry granular flows as well as solid-fluid mixtures such as debris avalanches, the momentum transfer is carried by frictional and collisional stresses. The latter may be described by the granular temperature, which provides a measure of the energy contained within the fluctuating nature of the granular motion. Thus, granular temperature can be used as a valuable means to infer the ability of a granular system to flow. Granular materials are known for the difficulties they pose in obtaining accurate microscale laboratory measurements. This is why many theories, such as the kinetic theory of granular gases, are primarily compared to numerical simulations. However, thanks to recent advancements in optical techniques along with high-speed recording systems, experimentalists are now able to obtain robust measurements of granular temperature. At present, the role of granular temperature in granular flows still entails conjecture. As a consequence, it is extremely important to provide experimental data against which theories and simulations can be judged. This investigation focuses on dry granular flows of sand and spherical beads performed on a simple inclined chute geometry. Fluctuation velocity, granular temperature and velocity patterns are obtained by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV). Flow behaviour is probed for different spatial (interrogation sizes) and temporal (frame rates) resolutions. Through the variation of these parameters an attempt to demonstrate the consistency of the degree of unsteadiness within the flow is made. In many studies a uniform stationary flow state is usually sought or preferably assumed for the simplicity it provides in the calculations. If one tries to measure microscale fields such as granular temperature, this assumption may be inappropriate. Thus, a proper definition of the flow regime should be made in order to estimate the correct flow properties. In addition, PIV analysis is compared against particle tracking velocimetry (PTV). This alternative technique provides high-accuracy measurements and allows individual flow tracer particles to be tracked. In comparison, PIV provides exhaustive analyses although some limitations exist. The interrogation size plays an important role in determining the achievable spatial resolution of the flow. There is a limit on how large or small this region can be for adequate measurements. A further limitation is encountered when velocity gradients are presents which apt to bias the displacement estimate. Ultimately, the above techniques and analysis will be applied to 3D polydisperse granular systems. This is extremely valuable to gain a more complete understanding and move towards more realistic flows. The overall aim of this study lies in obtaining a clearer understanding of the micromechanical processes governing granular flows and improving the modelling of debris avalanche hazards.

  5. Spectroscopic and wet chemical characterization of solid waste organic matter of different age in landfill sites, southern Germany.

    PubMed

    Bumler, Rupert; Kgel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    Landfill sites are potential sources of hazardous emissions by degradation and transformation processes of waste organic matter. Its chemical composition and microbial degradability are key factors for risk management, after-care, and estimation of potential emissions. The aim of the study is to provide information about composition and extent of transformation of waste organic matter in four landfill sites in Bavaria, Southern Germany by means of (13)C NMR spectroscopy, acid-hydrolyzable carbohydrates, chloroform-methanol extractable lipids, acid-hydrolyzable proteins, and lignin compounds after CuO oxidation. Ten samples of about 20 to 25 yr, 15 to 20 yr, and 5 to 10 yr of deposition each were taken at 2 m depth intervals by grab drilling till 10-m depth. Increasing temperatures from about 15 degrees C at 2-m depth to >40 degrees C at 10-m depth are found at some of the sites, representing optimum conditions for mesophile methane bacteria. Moisture contents of 160 to 310 g kg(-1) (oven dry), however, provide limiting conditions for anaerobic biodecay. Spectroscopic and chemical variables generally indicate a low extent of biodegradation and transformation at all sites despite a considerable heterogeneity of the samples. Independent of the time and depth of deposition more than 50% of the carbohydrate fraction of the waste organic matter provide a high potential for methane emissions and on-site energy production. There was no significant accumulation of long-chain organic and aromatic compounds, and of lignin degradation products even after more than 25 yr of rotting indicating higher extent of decomposition or stabilization of the waste organic matter. Installation of seepage water cleaning and recirculation systems are recommended to increase suboptimal moisture contents with respect to microbial methanogenesis, energy production, and long-term stabilization of municipal solid waste. PMID:18178887

  6. WET SOLIDS FLOW ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-03-25

    The yield locus, tensile strength and fracture mechanisms of wet granular materials were studied. The yield locus of a wet material was shifted to the left of that of the dry specimen by a constant value equal to the compressive isostatic stress due to pendular bridges. for materials with straight yield loci, the shift was computed from the uniaxial tensile strength, either measured in a tensile strength tester or calculated from the correlation, and the angle of internal friction of the material. The predicted shift in the yield loci due to different moisture contents compare well with the measured shift in the yield loci of glass beads, crushed limestone, super D catalyst and Leslie coal. Measurement of the void fraction during the shear testing was critical to obtain the correct tensile strength theoretically or experimentally.

  7. Distribution and disinfection of bacterial loadings associated with particulate matter fractions transported in urban wet weather flows.

    PubMed

    Dickenson, Joshua A; Sansalone, John J

    2012-12-15

    Urban runoff is a resource for reuse water. However, runoff transports indicator and pathogenic organisms which are mobilized from sources of fecal contamination. These organisms are entrained with particulate matter (PM) that can serve as a mobile substrate for these organisms. Within a framework of additional treatment for reuse of treated runoff which requires the management of PM inventories in unit operationsand drainage systems there is a need to characterize organism distributions on PM and the disinfection potential thereof. This study quantifies total coliform, Escherichia coli, fecal streptococcus, and enterococcus generated from 25 runoff events. With the ubiquity and hetero-dispersivity of PM in urban runoff this study examines organism distributions for suspended, settleable and sediment PM fractions differentiated based on PM size and transport functionality. Hypochlorite is applied in batch to elaborate inactivation of PM-associated organisms for each PM fraction. Results indicate that urban runoff bacterial loadings of indicator organisms exceed U.S. wastewater reuse, recreational contact, and Australian runoff reuse criteria as comparative metrics. All monitored events exceeded the Australian runoff reuse criteria for E. coli in non-potable residential and unrestricted access systems. In PM-differentiated events, bacteriological mobilization primarily occurred in the suspended PM fraction. However, sediment PM shielded PM-associated coliforms at all hypochlorite doses, whereas suspended and settleable PM fractions provide less shielding resulting in higher inactivation by hypochlorite. PMID:22244969

  8. PREFACE: Dynamics of wetting Dynamics of wetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grest, Gary S.; Oshanin, Gleb; Webb, Edmund B., III

    2009-11-01

    Capillary phenomena associated with fluids wetting other condensed matter phases have drawn great scientific interest for hundreds of years; consider the recent bicentennial celebration of Thomas Young's paper on equilibrium contact angles, describing the geometric shape assumed near a three phase contact line in terms of the relevant surface energies of the constituent phases [1]. Indeed, nearly a century has passed since the seminal papers of Lucas and Washburn, describing dynamics of capillary imbibition [2, 3]. While it is generally appreciated that dynamics of fluid wetting processes are determined by the degree to which a system is out of capillary equilibrium, myriad complications exist that challenge the fundamental understanding of dynamic capillary phenomena. The topic has gathered much interest from recent Nobel laureate Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, who provided a seminal review of relevant dissipation mechanisms for fluid droplets spreading on solid surfaces [4] Although much about the dynamics of wetting has been revealed, much remains to be learned and intrinsic technological and fundamental interest in the topic drives continuing high levels of research activity. This is enabled partly by improved experimental capabilities for resolving wetting processes at increasingly finer temporal, spatial, and chemical resolution. Additionally, dynamic wetting research advances via higher fidelity computational modeling capabilities, which drive more highly refined theory development. The significance of this topic both fundamentally and technologically has resulted in a number of reviews of research activity in wetting dynamics. One recent example addresses the evaluation of existing wetting dynamics theories from an experimentalist's perspective [5]. A Current Opinion issue was recently dedicated to high temperature capillarity, including dynamics of high temperature spreading [6]. New educational tools have recently emerged for providing instruction in wetting dynamics and the broader field of fluid dynamics [7-9]. Such an active field requires an occasional collective examination of current research to highlight both recent successes and remaining challenges. Herein, we have collected a range of articles to illustrate the broad nature of research associated with understanding dynamics of moving condensed matter three phase contact lines. Despite the breadth of topics examined, certain unifying themes emerge. The role of the substrate surface is critical in determining kinetics of wetting; this is evidenced by the attention given to this in articles herein. McHale et al investigate the role of surface topography on wetting kinetics and how its effect can be incorporated in existing theories describing contact line dynamics. Moosavi et al examine surface topography effects via a mesoscopic hydrodynamics approach. The capillary driven motion of fluid through structures on a surface bears tremendous importance for microfluidics studies and the emerging field of nanofluidics. Blow et al examine this phenomena for liquid imbibition into a geometric array of structures on a solid surface, while Shen et al analyze the effects of surface temperature during boiling and non-boiling conditionson droplet impingement dynamics. Finally, Pesika et al discover a wonderful world of smart surfaces, like gecko adhesion pads. A number of papers utilize computational modeling to explore phenomena underlying wetting dynamics and to consider relevant mechanisms in terms of existing theory for contact line dynamics. Winter et al utilize Monte Carlo simulation techniques and thermodynamic integration methods to test classical theory describing heterogeneous nucleation at a wall near a wetting transition. Qian et al briefly review the Onsager principle of minimum energy dissipation underlying many descriptions of dissipative systems; they then provide a variational approach description of hydrodynamics of moving contact lines and demonstrate the validity of their continuum model via comparison with molecular dynamics simulations.Bertrand et al use large scale molecular dynamics simulations to examine fundamental questions about wetting dynamics and how they depend upon interactions between a liquid drop and solid substrate; in particular, atomic scale mechanisms directly associated with the molecular kinetic theory of wetting are observed and quantified. Sun et al explore, by molecular dynamics simulations, atomistic mechanisms of high temperature contact line advancement for a rapidly spreading liquid droplet. Starov et al discuss general aspects of surface forces and wetting phenomena, while Courbin et al present anoverview of diverse dynamical processes ranging from inertial spreading to viscous imbibition. Mukhopadhyay et al examine the effect of Marangoni and centrifugal forces on the wetting dynamics of thin liquid films and drops. Willis et al analyze an enhanced droplet spreading due to thermal fluctuations. How wetting and contact line dynamics depend upon the complexity of the structure in the liquid is interesting both academically and technologically; Delabre et al illustrate this with a study of wetting of liquid crystals and the role of molecular scale organization. In addition, Mechkov et al explore this realm by studying post-Tanner spreading for nematic droplets and, in general, post-Tanner spreading of liquid droplets governed by the contact line-tension effects. Liang et al focus on spreading dynamics of power-law fluid droplets, while Wei et al discuss dynamics of wetting in viscous Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. Yin et al discuss an important issue of reactive wetting in metal-metal systems. We hope that the articles gathered here will permit readers to understand the wide range of condensed matter systems impacted by wetting kinetics and the many complicating factors that emerge in describing contact line dynamics for realistic materials. We wish to thank all the contributing authors for their effort and support of our endeavour. References [1] Young T 1805 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 95 65 [2] Lucas R 1918 Kolloidn. Zh. 23 15 [3] Washburn E W 1921 Phys. Rev. 17 273 [4] de Gennes P G 1985 Rev. Mod. Phys. 57 827 [5] Ralston J, Popescu M and Sedev R 2008 Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.38 23 [6] High Temperature Capillarity Focus Issue 2005 Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science 9 149-254 [7] Starov V M, Velarde M G and Radke C J 2007 Wetting and Spreading Dynamics (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press) [8] Golub J 2008 Phys. Today 61 8 [9] Homsby G M (ed) 2008 Multimedia Fluid Mechanics 2nd edn (New York: Cambridge University Press) (Also see www.efluids.com)

  9. Wet solids flow enhancemant

    SciTech Connect

    Caram, H.S.; Foster, N.; Wildman, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    WE used glass beads of different sizes as.a model system to study the flow enhancing properties of Octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS). 0TS provides Si(CH{sub 2}){sub 17}CH{sub 3} groups that bind with the surface hydrox groups to make it hydrophobic. Experimental data showed, indeed, that surface hydrophobicity promotes the flow of wet granular materials. Mixtures of different percentage of silanized/unsilanized particles were prepared for tensile strength measurements. The tensile strength decreased as more silanized particles were added to the samples. The relationship between dimensionless tensile strength and void fraction followed the correlation found by Pierrat (1994). Contact angles were larger for the silanized particles, as compared with unsilanized ones.

  10. Rough wetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bico, J.; Tordeux, C.; Qur, D.

    2001-07-01

    If a rough surface is put in contact with a wetting liquid, the roughness may be spontaneously invaded depending on the surface pattern and the wetting properties of the liquid. Here, we study the conditions for observing such an imbibition and present practical achievements where the wetting properties of the surface can be predicted and tuned by the design of a solid texture. The contact angle of a drop on such a surface (where solid and liquid coexist) is discussed. Finally, the dynamics of the liquid film is found to obey a diffusive-type law, as in the case of porous wicking.

  11. On granular elasticity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qicheng; Jin, Feng; Wang, Guangqian; Song, Shixiong; Zhang, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Mesoscopic structures form in dense granular materials due to the self-organisation of the constituent particles. These structures have internal structural degrees of freedom in addition to the translational degree of freedom. The resultant granular elasticity, which exhibits intrinsic variations and inevitable relaxation, is a key quantity that accounts for macroscopic solid- or fluid-like properties and the transitions between them. In this work, we propose a potential energy landscape (PEL) with local stable basins and low elastic energy barriers to analyse the nature of granular elasticity. A function for the elastic energy density is proposed for stable states and is further calibrated with ultrasonic measurements. Fluctuations in the elastic energy due to the evolution of internal structures are proposed to describe a so-called configuration temperature Tc as a counterpart of the classical kinetic granular temperature Tk that is attributed to the translational degrees of freedom. The two granular temperatures are chosen as the state variables, and a fundamental equation is established to develop non-equilibrium thermodynamics for granular materials. Due to the relatively low elastic energy barrier in the PEL, granular elasticity relaxes more under common mechanical loadings, and a simple model based on mean-field theory is developed to account for this behaviour. PMID:25951049

  12. Granular Shear Flow in Varying Gravitational Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdoch, N.; Rozitis, B.; Green, S. F.; de Lophem, T.-L.; Michel, P.; Losert, W.

    2016-01-01

    Despite their very low surface gravities, asteroids exhibit a number of different geological processes involving granular matter. Understanding the response of this granular material subject to external forces in microgravity conditions is vital to the design of a successful asteroid sub-surface sampling mechanism, and in the interpretation of the fascinating geology on an asteroid. We have designed and flown a Taylor-Couette shear cell to investigate granular flow due to rotational shear forces under the conditions of parabolic flight microgravity. The experiments occur under weak compression. First, we present the technical details of the experimental design with particular emphasis on how the equipment has been specifically designed for the parabolic flight environment. Then, we investigate how a steady state granular flow induced by rotational shear forces differs in varying gravitational environments. We find that the effect of constant shearing on the granular material, in a direction perpendicular to the effective acceleration, does not seem to be strongly influenced by gravity. This means that shear bands can form in the presence of a weak gravitational field just as on Earth.

  13. Gravity and Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behringer, R. P.; Hovell, Daniel; Kondic, Lou; Tennakoon, Sarath; Veje, Christian

    1999-01-01

    We describe experiments that probe a number of different types of granular flow where either gravity is effectively eliminated or it is modulated in time. These experiments include the shaking of granular materials both vertically and horizontally, and the shearing of a 2D granular material. For the shaken system, we identify interesting dynamical phenomena and relate them to standard simple friction models. An interesting application of this set of experiments is to the mixing of dissimilar materials. For the sheared system we identify a new kind of dynamical phase transition.

  14. Dynamics of Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behringer, Robert P.

    1996-01-01

    Granular materials exhibit a rich variety of dynamical behavior, much of which is poorly understood. Fractal-like stress chains, convection, a variety of wave dynamics, including waves which resemble capillary waves, l/f noise, and fractional Brownian motion provide examples. Work beginning at Duke will focus on gravity driven convection, mixing and gravitational collapse. Although granular materials consist of collections of interacting particles, there are important differences between the dynamics of a collections of grains and the dynamics of a collections of molecules. In particular, the ergodic hypothesis is generally invalid for granular materials, so that ordinary statistical physics does not apply. In the absence of a steady energy input, granular materials undergo a rapid collapse which is strongly influenced by the presence of gravity. Fluctuations on laboratory scales in such quantities as the stress can be very large-as much as an order of magnitude greater than the mean.

  15. Transition from rolling to jamming in thin granular layers.

    PubMed

    Marone, C; Carpenter, B M; Schiffer, P

    2008-12-12

    We study the granular jamming transition for sheared layers of spherical beads ranging in thickness from 1 to 3 times the grain diameter d. As the layer thickness increases slightly above d, the measured friction jumps discontinuously from 0.02 to >0.1, marking the transition from rolling to jamming. Above a critical layer thickness for jamming, the effective granular pressure displays a power law increase with thickness. For thin layers, friction and P increases as the packing fraction decreases near the jamming transition, in contrast to expectations for bulk granular matter. PMID:19113670

  16. Swimming in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Takashi; Kadau, Dirk; Shinbrot, Troy; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2009-08-01

    A class of reptiles known as sand swimmers adapts to hot environments by submerging beneath desert sands during the day and so provide a unique probe into the dynamics of intruders in granular beds. To understand the mechanism for swimming in an otherwise solid bed, we study a simple model of periodic contraction and extension of large intruders in a granular bed. Using an event-driven simulation, we find optimal conditions that idealized swimmers must use to critically fluidize a sand bed so that it is rigid enough to support a load when needed, but fluid enough to permit motion with minimal resistance. Swimmersor other intrudersthat agitate the bed too rapidly produce large voids that prevent traction from being achieved, while swimmers that move too slowly cannot travel before the bed resolidifies around them, i.e., the swimmers locally probe the fundamental time scale in a granular packing.

  17. Granular electronic systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Beloborodov, I. S.; Lopatin, A. V.; Vinokur, V. M.; Efetov, K. B.; Materials Science Division; Ruhr-Univ. Bochum; Landau Inst. Theor. Phys.

    2007-04-02

    Granular metals are arrays of metallic particles of a size ranging usually from a few to hundreds of nanometers embedded into an insulating matrix. Metallic granules are often viewed as artificial atoms. Accordingly, granular arrays can be treated as artificial solids with programmable electronic properties. The ease of adjusting electronic properties of granular metals assures them an important role for nanotechnological applications and makes them most suitable for fundamental studies of disordered solids. This review discusses recent theoretical advances in the study of granular metals, emphasizing the interplay of disorder, quantum effects, fluctuations, and effects of confinement. These key elements are quantified by the tunneling conductance between granules g, the charging energy of a single granule E{sub c}, the mean level spacing within a granule {delta}, and the mean electronic lifetime within the granule {h_bar}/g{delta}. By tuning the coupling between granules the system can be made either a good metal for g>gc=(1/2pid)ln(Ec/{delta}) (d is the system dimensionality), or an insulator for gGamma the resistivity exhibits universal logarithmic temperature behavior specific to granular materials, while at Tgranular materials, as is required for their applications.

  18. Numerical modeling of geophysical granular flows: 1. A comprehensive approach to granular rheologies and geophysical multiphase flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dartevelle, SBastien

    2004-08-01

    Geophysical granular materials display a wide variety of behaviors and features. Typically, granular flows (1) are multiphase flows, (2) are very dissipative over many different scales, (3) display a wide range of grain concentrations, and (4), as a final result of these previous features, display complex nonlinear, nonuniform, and unsteady rheologies. Therefore the objectives of this manuscript are twofold: (1) setting up a hydrodynamic model which acknowledges the multiphase nature of granular flows and (2) defining a comprehensive rheological model which accounts for all the different forms of viscous dissipations within granular flows at any concentration. Hence three important regimes within granular flows must be acknowledged: kinetic (pure free flights of grain), kinetic-collisional, and frictional. The momentum and energy transfer will be different according to the granular regimes, i.e., strain rate dependent in the kinetic and kinetic-collisional cases and strain rate independent in the frictional case. A "universal" granular rheological model requires a comprehensive unified stress tensor able to adequately describe viscous stress within the flow for any of these regimes, and without imposing a priori what regime will dominate over the others. The kinetic-collisional viscous regime is defined from a modified Boltzmann's kinetic theory of dense gas. The frictional viscous regime is defined from the plastic potential and the critical state theories which account for compressibility of granular matter (e.g., dilatancy, consolidation, and critical state). In the companion paper [, 2004] we will introduce a multiphase computer code, (G)MFIX, which accounts for all the granular regimes and rheology and present typical simulations of diluted (e.g., plinian clouds) and concentrated geophysical granular flows (i.e., pyroclastic flows and surges).

  19. Self-Organization in Granular Slurries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottino, Julio M.; Jain, Nitin; Lueptow, Richard M.; Khakhar, Devang V.

    2000-11-01

    Mixtures of tumbled granular materials under flow exhibit various intriguing types of un-mixing or self-organization. Small differences in particles' density, size or shape may trigger the effect. Nearly all studies to date have addressed the case of dry granular media, where the interparticle fluid is typically air. Here we report the existence of self-organization in wet granular media or slurries, mixtures of particles of different sizes dispersed in a lower density liquid. Technological examples appear in cement, ceramics, fine chemicals, and in the food industry; examples in nature appear in evolution of landslides and transport in river sediments. In spite of significantly different physics at the particle level, both axial banding (alternating bands rich in small and large particles in a long rotating cylinder) and radial segregation (in quasi 2D containers) are observed in slurries. However, axial segregation is significantly faster and the spectrum of outcomes is richer. Moreover, experiments with suitable fluids, reveal, for the first time, the internal structure of axially segregated systems, something that up to now has been accessible only via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experimentation.

  20. Rainwater Channelization and Infiltration in Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cejas, Cesare; Wei, Yuli; Barrois, Remi; Durian, Douglas; Dreyfus, Remi; Compass Team

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the formation of fingered flow in dry granular media under simulated rainfall using a quasi-2D experimental set-up composed of a random close packing of mono-disperse glass beads. We determine effects of grain diameter and surface wetting properties on the formation and infiltration of water channels. For hydrophilic granular media, rainwater initially infiltrates a shallow top layer of soil creating a uniform horizontal wetting front before instabilities occur and grow to form water channels. For hydrophobic media, rainwater ponds on the soil surface rather than infiltrates and water channels may still occur at a later time when the hydraulic pressure of the ponding water exceeds the capillary repellency of the soil. We probe the kinetics of the fingering instabilities that serve as precursors for the growth and drainage of water channels. We also examine the effects of several different methods on improving rainwater channelization such as varying the level of pre-saturation, modifying the soil surface flatness, and adding superabsorbent hydrogel particles.

  1. GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON INSTALLATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a compilation and summary of design criteria, performance, and cost data from 22 operating municipal and industrial granular activated carbon (GAC) installations that treat water and wastewater or process food and beverage products. Guidance for using this inf...

  2. Modeling Granular Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brackbill, J. U.

    2000-11-01

    Granular materials are often cited as examples of systems with complex and unusual properties. Much of this complexity is captured by computational models in which the actual material properties of individual grains are idealized and simplified. Because material properties can be important under extreme conditions, we consider assemblies of grains with more realistic properties. Our model grains may deform, their resulting stresses are computed from elastic / plastic constitutive models, and their interactions with each other include Coulomb friction and bonding. Our model equations are solved using a particle-in-cell (PIC) method, which combines a Lagrangian representation of the materials with an adaptive grid [1]. Our contact model between grains is linear in the number of grains, and we model assemblies with statistically significant numbers of grains. With our model, we have studied the response of dense granular material to shear, with especial attention to the probability density function governing the volume distribution of stress for mono- and poly-disperse samples, circular and polygonal grains, and various values of microscopic friction coefficients, yield stresses, and packing fractions [2]. Remarkably, PDF's are similar in form for all cases simulated, and similar to those observed in experiments with granular materials under both compression and shear. Namely, the simulations yield an exponential probability of large stresses above the mean, and there is a finite chance that a few grains in a large assembly are subjected to extreme stresses at any given time, even at low strain rates. For energetic materials, such as explosives, this is a signficant finding. We have also studied the relationship between distributions of boundary tractions and volume distributions of stress. The ratio of normal and tangential components of traction on the boundary defines a bulk frictional response, which we find increases with the inter-granular friction coefficient. However, the bulk friction is always larger than the inter-granular friction for densely packed samples. Bulk friction is also strongly dependent on grain size distribution and shape. We also present new observations of force-chain banding during recrystallization, of slip systems in monodisperse samples, and of the effects of plastic yield. Acknowledgement: This work was performed in collaboration with S. G. Bardenhagen, University of Utah, D. Sulsky, University of New Mexico, and Sharen Cummins, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and is supported by the Department of Energy, under contract W-7405-ENG-36. [1] Bardenhagen, S. G., J. U. Brackbill, and D. Sulsky, The material-point method for granular materials, Comput. Meths. Appl. Mech. and Engn., 187, 529-541, 2000. [2] Bardenhagen, S. G., J. U. Brackbill, and D. L. Sulsky, Numerical study of stress distribution in sheared granular material in two dimensions, Phys. Rev E, 62, 2000 (to appear).

  3. Stress transmission and incipient yield flow in dense granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenfeld, Raphael

    2010-05-01

    Jammed granular matter transmits stresses non-uniformly like no conventional solid, especially when it is on the verge of failure. Jamming is caused by self-organization of granular matter under external loads, often giving rise to networks of force chains that support the loads non-uniformly. An ongoing debate in the literature concerns the correct way to model the static stress field in such media: good old elasticity theory or newcomer isostaticity theory. The two differ significantly and, in particular in 2D, isostaticity theory leads naturally to force chain solutions. More recently, it has been proposed that real granular materials are made of mixtures of regions, some behaving elastically and some isostatically. The theory to describe these systems has been named stato-elasticity. In this paper, I first present the rationale for stato-elasticity theory. An important step towards the construction of this theory is a good understanding of stress transmission in the regions of pure isostatic states. A brief description is given of recently derived general solutions for 2D isostatic regions with nonuniform structures, which go well beyond the over-simplistic picture of force chains. I then show how the static stress equations are related directly to incipient yield flow and derive the equations that govern yield and creep rheology of dense granular matter at the initial stages of failure. These equations are general and describe strains in granular materials of both rigid and compliant particles.

  4. Flow of wet granular materials: A numerical study.

    PubMed

    Khamseh, Saeed; Roux, Jean-Noël; Chevoir, François

    2015-08-01

    We simulate dense assemblies of frictional spherical grains in steady shear flow under controlled normal stress P in the presence of a small amount of an interstitial liquid, which gives rise to capillary menisci, assumed isolated (pendular regime), and attractive forces, which are hysteretic: Menisci form at contact, but do not break until grains are separated by a finite rupture distance. The system behavior depends on two dimensionless control parameters, inertial number I and reduced pressure P*=aP/(πΓ), comparing confining forces ∼a2P to meniscus tensile strength F0=πΓa, for grains of diameter a joined by menisci with surface tension Γ. We pay special attention to the quasistatic limit of slow flow and observe systematic, enduring strain localization in some of the cohesion-dominated (P*∼0.1) systems. Homogeneous steady flows are characterized by the dependence of internal friction coefficient μ* and solid fraction Φ on I and P*. We also record normal stress differences, fairly small but not negligible and increasing for decreasing P*. The system rheology is moderately sensitive to saturation within the pendular regime, but would be different in the absence of capillary hysteresis. Capillary forces have a significant effect on the macroscopic behavior of the system, up to P* values of several units, especially for longer force ranges associated with larger menisci. The concept of effective pressure may be used to predict an order of magnitude for the strong increase of μ* as P* decreases but such a crude approach is unable to account for the complex structural changes induced by capillary cohesion, with a significant decrease of Φ and different agglomeration states and anisotropic fabric. Likewise, the Mohr-Coulomb criterion for pressure-dependent critical states is, at best, an approximation valid within a restricted range of pressures, with P*≥1. At small enough P*, large clusters of interacting grains form in slow flows, in which liquid bonds survive shear strains of several units. This affects the anisotropies associated with different interactions and the shape of function μ*(I), which departs more slowly from its quasistatic limit than in cohesionless systems (possibly explaining the shear banding tendency). PMID:26382388

  5. Flow of wet granular materials: A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khamseh, Saeed; Roux, Jean-Noël; Chevoir, François

    2015-08-01

    We simulate dense assemblies of frictional spherical grains in steady shear flow under controlled normal stress P in the presence of a small amount of an interstitial liquid, which gives rise to capillary menisci, assumed isolated (pendular regime), and attractive forces, which are hysteretic: Menisci form at contact, but do not break until grains are separated by a finite rupture distance. The system behavior depends on two dimensionless control parameters, inertial number I and reduced pressure P*=a P /(π Γ ) , comparing confining forces ˜a2P to meniscus tensile strength F0=π Γ a , for grains of diameter a joined by menisci with surface tension Γ . We pay special attention to the quasistatic limit of slow flow and observe systematic, enduring strain localization in some of the cohesion-dominated (P*˜0.1 ) systems. Homogeneous steady flows are characterized by the dependence of internal friction coefficient μ* and solid fraction Φ on I and P*. We also record normal stress differences, fairly small but not negligible and increasing for decreasing P*. The system rheology is moderately sensitive to saturation within the pendular regime, but would be different in the absence of capillary hysteresis. Capillary forces have a significant effect on the macroscopic behavior of the system, up to P* values of several units, especially for longer force ranges associated with larger menisci. The concept of effective pressure may be used to predict an order of magnitude for the strong increase of μ* as P* decreases but such a crude approach is unable to account for the complex structural changes induced by capillary cohesion, with a significant decrease of Φ and different agglomeration states and anisotropic fabric. Likewise, the Mohr-Coulomb criterion for pressure-dependent critical states is, at best, an approximation valid within a restricted range of pressures, with P*≥1 . At small enough P*, large clusters of interacting grains form in slow flows, in which liquid bonds survive shear strains of several units. This affects the anisotropies associated with different interactions and the shape of function μ*(I ) , which departs more slowly from its quasistatic limit than in cohesionless systems (possibly explaining the shear banding tendency).

  6. Spreading of triboelectrically charged granular matter

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Sane, A.; Gohil, Smita.; Bandaru, P. R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Ghosh, Shankar

    2014-01-01

    We report on the spreading of triboelectrically charged glass particles on an oppositely charged surface of a plastic cylindrical container in the presence of a constant mechanical agitation. The particles spread via sticking, as a monolayer on the cylinder's surface. Continued agitation initiates a sequence of instabilities of this monolayer, which first forms periodic wavy-stripe-shaped transverse density modulation in the monolayer and then ejects narrow and long particle-jets from the tips of these stripes. These jets finally coalesce laterally to form a homogeneous spreading front that is layered along the spreading direction. These remarkable growth patterns are related to a time evolving frictional drag between the moving charged glass particles and the countercharges on the plastic container. The results provide insight into the multiscale time-dependent tribolelectric processes and motivates further investigation into the microscopic causes of these macroscopic dynamical instabilities and spatial structures. PMID:24919483

  7. In Granular Charging, Does Size Really Matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siu, Theodore; Mattson, Gregory; Shinbrot, Troy

    2014-03-01

    Spontaneous charging in systems of particles, causing particle separation and electrical discharges, is commonly observed in pharmaceutical powder beds, sandstorms and natural dust plumes. Previous studies have attributed size difference or external factors such as wind or an outside electric field as the primary driving force behind such large scale charging. In this talk we discuss experimental results showing that systems of uniformly sized particles with no external field still exhibit net polarization and charging buildup. We also present computational results modeled from a variation of Dyson's Ising model, which validates this behavior and predicts new types of phenomena.

  8. Granular convection in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, N; Rozitis, B; Nordstrom, K; Green, S F; Michel, P; de Lophem, T-L; Losert, W

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the role of gravity on convection in a dense granular shear flow. Using a microgravity-modified Taylor-Couette shear cell under the conditions of parabolic flight microgravity, we demonstrate experimentally that secondary, convective-like flows in a sheared granular material are close to zero in microgravity and enhanced under high-gravity conditions, though the primary flow fields are unaffected by gravity. We suggest that gravity tunes the frictional particle-particle and particle-wall interactions, which have been proposed to drive the secondary flow. In addition, the degree of plastic deformation increases with increasing gravitational forces, supporting the notion that friction is the ultimate cause. PMID:23383851

  9. Granular Dynamics during Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordstrom, Kerstin; Lim, Emily; Harrington, Matt; Losert, Wolfgang

    2013-03-01

    In this work, we study the impact of a projectile onto a bed of 3 mm grains immersed in an index-matched fluid. Using a laser sheet scanning technique, a high speed camera, and particle tracking, we can measure the trajectory of each grain throughout an impact event. We characterize the bulk and microscopic dynamics within the granular material as a function of initial sample preparation, specifically applying a uniaxial prestrain to the sample. We find that small changes in sample preparation lead to drastic departures from the universal depth scaling seen in previous studies of shallow granular impacts. By examining the nonaffine motion within the system, we propose the effect is due to different loading and buckling of force chains within the system. Supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency

  10. Granular flow over inclined channels with constrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunuguntla, Deepak; Weinhart, Thomas; Thornton, Anthony; Bokhove, Onno

    2013-04-01

    Study of granular flows down inclined channels is essential in understanding the dynamics of natural grain flows like landslides and snow avalanches. As a stepping stone, dry granular flow over an inclined channel with a localised constriction is investigated using both continuum methods and particle simulations. Initially, depth-averaged equations of motion (Savage & Hutter 1989) containing an unknown friction law are considered. The shallow-layer model for granular flows is closed with a friction law obtained from particle simulations of steady flows (Weinhart et al. 2012) undertaken in the open source package Mercury DPM (Mercury 2010). The closed two-dimensional (2D) shallow-layer model is then width-averaged to obtain a novel one-dimensional (1D) model which is an extension of the one for water flows through contraction (Akers & Bokhove 2008). Different flow states are predicted by this novel one-dimensional theory. Flow regimes with distinct flow states are determined as a function of upstream channel Froude number, F, and channel width ratio, Bc. The latter being the ratio of the channel exit width and upstream channel width. Existence of multiple steady states is predicted in a certain regime of F - Bc parameter plane which is in agreement with experiments previously undertaken by (Akers & Bokhove 2008) and for granular flows (Vreman et al. 2007). Furthermore, the 1D model is verified by solving the 2D shallow granular equations using an open source discontinuous Galerkin finite element package hpGEM (Pesch et al. 2007). For supercritical flows i.e. F > 1 the 1D asymptotics holds although the two-dimensional oblique granular jumps largely vary across the converging channel. This computationally efficient closed 1D model is validated by comparing it to the computationally more expensiveaa three-dimensional particle simulations. Finally, we aim to present a quasi-steady particle simulation of inclined flow through two rectangular blocks separated by a gap, investigate the channel formed by the dead zones and compare it with our analytical calculations. REFERENCES 1. Akers, B. & Bokhove, O. 2008 Hydraulic flow through a channel contraction: Multiple steady states. Physics of fluids 20 (056601), 056601. 2. Mercury 2010 http://www2.msm.ctw.utwente.nl/athornton/md/ . 3. Pesch, L., Bell, A., Sollie, H., Ambati, V.R., Bokhove, O. & Van der Vegt, J.J.W. 2007 hpGEM—a software framework for discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods. ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS) 33 (4), 23. 4. Savage, SB & Hutter, K. 1989 The motion of a finite mass of granular material down a rough incline. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 199 (1), 177-215. 5. Vreman, AW, Al-Tarazi, M., Kuipers, JAM, van Sint Annaland, M. & Bokhove, O. 2007 Supercritical shallow granular flow through a contraction: experiment, theory and simulation. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 578 (1), 233-269. 6. Weinhart, T., Thornton, A.R., Luding, S. & Bokhove, O. 2012 Closure relations for shallow granular flows from particle simulations. Granular Matter 14 (4), 531-552.

  11. Stresses in Granular Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behringer, R.; Geng, J.; Longhi, E.; Howell, D.; Clement, E.; Reydellet, G.

    2000-11-01

    Forces are carried in a granular materials along tenuous complex structures--force/stress chains, whose properties depend on the sample preparation. Several models of force propagation have been proposed recently, a) the q-model of Coppersmith et al. and b) the three-leg model of Claudin et al. The first predicts a parabolic PDE for stresses in the continuum limit, and the second predicts a hyperbolic PDE. We present two experiments that probe force propagation in granular materials. Both use 2D particles (disks and pentagons) made from a photoelastic material. The first experiment determines the response function by applying local forces. We explore both ordered packings of disks and disordered packings of pentagons. For the disks, the response follows a `cone' that broadens with distance from the source. For the pentagons, this structure is present but less clear. The second set of experiments explores the effects of preparation on the stresses at the bottom of a 2D granular heap. We determine the force on a horizontal band of disks near the bottom of the heap. There is a clear force minimum if the disks are poured from a fixed-height funnel, but for other preparation techniques, the presence of a stress dip is more subtle. The most dramatic difference related to preparation occurs in the orientation of the grain contacts.

  12. Glazings with granular aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dengler, Joerg J.; Wittwer, Volker

    1994-09-01

    Double glazing units filled with granular aerogel open up new applications in the fields of daylighting systems and passive solar architecture. Silica aerogel has ideal characteristics for solar thermal applications. High transparency for solar radiation is combined with extremely low thermal conductivity. The chemical company BASF (D) is developing a granular form of aerogel, which will be introduced to the market in the near future. The application potential of this material in window systems was tested as part of a CEC-JOULE project in co-operation with four other industrial companies and two research institutes under the leadership of the Fraunhofer-Institut fur Solare Energiesysteme (FhG-ISE) in Freiburg. A typical u-value for a double glazed window with a 16 mm thick layer of granular aerogel is 1.0 W m-2 K-1, the solar transmission for diffuse light is about 45%. Both parameters are variable over a wide range depending on the particle size distribution, thickness of the layer and choice of the filling gas. First window elements were tested in different applications. Realized installations are presented.

  13. Visual perception of surface wetness.

    PubMed

    Sawayama, Masataka; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-01-01

    We can visually recognize a variety of surface state. Just a quick look is sufficient to find the bath floor is dry, the road in front is slippery, the window glass is frosty, or the ornament is dusty. If a given surface state perception relies on the analysis of diagnostic image features, an effective strategy to reveal those features and the associated visual processing is to find a stimulus transformation that alters the apparent surface state. Here we report an image transformation that makes dry objects look wet. This wet filter consists of two operations: (1) Tone-remapping with an accelerating nonlinear function that renders the intensity histogram positively skewed: (2) color saturation enhancement. In an experimental test, we applied the wet filter to a variety of natural textures of the McGill Calibrated Colour Image Database. The results of a wetness rating experiment showed that the wet-filtered images were perceived as wetter than the original images. In addition, the perceived wetness depended on the variance of hue. The wet-filter was less effective for images with a small variance of hue. Optically, wetting a surface tends to increases the specular reflection. In addition, as the incoming light scatters repeatedly within the surface liquid layer, the light going out from the surface tends to be darker and more saturated. The effects of these optical changes can be simulated by the two wet-filter operations. However, positively skewed luminance histogram and high chromatic saturation may be caused by other factors - for instance, the visual scene may happen to include highly saturated glossy objects. This is presumably why hue variation matters. If the same image transformation simultaneously occurs in many different objects, the brain infers that the change likely has the same cause, such as water shower in the present case. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326625

  14. Granular cell ameloblastoma mimicking oncocytoma.

    PubMed

    Oza, Nirima; Agrawal, Karoon

    2012-09-01

    Granular cell ameloblastoma is a variant of ameloblastoma where cells located in the central portion of the follicles have granular eosinophilic cytoplasm and the peripheral cells resemble ameloblasts. A case of granular cell ameloblastoma of the mandible having very similar histopathological features of oncocytoma (oxyphilic adenoma) is reported where tumor cells were arranged in cords, sheets and follicles and their cytoplasm was full of eosinophilic granules. PMID:23248486

  15. Laboratory Earthquakes: Granular Friction and Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecke, Robert; Geller, Drew; Gerashchenko, Sergiy; Backhaus, Scott

    2014-03-01

    Geological processes drive shear motion between tectonic plates over 10-100 km. The rupture gap, of order meters, contains granular matter - fault gouge - produced by the grinding motion of the plates over millennia. The complex behavior of natural earthquakes and the difficulty in making in situ measurements, has led to laboratory experiments that allow more control. We describe a laboratory experiment to model the physics of earthquakes that involves the interaction of continuum and granular behavior around a fault. Two photo-elastic plates confine about 3000 bi-disperse rods in a gap with a length-to-width ratio 50. The plates are held rigidly along their outer edges with one held fixed while the other is driven at constant speed at strain rates of 10-5/s. We measure strains from the motions of small spheres on the plate surface, stresses from plate photo-elastic response, and granular motion using particle tracking. We determine the dependence of the friction and the moment distribution of the system on the normal force. The moment distribution scales with a power law close to -1.5. There is an increasing probability for large events with a non-random recurrence time at higher normal force.

  16. Axillary granular parakeratosis.

    PubMed

    Mehregan, D A; Vandersteen, P; Sikorski, L; Mehregan, D R

    1995-08-01

    We report two cases of axillary granular parakeratosis, which is a unique eruption involving the axilla that has distinctive histopathologic features. Both of our patients had slightly pruritic, hyperpigmented patches in the axilla. The biopsy specimens revealed severe compact parakeratosis with maintenance of the stratum granulosum and retention of keratohyalin granules throughout the stratum corneum, which was markedly thickened and measured between 90 to 185 microns. The exact etiology is not known, but this conditions is believed to represent a contact reaction to an antiperspirant or deodorant. PMID:7615889

  17. Spreading of a granular droplet.

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, I.; Raynaud, F.; Lanuza, J.; Andreotti, B.; Clement, E.; Aranson, I. S.; Materials Science Division; Univ. Simon; CNRS-ESPCI-Univ.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of controlled vibrations on the granular rheology is investigated in a specifically designed experiment in which a granular film spreads under the action of horizontal vibrations. A nonlinear diffusion equation is derived theoretically that describes the evolution of the deposit shape. A self-similar parabolic shape (the granular droplet) and a spreading dynamics are predicted that both agree quantitatively with the experimental results. The theoretical analysis is used to extract effective friction coefficients between the base and the granular layer under sustained and controlled vibrations. A shear thickening regime characteristic of dense granular flows is evidenced at low vibration energy, both for glass beads and natural sand. Conversely, shear thinning is observed at high agitation.

  18. Heterogeneities in granular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mehta, A; Barker, G C; Luck, J M

    2008-06-17

    The absence of Brownian motion in granular media is a source of much complexity, including the prevalence of heterogeneity, whether static or dynamic, within a given system. Such strong heterogeneities can exist as a function of depth in a box of grains; this is the system we study here. First, we present results from three-dimensional, cooperative and stochastic Monte Carlo shaking simulations of spheres on heterogeneous density fluctuations. Next, we juxtapose these with results obtained from a theoretical model of a column of grains under gravity; frustration via competing local fields is included in our model, whereas the effect of gravity is to slow down the dynamics of successively deeper layers. The combined conclusions suggest that the dynamics of a real granular column can be divided into different phases-ballistic, logarithmic, activated, and glassy-as a function of depth. The nature of the ground states and their retrieval (under zero-temperature dynamics) is analyzed; the glassy phase shows clear evidence of its intrinsic ("crystalline") states, which lie below a band of approximately degenerate ground states. In the other three phases, by contrast, the system jams into a state chosen randomly from this upper band of metastable states. PMID:18541918

  19. [Axillary granular parakeratosis].

    PubMed

    Rodrguez, Gerzan

    2002-12-01

    Axillary granular parakeratosis is an alteration of keratin characterized by a thick parakeratotic horny layer with abundant intracellular keratohyalin granules. It was first described in 1991 and since then 32 cases have been reported from USA, Europe and Australia. Lesions may affect intertriginous areas other than the axilla. The disease has apparently not been previously described in Latin America. Three overweight Colombian women were diagnosed with axillary granular parakeratosis. They presented encrusted, hyperkeratotic, hyperpigmented and pruriginous papules and plaques which affected both axillae in two women and only one in the other. Lesions had persisted for two and four months in two patients and for one year in the third. Clinical diagnoses were benign familiar pemphigus and tinea nigra. Skin biopsies showed a thick parakeratotic basophilic horny layer. Electron microscopy demonstrated a high content of keratohyalin granules. No Langerhans cells were demonstrated in the lesions using IHC for S-100 protein. No fungi were seen with the PAS stain. Infundibula showed thick horny plugs with changes similar to those seen in the epidermis. Dermal tissue showed few perivascular lymphocytes. These findings suggest that the disease has an irritative pathogenesis. Clinical histories indicated that the three women were overweight and used several types of antiperspirants. These factors plus local irritation and humidity apparently triggered the keratinization response. PMID:12596449

  20. An Application of the Study of Granular Shocks to Aerospace Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padgett, David Alan

    Granular systems are collections of macroscopic particles which interact with each other through contact. Common examples of granular systems are piles of sand, actual grain in silos or other storage facilities, and industrial powders. Researchers display a heavy interest in granular materials because they are ubiquitous in the world, but their states and interactions with other matter are difficult to describe mathematically. One of the many counterintuitive facts about granular systems is that, under certain circumstances, granular systems can behave like fluids and exhibit shock wave behavior. This dissertation details the development of an event-driven simulation to study the behavior of granular systems as well as some observations made by examining different granular systems as they impact wedges and discs. This dissertation also discusses a novel method of exploiting the shock behavior of granular systems in order to investigate problems in aerospace engineering. Typical computational fluid dynamics solvers can be inefficient when dealing with flows which include shock waves. Prior knowledge of the location of shock waves in a flow can help engineers create CFD grids that allow fluid dynamics solvers to converge faster than they otherwise would and still preserve the accuracy of the solution. By investigating an ideal fluid system with an analogous granular system, the locations of the shock waves are observed and efficient grids for solving the Navier- Stokes equations are developed. Through case studies, this dissertation will show that such efficient grids lead to fluid flow solutions which converge in much less time than comparable fine grids.

  1. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Electrical, dielectric and surface wetting properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes/nylon-6 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yun-Ze; Li, Meng-Meng; Sui, Wan-Mei; Kong, Qing-Shan; Zhang, Lei

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports that the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)/nylon-6 (PA6) nanocomposites with different MWCNT loadings have been prepared by a simple melt-compounding method. The electrical, dielectric, and surface wetting properties of the CNT/PA6 composites have been studied. The temperature dependence of the conductivity of the CNT/PA6 composite with 10.0 wt% CNT loading (?RT ~ 10-4 S/cm) are measured, and afterwards a charge-energy-limited tunnelling model (ln ?(T) ~ T-1/2) is found. With increasing CNT weight percentage from 0.0 to 10.0 wt%, the dielectric constant of the CNT/PA6 composites enhances and the dielectric loss tangent increases two orders of magnitude. In addition, water contact angles of the CNT/PA6 composites increase and the composites with CNT loading larger than 2.0 wt% even become hydrophobic. The obtained results indicate that the electrical and surface properties of the composites have been significantly enhanced by the embedded carbon nanotubes.

  2. The influence of moisture content on the shock compression responses of brittle granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Kun

    2015-03-01

    The irreversible energy-absorbing compaction processes of shocked particle layers change with the moisture content. The shock wave interaction with dry and wet granular layers is experimentally investigated to elucidate the moisture effects on the energy distribution in the brittle granular layers. It is found that the frictional and breakage dissipation combined as the plastic dissipation in the granular layers is increasingly mitigated by the increasing moisture content. The higher strain rate in the shock loaded wet granular layer leads to an increased number of debris as predicted by the theoretical analysis. Nevertheless the inter-particle moisture effectively lubricates the enhanced particle friction arising from the intensive particle rearrangement concomitant with the greater degree of particle breakage. As a result, the efficiency of the momentum transfer in the wet granular layer is significantly improved manifested by the much larger particle kinetic energy. Meanwhile the particle breakage mode transits from the corner grinding to the shear cleavage with moisture content as revealed by the SEM image of the recovered grains from shock wave experiments.

  3. PREFACE: Wetting: introductory note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herminghaus, S.

    2005-03-01

    The discovery of wetting as a topic of physical science dates back two hundred years, to one of the many achievements of the eminent British scholar Thomas Young. He suggested a simple equation relating the contact angle between a liquid surface and a solid substrate to the interfacial tensions involved [1], γlg cos θ = γsg - γsl (1) In modern terms, γ denotes the excess free energy per unit area of the interface indicated by its indices, with l, g and s corresponding to the liquid, gas and solid, respectively [2]. After that, wetting seems to have been largely ignored by physicists for a long time. The discovery by Gabriel Lippmann that θ may be tuned over a wide range by electrochemical means [3], and some important papers about modifications of equation~(1) due to substrate inhomogeneities [4,5] are among the rare exceptions. This changed completely during the seventies, when condensed matter physics had become enthusiastic about critical phenomena, and was vividly inspired by the development of the renormalization group by Kenneth Wilson [6]. This had solved the long standing problem of how to treat fluctuations, and to understand the universal values of bulk critical exponents. By inspection of the critical exponents of the quantities involved in equation~(1), John W Cahn discovered what he called critical point wetting: for any liquid, there should be a well-defined transition to complete wetting (i.e., θ = 0) as the critical point of the liquid is approached along the coexistence curve [7]. His paper inspired an enormous amount of further work, and may be legitimately viewed as the entrance of wetting into the realm of modern physics. Most of the publications directly following Cahn's work were theoretical papers which elaborated on wetting in relation to critical phenomena. A vast amount of interesting, and in part quite unexpected, ramifications were discovered, such as the breakdown of universality in thin film systems [8]. Simultaneously, a number of very specific and quantitative predictions were put forward which were aimed at direct experimental tests of the developed concepts [9]. Experimentally, wetting phenomena proved to be a rather difficult field of research. While contact angles seem quite easy to measure, deeper insight can only be gained by assessing the physical properties of minute amounts of material, as provided by the molecularly thin wetting layers. At the same time, the variations in the chemical potential relevant for studying wetting transitions are very small, such that system stability sometimes poses hard to solve practical problems. As a consequence, layering transitions in cryogenic systems were among the first to be thoroughly studied [10] experimentally, since they require comparably moderate stability. First-order wetting transitions were not observed experimentally before the early nineties, either in (cryogenic) quantum systems [11,12] or in binary liquid mixtures [13,14]. The first observation of critical wetting, a continuous wetting transition, in 1996 [15] was a major breakthrough [16]. In the meantime, a detailed seminal paper by Pierre Gilles de Gennes published in 1985 [17] had spurred a large number of new research projects which were directed to wetting phenomena other than those related to phase transitions. More attention was paid to non-equilibrium physics, as it is at work when oil spreads over a surface, or a liquid coating beads off (`dewets') from its support and forms a pattern of many individual droplets. This turned out to be an extremely fruitful field of research, and was more readily complemented by experimental efforts than was the case with wetting transitions. It was encouraging to find effects analogous to layering (as mentioned above) in more common systems such as oil films spreading on a solid support [18,19]. Long standing riddles such as the divergence of dissipation at a moving contact line were now addressed both theoretically and experimentally [20,21]. However, the requirements concerning resolution of the measurements, as well as the stability and cleanliness of the systems, were immense for the reasons mentioned above. The pronounced impact of impurities was already well-known from contact angle measurements, where one invariably observes quite significant hysteresis effects and history dependence of the measured angle due to minute substrate inhomogeneity. This is why pioneering work on characteristic patterns emerging upon dewetting of thin liquid films [22] opened a long lasting, and eventually very fruitful, controversy on the question whether the underlying mechanism was unstable surface waves [24] (which was unambiguously observed for the first time in 1996 [23]) or `just' nucleation from defects. By the mid-nineties, the physics of wetting had made its way into the canon of physical science topics in its full breadth. The number of fruitful aspects addressed by that time is far too widespread to be covered here with any ambition to completeness. The number of researchers turning to this field was continuously growing, and many problems had already been successfully resolved, and many questions answered. However, quite a number of fundamental problems remained, which obstinately resisted solution. Only a few shall be mentioned: There was no satisfactory explanation for triple point wetting [25], in particular for its ubiquity. The numerical values of contact line tensions in both theory and (very reproducible) experiments [26] were many orders of magnitude apart. In the particularly interesting field of structure formation, i.e., dewetting, there was no clear interpretation of many experimental results, and no possibility to distinguish with certainty between the different possible mechanisms. Furthermore, the impact of the rather strong non-linearities of the involved van der Waals forces was entirely unclear. In the more remote field of bionics, it was not clear how some plants manage to make liquids bead off so perfectly from their leaves. This list, which is of course far from complete, serves to illustrate the wide scope of open questions. At that time, research groups in Germany concerned with wetting phenomena gathered and finally applied for a priority programme on wetting and structure formation at interfaces, which obtained funding from the German Science Foundation [27]. This special issue is dedicated to the research carried out within this programme. It spans the period starting from spring 1998 until summer 2004, and is presented as a combination of review over that period and original presentation of the state-of-the-art at its end. Although only a very limited number of problems could be tackled within the programme, a few significant achievements could be attained. Some of these shall be highlighted: It could be shown that triple point wetting is a direct consequence of topographic substrate imperfection. By taking the bending energy of a solid slab on a rough substrate into account, accordance between theory [28] and experiment [29] was finally achieved. By applying scanning force microscopy to three phase contact lines, it could be shown that the `real' contact line tension is indeed much smaller than `observed' on macroscopic scale [39], and comes close to what is theoretically expected. In the field of structure formation by dewetting, unprecedented agreement between experiment [31], theory [32], and particularly careful simulations [33] was achieved. The underlying mechanisms could be clearly distinguished by means of Minkowski functionals. It could be shown both theoretically [34,35] and experimentally [36,37] that chemically patterned substrates give rise not only to a large variety of liquid morphologies, but that the latter can be manipulated and controlled in a precise manner. It was demonstrated that spherical (colloidal) beads may not only be used like surfactants as in Pickering emulsions, but that the resulting interface configurations may be applied to generate an amazing variety of well-controlled porous membranes, with a lot of potential applications [39]. This gives a flavour of the variety of topics addressed in the papers making up this issue. They are organized in five sections, each of which is opened with a short introduction explaining their mutual relation. For further access to the pertinent literature, the reader is referred to the references given in each article separately. References [1] Young T 1805 Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 95 65 [2] Equation (1) is readily derived by demanding force balance at the contact line, where all three phases meet. [3] Lippmann G 1886 Anal. Chim. 48 776 [4] Cassie A B D and Baxter S 1944 Trans. Faraday Soc. 40 546 [5] Wenzel R N 1949 J. Phys. Chem. 53 1466 [6] Wilson K G 1971 Phys. Rev. B 4 3174 and 3184 [7] Cahn J W 1977 J. Chem. Phys. 66 3667 [8] See, for example Dietrich S and Schick M 1986 Phys. Rev. B 33 4952 [9] See, for example Cheng E et al 1991 Phys. Rev. Lett. 67 1007 [10] Dash J G and Ruvalds J (ed) 1980 Phase Transitions in Surface Films (NATO advanced study series vol B51) (New York: Plenum) [11] Nacher P J and Dupont-Roc J 1991 Phys. Rev. Lett. 67 2966 [12] Rutledge J E and Taborek P 1992 Phys. Rev. Lett. 69 937 [13] Bonn D, Kellay H and Wegdam G H 1992 Phys. Rev. Lett. 69 1975 [14] Bonn D, Kellay H and Wegdam G H 1993 J. Chem. Phys. 99 7115 [15] Ragil K et al 1996 Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 1532 [16] Findenegg G H and Herminghaus S 1997 Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 2 301 [17] de Gennes P G 1985 Rev. Mod. Phys. 57 827 [18] Heslot F, Fraysse N and Cazabat A M 1989 Nature 338 1289 [19] Fraysse N et al 1993 J. Colloid Int. Sci. 158 27 [20] Huh C and Scriven L E 1971 J. Colloid Int. Sci. 35 85 [21] Brochard F et al 1994 Langmuir 10 1566 [22] Reiter G 1992 Phys. Rev. Lett. 68 75 [23] Bischof J et al 1996 Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 1536 [24] Ruckenstein E and Jain R K 1974 J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. II 70 132 [25] Herminghaus S et al 1997 Annal. Phys. 6 425 [26] Li D and Neumann A W 1990 Colloids Surf. 43 195 [27] Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Schwerpunktprogramm 1052, `Benetzung und Strukturbildung an Grenzflächen' [28] Esztermann A and Löwen H 2005 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17 S429 [29] Sohaili M et al 2005 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17 S415 [30] Pompe T and Herminghaus S 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 1930 [31] Seemann R et al 2005 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17 S267 [32] Herminghaus S et al 1998 Science 282 916 [33] Becker J and Gr\\"un G 2005 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17 S291 [34] Lipowsky R \\etal 2005 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17 S537 [35] Dietrich S et al 2005 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17 S577 [36] Gau H et al 19999 Science 283 46 [37] Mugele F \\etal 2005 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17 S559 [38] Pfohl T et al 2003 Chem. Phys. Chem. 4 1291 [39 Xu H et al 2005 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17 S465

  4. Localizing energy in granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przedborski, Michelle A.; Harroun, Thad A.; Sen, Surajit

    2015-12-01

    A device for absorbing and storing short duration impulses in an initially uncompressed one-dimensional granular chain is presented. Simply stated, short regions of sufficiently soft grains are embedded in a hard granular chain. These grains exhibit long-lived standing waves of predictable frequencies regardless of the timing of the arrival of solitary waves from the larger matrix. We explore the origins, symmetry, and energy content of the soft region and its vibrational modes.

  5. Lyapunov spectrum of granular gases.

    PubMed

    McNamara, S; Mareschal, M

    2001-06-01

    We calculate and study the Lyapunov spectrum of a granular gas maintained in a steady state by an isokinetic thermostat. Considering restitution coefficients greater than unity allows us to show that the spectra change smoothly and continuously at equilibrium. The shearing instability of the granular gas, however, provokes an abrupt change in the structure of the spectrum. The relationship between various physically relevant quantities and the energy dissipation rate differs from previously studied nonequilibrium steady states. PMID:11415091

  6. Optimized Simulation of Granular Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holladay, Seth

    Visual effects for film and animation often require simulated granular materials, such as sand, wheat, or dirt, to meet a director's needs. Simulating granular materials can be time consuming, in both computation and labor, as these particulate materials have complex behavior and an enormous amount of small-scale detail. Furthermore, a single cubic meter of granular material, where each grain is a cubic millimeter, would contain a billion granules, and simulating all such interacting granules would take an impractical amount of time for productions. This calls for a simplified model for granular materials that retains high surface detail and granular behavior yet requires significantly less computational time. Our proposed method simulates a minimal number of individual granules while retaining particulate detail on the surface by supporting surface particles with simplified interior granular models. We introduce a multi-state model where, depending on the material state of the interior granules, we replace interior granules with a simplified simulation model for the state they are in and automate the transitions between those states. The majority of simulation time can thus be focused on visible portions of the material, reducing the time spent on non-visible portions, while maintaining the appearance and behavior of the mass as a whole.

  7. Contact dynamics simulations of compacting cohesive granular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadau, Dirk; Bartels, Guido; Brendel, Lothar; Wolf, Dietrich E.

    2002-08-01

    The modelling of cohesion on the particle scale in granular matter [Vermeer et al., 2001] [1] has recently received increasing attention, because various important applications call for a microscopic foundation for the existing phenomenological continuum theories. Specifically for understanding the different behaviour of nano-powders and ordinary granular matter cohesion has to be taken into account. An example in this context is the so-called sinter-forging of nano-powders, i.e. pressure sintering at relatively low temperatures [Skandan et al., 1994] [2]. We model the corresponding compaction by the rearrangement of a large number of grains by means of contact-dynamics. For this purpose we introduce an attractive force (cohesion) as well as rolling friction between the (round) grains. The latter turns out to be crucial for the stabilization of force chains.

  8. Granular Superconductors and Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David; Koczor, Ron

    1999-01-01

    As a Bose condensate, superconductors provide novel conditions for revisiting previously proposed couplings between electromagnetism and gravity. Strong variations in Cooper pair density, large conductivity and low magnetic permeability define superconductive and degenerate condensates without the traditional density limits imposed by the Fermi energy (approx. 10(exp -6) g cu cm). Recent experiments have reported anomalous weight loss for a test mass suspended above a rotating Type II, YBCO superconductor, with a relatively high percentage change (0.05-2.1%) independent of the test mass' chemical composition and diamagnetic properties. A variation of 5 parts per 104 was reported above a stationary (non-rotating) superconductor. In experiments using a sensitive gravimeter, bulk YBCO superconductors were stably levitated in a DC magnetic field and exposed without levitation to low-field strength AC magnetic fields. Changes in observed gravity signals were measured to be less than 2 parts in 108 of the normal gravitational acceleration. Given the high sensitivity of the test, future work will examine variants on the basic magnetic behavior of granular superconductors, with particular focus on quantifying their proposed importance to gravity.

  9. Subharmonic instability of a self-organized granular jet

    PubMed Central

    Kollmer, J. E.; Pöschel, T.

    2016-01-01

    Downhill flows of granular matter colliding in the lowest point of a valley, may induce a self-organized jet. By means of a quasi two-dimensional experiment where fine grained sand flows in a vertically sinusoidally agitated cylinder, we show that the emergent jet, that is, a sheet of ejecta, does not follow the frequency of agitation but reveals subharmonic response. The order of the subharmonics is a complex function of the parameters of driving. PMID:27001207

  10. Enuresis (Bed-Wetting)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... their development. Bed-wetting is more common among boys than girls. What causes bed-wetting? A number of things ... valves in boys or in the ureter in girls or boys Abnormalities in the spinal cord A small bladder ...

  11. The shock and release properties of dry and wetted silica sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, James; Braithwaite, Christopher; Taylor, Nicholas; Jardine, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    While the shock response of dry sand has been studied at length, the Hugoniots for partially and fully wetted silicaceous granular materials are less well understood. Here, we present an extensive experimental plate impact investigation for a well characterized silica sand under dry, moist and water-saturated conditions. Particular attention is paid to cell design and sample preparation. Furthermore, we have applied our technique for measuring both shock Hugoniot and release to vacuum for granular materials, as presented previously, to the wetted systems studied.

  12. Active microrheology of driven granular particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ting; Grob, Matthias; Zippelius, Annette; Sperl, Matthias

    2014-04-01

    When pulling a particle in a driven granular fluid with constant force Fex, the probe particle approaches a steady-state average velocity v. This velocity and the corresponding friction coefficient of the probe ζ =Fex/v are obtained within a schematic model of mode-coupling theory and compared to results from event-driven simulations. For small and moderate drag forces, the model describes the simulation results successfully for both the linear as well as the nonlinear region: The linear response regime (constant friction) for small drag forces is followed by shear thinning (decreasing friction) for moderate forces. For large forces, the model demonstrates a subsequent increasing friction in qualitative agreement with the data. The square-root increase of the friction with force found in [Fiege et al., Granul. Matter 14, 247 (2012), 10.1007/s10035-011-0309-9] is explained by a simple kinetic theory.

  13. Granular structure determined by terahertz scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, Philip; Rothbart, Nick; Sperl, Matthias; Hübers, Heinz-Wilhelm

    2014-05-01

    Light scattering from particles reveals static and dynamical information about the particles and their correlations. Such methods are particularly powerful when the wavelength of the light is chosen similar to the sizes and distances of the particles. To apply scattering to investigate granular matter in particular —or other objects of similar submillimeter size— light of suitable wavelength in the terahertz regime needs to be chosen. By using a quantum cascade laser in a benchtop setup we determine the angle-dependent scattering of spherical particles as well as coffee powder and sugar grains. The scattering from single particles can be interpreted by form factors derived within the Mie theory. In addition, collective correlations can be extracted as static structure factors and compared to recent computer simulations.

  14. Elastic Granular Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    The dry granular flowmap can be broken into two broad categories, the Elastic and the Inertial. Elastic flows are dominated by force chains and stresses are generated by the compression of the interparticle contacts within those chains, and thus are proportional to the stiffness of the contacts. The Elastic zone can be subdivided into two regimes, the Elastic-Quasistatic where forces are independent of the shear rate which at high shear rates transitions to Elastic-Inertial where the particle inertia is reflected in the forces and the stresses increase linearly with the shear rate. In the Inertial regime, the stresses vary with the square of the shear rate. It also is divided into two regimes, the Dense-Inertial where the flow is dominated by clusters of particles, and the Inertial-Collisional where the flow is dominated by binary collisions. Appropriately the elastic theory grew out of an old study of landslides. But like most such studies, all of the above depend on idealized computer simulations of uniform sized spherical particles. Real particles are never round, never of uniform size, and the process of flowing changes surface properties and may even shatter the particles. But all indications are that real systems still fit into the pattern drawn out in the last paragraph. A grave problem facing the field is how to incorporate these effects without losing a fundamental understanding of the internal rheological processes. This talk will begin with an overview of the Elastic flowmap and the behaviors associated with each flow regime. It will then discuss early work to include effects of particle shape and size mixtures and perhaps some effects of particle breakage.

  15. What is soil organic matter worth?

    PubMed

    Sparling, G P; Wheeler, D; Vesely, E-T; Schipper, L A

    2006-01-01

    The conservation and restoration of soil organic matter are often advocated because of the generally beneficial effects on soil attributes for plant growth and crop production. More recently, organic matter has become important as a terrestrial sink and store for C and N. We have attempted to derive a monetary value of soil organic matter for crop production and storage functions in three contrasting New Zealand soil orders (Gley, Melanic, and Granular Soils). Soil chemical and physical characteristics of real-life examples of three pairs of matched soils with low organic matter contents (after long-term continuous cropping for vegetables or maize) or high organic matter content (continuous pasture) were used as input data for a pasture (grass-clover) production model. The differences in pasture dry matter yields (non-irrigated) were calculated for three climate scenarios (wet, dry, and average years) and the yields converted to an equivalent weight and financial value of milk solids. We also estimated the hypothetical value of the C and N sequestered during the recovery phase of the low organic matter content soils assuming trading with C and N credits. For all three soil orders, and for the three climate scenarios, pasture dry matter yields were decreased in the soils with lower organic matter contents. The extra organic matter in the high C soils was estimated to be worth NZ$27 to NZ$150 ha(-1) yr(-1) in terms of increased milk solids production. The decreased yields from the previously cropped soils were predicted to persist for 36 to 125 yr, but with declining effect as organic matter gradually recovered, giving an accumulated loss in pastoral production worth around NZ$518 to NZ$1239 ha(-1). This was 42 to 73 times lower than the hypothetical value of the organic matter as a sequestering agent for C and N, which varied between NZ$22,963 to NZ$90,849 depending on the soil, region, discount rates, and values used for carbon and nitrogen credits. PMID:16510699

  16. Silo Collapse under Granular Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutirrez, G.; Colonnello, C.; Boltenhagen, P.; Darias, J. R.; Peralta-Fabi, R.; Brau, F.; Clment, E.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate, at a laboratory scale, the collapse of cylindrical shells of radius R and thickness t induced by a granular discharge. We measure the critical filling height for which the structure fails upon discharge. We observe that the silos sustain filling heights significantly above an estimation obtained by coupling standard shell-buckling and granular stress distribution theories. Two effects contribute to stabilize the structure: (i) below the critical filling height, a dynamical stabilization due to granular wall friction prevents the localized shell-buckling modes to grow irreversibly; (ii) above the critical filling height, collapse occurs before the downward sliding motion of the whole granular column sets in, such that only a partial friction mobilization is at play. However, we notice also that the critical filling height is reduced as the grain size d increases. The importance of grain size contribution is controlled by the ratio d /?{R t }. We rationalize these antagonist effects with a novel fluid-structure theory both accounting for the actual status of granular friction at the wall and the inherent shell imperfections mediated by the grains. This theory yields new scaling predictions which are compared with the experimental results.

  17. Silo collapse under granular discharge.

    PubMed

    Gutirrez, G; Colonnello, C; Boltenhagen, P; Darias, J R; Peralta-Fabi, R; Brau, F; Clment, E

    2015-01-01

    We investigate, at a laboratory scale, the collapse of cylindrical shells of radius R and thickness t induced by a granular discharge. We measure the critical filling height for which the structure fails upon discharge. We observe that the silos sustain filling heights significantly above an estimation obtained by coupling standard shell-buckling and granular stress distribution theories. Two effects contribute to stabilize the structure: (i) below the critical filling height, a dynamical stabilization due to granular wall friction prevents the localized shell-buckling modes to grow irreversibly; (ii) above the critical filling height, collapse occurs before the downward sliding motion of the whole granular column sets in, such that only a partial friction mobilization is at play. However, we notice also that the critical filling height is reduced as the grain size d increases. The importance of grain size contribution is controlled by the ratio d/?[Rt]. We rationalize these antagonist effects with a novel fluid-structure theory both accounting for the actual status of granular friction at the wall and the inherent shell imperfections mediated by the grains. This theory yields new scaling predictions which are compared with the experimental results. PMID:25615503

  18. Dynamic granularity of imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissel, Matthias; Smith, Ian C.; Shores, Jonathon E.; Porter, John L.

    2015-11-01

    Imaging systems that include a specific source, imaging concept, geometry, and detector have unique properties such as signal-to-noise ratio, dynamic range, spatial resolution, distortions, and contrast. Some of these properties are inherently connected, particularly dynamic range and spatial resolution. It must be emphasized that spatial resolution is not a single number but must be seen in the context of dynamic range and consequently is better described by a function or distribution. We introduce the "dynamic granularity" G dyn as a standardized, objective relation between a detector's spatial resolution (granularity) and dynamic range for complex imaging systems in a given environment rather than the widely found characterization of detectors such as cameras or films by themselves. This relation can partly be explained through consideration of the signal's photon statistics, background noise, and detector sensitivity, but a comprehensive description including some unpredictable data such as dust, damages, or an unknown spectral distribution will ultimately have to be based on measurements. Measured dynamic granularities can be objectively used to assess the limits of an imaging system's performance including all contributing noise sources and to qualify the influence of alternative components within an imaging system. This article explains the construction criteria to formulate a dynamic granularity and compares measured dynamic granularities for different detectors used in the X-ray backlighting scheme employed at Sandia's Z-Backlighter facility.

  19. [Effects of processing by granular heated beds on the chemical and functional properties of legume grains].

    PubMed

    Loayza Jibaja, C; Bressani, R

    1988-03-01

    The present research compares the effect of cooking cowpea, canavalia and lupine by pressure cooking and by a granular bed roaster, on chemical and physical characteristics. The wet cooking process was carried out by pressure cooking at 121 degrees C for 30 min at 15 psi, using a bean-to-water ratio of 3 to 1. The cooked samples were dried with heated air (60 degrees C). The granular bed roasting was carried out at 200 and 250 degrees C for contact times of 2 and 2.5 minutes, at a 5 to 1 sand:bean ratio. For this process, a granular bed roaster was designed and constructed. This process induced in the grain temperatures which varied from 90-128 degrees C, and thermic efficiencies which fluctuated between 38 and 60%. The wet and the dry processes did not affect protein and fat content, although available lysine values decreased slightly. The two processes did not affect water absorption and water solubility. The nitrogen solubility index, however, decreased as roasting temperatures increased in the case of the granular bed roaster, and it also decreased in the wet-cooking procedure. Both processes affected color of the cooked flours, with a light orange color, suggesting non-enzymatic browning due to the high temperatures used. PMID:3151432

  20. Channel Formation in Granular Heaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucy, Kwan; Nhat-Hang, Duong; Shinbrot, Troy

    2003-11-01

    While the exact mechanisms that govern granular flows remain poorly understood, detailed knowledge of the complex behavior of granular materials has become increasingly recognized to be important in understanding such phenomena as landslides, sand dunes, and ice floes as well as to be relevant to industrial processes which require the transport of small solid particles. In this study, we report newly discovered liquid-like channels that can form on the surface of granular heaps under conditions that reduce particle-settling speed relative to debris flow speed. In particular, we have determined that such channels indicating continuous flow patterns can be established using several types of dry grains. Furthermore, we have evaluated the effect of particle size, particle geometry, and flow rate on the development of channels.

  1. Simulations of granular gravitational collapse.

    PubMed

    Kachuck, Samuel B; Voth, Greg A

    2013-12-01

    A freely cooling granular gas in a gravitational field undergoes a collapse to a multicontact state in a finite time. Previous theoretical [D. Volfson et al., Phys. Rev. E 73, 061305 (2006)] and experimental work [R. Son et al., Phys. Rev. E 78, 041302 (2008)] have obtained contradictory results about the rate of energy loss before the gravitational collapse. Here we use a molecular dynamics simulation in an attempt to recreate the experimental and theoretical results to resolve the discrepancy. We are able to nearly match the experimental results, and find that to reproduce the power law predicted in the theory we need a nearly elastic system with a constant coefficient of restitution greater than 0.993. For the more realistic velocity-dependent coefficient of restitution, there does not appear to be a power-law decay and the transition from granular gas to granular solid is smooth, making it difficult to define a time of collapse. PMID:24483431

  2. Hydrodynamics of vibrated granular monolayer.

    SciTech Connect

    Khain, E.; Aranson, I. S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the long-standing puzzle of phase separation in a granular monolayer vibrated from below. Although this system is three dimensional, an interesting dynamics occurs mostly in the horizontal plane, perpendicular to the direction of vibration. Experiments [Olafsen and Urbach, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 4369 (1998)] demonstrated that for a high amplitude of vibration the system is in the gaslike phase, but when the amplitude becomes smaller than a certain threshold, a phase separation occurs: A solidlike dense condensate of particles forms in the center of the system, surrounded by particles in the gaslike phase. We explain theoretically the experimentally observed coexistence of dilute and dense phases, employing Navier-Stokes granular hydrodynamics. We show that the phase separation is associated with a negative compressibility of granular gas.

  3. Granular Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    SciTech Connect

    Vinningland, Jan Ludvig; Johnsen, Oistein; Flekkoey, Eirik G.; Maaloey, Knut Joergen; Toussaint, Renaud

    2009-06-18

    A granular instability driven by gravity is studied experimentally and numerically. The instability arises as grains fall in a closed Hele-Shaw cell where a layer of dense granular material is positioned above a layer of air. The initially flat front defined by the grains subsequently develops into a pattern of falling granular fingers separated by rising bubbles of air. A transient coarsening of the front is observed right from the start by a finger merging process. The coarsening is later stabilized by new fingers growing from the center of the rising bubbles. The structures are quantified by means of Fourier analysis and quantitative agreement between experiment and computation is shown. This analysis also reveals scale invariance of the flow structures under overall change of spatial scale.

  4. Initiation of immersed granular avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutabaruka, Patrick; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Soga, Kenichi; Radjai, Farhang

    2014-05-01

    By means of coupled molecular dynamics-computational fluid dynamics simulations, we analyze the initiation of avalanches in a granular bed of spherical particles immersed in a viscous fluid and inclined above its angle of repose. In quantitative agreement with experiments, we find that the bed is unstable for a packing fraction below 0.59 but is stabilized above this packing fraction by negative excess pore pressure induced by the effect of dilatancy. From detailed numerical data, we explore the time evolution of shear strain, packing fraction, excess pore pressures, and granular microstructure in this creeplike pressure redistribution regime, and we show that they scale excellently with a characteristic time extracted from a model based on the balance of granular stresses in the presence of a negative excess pressure and its interplay with dilatancy. The cumulative shear strain at failure is found to be ?0.2, in close agreement with the experiments, irrespective of the initial packing fraction and inclination angle. Remarkably, the avalanche is triggered when dilatancy vanishes instantly as a result of fluctuations while the average dilatancy is still positive (expanding bed) with a packing fraction that declines with the initial packing fraction. Another nontrivial feature of this creeplike regime is that, in contrast to dry granular materials, the internal friction angle of the bed at failure is independent of dilatancy but depends on the inclination angle, leading therefore to a nonlinear dependence of the excess pore pressure on the inclination angle. We show that this behavior may be described in terms of the contact network anisotropy, which increases with a nearly constant connectivity and levels off at a value (critical state) that increases with the inclination angle. These features suggest that the behavior of immersed granular materials is controlled not only directly by hydrodynamic forces acting on the particles but also by the influence of the fluid on the granular microstructure.

  5. Initiation of immersed granular avalanches.

    PubMed

    Mutabaruka, Patrick; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Soga, Kenichi; Radjai, Farhang

    2014-05-01

    By means of coupled molecular dynamics-computational fluid dynamics simulations, we analyze the initiation of avalanches in a granular bed of spherical particles immersed in a viscous fluid and inclined above its angle of repose. In quantitative agreement with experiments, we find that the bed is unstable for a packing fraction below 0.59 but is stabilized above this packing fraction by negative excess pore pressure induced by the effect of dilatancy. From detailed numerical data, we explore the time evolution of shear strain, packing fraction, excess pore pressures, and granular microstructure in this creeplike pressure redistribution regime, and we show that they scale excellently with a characteristic time extracted from a model based on the balance of granular stresses in the presence of a negative excess pressure and its interplay with dilatancy. The cumulative shear strain at failure is found to be ≃ 0.2, in close agreement with the experiments, irrespective of the initial packing fraction and inclination angle. Remarkably, the avalanche is triggered when dilatancy vanishes instantly as a result of fluctuations while the average dilatancy is still positive (expanding bed) with a packing fraction that declines with the initial packing fraction. Another nontrivial feature of this creeplike regime is that, in contrast to dry granular materials, the internal friction angle of the bed at failure is independent of dilatancy but depends on the inclination angle, leading therefore to a nonlinear dependence of the excess pore pressure on the inclination angle. We show that this behavior may be described in terms of the contact network anisotropy, which increases with a nearly constant connectivity and levels off at a value (critical state) that increases with the inclination angle. These features suggest that the behavior of immersed granular materials is controlled not only directly by hydrodynamic forces acting on the particles but also by the influence of the fluid on the granular microstructure. PMID:25353783

  6. Influence of cohesive forces on the macroscopic properties of granular assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumay, Geoffroy; Fiscina, Jorge; Ludewig, Francois; Vandewalle, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    The influence of cohesive forces inside a granular material is analyzed with compaction experiments. To begin, a model cohesive granular material is considered. This granular material is made of millimetric grains with a cohesion induced by an external magnetic field. Therefore, the cohesion between the grains is adjusted through the intensity of the applied magnetic field. Afterward, the cohesion induced by capillary bridges are considered. In the first study concerning capillary forces, the cohesion between neighboring grains is induced by liquid bridges in a wet granular material. The cohesiveness is tuned using different liquids having specific surface tension values. The second study performed with capillary forces concerns initially dry granular materials surrounded by a well controlled air humidity. Then, the cohesion inside the packing is controlled through the relative humidity which influence both triboelectric and capillary effects. The evolution of the parameters extracted from the compaction curves have been analyzed as a function of the cohesiveness. All the results show that the packing fraction of a pile and the compaction dynamics is strongly sensitive to cohesive forces. Therefore, the compaction measurement is a good way to characterize a powder or a granular material for R&D and quality control in industrial applications. Finally, we show that the cohesive forces play an important role when the grain size is typically below 50μm.

  7. Microscopic origin of granular ratcheting.

    PubMed

    McNamara, S; Garca-Rojo, R; Herrmann, H J

    2008-03-01

    Numerical simulations of assemblies of grains under cyclic loading exhibit "granular ratcheting:" a small net deformation occurs with each cycle, leading to a linear accumulation of deformation with cycle number. We show that this is due to a curious property of the most frequently used models of the particle-particle interaction: namely, that the potential energy stored in contacts is path dependent. There exist closed paths that change the stored energy, even if the particles remain in contact and do not slide. An alternative method for calculating the tangential force removes granular ratcheting. PMID:18517367

  8. Peripheral granular cell odontogenic fibroma.

    PubMed

    Rinaggio, Joseph; Cleveland, Deborah; Koshy, Ranie; Gallante, Albert; Mirani, Neena

    2007-11-01

    Peripheral odontogenic fibroma is a rare lesion that arises on the gingiva and can clinically mimic a variety of reactive lesions, benign neoplasms, and metastases. We describe a symptomatic lesion arising on the mandibular gingiva of a 58-year-old female with no history of trauma or dental disease in the area. An excisional biopsy showed the lesional stroma to contain numerous polyhedral granular cells with occasional interspersed islands of inactive odontogenic epithelium. We believe this to represent the fourth case of peripheral granular cell odontogenic fibroma to be reported in detail in the literature. PMID:17223586

  9. Density waves in granular flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, H. J.; Flekky, E.; Nagel, K.; Peng, G.; Ristow, G.

    Ample experimental evidence has shown the existence of spontaneous density waves in granular material flowing through pipes or hoppers. Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations we show that several types of waves exist and find that these density fluctuations follow a 1/f spectrum. We compare this behaviour to deterministic one-dimensional traffic models. If positions and velocities are continuous variables the model shows self-organized criticality driven by the slowest car. We also present Lattice Gas and Boltzmann Lattice Models which reproduce the experimentally observed effects. Density waves are spontaneously generated when the viscosity has a nonlinear dependence on density which characterizes granular flow.

  10. Non Steady State Granular Shear Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losert, Wolfgang; Kwon, Gene

    2002-11-01

    We experimentally investigate the shear flow of granular matter in a cylindrical Couette cell. Since granular flows dissipate energy, they must be continuously driven to remain in a flowing state. Previous experiments on steady state shear flows have found that velocity gradients are confined to a thin shear band, and that the shear force is roughly independent of shear rate if the material is allowed to dilate. Our experiments in a Couette geometry focus on two related questions about non-steady state flows: 1) How does a granular shear flow start? 2) How does a granular system respond to oscillatory shear? In particular, we investigate the role of boundary conditions, which we expect to be of particular importance, since granular flows must be continuously driven (in general from a boundary) in order to be sustained. In our Couette cell a shear flow is generated by moving either the inner cylinder or the outer cylinder or both cylinders. The motion of grains on the top surface is measured directly with fast imaging and particle tracking techniques. Previous studies have indicated that the velocity profile on the top surface is very similar to the velocity profile within the bulk. Measurements of the corresponding shear forces are in progress. Initial experiments determined the steady state flow profiles under different driving conditions, with either inner, outer or both cylinders moving. In steady state, velocity gradients are confined to a roughly exponential shearband several particle diameters wide. The shear band is always located at the inner cylinder. A probable reason for this observation is the slightly smaller surface area of the inner cylinder compared to the outer cylinder. Since shear forces are transmitted from one cylinder to the other, the smaller surface area of the inner cylinder leads to larger shear stresses. Shear flow confined to regions of high stress can be reproduced in continuum mechanics models which include plastic flow, non-Newtonian fluid models, or locally Newtonian hydrodynamic models that include a strong density dependence of viscosity. Most of these models are isotropic with respect to the shear direction. However, anisotropies manifest themselves in two distinct flow transients, when rotation of one of the cylinders is started. When the cylinder had been rotated in the same direction before, the thin shear band immediately forms. When the previous motion of the cylinder had been in the opposite direction, particles far from the moving cylinder are initially more mobile. After an extra displacement of up to six particle diameters, a thin shearband forms again in steady state. The extra displacement of particles far from the shear surface does not strongly depend on the shear rate prior or after the stop, solely on the direction of prior shear. This indicates that the static configuration of grains after a shear flow exhibits anisotropies. The flow transient, at least, can then no longer be modeled with the isotropic form of the models described above. Finally, we investigate oscillatory shear flow. During small amplitude oscillations the shear flow is confined to a thin shear band. In addition, a gradual compaction and strengthening of the granular material is observed. For sufficiently large oscillation amplitudes, the flow resembles a sequence of shear reversals. In oscillatory flows driven by the outer cylinder, coexistence of shearbands at the outer and inner cylinder can be found. In summary, we have elucidated important properties of granular shear flows from non-steady state flow measurements: First, shear bands form preferentially near the inner cylinder, even when the outer cylinder is sheared. Transiently a shear band can also form near the outer cylinder during oscillatory driving. These observations should help refine models of granular shear flow. One challenge in improving models of granular shear flow is the observation that the initial flow transient contains 'memory' of the direction of previously applied shear. In order to incorporate this observation into flow models, the nature of the anisotropy requires further study. Currently we are investigating the three dimensional configuration of grains during the start of shear flow using confocal microscopy.

  11. Adsorption of methyl tertiary butyl ether on granular zeolites: Batch and column studies.

    PubMed

    Abu-Lail, Laila; Bergendahl, John A; Thompson, Robert W

    2010-06-15

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) has been shown to be readily removed from water with powdered zeolites, but the passage of water through fixed-beds of very small powdered zeolites produces high friction losses not encountered in flow through larger sized granular materials. In this study, equilibrium and kinetic adsorption of MTBE onto granular zeolites, a coconut shell granular activated carbon (CS-1240), and a commercial carbon adsorbent (CCA) sample was evaluated. In addition, the effect of natural organic matter (NOM) on MTBE adsorption was evaluated. Batch adsorption experiments determined that ZSM-5 was the most effective granular zeolite for MTBE adsorption. Further equilibrium and kinetic experiments verified that granular ZSM-5 is superior to CS-1240 and CCA in removing MTBE from water. No competitive adsorption effects between NOM and MTBE were observed for adsorption to granular ZSM-5 or CS-1240, however there was competition between NOM and MTBE for adsorption onto the CCA granules. Fixed-bed adsorption experiments for longer run times were performed using granular ZSM-5. The bed depth service time model (BDST) was used to analyze the breakthrough data. PMID:20153106

  12. Adsorption of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether on Granular Zeolites: Batch and Column Studies

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Lail, Laila; Bergendahl, John A.; Thompson, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) has been shown to be readily removed from water with powdered zeolites, but the passage of water through fixed beds of very small powdered zeolites produces high friction losses not encountered in flow through larger sized granular materials. In this study, equilibrium and kinetic adsorption of MTBE onto granular zeolites, a coconut shell granular activated carbon (CS-1240), and a commercial carbon adsorbent (CCA) sample was evaluated. In addition, the effect of natural organic matter (NOM) on MTBE adsorption was evaluated. Batch adsorption experiments determined that ZSM-5 was the most effective granular zeolite for MTBE adsorption. Further equilibrium and kinetic experiments verified that granular ZSM-5 is superior to CS-1240 and CCA in removing MTBE from water. No competitive-adsorption effects between NOM and MTBE were observed for adsorption to granular ZSM-5 or CS-1240, however there was competition between NOM and MTBE for adsorption onto the CCA granules. Fixed-bed adsorption experiments for longer run times were performed using granular ZSM-5. The bed depth service time model (BDST) was used to analyze the breakthrough data. PMID:20153106

  13. Dynamic granularity of imaging systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Geissel, Matthias; Smith, Ian C.; Shores, Jonathon E.; Porter, John L.

    2015-11-04

    Imaging systems that include a specific source, imaging concept, geometry, and detector have unique properties such as signal-to-noise ratio, dynamic range, spatial resolution, distortions, and contrast. Some of these properties are inherently connected, particularly dynamic range and spatial resolution. It must be emphasized that spatial resolution is not a single number but must be seen in the context of dynamic range and consequently is better described by a function or distribution. We introduce the “dynamic granularity” Gdyn as a standardized, objective relation between a detector’s spatial resolution (granularity) and dynamic range for complex imaging systems in a given environment rathermore » than the widely found characterization of detectors such as cameras or films by themselves. We found that this relation can partly be explained through consideration of the signal’s photon statistics, background noise, and detector sensitivity, but a comprehensive description including some unpredictable data such as dust, damages, or an unknown spectral distribution will ultimately have to be based on measurements. Measured dynamic granularities can be objectively used to assess the limits of an imaging system’s performance including all contributing noise sources and to qualify the influence of alternative components within an imaging system. Our article explains the construction criteria to formulate a dynamic granularity and compares measured dynamic granularities for different detectors used in the X-ray backlighting scheme employed at Sandia’s Z-Backlighter facility.« less

  14. Micromechanical aspects of granular ratcheting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Marroqun, Fernando; Galindo-Torres, Sergio-Andres; Wang, Yucang

    2009-06-01

    The existence of granular ratcheting as a long-time behavior in granular materials is still under discussion in the scientific and engineering community. This behavior refers to the constant accumulation of permanent deformation per cycle, when the granular sample is subjected to loading-unloading stress cycles with amplitudes well bellow the yield limit. Ratcheting regimes are observed in both numerical and physical experiments. There is no controversy about the existence of ratcheting when the stress amplitudes reach the yield criterion. However, it is not clear whether this effect persists for loading amplitudes well bellow the yield limit, or whether there is a certain regime where no accumulation of deformation occurs. Early numerical simulations suggested that ratcheting may persist for extremely small loading amplitudes (Alonso-Marroquin and H. J. Herrmann, Rev. Lett. 92 5 (2004) 054301). More recent investigations drive to the conclusion that ratcheting at low stress amplitudes may be strongly influenced by the selection of the contact force (McNamara et al.. Phys. Rev. E 77 (3) (2008) 31304). Here we present a numerical investigation of the dependence of granular ratcheting on contact force in a packing of spheres using the Cundall-Strack model and the McNamara correction to the contact force. We conclude that ratcheting for spherical particles is strongly influenced by the McNamara correction. The question of the existence of genuine ratcheting for small cycles for non-spherical particles is still unsolved.

  15. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Astronauts Jim Reilly and Bornie Dunbar are going through the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment procedures as they are expected to run in flight; to gain experience with the experiment equipment and to test the clarity and language of the procedures as written.

  16. Dynamic granularity of imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Geissel, Matthias; Smith, Ian C.; Shores, Jonathon E.; Porter, John L.

    2015-11-04

    Imaging systems that include a specific source, imaging concept, geometry, and detector have unique properties such as signal-to-noise ratio, dynamic range, spatial resolution, distortions, and contrast. Some of these properties are inherently connected, particularly dynamic range and spatial resolution. It must be emphasized that spatial resolution is not a single number but must be seen in the context of dynamic range and consequently is better described by a function or distribution. We introduce the “dynamic granularity” Gdyn as a standardized, objective relation between a detector’s spatial resolution (granularity) and dynamic range for complex imaging systems in a given environment rather than the widely found characterization of detectors such as cameras or films by themselves. We found that this relation can partly be explained through consideration of the signal’s photon statistics, background noise, and detector sensitivity, but a comprehensive description including some unpredictable data such as dust, damages, or an unknown spectral distribution will ultimately have to be based on measurements. Measured dynamic granularities can be objectively used to assess the limits of an imaging system’s performance including all contributing noise sources and to qualify the influence of alternative components within an imaging system. Our article explains the construction criteria to formulate a dynamic granularity and compares measured dynamic granularities for different detectors used in the X-ray backlighting scheme employed at Sandia’s Z-Backlighter facility.

  17. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alshibli, Khalid A.; Costes, Nicholas C.; Porter, Ronald F.

    1996-01-01

    The constitutive behavior of uncemented granular materials such as strength, stiffness, and localization of deformations are to a large extend derived from interparticle friction transmitted between solid particles and particle groups. Interparticle forces are highly dependent on gravitational body forces. At very low effective confining pressures, the true nature of the Mohr envelope, which defines the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion for soils, as well as the relative contribution of each of non-frictional components to soil's shear strength cannot be evaluated in terrestrial laboratories. Because of the impossibility of eliminating gravitational body forces on earth, the weight of soil grains develops interparticle compressive stresses which mask true soil constitutive behavior even in the smallest samples of models. Therefore the microgravity environment induced by near-earth orbits of spacecraft provides unique experimental opportunities for testing theories related to the mechanical behavior of terrestrial granular materials. Such materials may include cohesionless soils, industrial powders, crushed coal, etc. This paper will describe the microgravity experiment, 'Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM)', scheduled to be flown on Space Shuttle-MIR missions. The paper will describe the experiment's hardware, instrumentation, specimen preparation procedures, testing procedures in flight, as well as a brief summary of the post-mission analysis. It is expected that the experimental results will significantly improve the understanding of the behavior of granular materials under very low effective stress levels.

  18. Computer simulation of gravity-driven granular flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd, John Jan

    2009-12-01

    We develop and use three-dimensional event-driven molecular dynamics simulations of dry gravity-driven granular flow. Our system is comprised of mono- and poly-disperse sets of spherical grains falling down a vertical chute under the influence of gravity. We observe three phases or states of granular matter: a free-fall dilute granular gas region at the top of the chute, a granular fluid in the middle and then a glassy region at the bottom. We investigate collision time distributions as one approaches the static limit of steady-state flow of dry granular matter. The collision times fall in a power-law distribution with an exponent dictated by whether the grains are ordered or disordered. Remarkably, the exponents have almost no dependence on dimension. We are also able to resolve a disagreement between simulation and experiments on the exponent of the collision time power-law distribution. We also investigate velocity fluctuations in dry granular flow. We find three different classes of velocity distributions depending on factors such as the local density. The class of the velocity distribution depends on whether the grains are in a free-fall, fluid or glassy state. The analytic form of the distributions match those that have been found by other authors in fairly diverse systems. Here, we have all three present in a single system in steady-state. Power-law tails that match recent experiments are also found but in a transition area suggesting they may be an artifact of crossover from one class of velocity distribution to another. We find evidence that the transition from one class to another may correspond to a second order dynamical phase transition in the limit that the vertical flow speed goes to zero. Finally, we investigate constitutive relations in dry granular flow. We examine local stresses, heat flow, and dissipation in an three phases of our system. We find a complete closed set of constitutive relations capable of describing the system in the different regions and test several proposed constitutive relations in the fluid and glassy regions. Similar to static sand piles, we find that stresses in the glassy region are almost entirely determined by directions along which collisions occur. We show that the static sand pile is the static limit of our glassy state. We also examine the strain rate and viscosity dependence on the granular temperature. While finding regimes consistent with experiments, we find that these quantifies do not exhibit a universal power-law relationship. However we do find a universal power-law relationship between the shear stress and the shear rate in the glassy region, and likewise between viscosity and shear rate in the glassy region. We show that there is a yield stress associated with our glassy system and we demonstrate the stress and energy balance in the different regions of our system. We show that Fourier's law for heat flow is obeyed in the glassy region, however care must be taken in separating energy and heat flow. In the glassy region the conductivity is equal to the volume fraction times the mean collision frequency. In the fluid region the thermal conductivity has an exponential dependence on the granular temperature. We finally close our relations by deriving an expression for the mean collision frequency in terms of the pressure and granular temperature.

  19. Order - disorder transitions in granular sphere packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panaitescu, Andreea M.

    Granular materials are ubiquitous in many industrial and natural processes, yet their complex behaviors characterized by unusual static and dynamic properties are still poorly understood. In this dissertation we investigate both the geometrical structure and the dynamical properties (the response to shear deformations, disorder-order transition and crystallization) of packings of mono-sized spheres as a function of the packing volume fraction. Different average packing fractions were obtained by submitting a dense granular material to periodic shear deformations and by epitaxy. Using advanced imaging techniques including the refractive index matched imaging (RIM) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) enables us to determine the three dimensional particles position inside the packing. From positions we obtain the Voronoi tessellation corresponding to the particles in the bulk and calculate the radial distribution and the bond-order metric. These two parameters are widely used to quantify the structure of the spherical particle systems. A granular packing undergoing periodic shear deformations is observed to slowly evolve towards crystallization and the packing fraction is correspondingly observed to increase smoothly from loose packing fraction, 0.59, well above the random close packing fraction, 0.637. Tracking the particles over several shear cycles allows us to obtain the probability distributions of particle displacements and the mean-square displacements and to compute the components of the diffusion tensor. We find that in a shear flow, the initial self-diffusion of the particles is anisotropic with diffusion greater in the flow direction compared with the velocity gradient direction which in turn is greater than in the vorticity direction. We further find that the granular matter under cyclic shear shows reversible as well as irreversible or plastic response for small enough strain amplitude. The appearance and the propagation of the crystalline order were studied using the orientational order metric. By following the evolution of the nucleating crystallites, we identified critical nuclei, determined their size and symmetry, and measured the average surface free energy. The structure of the nuclei was found to be random hexagonal close-packed, their average shape was non-spherical and they were oriented preferentially along the shear axis. When the packing volume fraction approaches a value close to the random close packing, crystallites with face centered cubic (fcc) order are observed with increasing probability, and ordered domains grow rapidly. A polycrystalline phase with domains of fcc and hcp order is obtained after hundreds of thousands of shear cycles. Depositing spheres on a substrate under the influence of gravity gives rise to a wide range of volume fractions and packing structures by simply controlling the nature of the substrate, the deposition rate and the energy of the particles. We analyzed the structures formed and investigate the development of the disordered phases as a function of the deposition rate. Furthermore, by comparing these structures with packings obtained by cyclic shear we showed that the structure of a granular packing depends strongly on the protocol used.

  20. Particle deposition in granular media: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Tien, Chi

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses topics on particle deposition in granular media. The six topics discussed are: experimental determination of initial collection efficiency in granular beds - an assessment of the effect of instrument sensitivity and the extent of particle bounce-off; deposition of polydispersed aerosols in granular media; in situ observation of aerosol deposition in a two-dimensional model filter; solid velocity in cross-flow granular moving bed; aerosol deposition in granular moving bed; and aerosol deposition in a magnetically stabilized fluidized bed. (LSP)

  1. Armoring a droplet: Soft jamming of a dense granular interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagubeau, Guillaume; Rescaglio, Antonella; Melo, Francisco

    2014-09-01

    Droplets and bubbles protected by armors of particles have found vast applications in encapsulation, stabilization of emulsions and foams, or flotation processes. The liquid phase stores capillary energy, while concurrently the solid contacts of the granular network induce friction and energy dissipation, leading to hybrid interfaces of combined properties. By means of nonintrusive tensiometric methods and structural measurements, we distinguish three surface phases of increasing rigidity during the evaporation of armored droplets. The emergence of surface rigidity is reminiscent of jamming of granular matter, but it occurs differently since it is marked by a step by step hardening under surface compression. These results show that the concept of the effective surface tension remains useful only below the first jamming transition. Beyond this point, the surface stresses become anisotropic.

  2. Reduction of bromate by granular activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Kirisits, M.J.; Snoeyink, V.L.; Kruithof, J.C.

    1998-07-01

    Ozonation of waters containing bromide can lead to the formation of bromate, a probable human carcinogen. Since bromate will be regulated at 10 {micro}g/L by the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection By-Products Rule, there is considerable interest in finding a suitable method of bromate reduction. Granular activated carbon (GAC) can be used to chemically reduce bromate to bromide, but interference from organic matter and anions present in natural water render this process inefficient. In an effort to improve bromate reduction by GAC, several modifications were made to the GAC filtration process. The use of a biologically active carbon (BAC) filter ahead of a fresh GAC filter with and without preozonation, to remove the biodegradable organic matter, did not substantially improve the bromate removal of the GAC filter. The use of the BAC filter for biological bromate reduction proved to be the most encouraging experiment. By lowering the dissolved oxygen in the influent to the BAC from 8.0 mg/L to 2.0 mg/L, the percent bromate removal increased from 42% to 61%.

  3. Wet solids flow enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Caram, H.S.; Agrawal, D.K.; Foster, N.

    1997-07-01

    The objective was to visualize the flow of granular materials in the silo using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. This was done by introducing traces. Mustard seeds and poppy seeds were used as trace particles. The region sampled was a cylinder 25 mm in diameter and 40 mm in length. Eight slices containing 128 by 128 to 256 by 256 pixels were generated for each image.

  4. HYPERELASTIC MODELS FOR GRANULAR MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Humrickhouse, Paul W; Corradini, Michael L

    2009-01-29

    A continuum framework for modeling of dust mobilization and transport, and the behavior of granular systems in general, has been reviewed, developed and evaluated for reactor design applications. The large quantities of micron-sized particles expected in the international fusion reactor design, ITER, will accumulate into piles and layers on surfaces, which are large relative to the individual particle size; thus, particle-particle, rather than particle-surface, interactions will determine the behavior of the material in bulk, and a continuum approach is necessary and justified in treating the phenomena of interest; e.g., particle resuspension and transport. The various constitutive relations that characterize these solid particle interactions in dense granular flows have been discussed previously, but prior to mobilization their behavior is not even fluid. Even in the absence of adhesive forces between particles, dust or sand piles can exist in static equilibrium under gravity and other forces, e.g., fluid shear. Their behavior is understood to be elastic, though not linear. The recent “granular elasticity” theory proposes a non-linear elastic model based on “Hertz contacts” between particles; the theory identifies the Coulomb yield condition as a requirement for thermodynamic stability, and has successfully reproduced experimental results for stress distributions in sand piles. The granular elasticity theory is developed and implemented in a stand- alone model and then implemented as part of a finite element model, ABAQUS, to determine the stress distributions in dust piles subjected to shear by a fluid flow. We identify yield with the onset of mobilization, and establish, for a given dust pile and flow geometry, the threshold pressure (force) conditions on the surface due to flow required to initiate it. While the granular elasticity theory applies strictly to cohesionless granular materials, attractive forces are clearly important in the interaction of micron-sized particles; extension of the theory to account for these effects is also considered. A set of continuum models are proposed for use in the future dust transport modeling.

  5. Stop and restart of granular clock in a vibrated compartmentalized bidisperse granular system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi-Yi; Hu, Mao-Bin; Jiang, Rui; Wu, Yong-Hong

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies a bidisperse granular mixture consisting of two species of stainless steel spheres in a vertically vibrated compartmentalized container. The experiments show that with proper vibration acceleration, the granular clock stops when horizontal segregation of the large spheres residing in the far end from the barrier wall occurs. When the segregation is broken, the granular clock restarts. We present the phase diagrams of vibration acceleration versus container width and small particle number, which exhibits three different regions, namely, clustering state, stop-restart of the granular clock, and the granular clock. A generalized flux model is proposed to reproduce the phenomenon of stop and restart of the granular clock. PMID:23410472

  6. Very, Very Fast Wetting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacqmin, David; Lee, Chi-Ming (Technical Monitor); Salzman, Jack (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Just after formation, optical fibers are wetted stably with acrylate at capillary numbers routinely exceeding 1000. It is hypothesized that this is possible because of dissolution of air into the liquid coating. A lubrication/boundary integral analysis that includes gas diffusion and solubility is developed. It is applied using conservatively estimated solubility and diffusivity coefficients and solutions are found that are consistent with industry practice and with the hypothesis. The results also agree with the claim of Deneka, Kar & Mensah (1988) that the use of high solubility gases to bathe a wetting line allows significantly greater wetting speeds. The solutions indicate a maximum speed of wetting which increases with gas solubility and with reduction in wetting-channel diameter.

  7. Dynamic compaction of granular materials

    PubMed Central

    Favrie, N.; Gavrilyuk, S.

    2013-01-01

    An Eulerian hyperbolic multiphase flow model for dynamic and irreversible compaction of granular materials is constructed. The reversible model is first constructed on the basis of the classical Hertz theory. The irreversible model is then derived in accordance with the following two basic principles. First, the entropy inequality is satisfied by the model. Second, the corresponding ‘intergranular stress’ coming from elastic energy owing to contact between grains decreases in time (the granular media behave as Maxwell-type materials). The irreversible model admits an equilibrium state corresponding to von Mises-type yield limit. The yield limit depends on the volume fraction of the solid. The sound velocity at the yield surface is smaller than that in the reversible model. The last one is smaller than the sound velocity in the irreversible model. Such an embedded model structure assures a thermodynamically correct formulation of the model of granular materials. The model is validated on quasi-static experiments on loading–unloading cycles. The experimentally observed hysteresis phenomena were numerically confirmed with a good accuracy by the proposed model. PMID:24353466

  8. Instability in shocked granular gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirmas, Nick; Radulescu, Matei

    2013-11-01

    Shocks in granular media, such as vertically oscillated beds, have been shown to develop instabilities. Similar jet formation has been observed in explosively dispersed granular media. In the current study, we investigate the origin of this instability. Our previous work addresses this instability by performing discrete-particle simulations of inelastic media undergoing shock compression. By allowing finite dissipation within the shock wave, instability manifests itself as distinctive high density non-uniformities and convective rolls within the shock structure. By analyzing the time evolution of the material undergoing the shock wave compression and further relaxation, we found that the clustering instability is the dominant mechanism controlling this instability. In the present study we extend this work to investigate the instability at the continuum level. We model the Euler equations for granular gases with a modified cooling rate to include an impact velocity threshold necessary for inelastic collisions. Our results demonstrate a fair agreement between the continuum and discrete-particle models. Slight discrepancies, such as higher frequency non-uniformities in our continuum results may be attributed to the absence of viscous effects.

  9. Kinetics of reactive wetting

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, F.G.

    2000-04-14

    The importance of interfacial processes in materials joining has a long history. A significant amount of work has suggested that processes collateral to wetting can affect the extent of wetting and moderate or retard wetting rate. Even very small additions of a constituent, known to react with the substrate, cause pronounced improvement in wetting and are exploited in braze alloys, especially those used for joining to ceramics. In the following a model will be constructed for the wetting kinetics of a small droplet of metal containing a constituent that diffuses to the wetting line and chemically reacts with a flat, smooth substrate. The model is similar to that of Voitovitch et al. and Mortensen et al. but incorporates chemical reaction kinetics such that the result contains both diffusion and reaction kinetics. The model is constructed in the circular cylinder coordinate system, satisfies the diffusion equation under conditions of slow flow, and considers diffusion and reaction at the wetting line to be processes in series. This is done by solving the diffusion equation with proper initial and boundary conditions, computing the diffusive flux at the wetting line, and equating this to both the convective flux and reaction flux. This procedure is similar to equating the current flowing in components of a series circuit. The wetting rate will be computed versus time for a variety of diffusion and reaction conditions. A transition is observed from nonlinear (diffusive) to linear (reactive) behavior as the control parameters (such as the diffusion coefficient) are modified. This is in agreement with experimental observations. The adequacy of the slow flow condition, used in this type of analysis, is discussed and an amended procedure is suggested.

  10. Impact induced splash and spill in a quasi-confided granular medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogale, S. B.

    2005-03-01

    Dissipation of the energy of impact in a granular medium and its effects has been a subject of considerable scientific for quite some time. In this work we have explored and analyzed the splash and spill effects caused by the impact of a ball dropped from a height into a granular medium in a open container. Three different granular media, namely rice, mustard seeds, and cream of wheat were used. The amount of spilled-over granular matter was measured as a function of the ball-drop height. Digital pictures of the splash process were also recorded. The quantity of spilled granular matter varies linearly with the impact energy. However additional step like structures are also noted. Specifically, a distinct and large jump is seen in the spilled quantity at a specific impact energy in the case of mustard seeds, which also exhibit obvious charging effects and repulsion. Although the parameters such as mass per grain and packing density for the case of mustard seeds are intermediate between those for rice and cream of wheat, the spill quantity for comparable impact energy is considerably higher. These data will be presented and discussed.

  11. Granular cell ameloblastic fibroma, ultrastructure and histogenesis.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Y

    1986-04-01

    A case of peripheral granular cell ameloblastic fibroma arising in the right upper premolar gingiva in a 34-year-old Japanese woman is reported. Ultrastructural examination revealed a clear separation of granular cells and epithelial component, and indicated granular cells were derived from mesenchymal cells, probably fibroblasts. Direct communication between the overlying gingival epithelium and the epithelial component of the tumor was found. It is postulated that residual ectomesenchymal influence may be responsible for proliferation of both epithelial and mesenchymal components which subsequently are transformed into granular cells. PMID:3083023

  12. FNA of thyroid granular cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Harp, Eric; Caraway, Nancy P

    2013-09-01

    Granular cell tumor rarely occurs in the thyroid. This case report describes the cytologic features of a granular cell tumor seen in a fine needle aspirate obtained from a 27-year-old woman with a gradually enlarging thyroid nodule. The aspirate showed single as well as syncytial clusters of cells with abundant granular cytoplasm. The differential diagnosis in this case included granular cell tumor, Hurthle cell lesion/neoplasm, and a histiocytic reparative process. Immunohistochemical studies, including S-100 protein and CD68, performed on a cell block preparation were helpful in supporting the diagnosis. PMID:22508678

  13. Robophysical study of jumping dynamics on granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Jeffrey; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2016-03-01

    Characterizing forces on deformable objects intruding into sand and soil requires understanding the solid- and fluid-like responses of such substrates and their effect on the state of the object. The most detailed studies of intrusion in dry granular media have revealed that interactions of fixed-shape objects during free impact (for example, cannonballs) and forced slow penetration can be described by hydrostatic- and hydrodynamic-like forces. Here we investigate a new class of granular interactions: rapid intrusions by objects that change shape (self-deform) through passive and active means. Systematic studies of a simple spring-mass robot jumping on dry granular media reveal that jumping performance is explained by an interplay of nonlinear frictional and hydrodynamic drag as well as induced added mass (unaccounted by traditional intrusion models) characterized by a rapidly solidified region of grains accelerated by the foot. A model incorporating these dynamics reveals that added mass degrades the performance of certain self-deformations owing to a shift in optimal timing during push-off. Our systematic robophysical experiment reveals both new soft-matter physics and principles for robotic self-deformation and control, which together provide principles of movement in deformable terrestrial environments.

  14. Capturing nonlocal effects in 2D granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamrin, Ken; Koval, Georg

    2013-03-01

    There is an industrial need, and a scientific desire, to produce a continuum model that can predict the flow of dense granular matter in an arbitrary geometry. A viscoplastic continuum approach, developed over recent years, has shown some ability to approximate steady flow and stress profiles in multiple inhomogeneous flow environments. However, the model incorrectly represents phenomena observed in the slow, creeping flow regime. As normalized flow-rate decreases, granular stresses are observed to become largely rate-independent and a dominating length-scale emerges in the mechanics. This talk attempts to account for these effects, in the simplified case of 2D, using the notion of nonlocal fluidity, which has proven successful in treating nonlocal effects in emulsions. The idea is to augment the local granular fluidity law with a diffusive second-order term scaled by the particle size, which spreads flowing zones accordingly. Below the yield stress, the local contribution vanishes and the fluidity becomes rate-independent, as we require. We implement the modified law in multiple geometries and validate its flow and stress predictions in multiple geometries compared against discrete particle simulations. In so doing, we demonstrate that the nonlocal relation proposed is satisfied universally in a seemingly geometry-independent fashion.

  15. Marginal Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hecke, Martin

    2013-03-01

    All around us, things are falling apart. The foam on our cappuccinos appears solid, but gentle stirring irreversibly changes its shape. Skin, a biological fiber network, is firm when you pinch it, but soft under light touch. Sand mimics a solid when we walk on the beach but a liquid when we pour it out of our shoes. Crucially, a marginal point separates the rigid or jammed state from the mechanical vacuum (freely flowing) state - at their marginal points, soft materials are neither solid nor liquid. Here I will show how the marginal point gives birth to a third sector of soft matter physics: intrinsically nonlinear mechanics. I will illustrate this with shock waves in weakly compressed granular media, the nonlinear rheology of foams, and the nonlinear mechanics of weakly connected elastic networks.

  16. Dynamics of Sheared Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondic, Lou; Utter, Brian; Behringer, Robert P.

    2002-01-01

    This work focuses on the properties of sheared granular materials near the jamming transition. The project currently involves two aspects. The first of these is an experiment that is a prototype for a planned ISS (International Space Station) flight. The second is discrete element simulations (DES) that can give insight into the behavior one might expect in a reduced-g environment. The experimental arrangement consists of an annular channel that contains the granular material. One surface, say the upper surface, rotates so as to shear the material contained in the annulus. The lower surface controls the mean density/mean stress on the sample through an actuator or other control system. A novel feature under development is the ability to 'thermalize' the layer, i.e. create a larger amount of random motion in the material, by using the actuating system to provide vibrations as well control the mean volume of the annulus. The stress states of the system are determined by transducers on the non-rotating wall. These measure both shear and normal components of the stress on different size scales. Here, the idea is to characterize the system as the density varies through values spanning dense almost solid to relatively mobile granular states. This transition regime encompasses the regime usually thought of as the glass transition, and/or the jamming transition. Motivation for this experiment springs from ideas of a granular glass transition, a related jamming transition, and from recent experiments. In particular, we note recent experiments carried out by our group to characterize this type of transition and also to demonstrate/ characterize fluctuations in slowly sheared systems. These experiments give key insights into what one might expect in near-zero g. In particular, they show that the compressibility of granular systems diverges at a transition or critical point. It is this divergence, coupled to gravity, that makes it extremely difficult if not impossible to characterize the transition region in an earth-bound experiment. In the DE modeling, we analyze dynamics of a sheared granular system in Couette geometry in two (2D) and three (3D) space dimensions. Here, the idea is to both better understand what we might encounter in a reduced-g environment, and at a deeper level to deduce the physics of sheared systems in a density regime that has not been addressed by past experiments or simulations. One aspect of the simulations addresses sheared 2D system in zero-g environment. For low volume fractions, the expected dynamics of this type of system is relatively well understood. However, as the volume fraction is increased, the system undergoes a phase transition, as explained above. The DES concentrate on the evolution of the system as the solid volume fraction is slowly increased, and in particular on the behavior of very dense systems. For these configurations, the simulations show that polydispersity of the sheared particles is a crucial factor that determines the system response. Figures 1 and 2 below, that present the total force on each grain, show that even relatively small (10 %) nonuniformity of the size of the grains (expected in typical experiments) may lead to significant modifications of the system properties, such as velocity profiles, temperature, force propagation, and formation shear bands. The simulations are extended in a few other directions, in order to provide additional insight to the experimental system analyzed above. In one direction, both gravity, and driving due to vibrations are included. These simulations allow for predictions on the driving regime that is required in the experiments in order to analyze the jamming transition. Furthermore, direct comparison of experiments and DES will allow for verification of the modeling assumptions. We have also extended our modeling efforts to 3D. The (preliminary) results of these simulations of an annular system in zero-g environment will conclude the presentation.

  17. Experimental quantification of a granular crater induced by a liquid-to-granular impact using a 3D scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyser, Emmanuel; Abellan, Antonio; Carrea, Dario; Rudaz, Benjamin; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Granular impacts have been extensively studied but much remains to be investigated regarding the complex topic of liquid-to-granular impact. Its applications to Geosciences are of interest regarding recent advances in the investigation of the raindrop erosion or the sediment flux. In our study, we focus on the quantification of both the excavated and deposited volumes resulting from a water-droplet impact onto a fine granular. The quantification of the existing relationships between the impact energy, the packing fraction and the excavated volume is also of interest. Indeed, the relationship between the packing fraction and the excavated volume has still to be investigated for constant impact energy (fixed height of fall and droplet size). Moreover, the volume distribution of the granular matter around the impact target has still to be achieved regarding the previous studies. Much of the previous work was focused on the ejected particles distribution but less is known about the volume distribution of the ejected mass. In this study, we have developed a specific methodology in order to investigate these two topics, as follows: a) First of all, we carried out experimental investigations in laboratory on a setup inspired by the previous works of Long et al. (2014) and Furbish et al. (2007). Granular samples were prepared using a compaction device in order to produce various packing fractions. Pre- and post-impact surface geometries were recorded using a high precision 3D scanner (KONICA MINOLTA VIVID 9i). This provided an accurate point cloud of the impact crater and ejecta deposits. b) Afterwards, we processed each point cloud pairs using different softwares (PolyWorks & MATLAB). We used an accurate change detection method by computing orthogonal distance from points (post-geometry) to reference meshed surface (pre-geometry) to extract the points belonging to deposits (positive distance) or crater (negative distance). Then, we used the computational geometry toolbox provided by MATLAB to compute the excavated and deposited volumes. Results show that both excavated and deposited volumes seem to be dependent on the packing fraction (e.g the higher the packing the lower the volume) for a constant impact energy. The radial volume distribution is more likely to be a Burr XII distribution rather than an exponential distribution. Following our experimental results, numerical modeling for the cratering process has yet to be established coupling different numerical methods (Computational Fluid Dynamic and Discrete Element Method) in order to reproduce similar volume distribution. Such numerical methods are promising techniques for further simulations of liquid-to-granular impact.

  18. Where the Granular Flows Bend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomenko, E.; Martnez Pillet, V.; Solanki, S. K.; del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Gandorfer, A.; Bonet, J. A.; Domingo, V.; Schmidt, W.; Barthol, P.; Knlker, M.

    2010-11-01

    Based on IMaX/SUNRISE data, we report on a previously undetected phenomenon in solar granulation. We show that in a very narrow region separating granules and intergranular lanes, the spectral line width of the Fe I 5250.2 line becomes extremely small. We offer an explanation of this observation with the help of magneto-convection simulations. These regions with extremely small line widths correspond to the places where the granular flows bend from upflow in granules to downflow in intergranular lanes. We show that the resolution and image stability achieved by IMaX/SUNRISE are important requisites to detect this interesting phenomenon.

  19. Thermoelectric performance of granular semiconductors.

    SciTech Connect

    Glatz, A.; Beloborodov, I. S.; Materials Science Division; California State Univ.

    2009-01-01

    We study the effects of doping and confinement on the thermoelectric properties of nanocrystalline semiconductors. We calculate the thermopower and figure of merit for temperatures less than the charging energy. For weakly coupled semiconducting grains it is shown that the figure of merit is optimized for grain sizes of order 5 nm for typical materials, and that its value can be larger than one. Using the similarities between granular semiconductors and electron or Coulomb glasses allows for a quantitative description of inhomogeneous semiconducting thermoelectrics.

  20. Rheology of confined granular flows

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, Patrick; Valance, Alexandre; Metayer, Jean-Francois; Crassous, Jerome; Delannay, Renaud; Louge, Michel

    2010-05-05

    The properties of confined granular flows on a heap are studied through numerical simulations and experiments. We address how such system can be simulated with period boundaries in the flow direction. The packing fraction and velocity profiles are found to be described by one length scale. The dependence of the kinematic properties on the number of grains and on micromechanical parameters (coefficient of restitution and coefficient of friction) is described. Our results show that the friction at the sidewalls gradually decreases and that this decrease can be explained by the intermittent motion of the grains in the quasistatic part of the flow.

  1. Three-dimensional (3D) experimental realization and observation of a granular gas in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harth, Kirsten; Trittel, Torsten; May, Kathrin; Wegner, Sandra; Stannarius, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Experiments with granular gases do not only provide statistical information on multi-particle systems undergoing random dissipative interactions, they may also help to test predictions of numerical simulations and to gain understanding of the self-organization of dilute granular matter to clusters and stable assemblies. We shortly review an experiment under zero gravity conditions on different platforms. Implementations on a sounding rocket flight, parabolic flights and drop tower shots are analyzed. We evaluate general experimental requirements, judge the appropriateness of the different platforms, and present quantitative results.

  2. Collective workload organization in confined excavation of granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaenkova, Daria; Linevich, Vadim; Goodisman, Michael A.; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2015-03-01

    Many social insects collectively construct large nests in complex substrates; such structures are often composed of narrow tunnels. The benefits of collective construction, including reduced construction costs per worker come with challenges of navigation in crowded, confined spaces. Here we study the workforce organization of groups of S. invicta fire ants creating tunnels in wet granular media. We monitor the activity levels of marked (painted) workers-defined as a number of tunnel visits over 12 hours- during initiation of tunnels. The activity levels are described by a Lorenz curve with a Gini coefficient of ~ 0 . 7 indicating that a majority of the excavation is performed by a minority of workers. We hypothesize that this workload distribution is beneficial for excavation in crowded conditions, and use a 2D cellular automata (CA) model to reproduce behaviors of the excavating ants. CA simulations reveal that tunnel construction rates decrease in groups of equally active animals compared to groups with the natural workload distribution. We use predictions of the CA model to organize collective excavation of granular material by teams of digging robots, and use the robots to test hypotheses of crowded excavation in the physical world. We acknowledge support of National Science Foundation, Physics of Living Systems division.

  3. Impact of Wettability on Fracturing of Nano-Granular Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trojer, M.; Juanes, R.

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, is a well-known reservoir stimulation technique, by which the permeability of the near-wellbore region is enhanced through the creation of tensile fractures within the rock, formed in the direction perpendicular to the least principal stress. While it is well known that fracturing of granular media strongly depends on the type of media, the pore fluids, and the fracking fluids, the interplay between multiphase flow, wettability and fracture mechanics of shale-like (nano-granular) materials remains poorly understood. Here, we study experimentally the dynamics of multiphase-flow fracking in nano-porous media and its dependence on the wetting properties of the system. The experiments consist in saturating a thin bed of glass beads with a viscous fluid, injecting a less viscous fluid, and imaging the invasion morphology. We investigate three control parameters: the injection rate of the less-viscous invading phase, the confining stress, and the contact angle, which we control by altering the surface chemistry of the beads and the Hele-Shaw cell. We quantify the dynamic fracture pattern by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV), and elucidate the role of wettability on the emerging flow physics at the length scale of the viscous-frictional instability.

  4. Filamentous bacteria existence in aerobic granular reactors.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, M; Val del Ro, A; Campos, J L; Mndez, R; Mosquera-Corral, A

    2015-05-01

    Filamentous bacteria are associated to biomass settling problems in wastewater treatment plants. In systems based on aerobic granular biomass they have been proposed to contribute to the initial biomass aggregation process. However, their development on mature aerobic granular systems has not been sufficiently studied. In the present research work, filamentous bacteria were studied for the first time after long-term operation (up to 300days) of aerobic granular systems. Chloroflexi and Sphaerotilus natans have been observed in a reactor fed with synthetic wastewater. These filamentous bacteria could only come from the inoculated sludge. Thiothrix and Chloroflexi bacteria were observed in aerobic granular biomass treating wastewater from a fish canning industry. Meganema perideroedes was detected in a reactor treating wastewater from a plant processing marine products. As a conclusion, the source of filamentous bacteria in these mature aerobic granular systems fed with industrial effluents was the incoming wastewater. PMID:25533039

  5. Compaction Waves in Granular HMX

    SciTech Connect

    E. Kober; R. Menikoff

    1999-01-01

    Piston driven compaction waves in granular HMX are simulated with a two-dimensional continuum mechanics code in which individual grains are resolved. The constitutive properties of the grains are modeled with a hydrostatic pressure and a simple elastic-plastic model for the shear stress. Parameters are chosen to correspond to inert HMX. For a tightly packed random grain distribution (with initial porosity of 19%) we varied the piston velocity to obtain weak partly compacted waves and stronger fully compacted waves. The average stress and wave speed are compatible with the porous Hugoniot locus for uni- axial strain. However, the heterogeneities give rise to stress concentrations, which lead to localized plastic flow. For weak waves, plastic deformation is the dominant dissipative mechanism and leads to dispersed waves that spread out in time. In addition to dispersion, the granular heterogeneities give rise to subgrain spatial variation in the thermodynamic variables. The peaks in the temperature fluctuations, known as hot spots, are in the range such that they are the critical factor for initiation sensitivity.

  6. Extensional Rheology of Granular Staples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Scott

    2013-03-01

    Collections of U-shaped granular materials (e.g. staples) show a surprising resistance to being pulled apart. We conduct extensional stress-strain experiments on staple piles with vary arm/spine (barb) ratio. The elongation is not smooth, with the pile growing in bursts, reminiscent of intruder motion through ordinary and rod-like granular materials. The force-distance curve shows a power-law scaling, consistent with previous intruder experiments. Surprisingly, there is significant plastic creep of the pile as particles rearrange slightly in response to the increasing force. There is a broad distribution of yield forces that does not seem to evolve as the pile lengthens, suggesting that each yield event is independent of the pile's history. The distribution of yield forces can be interpreted in the context of a Weibullian weakest-link theory that predicts the maximum pile strength to decrease sharply with increasing pile length. From this interpretation arise length and force scales that may be used to characterize the sample. This research supported in part by the NSF (CBET-#1133722) and ACS-PRF (#51438-UR10).

  7. Centrifuge modelling of granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Wu, Wei

    2015-04-01

    A common characteristic of mass flows like debris flows, rock avalanches and mudflows is that gravity is their main driving force. Gravity defines the intensity and duration of the main interactions between particles and their surrounding media (particle-particle, particle-fluid, fluid-fluid). At the same time, gravity delimits the occurrence of phase separation, inverse segregation, and mass consolidation, among other phenomena. Therefore, in the understanding of the flow physics it is important to account for the scaling of gravity in scaled models. In this research, a centrifuge model is developed to model free surface granular flows down an incline at controlled gravity conditions. Gravity is controlled by the action of an induced inertial acceleration field resulting from the rotation of the model in a geotechnical centrifuge. The characteristics of the induced inertial acceleration field during flow are discussed and validated via experimental data. Flow heights, velocity fields, basal pressure and impact forces are measured for a range of channel inclinations and gravity conditions. Preliminary results enlighten the flow characteristics at variable gravity conditions and open a discussion on the simulation of large scale processes at a laboratory scale. Further analysis on the flow physics brings valuable information for the validation of granular flows rheology.

  8. Granular filtration in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, J.S.; Yue, P.C.

    1996-12-31

    Successful development of advanced coal-fired power conversion system often requires reliable and efficient cleanup devices that can remove particulate and gaseous pollutants from high-temperature, high- pressure gas streams. A novel filtration concept for particulate cleanup has been developed at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The filtration system consists of a fine metal screen filter immersed in a fluidized bed of granular material. As the gas stream passes through the fluidized bed, a layer of the bed granular material is entrained and deposited at the screen surface. This material provides a natural granular filter to separate fine particles from the gas stream passing through the bed. Since the filtering media is the granular material supplied by the fluidized bed, the filter is not subjected to blinding like candle filters. Because only the in-flowing gas, not fine particle cohesive forces, maintains the granular layer at the screen surface, once the thickness and permeability of the granular layer are stabilized, it remains unchanged as long as the in-flowing gas flow rate remains constant. The weight of the particles and the turbulent nature of the fluidized bed limits the thickness of the granular layer on the filter leading to a self-cleaning attribute of the filter. The granular filtration testing system consisted of a filter, a two-dimensional fluidized bed, a continuous powder feeder, a laser-based, in-line particle counting, sizing, and velocimeter (PCSV), and a continuous solid feeding/bed material withdrawal system. The two-dimensional, transparent fluidized bed allowed clear observation of the general fluidized state of the granular material and the conditions under which fines are captured by the granular layer.

  9. Wet storage integrity update

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    This report includes information from various studies performed under the Wet Storage Task of the Spent Fuel Integrity Project of the Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. An overview of recent developments in the technology of wet storage of spent water reactor fuel is presented. Licensee Event Reports pertaining to spent fuel pools and the associated performance of spent fuel and storage components during wet storage are discussed. The current status of fuel that was examined under the CSFM Program is described. Assessments of the effect of boric acid in spent fuel pool water on the corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel and the stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel piping containing stagnant water at spent fuel pools are discussed. A list of pertinent publications is included. 84 references, 21 figures, 11 tables.

  10. Rapid wetting dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Andreas; Bellani, Gabriele; Amberg, Gustav

    2010-11-01

    Contact lines between solids and liquid or gas interfaces appear in very many instances of fluid flows. This could be coffee stains, water-oil mixtures in oil recovery, hydrophobic feet of insects or leaves in nature. In the present work we elucidate some of the wetting physics governing the very rapid wetting. Experimental and numerical results of spontaneously spreading droplets are presented, where focus is directed towards understanding the very rapid flow regime and highly dynamic initial wetting phase, where the contact line speed is limited by dissipative processes on a molecular scale occurring at the contact line. In particular we show the influence of the surface wettability and the liquid viscosity on the spreading dynamics, such as the contact line motion and dynamic contact angle in time.

  11. Shear viscosity of a model for confined granular media.

    PubMed

    Soto, Rodrigo; Risso, Dino; Brito, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    The shear viscosity in the dilute regime of a model for confined granular matter is studied by simulations and kinetic theory. The model consists on projecting into two dimensions the motion of vibrofluidized granular matter in shallow boxes by modifying the collision rule: besides the restitution coefficient that accounts for the energy dissipation, there is a separation velocity that is added in each collision in the normal direction. The two mechanisms balance on average, producing stationary homogeneous states. Molecular dynamics simulations show that in the steady state the distribution function departs from a Maxwellian, with cumulants that remain small in the whole range of inelasticities. The shear viscosity normalized with stationary temperature presents a clear dependence with the inelasticity, taking smaller values compared to the elastic case. A Boltzmann-like equation is built and analyzed using linear response theory. It is found that the predictions show an excellent agreement with the simulations when the correct stationary distribution is used but a Maxwellian approximation fails in predicting the inelasticity dependence of the viscosity. These results confirm that transport coefficients depend strongly on the mechanisms that drive them to stationary states. PMID:25615082

  12. Role of defects in the onset of wall-induced granular convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortini, Andrea; Huang, Kai

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the onset of wall-induced convection in vertically vibrated granular matter by means of experiments and two-dimensional computer simulations. In both simulations and experiments we find that the wall-induced convection occurs inside the bouncing bed region of the parameter space, in which the granular bed behaves like a bouncing ball. A good agreement between experiments and simulations is found for the peak vibration acceleration at which convection starts. By comparing the results of simulations initialized with and without defects, we find that the onset of convection occurs at lower vibration strengths in the presence of defects. Furthermore, we find that the convection of granular particles initialized in a perfect hexagonal lattice is related to the nucleation of defects and the process is described by an Arrhenius law.

  13. BOOK REVIEW: Kinetic Theory of Granular Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trizac, Emmanuel

    2005-11-01

    Granular gases are composed of macroscopic bodies kept in motion by an external energy source such as a violent shaking. The behaviour of such systems is quantitatively different from that of ordinary molecular gases: due to the size of the constituents, external fields have a stronger effect on the dynamics and, more importantly, the kinetic energy of the gas is no longer a conserved quantity. The key role of the inelasticity of collisions has been correctly appreciated for about fifteen years, and the ensuing consequences in terms of phase behaviour or transport properties studied in an increasing and now vast body of literature. The purpose of this book is to help the newcomer to the field in acquiring the essential theoretical tools together with some numerical techniques. As emphasized by the authors—who were among the pioneers in the domain— the content could be covered in a one semester course for advanced undergraduates, or it could be incorporated in a more general course dealing with the statistical mechanics of dissipative systems. The book is self-contained, clear, and avoids mathematical complications. In order to elucidate the main physical ideas, heuristic points of views are sometimes preferred to a more rigorous route that would lead to a longer discussion. The 28 chapters are short; they offer exercises and worked examples, solved at the end of the book. Each part is supplemented with a relevant foreword and a useful summary including take-home messages. The editorial work is of good quality, with very few typographical errors. In spite of the title, kinetic theory stricto sensu is not the crux of the matter covered. The authors discuss the consequences of the molecular chaos assumption both at the individual particle level and in terms of collective behaviour. The first part of the book addresses the mechanics of grain collisions. It is emphasized that considering the coefficient of restitution ɛ —a central quantity governing the inelasticity of inter-grain encounters—as velocity independent is inconsistent with the mechanical point of view. An asymptotic expression for the impact velocity dependence of ɛ is therefore derived for visco-elastic spheres. The important inelastic Boltzmann equation is introduced in part II and the associated velocity distribution characterized for a force-free medium (so-called free cooling regime). Transport processes can then be analyzed in part III at the single particle level, and part IV from a more macroscopic viewpoint. The corresponding Chapman Enskog-like hydrodynamic approach is worked out in detail, in a clear fashion. Finally, the tendency of granular gases to develop instabilities is illustrated in part V where the hydrodynamic picture plays a pivotal role. This book clearly sets the stage. For the sake of simplicity, the authors have discarded some subtle points, such as the open questions underlying the hydrodynamic description (why include the temperature among the hydrodynamic modes, and what about the separation of space and time scales between kinetic and hydrodynamic excitations?). Such omissions are understandable. To a certain extent however, the scope of the book is centered on previous work by the authors, and I have a few regrets. Special emphasis is put on the (variable ɛ) visco-elastic model, which enhances the technical difficulty of the presentation. On the other hand, the important physical effects including scaling laws, hydrodynamic behaviour and structure formation, can be understood in two steps, from the results derived within the much simpler constant ɛ model, allowing subsequently \\varepsilon to depend on the granular temperature. The authors justify their choice with the inconsistency of the constant ɛ route. The improvements brought by the visco-elastic model remain to be assessed, since the rotational degrees of freedom, discarded in the book, play an important role and require due consideration of both tangential and normal restitution coefficients, that are again velocity dependent. This seems to be the price of a consistent approach, which does not lend itself to much insight. In addition, the behaviour of driven systems is not addressed, whereas in the realm of granular media, force-free systems are the exception rather than the rule. The differences between constant ɛ and visco-elastic models is presumably less pronounced in the driven case. Study of driven systems also reveals that the rheology of granular gases is intrinsically non-Newtonian, which is a key feature. Finally, the powerful direct simulation Monte Carlo technique is not described, whereas it is an important tool, particularly relevant for the physics of the Boltzmann equation, and straightforward to implement in its simplest version. N Brilliantov and T Pöschel concentrate on the (equally relevant) molecular dynamics method instead. In conclusion, the book fills a gap in the field. The companion webpage from where molecular dynamics and symbolic algebra programs can be downloaded is also useful.

  14. Numerical Simulations of Granular Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Derek C.; Michel, Patrick; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Ballouz, Ronald-Louis; Yu, Yang; Matsumura, Soko

    2014-11-01

    Spacecraft images and indirect observations including thermal inertia measurements indicate most small bodies have surface regolith. Evidence of granular flow is also apparent in the images. This material motion occurs in very low gravity, therefore in a completely different gravitational environment than on the Earth. Understanding and modeling these motions can aid in the interpretation of imaged surface features that may exhibit signatures of constituent material properties. Also, upcoming sample-return missions to small bodies, and possible future manned missions, will involve interaction with the surface regolith, so it is important to develop tools to predict the surface response. We have added new capabilities to the parallelized N-body gravity tree code pkdgrav [1,2] that permit the simulation of granular dynamics, including multi-contact physics and friction forces, using the soft-sphere discrete-element method [3]. The numerical approach has been validated through comparison with laboratory experiments (e.g., [3,4]). Ongoing and recently completed projects include: impacts into granular materials using different projectile shapes [5]; possible tidal resurfacing of asteroid Apophis during its 2029 encounter [6]; the Brazil-nut effect in low gravity [7]; and avalanche modeling.Acknowledgements: DCR acknowledges NASA (grants NNX08AM39G, NNX10AQ01G, NNX12AG29G) and NSF (AST1009579). PM acknowledges the French agency CNES. SRS works on the NEOShield Project funded under the European Commission’s FP7 program agreement No. 282703. SM acknowledges support from the Center for Theory and Computation at U Maryland and the Dundee Fellowship at U Dundee. Most simulations were performed using the YORP cluster in the Dept. of Astronomy at U Maryland and on the Deepthought High-Performance Computing Cluster at U Maryland.References: [1] Richardson, D.C. et al. 2000, Icarus 143, 45; [2] Stadel, J. 2001, Ph.D. Thesis, U Washington; [3] Schwartz, S.R. et al. 2012, Gran. Matt. 14, 363. [4] Schwartz, S.R. et al. 2013, Icarus 226, 67; [5] Schwartz, S.R. et al. 2014, P&SS, 10.1016/j.pss.2014.07.013; [6] Yu, Y. et al. 2014, Icarus, 10.1016/j.icarus.2014.07.027; [7] Matsumura, S. et al. 2014, MNRAS, 10.1093/mnras/stu1388.

  15. Granular filtration in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, J.S.; Yue, P.C.; Halow, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    Successful development of advanced coal-fired power conversion systems often require reliable and efficient cleanup devices which can remove particulate and gaseous pollutants from high-temperature high-pressure gas stream. A novel filtration concept for particulate cleanup has been developed at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the U.S. Department of Energy. The filtration system consists of a fine metal screen filter immersed in a fluidized bed of granular material. As the gas stream passes through the fluidized bed, a layer of the bed granular material is entrained and deposited at the screen surface. This material provides a natural granular filter to separate fine particles from the gas stream passing through the bed. Since the filtering media is the granular material supplied by the fluidized bed, the filter is not subjected to blinding like candle filters. Because only the in-flowing gas, not fine particle cohesive forces, maintains the granular layer at the screen surface, once the thickness and permeability of the granular layer is stabilized, it remains unchanged as long as the in-flowing gas flow rate remains constant. The weight of the particles and the turbulent nature of the fluidized bed limits the thickness of the granular layer on the filter leading to a self-cleaning attribute of the filter. Batch mode filtration performance of the filter was first reported at the Ninth Annual Coal-Fueled Heat Engines, Advanced Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion, and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting.

  16. Bed wetting at home

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have your child take an active part in cleaning up from the bed wetting (such as helping to strip the bed and put the sheets in the laundry). Reward your child for dry nights. Some families use a chart or diary ...

  17. Wetting transparency of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiee, Javad; Mi, Xi; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Thomas, Abhay V.; Yavari, Fazel; Shi, Yunfeng; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Koratkar, Nikhil A.

    2012-03-01

    We report that graphene coatings do not significantly disrupt the intrinsic wetting behaviour of surfaces for which surface-water interactions are dominated by van der Waals forces. Our contact angle measurements indicate that a graphene monolayer is wetting-transparent to copper, gold or silicon, but not glass, for which the wettability is dominated by short-range chemical bonding. With increasing number of graphene layers, the contact angle of water on copper gradually transitions towards the bulk graphite value, which is reached for ~6 graphene layers. Molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical predictions confirm our measurements and indicate that graphenes wetting transparency is related to its extreme thinness. We also show a 30-40% increase in condensation heat transfer on copper, as a result of the ability of the graphene coating to suppress copper oxidation without disrupting the intrinsic wettability of the surface. Such an ability to independently tune the properties of surfaces without disrupting their wetting response could have important implications in the design of conducting, conformal and impermeable surface coatings.

  18. Wetting transparency of graphene.

    PubMed

    Rafiee, Javad; Mi, Xi; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Thomas, Abhay V; Yavari, Fazel; Shi, Yunfeng; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Koratkar, Nikhil A

    2012-03-01

    We report that graphene coatings do not significantly disrupt the intrinsic wetting behaviour of surfaces for which surface-water interactions are dominated by vanderWaals forces. Our contact angle measurements indicate that a graphene monolayer is wetting-transparent to copper, gold or silicon, but not glass, for which the wettability is dominated by short-range chemical bonding. With increasing number of graphene layers, the contact angle of water on copper gradually transitions towards the bulk graphite value, which is reached for ~6 graphene layers. Molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical predictions confirm our measurements and indicate that graphene's wetting transparency is related to its extreme thinness. We also show a 30-40% increase in condensation heat transfer on copper, as a result of the ability of the graphene coating to suppress copper oxidation without disrupting the intrinsic wettability of the surface. Such an ability to independently tune the properties of surfaces without disrupting their wetting response could have important implications in the design of conducting, conformal and impermeable surface coatings. PMID:22266468

  19. Wet and Wild Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    This guide uses a thematic approach to show the integration of subjects (reading, mathematics, language arts, science/fine arts) and skills to create a context for learning. The contents of this guide are presented in a holistic format. There are six major topics in the guide, each with subtopics: (1) "Getting Your Feet Wet--An Introduction to

  20. Aerofractures in Confined Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksen, Fredrik K.; Turkaya, Semih; Toussaint, Renaud; Måløy, Knut J.; Flekkøy, Eirik G.

    2015-04-01

    We will present the optical analysis of experimental aerofractures in confined granular media. The study of this generic process may have applications in industries involving hydraulic fracturing of tight rocks, safe construction of dams, tunnels and mines, and in earth science where phenomena such as mud volcanoes and sand injectites are results of subsurface sediment displacements driven by fluid overpressure. It is also interesting to increase the understanding the flow instability itself, and how the fluid flow impacts the solid surrounding fractures and in the rest of the sample. Such processes where previously studied numerically [Niebling 2012a, Niebling 2012b] or in circular geometries. We will here explore experimentally linear geometries. We study the fracturing patterns that form when air flows into a dense, non-cohesive porous medium confined in a Hele-Shaw cell - i.e. into a packing of dry 80 micron beads placed between two glass plates separated by ~1mm. The cell is rectangular and fitted with a semi-permeable boundary to the atmosphere - blocking beads but not air - on one short edge, while the other three edges are impermeable. The porous medium is packed inside the cell between the semi-permeable boundary and an empty volume at the sealed side where the air pressure can be set and kept at a constant overpressure (1-2bar). Thus, for the air trapped inside the cell to release the overpressure it has to move through the solid. At high enough overpressures the air flow deforms the solid and increase permeability in some regions along the air-solid interface, which results in unstable flow and aerofracturing. Aerofractures are thought to be an analogue to hydrofractures, and an advantage of performing aerofracturing experiments in a Hele-Shaw cell is that the fracturing process can easily be observed in the lab. Our experiments are recorded with a high speed camera with a framerate of 1000 frames per second. In the analysis, by using various image processing techniques, we segment out and study the aerofractures over time looking at growth dynamics, fractal dimension and characteristics such as average finger thickness as function of depth into the solid. Also, by performing image correlation on two subsequent frames we estimate displacement fields and investigate the surrounding stress and strain fields in the solid around the fractures. Several experiments are performed with various overpressures and packing densities, and we compare the results. In a directly related project, acoustic emissions are recorded on a cell plate during experiments, and one of our goals is to correlate acoustic events and observations. We will also compare the dependence of the patterns on the saturation of the initial deformable porous material, by comparing experiments performed by air injection in air saturated granular media, to some in liquid saturated granular media. References: MJ Niebling, R Toussaint, EG Flekkøy, KJ Måløy, 2012, Dynamic aerofracture of dense granular packings, 2012, Physical Review E 86 (6), 061315 M Niebling, R Toussaint, EG Flekkøy, KJ Måløy, 2012, Numerical studies of aerofractures in porous media, Revista Cubana de Fisica 29 (1E), pp. 1E66-1E70

  1. Quantitative DEM of granular packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodu, Nicolas; Dijksman, Joshua; Behringer, Robert

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a new model for simulating granular assemblies. This model explicitely accounts for the cross-influence of multiple contacts on grains. It maintains the surface deformations of the grains induced by the contacts, improving on the classical non-deformable interpenetrable spheres model, for a reasonable computational cost. We show that both multiple contacts and surface deformations are necessary for reproducing quantitatively the 3D force measurements we recently demonstrated. We also show that friction has a dramatic effect on the forces and number of contacts, so it cannot be ignored even for very small values. This work was funded by NASA grant NNX10AU01G, NSF grant DMR12-06351 and ARO grant W911NF-1-11-0110.

  2. Fracture surfaces of granular pastes.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Abdelhaye, Y O; Chaouche, M; Van Damme, H

    2013-11-01

    Granular pastes are dense dispersions of non-colloidal grains in a simple or a complex fluid. Typical examples are the coating, gluing or sealing mortars used in building applications. We study the cohesive rupture of thick mortar layers in a simple pulling test where the paste is initially confined between two flat surfaces. After hardening, the morphology of the fracture surfaces was investigated, using either the box counting method to analyze fracture profiles perpendicular to the mean fracture plane, or the slit-island method to analyze the islands obtained by cutting the fracture surfaces at different heights, parallel to the mean fracture plane. The fracture surfaces were shown to exhibit scaling properties over several decades. However, contrary to what has been observed in the brittle or ductile fracture of solid materials, the islands were shown to be mass fractals. This was related to the extensive plastic flow involved in the fracture process. PMID:24241751

  3. Granular filtration in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, J.S.; Yue, P.C.; Halow, J.S.

    1995-12-01

    Successful development of advanced coal-fired power conversion systems often require reliable and efficient cleanup devices which can remove particulate and gaseous pollutants from high-temperature high-pressure gas streams. A novel filtration concept for particulate cleanup has been developed at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the U.S. Department of Energy. The filtration system consists of a fine metal screen filter immersed in a fluidized bed of granular material. As the gas stream passes through the fluidized bed, a layer of the bed granular material is entrained and deposited at the screen surface. This material provides a natural granular filter to separate fine particles from the gas stream passing through the bed. Since the filtering media is the granular material supplied by the fluidized bed, the filter is not subjected to blinding like candle filters. Because only the inflowing gas, not fine particle cohesive forces, maintains the granular layer at the screen surface, once the thickness and permeability of the granular layer is stabilized, it remains unchanged as long as the in-flowing gas flow rate remains constant. The weight of the particles and the turbulent nature of the fluidized bed limits the thickness of the granular layer on the filter leading to a self-cleaning attribute of the filter. This paper presents work since then on a continuous filtration system. The continuous filtration testing system consisted of a filter, a two-dimensional fluidized-bed, a continuous powder feeder, a laser-based in-line particle counting, sizing, and velocimeter (PCSV), and a continuous solids feeding/bed material withdrawal system. The two-dimensional, transparent fluidized-bed allowed clear observation of the general fluidized state of the granular material and the conditions under which fines are captured by the granular layer.

  4. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  5. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  6. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  7. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  8. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  9. Self-diffusion of wet particles in rotating drums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P. Y.; Yang, R. Y.; Yu, A. B.

    2013-06-01

    Axial mixing of wet particles in rotating drums was investigated by the discrete element method with the capillary force explicitly considered. Different flow regimes were observed by varying the surface tension of liquid and keeping other conditions unchanged. The analysis of the concentration and mean square displacement of particles indicated that the axial motion of wet particles was a diffusive process characterised by Fick's law. Particle diffusivity decreased with increasing inter-particle cohesion and drum filling level but increased with increasing drum rotation speed. Two competing mechanisms were proposed to explain these effects. A theoretical model based on the relation between local diffusivity and shear rate was developed to predict particle diffusivity as a function of drum operation conditions. It was also observed that despite the high inhomogeneity of particle flow in rotating drums, the mean diffusivity of flow exhibited a strong correlation with granular temperature, defined as the mean square fluctuating velocity of particles.

  10. Continuum description of avalanches in granular media.

    SciTech Connect

    Aranson, I. S.; Tsimring, L. S.

    2000-12-05

    A continuum theory of partially fluidized granular flows is proposed. The theory is based on a combination of the mass and momentum conservation equations with the order parameter equation which describes the transition between flowing and static components of the granular system. We apply this model to the dynamics of avalanches in chutes. The theory provides a quantitative description of recent observations of granular flows on rough inclined planes (Daerr and Douady 1999): layer bistability, and the transition from triangular avalanches propagating downhill at small inclination angles to balloon-shaped avalanches also propagating uphill for larger angles.

  11. Impact compaction of a granular material

    SciTech Connect

    Fenton, Gregg; Asay, Blaine; Dalton, Devon

    2015-05-19

    The dynamic behavior of granular materials has importance to a variety of engineering applications. Structural seismic coupling, planetary science, and earth penetration mechanics, are just a few of the application areas. Although the mechanical behavior of granular materials of various types have been studied extensively for several decades, the dynamic behavior of such materials remains poorly understood. High-quality experimental data are needed to improve our general understanding of granular material compaction physics. This study will describe how an instrumented plunger impact system can be used to measure pressure-density relationships for model materials at high and controlled strain rates and subsequently used for computational modeling.

  12. Granular activated algae for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Tiron, O; Bumbac, C; Patroescu, I V; Badescu, V R; Postolache, C

    2015-01-01

    The study used activated algae granules for low-strength wastewater treatment in sequential batch mode. Each treatment cycle was conducted within 24 h in a bioreactor exposed to 235 μmol/m²/s light intensity. Wastewater treatment was performed mostly in aerobic conditions, oxygen being provided by microalgae. High removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was achieved (86-98%) in the first hours of the reaction phase, during which the indicator's removal rate was 17.4 ± 3.9 mg O₂/g h; NH(4)(+) was removed during organic matter degradation processes with a rate of 1.8 ± 0.6 mg/g h. After almost complete COD removal, the (O⁺) remaining in the liquor was removed through nitrification processes promoted by the increase of the liquor's oxygen saturation (O₂%), the transformation rate of NH4(+) into NO(3)(-) increasing from 0.14 ± 0.05 to 1.5 ± 0.4 mg NH4(+)/g h, along with an O₂% increase. A wide removal efficiency was achieved in the case of PO(4)(3)(-) (11-85%), with the indicator's removal rate being 1.3 ± 0.7 mg/g h. In the provided optimum conditions, the occurrence of the denitrifying activity was also noticed. A large pH variation was registered (5-8.5) during treatment cycles. The granular activated algae system proved to be a promising alternative for wastewater treatment as it also sustains cost-efficient microalgae harvesting, with microalgae recovery efficiency ranging between 99.85 and 99.99% after granules settling with a velocity of 19 ± 3.6 m/h. PMID:25812091

  13. Recent bright gully deposits on Mars: Wet or dry flow?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pelletier, J.D.; Kolb, K.J.; McEwen, A.S.; Kirk, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    Bright gully sediments attributed to liquid water flow have been deposited on Mars within the past several years. To test the liquid water flow hypothesis, we constructed a high-resolution (1 m/pixel) photogrammetric digital elevation model of a crater in the Centauri Montes region, where a bright gully deposit formed between 2001 and 2005. We conducted one-dimensional (1-D) and 2-D numerical flow modeling to test whether the deposit morphology is most consistent with liquid water or dry granular How. Liquid water flow models that incorporate freezing can match the runout distance of the flow for certain freezing rates but fail to reconstruct the distributary lobe morphology of the distal end of the deposit. Dry granular flow models can match both the observed runout distance and the distal morphology. Wet debris flows with high sediment concentrations are also consistent with the observed morphology because their rheologies are often similar to that of dry granular flows. As such, the presence of liquid water in this flow event cannot be ruled out, but the available evidence is consistent with dry landsliding. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  14. NMR Measurements of Granular Flow and Compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Eiichi

    1998-03-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can be used to measure statistical distributions of granular flow velocity and fluctuations of velocity, as well as spatial distributions of particulate concentration, flow velocity, its fluctuations, and other parameters that may be derived from these. All measurements have been of protons in liquid-containing particles such as mustard seeds or pharmaceutical pills. Our favorite geometry has been the slowly rotating partially filled rotating drum with granular flow taking place along the free surface of the particles. All the above-mentioned parameters have been studied as well as a spatial distribution of particulate diffusion coefficients, energy dissipation due to collisions, as well as segregation of non-uniform mixtures of granular material. Finally, we describe some motions of granular material under periodic vibrations.

  15. Acoustical properties of double porosity granular materials.

    PubMed

    Venegas, Rodolfo; Umnova, Olga

    2011-11-01

    Granular materials have been conventionally used for acoustic treatment due to their sound absorptive and sound insulating properties. An emerging field is the study of the acoustical properties of multiscale porous materials. An example of these is a granular material in which the particles are porous. In this paper, analytical and hybrid analytical-numerical models describing the acoustical properties of these materials are introduced. Image processing techniques have been employed to estimate characteristic dimensions of the materials. The model predictions are compared with measurements on expanded perlite and activated carbon showing satisfactory agreement. It is concluded that a double porosity granular material exhibits greater low-frequency sound absorption at reduced weight compared to a solid-grain granular material with similar mesoscopic characteristics. PMID:22087905

  16. Clinical Trials for Wet AMD

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Browse: Home / Research / Clinical Trials For Wet AMD Clinical Trials For Wet AMD Listen Clinical trials are the final research phase before a ... is testing in humans through a succession of clinical trials. Research on treatments starts in the laboratory ...

  17. Shear dispersion in dense granular flows

    SciTech Connect

    Christov, Ivan C.; Stone, Howard A.

    2014-04-18

    We formulate and solve a model problem of dispersion of dense granular materials in rapid shear flow down an incline. The effective dispersivity of the depth-averaged concentration of the dispersing powder is shown to vary as the Pclet number squared, as in classical TaylorAris dispersion of molecular solutes. An extension to generic shear profiles is presented, and possible applications to industrial and geological granular flows are noted.

  18. Shear dispersion in dense granular flows

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Christov, Ivan C.; Stone, Howard A.

    2014-04-18

    We formulate and solve a model problem of dispersion of dense granular materials in rapid shear flow down an incline. The effective dispersivity of the depth-averaged concentration of the dispersing powder is shown to vary as the Péclet number squared, as in classical Taylor–Aris dispersion of molecular solutes. An extension to generic shear profiles is presented, and possible applications to industrial and geological granular flows are noted.

  19. PPCPs removal by aerobic granular sludge membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xia; Chen, Zhong-Lin; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Shen, Ji-Min; Xu, Hao

    2014-12-01

    An aerobic granular sludge membrane bioreactor (GMBR) was applied to the treatment of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) wastewater. The influence of granular sludge on five antibiotic and antiphlogistic PPCPs wastewater and the removal effect of methyl alcohol and conventional organic matter were investigated while constantly reducing the density of inflow organic matter. The results showed that the sludge granulation process in the system was rapid but unstable, and that the system exhibits a dissolution-reunion dynamic equilibrium. The reactor demonstrated varying removal effects of PPCPs on different objects. The use of a GMBR was more effective for the removal of prednisolone, naproxen, and ibuprofen; the first two drugs were lower the average removal rate of which reached 98.46 and 84.02 %, respectively; whereas the average removal rate of ibuprofen was 63.32 %. By contrast, the GMBR has an insignificant degradation effect on antibiotics such as amoxicillin, indicating that such antibiotic medicine is not easily degraded by microorganisms, which plays different roles in system operation. Because of the different chemical structures and characteristics of drugs that result in various degradation behavior. During the GMBR granulation process, the value of mixed liquor volatility suspended solids (MLVSS) gradually increases from 1.5 to 4.1 g/L during the GMBR granulation process, and the removal rate of CODCr reaches up to 87.98 %. After reducing the density of organic matter is reduced, the removal rates of NH3-N and TP both reach more than 90 %, respectively. Moreover, the proposed technique is considerably effective in the removal of methanol. PMID:25038925

  20. Wet chemistry instrument prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A wet chemistry instrument prototype for detecting amino acids in planetary soil samples was developed. The importance of amino acids and their condensation products to the development of life forms is explained. The characteristics of the instrument and the tests which were conducted to determine the materials compatibility are described. Diagrams are provided to show the construction of the instrument. Data obtained from the performance tests are reported.

  1. Wetting of porous solids.

    PubMed

    Patkar, Saket; Chaudhuri, Parag

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a simple, three stage method to simulate the mechanics of wetting of porous solid objects, like sponges and cloth, when they interact with a fluid. In the first stage, we model the absorption of fluid by the object when it comes in contact with the fluid. In the second stage, we model the transport of absorbed fluid inside the object, due to diffusion, as a flow in a deforming, unstructured mesh. The fluid diffuses within the object depending on saturation of its various parts and other body forces. Finally, in the third stage, oversaturated parts of the object shed extra fluid by dripping. The simulation model is motivated by the physics of imbibition of fluids into porous solids in the presence of gravity. It is phenomenologically capable of simulating wicking and imbibition, dripping, surface flows over wet media, material weakening, and volume expansion due to wetting. The model is inherently mass conserving and works for both thin 2D objects like cloth and for 3D volumetric objects like sponges. It is also designed to be computationally efficient and can be easily added to existing cloth, soft body, and fluid simulation pipelines. PMID:23846102

  2. Wetting of Porous Solids.

    PubMed

    Patkar, Saket; Chaudhuri, Parag

    2013-01-10

    This paper presents a simple, three stage method to simulate the mechanics of wetting of porous solid objects, like sponges and cloth, when they interact with a fluid. In the first stage, we model the absorption of fluid by the object when it comes in contact with the fluid. In the second stage, we model the transport of absorbed fluid inside the object, due to diffusion, as a flow in a deforming, unstructured mesh. The fluid diffuses within the object depending on saturation of its various parts and other body forces. Finally, in the third stage, over-saturated parts of the object shed extra fluid by dripping. The simulation model is motivated by the physics of imbibition of fluids into porous solids in the presence of gravity. It is phenomenologically capable of simulating wicking and imbibition, dripping, surface flows over wet media, material weakening and volume expansion due to wetting. The model is inherently mass conserving and works for both thin 2D objects like cloth and for 3D volumetric objects like sponges. It is also designed to be computationally efficient and can be easily added to existing cloth, soft body and fluid simulation pipelines. PMID:23319518

  3. Slope streaks on Mars: A new wet mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreslavsky, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.

    2009-06-01

    Slope steaks are one of the most intriguing modern phenomena observed on Mars. They have been mostly interpreted as some specific type of granular flow. We propose another mechanism for slope streak formation on Mars. It involves natural seasonal formation of a modest amount of highly concentrated chloride brines within a seasonal thermal skin, and runaway propagation of percolation fronts. Given the current state of knowledge of temperature regimes and the composition and structure of the surface layer in the slope streak regions, this mechanism is consistent with the observational constraints; it requires an assumption that a significant part of the observed chlorine to be in form of calcium and ferric chloride, and a small part of the observed hydrogen to be in form of water ice. This "wet" mechanism has a number of appealing advantages in comparison to the widely accepted "dry" granular flow mechanism. Potential tests for the "wet" mechanism include better modeling of the temperature regime and observations of the seasonality of streak formation.

  4. Contact micromechanics in granular media with clay

    SciTech Connect

    Ita, S.L.

    1994-08-01

    Many granular materials, including sedimentary rocks and soils, contain clay particles in the pores, grain contacts, or matrix. The amount and location of the clays and fluids can influence the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the granular material. This research investigated the mechanical effects of clay at grain-to-grain contacts in the presence of different fluids. Laboratory seismic wave propagation tests were conducted at ultrasonic frequencies using spherical glass beads coated with Montmorillonite clay (SWy-1) onto which different fluids were adsorbed. For all bead samples, seismic velocity increased and attenuation decreased as the contact stiffnesses increased with increasing stress demonstrating that grain contacts control seismic transmission in poorly consolidated and unconsolidated granular material. Coating the beads with clay added stiffness and introduced viscosity to the mechanical contact properties that increased the velocity and attenuation of the propagating seismic wave. Clay-fluid interactions were studied by allowing the clay coating to absorb water, ethyl alcohol, and hexadecane. Increasing water amounts initially increased seismic attenuation due to clay swelling at the contacts. Attenuation decreased for higher water amounts where the clay exceeded the plastic limit and was forced from the contact areas into the surrounding open pore space during sample consolidation. This work investigates how clay located at grain contacts affects the micromechanical, particularly seismic, behavior of granular materials. The need for this work is shown by a review of the effects of clays on seismic wave propagation, laboratory measurements of attenuation in granular media, and proposed mechanisms for attenuation in granular media.

  5. Surface wave acoustics of granular packing under gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Eric; Bonneau, Lenaic; Andreotti, Bruno

    2009-06-01

    Due to the non-linearity of Hertzian contacts, the speed of sound in granular matter increases with pressure. For a packing under gravity and in the presence of a free surface, bulk acoustic waves cannot propagate due to the inherent refraction toward the surface (the mirage effect). Thus, only modes corresponding to surface waves (Raleigh-Hertz modes) are able to propagate the acoustic signal. First, based on a non-linear elasticity model, we describe the main features associated to these surface waves. We show that under gravity, a granular packing is from the acoustic propagation point of view an index gradient waveguide that selects modes of two distinct families i.e. the sagittal and transverse waves localized in the vicinity of the free surface. A striking feature of these surface waves is the multi-modal propagation: for both transverse and sagittal waves, we show the existence of a infinite but discrete series of propagating modes. In each case, we determine the mode shape and and the corresponding dispersion relation. In the case of a finite size system, a geometric waveguide is superimposed to the index gradient wave guide. In this later case, the dispersion relations are modified by the appearance of a cut-off frequency that scales with depth. The second part is devoted to an experimental study of surface waves propagating in a granular packing confined in a long channel. This set-up allows to tune a monomodal emission by taking advantage of the geometric waveguide features combined with properly designed emitters. For both sagittal and transverses waves, we were able to isolate a single mode (the fundamental one) and to plot the dispersion relation. This measurements agree well with the Hertzian scaling law as predicted by meanfield models. Furthermore, it allows us to determine quantitatively relations on the elastic moduli. However, we observe that our data yield a shear modulus abnormally weak when compared to several meanfield predictions.

  6. Surface wave acoustics of granular packing under gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, Eric; Andreotti, Bruno; Bonneau, Lenaic

    2009-06-18

    Due to the non-linearity of Hertzian contacts, the speed of sound in granular matter increases with pressure. For a packing under gravity and in the presence of a free surface, bulk acoustic waves cannot propagate due to the inherent refraction toward the surface (the mirage effect). Thus, only modes corresponding to surface waves (Raleigh-Hertz modes) are able to propagate the acoustic signal. First, based on a non-linear elasticity model, we describe the main features associated to these surface waves. We show that under gravity, a granular packing is from the acoustic propagation point of view an index gradient waveguide that selects modes of two distinct families i.e. the sagittal and transverse waves localized in the vicinity of the free surface. A striking feature of these surface waves is the multi-modal propagation: for both transverse and sagittal waves, we show the existence of a infinite but discrete series of propagating modes. In each case, we determine the mode shape and and the corresponding dispersion relation. In the case of a finite size system, a geometric waveguide is superimposed to the index gradient wave guide. In this later case, the dispersion relations are modified by the appearance of a cut-off frequency that scales with depth. The second part is devoted to an experimental study of surface waves propagating in a granular packing confined in a long channel. This set-up allows to tune a monomodal emission by taking advantage of the geometric waveguide features combined with properly designed emitters. For both sagittal and transverses waves, we were able to isolate a single mode (the fundamental one) and to plot the dispersion relation. This measurements agree well with the Hertzian scaling law as predicted by meanfield models. Furthermore, it allows us to determine quantitatively relations on the elastic moduli. However, we observe that our data yield a shear modulus abnormally weak when compared to several meanfield predictions.

  7. Flocking at a distance in active granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Harsh; Kumar, Nitin; Ramaswamy, Sriram; Sood, Ajay

    2014-03-01

    Flocking, the self-organised motion of vast numbers of living creatures in a single direction, relies on organisms sensing each other's presence, orientation and direction of movement. We have attempted to emulate these properties in experiments of fore-aft asymmetric particles energised by a vertically vibrated horizontal surface, and validate and extend our results using computer simulations and a simple hydrodynamic theory. In these studies the asymmetric rods communicate their orientation and directed motion over several rod lengths through a medium of spherical beads. This results in a phase transition from an isotropic state to a coherently moving flock at exceptionally low rod concentrations, an observation reinforced by large-scale numerical simulations. Our findings include a phase diagram in the plane of rod and bead concentrations, power-law spatial correlations upon approaching the phase boundary, and insights into the underlying mechanisms.

  8. Chemotaxis of large granular lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Pohajdak, B.; Gomez, J.; Orr, F.W.; Khalil, N.; Talgoy, M.; Greenberg, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis that large granular lymphocytes (LGL) are capable of directed locomotion (chemotaxis) was tested. A population of LGL isolated from discontinuous Percoll gradients migrated along concentration gradients of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (f-MLP), casein, and C5a, well known chemoattractants for polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes, as well as interferon-..beta.. and colony-stimulating factor. Interleukin 2, tuftsin, platelet-derived growth factor, and fibronectin were inactive. Migratory responses were greater in Percoll fractions with the highest lytic activity and HNK-1/sup +/ cells. The chemotactic response to f-MLP, casein, and C5a was always greater when the chemoattractant was present in greater concentration in the lower compartment of the Boyden chamber. Optimum chemotaxis was observed after a 1 hr incubation that made use of 12 ..mu..m nitrocellulose filters. LGL exhibited a high degree of nondirected locomotion when allowed to migrate for longer periods (> 2 hr), and when cultured in vitro for 24 to 72 hr in the presence or absence of IL 2 containing phytohemagluttinin-conditioned medium. LGL chemotaxis to f-MLP could be inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by the inactive structural analog CBZ-phe-met, and the RNK tumor line specifically bound f-ML(/sup 3/H)P, suggesting that LGL bear receptors for the chemotactic peptide.

  9. Driven fragmentation of granular gases.

    PubMed

    Cruz Hidalgo, Ral; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio

    2008-06-01

    The dynamics of homogeneously heated granular gases which fragment due to particle collisions is analyzed. We introduce a kinetic model which accounts for correlations induced at the grain collisions and analyze both the kinetics and relevant distribution functions these systems develop. The work combines analytical and numerical studies based on direct simulation Monte Carlo calculations. A broad family of fragmentation probabilities is considered, and its implications for the system kinetics are discussed. We show that generically these driven materials evolve asymptotically into a dynamical scaling regime. If the fragmentation probability tends to a constant, the grain number diverges at a finite time, leading to a shattering singularity. If the fragmentation probability vanishes, then the number of grains grows monotonously as a power law. We consider different homogeneous thermostats and show that the kinetics of these systems depends weakly on both the grain inelasticity and driving. We observe that fragmentation plays a relevant role in the shape of the velocity distribution of the particles. When the fragmentation is driven by local stochastic events, the long velocity tail is essentially exponential independently of the heating frequency and the breaking rule. However, for a Lowe-Andersen thermostat, numerical evidence strongly supports the conjecture that the scaled velocity distribution follows a generalized exponential behavior f(c) approximately exp(-cn) , with n approximately 1.2 , regarding less the fragmentation mechanisms. PMID:18643255

  10. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The packing of particles can change radically during cyclic loading such as in an earthquake or when shaking a container to compact a powder. A large hole (1) is maintained by the particles sticking to each other. A small, counterclockwise strain (2) collapses the hole, and another large strain (3) forms more new holes which collapse when the strain reverses (4). Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (after T.L. Youd, Packing Changes and Liquefaction Susceptibility, Journal of the Geotechnical Engieering Division, 103: GT8,918-922, 1977)(Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center.)(Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder).

  11. Discrete Element Modeling of Complex Granular Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movshovitz, N.; Asphaug, E. I.

    2010-12-01

    Granular materials occur almost everywhere in nature, and are actively studied in many fields of research, from food industry to planetary science. One approach to the study of granular media, the continuum approach, attempts to find a constitutive law that determines the material's flow, or strain, under applied stress. The main difficulty with this approach is that granular systems exhibit different behavior under different conditions, behaving at times as an elastic solid (e.g. pile of sand), at times as a viscous fluid (e.g. when poured), or even as a gas (e.g. when shaken). Even if all these physics are accounted for, numerical implementation is made difficult by the wide and often discontinuous ranges in continuum density and sound speed. A different approach is Discrete Element Modeling (DEM). Here the goal is to directly model every grain in the system as a rigid body subject to various body and surface forces. The advantage of this method is that it treats all of the above regimes in the same way, and can easily deal with a system moving back and forth between regimes. But as a granular system typically contains a multitude of individual grains, the direct integration of the system can be very computationally expensive. For this reason most DEM codes are limited to spherical grains of uniform size. However, spherical grains often cannot replicate the behavior of real world granular systems. A simple pile of spherical grains, for example, relies on static friction alone to keep its shape, while in reality a pile of irregular grains can maintain a much steeper angle by interlocking force chains. In the present study we employ a commercial DEM, nVidia's PhysX Engine, originally designed for the game and animation industry, to simulate complex granular flows with irregular, non-spherical grains. This engine runs as a multi threaded process and can be GPU accelerated. We demonstrate the code's ability to physically model granular materials in the three regimes mentioned above: (1) a static and steep granular pile; (2) granular flow with a complex velocity field; and (3) an agitated granular pile resulting in size based segregation. We compare our simulations to laboratory experiments in the first and third regimes, and to a known empirical constitutive law (Jop et al. 2006) in the second. We discuss application of this code in studies of several planetary systems, including analysis of the tensile strength of comets from evidence of tidal disruption, and bulking and banding on rubble-pile asteroids, as an indication of their seismic history.

  12. Granular filtration in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, J.S.; Yue, P.C.

    1999-07-01

    A novel filtration concept for particulate cleanup has been developed at the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC). The filtration system consists of a fine, metal-screen filter that is immersed in a fluidized bed of granular material. As a gas stream passes through the fluidized bed, a layer of granular bed material is entrained and deposited on the screen surface. This material provides a natural granular filter that separates fine particles from the gas stream passing through the bed. Because only the in-flowing gas maintains the granular layer at the screen surface, once the thickness and permeability of the granular layer are stabilized, the layer remains unchanged as long as the in-flowing gas flow rate remains constant. The weight of the particles and the turbulent nature of the fluidized bed limit the thickness of the granular layer on the filter, leading to self-cleaning of the filter. The original granular filtration testing system consisted of a set of filter elements; a two-dimensional fluidized-bed; a continuous powder feeder, a laser-based in-line particle counting, sizing, and velocimeter (PCSV) and/or a classical scattering aerosol spectrometer (CSAS); and a continuous solid feeding/bed material withdrawal system. The two-dimensional, transparent fluidized-bed allowed clear observation of the general fluidized state of the granular material and the conditions under which fines are captured by the granular layer. Two different filter element configurations were tested. The original filter showed high filtration performance when low density acrylic powder was used as bed material, but low filtration performance with heavy bed material (sand). The low filtration performance with this material was attributed to the failure to maintain a sufficiently thick granular layer at the screen filter surface. However, experimental data show that filtration performance for heavy bed material can be drastically improved by modifying the filter element. Collection efficiencies of over 99.95% were consistently obtained in a series of experiments under similar operating conditions.

  13. [Fertility and Environmental Impacts of Urban Scattered Human Feces Used as Organic Granular Fertilizer for Leaf Vegetables].

    PubMed

    L, Wen-zhou; Qiao, Yu-xiang; Yu, Ning; Shi, Rong-hua; Wang, Guang-ming

    2015-09-01

    The disposal of urban scattered human feces has become a difficult problem for the management of modern city. In present study, the scattered human feces underwent the collection, scum removal, flocculation and dehydration, finally became the granular fertilizer; the effects of the ratio of fertilizer to soil on the growth of the pakchoi and the quality of soil and leaching water were evaluated, and the feasibility of granular fertilizer manuring the pakchoi was discussed by pot experiments. The results showed that the granular fertilizer significantly enhanced the production of the pakchoi which were not polluted by the intestinal microorganisms under the experiment conditions; meanwhile, at the proper ratio of fertilizer to soil, the concentration of these microorganisms in the leaching water was lower than that in the control check. Chemical analyses of soil revealed that the nutrient content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic matters in soil became much richer in all treatments. In addition, the granular fertilizer improved the physical- chemical properties of soil, including raising the level of soil porosity and reducing the volume weight of soil. Application of granular fertilizer won't pollute the soil or leaching water; instead, it can also prevent nitrogen, potassium and intestinal microorganisms from leaching inio ground water at the proper ratio of granular fertilizer to soil. PMID:26717716

  14. Granular gas of ellipsoids: analytical collision detection implemented on GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio-Largo, S. M.; Lind, P. G.; Maza, D.; Hidalgo, R. C.

    2015-06-01

    We present a hybrid GPU-CPU implementation of an accurate discrete element model for a system of ellipsoids. The ellipsoids have three translational degrees of freedom, their rotational motion being described through quaternions and the contact interaction between two ellipsoids is described by a force which accounts for the elastic and dissipative interactions. Further we combine the exact derivation of contact points between ellipsoids (Wang et al. in Computing 72(1-2):235-246, 2004) with the advantages of the GPU-NVIDIA parallelization strategy (Owens et al. in Comput Graph Forum 26:80-113, 2007). This novelty makes the analytical algorithm computationally feasible when dealing with several thousands of particles. As a benchmark, we simulate a granular gas of frictionless ellipsoids identifying a classical homogeneous cooling state for ellipsoids. For low dissipative systems, the behavior of the granular temperature indicates that the cooling dynamics is governed by the elongation of the ellipsoids and the restitution coefficient. Our outcomes comply with the statistical mechanical laws and the results are in agreement with previous findings for hard ellipsoids (Bereolos et al. in J Chem Phys 99:6087, 1993; Villemot and Talbot in Granul Matter 14:91-97, 2012). Additionally, new insight is provided namely suggesting that the mean field description of the cooling dynamics of elongated particles is conditioned by the particle shape and the degree of energy equipartition.

  15. Spatiotemporal Structure of a Coupled Continuum-Granular Earthquake Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecke, R. E.; Geller, D.; Backhaus, S.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquake faults are complicated and hard to access experimentally. To complement field studies, laboratory and numerical models that focus on the universal features of natural earthquakes are extremely valuable. We have developed a laboratory experiment that includes sheared elastic plates separated by a narrow gap filled with a quasi-two-dimensional granular material. Local measurement of strain displacements of the plates at over 400 spatial points located adjacent to the gap allows direct determination of the moments and their spatial and temporal distributions. We show that events consist of laterally coherent, larger motions that we label as "brittle" events and spatially distributed, smaller "non-brittle" events. The non-brittle events have a probability distribution of event moment consistent with an M-3/2 power law scaling and a Poisson distributed recurrence time distribution. Brittle events have a broad, log-normal moment distribution and a mean repetition time. As the applied normal force increases, there are fractionally more (less) brittle (non-brittle) events, and the brittle moment distribution broadens. The magnitude of the slip motion of the plates is well correlated with the RMS displacements of the granular matter. Our results are consistent with mean field descriptions of statistical models of earthquakes and avalanches.

  16. Numerical analysis of granular soil fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbahn, L.; Huhn, K.

    2012-04-01

    Soil stability strongly depends on the material strength that is in general influenced by deformation processes and vice versa. Hence, investigation of material strength is of great interest in many geoscientific studies where soil deformations occur, e.g. the destabilization of slopes or the evolution of fault gouges. Particularly in the former case, slope failure occurs if the applied forces exceed the shear strength of slope material. Hence, the soil resistance or respectively the material strength acts contrary to deformation processes. Besides, geotechnical experiments, e.g. direct shear or ring shear tests, suggest that shear resistance mainly depends on properties of soil structure, texture and fabric. Although laboratory tests enable investigations of soil structure and texture during shear, detailed observations inside the sheared specimen during the failure processes as well as fabric effects are very limited. So, high-resolution information in space and time regarding texture evolution and/or grain behavior during shear is refused. However, such data is essential to gain a deeper insight into the key role of soil structure, texture, etc. on material strength and the physical processes occurring during material deformation on a micro-scaled level. Additionally, laboratory tests are not completely reproducible enabling a detailed statistical investigation of fabric during shear. So, almost identical setups to run methodical tests investigating the impact of fabric on soil resistance are hard to archive under laboratory conditions. Hence, we used numerical shear test experiments utilizing the Discrete Element Method to quantify the impact of different material fabrics on the shear resistance of soil as this granular model approach enables to investigate failure processes on a grain-scaled level. Our numerical setup adapts general settings from laboratory tests while the model characteristics are fixed except for the soil structure particularly the used grain shapes. So, ideal round or stick- and plate-shaped grains were utilized to represent natural silts or clays to test two end-members. To quantify texture influences on soil strength, physical parameters, e.g. soil resistance, were calculated during deformation process. Furthermore, fabric analysis during shear reveals new information on detailed pore space regarding distribution and shape of voids. For this, a three-dimensional visualization of pore space is realized with the Visualization Toolkit (VTK) that allows the volume calculation and hence a quantification of single voids with progressive deformation. As a result, imaging of particle contact distribution and particle orientations within samples show significant changes with ongoing strain such as strong variations in material fabric and particle re-organization and therewith significant structural changes. These findings confirm that in general grain shape and its factor of soil fabric is not negligible for soil resistance and hence soil strength. This is notably affected by the deformation behavior of granular matter. With the broad investigation of the three most important factors that specify fabric behavior, this study attains a comprehensive view evaluating the impact of fabric on soil strength.

  17. Experimental and Numerical Study of the Response of Granular Layer in the Trap-door Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, B.; Combe, G.; Villard, P.

    2009-06-01

    Deriving from the traditional problem of behavior of granular materials in silos, the trap-door test is a very basic experimental test that reproduces solicitation met in a wide range of technological applications (soil reinforcement, granular material storage). In spite of the fact that many analytical models exist for the description of this test, a large part of the behavior of granular layers submitted to a localized basal relative displacement remains obscure: influence of the displacement value, value of the friction angle of the granular matter Carried out in quasi-static motion and involving several granular materials such as gravels and sands, the experimental study brought to light that trap-door tests systematically break down into three different successive phases depending on the amplitude of the trap-door. Pressure applied on the trap-door by the granular material decreased suddenly for very low displacement values. Then a progressive increase was observed coinciding with a progressive expansion of a subsiding zone from the bottom of the layer to its top. At last the pressure stabilized for the greater displacements of the trap-door. This last phase corresponded with the classical failure pattern used in analytical solutions: a vertical slipping plane at each edge of the trap-door. Because of very different response were obtained with sand and gravel, particularly in the transitional phase, a numerical study were carried out by means of Discrete Element Method. Involving simple spheres and complex shaped particles as clumps, a wide range of materials presenting various friction angles were tested. A neat influence of the peak friction angle on the maximal load transfer phase was observed whereas the last phase was associated with the residual friction angle. In addition, a micromechanical analysis, giving the localization of shear strains underlined the effect of the friction angle on the pattern of arching observed in the material.

  18. Low Speed Granular-Granular Impact Crater Opening Mechanism in 2D Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartali, Roberto; Nahmad-Molinari, Yuri; Rodríguez-Liñán, Gustavo M.

    2015-12-01

    Quasi-2D, low-velocity experiments of colliding granular projectiles against granular targets were performed by means of a 7 m-long Hele-Shaw cell. The processes involved in the crater-opening mechanism of low-velocity granular-against-granular collisions are described. We show that the crater is opened mainly by a compaction process of the target. The projectile is fragmented and its lower section suffers a severe compaction; this projectile remnant forms a central dome or peak inside the crater. When the target reaches its maximum degree of compaction, the excess of momentum generates fast avalanches sliding on the slopes of the confined material, and exerts pressure on the crater walls, increasing its diameter. We propose that low-velocity collisions between granular aggregates are a possible mechanism that allows the growth of small planetary objects or the aggregation after catastrophic or high-energy collisions.

  19. Low Speed Granular-Granular Impact Crater Opening Mechanism in 2D Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartali, Roberto; Nahmad-Molinari, Yuri; Rodríguez-Liñán, Gustavo M.

    2015-08-01

    Quasi-2D, low-velocity experiments of colliding granular projectiles against granular targets were performed by means of a 7 m-long Hele-Shaw cell. The processes involved in the crater-opening mechanism of low-velocity granular-against-granular collisions are described. We show that the crater is opened mainly by a compaction process of the target. The projectile is fragmented and its lower section suffers a severe compaction; this projectile remnant forms a central dome or peak inside the crater. When the target reaches its maximum degree of compaction, the excess of momentum generates fast avalanches sliding on the slopes of the confined material, and exerts pressure on the crater walls, increasing its diameter. We propose that low-velocity collisions between granular aggregates are a possible mechanism that allows the growth of small planetary objects or the aggregation after catastrophic or high-energy collisions.

  20. Wetting in Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Ian Bruce

    Colorimetric litmus tests such as pH paper have enjoyed wide commercial success due to their inexpensive production and exceptional ease of use. However, expansion of colorimetry to new sensing paradigms is challenging because macroscopic color changes are seldom coupled to arbitrary differences in the physical/chemical properties of a system. In this thesis I present in detail the development of Wetting in Color Technology, focusing primarily on its application as an inexpensive and highly selective colorimetric indicator for organic liquids. The technology exploits chemically-encoded inverse-opal photonic crystals to control the infiltration of fluids to liquid-specific spatial patterns, projecting minute differences in liquids' wettability to macroscopically distinct, easy-to-visualize structural color patterns. It is shown experimentally and corroborated with theoretical modeling using percolation theory that the high selectivity of wetting, upon-which the sensitivity of the indicator relies, is caused by the highly symmetric structure of our large-area, defect-free SiO2 inverse-opals. The regular structure also produces a bright iridescent color, which disappears when infiltrated with liquid - naturally coupling the optical and fluidic responses. Surface modification protocols are developed, requiring only silanization and selective oxidation, to facilitate the deterministic design of an indicator that differentiates a broad range of liquids. The resulting tunable, built-in horizontal and vertical chemistry gradients allow the wettability threshold to be tailored to specific liquids across a continuous range, and make the readout rely only on countable color differences. As wetting is a generic fluidic phenomenon, Wetting in Color technology could be suitable for applications in authentication or identification of unknown liquids across a broad range of industries. However, the generic nature of the response also ensures chemical non-specificity. It is shown that combinatorial measurements from an array of indicators add a degree of chemical specificity to the platform, which can be further improved by monitoring the drying of the inverse-opal films. While colorimetry is the central focus of this thesis, applications of this platform in encryption, fluidics and nanofabrication are also briefly explored.

  1. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is an illustration of the analytical procedure of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) on board the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument. By dissolving small amounts of soil in water, WCL can determine the pH, the abundance of minerals such as magnesium and sodium cations or chloride, bromide and sulfate anions, as well as the conductivity and redox potential.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is an illustration of soil analysis on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) on board the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument. By dissolving small amounts of soil in water, WCL will attempt to determine the pH, the abundance of minerals such as magnesium and sodium cations or chloride, bromide and sulfate anions, as well as the conductivity and redox potential.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Wet scavenging processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, J.M.; Berkowitz, C.M.; Easter, R.C.

    1987-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of scavenging-calculation techniques coming into use at the present time and attempts to describe how research products generated in related scientific endeavors can be incorporated with the newer models for improvement of wet-removal calculations. The capacity for direct application of mechanistic information from a variety of sources is a distinguishing feature of the newer models and is an encouraging advancement in our ability to coordinate diverse research efforts for practical value in this area. Scavenging calculations for reactive pollutants tend to become mathematically involved, and the cursory presentation given in this paper should be recognized as introductory material only.

  4. Wet coastal plain tundra

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, J.P.; McCaffery, B.J.; Pitelka, F.A.

    1980-01-01

    This years's census data for the wet coastal plain tundra in Alaska; North Slope Borough, 3 km SSW of Naval Arctic Research Laboratory, Barrow; 71/sup 0/ 18'N, 156/sup 0/ 43'W; Barrow Quadrangle, USGS, reflect an increase in breeding species of 31% over the 5-year average, while breeding density was up 22%. Ten species increased and only 4 decreased. There was a total of 17 species; 61.5 territorial males or females (171/km/sup 2/, 69/100 acres).

  5. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, L.C.; Simpson, M.L.

    1995-01-17

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically. 4 figures.

  6. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN); Simpson, Marc L. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically.

  7. Local rheological measurements in the granular flow around an intruder.

    PubMed

    Seguin, A; Coulais, C; Martinez, F; Bertho, Y; Gondret, P

    2016-01-01

    The rheological properties of granular matter within a two-dimensional flow around a moving disk is investigated experimentally. Using a combination of photoelastic and standard tessellation techniques, the strain and stress tensors are estimated at the grain scale in the time-averaged flow field around a large disk pulled at constant velocity in an assembly of smaller disks. On the one hand, one observes inhomogeneous shear rate and strongly localized shear stress and pressure fields. On the other hand, a significant dilation rate, which has the same magnitude as the shear strain rate, is reported. Significant deviations are observed with local rheology that justify the need of searching for a nonlocal rheology. PMID:26871140

  8. Granular friction in a wide range of shear rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwano, Osamu; Ando, Ryosuke; Hatano, Takahiro

    2013-06-01

    We conduct an experiment on the frictional properties of granular matter over a wide range of shear rate that covers both the quasistatic and the inertial regimes. We show that the friction coefficient exhibits negative shear-rate dependence in the quasistatic regime, whereas the shear-rate dependence is positive in the inertial regime. The crossover shear rate is determined in terms of the competition between two physical processes, namely frictional healing and anelasticity. We confirm that these results are independent of the grain shape by using angular sand and spherical beads. We also show that the behavior in the inertial regime is quantitatively the same as that in numerical simulations. As an application, we derive the exponential velocity profiles that are often observed in the quasistatic heap flow.

  9. Local rheological measurements in the granular flow around an intruder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguin, A.; Coulais, C.; Martinez, F.; Bertho, Y.; Gondret, P.

    2016-01-01

    The rheological properties of granular matter within a two-dimensional flow around a moving disk is investigated experimentally. Using a combination of photoelastic and standard tessellation techniques, the strain and stress tensors are estimated at the grain scale in the time-averaged flow field around a large disk pulled at constant velocity in an assembly of smaller disks. On the one hand, one observes inhomogeneous shear rate and strongly localized shear stress and pressure fields. On the other hand, a significant dilation rate, which has the same magnitude as the shear strain rate, is reported. Significant deviations are observed with local rheology that justify the need of searching for a nonlocal rheology.

  10. Characteristics of undulatory locomotion in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Pak, On Shun; Elfring, Gwynn J.

    2016-03-01

    Undulatory locomotion is ubiquitous in nature and observed in different media, from the swimming of flagellated microorganisms in biological fluids, to the slithering of snakes on land, or the locomotion of sandfish lizards in sand. Despite the similarity in the undulating pattern, the swimming characteristics depend on the rheological properties of different media. Analysis of locomotion in granular materials is relatively less developed compared with fluids partially due to a lack of validated force models but recently a resistive force theory in granular media has been proposed and shown useful in studying the locomotion of a sand-swimming lizard. Here we employ the proposed model to investigate the swimming characteristics of a slender filament, of both finite and infinite length, undulating in a granular medium and compare the results with swimming in viscous fluids. In particular, we characterize the effects of drifting and pitching in terms of propulsion speed and efficiency for a finite sinusoidal swimmer. We also find that, similar to Lighthill's results using resistive force theory in viscous fluids, the sawtooth swimmer is the optimal waveform for propulsion speed at a given power consumption in granular media. The results complement our understanding of undulatory locomotion and provide insights into the effective design of locomotive systems in granular media.

  11. Reversibility in locomotion in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoie, William; Goldman, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    A recent study of a self-deforming robot [Hatton et al., PRL, 2013] demonstrated that slow movement in dry granular media resembles locomotion in low Re fluids, in part because inertia is dominated by friction. The study indicated that granular swimming was kinematically reversible, a surprise because yielding in granular flow is irreversible. To investigate if reciprocal motions lead to net displacements in granular swimmers, in laboratory experiments, we study the locomotion of a robotic ``scallop'' consisting of a square body with two flipper-like limbs controlled to flap forward and backward symmetrically (a flap cycle). The body is constrained by linear bearings to allow motion in only one dimension. We vary the the flapping frequency f, the body/flipper burial depth d, and the number of flaps N in a deep bed of 6 mm diameter plastic spheres. Over a range of f and d, the N = 1 cycle produces net translation of the body; however for large N, a cycle produces no net translation. We conclude that symmetric strokes in granular swimming are irreversible at the onset of self-deformation, but become asymptotically reversible. work supported by NSF and ARL.

  12. Granular Materials and Risks In ISRU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behringer, Robert P.; Wilkinson, R. Allen

    2004-01-01

    Working with soil, sand, powders, ores, cement and sintered bricks, excavating, grading construction sites, driving off-road, transporting granules in chutes and pipes, sifting gravel, separating solids from gases, and using hoppers are so routine that it seems straightforward to execute these operations on the Moon and Mars as we do on Earth. We discuss how little these processes are understood and point out the nature of trial-and-error practices that are used in today's massive over-design. Nevertheless, such designs have a high failure rate. Implementation and extensive incremental scaling up of industrial processes are routine because of the inadequate predictive tools for design. We present a number of pragmatic scenarios where granular materials play a role, the risks involved, what some of the basic issues are, and what understanding is needed to greatly reduce the risks. This talk will focus on a particular class of granular flow issues, those that pertain to dense materials, their physics, and the failure problems associated with them. In particular, key issues where basic predictability is lacking include stability of soils for the support of vehicles and facilities, ability to control the flow of dense materials (jamming and flooding/unjamming at the wrong time), the ability to predict stress profiles (hence create reliable designs) for containers such as bunkers or silos. In particular, stress fluctuations, which are not accounted for in standard granular design models, can be very large as granular materials flows, and one result is frequent catastrophic failure of granular devices.

  13. Granular Materials and Risks in ISRU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behringer, Robert P.; Wilki8nson, R. Allen

    2004-01-01

    Working with soil, sand, powders, ores, cement and sintered bricks, excavating, grading construction sites, driving off-road, transporting granules in chutes and pipes, sifting gravel, separating solids from gases, and using hoppers are so routine that it seems straightforward to execute these operations on the Moon and Mars as we do on Earth. We discuss how little these processes are understood and point out the nature of trial-and-error practices that are used in today s massive over-design. Nevertheless, such designs have a high failure rate. Implementation and extensive incremental scaling up of industrial processes are routine because of the inadequate predictive tools for design. We present a number of pragmatic scenarios where granular materials play a role, the risks involved, what some of the basic issues are, and what understanding is needed to greatly reduce the risks. This talk will focus on a particular class of granular flow issues, those that pertain to dense materials, their physics, and the failure problems associated with them. In particular, key issues where basic predictability is lacking include stability of soils for the support of vehicles and facilities, ability to control the flow of dense materials (jamming and flooding/unjamming at the wrong time), the ability to predict stress profiles (hence create reliable designs) for containers such as bunkers or silos. In particular, stress fluctuations, which are not accounted for in standard granular design models, can be very large as granular materials flows, and one result is frequent catastrophic failure of granular devices.

  14. Uncertainty Management in Seismic Vulnerability Assessment Using Granular Computing Based on Covering of Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khamespanah, F.; Delavar, M. R.; Zare, M.

    2013-05-01

    Earthquake is an abrupt displacement of the earth's crust caused by the discharge of strain collected along faults or by volcanic eruptions. Earthquake as a recurring natural cataclysm has always been a matter of concern in Tehran, capital of Iran, as a laying city on a number of known and unknown faults. Earthquakes can cause severe physical, psychological and financial damages. Consequently, some procedures should be developed to assist modelling the potential casualties and its spatial uncertainty. One of these procedures is production of seismic vulnerability maps to take preventive measures to mitigate corporeal and financial losses of future earthquakes. Since vulnerability assessment is a multi-criteria decision making problem depending on some parameters and expert's judgments, it undoubtedly is characterized by intrinsic uncertainties. In this study, it is attempted to use Granular computing (GrC) model based on covering of universe to handle the spatial uncertainty. Granular computing model concentrates on a general theory and methodology for problem solving as well as information processing by assuming multiple levels of granularity. Basic elements in granular computing are subsets, classes, and clusters of a universe called elements. In this research GrC is used for extracting classification rules based on seismic vulnerability with minimum entropy to handle uncertainty related to earthquake data. Tehran was selected as the study area. In our previous research, Granular computing model based on a partition model of universe was employed. The model has some kinds of limitations in defining similarity between elements of the universe and defining granules. In the model similarity between elements is defined based on an equivalence relation. According to this relation, two objects are similar based on some attributes, provided for each attribute the values of these objects are equal. In this research a general relation for defining similarity between elements of universe is proposed. The general relation is used for defining similarity and instead of partitioning the universe, granulation is done based on covering of universe. As a result of the study, a physical seismic vulnerability map of Tehran has been produced based on granular computing model. The accuracy of the seismic vulnerability map is evaluated using granular computing model based on covering of universe. The comparison between this model and granular computing model based on partition model of universe is undertaken which verified the superiority of the GrC based on covering of the universe in terms of the match between the achieved results with those confirmed by the related experts' judgments.

  15. Plastic deformation in a metallic granular chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musson, Ryan W.; Carlson, William

    2016-03-01

    Solitary wave response was investigated in a metallic granular chain-piston system using LS-DYNA. A power law hardening material model was used to show that localized plastic deformation is present in a metallic granular chain for an impact velocity of 0.5 m/s. This loss due to plastic deformation was quantified via impulse, and it was shown that the loss scales nearly linearly with impact velocity. Therefore, metallic grains may not be suitable for devices that require high-amplitude solitary waves. There would be too much energy lost to plastic deformation. One can assume that ceramics will behave elastically; therefore, the response of an aluminum oxide granular chain was compared to that of a steel chain.

  16. Impact compaction of a granular material

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fenton, Gregg; Asay, Blaine; Dalton, Devon

    2015-05-19

    The dynamic behavior of granular materials has importance to a variety of engineering applications. Structural seismic coupling, planetary science, and earth penetration mechanics, are just a few of the application areas. Although the mechanical behavior of granular materials of various types have been studied extensively for several decades, the dynamic behavior of such materials remains poorly understood. High-quality experimental data are needed to improve our general understanding of granular material compaction physics. This study will describe how an instrumented plunger impact system can be used to measure pressure-density relationships for model materials at high and controlled strain rates and subsequentlymore » used for computational modeling.« less

  17. Plastic deformation in a metallic granular chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musson, Ryan W.; Carlson, William

    2015-12-01

    Solitary wave response was investigated in a metallic granular chain-piston system using LS-DYNA. A power law hardening material model was used to show that localized plastic deformation is present in a metallic granular chain for an impact velocity of 0.5 m/s. This loss due to plastic deformation was quantified via impulse, and it was shown that the loss scales nearly linearly with impact velocity. Therefore, metallic grains may not be suitable for devices that require high-amplitude solitary waves. There would be too much energy lost to plastic deformation. One can assume that ceramics will behave elastically; therefore, the response of an aluminum oxide granular chain was compared to that of a steel chain.

  18. Electrification of granular systems of identical insulators.

    PubMed

    Kok, Jasper F; Lacks, Daniel J

    2009-05-01

    Insulating particles can become highly electrified during powder handling, volcanic eruptions, and the wind-blown transport of dust, sand, and snow. Measurements in these granular systems have found that smaller particles generally charge negatively, while larger particles charge positively. These observations are puzzling since particles in these systems are generally chemically identical and thus have no contact potential difference. We show here that simple geometry leads to a net transfer of electrons from larger to smaller particles, in agreement with these observations. We integrate this charging mechanism into the first quantitative charging scheme for a granular system of identical insulators and show that its predictions are in agreement with measurements. Our theory thus seems to provide an explanation for the hitherto puzzling phenomenon of the size-dependent charging of granular systems of identical insulators. PMID:19518446

  19. Electrification of granular systems of identical insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kok, Jasper F.; Lacks, Daniel J.

    2009-05-01

    Insulating particles can become highly electrified during powder handling, volcanic eruptions, and the wind-blown transport of dust, sand, and snow. Measurements in these granular systems have found that smaller particles generally charge negatively, while larger particles charge positively. These observations are puzzling since particles in these systems are generally chemically identical and thus have no contact potential difference. We show here that simple geometry leads to a net transfer of electrons from larger to smaller particles, in agreement with these observations. We integrate this charging mechanism into the first quantitative charging scheme for a granular system of identical insulators and show that its predictions are in agreement with measurements. Our theory thus seems to provide an explanation for the hitherto puzzling phenomenon of the size-dependent charging of granular systems of identical insulators.

  20. Image Superresolution Reconstruction via Granular Computing Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongbing; Zhang, Fan; Wu, Chang-an; Huang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The problem of generating a superresolution (SR) image from a single low-resolution (LR) input image is addressed via granular computing clustering in the paper. Firstly, and the training images are regarded as SR image and partitioned into some SR patches, which are resized into LS patches, the training set is composed of the SR patches and the corresponding LR patches. Secondly, the granular computing (GrC) clustering is proposed by the hypersphere representation of granule and the fuzzy inclusion measure compounded by the operation between two granules. Thirdly, the granule set (GS) including hypersphere granules with different granularities is induced by GrC and used to form the relation between the LR image and the SR image by lasso. Experimental results showed that GrC achieved the least root mean square errors between the reconstructed SR image and the original image compared with bicubic interpolation, sparse representation, and NNLasso. PMID:25610456

  1. Impulse absorption by horizontal magnetic granular chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Dingxin; Wang, Xiaojie; Liu, Guijie; Sun, Lingyu

    2016-02-01

    The granular medium is known as a protecting material for shock mitigation. We study the impulse absorption of an alignment of magnetic spheres placed horizontally under a non-uniform magnetic field. The phenomenon of the wave dispersion is presented. This system can absorb 85% ˜ 95% (88% ˜ 98%) of the incident peak force (energy) under the applied magnetic field strength in 0.1 T ˜ 1.0 T. The shock attenuation capacities are enhanced by the increment of field strength. With an intelligent control system, it is conceivable that the magnetic granular chain may offer possibilities in developing adaptive shock protectors.

  2. Cluster Instability in Freely Evolving Granular Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, J. Javier

    A granular medium is formed by a large number of macroscopic particles or grains. Here large must be understood at a macroscopic level, i.e. a few thousands or even a few hundreds is already a large number in the present context, as compared with molecular systems which contain a number of atoms or molecules of the order of the Avogadro number. In this lecture, we will restrict ourselves to dry granular systems in which there is not any other fluid around the grains. Also, electrical effects are not considered. Under these circumstances, the grain-grain interaction can be taken as purely repulsive with no attractive part.

  3. Arch generated shear bands in granular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordignon, A. L.; Sigaud, L.; Tavares, G.; Lopes, H.; Lewiner, T.; Morgado, W. A. M.

    2009-06-01

    We propose an arch based model, on cubic and square lattices, to simulate the internal mobility of grains, in a dense granular system under shear. In this model, the role of the arches in granular transport presents a non-linear dependence on the local values of the stress components that can be modeled geometrically. This non-linearity is very important since a linear dependence on the stress will make the models behave similarly to viscous fluids, which will not reproduce highly interesting properties of the sheared systems such as shear bands. In particular, we study a modified Couette flow and find the appearance of shear bands in accordance with the literature.

  4. Periodic Traveling Waves in Diatomic Granular Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betti, Matthew; Pelinovsky, Dmitry E.

    2013-10-01

    We study bifurcations of periodic traveling waves in diatomic granular chains from the anti-continuum limit, when the mass ratio between the light and heavy beads is zero. We show that every limiting periodic wave is uniquely continued with respect to the mass ratio parameter, and the periodic waves with a wavelength larger than a certain critical value are spectrally stable. Numerical computations are developed to study how this solution family is continued to the limit of equal mass ratio between the beads, where periodic traveling waves of homogeneous granular chains exist.

  5. Challenges in Predicting Planetary Granular Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, Philip T.

    2005-01-01

    Through the course of human history, our needs in agriculture, habitat construction, and resource extraction have driven us to gain more experience working with the granular materials of planet Earth than with any other type of substance in nature, with the possible exception being water. Furthermore, throughout the past two centuries we have seen a dramatic and ever growing interest among scientists and engineers to understand and predict both its static and rheological properties. Ironically, however, despite this wealth of experience we still do not have a fundamental understanding of the complex physical phenomena that emerge even as just ordinary sand is shaken, squeezed or poured. As humanity is now reaching outward through the solar system, not only robotic ally but also with our immediate human presence, the need to understand and predict granular mechanics has taken on a new dimension. We must learn to farm, build and mine the regoliths of other planets where the environmental conditions are different than on Earth, and we are rapidly discovering that the effects of these environmental conditions are not trivial. Some of the relevant environmental features include the regolith formation processes throughout a planet's geologic and hydrologic history, the unknown mixtures of volatiles residing within the soil, the relative strength of gravitation, d the atm9spheric pressure and its seasonal variations. The need to work with soils outside our terrestrial experience base provides us with both a challenge and an opportunity. The challenge is to learn how to extrapolate our experience into these new planetary conditions, enabling the engineering decisions that are needed right now as we take the next few steps in solar system exploration. The opportunity is to use these new planetary environments as laboratories that will help us to see granular mechanics in new ways, to challenge our assumptions, and to help us finally unravel the elusive physics that lie behind complex granular phenomena. Toward these goals, a workshop was held recently at NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center, attracting over a hundred scientists and engineers from around the world and from a broad crosssection of scientific and engineering disciplines. This talk will provide an out-briefing from that workshop, communicating some of its early findings in regard to lunar and Martian exploration: (1) the requirements for working with granular materials, (2) the challenges that granular materials will pose, (3) the environmental conditions that affect granular mechanics, (4) instruments and measurements that are needed on the Moon and Mars to support granular material research, and (5) some of the possible research avenues that should be pursued.

  6. Hydrodynamic Maxwell demon in granular systems.

    PubMed

    Brey, J Javier; Moreno, F; Garca-Rojo, R; Ruiz-Montero, M J

    2002-01-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking in a vibrated system confined into two connected compartments in the absence of external fields is reported. For a small number of particles, the grains are equipartitioned, but if it is increased beyond a critical value, the number of particles in each of the compartments becomes different in the steady state, and the number of particles in one of the compartments decreases monotonically tending to a given value. This phase transition is accurately described by the hydrodynamic equations for a granular gas. The relationship with previous phenomena of phase separation in vibrofluidized granular materials is discussed. PMID:11800691

  7. Angularly anisotropic correlation in granular packings

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Chengjie; Cao, Yixin; Kou, Binquan; Li, Jindong; Wang, Yujie; Xiao, Xianghui; Fezzaa, Kamel

    2014-12-01

    We present an x-ray microtomography study of the three-dimensional structural correlations in monodisperse granular packings. By measuring an orientation-dependent pair correlation function, we find that the local structure shows an angularly anisotropic orientation correlation. The correlation is strongest along the major axis of the local Minkowski tensor of the Voronoi cell. It turns out that this anisotropic correlation is consistent with the existence of some locally favored structures. The study suggests the importance of high-order structural correlations in random granular packings.

  8. Pore-Scale Investigation on Stress-Dependent Characteristics of Granular Packs and Their Impact on Multiphase Fluid Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrealba, V.; Karpyn, Z.; Yoon, H.; Hart, D. B.; Klise, K. A.

    2013-12-01

    The pore-scale dynamics that govern multiphase flow under variable stress conditions are not well understood. This lack of fundamental understanding limits our ability to quantitatively predict multiphase flow and fluid distributions in natural geologic systems. In this research, we focus on pore-scale, single and multiphase flow properties that impact displacement mechanisms and residual trapping of non-wetting phase under varying stress conditions. X-ray micro-tomography is used to image pore structures and distribution of wetting and non-wetting fluids in water-wet synthetic granular packs, under dynamic load. Micro-tomography images are also used to determine structural features such as medial axis, surface area, and pore body and throat distribution; while the corresponding transport properties are determined from Lattice-Boltzmann simulations performed on lattice replicas of the imaged specimens. Results are used to investigate how inter-granular deformation mechanisms affect fluid displacement and residual trapping at the pore-scale. This will improve our understanding of the dynamic interaction of mechanical deformation and fluid flow during enhanced oil recovery and geologic CO2 sequestration. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. Structure of Particle Networks in Capillary Suspensions with Wetting and Nonwetting Fluids.

    PubMed

    Bossler, Frank; Koos, Erin

    2016-02-16

    The mechanical properties of a suspension can be dramatically altered by adding a small amount of a secondary fluid that is immiscible with the bulk phase. The substantial changes in the strength of these capillary suspensions arise due to the capillary force inducing a percolating particle network. Spatial information on the structure of the particle networks is obtained using confocal microscopy. It is possible, for the first time, to visualize the different types of percolating structures of capillary suspensions in situ. These capillary networks are unique from other types of particulate networks due to the nature of the capillary attraction. We investigate the influence of the three-phase contact angle on the structure of an oil-based capillary suspension with silica microspheres. Contact angles smaller than 90° lead to pendular networks of particles connected with single capillary bridges or clusters comparable to the funicular state in wet granular matter, whereas a different clustered structure, the capillary state, forms for angles larger than 90°. Particle pair distribution functions are obtained by image analysis, which demonstrate differences in the network microstructures. When porous particles are used, the pendular conformation also appears for apparent contact angles larger than 90°. The complex shear modulus can be correlated to these microstructural changes. When the percolating structure is formed, the complex shear modulus increases by nearly three decades. Pendular bridges lead to stronger networks than the capillary state network conformations, but the capillary state clusters are nevertheless much stronger than pure suspensions without the added liquid. PMID:26807651

  10. Structure of Particle Networks in Capillary Suspensions with Wetting and Nonwetting Fluids

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical properties of a suspension can be dramatically altered by adding a small amount of a secondary fluid that is immiscible with the bulk phase. The substantial changes in the strength of these capillary suspensions arise due to the capillary force inducing a percolating particle network. Spatial information on the structure of the particle networks is obtained using confocal microscopy. It is possible, for the first time, to visualize the different types of percolating structures of capillary suspensions in situ. These capillary networks are unique from other types of particulate networks due to the nature of the capillary attraction. We investigate the influence of the three-phase contact angle on the structure of an oil-based capillary suspension with silica microspheres. Contact angles smaller than 90° lead to pendular networks of particles connected with single capillary bridges or clusters comparable to the funicular state in wet granular matter, whereas a different clustered structure, the capillary state, forms for angles larger than 90°. Particle pair distribution functions are obtained by image analysis, which demonstrate differences in the network microstructures. When porous particles are used, the pendular conformation also appears for apparent contact angles larger than 90°. The complex shear modulus can be correlated to these microstructural changes. When the percolating structure is formed, the complex shear modulus increases by nearly three decades. Pendular bridges lead to stronger networks than the capillary state network conformations, but the capillary state clusters are nevertheless much stronger than pure suspensions without the added liquid. PMID:26807651

  11. Aggressive granular cell ameloblastoma: Report of a rare case

    PubMed Central

    Babu, N. Aravindha; Sankari, S. Leena; Anitha, N.; Mohideen, Gouse

    2015-01-01

    Granular cell ameloblastoma is a slow growing odontogenic ectodermal tumor. The tumor shows typical ameloblastoma with the cells showing eosinophilic granularity. This variant of ameloblastoma is aggressive with high recurrence rates. We report a case of aggressive ameloblastoma of granular cell variant PMID:26015731

  12. Scale-up of catalytic wet oxidation under moderate conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Harf, J.; Hug, A.; Vogel, F.; Rohr, P.R. von

    1999-05-01

    The Catalytic Wet Oxidation with pure oxygen is a suitable treatment process for the degradation of organic matter in wastewaters and sludges. The applied moderate reaction conditions lead only to a partial oxidation of the organics. Therefore the resulting process water has to be purified in a biological treatment plant. In this study, experimental data collected during the wet oxidation of phenol and sewage sludge in a laboratory batch reactor as well as in a pilot plant are presented. A generalized kinetic model combined with a residence time analysis allows to predict accurately the degradation of organic matter in the pilot plant. The wet oxidation of wastewaters and sewage sludge was realized in one single plant concept. Treating suspended or diluted organic wastes produces a highly biodegradable process water containing low molecular oxidation products. The investigated Catalytic Wet Oxidation of sewage sludge generates a residual solid complying with the European quality standards of disposal concerning leachability and organic content. Due to its low capital and operating costs, the Catalytic Wet Oxidation process constitutes an acceptable alternative to incineration for the disposal of sludges.

  13. Rapid start-up and microbial characteristics of partial nitrification granular sludge treating domestic sewage at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuhai; Li, Dong; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Cuidan; Zhang, Jie

    2015-11-01

    The successful suppression of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the partial nitrification (PN) stage was the main challenge for the application of autotrophic nitrogen removal process treating mainstream sewage. In this study, two identical PN granular reactors (P1 and P2) were rapid started-up using the simultaneous PN and granulation strategy, for treating the domestic sewage. P1 was seeded with 30% PN granular sludge to induce nucleation, in which the granule size achieved to more than 400?m in 12d, with ammonia oxidation rate and nitrite accumulation rate of 80% and 95%, respectively, while P2 realized granulation in 42d. The presence of organic matters and specific structure of granules were profitable for the stability of PN for treating sewage with low ammonia. High-throughput pyrosequencing results indicated the biodiversity of both reactors decreased after start-up, and Nitrosomonas was the predominant specie of aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in PN granular sludge. PMID:26271439

  14. MODELING THE WET MILLING PROCESS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Process engineering and cost models for a conventional corn wet milling process have been developed to aid research being conducted by the USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center. Information on the corn wet milling process was obtained from various technical sources i...

  15. Wet Winding Improves Coil Encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, A. J.

    1987-01-01

    Wet-winding process encapsulates electrical coils more uniformily than conventional processes. Process requires no vacuum pump and adapts easily to existing winding machines. Encapsulant applied to each layer of wire as soon as added to coil. Wet-winding process eliminates voids, giving more uniformly encapsulated coil.

  16. Dimpling in loose granular sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daz-Hernndez, Jose Luis; Yepes, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Dimpling is the name given to the centimetre-scale collapse of granular deposits covering the interior of alteration shelters in semi-arid badlands. The development of micro-collapses is favoured by the stable conditions found in these shelters, where they are safe from water flows, rain impact, and animal or human traffic. The floor of these shelters is usually covered by several centimetres of sandy sediment resulting from the alteration of the rocky substratum and characterised by apparently very low density and high porosity. We have observed that the dimpling phenomenon does not depend on the mineralogy of the sands and occurs in dry conditions. The dimples are the shapes resulting from this process and are fragile, conical depressions ranging from 1 to 12 cm in diameter. They are generally over 3 cm in depth, depending on the depth of the sandy layer. The dimples can be classified into three groups by diameter (): ?1cm, 1cm??10 cm and ?10 cm. These three morphometrical ranges suggest three evolutionary stages of the shapes. The main mechanisms of evolution are the coalescence of neighbouring dimples and the accommodation of the lateral walls towards more open, stable shapes. In this process, the slope of the dimple walls decreases to the angle of equilibrium, or internal friction angle of the sediment, when they acquire a more stable, dense structure. This evolution occurs naturally over several months. The process begins when sufficient sediment with low apparent density accumulates. This takes place by vertical accretion of particles from the shelter walls, which pile up in a stack-of-cards type structure. The increase in weight of the sediment column causes punctual micro-collapses when the limit of the sediment's self-supporting capacity is reached. The process is gravitational. Thermal variations can also condition the structural instability of the sediment due to the dilation-retraction changes undergone by the sediment grains. We can thus establish the following stages of evolution in the dimpling process: 1.Accumulation of deposits detached from the shelter walls by gravity. The sediment has a low apparent density, stack-of-cards inner structure. 2.Punctual micro-collapses of the structure (acicular depressions). Some collapses can be repetitive. 3.Shift to open shapes by lateral widening (conical depressions). This occurs through coalescence of micro-collapses or instability of the lateral walls. 4.Shift to senile shapes (plate-shaped depressions) through instability of the lateral walls. During this stage the shapes would become shallower through accumulation of supply in the bottom of the depression. Throughout this process the angle of the walls of the depression decrease to what we suppose must be the internal friction angle of the sediment.

  17. Granular Elasticity’ and the loss of elastic stability in granular materials

    SciTech Connect

    P. W. Humrickhouse

    2009-07-01

    A recently proposed hyperelastic model for granular materials, called "granular elasticity", identifies a yield angle as a result of thermodynamic instability. GE gives yield angles that are smaller than those found in real materials; a generalization of the theory is considered here that includes dependence on the third strain invariant. This generalization proves unsuccessful, as it gives smaller, not larger, yield angles. Fully convex hyperelastic models are identified as a point for future investigation.

  18. Trajectory entanglement in dense granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puckett, James G.; Lechenault, Frdric; Daniels, Karen E.; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc

    2012-06-01

    The particle-scale dynamics of granular materials have commonly been characterized by the self-diffusion coefficient D. However, this measure discards the collective and topological information known to be an important characteristic of particle trajectories in dense systems. Direct measurement of the entanglement of particle space-time trajectories can be obtained via the topological braid entropy Sbraid, which has previously been used to quantify mixing efficiency in fluid systems. Here, we investigate the utility of Sbraid in characterizing the dynamics of a dense, driven granular material at packing densities near the static jamming point phiJ. From particle trajectories measured within a two-dimensional granular material, we typically observe that Sbraid is well defined and extensive. However, for systems where \\phi \\gtrsim 0.79 , we find that Sbraid (like D) is not well defined, signifying that these systems are not ergodic on the experimental timescale. Both Sbraid and D decrease with either increasing packing density or confining pressure, independent of the applied boundary condition. The related braiding factor provides a means to identify multi-particle phenomena such as collective rearrangements. We discuss possible uses for this measure in characterizing granular systems.

  19. Motile Fluids: Granular, Colloidal and Living

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2014-03-01

    My talk will present our recent results from theory, simulation and experiment on flocking, swarming and instabilities in diverse realizations of active systems. The findings I will report include: flocking at a distance in vibrated granular monolayers; the active hydrodynamics of self-propelled solids; clusters, asters and oscillations in colloidal chemotaxis. Supported by a J C Bose Fellowship.

  20. Granular Gas in a Periodic Lattice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorbolo, S.; Brandenbourger, M.; Damanet, F.; Dister, H.; Ludewig, F.; Terwagne, D.; Lumay, G.; Vandewalle, N.

    2011-01-01

    Glass beads are placed in the compartments of a horizontal square grid. This grid is then vertically shaken. According to the reduced acceleration [image omitted] of the system, the granular material exhibits various behaviours. By counting the number of beads in each compartment after shaking, it is possible to define three regimes. At low

  1. Bipotential continuum models for granular mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Joe

    2014-03-01

    Most currently popular continuum models for granular media are special cases of a generalized Maxwell fluid model, which describes the evolution of stress and internal variables such as granular particle fraction and fabric,in terms of imposed strain rate. It is shown how such models can be obtained from two scalar potentials, a standard elastic free energy and a ``dissipation potential'' given rigorously by the mathematical theory of Edelen. This allows for a relatively easy derivation of properly invariant continuum models for granular media and fluid-particle suspensions within a thermodynamically consistent framework. The resulting continuum models encompass all the prominent regimes of granular flow, ranging from the quasi-static to rapidly sheared, and are readily extended to include higher-gradient or Cosserat effects. Models involving stress diffusion, such as that proposed recently by Kamrin and Koval (PRL 108 178301), provide an alternative approach that is mentioned in passing. This paper provides a brief overview of a forthcoming review articles by the speaker (The Princeton Companion to Applied Mathematics, and Appl. Mech. Rev.,in the press, 2013).

  2. EPA'S RESEARCH PROGRAM IN GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research into Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) for use in drinking water treatment has a long history in the Drinking Water Research Division and its predecessor organizations. tudies were conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service in the late fifties and early sixties to examine...

  3. Multi-scale modelling of granular avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Krishna; Soga, Kenichi; Delenne, Jean-Yves

    2013-06-01

    Avalanches, debris flows, and landslides are geophysical hazards, which involve rapid mass movement of granular solids, water and air as a single-phase system. The dynamics of a granular flow involve at least three distinct scales: the micro-scale, meso-scale, and the macro-scale. This study aims to understand the ability of continuum models to capture the micro-mechanics of dry granular collapse. Material Point Method (MPM), a hybrid Lagrangian and Eulerian approach, with Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion is used to describe the continuum behaviour of granular column collapse, while the micromechanics is captured using Discrete Element Method (DEM) with tangential contact force model. The run-out profile predicted by the continuum simulations matches with DEM simulations for columns with small aspect ratios (`h/r' < 2), however MPM predicts larger run-out distances for columns with higher aspect ratios (`h/r' > 2). Energy evolution studies in DEM simulations reveal higher collisional dissipation in the initial free-fall regime for tall columns. The lack of a collisional energy dissipation mechanism in MPM simulations results in larger run-out distances. Micro-structural effects, such as shear band formations, were observed both in DEM and MPM simulations. A sliding flow regime is observed above the distinct passive zone at the core of the column. Velocity profiles obtained from both the scales are compared to understand the reason for a slow flow run-out mobilization in MPM simulations.

  4. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment is a physicochemical process that removes a wide variety of contaminants by adsorbing them from liquid and gas streams [1, p. 6-3]. This treatment is most commonly used to separate organic contaminants from water or air; however, it can b...

  5. Granular dynamics under shear with deformable boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Drew; Backhaus, Scott; Ecke, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Granular materials under shear develop complex patterns of stress as the result of granular positional rearrangements under an applied load. We consider the simple planar shear of a quasi two-dimensional granular material consisting of bi-dispersed nylon cylinders confined between deformable boundaries. The aspect ratio of the gap width to total system length is 50, and the ratio of particle diameter to gap width is about 10. This system, designed to model a long earthquake fault with long range elastic coupling through the plates, is an interesting model system for understanding effective granular friction because it essentially self tunes to the jamming condition owing to the hardness of the grains relative to that of the boundary material, a ratio of more than 1000 in elastic moduli. We measure the differential strain displacements of the plates, the inhomogeneous stress distribution in the plates, the positions and angular orientations of the individual grains, and the shear force, all as functions of the applied normal stress. There is significant stick-slip motion in this system that we quantify through our quantitative measurements of both the boundary and the grain motion, resulting in a good characterization of this sheared 2D hard sphere system.

  6. DOWNFLOW GRANULAR FILTRATION OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of downflow granular filters subjected to effluents from activated sludge processes was investigated at the EPA-DC Pilot Plant in Washington, D.C. Several media combinations were investigated, including both single anthracite and dual anthracite-sand configuration...

  7. Granular materials interacting with thin flexible rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, Alfredo Gay; Campello, Eduardo M. B.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we develop a computational model for the simulation of problems wherein granular materials interact with thin flexible rods. We treat granular materials as a collection of spherical particles following a discrete element method (DEM) approach, while flexible rods are described by a large deformation finite element (FEM) rod formulation. Grain-to-grain, grain-to-rod, and rod-to-rod contacts are fully permitted and resolved. A simple and efficient strategy is proposed for coupling the motion of the two types (discrete and continuum) of materials within an iterative time-stepping solution scheme. Implementation details are shown and discussed. Validity and applicability of the model are assessed by means of a few numerical examples. We believe that robust, efficiently coupled DEM-FEM schemes can be a useful tool to the simulation of problems wherein granular materials interact with thin flexible rods, such as (but not limited to) bombardment of grains on beam structures, flow of granular materials over surfaces covered by threads of hair in many biological processes, flow of grains through filters and strainers in various industrial segregation processes, and many others.

  8. Does surface roughness amplify wetting?

    SciTech Connect

    Malijevský, Alexandr

    2014-11-14

    Any solid surface is intrinsically rough on the microscopic scale. In this paper, we study the effect of this roughness on the wetting properties of hydrophilic substrates. Macroscopic arguments, such as those leading to the well-known Wenzel's law, predict that surface roughness should amplify the wetting properties of such adsorbents. We use a fundamental measure density functional theory to demonstrate the opposite effect from roughness for microscopically corrugated surfaces, i.e., wetting is hindered. Based on three independent analyses we show that microscopic surface corrugation increases the wetting temperature or even makes the surface hydrophobic. Since for macroscopically corrugated surfaces the solid texture does indeed amplify wetting there must exist a crossover between two length-scale regimes that are distinguished by opposite response on surface roughening. This demonstrates how deceptive can be efforts to extend the thermodynamical laws beyond their macroscopic territory.

  9. Underwater wet welding of steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, S.; Liu, S.; Olson, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    Underwater wet welding is conducted directly in water with the shielded metal arc (SMA) and flux cored arc (FCA) welding processes. Underwater wet welding has been demonstrated as an acceptable repair technique down to 100 meters (325 ft.) in depth, but wet welds have been attempted on carbon steel structures down to 200 meters (650 ft.). The primary purpose of this interpretive report is to document and evaluate current understanding of metallurgical behavior of underwater wet welds so that new welding consumables can be designed and new welding practices can be developed for fabrication and repair of high strength steel structures at greater depths. First the pyrometallurgical and physical metallurgy behaviors of underwater weldments are discussed. Second, modifications of the welding consumables and processes are suggested to enhance the ability to apply wet welding techniques.

  10. Vortex Transport in Thickness-Modulated Granular Aluminum Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demann, August; Mueller, Sara; Field, Stuart; Liu, Yaohua; Reich, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    The nature of superconducting vortices driven in a periodic potential has been the subject of much recent theoretical and experimental interest. We report here the results of transport studies of vortex dynamics in a periodic potential fabricated using a novel technique; this technique yields exceptionally smooth, nearly sinusoidal potentials that are ideal for the investigation of both static and dynamics vortex configurations. Our method starts with a glass substrate into which a periodic square-wave grating is fabricated by electron-beam lithography followed by a subsequent wet etch. The period of the gratings is ~ 2 ? m. A subsequent annealing step at 650 C smooths the grating into a sinusoidal profile. Finally, a low-pinning granular aluminum film, with Tc ~ 1 . 7 K, is evaporated onto this substrate at an angle with respect to the normal, leading to a superconducting film that also has a sinusoidal modulation in its thickness. We have performed experiments comparing the transport properties of these modulated films to flat films grown at the same time; the modulated films show clear signatures of an increased critical current and effects due to matching and commensurability. Work Supported by NSF DMR-0308669 and DOE-BES SC0008482.

  11. Influence of magnetic cohesion on the stability of granular slopes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, K; King, P J; Swift, Michael R

    2008-09-01

    We use a molecular dynamics model to simulate the formation and evolution of a granular pile in two dimensions in order to gain a better understanding of the role of magnetic interactions in avalanche dynamics. We find that the angle of repose increases only slowly with magnetic field; the increase in angle is small even for intergrain cohesive forces many times stronger than gravity. The magnetic forces within the bulk of the pile partially cancel as a result of the anisotropic nature of the dipole-dipole interaction between grains. However, we show that this cancellation effect is not sufficiently strong to explain the discrepancy between the angle of repose in wet systems and magnetically cohesive systems. In our simulations we observe shearing deep within the pile, and we argue that it is this motion that prevents the angle of repose from increasing dramatically. We also investigate different implementations of friction with the front and back walls of the container, and conclude that the nature of the friction dramatically affects the influence of magnetic cohesion on the angle of repose. PMID:18851028

  12. Controls of Bedrock Erosion by Granular Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, S. W.; Tucker, G. E.

    2008-12-01

    There is mounting evidence that episodic scour by debris flows can be a significant transport and erosional process in high gradient valleys, yet there is not an agreed upon mechanical framework of how debris flows erode these steep bedrock valleys. To understand the evolution of steep topography we must understand the physical processes that control valley incision by debris flows. Field observations in many different settings and rock types indicate an abundance of wear features characteristic of brittle failure due to discrete particle impacts. Further, close inspection of smooth bedrock channels can reveal occasional scratches that indicate wear by sliding debris, a phenomenon also seen in laboratory experiments. With these observations in mind we use discrete element simulations of dry granular flows to investigate interactions between the flow and the subjacent bed. With this type of computer simulation, particle-particle and particle-boundary interactions are modeled explicitly for every particle and boundary in the system. This allows measurement of variables difficult to characterize in experiments and continuum type models. The granular simulations are first validated with comparisons to quantities measurable in analog experiments. We then use the simulations to explore two aspects of granular flow. First, how does the efficiency of impact and abrasion wear of a granular flow change as a function of field-measurable flow characteristics? Second, what aspects of the actual granular mechanics change to make the flow more or less erosive? We hypothesize that changes in granular properties such as distance traveled between impacts, the extent of force networks, contact time distributions, and slide distance will correlate with changes in erosive efficiency of the flow. We track these properties throughout the flow simulation. Using impact energy and particle-bed contact forces as proxies for the erosional potential of the flow the simulations predict how the magnitude of bed erosion should scale with field-measurable properties (e.g. grain size distribution, flow thickness, slope of the bed and bed roughness). These simulations illuminate the link between granular mechanics, scaling behavior, and field-measurable properties, and this in turn provides elements needed to formulate a mechanical theory for impact wear by debris flows.

  13. Cohesion, granular solids, granular liquids, and their connection to small near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, P.; Scheeres, D.

    2014-07-01

    During the last 15 years or so, the Planetary Sciences community has been using Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulation codes to study small near-Earth objects (NEOs). In general, these codes treat gravitational aggregates as conglomerates of spherical particles; a good approximation given that many asteroids are self-gravitating granular media. Unfortunately, the degree of sophistication of these codes, and our own understanding, has not been high enough as to appropriately represent realistic physical properties of granular matter. In particular, angles of friction (θ) and cohesive strength (σ_c) of the aggregates were rarely taken in consideration and this could have led to unrealistic dynamics, and therefore, unrealistic conclusions about the dynamical evolution of small NEOs. In our research, we explore the failure mechanics of spherical (r=71 m) and ellipsoidal (r_1=92 m) self-gravitating aggregates with different angles of friction and values for their cohesive strength, in order to better understand the geophysics of rubble-pile asteroids. In particular we focused on the deformation and different disruption modes provoked by an always increasing angular velocity (spin rate). Scaling arguments allow us to regard simulations with the same aggregate size and different σ_c as equivalent to simulations of aggregates of different size and the same σ_c. We use a computational code that implements a Soft-Sphere DEM. The aggregates are composed by 3,000 spherical solid spheres (7--10 m) with 6 degrees of freedom. The code calculates normal, as well as, frictional (tangential) contact forces by means of soft potentials and the aggregate as a whole mimics the effect of non- spherical particles through the implementation of rolling friction. Cohesive forces, and a cohesive stress, are calculated as the net effect of the sum of the van der Waals forces between the smaller regolith, sand and dust (powder) that are present in real asteroids [1]. These finer materials form a matrix of sorts that holds the bigger boulders together. The aggregates were slowly spun up to disruption controlling for angle of friction, cohesion and global shape. Systems with no frictional forces had θ≈ 12° and are in effect granular liquids in the best case scenario. Systems with only surface-surface friction had θ≈ 25°, which is typical in laboratory experiments with spherical glass beads. Systems that also implemented rolling friction had θ≈ 35°, which is typical of non-cohesive granular media on the Earth. How much each aggregate deformed before disruption was directly related to the angle of friction. The greater θ allowed for much less deformation before disruption. Cohesive forces on the other hand controlled the mode of disruption and maximum spin rate and showed that the change from shedding to fission is continuous and therefore, they should not be seen as different disruption processes. The figure shows the deformation and disruption of three initially spherical aggregates (left) and three initially ellipsoidal aggregates (right) with increasing cohesive strength from left to right (θ≈ 35°). Through scaling arguments we could also see these aggregates as having the exact same σ_c=25 Pa but different sizes. If we do that, the aggregates measure about 1.6 km, 5 km, and 22 km, and the particles, or groups of particles being detached now have similar sizes. This has now become a problem of resolution, i.e., the number and size of particles used in a simulation. These results start to raise fundamental questions regarding the difference between shedding and fission. Is it shedding when it is dust grain by dust grain ejection from the main body or when it is in groups of 10, 100, or 100,000 dust particles? Is it fission when a 1-m piece of the asteroid detaches or when it splits in the middle? Which values of θ and σ_c are realistic? These and other questions will be explored.

  14. From principal curves to granular principal curves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyun; Pedrycz, Witold; Miao, Duoqian; Wei, Zhihua

    2014-06-01

    Principal curves arising as an essential construct in dimensionality reduction and data analysis have recently attracted much attention from theoretical as well as practical perspective. In many real-world situations, however, the efficiency of existing principal curves algorithms is often arguable, in particular when dealing with massive data owing to the associated high computational complexity. A certain drawback of these constructs stems from the fact that in several applications principal curves cannot fully capture some essential problem-oriented facets of the data dealing with width, aspect ratio, width change, etc. Information granulation is a powerful tool supporting processing and interpreting massive data. In this paper, invoking the underlying ideas of information granulation, we propose a granular principal curves approach, regarded as an extension of principal curves algorithms, to improve efficiency and achieve a sound accuracy-efficiency tradeoff. First, large amounts of numerical data are granulated into C intervals-information granules developed with the use of fuzzy C-means clustering and the two criteria of information granulation, which significantly reduce the amount of data to be processed at the later phase of the overall design. Granular principal curves are then constructed by determining the upper and the lower bounds of the interval data. Finally, we develop an objective function using the criteria of information confidence and specificity to evaluate the granular output formed by the principal curves. We also optimize the granular principal curves by adjusting the level of information granularity (the number of clusters), which is realized with the aid of the particle swarm optimization. A number of numeric studies completed for synthetic and real-world datasets provide a useful quantifiable insight into the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:23996588

  15. Self-assembly of granular crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shattuck, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Acoustic meta-materials are engineered materials with the ability to control, direct, and manipulate sound waves. Since the 1990s, several groups have developed acoustic meta-materials with novel capabilities including negative index materials for acoustic super-lenses, phononic crystals with acoustic band gaps for wave guides and mirrors, and acoustic cloaking device. Most previous work on acoustic meta-materials has focused on continuum solids and fluids. In contrast, we report on coordinated computational and experimental studies to use macro-self-assembly of granular materials to produce acoustic meta-materials. The advantages of granular acoustic materials are three-fold: 1) Microscopic control: The discrete nature of granular media allows us to optimize acoustic properties on both the grain and network scales. 2) Tunability: The speed of sound in granular media depends strongly on pressure due to non-linear contact interactions and contact breaking. 3) Direct visualization: The macro-scale size of the grains enables visualization of the structure and stress propagation within granular assemblies. We report simulations and experiments of vibrated particles that form a variety of self-assembled ordered structures in two- and three-dimensions. In the simplest case of mono-disperse spheres, using a combination of pressure and vibration we produce crystals with long-range order on the scale of 100's of particles. Using special particle shapes that form ``lock and key'' structures we are able to make binary crystals with prescribed stoichiometries. We discuss the mechanical properties of these structures and methods to create more complicated structures.

  16. Granular Mechanics in the Asteroid Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Paul; Swift, M. R.; Scheeres, D. J.

    2009-09-01

    We study the granular mechanics properties of asteroid regolith and of asteroids modeled as gravitational aggregates using soft-sphere molecular simulation codes. For definiteness we assume parameters similar to the asteroid Itokawa, for which we have detailed observational data. Essential questions that can be studied using the techniques of granular mechanics are why large blocks dominate 80% of the surface of Itokawa and why the remaining 20% is uniformly covered with smaller particles, indicating global segregation mechanisms at work on this body. The prime energy source proposed for the segregation of granular materials on asteroids has been seismic shaking due to hypervelocity impacts with asteroids much smaller than the target body. We analyze the detailed mechanics of segregation physics in the asteroid environment due to such interactions. First we analyze the so-called Brazil Nut Effect (BNE), which preferentially causes larger particles to rise to the highest potential energy in a granular material. We note that the regions of highest potential on Itokawa are dominated by larger blocks, while the potential lows are dominated by smaller blocks. We verify and characterise the BNE effect in an asteroid environment under a variety of boundary and shaking conditions. We also extend our analyses to a global-scale simulation of aggregates, modeling the response of self-gravitating granules of a mixture of sizes to impacts. Analysis of such global-scale systems show additional mechanics that may account for the exposure of large blocks on the surface. Specifically we find that hypervelocity impacts are more effective in removing and transporting smaller regolith, exposing sub-surface larger blocks that might otherwise be covered in finer grained material. We discuss the scaling of granular mechanics effects from local regolith to global aggregate scale.

  17. Wet Mars, Dry Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, Matthew; Brain, D.; Peticolas, L.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K.; Thrall, L.

    2012-10-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This poster highlights the third in a series of presentations that target school-age audiences with the overall goal of helping the audience visualize planetary magnetic field and understand how they can impact the climatic evolution of a planet. Our first presentation, "Goldilocks and the Three Planets," targeted to elementary school age audiences, focuses on the differences in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars and the causes of the differences. The second presentation, "Lost on Mars (and Venus)," geared toward a middle school age audience, highlights the differences in the magnetic fields of these planets and what we can learn from these differences. Finally, in the third presentation, "Wet Mars, Dry Mars," targeted to high school age audiences and the focus of this poster, the emphasis is on the long term climatic affects of the presence or absence of a magnetic field using the contrasts between Earth and Mars. These presentations are given using visually engaging spherical displays in conjunction with hands-on activities and scientifically accurate 3D models of planetary magnetic fields. We will summarize the content of our presentations, discuss our "lessons learned" from formative evaluation, and show (pictures of) our hands-on activities and 3D models.

  18. Wet Mars, Dry Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Brain, D. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K. W.; Thrall, L.

    2012-12-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This poster highlights the third in a series of presentations that target school-age audiences with the overall goal of helping the audience visualize planetary magnetic field and understand how they can impact the climatic evolution of a planet. Our first presentation, "Goldilocks and the Three Planets," targeted to elementary school age audiences, focuses on the differences in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars and the causes of the differences. The second presentation, "Lost on Mars (and Venus)," geared toward a middle school age audience, highlights the differences in the magnetic fields of these planets and what we can learn from these differences. Finally, in the third presentation, "Wet Mars, Dry Mars," targeted to high school age audiences and the focus of this poster, the emphasis is on the long term climatic affects of the presence or absence of a magnetic field using the contrasts between Earth and Mars. These presentations are given using visually engaging spherical displays in conjunction with hands-on activities and scientifically accurate 3D models of planetary magnetic fields. We will summarize the content of our presentations, discuss our lessons learned from evaluations, and show (pictures of) our hands-on activities and 3D models.

  19. Low biosorption of PVA coated engineered magnetic nanoparticles in granular sludge assessed by magnetic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Herrling, Maria P; Fetsch, Katharina L; Delay, Markus; Blauert, Florian; Wagner, Michael; Franzreb, Matthias; Horn, Harald; Lackner, Susanne

    2015-12-15

    When engineered nanoparticles (ENP) enter into wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) their removal from the water phase is driven by the interactions with the biomass in the biological treatment step. While studies focus on the interactions with activated flocculent sludge, investigations on the detailed distribution of ENP in other types of biomass, such as granulated sludge, are needed to assess their potential environmental pollution. This study employed engineered magnetic nanoparticles (EMNP) coated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as model nanoparticles to trace their fate in granular sludge from WWT. For the first time, magnetic susceptibility was used as a simple approach for the in-situ quantification of EMNP with a high precision (error <2%). Compared to other analytical methods, the magnetic susceptibility requires no sample preparation and enabled direct quantification of EMNP in both the aqueous phase and the granular sludge. In batch experiments granular sludge was exposed to EMNP suspensions for 18 h. The results revealed that the removal of EMNP from the water phase (5-35%) and biosorption in the granular sludge were rather low. Less than 2.4% of the initially added EMNP were associated with the biomass. Loosely bounded to the granular sludge, desorption of EMNP occurred. Consequently, the removal of EMNP was mainly driven by physical co-sedimentation with the biomass instead of sorption processes. A mass balance elucidated that the majority of EMNP were stabilized by particulate organic matter in the water phase and can therefore likely be transported further. The magnetic susceptibility enabled tracing EMNP in complex matrices and thus improves the understanding of the general distribution of ENP in technical as well as environmental systems. PMID:26282738

  20. Statistical mechanics of dry granular materials: Between fragile solid (jamming) and dry fluid (rheology)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivier, Nicolas; Fortin, Jean-Yves

    2013-06-01

    Dry granular matter, with infinite tangential friction, is modeled as a connected graph of grains linked by purely repulsive contacts. The degrees of freedom of a grain are non-slip rotation on, and disconnection from another. The material stability under shear (jamming) is ensured by odd circuits of grains in contact that prevent the grains from rolling on each other. A dense hard granular material has two possible states: fragile solid, blocked by odd circuits, and dry fluid or bearing, in the absence of odd circuits, that flows under shear by creation and glide of a pair of dislocations as in plasticity of continuous media. We did introduce the notions of blob, a region of the material containing only even circuits, and of critical contact that closes an odd circuit. The granular material is then represented, at low energies and critical applied shear, as a chain of blobs connected by critical contacts. The entropy is the logarithm of the number of spanning trees constrained to go through critical links. For a vanishing tangential friction, the graph description with the frustrating odd circuits is still valid, because the force between grains remains a scalar and repulsive. A granular material inside a cylindrical drum rotating at constant velocity around its horizontal axis alternates intermittently between solid and fluid states. As a fragile solid, it follows a limit cycle of avalanches (slip) and stuck rotations with the drum. This is the stick-slip behavior of a solid subjected to solid friction (to the driving drum) and gravity. In the fluid state, the friction is viscous and the granular material flows to a fixed point with constant slope.

  1. WET AND DRY SCRUBBERS FOR EMISSION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generally speaking, absorption equipment includes two major categories: Wet adsorption scrubbers (or wet scrubbers); Dry absorption scrubbers (or dry scrubbers).
    Wet scrubbers: As the name implies, wet scrubbers (also known as wet collectors) are devices which use a liquid fo...

  2. Supporting user-defined granularities in a spatiotemporal conceptual model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khatri, V.; Ram, S.; Snodgrass, R.T.; O'Brien, G. M.

    2002-01-01

    Granularities are integral to spatial and temporal data. A large number of applications require storage of facts along with their temporal and spatial context, which needs to be expressed in terms of appropriate granularities. For many real-world applications, a single granularity in the database is insufficient. In order to support any type of spatial or temporal reasoning, the semantics related to granularities needs to be embedded in the database. Specifying granularities related to facts is an important part of conceptual database design because under-specifying the granularity can restrict an application, affect the relative ordering of events and impact the topological relationships. Closely related to granularities is indeterminacy, i.e., an occurrence time or location associated with a fact that is not known exactly. In this paper, we present an ontology for spatial granularities that is a natural analog of temporal granularities. We propose an upward-compatible, annotation-based spatiotemporal conceptual model that can comprehensively capture the semantics related to spatial and temporal granularities, and indeterminacy without requiring new spatiotemporal constructs. We specify the formal semantics of this spatiotemporal conceptual model via translation to a conventional conceptual model. To underscore the practical focus of our approach, we describe an on-going case study. We apply our approach to a hydrogeologic application at the United States Geologic Survey and demonstrate that our proposed granularity-based spatiotemporal conceptual model is straightforward to use and is comprehensive.

  3. Tap density equations of granular powders based on the rate process theory and the free volume concept.

    PubMed

    Hao, Tian

    2015-02-28

    The tap density of a granular powder is often linked to the flowability via the Carr index that measures how tight a powder can be packed, under an assumption that more easily packed powders usually flow poorly. Understanding how particles are packed is important for revealing why a powder flows better than others. There are two types of empirical equations that were proposed to fit the experimental data of packing fractions vs. numbers of taps in the literature: the inverse logarithmic and the stretched exponential. Using the rate process theory and the free volume concept under the assumption that particles will obey similar thermodynamic laws during the tapping process if the "granular temperature" is defined in a different way, we obtain the tap density equations, and they are reducible to the two empirical equations currently widely used in literature. Our equations could potentially fit experimental data better with an additional adjustable parameter. The tapping amplitude and frequency, the weight of the granular materials, and the environmental temperature are grouped into this parameter that weighs the pace of the packing process. The current results, in conjunction with our previous findings, may imply that both "dry" (granular) and "wet" (colloidal and polymeric) particle systems are governed by the same physical mechanisms in term of the role of the free volume and how particles behave (a rate controlled process). PMID:25589375

  4. Structure of granular clusters formed by capillary aggregation analyzed with Voronoi diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berhanu, Michael; Kudrolli, Arshad

    2010-03-01

    We investigate the spatial structure of particle aggregates floating at an air-liquid interface as a model system to understand heterogeneity of cohesive granular matter. The meniscus around identical floating particles introduces short range capillary attraction between the particles. In our experimental system, we increase slowly and continuously the particle number density to observe significant structural transformations. After imaging and tracking all the particles, the structure is characterized quantitatively by using Voronoi diagrams which allow us to elucidate small and large scale properties. We show that the system is organized by attraction for low and intermediate densities, which creates a short range order and gives it heterogeneity with pores of various sizes. As the free pore space are filled at high density, the role of attraction becomes less important compared with steric effects and aggregates show characteristics similar to non-cohesive granular media. Mechanical properties of aggregates will be also discussed in light of jamming transition for attractive athermal particles.

  5. Nonlinear Effects in Granular Crystals with Broken Periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lydon, Joseph John, II

    When studying physical systems, it is common to make approximations: the contact interaction is linear, the crystal is periodic, the variations occurs slowly, the mass of a particle is constant with velocity, or the position of a particle is exactly known are just a few examples. These approximations help us simplify complex systems to make them more comprehensible while still demonstrating interesting physics. But what happens when these assumptions break down? This question becomes particularly interesting in the materials science community in designing new materials structures with exotic properties In this thesis, we study the mechanical response and dynamics in granular crystals, in which the approximation of linearity and infinite size break down. The system is inherently finite, and contact interaction can be tuned to access different nonlinear regimes. When the assumptions of linearity and perfect periodicity are no longer valid, a host of interesting physical phenomena presents itself. The advantage of using a granular crystal is in its experimental feasibility and its similarity to many other materials systems. This allows us to both leverage past experience in the condensed matter physics and materials science communities while also presenting results with implications beyond the narrower granular physics community. In addition, we bring tools from the nonlinear systems community to study the dynamics in finite lattices, where there are inherently more degrees of freedom. This approach leads to the major contributions of this thesis in broken periodic systems. We demonstrate the first defect mode whose spatial profile can be tuned from highly localized to completely delocalized by simply tuning an external parameter. Using the sensitive dynamics near bifurcation points, we present a completely new approach to modifying the incremental stiffness of a lattice to arbitrary values. We show how using nonlinear defect modes, the incremental stiffness can be tuned to anywhere in the force-displacement relation. Other contributions include demonstrating nonlinear breakdown of mechanical filters as a result of finite size, and the presents of frequency attenuation bands in essentially nonlinear materials. We finish by presenting two new energy harvesting systems based on our experience with instabilities in weakly nonlinear systems.

  6. Forced wetting and hydrodynamic assist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Terence D.; Fernandez-Toledano, Juan-Carlos; Doyen, Guillaume; De Coninck, Joël

    2015-11-01

    Wetting is a prerequisite for coating a uniform layer of liquid onto a solid. Wetting failure and air entrainment set the ultimate limit to coating speed. It is well known in the coating art that this limit can be postponed by manipulating the coating flow to generate what has been termed "hydrodynamic assist," but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Experiments have shown that the conditions that postpone air entrainment also reduce the apparent dynamic contact angle, suggesting a direct link, but how the flow might affect the contact angle remains to be established. Here, we use molecular dynamics to compare the outcome of steady forced wetting with previous results for the spontaneous spreading of liquid drops and apply the molecular-kinetic theory of dynamic wetting to rationalize our findings and place them on a quantitative footing. The forced wetting simulations reveal significant slip at the solid-liquid interface and details of the flow immediately adjacent to the moving contact line. Our results confirm that the local, microscopic contact angle is dependent not simply only on the velocity of wetting but also on the nature of the flow that drives it. In particular, they support an earlier suggestion that during forced wetting, an intense shear stress in the vicinity of the contact line can assist surface tension forces in promoting dynamic wetting, thus reducing the velocity-dependence of the contact angle. Hydrodynamic assist then appears as a natural consequence of wetting that emerges when the contact line is driven by a strong and highly confined flow. Our theoretical approach also provides a self-consistent model of molecular slip at the solid-liquid interface that enables its magnitude to be estimated from dynamic contact angle measurements. In addition, the model predicts how hydrodynamic assist and slip may be influenced by liquid viscosity and solid-liquid interactions.

  7. The design of free structure granular mappings: the use of the principle of justifiable granularity.

    PubMed

    Pedrycz, Witold; Al-Hmouz, Rami; Morfeq, Ali; Balamash, Abdullah

    2013-12-01

    The study introduces a concept of mappings realized in presence of information granules and offers a design framework supporting the formation of such mappings. Information granules are conceptually meaningful entities formed on a basis of a large number of experimental input–output numeric data available for the construction of the model. We develop a conceptually and algorithmically sound way of forming information granules. Considering the directional nature of the mapping to be formed, this directionality aspect needs to be taken into account when developing information granules. The property of directionality implies that while the information granules in the input space could be constructed with a great deal of flexibility, the information granules formed in the output space have to inherently relate to those built in the input space. The input space is granulated by running a clustering algorithm; for illustrative purposes, the focus here is on fuzzy clustering realized with the aid of the fuzzy C-means algorithm. The information granules in the output space are constructed with the aid of the principle of justifiable granularity (being one of the underlying fundamental conceptual pursuits of Granular Computing). The construct exhibits two important features. First, the constructed information granules are formed in the presence of information granules already constructed in the input space (and this realization is reflective of the direction of the mapping from the input to the output space). Second, the principle of justifiable granularity does not confine the realization of information granules to a single formalism such as fuzzy sets but helps form the granules expressed any required formalism of information granulation. The quality of the granular mapping (viz. the mapping realized for the information granules formed in the input and output spaces) is expressed in terms of the coverage criterion (articulating how well the experimental data are “covered” by information granules produced by the granular mapping for any input experimental data). Some parametric studies are reported by quantifying the performance of the granular mapping (expressed in terms of the coverage and specificity criteria) versus the values of a certain parameters utilized in the construction of output information granules through the principle of justifiable granularity. The plots of coverage–specificity dependency help determine a knee point and reach a sound compromise between these two conflicting requirements imposed on the quality of the granular mapping. Furthermore, quantified is the quality of the mapping with regard to the number of information granules (implying a certain granularity of the mapping). A series of experiments is reported as well. PMID:23757519

  8. Modeling force transmission in granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radjai, Farhang

    2015-01-01

    The probability density function of contact forces in granular materials has been extensively studied and modeled as an outstanding signature of granular microstructure. Arguing that particle environments play a fundamental role in force transmission, we analyze the effects of steric constraints with respect to force balance condition and show that each force may be considered as resulting from a balance between lower and larger forces in proportions that mainly depend on steric effects. This idea leads to a general model that predicts an analytical expression of force density with a single free parameter. This expression fits well our simulation data and generically predicts the exponential fall-off of strong forces, a small peak below the mean force and the non-zero probability of vanishingly small forces.

  9. Compaction of granular material inside confined geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Benjy; Sandnes, Bjornar; Dumazer, Guillaume; Eriksen, Jon Alm; Måløy, Knut Jørgen

    2015-06-01

    In both nature and the laboratory, loosely packed granular materials are often compacted inside confined geometries. Here, we explore such behaviour in a quasi-two dimensional geometry, where parallel rigid walls provide the confinement. We use the discrete element method to investigate the stress distribution developed within the granular packing as a result of compaction due to the displacement of a rigid piston. We observe that the stress within the packing increases exponentially with the length of accumulated grains, and show an extension to current analytic models which fits the measured stress. The micromechanical behaviour is studied for a range of system parameters, and the limitations of existing analytic models are described. In particular, we show the smallest sized systems which can be treated using existing models. Additionally, the effects of increasing piston rate, and variations of the initial packing fraction, are described.

  10. Surface waves in granular phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichard, H.; Duclos, A.; Groby, J.-P.; Tournat, V.; Zheng, L.; Gusev, V. E.

    2016-02-01

    The existence of surface elastic waves at a mechanically free surface of granular phononic crystals is studied. The granular phononic crystals are made of spherical particles distributed periodically on a simple cubic lattice. It is assumed that the particles are interacting by means of normal, shear, and bending contact rigidities. First, Rayleigh-type surface acoustic waves, where the displacement of the particles takes place in the sagittal plane while the particles possess one rotational and two translational degrees of freedom, are analyzed. Second, shear-horizontal-type waves, where the displacement of the particles is normal to the sagittal plane while the particles possess one translational and two rotational degrees of freedom are studied. The existence of zero-group-velocity surface acoustic waves of Rayleigh type is theoretically predicted and interpreted. A comparison with surface waves predicted by the reduced Cosserat theory is performed, and some limitations of the latter are established.

  11. Maximizing energy transfer in vibrofluidized granular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windows-Yule, C. R. K.; Rosato, A. D.; Parker, D. J.; Thornton, A. R.

    2015-05-01

    Using discrete particle simulations validated by experimental data acquired using the positron emission particle tracking technique, we study the efficiency of energy transfer from a vibrating wall to a system of discrete, macroscopic particles. We demonstrate that even for a fixed input energy from the wall, energy conveyed to the granular system under excitation may vary significantly dependent on the frequency and amplitude of the driving oscillations. We investigate the manner in which the efficiency with which energy is transferred to the system depends on the system variables and determine the key control parameters governing the optimization of this energy transfer. A mechanism capable of explaining our results is proposed, and the implications of our findings in the research field of granular dynamics as well as their possible utilization in industrial applications are discussed.

  12. Granular Quality Reporting for Cervical Cytology Testing

    PubMed Central

    Wagholikar, Kavishwar B.; MacLaughlin, Kathy L.; Chute, Christopher G.; Greenes, Robert A.; Liu, Hongfang; Chaudhry, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    Quality reporting for cervical cancer prevention is focused on patients with normal cervical cytology, and excludes patients with cytological abnormalities that may be at higher risk. The major obstacles for granular reporting are the complexity of surveillance guidelines and free-text data. We performed automated chart review to compare the cytology testing rates for patients with ’atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance’ (ASCUS) cytology, with the rates for patients with normal cytology. We modeled the surveillance guidelines, and extracted information from free-text cytology reports, to perform this study on 28101 female patients. Our results show that patients with ASCUS cytology had significantly higher adherence rates (94.9%) than those for patients with normal cytology (90.4%). Overall our study indicates that the quality of care varies significantly between the high and average risk patients. Our study demonstrates the use of health information technology for higher granularity of reporting for cervical cytology testing. PMID:26306264

  13. Plant Root Growth In Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendell, Dawn; Hosoi, Peko

    2010-03-01

    Roots grow in a variety of granular substrates. However, the substrates are often treated in ways which minimize or neglect the inhomogeneities arising from the influence of inter-particle forces. Experiments are often run using gels or average stress measurements. This presentation discusses the effect of the local structure of the particulate environment on the root's direction. Using photoelastic particles and particles with a variety of Young's Moduli, we investigate the influence of inter-particle forces and particle stiffness on a pinto bean root's ability to grow through a fully-saturated granular medium. The level of particle contact force through which the roots successfully grow is determined and the influence of particle stiffness on root direction is investigated.

  14. Capillary movement of liquid in granular beds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yendler, Boris; Webbon, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Knowledge of capillary migration of liquids in granular beds in microgravity is essential for the development of a substrate based nutrient delivery sytem for the growth of plants in space. This problem is also interesting from the theoretical as well as the practical point of view. The purpose of this study was to model capillary water propagation through a granular bed in microgravity. In our ground experiments, water propagation is driven primarily by capillary force. Data for spherical partical sizes in the range from 0.46 to 2 mm have been obtained. It was shown that the velocity of water propagation is very sensitive to particle size. Theoretical consideration is also provided. Actual space flight experiments are planned for the future to confirm our results.

  15. Erosion and flow of hydrophobic granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utter, Brian; Benns, Thomas; Foltz, Benjamin; Mahler, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    We experimentally investigate submerged granular flows of hydrophobic and hydrophilic grains both in a rotating drum geometry and under erosion by a surface water flow. While slurry and suspension flows are common in nature and industry, effects of surface chemistry on flow behavior have received relatively little attention. In the rotating drum, we use varying concentrations of hydrophobic and hydrophilic grains of sand submerged in water rotated at a constant angular velocity. Sequential images of the resulting avalanches are taken and analyzed. High concentrations of hydrophobic grains result in an effectively cohesive interaction between the grains forming aggregates, with aggregate size and repose angle increasing with hydrophobic concentration. However, the formation and nature of the aggregates depends significantly on the presence of air in the system. We present results from a related experiment on erosion by a surface water flow designed to characterize the effects of heterogeneous granular surfaces on channelization and erosion.

  16. Writing in the granular gel medium

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Tapomoy; Zehnder, Steven M.; Rowe, Kyle G.; Jain, Suhani; Nixon, Ryan M.; Sawyer, W. Gregory; Angelini, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Gels made from soft microscale particles smoothly transition between the fluid and solid states, making them an ideal medium in which to create macroscopic structures with microscopic precision. While tracing out spatial paths with an injection tip, the granular gel fluidizes at the point of injection and then rapidly solidifies, trapping injected material in place. This physical approach to creating three-dimensional (3D) structures negates the effects of surface tension, gravity, and particle diffusion, allowing a limitless breadth of materials to be written. With this method, we used silicones, hydrogels, colloids, and living cells to create complex large aspect ratio 3D objects, thin closed shells, and hierarchically branched tubular networks. We crosslinked polymeric materials and removed them from the granular gel, whereas uncrosslinked particulate systems were left supported within the medium for long times. This approach can be immediately used in diverse areas, contributing to tissue engineering, flexible electronics, particle engineering, smart materials, and encapsulation technologies. PMID:26601274

  17. Writing in the granular gel medium.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Tapomoy; Zehnder, Steven M; Rowe, Kyle G; Jain, Suhani; Nixon, Ryan M; Sawyer, W Gregory; Angelini, Thomas E

    2015-09-01

    Gels made from soft microscale particles smoothly transition between the fluid and solid states, making them an ideal medium in which to create macroscopic structures with microscopic precision. While tracing out spatial paths with an injection tip, the granular gel fluidizes at the point of injection and then rapidly solidifies, trapping injected material in place. This physical approach to creating three-dimensional (3D) structures negates the effects of surface tension, gravity, and particle diffusion, allowing a limitless breadth of materials to be written. With this method, we used silicones, hydrogels, colloids, and living cells to create complex large aspect ratio 3D objects, thin closed shells, and hierarchically branched tubular networks. We crosslinked polymeric materials and removed them from the granular gel, whereas uncrosslinked particulate systems were left supported within the medium for long times. This approach can be immediately used in diverse areas, contributing to tissue engineering, flexible electronics, particle engineering, smart materials, and encapsulation technologies. PMID:26601274

  18. Medical privacy protection based on granular computing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Da-Wei; Liau, Churn-Jung; Hsu, Tsan-Sheng

    2004-10-01

    Based on granular computing methodology, we propose two criteria to quantitatively measure privacy invasion. The total cost criterion measures the effort needed for a data recipient to find private information. The average benefit criterion measures the benefit a data recipient obtains when he received the released data. These two criteria remedy the inadequacy of the deterministic privacy formulation proposed in Proceedings of Asia Pacific Medical Informatics Conference, 2000; Int J Med Inform 2003;71:17-23. Granular computing methodology provides a unified framework for these quantitative measurements and previous bin size and logical approaches. These two new criteria are implemented in a prototype system Cellsecu 2.0. Preliminary system performance evaluation is conducted and reviewed. PMID:15364097

  19. Heat flux in a granular gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, J. J.; Ruiz-Montero, M. J.

    2012-11-01

    A peculiarity of the hydrodynamic Navier-Stokes equations for a granular gas is the modification of the Fourier law, with the presence of an additional contribution to the heat flux that is proportional to the density gradient. Consequently, the constitutive relation involves, in the case of a one-component granular gas, two transport coefficients: the usual (thermal) heat conductivity and a diffusive heat conductivity. A very simple physical interpretation of this effect, in terms of the mean free path and the mean free time is provided. It leads to the modified Fourier law with an expression for the diffusive Fourier coefficient that differs in a factor of the order of unity from the expression obtained by means of the inelastic Boltzmann equation. Also, some aspects of the Chapman-Enskog computation of the new transport coefficients as well as of the comparison between simulation results and theory are discussed.

  20. Mercury wetting film on sapphire.

    PubMed

    Ohmasa, Y; Kajihara, Y; Yao, M

    2001-05-01

    We have measured optical properties of a mercury wetting film on sapphire under high temperature and high pressure near the liquid-gas critical point of mercury by using a newly developed 45 degrees reflection technique. We have analyzed the experimental data to deduce the density, the thickness, and the coverage of the wetting film quantitatively as functions of pressure and temperature. As a first approximation, we have assumed a slab model for the density profile of the wetting film, and found that the density of the wetting film dslab is much smaller than that of bulk liquid at the liquid-vapor coexistence curve. This result is consistent with the Lifshitz theory, from which we may predict that the sapphire substrate prefers wetting film with density lower than the metal-nonmetal transition. When the temperature is close enough to the prewetting critical temperature Tpw(c), the effective slab density dslab shows a sharp decrease as the pressure approaches the liquid-gas coexistence. This indicates that the slab model is not sufficient to describe the shape of the wetting film, and a smooth variation of the density has to be taken into account. In the prewetting supercritical region, two anomalies are observed in the reflectances. Possible mechanisms of these anomalies are discussed. PMID:11414910

  1. Swimming in a granular frictional fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    X-ray imaging reveals that the sandfish lizard swims within granular media (sand) using axial body undulations to propel itself without the use of limbs. To model the locomotion of the sandfish, we previously developed an empirical resistive force theory (RFT), a numerical sandfish model coupled to an experimentally validated Discrete Element Method (DEM) model of the granular medium, and a physical robot model. The models reveal that only grains close to the swimmer are fluidized, and that the thrust and drag forces are dominated by frictional interactions among grains and the intruder. In this talk I will use these models to discuss principles of swimming within these granular ``frictional fluids". The empirical drag force laws are measured as the steady-state forces on a small cylinder oriented at different angles relative to the displacement direction. Unlike in Newtonian fluids, resistive forces are independent of speed. Drag forces resemble those in viscous fluids while the ratio of thrust to drag forces is always larger in the granular media than in viscous fluids. Using the force laws as inputs, the RFT overestimates swimming speed by approximately 20%. The simulation reveals that this is related to the non-instantaneous increase in force during reversals of body segments. Despite the inaccuracy of the steady-state assumption, we use the force laws and a recently developed geometric mechanics theory to predict optimal gaits for a model system that has been well-studied in Newtonian fluids, the three-link swimmer. The combination of the geometric theory and the force laws allows us to generate a kinematic relationship between the swimmer's shape and position velocities and to construct connection vector field and constraint curvature function visualizations of the system dynamics. From these we predict optimal gaits for forward, lateral and rotational motion. Experiment and simulation are in accord with the theoretical prediction, and demonstrate that swimming in sand can be viewed as movement in a localized frictional fluid.

  2. Congenital Granular Cell Tumor A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Yuwanati, Monal; Mhaske, Shubhangi; Mhaske, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Congenital granular cell tumor is a rare benign neoplastic growth affecting the gingival mucosa of neonates. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis has recently come to focus and in spite of several reports on immune-histochemical and other advanced marker studies, the cause and origin of the lesion remains debatable till date. Review of literature on prenatal diagnosis and histopathology along with immunohistochemistry is discussed. PMID:26034711

  3. Structural characterization of submerged granular packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaki?, Z. M.; ?epanovi?, J. R.; Lon?arevi?, I.; Budinski-Petkovi?, Lj.; Vrhovac, S. B.; Beli?, A.

    2014-12-01

    We consider the impact of the effective gravitational acceleration on microstructural properties of granular packings through experimental studies of spherical granular materials saturated within fluids of varying density. We characterize the local organization of spheres in terms of contact connectivity, distribution of the Delaunay free volumes, and the shape factor (parameter of nonsphericity) of the Vorono polygons. The shape factor gives a clear physical picture of the competition between less and more ordered domains of particles in experimentally obtained packings. As the effective gravity increases, the probability distribution of the shape factor becomes narrower and more localized around the lowest values of the shape factor corresponding to regular hexagon. It is found that curves of the pore distributions are asymmetric with a long tail on the right-hand side, which progressively reduces while the effective gravity gets stronger for lower densities of interstitial fluid. We show that the distribution of local areas (Vorono cells) broadens with decreasing value of the effective gravity due to the formation of lose structures such as large pores and chainlike structures (arches or bridges). Our results should be particularly helpful in testing the newly developed simulation techniques involving liquid-related forces associated with immersed granular particles.

  4. Energy dissipation in sheared granular flows

    SciTech Connect

    Karion, A.; Hunt, M.L.

    1999-11-01

    Granular material flows describe flows of solid particles in which the interstitial fluid plays a negligible role in the flow mechanics. Examples include the transport of coal, food products, detergents, pharmaceutical tablets, and toner particles in high-speed printers. Using a two-dimensional discrete element computer simulation of a bounded, gravity-free Couette flow of particles, the heat dissipation rate per unit area is calculated as a function of position in the flow as well as overall solid fraction. The computation results compare favorably with the kinetic theory analysis for rough disks. The heat dissipation rate is also measured for binary mixtures of particles for different small to large solid fraction ratios, and for diameter ratios of ten, five, and two. The dissipation rates increase significantly with overall solid fraction as well as local strain rates and granular temperatures. The thermal energy equation is solved for a Couette flow with one adiabatic wall and one at constant temperature. Solutions use the simulation measurements of the heat dissipation rate, solid fraction, and granular temperature to show that the thermodynamic temperature increases with solid fraction and decreases with particle conductivity. In mixtures, both the dissipation rate and the thermodynamic temperature increase with size ratio and with decreasing ratio of small to large particles.

  5. The Sakharov Experiment Revisited for Granular Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogler, Tracy

    2013-06-01

    Sakharov and co-workers in 1965 proposed an experiment in which a sinusoidal perturbation in a planar wave evolves as it travels through a material. More recent, Liu and co-workers utilized gas gun techniques rather than explosives to drive the shock wave, resulting in a better defined input. The technique has been applied to liquids such as water and mercury as well as solids such as aluminum. All analyses of the experiments conducted to date have utilized a viscous fluid approach, even for the solids. Here, the concept of the decay of a perturbation in a shock wave is revisited and applied to granular materials. Simulations utilizing continuum models for the granular materials as well as mesoscale models in which individual particles are resolved are utilized. It is found that the perturbation decay is influenced by the strength (deviatoric behavior) used in the continuum model. In the mesocale calculations, the simulation parameters as well as the computational approach influence the results. Finally, initial experimental results for the technique using granular tungsten carbide are presented. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin company, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. State variables in dense granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Karen

    2009-11-01

    Granular materials are integral to many parts of our daily lives, from the coffee beans that fuel our mornings to the coal that fuels our power plants. Two related aspects of their dynamics are particularly striking: their ability to exhibit both solid-like and liquid-like behavior, and the presence of highly heterogeneous force chains in which the magnitude of the local stress varies widely over short distances. These distinctive behaviors are connected to the fact that granular materials are always out of equilibrium: first, because they are typically both driven and dissipative, but also because they remain in metastable states even when they aren't being driven. I will present recent results from several experiments ranging from the theoretically-motivated (the equilibration of state variables within a non-equilibrium system) to the practical (particle-segregation by size). The results of these experiments elucidate the complex behaviors which underlay granular dynamics, and provide a reason to hope that statistical physics might hold the keys to explaining the observed phenomena.

  7. Mechanics of Granular Materials-3 (MGM-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sture, Stein; Alshibi, Khalid; Guynes, Buddy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Scientists are going to space to understand how earthquakes and other forces disturb grains of soil and sand. They will examine how the particle arrangement and structure of soils, grains and powders are changed by external forces and gain knowledge about the strength, stiffness and volume changes properties of granular materials at low pressures. The Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment uses the microgravity of orbit to test sand columns under conditions that cannot be obtained in experiments on Earth. Research can only go so far on Earth because gravity-induced stresses complicate the analysis and change loads too quickly for detailed analysis. This new knowledge will be applied to improving foundations for buildings, managing undeveloped land, and handling powdered and granular materials in chemical, agricultural, and other industries. NASA wants to understand the way soil behaves under different gravity levels so that crews can safely build habitats on Mars and the Moon. Future MGM experiments will benefit from extended tests aboard the International Space Station, including experiments under simulated lunar and Martian gravity in the science centrifuge.

  8. Oblique impact of dense granular sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellowitz, Jake; Guttenberg, Nicholas; Jaeger, Heinrich M.; Nagel, Sidney R.; Zhang, Wendy W.

    2013-11-01

    Motivated by experiments showing impacts of granular jets with non-circular cross sections produce thin ejecta sheets with anisotropic shapes, we study what happens when two sheets containing densely packed, rigid grains traveling at the same speed collide asymmetrically. Discrete particle simulations and a continuum frictional fluid model yield the same steady-state solution of two exit streams emerging from incident streams. When the incident angle ?? is less than ??c =120 +/-10 , the exit streams' angles differ from that measured in water sheet experiments. Below ??c , the exit angles from granular and water sheet impacts agree. This correspondence is surprising because 2D Euler jet impact, the idealization relevant for both situations, is ill posed: a generic ?? value permits a continuous family of solutions. Our finding that granular and water sheet impacts evolve into the same member of the solution family suggests previous proposals that perturbations such as viscous drag, surface tension or air entrapment select the actual outcome are not correct. Currently at Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403.

  9. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Test Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A test cell for Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is tested for long-term storage with water in the system as plarned for STS-107. This view shows the top of the sand column with the metal platten removed. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that cannot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder

  10. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Test Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A test cell for Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is tested for long-term storage with water in the system as plarned for STS-107. This view shows the compressed sand column with the protective water jacket removed. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that cannot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder

  11. Recent developments in granular bed filters

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, S.C.

    1981-08-01

    Granular-bed filters in various modes (fixed, fluidized, and moving) have been used for particulate and vapor filtration from gas streams for a long time. In recent years, their exploitation in coal conversion processes for removal of fine dust and traces of metal vapors has been pursued with good success. Exxon, Westinghous, Combustion Power Company, General Electric, EFB, and Air Pollution Technology are engaged in developing such filters for the purification of hot and compressed flue gas from pressurized fluidized-bed combustors for power generation. In each mode of granular-bed filter operation, the particulate collection efficiency improves by the application of an external electric field and even further enhancement is possible if the dust particles are charged. A granular bed consisting of an admixture of magnetic and nomagnetic particles in a magnetic field is found to be a very attractive filter, and its complete promise and potential is under investigation. All these continuing recent efforts are reviewed and examined, and recommendations are made for future research in this particular area of coal combustion technology.

  12. Electrical charging in shaken granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordsiek, Freja; Lathrop, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Collisional electrification of granular particles and the resulting electric fields are seen but poorly understood in sand storms, volcanic ash clouds, thunderstorms, and thundersnow. We present results on the electrical charging of granular media (100 micron to 1 mm in size) shaken between two conducting plates. The voltage between the plates was measured. We saw particle electrification through capacitive coupling with the plates and electrical discharges for a diverse class of materials: polystyrene (polymer), soda-lime glass (glass), 69%:31% ZrO2:SiO2 (ceramic), and aluminum (metal). We found 1) a monotonic increase in charging with shaking strength, 2) a threshold in the number of particles to see charging of about the number of particles needed to form a monolayer on the plate, 3) material and diameter differences causing an order of magnitude spread in measured signal but little difference between mono-material sets with one size range and bi-material and/or bi-size range set combinations, and 4) long time scale transients. We argue that while two-body collisions and the physical properties of the particles (material and size) are relevant, collective phenomena are a necessary part of explaining natural charging of granular flows. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the Julien Schwinger Foundation.

  13. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Test Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A test cell for Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is shown approximately 20 and 60 minutes after the start of an experiment on STS-89. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  14. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A test cell for the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is shown in its on-orbit configuration in Spacehab during preparations for STS-89. The twin locker to the left contains the hydraulic system to operate the experiment. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Note: Because the image on the screen was muted in the original image, its brightness and contrast are boosted in this rendering to make the test cell more visible. Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  15. Mechanics of Granular Materials Test Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A test cell for Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is shown from all three sides by its video camera during STS-89. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  16. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    One of three Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) test cells after flight on STS-79 and before impregnation with resin. Note that the sand column has bulged in the middle, and that the top of the column is several inches lower than the top of the plastic enclosure. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder

  17. SETAC-U.S. EPA WET INITIATIVES: ALL WET AND NOTHING BUT WET

    EPA Science Inventory

    To ensure that sould scientific principles and sound science are applied to the challenging issues in t he Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) process, the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Foundation for Environmental Education was awarded a cooperative agreem...

  18. Electrostatics of Granular Material (EGM): Space Station Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, J.; Sauke, T.; Farrell, W.

    2000-01-01

    Aggregates were observed to form very suddenly in a lab-contained dust cloud, transforming (within seconds) an opaque monodispersed cloud into a clear volume containing rapidly-settling, long hair-like aggregates. The implications of such a "phase change" led to a series of experiments progressing from the lab, to KC-135, followed by micro-g flights on USML-1 and USML-2, and now EGM slated for Space Station. We attribute the sudden "collapse" of a cloud to the effect of dipoles. This has significant ramifications for all types of cloud systems, and additionally implicates dipoles in the processes of cohesion and adhesion of granular matter. Notably, there is the inference that like-charged grains need not necessarily repel if they are close enough together: attraction or repulsion depends on intergranular distance (the dipole being more powerful at short range), and the D/M ratio for each grain, where D is the dipole moment and M is the net charge. We discovered that these ideas about dipoles, the likely pervasiveness of them in granular material, the significance of the D/M ratio, and the idea of mixed charges on individual grains resulting from tribological processes --are not universally recognized in electrostatics, granular material studies, and aerosol science, despite some early seminal work in the literature, and despite commercial applications of dipoles in such modern uses as "Krazy Glue", housecleaning dust cloths, and photocopying. The overarching goal of EGM is to empirically prove that (triboelectrically) charged dielectric grains of material have dipole moments that provide an "always attractive" intergranular force as a result of both positive and negative charges residing on the surfaces of individual grains. Microgravity is required for this experiment because sand grains can be suspended as a cloud for protracted periods, the grains are free to rotate to express their electrostatic character, and Coulombic forces are unmasked. Suspended grains will be "interrogated" by applied electrical fields. In one module, grains will be immersed in an inhomogeneous electric field and allowed to be attracted towards or repelled from the central electrode of the module: part of the grain's speed will be a function of its net charge (monopole), part will be a function of the dipole. Observed grain position vs. time will provide a curve that can be deconvolved into the dipole and monopole forces responsible, since both have distinctive radial dependencies. In a second approach, the inhomogeneous field will be alternated at low frequency (e.g., every 5-10 seconds) so that the grains are alternately attracted and repelled from the center of the field. The resulting "zigzag" grain motion will gradually drift inwards, then suddenly change to a unidirectional inward path when a critical radial distance is encountered (a sort of "Coulombic event horizon") at which the dipole strength supersedes the monopole strength --thus proving the presence of a dipole, while also quantifying the D/M ratio. In a second module, an homogeneous electric field eliminates dipole effects (both Coulombic and induced) to provide calibration of the monopole and to more readily evaluate net charge statistical variance. In both modules, the e-fields will be exponentially step-ramped in voltage during the experiment, so that the field "nominalizes" grain speed while spreading the response time --effectively forcing each grain to "wait its turn" to be measured. In addition to rigorously quantifying M, D, and the D/M ratio for many hundreds of grains, the experiment will also observe gross electrometric and RF discharge phenomena associated with grain activity. The parameter space will encompass grain charging levels (via intentional triboelectrification), grain size, cloud density, and material type. Results will prove or disprove the dipole hypothesis. In either case, light will be shed on the role of electrostatic forces in governing granular systems. Knowledg

  19. Dilation, compression, and convection in granular shear experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, Nathan; Jantzi, Jacob; Kinser, Ryan; Olafsen, Jeffrey S.

    2013-06-01

    The flow of granular media in a liquid-like state is often dependent upon a competition between gravity and an external shear. As with granular gas experiments wherein the details of energy injection can affect the observed velocity fluctuations, the type of motion observed in dense granular flows often has subtle connections to the details of how the material is sheared and the geometry to which they are contained. A deeper understanding of how granular materials flow is thus dependent upon comparisons between experiments. Three separate experiments will be discussed that offer different roles for gravity and external shear in a circular geometry to examine the dynamics of granular media for both two-and three-dimensional flow. In the case of three-dimensional flow, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) resource has been utilized to investigate the motion of tracer particles within another granular species and data is obtained for different size and density ratios.

  20. Mutiscale Modeling of Segregation in Granular Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Sun

    2007-08-03

    Modeling and simulation of segregation phenomena in granular flows are investigated. Computational models at different scales ranging from particle level (microscale) to continuum level (macroscale) are employed in order to determine the important microscale physics relevant to macroscale modeling. The capability of a multi-fluid model to capture segregation caused by density difference is demonstrated by simulating grain-chaff biomass flows in a laboratory-scale air column and in a combine harvester. The multi-fluid model treats gas and solid phases as interpenetrating continua in an Eulerian frame. This model is further improved by incorporating particle rotation using kinetic theory for rapid granular flow of slightly frictional spheres. A simplified model is implemented without changing the current kinetic theory framework by introducing an effective coefficient of restitution to account for additional energy dissipation due to frictional collisions. The accuracy of predicting segregation rate in a gas-fluidized bed is improved by the implementation. This result indicates that particle rotation is important microscopic physics to be incorporated into the hydrodynamic model. Segregation of a large particle in a dense granular bed of small particles under vertical. vibration is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Wall friction is identified as a necessary condition for the segregation. Large-scale force networks bearing larger-than-average forces are found with the presence of wall friction. The role of force networks in assisting rising of the large particle is analyzed. Single-point force distribution and two-point spatial force correlation are computed. The results show the heterogeneity of forces and a short-range correlation. The short correlation length implies that even dense granular flows may admit local constitutive relations. A modified minimum spanning tree (MST) algorithm is developed to asymptotically recover the force statistics in the force networks. This algorithm provides a possible route to constructing a continuum model with microstructural information supplied from it. Microstructures in gas fluidized beds are also analyzed using a hybrid method, which couples the discrete element method (DEM) for particle dynamics with the averaged two-fluid (TF) equations for the gas phase. Multi-particle contacts are found in defluidized regions away from bubbles in fluidized beds. The multi-particle contacts invalidate the binary-collision assumption made in the kinetic theory of granular flows for the defluidized regions. Large ratios of contact forces to drag forces are found in the same regions, which confirms the relative importance of contact forces in determining particle dynamics in the defluidized regions.

  1. Digging Like Plants: Flexible Intruders in Granular Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendell, Dawn; Luginbuhl, Katharine; Solano, Diego; Hosoi, Peko

    2012-02-01

    Inspired by plant root growth in granular media, we report on the effects of flexibility on the mechanical work required to dig through granular systems. In the case where the digger is significantly thinner than the grain diameter, increased flexibility in one-dimension leads to savings of nearly 50%. A simple numerical model based solely on the variability of forces in the granular substrate and the flexibility of the digger gives similar results to those observed in experiments.

  2. Granular cell tumor of the tongue: Report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Dive, Alka; Dhobley, Akshay; Fande, Prajakta Zade; Dixit, Sudhanshu

    2013-01-01

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) is a benign lesion characterized by the accumulation of plump cells with abundant granular cytoplasm. The formation of a granular cell tumor is a neoplastic process and the lesions formed are of neural derivation, as supported by immunophenotypic and ultra structural evidence. This type of tumor has been found to be both benign and malignant although malignancy is rare and comprises only 2% of all granular cell tumors. Here we report a case of GCT in a 40 year old male patient on the posterolateral border of tongue. PMID:23798853

  3. Impact-induced splash and spill in a quasi-confined granular medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogale, S. B.; Shinde, S. R.; Karve, P. A.; Ogale, Abhijit S.; Kulkarni, A.; Athawale, A.; Phadke, A.; Thakurdas, R.

    2006-05-01

    The splash and spill effects caused by the impact of a ball dropped from a height into a granular medium held in a small open container are examined. Different granular media, namely rice, mustard seeds, cream of wheat and plastic beads are used. The quantity of spilled-over granular matter ( W, grams) is measured as a function of the ball-drop height and compared for different cases. Digital pictures of the splash process are also recorded. The quantity W is seen to vary approximately linearly with the energy of impact. Interestingly, a distinct upward jump is seen in the spilled quantity at specific impact energy in the case of mustard seeds, which have spherical shape and also exhibit some charging effects. Similar jump was also confirmed for the case of plastic beads with broadly similar properties. Although the parameters such as mass per grain and packing density for the case of mustard seeds are intermediate between those for rice and cream of wheat, the spill quantity for comparable impact energy is considerably higher in the former case. The possible reasons for this non-monotonicity of behavior are discussed in terms of the differences in grain shapes and properties. Experiments are also performed using plastic beads of the same type but with four different sizes to explore the dependence of spilled quantity on bead size. The container size dependence is also examined for various bead types. Interesting systematics are seen, which are discussed qualitatively.

  4. Computational study on the behaviors of granular materials under mechanical cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Ye, Minyou; Chen, Hongli

    2015-11-01

    Considering that fusion pebble beds are probably subjected to the cyclic compression excitation in their future applications, we presented a computational study to report the effect of mechanical cycling on the behaviors of granular matter. The correctness of our numerical experiments was confirmed by a comparison with the effective medium theory. Under the cyclic loads, the fast granular compaction was observed to evolve in a stretched exponential law. Besides, the increasing stiffening in packing structure, especially the decreasing moduli pressure dependence due to granular consolidation, was also observed. For the force chains inside the pebble beds, both the internal force distribution and the spatial distribution of force chains would become increasingly uniform as the external force perturbation proceeded and therefore produced the stress relief on grains. In this case, the originally proposed 3-parameter Mueth function was found to fail to describe the internal force distribution. Thereby, its improved functional form with 4 parameters was proposed here and proved to better fit the data. These findings will provide more detailed information on the pebble beds for the relevant fusion design and analysis.

  5. Resolving a paradox of anomalous scalings in the diffusion of granular materials

    PubMed Central

    Christov, Ivan C.; Stone, Howard A.

    2012-01-01

    Granular materials do not perform Brownian motion, yet diffusion can be observed in such systems when agitation causes inelastic collisions between particles. It has been suggested that axial diffusion of granular matter in a rotating drum might be anomalous in the sense that the mean squared displacement of particles follows a power law in time with exponent less than unity. Further numerical and experimental studies have been unable to definitively confirm or disprove this observation. We show two possible resolutions to this apparent paradox without the need to appeal to anomalous diffusion. First, we consider the evolution of arbitrary (non-point-source) initial data towards the self-similar intermediate asymptotics of diffusion by deriving an analytical expression for the instantaneous collapse exponent of the macroscopic concentration profiles. Second, we account for the concentration-dependent diffusivity in bidisperse mixtures, and we give an asymptotic argument for the self-similar behavior of such a diffusion process, for which an exact self-similar analytical solution does not exist. The theoretical arguments are verified through numerical simulations of the governing partial differential equations, showing that concentration-dependent diffusivity leads to two intermediate asymptotic regimes: one with an anomalous scaling that matches the experimental observations for naturally polydisperse granular materials, and another with a normal diffusive scaling (consistent with a normal random walk) at even longer times. PMID:22992653

  6. Treatment of HMX-production wastewater in an aerobic granular reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Hua; Wang, Min-Hui; Zhu, Xiao-Meng

    2013-04-01

    Aerobic granules were applied to the treatment of HMX-production wastewater using a gradual domestication method in a SBR. During the process, the granules showed a good settling ability, a high biomass retention rate, and high biological activity. After 40 days of stable operation, aerobic granular sludge performed very effectively in the removal of carbon and nitrogen compounds from HMX-production wastewater. Organic matter removal rates up to 97.57% and nitrogen removal efficiencies up to 80% were achieved during the process. Researchers conclude that using aerobic granules to treat explosive wastewater has good prospects for success. PMID:23697233

  7. Microgravity Experiments to Evaluate Electrostatic Forces in Controlling Cohesion and Adhesion of Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, J.; Weislogel, M.; Jacobson, T.

    1999-01-01

    The bulk behavior of dispersed, fluidized, or undispersed stationary granular systems cannot be fully understood in terms of adhesive/cohesive properties without understanding the role of electrostatic forces acting at the level of the grains themselves. When grains adhere to a surface, or come in contact with one another in a stationary bulk mass, it is difficult to measure the forces acting on the grains, and the forces themselves that induced the cohesion and adhesion are changed. Even if a single gain were to be scrutinized in the laboratory, it might be difficult, perhaps impossible, to define the distribution and character of surface charging and the three- dimensional relationship that charges (electrons, holes) have to one another. The hypothesis that we propose to test in microgravity (for dielectric materials) is that adhesion and cohesion of granular matter are mediated primarily by dipole forces that do not require the presence of a net charge; in fact, nominally electrically neutral materials should express adhesive and cohesive behavior when the neutrality results from a balance of positive and negative charge carriers. Moreover, the use of net charge alone as a measure of the electrical nature of grain-to-grain relationships within a granular mass may be misleading. We believe that the dipole forces arise from the presence of randomly-distributed positive and negative fixed charge carriers on grains that give rise to a resultant dipole moment. These dipole forces have long-range attraction. Random charges are created whenever there is triboelectrical activity of a granular mass, that is, whenever the grains experience contact/separation sequences or friction. Electrostatic forces are generally under-estimated for their role in causing agglomeration of dispersed grains in particulate clouds, or their role in affecting the internal frictional relationships in packed granular masses. We believe that electrostatic, in particular dipole-mediated processes, are pervasive and probably affect, at some level, everything from astrophysical-scale granular systems such as interstellar nebulae, protoplanetary dust and debris disks, planetary-scale systems such as debris palls from meteorite impact, volcanic eruptions, and aeolian dust storms, all the way to industrial-scale systems in mining, powder and grain processing, pharmaceuticals, and smoke-stack technologies. NASA must concern itself with the electrostatic behavior of dust and sand on Mars because of its potentially critical importance to human exploration. The motion and adhesion of martian surface materials will affect the design and performance of spacesuits, habitats, processing plants, solar panels, and any externally exposed equipment such as surface rovers or communication and weather stations. Additionally, the adhesion of dust and sand could greatly enhance contact with the potentially toxic components of the martian soil.

  8. Regeneration of granular activated carbon containing benzene with natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, D.E.; Veenstra, J.N.; Johannes, A.H.; Gasem, K.A.M.

    1996-11-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) is the most frequently used adsorbent in industrial applications due to its surface properties, large surface area, low pressure drop and relatively low cost. Regeneration of GAC beds can be accomplished using different techniques. Some of the more commonly used methods are: thermal regeneration; steam generation; supercritical fluid extraction (e.g., liquid CO{sub 2}); wet oxidation; and solvent extraction. Many of these techniques are not feasible options for on-site regeneration of GAC due to high capital or operating costs or potential disposal problems. In an attempt to simplify the regeneration process and to minimize additional waste streams, use of natural gas as the regeneration fluid is being evaluated at Oklahoma State University. Previous work has shown GAC to absorb natural gas to a limited extent as compared to other gases, to absorb less onto GAC at higher temperatures, and, to absorb less onto GAC at lower pressures. The low reactivity of natural gas, under certain conditions, is an indicator of its potential to be an effective regeneration agent. This paper presents preliminary results on the use of natural gas to regenerate GAC columns. To demonstrate the viability of this regeneration strategy, benzene has been selected as the adsorbate. Benzene is a common pollutant in many industries and is regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. As such, it represents a sizable class of environmental pollutants. Air was chosen as the carrier for the benzene to simplify the experimental system and to allow determination of the effects of small amounts of water on the bed during the regeneration process.

  9. Surface structure determines dynamic wetting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiayu; Do-Quang, Minh; Cannon, James J.; Yue, Feng; Suzuki, Yuji; Amberg, Gustav; Shiomi, Junichiro

    2015-01-01

    Liquid wetting of a surface is omnipresent in nature and the advance of micro-fabrication and assembly techniques in recent years offers increasing ability to control this phenomenon. Here, we identify how surface roughness influences the initial dynamic spreading of a partially wetting droplet by studying the spreading on a solid substrate patterned with microstructures just a few micrometers in size. We reveal that the roughness influence can be quantified in terms of a line friction coefficient for the energy dissipation rate at the contact line, and that this can be described in a simple formula in terms of the geometrical parameters of the roughness and the line-friction coefficient of the planar surface. We further identify a criterion to predict if the spreading will be controlled by this surface roughness or by liquid inertia. Our results point to the possibility of selectively controlling the wetting behavior by engineering the surface structure. PMID:25683872

  10. Squeezing wetting and nonwetting liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samoilov, V. N.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2004-01-01

    We present molecular-dynamics results for the squeezing of octane (C8H18) between two approaching solid elastic walls with different wetting properties. The interaction energy between the octane bead units and the solid walls is varied from a very small value (1 meV), corresponding to a nonwetting surface with a very large contact angle (nearly 180 degrees), to a high value (18.6 meV) corresponding to complete wetting. When at least one of the solid walls is wetted by octane we observe well defined molecular layers develop in the lubricant film when the thickness of the film is of the order of a few atomic diameters. An external squeezing-pressure induces discontinuous, thermally activated changes in the number n of lubricant layers (n?n-1 layering transitions). With increasing interaction energy between the octane bead units and the solid walls, the transitions from n to n-1 layers occur at higher average pressure. This results from the increasing activation barrier to nucleate the squeeze-out with increasing lubricant-wall binding energy (per unit surface area) in the contact zone. Thus, strongly wetting lubricant fluids are better boundary lubricants than the less wetting ones, and this should result in less wear. We analyze in detail the effect of capillary bridge formation (in the wetting case) and droplets formation (in the nonwetting case) on the forces exerted by the lubricant on the walls. For the latter case small liquid droplets may be trapped at the interface, resulting in a repulsive force between the walls during squeezing, until the solid walls come into direct contact, where the wall-wall interaction may be initially attractive. This effect is made use of in some practical applications, and we give one illustration involving conditioners for hair care application.

  11. A Granular Bed for Use in a Nanoparticle Respiratory Deposition Sampler

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Hong; Mudunkotuwa, Imali A.; Mines, Levi W. D.; Anthony, T. Rene; Grassian, Vicki H.; Peters, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    A granular bed was designed to collect nanoparticles as an alternative to nylon mesh screens for use in a nanoparticle respiratory deposition (NRD) sampler. The granular bed consisted of five layers in series: a coarse mesh, a large-bead layer, a small-bead layer, a second large-bead layer, and a second coarse mesh. The bed was designed to primarily collect particles in the small-bead layer, with the coarse mesh and large-bead layers designed to hold the collection layer in position. The collection efficiency of the granular bed was measured for varying depths of the small-bead layer and for test particles with different shape (cuboid, salt particles; and fractal, and stainless steel and welding particles). Experimental measurements of collection efficiency were compared to estimates of efficiency from theory and to the nanoparticulate matter (NPM) criterion, which was established to reflect the total deposition in the human respiratory system for particles smaller than 300 nm. The shape of the collection efficiency curve for the granular bed was similar to the NPM criterion in these experiments. The collection efficiency increased with increasing depth of the small-bead layer: the particle size associated with 50% collection efficiency, d50, for salt particles was 25 nm for a depth of 2.2 mm, 35 nm for 3.2 mm, and 45 nm for 4.3 mm. The best-fit to the NPM criterion was found for the bed with a small-bead layer of 3.2 mm. Compared to cubic salt particles, the collection efficiency was higher for fractal-shaped particles larger than 50 nm, presumably due to increased interception. Copyright 2015 American Association for Aerosol Research PMID:26900208

  12. Segregation induced fingering instabilities in granular avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhouse, Mark; Thornton, Anthony; Johnson, Chris; Kokelaar, Pete; Gray, Nico

    2013-04-01

    It is important to be able to predict the distance to which a hazardous natural granular flows (e.g. snow slab avalanches, debris-flows and pyroclastic flows) might travel, as this information is vital for accurate assessment of the risks posed by such events. In the high solids fraction regions of these flows the large particles commonly segregate to the surface, where they are transported to the margins to form bouldery flow fronts. In many natural flows these bouldery margins experience a much greater frictional force, leading to frontal instabilities. These instabilities create levees that channelize the flow vastly increasing the run-out distance. A similar effect can be observed in dry granular experiments, which use a combination of small round and large rough particles. When this mixture is poured down an inclined plane, particle size segregation causes the large particles to accumulate near the margins. Being rougher, the large particles experience a greater friction force and this configuration (rougher material in front of smoother) can be unstable. The instability causes the uniform flow front to break up into a series of fingers. A recent model for particle size-segregation has been coupled to existing avalanche models through a particle concentration dependent friction law. In this talk numerical solutions of this coupled system are presented and compared to both large scale experiments carried out at the USGS flume and more controlled small scale laboratory experiments. The coupled depth-averaged model captures the accumulation of large particles at the flow front. We show this large particle accumulation at the head of the flow can lead to the break-up of the initially uniform front into a series of fingers. However, we are unable to obtain a fully grid-resolved numerical solution; the width of the fingers decreases as the grid is refined. By considering the linear stability of a steady, fully-developed, bidisperse granular layer it is shown that the governing equations, are linearly unstable to arbitrarily small perturbations. It should be noted similar stability characteristics are found for shallow layer fluid flows on an inclined plane, with small wavelength perturbations stabilised by the inclusion of empirical frictional drag and viscous dissipation. Furthermore, depth-averaged models for roll waves on a monodisperse, shallow granular layer released on an inclined plane have a similar problem with high wave-number modes remaining linearly unstable. In this case the high wavenumber instability can be suppressed by the inclusion of (phenomenological) viscous dissipation. It is possible that by including similar rheological terms in our depth-averaged model the small wavelength modes can be stabilised and a well defined finger width can be predicted. This is the first model to describe the break-up of a uniform front of granular material, and it represents a crucial step forward in obtaining a mathematical model of this process. However, the current model is not complete and remains linearly unstable to arbitrarily small wavelength perturbations. We anticipate that these small wavelength instabilities can be stabilised by including additional physical effects, and this remains an active avenue of investigation. Reference: Woodhouse, M; Thornton, A. R.; Johnson, C.G.; Kokelaar, P, and Gray, J.M.N.T. Segregation-induced fingering instabilities in granular free surface flows. Journal of Fluids Mechanics. (2012). 709 543-580

  13. Are granular osmiophilic material deposits an epiphenomenon in CADASIL?

    PubMed

    Erro, Roberto; Moccia, Marcello; Cervasio, Mariarosaria; Penco, Silvana; De Caro, Marialaura Del Basso; Barone, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is caused by mutations in the NOTCH3 gene. Pathophysiologically, there seems to be multimerization of the extracellular domain of the protein with a possible gain of function on vascular smooth muscular cells. However, the mechanisms and determinants of NOTCH3 multimerization are not completely understood, and it is not completely elucidated whether NOTCH3 multimerization contributes to the appearance of granular osmiophilic material (GOM) deposits, which are the pathological hallmark of CADASIL. We recently reported a patient with parkinsonism and cognitive impairment and with evidence of diffuse white matter changes on imaging, carrying a NOTCH3 nonsense mutation in exon 3 (c.307C>T), and suggested that such a hypomorphic NOTCH3 mutation was likely to be pathogenic. We further pursued ultrastructural examination of skin vessels in our case, and here we report the results, wishing to make a comment on whether GOM deposits should be considered the pathological hallmark for a definitive diagnosis of CADASIL in those patients whose mutations are predicted in the production of hypomorphic protein products. PMID:26216120

  14. The thermodynamics of dense granular flow and jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shih Yu

    The scope of the thesis is to propose, based on experimental evidence and theoretical validation, a quantifiable connection between systems that exhibit the jamming phenomenon. When jammed, some materials that flow are able to resist deformation so that they appear solid-like on the laboratory scale. But unlike ordinary fusion, which has a critically defined criterion in pressure and temperature, jamming occurs under a wide range of conditions. These condition have been rigorously investigated but at the moment, no self-consistent framework can apply to grains, foam and colloids that may have suddenly ceased to flow. To quantify the jamming behavior, a constitutive model of dense granular flows is deduced from shear-flow experiments. The empirical equations are then generalized, via a thermodynamic approach, into an equation-of-state for jamming. Notably, the unifying theory also predicts the experimental data on the behavior of molecular glassy liquids. This analogy paves a crucial road map for a unifying theoretical framework in condensed matter, for example, ranging from sand to fire retardants to toothpaste.

  15. Adsorption of chlorophenols on granular activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, M.

    1993-12-31

    Studies were undertaken of the adsorption of chlorinated phenols from aqueous solution on granular activated carbon (Filtrasorb-400, 30 x 40 mesh). Single-component equilibrium adsorption data on the eight compounds in two concentration ranges at pH 7.0 fit the Langmuir equation better than the Freundlich equation. The adsorptive capacities at pH 7.0 increase from pentachlorophenol to trichlorophenols and are fairly constant from trichlorophenols to monochlorophenols. The adsorption process was found to be exothermic for pentachlorophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and endothermic for 2,4-dichlorophenol and 4-chlorophenol. Equilibrium measurements were also conducted for 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and 4-chlorophenol over a wide pH range. A surface complexation model was proposed to describe the effect of pH on adsorption equilibria of chlorophenols on activated carbon. The simulations of the model are in excellent agreement with the experimental data. Batch kinetics studies were conducted of the adsorption of chlorinated phenols on granular activated carbon. The results show that the surface reaction model best describes both the short-term and long-term kinetics, while the external film diffusion model describes the short-term kinetics data very well and the linear-driving-force approximation improved its performance for the long-term kinetics. Multicomponent adsorption equilibria of chlorophenols on granular activated carbon was investigated in the micromolar equilibrium concentration range. The Langmuir competitive and Ideal Adsorbed Solution (IAS) models were tested for their performance on the three binary systems of pentachlorophenol/2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol/2,4-dichlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol/4-chlorophenol, and the tertiary system of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol/2,4-dichlorophenol/4-chlorophenol, and found to fail to predict the two-component adsorption equilibria of the former two binary systems and the tertiary system.

  16. DEM simulation of experimental dense granular packing

    SciTech Connect

    Hanifpour, Maryam; Allaei, Mehdi Vaez; Francois, Nicolas; Saadatfar, Mohammad

    2013-06-18

    In this study we present numerical analysis performed on the experimental results of sphere packings of mono-sized hard sphere whose packing fraction spans across a wide range of 0.59<{Phi}<0.72. Using X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT), we have full access to the 3D structure of the granular packings. Numerical analysis performed on thr data provides the first experimental proofs of how densification affects local order parameters. Furthermore by combining Discrete Element Method (DEM) and the experimental results from XCT, we investigate how the intergranular forces change with the onset of crystallization.

  17. Granular convection observed by magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrichs, E.E.; Jaeger, H.M.; Knight, J.B.; Nagel, S.R.; Karczmar, G.S.; Kuperman, V.Yu.

    1995-03-17

    Vibrations in a granular material can spontaneously produce convection rolls reminiscent of those seen in fluids. Magnetic resonance imaging provides a sensitive and noninvasive probe for the detection of these convection currents, which have otherwise been difficult to observe. A magnetic resonance imaging study of convection in a column of poppy seeds yielded data about the detailed shape of the convection rolls and the depth dependence of the convection velocity. The velocity was found to decrease exponentially with depth; a simple model for this behavior is presented here. 31 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Exploring Granular Flows at Intermediate Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, E. E.; van der Elst, N.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysical and geomorphological flows often encompass a wide range of strain rates. Landslides accelerate from nearly static conditions to velocities in the range of meters/seconds. The rheology of granular flows for the end-members is moderately well-understood, but the constitutive low at intermediate velocities is largely unexplored. Here we present evidence that granular flows transition through a regime in which internally generated acoustic waves play a critical role in controlling rheology. In laboratory experiments on natural sand under shear in a commercial rheometer, we observe that the steady-state flows at intermediate velocities are compacted relative to the end members. In a confined volume, this compaction results in a decrease in stress on the boundaries. We establish the key role of the acoustic waves by measuring the noise generated by the shear flows with an accelerometer and then exciting the flow with similar amplitude noise under lower shear rate conditions. The observed compaction for a given amplitude noise is the same in both cases, regardless of whether the noise is generated internally by the grains colliding or artificially applied externally. The boundaries of this acoustically controlled regime can be successfully predicted through non-dimensional analysis balancing the overburden, acoustic pressure and granular inertial terms. In our laboratory experiments, this regime corresponds to 0.1 to 10 cm/s. The controlling role of acoustic waves in intermediate velocities is significant because: (1) Geological systems must pass through this regime on their route to instability. (2) Acoustic waves are much more efficiently generated by angular particles, likely to be found in natural samples, than by perfectly spherical particles, which are more tractable for laboratory and theoretical studies. Therefore, this regime is likely to be missed in many analog and computational approaches. (3) Different mineralogies and shapes result in different noise generation. Therefore, there is a potential to extrapolate and predict rheological behavior of an active flow through studies of the recoverable granular products.Steady-state thickness vs. shear rate for angular sand and glass beads. Individual curves represent multiple up-going and down-going velocity ramps, and thick error bars show means and standard deviations between runs. Thickness is independent of shear rate at low shear rates, and strongly dependent on shear rate for intermediate and high shear rates. Compaction is observed at intermediate shear rates for angular sand, but not for smooth glass beads.

  19. Granular convection observed by magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrichs, E. E.; Jaeger, H. M.; Karczmar, Greg S.; Knight, James B.; Kuperman, Vadim Yu.; Nagel, Sidney R.

    1995-03-01

    Vibrations in a granular material can spontaneously produce convection rolls reminiscent of those seen in fluids. Magnetic resonance imaging provides a sensitive and noninvasive probe for the detection of these convection currents, which have otherwise been difficult to observe. A magnetic resonance imaging study of convection in a column of poppy seeds yielded data about the detailed shape of the convection rolls and the depth dependence of the convection velocity. The velocity was found to decrease exponentially with depth; a simple model for this behavior is presented here.

  20. Flow and segregation in sheared granular slurries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barentin, C.; Azanza, E.; Pouligny, B.

    2004-04-01

    We study the behaviour of a granular slurry, i.e., a very concentrated suspension of heavy (denser than the fluid) and polydisperse particles sheared between two parallel-plane circular disks. For small gaps, the slurry behaves as a 2d system with a characteristic radial size segregation of particles. For large gaps, the slurry responds as a 3d system, with considerable vertical segregation and a concomitant 2-phase (fluid, solid) flow structure. The thickness ? of the fluid phase is the 2d-3d gap crossover. Surprisingly, ? is found to be nearly unaffected by very large changes in the particle size distribution.

  1. Starting to move through a granular medium

    SciTech Connect

    Costantino, D. J.; Scheidemantel, T.; Stone, Matthew B; Conger, C.; Klein, K.; Lohr, M.; Modig, Z.; Schiffer, P.

    2008-01-01

    We explore the process of initiating motion through a granular medium by measuring the force required to push a flat circular plate upward from underneath the medium. In contrast to previous measurements of the drag and penetration forces, which were conducted during steady state motion, the initiation force has a robust dependence on the diameter of the grains forming the pile. We attribute this dependence to the requirement for local dilation of the grains around the circumference of the plate, as evidenced by an observed linear dependence of the initiation force on the plate diameter.

  2. Nonlinear Biot waves in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dazel, Olivier; Tournat, V.

    2010-01-01

    The nonlinear propagation through unconsolidated model granular media is investigated in the frame of the Biot-Allard theory extended to the case of a nonlinear quadratic behavior of the solid frame (the elastic beads and their contacts). We evaluate the importance of mode coupling between solid and fluid waves, depending on the actual fluid and the bead diameter. The application of these results to other media supporting Biot's waves (trabecular bones, porous ceramics, polymer foams...) is straightforward, provided the parameters of the Biot-Allard model are available for these media.

  3. Uphill solitary waves in granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martnez, E.; Prez-Penichet, C.; Sotolongo-Costa, O.; Ramos, O.; Mly, K. J.; Douady, S.; Altshuler, E.

    2007-03-01

    We have experimentally observed uphill solitary waves in the surface flow on a granular material. A heap is constructed by injecting sand between two vertical glass plates separated by a distance much larger than the average grain size, with an open boundary. As the heap reaches the open boundary, solitary fluctuations appear on the flowing layer and move up the hill (i.e., against the direction of the flow). We explain the phenomenon in the context of stop-and-go traffic models.

  4. Simulation of Granular Compacts in Two Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    VIDALES,A.M.; KENKRE,V.M.; HURD,ALAN J.

    2000-07-24

    Simulations of granular packings in 2-D by throwing disks in a rectangular die are performed. Different size distributions as bimodal, uniform and gaussian are used. Once the array of particles is done, a relaxation process is carried on using a large-amplitude, low-frequency vertical shaking. This relaxation is performed a number N of times. Then, the authors measure the density of the package, contact distribution, coordination number distribution, entropy and also the disks size distribution vs. height. The dependence of all these magnitudes on the number N of shakings used to relax the packing and on the size distribution parameters are explored and discussed.

  5. Assessing granular pit construction from larval Neuroptera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, Nicholas; Olafsen, Jeffrey S.; Loudon, Catherine; Steeples, Don W.

    2002-03-01

    Antlion larvae, Myrmeleon carolinus, build cone-shaped pits in dry sand for prey capture. The surface of these pits are prone to avalanches that can depend upon the physical properties of the sand in the local environment. The antlion larvae are observed to be capable of assessing both sand depth and particle size. In a polydisperse granular environment, the antlion demonstrates the ability to sort the sand by size in a dynamic manner. An imaging technique is developed to investigate the potential role of air viscosity on the pit construction process.

  6. Rolling friction on a granular medium.

    PubMed

    De Blasio, Fabio Vittorio; Saeter, May-Britt

    2009-02-01

    We present experimental results for the rolling of spheres on a granular bed. We use two sets of glass and steel spheres with varying diameters and a high-speed camera to follow the motion of the spheres. Despite the complex phenomena occurring during the rolling, the results show a friction coefficient nearly independent of the velocity (0.45-0.5 for glass and 0.6-0.65 for steel). It is found that for a given sphere density, the large spheres reach a longer distance, a result that may also help explain the rock sorting along natural stone accumulations at the foot of mountain slopes. PMID:19391789

  7. Compactivity measurements for a bidimensional granular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechenault, Frederic; Dacruz, Frederic; Dauchot, Olivier; Bertin, Eric

    2006-03-01

    We investigate experimentally the statistical properties of the free volumes inside a bidimensional granular packing. Having in mind the more general issue of the measure of intensive thermodynamical parameters in out-of-equilibrium systems, we propose an experimental procedure to access the compactivity of the packing from the free volume distributions over clusters of grains, varying the size of the cluster. Our main result is that the logarithm of the probability to find a given free volume in a cluster scales in a nonextensive way. The compactivity of the packing is then extracted from the corresponding scaling function for two different kinds of grains, and two levels of compaction.

  8. Rolling friction on a granular medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Blasio, Fabio Vittorio; Saeter, May-Britt

    2009-02-01

    We present experimental results for the rolling of spheres on a granular bed. We use two sets of glass and steel spheres with varying diameters and a high-speed camera to follow the motion of the spheres. Despite the complex phenomena occurring during the rolling, the results show a friction coefficient nearly independent of the velocity (0.45-0.5 for glass and 0.6-0.65 for steel). It is found that for a given sphere density, the large spheres reach a longer distance, a result that may also help explain the rock sorting along natural stone accumulations at the foot of mountain slopes.

  9. Biological and robotic movement through granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    We discuss laboratory experiments and numerical simulations of locomotion of biological organisms and robots on and within a granular medium. Terrestrial locomotion on granular media (like desert and beach sand) is unlike locomotion on rigid ground because during a step the material begins as a solid, becomes a fluid and then re-solidifies. Subsurface locomotion within granular media is unlike swimming in water for similar reasons. The fluidization and solidification depend on the packing properties of the material and can affect limb penetration depth and propulsive force. Unlike aerial and aquatic locomotion in which the Navier-Stokes equations can be used to model environment interaction, models for limb interaction with granular media do not yet exist. To study how the fluidizing properties affect speed in rapidly running and swimming lizards and crabs, we use a trackway composed of a fluidized bed of of 250 μm glass spheres. Pulses of air to the bed set the solid volume fraction 0.59<φ<0.63; a constant flow rate Q below the onset of fluidization (at Q=Qf) linearly reduces the material strength (resistance force per depth) at fixed φ for increasing Q. Systematic studies of four species of lizard and a species of crab (masses 20 grams) reveal that as Q increases, the average running speed of an animal decreases proportionally to √M/A-const(1-Q/Qf) where M is the mass of the animal and A is a characteristic foot area. While the crabs decrease speed by nearly 75 % as the material weakens to a fluid, the zebra tailed lizard uses long toes and a plantigrade foot posture at foot impact to maintain high speed ( 1.5 m/sec). We compare our biological results to systematic studies of a physical model of an organism, a 2 kg hexapedal robot SandBot. We find that the robot speed sensitively depends on φ and the details of the limb trajectory. We simulate the robot locomotion by computing ground reaction forces on a numerical model of the robot using a soft-sphere Molecular Dynamics code.

  10. Granular Cell Tumors on Unusual Anatomic Locations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Joo

    2015-01-01

    Granular cell tumors (GCTs) are soft tissue tumors, which are thought to be derived from Schwann cells. Although most GCTs are reported to arise in tongue and oral cavity (30-50%), they can appear on any anatomic sites, even visceral organs. Herein, we report 5 cases of GCTs on unusual anatomic locations, such as palm, arm, thigh, finger, and vulvar area. Complete surgical excision is preferred treatment of choice to prevent recurrence. These cases emphasize that GCTs not involving oral cavity are more prevalent than expected, and the diagnosis should be histopathologically confirmed. PMID:26446660

  11. Special relativity induced by granular space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jizba, Petr; Scardigli, Fabio

    2013-07-01

    We show that the special relativistic dynamics, when combined with quantum mechanics and the concept of superstatistics, can be interpreted as arising from two interlocked non-relativistic stochastic processes that operate at different energy scales. This framework leads to Feynman amplitudes that are, in the Euclidean regime, identical to the transition probability of a Brownian particle propagating through a granular space. For illustration we consider the dynamics and the propagator of a Klein-Gordon particle. Implications for deformed special relativity, quantum field theory, quantum gravity and cosmology are also discussed.

  12. Granular jamming transitions for a robotic mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Allen; Aste, Tomaso; Dasgupta, Prokar; Althoefer, Kaspar; Nanayakkara, Thrishantha

    2013-06-01

    The jamming transitions for granules growing field of interest in robotics for use in variable stiffness mechanisms. However, the traditional use of air pressure to control the jamming transition requires heavy vacuums, reducing the mobility of the robot. Thus, we propose the use of water as a hydraulic fluid to control the transition between free and clustered granules. This paper presents comparative studies that show that a hydraulic granular jammed finger joint can both achieve the same stiffness level and maintain the same hysteresis level of a pneumatic system, with only a small volume of fluid.

  13. Hyperstaticity and loops in frictional granular packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tordesillas, Antoinette; Lam, Edward; Metzger, Philip T.

    2009-06-01

    The hyperstatic nature of granular packings of perfectly rigid disks is analyzed algebraically and through numerical simulation. The elementary loops of grains emerge as a fundamental element in addressing hyperstaticity. Loops consisting of an odd number of grains behave differently than those with an even number. For odd loops, the latent stresses are exterior and are characterized by the sum of frictional forces around each loop. For even loops, the latent stresses are interior and are characterized by the alternating sum of frictional forces around each loop. The statistics of these two types of loop sums are found to be Gibbsian with a "temperature" that is linear with the friction coefficient ? when ?<1.

  14. From nanoscale cohesion to macroscale entanglement: Opportunities for designing granular aggregate behavior by tailoring grain shape and interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Heinrich M.; Miskin, Marc Z.; Waitukaitis, Scott R.

    2013-06-01

    The packing arrangement of individual particles inside a granular material and the resulting response to applied stresses depend critically on particle-particle interactions. One aspect that recently received attention are nanoscale surface features of particles, which play an important role in determining the strength of cohesive van der Waals and capillary interactions and also affect tribo-charging of grains. We describe experiments on freely falling granular streams that can detect the contributions from all three of these forces. We show that it is possible to measure the charge of individual grains and build up distributions that are detailed enough to provide stringent tests of tribo-charging models currently available. A second aspect concerns particle shape. In this case steric interactions become important and new types of aggregate behavior can be expected when non-convex particle shapes are considered that can interlock or entangle. However, a general connection between the mechanical response of a granular material and the constituents' shape remains unknown. This has made it infeasible to tackle the "inverse packing problem", namely to start from a given, desired behavior for the aggregate as a whole and then find the particle shape the produces it. We discuss a new approach, using concepts rooted in artificial evolution that provides a way to solve this inverse problem. This approach facilitates exploring the role of arbitrary particle geometry in jammed systems and invites the discovery and design of granular matter with optimized properties.

  15. BACKWASH OF GRANULAR FILTERS USED IN WASTEWATER FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of deep granular filters in waste treatment is of growing importance. The key to long-term operating success of such filters is proper bed design and adequate bed cleaning during backwashing. Cleaning granular filters by water backwash alone to fluidize the filter bed is ...

  16. USE OF GRANULAR GRAPHITE FOR ELECTROLYTIC DECHLORINATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Granular graphite is a potential electrode material for the electrochemical remediation of refractory chlorinated organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE). However, the use of granular graphite can complicate the experimental results. On one hand, up to 99% of TCE was re...

  17. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan (53 FR 32267). On August 30, 1988, Commerce issued an... from Italy and Japan (65 FR 6147, February 8, 2000). Following second five-year reviews by Commerce and... orders on imports of granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan (70 FR 76026)....

  18. Oral granular cell tumors: a clinicopathologic and immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Stewart, C M; Watson, R E; Eversole, L R; Fischlschweiger, W; Leider, A S

    1988-04-01

    To investigate the histogenesis of the granular cell, a large series of granular cell tumors was studied for clinical and histopathologic features with emphasis on immunocytochemical markers. The nongingival granular cell tumors (NGGCT) were found to be more prevalent among females than males by a ratio of 2:1 and arose on the tongue (67%), the buccal mucosa (13%), the lips (8%), the soft palate (6%), and other sites (6%). With the use of the avidin-biotin-peroxidase method, polyclonal rabbit antisera were employed. The antisera were directed to the following antigens: S-100 protein, myoglobin, myosin, actin, desmin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, and muramidase. Results indicated that granular cell tumors are not homogenous for immunocytochemical markers. Nongingival granular cell tumors were universally positive for S-100 protein and failed to exhibit immunoreactivity for myogenous or histiocytic markers. Alternatively, the gingival granular cell tumor of infancy was negative for all markers, whereas rhabdomyoma was reactive with myogenous markers and a subpopulation of tumor cells displayed S-100 protein immunoreactivity. The granular cell ameloblastoma was reactive only with antiserum to alpha-1-antitrypsin. Ultrastructurally, granular cells from one of two NGGCT showed a direct evolution from skeletal muscle fibers. It is concluded that the oral NGGCT is a tumor positive for S-100 protein that may arise from muscle or nerve sheath. PMID:2834681

  19. Physical Properties of Various Materials Relevant to Granular Flow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of the ubiquitous nature of granular materials, ranging from natural avalanches to industrial storage and processing operations, interest in quantifying and predicting the dynamics of granular flow continues to increase. The objective of this study was to investigate various physical proper...

  20. Clusters in a magnetic toy model for binary granular piles.

    PubMed

    Trojan, K; Ausloos, M

    2004-05-01

    Results on a generalized magnetically controlled ballistic deposition model of granular piles are reported in order to search for the effect of "spin flip" probability q in building a granular pile. Two different regimes of spin cluster site distributions have been identified, a borderline q(c) (betaJ) where J is the interaction potential strength. PMID:15244862

  1. Point release wet snow avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero, C. Vera; Bhler, Y.; Bartelt, P.

    2015-04-01

    Wet snow avalanches can initiate from large fracture slabs or small point releases. Point release wet snow avalanches can reach dangerous proportions when they (1) initiate on steep and long avalanche paths and (2) entrain warm moist snow. In this paper we investigate the dynamics of point release wet snow avalanches by applying a numerical model to simulate documented case studies on high altitude slopes in the Chilean Andes (33 S). The model predicts avalanche flow temperature as well as meltwater production, given the thermal initial conditions of the release mass and snowcover entrainment. As the release mass is small, avalanche velocity and runout are primarily controlled by snowcover temperature and moisture content. We demonstrate how the interaction between terrain and entrainment processes influence the production of meltwater and therefore lubrication processes leading to longer runout. This information is useful to avalanche forecasters. An understanding of wet snow avalanche dynamics is important to study how climate change scenarios will influence land usage in mountain regions in the near future.

  2. CEILCOTE IONIZING WET SCRUBBER EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of a Ceilcote ionizing wet scrubber installed on a refractory brick kiln. Tests involved particulate mass emission, particle size distribution, and opacity. Overall efficiency was 93% with an average outlet opacity determined with a heate...

  3. Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einasto, Jaan

    2013-12-01

    I review the development of the concept of dark matter. The dark matter story passed through several stages, from a minor observational puzzle to a major challenge for theory of elementary particles. Modern data suggest that dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe and that it consists of some unknown non-baryonic particles. Dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe; therefore, properties of dark matter particles determine the structure of the cosmic web.

  4. Acoustic probing of elastic behavior and damage in weakly cemented granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlois, V.; Jia, X.

    2014-02-01

    We investigate the elastic behavior and damage of weakly cemented granular media under external load with ultrasound. The cementation controlled experiments are performed by freezing the capillary liquid at the bead contact in a dense glass or polymeric [poly(methyl methacrylate)] bead pack wet by tetradecane of volume fraction ? = 0.1%-4%. When the pendular rings are solidified, an abrupt increase by a factor of 2 in the compressional wave velocity is observed. We interpret the data in terms of effective medium models in which the contact stiffnesses are derived by either a bonded contact model [P. J. Digby, J. Appl. Mech. 48, 803 (1981), 10.1115/1.3157738] or a cemented contact model [J. Dvorkin, A. Nur, and H. Yin, Mech. Mater. 18, 351 (1994), 10.1016/0167-6636(94)90044-2]. The former fails to quantitatively account for the results with a soft cement relative to the grain, whereas the latter considering the mechanical properties of the cement does apply. Moreover, we monitor the irreversible behavior of the cemented granular packs under moderate uniaxial loading (<1.3 MPa) with the correlation method of ultrasound scattering. The damage of the cemented materials is accompanied by a compressional wave velocity decrease up to 60%, likely due to the fractures induced at the grain-cement interfaces.

  5. Process Performance of Secondary Effluent Granular Media Filtration with and without Preozonation.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Rion; De Las Casas, Carla; Henneman, Seppi; Witzgall, Robert; Yu, William; Ramberg, Steve; Parker, Denny; Ohlinger, Kurt

    2015-07-01

    A 10-month pilot study compared the performance of conventional granular media filtration (CGMF) with granular media filtration with preozonation (OGMF) to determine the effects of preozonation on filter performance. Filtration recoveries were lower for OGMF compared to CMGF when operated at a loading rate of 18.3 m/h. Operation at 18.3 m/h met turbidity requirements for California Department of Public Health Title 22 unrestricted reclaimed water requirements for both OGMF and CGMF. Preozonated secondary effluent at a transferred dose of 3 mg/L resulted in an increase in ultraviolet transmissivity (UVT) of approximately 6% and greater than 5-log inactivation of male-specific bacteriophage MS2. Wet weather flow events resulted in UVT decrease and a decline in MS2 inactivation to less than 3 log attributed to higher ozone demand in the secondary effluent. Preozonation increased N-nitrosodimethlyamine (NDMA) concentration approximately 10 times, but subsequent filtration reduced levels to secondary effluent values. A net increase in NDMA was observed at times. PMID:26163495

  6. Spatio-structural granularity of biological material entities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background With the continuously increasing demands on knowledge- and data-management that databases have to meet, ontologies and the theories of granularity they use become more and more important. Unfortunately, currently used theories and schemes of granularity unnecessarily limit the performance of ontologies due to two shortcomings: (i) they do not allow the integration of multiple granularity perspectives into one granularity framework; (ii) they are not applicable to cumulative-constitutively organized material entities, which cover most of the biomedical material entities. Results The above mentioned shortcomings are responsible for the major inconsistencies in currently used spatio-structural granularity schemes. By using the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) as a top-level ontology and Keet's general theory of granularity, a granularity framework is presented that is applicable to cumulative-constitutively organized material entities. It provides a scheme for granulating complex material entities into their constitutive and regional parts by integrating various compositional and spatial granularity perspectives. Within a scale dependent resolution perspective, it even allows distinguishing different types of representations of the same material entity. Within other scale dependent perspectives, which are based on specific types of measurements (e.g. weight, volume, etc.), the possibility of organizing instances of material entities independent of their parthood relations and only according to increasing measures is provided as well. All granularity perspectives are connected to one another through overcrossing granularity levels, together forming an integrated whole that uses the compositional object perspective as an integrating backbone. This granularity framework allows to consistently assign structural granularity values to all different types of material entities. Conclusions The here presented framework provides a spatio-structural granularity framework for all domain reference ontologies that model cumulative-constitutively organized material entities. With its multi-perspectives approach it allows querying an ontology stored in a database at one's own desired different levels of detail: The contents of a database can be organized according to diverse granularity perspectives, which in their turn provide different views on its content (i.e. data, knowledge), each organized into different levels of detail. PMID:20509878

  7. Granular physics in low-gravity enviroments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancredi, G.; Maciel, A.; Heredia, L.; Richeri, P.; Nesmachnow, S.

    2011-10-01

    The granular media are formed by a set of macroscopic objects (named grains) which interact through temporal or permanent contacts. Several processes has been identified which require a full understanding, like: grain blocking, formation of arcs, size segregation, response to shakes and impacts, etc. These processes has been studied experimentally in the laboratory, and, in the last decades, numerically. The Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulate the mechanical behavior in a media formed by a set of particles which interact through their contact points. We describe the implementation of DEM for the study of several relevant processes in minor bodies of the Solar System. We present the results of simulations of the process of size segregation in low-gravity environments, the so-called Brazil nut effect, in the cases of Eros and Itokawa. The segregation of particles with different densities is also analyzed, with the application to the case of P/Hartley 2. The surface shaking in these different gravity environments could produce the ejection of particles from the surface at very low relative velocities. The shaking that cause the above processes is due to impacts or explosions like the release of energy by the liberation of internal stresses or the reaccommodation of material. We run simulations of the passage of seismic wave produced at impact through a granular media.

  8. Statistics from granular stick-slip experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abed Zadeh, Aghil; Bares, Jonathan; Behringer, Robert

    2015-03-01

    We carry out experiments to characterize stick-slip for granular materials. In our experiment, a constant speed stage pulls a slider which rests on a vertical bed of circular photoelastic particles in a 2D system. The stage is connected to the slider by a spring. We measure the force on the spring as well as the slider's acceleration by a force sensor attached to the spring and accelerometers on the slider. The distributions of energy release and time duration of avalanches during slip obey power laws. We apply a novel event recognition approach using wavelets to extract the avalanche properties. We compare statistics from the wavelet approach with those obtained by typical methods, to show how noise can change the distribution of events. We analyze the power spectrum of various quantities to understand the effect of the loading speed and of the spring stiffness on the statistical behavior of the system. Finally, from a more local point of view and by using a high speed camera and the photoelastic properties of our particles, we characterize the internal granular structure during avalanches. This work is supported by NSF Grant DMR1206351 and NASA Grant NNX10AU01G.

  9. Expression for the granular elastic energy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yimin; Zheng, Hepeng; Peng, Zheng; Fu, Liping; Song, Shixiong; Sun, Qicheng; Mayer, Michael; Liu, Mario

    2012-05-01

    Granular solid hydrodynamics (GSH) is a broad-ranged continual mechanical description of granular media capable of accounting for static stress distributions, yield phenomena, propagation and damping of elastic waves, the critical state, shear band, and fast dense flow. An important input of GSH is an expression for the elastic energy needed to deform the grains. The original expression, though useful and simple, has some drawbacks. Therefore a slightly more complicated expression is proposed here that eliminates three of them: (1) The maximal angle at which an inclined layer of grains remains stable is increased from 26^{?} to the more realistic value of 30^{?}. (2) Depending on direction and polarization, transverse elastic waves are known to propagate at slightly different velocities. The old expression neglects these differences, the new one successfully reproduces them. (3) Most importantly, the old expression contains only the Drucker-Prager yield surface. The new one contains in addition those named after Coulomb, Lade-Duncan, and Matsuoka-Nakai-realizing each, and interpolating between them, by shifting a single scalar parameter. PMID:23004747

  10. Influence of particle characteristics on granular friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Jennifer L.; Marone, Chris

    2005-08-01

    We report on laboratory experiments designed to illuminate grain-scale deformation mechanisms within fault gouge. We vary particle size distribution, grain and surface roughness, and gouge layer thickness to better understand how grain sliding, rolling, dilation, and compaction affect the strength and stability of granular fault gouge. The experiments employed the double direct shear testing geometry and were run at room temperature, controlled humidity, and shearing rates from 0.1 to 3000 ?m/s. Experiments were carried out under constant normal stress of 5 and 10 MPa and thus within a nonfracture loading regime where sliding friction for smooth, spherical particles is measurably lower than for rough, angular particles. We compare results from shear between smooth boundaries, where we hypothesize that grain boundary sliding is the dominant deformation mechanism, and roughened surfaces, where rolling and granular dilation contribute to shear deformation. We find that particle angularity and bounding surface roughness increase the frictional strength within sheared layers, indicating differences in particle reorganization due to these factors. In gouge material composed of <30% angular grains we observe repetitive stick-slip sliding where stress drop decreases while preinstability creep increases with increasing gouge layer thickness. Our data show significant differences in stick-slip characteristics as a function of gouge layer thickness and particle size, which we interpret in terms of the mechanics of grain bridges that support forces on the layers. We suggest that force chains exhibit qualitative differences as a function of grain angularity and bounding surface roughness.

  11. Pressure-shear experiments on granular materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, William Dodd; Thornhill, Tom Finley, III; Vogler, Tracy John; Alexander, C. Scott

    2011-10-01

    Pressure-shear experiments were performed on granular tungsten carbide and sand using a newly-refurbished slotted barrel gun. The sample is a thin layer of the granular material sandwiched between driver and anvil plates that remain elastic. Because of the obliquity, impact generates both a longitudinal wave, which compresses the sample, and a shear wave that probes the strength of the sample. Laser velocity interferometry is employed to measure the velocity history of the free surface of the anvil. Since the driver and anvil remain elastic, analysis of the results is, in principal, straightforward. Experiments were performed at pressures up to nearly 2 GPa using titanium plates and at higher pressure using zirconium plates. Those done with the titanium plates produced values of shear stress of 0.1-0.2 GPa, with the value increasing with pressure. On the other hand, those experiments conducted with zirconia anvils display results that may be related to slipping at an interface and shear stresses mostly at 0.1 GPa or less. Recovered samples display much greater particle fracture than is observed in planar loading, suggesting that shearing is a very effective mechanism for comminution of the grains.

  12. Origin of rigidity in dry granular solids.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sumantra; Bi, Dapeng; Zhang, Jie; Behringer, R P; Chakraborty, Bulbul

    2013-08-01

    Solids are distinguished from fluids by their ability to resist shear. In traditional solids, the resistance to shear is associated with the emergence of broken translational symmetry as exhibited by a nonuniform density pattern. In this work, we focus on the emergence of shear rigidity in a class of solids where this paradigm is challenged. Dry granular materials have no energetically or entropically preferred density modulations. We show that, in contrast to traditional solids, the emergence of shear rigidity in these granular solids is a collective process, which is controlled solely by boundary forces, the constraints of force and torque balance, and the positivity of the contact forces. We develop a theoretical framework based on these constraints, which connects rigidity to broken translational symmetry in the space of forces, not positions of grains. We apply our theory to experimentally generated shear-jammed states and show that these states are indeed characterized by a persistent, non-uniform density modulation in force space, which emerges at the shear-jamming transition. PMID:23971616

  13. Lizard locomotion in heterogeneous granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiebel, Perrin; Goldman, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Locomotion strategies in heterogeneous granular environments (common substrates in deserts), are relatively unexplored. The zebra-tailed lizard (C. draconoides) is a useful model organism for such studies owing to its exceptional ability to navigate a variety of desert habitats at impressive speed (up to 50 body-lengths per second) using both quadrapedal and bidepal gaits. In laboratory experiments, we challenge the lizards to run across a field of boulders (2.54 cm diameter glass spheres or 3.8 cm 3D printed spheres) placed in a lattice pattern and embedded in a loosely packed granular medium of 0.3 mm diameter glass particles. Locomotion kinematics of the lizard are recorded using high speed cameras, with and without the scatterers. The data reveals that unlike the lizard's typical quadrupedal locomotion using a diagonal gait, when scatterers are present the lizard is most successful when using a bipedal gait, with a raised center of mass (CoM). We propose that the kinematics of bipedal running in conjunction with the lizard's long toes and compliant hind foot are the keys to this lizard's successful locomotion in the presence of such obstacles. NSF PoLS

  14. Three-phase fracturing in granular material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, James; Sandnes, Bjornar

    2015-04-01

    There exist numerous geo-engineering scenarios involving the invasion of a gas into a water-saturated porous medium: in fracking, this may occur during the fracking process itself or during subsequent gas penetration into propant beds; the process is also at the heart of carbon dioxide sequestration. We use a bed of water-saturated glass beads confined within a Hele-Shaw cell as a model system to illuminate these processes. Depending on packing density, injection rate and other factors, air injected into this system may invade in a broad variety of patterns, including viscous fingering, capillary invasion, bubble formation and fracturing. Here we focus primarily on the latter case. Fracturing is observed when air is injected into a loosely packed bed of unconsolidated granular material. Our approach allows us to image the complete fracture pattern as it forms, and as such to study both the topographical properties of the resulting pattern (fracture density, braching frequency etc) and the dynamics of its growth. We present an overview of the fracturing phenomenon within the context of pattern formation in granular fluids as a whole. We discuss how fracturing arises from an interplay between frictional, capillary and viscous forces, and demonstrate the influence of various parameters on the result.

  15. Mechanics of Granular Materials labeled hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) flight hardware takes two twin double locker assemblies in the Space Shuttle middeck or the Spacehab module. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: NASA/MSFC).

  16. Mechanic of Granular Materials (MGM) Investigator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Key persornel in the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment are Mark Lankton (Program Manager at University Colorado at Boulder), Susan Batiste (research assistance, UCB), and Stein Sture (principal investigator). Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that cannot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder).

  17. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Investigators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Key persornel in the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment at the University of Colorado at Boulder include Tawnya Ferbiak (software engineer), Susan Batiste (research assistant), and Christina Winkler (graduate research assistant). Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that cannot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder).

  18. Machanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Investigator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Key persornel in the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment include Khalid Alshibli, project scientist at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that cannot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: MSFC).

  19. Comparison of two online flocculation monitoring techniques for predicting turbidity removal by granular media filtration.

    PubMed

    Ball, T; Carrière, A; Barbeau, B

    2011-07-01

    Particulate matter removal in drinking water treatment via direct granular filtration requires specific flocculation conditions (a process typically termed 'high energy flocculation'). Predicting filtered water turbidity based on flocculated water characteristics remains difficult. This study has sought to establish a relationship between filtered water turbidity and the flocculated water characteristics. Flocculation oflow-turbidity raw water was evaluated online using a Photometric Dispersion Analyser (PDA) and a Dynamic Particle Analyser in a modified jar test followed by a bench-scale anthracite filter. Coagulants used were alum, PASS100 and ferric sulphate, in addition to a polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (polyDADMAC) cationic polymer. They were dosed in warm and cold waters, and flocculated with intensities (G) from 0 to 100 s(-1). Of the two instruments selected to analyse flocculation performance, the Dynamic Particle Analyser was shown to be the most sensitive, detecting small changes in floc growth kinetics and even floc growth under low flocculation conditions which remained undetected by the PDA. Floc size was shown to be insufficient in predicting particulate matter removal by direct granular filtration as measured by turbidity, although a threshold d(v) value (50 microm) could be identified for the test conditions evaluated in this project, above which turbidity was systematically lower than 0.2 NTU. PMID:21882562

  20. Non-local rheology in dense granular flows: Revisiting the concept of fluidity.

    PubMed

    Bouzid, Mehdi; Izzet, Adrien; Trulsson, Martin; Clément, Eric; Claudin, Philippe; Andreotti, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the concepts of non-local rheology and fluidity, recently introduced to describe dense granular flows. We review and compare various approaches based on different constitutive relations and choices for the fluidity parameter, focusing on the kinetic elasto-plastic model introduced by Bocquet et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett 103, 036001 (2009)) for soft matter, and adapted for granular matter by Kamrin et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 178301 (2012)), and the gradient expansion of the local rheology μ(I) that we have proposed (Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 238301 (2013)). We emphasise that, to discriminate between these approaches, one has to go beyond the predictions derived from linearisation around a uniform stress profile, such as that obtained in a simple shear cell. We argue that future tests can be based on the nature of the chosen fluidity parameter, and the related boundary conditions, as well as the hypothesis made to derive the models and the dynamical mechanisms underlying their dynamics. PMID:26614496

  1. Electrostatics of Granular Material (EGM): Space Station Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, J.; Sauke, T.; Farrell, W.

    2000-01-01

    Aggregates were observed to form very suddenly in a lab-contained dust cloud, transforming (within seconds) an opaque monodispersed cloud into a clear volume containing rapidly-settling, long hair-like aggregates. The implications of such a "phase change" led to a series of experiments progressing from the lab, to KC-135, followed by micro-g flights on USML-1 and USML-2, and now EGM slated for Space Station. We attribute the sudden "collapse" of a cloud to the effect of dipoles. This has significant ramifications for all types of cloud systems, and additionally implicates dipoles in the processes of cohesion and adhesion of granular matter. Notably, there is the inference that like-charged grains need not necessarily repel if they are close enough together: attraction or repulsion depends on intergranular distance (the dipole being more powerful at short range), and the D/M ratio for each grain, where D is the dipole moment and M is the net charge. We discovered that these ideas about dipoles, the likely pervasiveness of them in granular material, the significance of the D/M ratio, and the idea of mixed charges on individual grains resulting from tribological processes --are not universally recognized in electrostatics, granular material studies, and aerosol science, despite some early seminal work in the literature, and despite commercial applications of dipoles in such modern uses as "Krazy Glue", housecleaning dust cloths, and photocopying. The overarching goal of EGM is to empirically prove that (triboelectrically) charged dielectric grains of material have dipole moments that provide an "always attractive" intergranular force as a result of both positive and negative charges residing on the surfaces of individual grains. Microgravity is required for this experiment because sand grains can be suspended as a cloud for protracted periods, the grains are free to rotate to express their electrostatic character, and Coulombic forces are unmasked. Suspended grains will be "interrogated" by applied electrical fields. In one module, grains will be immersed in an inhomogeneous electric field and allowed to be attracted towards or repelled from the central electrode of the module: part of the grain's speed will be a function of its net charge (monopole), part will be a function of the dipole. Observed grain position vs. time will provide a curve that can be deconvolved into the dipole and monopole forces responsible, since both have distinctive radial dependencies. In a second approach, the inhomogeneous field will be alternated at low frequency (e.g., every 5-10 seconds) so that the grains are alternately attracted and repelled from the center of the field. The resulting "zigzag" grain motion will gradually drift inwards, then suddenly change to a unidirectional inward path when a critical radial distance is encountered (a sort of "Coulombic event horizon") at which the dipole strength supersedes the monopole strength --thus proving the presence of a dipole, while also quantifying the D/M ratio. In a second module, an homogeneous electric field eliminates dipole effects (both Coulombic and induced) to provide calibration of the monopole and to more readily evaluate net charge statistical variance. In both modules, the e-fields will be exponentially step-ramped in voltage during the experiment, so that the field "nominalizes" grain speed while spreading the response time --effectively forcing each grain to "wait its turn" to be measured. In addition to rigorously quantifying M, D, and the D/M ratio for many hundreds of grains, the experiment will also observe gross electrometric and RF discharge phenomena associated with grain activity. The parameter space will encompass grain charging levels (via intentional triboelectrification), grain size, cloud density, and material type. Results will prove or disprove the dipole hypothesis. In either case, light will be shed on the role of electrostatic forces in governing granular systems. Knowledge so gained can be applied to natural clouds such as protostellar and protoplanetary dust and debris systems, planetary rings, planetary dust palls and aerosols created by volcanic, impact, aeolian, firestorm, or nuclear winter processes. The data are also directly applicable to adhesion, cohesion, transport, dispersion, and collection of granular materials in industrial, agricultural, pharmaceutical applications, and in fields as diverse as dust contamination of space suits on Mars and crop spraying on Earth.

  2. 7 CFR 29.3567 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 95) 29.3567 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is in... damage if treated in the customary manner. (See Rule 22, 29.3623.) (For extremely wet or...

  3. 7 CFR 29.3077 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is in an unsafe or doubtful-keeping order. Wet applies to any tobacco which is not damaged but which is likely to damage...

  4. Rebound of a confined granular material: combination of a bouncing ball and a granular damper.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Vzquez, F; Dorbolo, S

    2013-01-01

    A ball dropped over a solid surface bounces several times before a complete stop. The bouncing can be reduced by introducing a liquid into the ball; however, the first rebound remains largely unaffected by the fluid. Granular materials can also work as dampers. We investigated the rebound of a container partially filled with a given mass of grains mi. During the collision, the kinetic energy of the container is partially transferred to the grains, the rebound is damped, and the fast energy dissipation through inter-particle collisions and friction decreases the bouncing time dramatically. For grain-filled cylinders, a completely inelastic collision (zero rebound) is obtained when mi ? 1.5?omc, where ?o and mc are the coefficient of restitution and mass of the empty container. For grain-filled spheres, the first rebound is almost undamped, but the second collision is completely inelastic if mi ? mc. These findings are potentially useful to design new granular damping systems. PMID:23835468

  5. Discrete blasts in granular material yield two-stage process of cavitation and granular fountaining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Robin; White, James; Drig, Tobi; Zimanowski, Bernd

    2014-05-01

    A discrete blast within granular material, such as a single subterranean explosion within a debris-filled diatreme structure, is typically considered to produce a single uprush of material. Our experiments demonstrate that apparent "debris jet deposits" can be formed by a two-stage process of cavitation and subsequent granular fountaining. Bench-scale experiments reported here demonstrate that for a range of overpressures and depths, individual, discrete, buried gas blasts open space and expel particles from the blast site in two largely decoupled stages. Expanding gas initially pierces material nearest the blast source to open a cavity above it; then a fountain of grains rises from the source into the cavity. This staged motion dynamically segregates source grains from host-material grains, and the rates of cavity opening vs. fountain rise show a power-law decay relationship with initial pressure. Our experimental analysis has implications for maar-diatreme systems, field-scale detonation experiments, and underground nuclear testing.

  6. Discrete blasts in granular material yield two-stage process of cavitation and granular fountaining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Robin G.; White, James D. L.; Drig, Tobi; Zimanowski, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    A discrete blast within granular material, such as a single subterranean explosion within a debris-filled diatreme structure, is typically considered to produce a single uprush of material. Our experiments demonstrate that apparent "debris jet deposits" can be formed by a two-stage process of cavitation and subsequent granular fountaining. Bench-scale experiments reported here demonstrate that for a range of overpressures and depths, individual, discrete, buried gas blasts open space and expel particles from the blast site in two largely decoupled stages. Expanding gas initially pierces material nearest the blast source to open a cavity above it; then a fountain of grains rises from the source into the cavity. This staged motion dynamically segregates source grains from host-material grains, and the rates of cavity opening versus fountain rise show a power law decay relationship with initial pressure. Our experimental analysis has implications for maar-diatreme systems, field-scale detonation experiments, and underground nuclear testing.

  7. EFFECT OF UV IRRADIATION ON ORGANIC MATTER EXTRACTED FROM TREATED OHIO RIVER WATER STUDIED THROUGH THE USE OF ELECTROSPRAY MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ohio River water was treated by settling, sand filtration, and granular activated carbon filtration. It was then irradiated by low pressure (monochromatic) and medium pressure (polychromatic) UV lamps to investigate the effects of UV irradiation of natural organic matter (NOM). ...

  8. Evolution of permeability in heterogeneous granular aggregates during chemical compaction: Granular mechanics models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Baisheng; Elsworth, Derek

    2012-03-01

    We develop a granular mechanics model to represent the process of chemical compaction within granular media. This model represents the serial processes of stress-enhanced dissolution, mass diffusion along the fluid film separating grain boundaries, and then mass ejection into the pore space, where it may then be either reprecipitated onto the pore wall or removed by fluid advection in an open system. This process is controlled by the evolution of intergranular effective stress and mass concentrations in the fluid either in the water film or the pore space. The evolution of intergranular stress is followed by a granular mechanics model that rigorously couples the magnitude of the grain-grain contact stress to determine the time history of stress-driven dissolution. Pore fluid concentration provides a feedback to intergranular dissolution, halting intergranular compaction as fluid concentrations approach aqueous saturation. Importantly, chemical feedbacks onto the mechanical system and mechanical feedbacks on the chemical system are rigorously accommodated. Compaction is halted either by the amelioration of the driving stress (through the growth of the contact area) or by the saturation of the fluid in the pore space. This model is used to explore the influence of heterogeneous assemblages of particles on the rate and ultimate magnitude of compaction and the resulting evolution of permeability. Specifically, we explore the influence of heterogeneity in granular packs by using heterogeneous distributions of particles (linear, Gaussian, or bimodal). Results indicate that porosity and permeability decrease with compaction. Small particles dominate this dissolution-mediated process and accelerate compaction; this is true both for homogeneous distributions of small particles and for coarser aggregates containing a fraction of smaller particles. Overall, compaction is also greater for finer aggregates resulting from the larger deformation required, reaching the critical stress that will halt compaction. This feature is due to the necessary redistribution of intergranular stresses that are shed from point contacts in active chemical dissolution onto those not deforming.

  9. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Laboratory Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows four Wet Chemistry Laboratory units, part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument on board NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. This image was taken before Phoenix's launch on August 4, 2007.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Competitive Wetting in Active Brazes

    SciTech Connect

    Chandross, Michael Evan

    2014-05-01

    We found that the wetting and spreading of molten filler materials (pure Al, pure Ag, and AgAl alloys) on a Kovar (001) substrate was studied with molecular dynamics simulations. A suite of different simulations was used to understand the effects on spreading rates due to alloying as well as reactions with the substrate. Moreover, the important conclusion is that the presence of Al in the alloy enhances the spreading of Ag, while the Ag inhibits the spreading of Al.

  11. Competitive Wetting in Active Brazes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chandross, Michael Evan

    2014-05-01

    We found that the wetting and spreading of molten filler materials (pure Al, pure Ag, and AgAl alloys) on a Kovar ™ (001) substrate was studied with molecular dynamics simulations. A suite of different simulations was used to understand the effects on spreading rates due to alloying as well as reactions with the substrate. Moreover, the important conclusion is that the presence of Al in the alloy enhances the spreading of Ag, while the Ag inhibits the spreading of Al.

  12. The critical wetting saga: how to draw the correct conclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, A. O.; Rascn, C.; Bernardino, N. R.; Romero-Enrique, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    A long-standing problem in condensed matter physics concerns the nature of the critical wetting phase transition in the Ising model or, more generally, in 3D systems with short-ranged forces. This is of fundamental interest because 3D corresponds to the upper critical dimension of the transition and it is not clear a priori whether the behaviour of the system will be mean-field-like or fluctuation-dominated. Renormalization group studies of the standard coarse-grained effective interfacial Hamiltonian model famously predict strong non-universal critical exponents which depend on the value of the so-called wetting parameter ?. However, these predictions are at odds with extensive Monte Carlo simulations of wetting in the Ising model, due to Binder, Landau and coworkers, which appear to be more mean-field-like. Further amendments to the interfacial Hamiltonian, which included the presence of a position-dependent stiffness, worsened the problem by paradoxically predicting fluctuation-induced first-order wetting behaviour. Here we show from re-analysis of a microscopic Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson model of 3D short-ranged wetting that correlation functions are characterized by two diverging parallel length scales, not one, as previously thought. This has a simple diagrammatic explanation using a non-local interfacial Hamiltonian and yields a thermodynamically consistent theory of wetting in keeping with exact sum rules. The non-local model crucially contains long-ranged two-body interfacial interactions, characterized by the new length scale, which were missing in earlier treatments. For critical wetting the second length cuts off the spectrum of interfacial fluctuations determining the repulsion from the wall. We show how this corrects previous renormalization group predictions for fluctuation effects, based on local interfacial Hamiltonians. In particular, lowering the cut-off leads to a substantial reduction in the effective value of the wetting parameter controlling the non-universality and also prevents the transition being driven first-order. Quantitative comparison with the Ising model simulation studies is also made.

  13. Dispersive behavior and acoustic scaling in granular rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlos, Santos; Vanessa, Urdaneta; Ernesto, Medina; Xavier, Garca

    2013-06-01

    Handling and making decisions based on data taken at different scales is a critical issue in the design of exploration and production tasks in the oil industry. Acoustic data is the classical example of the integration of dissimilar scales (i.e. seismic, well logs, lab data) where there is a scale dependent velocity. An understanding of the acoustic dispersion phenomenon in granular samples is needed. A detailed numerical work was conducted in order to establish the relationship between frequency and propagation speed for an acoustical pulse induced in simulated granular materials. The granular samples were generated with different grain size distributions while porosity and pressure were targeted and kept invariant using the grain radii expansion method. A sinusoidal burst with frequencies from 10Hz to 1MHz was applied and the corresponding acoustical speeds were estimated for each frequency. A coherent sigmoid dispersion relationship was obtained for each granular sample. The asymptotic boundaries for the dispersion function reflect the limiting cases for the wavelength/heterogeneity ratio in the granular pack. The lower speed asymptote was explained as the mean field value while upper speed asymptote can be understood based on a ray theory approximation scaled by a parameter we defined as the "acoustic tortuosity factor". This factor reflects the intricate acoustical path due to the texture of the stress network developed in the granular samples and can be used together with the sigmoid dispersive relationship to describe and clarify the scale discrepancy between different source acoustic data in granular materials.

  14. Enhanced selection of micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol degrading granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yuancai; Chen, Yuancai; Song, Wenzhe; Hu, Yongyou

    2014-09-15

    Column-type combined reactors were designed to cultivate micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1-0.2 mgL(-1)) over 39-day experimental period. Micro-aerobic granular had both anaerobic activity (SMA: 2.34 mMCH4/hg VSS) and aerobic activity (SOUR: 2.21 mMO2/hg VSS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that PCP was sequentially dechlorinated to TCP, DCP, and eventually to MCP. Methanogens were not directly involved in the dechlorination of PCP, but might played a vital role in stabilizing the overall structure of the granule sludge. For Eubacteria, the Shannon Index (2.09 in inoculated granular sludge) increased both in micro-aerobic granular sludge (2.61) and PCP-degradation granular sludge (2.55). However, for Archaea, it decreased from 2.53 to 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Although the Shannon Index demonstrated slight difference between micro-aerobic granular sludge and PCP-degradation granular sludge, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated obvious variance of the microbial composition, revealing significant effect of micro-aerobic condition and PCP on microbial community. Furthermore, nucleotide sequencing indicated that the main microorganisms for PCP degradation might be related to Actinobacterium and Sphingomonas. These results provided insights into situ bioremediation of environments contaminated by PCP and had practical implications for the strategies of PCP degradation. PMID:25151236

  15. Scaled experiments to determine the role of density on granular flows behavior: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Sedano, L. A.; Sarocchi, D.; Borselli, L.; Segura, O.

    2013-12-01

    Geological granular flows are very complex, gravity driven phenomena which can show different behaviors depending on its origin and the characteristics of the constituent material. Due to their dangerous nature, and multiple scientific and technological applications, these phenomena has being studied deeply in order to have a better comprehension, however, after more than one century of scientific research it remains as an open topic with more questions than answers. One of the aspects that still need exhaustive research is the effect of clast density on the flowing granular material, as pointed out by previous laboratory and field studies. There are anyway few studies which have tried to explain the role of bulk density, as well the density of different phases, as it increasing or decreasing on the kinematic and the rheological characteristics of geological granular flows. The content of low density juvenile material seems to condition the processes of transformations of debris flows to more diluted phases, as well the transport and emplacing mechanisms. It is well known that the content of clay in debris flows has great influence on its behavior, physical processes and the deposits characteristics for this reason lahars has being subdivided in base of this parameter. Our hypothesis is that, in like manner, the presence of low density material inside the granular flows (dry and wet) could conditioning its physical characteristics and its behavior. In order to put this to the test, we made some laboratory experiments using a five meter long and 0.3 m wide experimental flume equipped with a wide range of sensors and laser barriers to precisely measure the rheological properties and kinematic of the sliding avalanches. A special effort was devoted to determine a threshold or critical level in the amount of low density material at which the avalanche behavior suffer appreciable changes. The obtained preliminary results confirm our hypothesis and encouraged to perform further experiments. Such studies are important because they could provide useful information for developing analog models that take into account this important physical property.

  16. Wetting hysteresis induced by nanodefects.

    PubMed

    Giacomello, Alberto; Schimmele, Lothar; Dietrich, Siegfried

    2016-01-19

    Wetting of actual surfaces involves diverse hysteretic phenomena stemming from ever-present imperfections. Here, we clarify the origin of wetting hysteresis for a liquid front advancing or receding across an isolated defect of nanometric size. Various kinds of chemical and topographical nanodefects, which represent salient features of actual heterogeneous surfaces, are investigated. The most probable wetting path across surface heterogeneities is identified by combining, within an innovative approach, microscopic classical density functional theory and the string method devised for the study of rare events. The computed rugged free-energy landscape demonstrates that hysteresis emerges as a consequence of metastable pinning of the liquid front at the defects; the barriers for thermally activated defect crossing, the pinning force, and hysteresis are quantified and related to the geometry and chemistry of the defects allowing for the occurrence of nanoscopic effects. The main result of our calculations is that even weak nanoscale defects, which are difficult to characterize in generic microfluidic experiments, can be the source of a plethora of hysteretical phenomena, including the pinning of nanobubbles. PMID:26721395

  17. Inhaled antibiotics: dry or wet?

    PubMed

    Tiddens, Harm A W M; Bos, Aukje C; Mouton, Johan W; Devadason, Sunalene; Janssens, Hettie M

    2014-11-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) delivering antibiotics for the suppressive treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients were developed recently and are now increasingly replacing time-consuming nebuliser therapy. Noninferiority studies have shown that the efficacy of inhaled tobramycin delivered by DPI was similar to that of wet nebulisation. However, there are many differences between inhaled antibiotic therapy delivered by DPI and by nebuliser. The question is whether and to what extent inhalation technique and other patient-related factors affect the efficacy of antibiotics delivered by DPI compared with nebulisers. Health professionals should be aware of the differences between dry and wet aerosols, and of patient-related factors that can influence efficacy, in order to personalise treatment, to give appropriate instructions to patients and to better understand the response to the treatment after switching. In this review, key issues of aerosol therapy are discussed in relation to inhaled antibiotic therapy with the aim of optimising the use of both nebulised and DPI antibiotics by patients. An example of these issues is the relationship between airway generation, structural lung changes and local concentrations of the inhaled antibiotics. The pros and cons of dry and wet modes of delivery for inhaled antibiotics are discussed. PMID:25323242

  18. Wetting hysteresis induced by nanodefects

    PubMed Central

    Giacomello, Alberto; Schimmele, Lothar; Dietrich, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Wetting of actual surfaces involves diverse hysteretic phenomena stemming from ever-present imperfections. Here, we clarify the origin of wetting hysteresis for a liquid front advancing or receding across an isolated defect of nanometric size. Various kinds of chemical and topographical nanodefects, which represent salient features of actual heterogeneous surfaces, are investigated. The most probable wetting path across surface heterogeneities is identified by combining, within an innovative approach, microscopic classical density functional theory and the string method devised for the study of rare events. The computed rugged free-energy landscape demonstrates that hysteresis emerges as a consequence of metastable pinning of the liquid front at the defects; the barriers for thermally activated defect crossing, the pinning force, and hysteresis are quantified and related to the geometry and chemistry of the defects allowing for the occurrence of nanoscopic effects. The main result of our calculations is that even weak nanoscale defects, which are difficult to characterize in generic microfluidic experiments, can be the source of a plethora of hysteretical phenomena, including the pinning of nanobubbles. PMID:26721395

  19. Granular acoustic switches and logic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng; Anzel, Paul; Yang, Jinkyu; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Daraio, Chiara

    2014-10-01

    Electrical flow control devices are fundamental components in electrical appliances and computers; similarly, optical switches are essential in a number of communication, computation and quantum information-processing applications. An acoustic counterpart would use an acoustic (mechanical) signal to control the mechanical energy flow through a solid material. Although earlier research has demonstrated acoustic diodes or circulators, no acoustic switches with wide operational frequency ranges and controllability have been realized. Here we propose and demonstrate an acoustic switch based on a driven chain of spherical particles with a nonlinear contact force. We experimentally and numerically verify that this switching mechanism stems from a combination of nonlinearity and bandgap effects. We also realize the OR and AND acoustic logic elements by exploiting the nonlinear dynamical effects of the granular chain. We anticipate these results to enable the creation of novel acoustic devices for the control of mechanical energy flow in high-performance ultrasonic devices.

  20. Traffic jams, granular flow, and soliton selection

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtze, D.A.; Hong, D.C.

    1995-07-01

    The flow of traffic on a long section of road without entrances or exits can be modeled by continuum equations similar to those describing fluid flow. In a certain range of traffic density, steady flow becomes unstable against the growth of a cluster, or ``phantom`` traffic jam, which moves at a slower speed than the otherwise homogeneous flow. We show that near the onset of this instability, traffic flow is described by a perturbed Korteweg--de Vries (KdV) equation. The traffic jam can be identified with a soliton solution of the KdV equation. The perturbation terms select a unique member of the continuous family of KdV solitons. These results may also apply to the dynamics of granular relaxation.

  1. Granular segregation driven by particle interactions.

    PubMed

    Lozano, C; Zuriguel, I; Garcimartn, A; Mullin, T

    2015-05-01

    We report the results of an experimental study of particle-particle interactions in a horizontally shaken granular layer that undergoes a second order phase transition from a binary gas to a segregation liquid as the packing fraction C is increased. By focusing on the behavior of individual particles, the effect of C is studied on (1)the process of cluster formation, (2)cluster dynamics, and (3)cluster destruction. The outcomes indicate that the segregation is driven by two mechanisms: attraction between particles with the same properties and random motion with a characteristic length that is inversely proportional to C. All clusters investigated are found to be transient and the probability distribution functions of the separation times display a power law tail, indicating that the splitting probability decreases with time. PMID:25978265

  2. Granular Segregation Driven by Particle Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, C.; Zuriguel, I.; Garcimartn, A.; Mullin, T.

    2015-05-01

    We report the results of an experimental study of particle-particle interactions in a horizontally shaken granular layer that undergoes a second order phase transition from a binary gas to a segregation liquid as the packing fraction C is increased. By focusing on the behavior of individual particles, the effect of C is studied on (1) the process of cluster formation, (2) cluster dynamics, and (3) cluster destruction. The outcomes indicate that the segregation is driven by two mechanisms: attraction between particles with the same properties and random motion with a characteristic length that is inversely proportional to C . All clusters investigated are found to be transient and the probability distribution functions of the separation times display a power law tail, indicating that the splitting probability decreases with time.

  3. Dynamics of gas-fluidized granular rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, L. J.; Park, Y.; Lubensky, T. C.; Durian, D. J.

    2009-04-01

    We study a quasi-two-dimensional monolayer of granular rods fluidized by a spatially and temporally homogeneous upflow of air. By tracking the position and orientation of the particles, we characterize the dynamics of the system with sufficient resolution to observe ballistic motion at the shortest time scales. Particle anisotropy gives rise to dynamical anisotropy and superdiffusive dynamics parallel to the rods long axis, causing the parallel and perpendicular mean-square displacements to become diffusive on different time scales. The distributions of free times and free paths between collisions deviate from exponential behavior, underscoring the nonthermal character of the particle motion. The dynamics show evidence of rotational-translational coupling similar to that of an anisotropic Brownian particle. We model rotational-translational coupling in the single-particle dynamics with a modified Langevin model using nonthermal noise sources. This suggests a phenomenological approach to thinking about collections of self-propelling particles in terms of enhanced memory effects.

  4. Dynamical approach to weakly dissipative granular collisions.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Italo'Ivo Lima Dias; Rosas, Alexandre; Lindenberg, Katja

    2015-07-01

    Granular systems present surprisingly complicated dynamics. In particular, nonlinear interactions and energy dissipation play important roles in these dynamics. Usually (but admittedly not always), constant coefficients of restitution are introduced phenomenologically to account for energy dissipation when grains collide. The collisions are assumed to be instantaneous and to conserve momentum. Here, we introduce the dissipation through a viscous (velocity-dependent) term in the equations of motion for two colliding grains. Using a first-order approximation, we solve the equations of motion in the low viscosity regime. This approach allows us to calculate the collision time, the final velocity of each grain, and a coefficient of restitution that depends on the relative velocity of the grains. We compare our analytic results with those obtained by numerical integration of the equations of motion and with exact ones obtained by other methods for some geometries. PMID:26274154

  5. Granular cell leiomyosarcoma of the skin

    SciTech Connect

    Suster, S.; Rosen, L.B.; Sanchez, J.L.

    1988-06-01

    A case is presented of a multifocal malignant neoplasm involving the skin of the upper back in a 10-year-old boy following radiation therapy to the head and neck for a cerebellar medulloblastoma. Histologically, the neoplastic cells were remarkable for the presence of abundant periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive diastase-resistant intracytoplasmic eosinophilic granules. Immunoperoxidase procedures revealed strong positive staining of the tumor cells with desmin, vimentin, and smooth muscle myosin antibodies, and negative staining for myoglobin, S-100 protein and keratin, thus supporting a smooth muscle line of differentiation for this neoplasm. Electronmicroscopy demonstrated numerous intracytoplasmic autophagic vacuoles that corresponded to the granules observed under the light microscope. Leiomyosarcoma should be entertained in the differential diagnosis of poorly differentiated cutaneous neoplasms histologically characterized by a proliferation of cells containing abundant granular eosinophilic cytoplasm.

  6. Penetration drag in loosely packed granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bless, Stephan; Omidvar, Mehdi; Iskander, Magued; New York University Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    The drag coefficient for penetration of granular materials by conical-nosed penetrators was computed by assuming the particles are non-interacting and rebound elastically off of the advancing penetrator. The solution was C =4 [sin(theta)]**2, where theta is the half angle of the cone. Experiments were conducted in which the drag coefficient was measured over the range 30 to 80 m/s for four types of sand: Ottawa silica sand, crushed quartz glass, coral sand, and aragonite sand. The sands were tested at relative densities of 40 and 80%. The drag coefficients for the low density materials were in excellent agreement with this simple model. The high density material had a drag considerably larger than predicted, presumably because of particle-to-particle interactions.

  7. Lightweight robot locomotion on granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tingnan; Qian, Feifei; Shen, Jeffrey; Li, Chen; Hoover, Aaron; Birkmeyer, Paul; Fearing, Ronald; Goldman, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    We present an experimental and computer simulation study of a small, light-weight, biologically inspired robot running on a model granular medium (GM), 3 mm diameter glass particles. The six-legged RoACH robot (10 cm long, 25 grams) utilizes an alternating tripod gait to run at speeds up to 25 cm/sec. Forward speed increases with increasing limb frequency 0 < f < 12 Hz. An experimentally validated discrete element method (DEM) simulation of the device captures the observed mechanics. Observation from high speed video and simulation reveals that at low f, there is little slip of the limb through the GM, and forward speed is set by step length. At higher f, limbs slip continuously through the GM and fluidize the surrounding material. In this regime, speed is dominated by fluid-like thrust forces.

  8. Dynamical approach to weakly dissipative granular collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Italo'Ivo Lima Dias; Rosas, Alexandre; Lindenberg, Katja

    2015-07-01

    Granular systems present surprisingly complicated dynamics. In particular, nonlinear interactions and energy dissipation play important roles in these dynamics. Usually (but admittedly not always), constant coefficients of restitution are introduced phenomenologically to account for energy dissipation when grains collide. The collisions are assumed to be instantaneous and to conserve momentum. Here, we introduce the dissipation through a viscous (velocity-dependent) term in the equations of motion for two colliding grains. Using a first-order approximation, we solve the equations of motion in the low viscosity regime. This approach allows us to calculate the collision time, the final velocity of each grain, and a coefficient of restitution that depends on the relative velocity of the grains. We compare our analytic results with those obtained by numerical integration of the equations of motion and with exact ones obtained by other methods for some geometries.

  9. Granular acoustic switches and logic elements.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Anzel, Paul; Yang, Jinkyu; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G; Daraio, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Electrical flow control devices are fundamental components in electrical appliances and computers; similarly, optical switches are essential in a number of communication, computation and quantum information-processing applications. An acoustic counterpart would use an acoustic (mechanical) signal to control the mechanical energy flow through a solid material. Although earlier research has demonstrated acoustic diodes or circulators, no acoustic switches with wide operational frequency ranges and controllability have been realized. Here we propose and demonstrate an acoustic switch based on a driven chain of spherical particles with a nonlinear contact force. We experimentally and numerically verify that this switching mechanism stems from a combination of nonlinearity and bandgap effects. We also realize the OR and AND acoustic logic elements by exploiting the nonlinear dynamical effects of the granular chain. We anticipate these results to enable the creation of novel acoustic devices for the control of mechanical energy flow in high-performance ultrasonic devices. PMID:25354587

  10. Frictional granular mechanics: A variational approach

    SciTech Connect

    Holtzman, R.; Silin, D.B.; Patzek, T.W.

    2009-10-16

    The mechanical properties of a cohesionless granular material are evaluated from grain-scale simulations. Intergranular interactions, including friction and sliding, are modeled by a set of contact rules based on the theories of Hertz, Mindlin, and Deresiewicz. A computer generated, three-dimensional, irregular pack of spherical grains is loaded by incremental displacement of its boundaries. Deformation is described by a sequence of static equilibrium configurations of the pack. A variational approach is employed to find the equilibrium configurations by minimizing the total work against the intergranular loads. Effective elastic moduli are evaluated from the intergranular forces and the deformation of the pack. Good agreement between the computed and measured moduli, achieved with no adjustment of material parameters, establishes the physical soundness of the proposed model.

  11. Shear jamming for highly strained granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bares, Jonathan; Berhinger, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Bi et al. (Nature 2011) have shown that, if sheared, a granular material can jam even if its packing fraction (?) is lower than the critical isotropic jamming point ?J. They have introduced a new critical packing fraction value ?S such that for ?S < ?

  12. Dense annular flows of granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ryck, Alain; Louisnard, Olivier

    2013-06-01

    Dense granular flows constitute an important topic for geophysics and process engineering. To describe them, a rheology based on the coaxiality between the stress and strain tensors with a Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion has been proposed. We propose here an analytic study of flows in an annular cell, with this rheology. This geometry is relevant for a series of powder rheometers or mixing devices, but the discussion is focused on the split-bottom geometry, for which the internal flow has been investigated by NMR technique. In this case, the full resolution of the velocity and stress fields allow to localize the shear deformations. The theoretical results obtained for the latter are compared with the torque measurements by Dijksman et al. [Phys. Rev. E, 82 (2010) 060301].

  13. NMRI Measurements of Flow of Granular Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakagawa, Masami; Waggoner, R. Allen; Fukushima, Eiichi

    1996-01-01

    We investigate complex 3D behavior of granular mixtures in shaking and shearing devices. NMRI can non-invasively measure concentration, velocity, and velocity fluctuations of flows of suitable particles. We investigate origins of wall-shear induced convection flow of single component particles by measuring the flow and fluctuating motion of particles near rough boundaries. We also investigate if a mixture of different size particles segregate into their own species under the influence of external shaking and shearing disturbances. These non-invasive measurements will reveal true nature of convecting flow properties and wall disturbance. For experiments in a reduced gravity environment, we will design a light weight NMR imager. The proof of principle development will prepare for the construction of a complete spaceborne system to perform experiments in space.

  14. Particle filtration in consolidated granular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Lawrence M.; Wilkinson, David J.; Bolsterli, Mark; Hammond, Paul

    1993-03-01

    Grain-packing algorithms are used to model the mechanical trapping of dilute suspensions of particles by consolidated granular media. We study the distribution of filtrate particles, the formation of a damage zone (internal filter cake), and the transport properties of the host-filter-cake composite. At the early stages of filtration, our simulations suggest simple relationships between the structure of the internal filter cake and the characteristics of the underlying host matrix. These relationships are then used to describe the dynamics of the filtration process. Depending on the grain size and porosity of the host matrix, calculated filtration rates may either be greater than (spurt loss) or less than (due to internal clogging) those predicted by standard surface-filtration models.

  15. Defining and testing a granular continuum element

    SciTech Connect

    Rycroft, Chris H.; Kamrin, Ken; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2007-12-03

    Continuum mechanics relies on the fundamental notion of amesoscopic volume "element" in which properties averaged over discreteparticles obey deterministic relationships. Recent work on granularmaterials suggests a continuum law may be inapplicable, revealinginhomogeneities at the particle level, such as force chains and slow cagebreaking. Here, we analyze large-scale Discrete-Element Method (DEM)simulations of different granular flows and show that a "granularelement" can indeed be defined at the scale of dynamical correlations,roughly three to five particle diameters. Its rheology is rather subtle,combining liquid-like dependence on deformation rate and solid-likedependence on strain. Our results confirm some aspects of classicalplasticity theory (e.g., coaxiality of stress and deformation rate),while contradicting others (i.e., incipient yield), and can guide thedevelopment of more realistic continuum models.

  16. Laws of granular solids: geometry and topology.

    PubMed

    DeGiuli, Eric; McElwaine, Jim

    2011-10-01

    In a granular solid, mechanical equilibrium requires a delicate balance of forces at the disordered grain scale. To understand how macroscopic rigidity can emerge in this amorphous solid, it is crucial that we understand how Newton's laws pass from the disordered grain scale to the laboratory scale. In this work, we introduce an exact discrete calculus, in which Newton's laws appear as differential relations at the scale of a single grain. Using this calculus, we introduce gauge variables that describe identically force- and torque-balanced configurations. In a first, intrinsic formulation, we use the topology of the contact network, but not its geometry. In a second, extrinsic formulation, we introduce geometry with the Delaunay triangulation. These formulations show, with exact methods, how topology and geometry in a disordered medium are related by constraints. In particular, we derive Airy's expression for a divergence-free, symmetric stress tensor in two and three dimensions. PMID:22181138

  17. Similarities between protein folding and granular jamming

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Prasanth P; Andricioaei, Ioan

    2012-01-01

    Grains and glasses, widely different materials, arrest their motions upon decreasing temperature and external load, respectively, in common ways, leading to a universal jamming phase diagram conjecture. However, unified theories are lacking, mainly because of the disparate nature of the particle interactions. Here we demonstrate that folded proteins exhibit signatures common to both glassiness and jamming by using temperature- and force-unfolding molecular dynamics simulations. Upon folding, proteins develop a peak in the interatomic force distributions that falls on a universal curve with experimentally measured forces on jammed grains and droplets. Dynamical signatures are found as a dramatic slowdown of stress relaxation upon folding. Together with granular similarities, folding is tied not just to the jamming transition, but a more nuanced picture of anisotropy, preparation protocol and internal interactions emerges. Results have implications for designing stable polymers and can open avenues to link protein folding to jamming theory. PMID:23093180

  18. Instability in Granular Materials with Internal Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicher, Pierre-Yves; Chang, Ching S.

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we study the influence of internal erosion on the development of instability in soil masses. A constitutive modeling method for granular materials based on particle level interactions has been developed using an homogenization technique. In the model, a simple elastic-plastic behavior is assumed on each contact plane. A numerical analysis of the condition of instability expressed by the vanishing of the second-order work is performed in the context of soil subjected to internal erosion. Special attention is given to constant deviatoric stress paths, which are representative of a change in hydraulic conditions within a soil element. Numerical results show that instability condition can be reached along such stress path when the soil undergoes internal erosion.

  19. Granular activated carbon: Design, operation and cost

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.M.; Lykins, B.W.

    1990-01-01

    A summary is presented of design, cost, and performance information on the application of application of granular activated carbon (GAC) in drinking water based on field-scale experience. A brief history of the development of regulations for control of synthetic organics in drinking water is presented. The use of GAC in other countries is discussed and various design concepts for the unit operations that make up the GAC process are explored. Included in the book are chapters that present information from field-scale research projects dealing with the performance of virgin and reactivated carbon; problems and limitations of carbon reactivation systems; and use of carbon for removing trihalomethanes, trihalomethane precursors, and synthetic organics. The last chapter provides cost equations and comparative cost studies for full-scale application of GAC.

  20. Granular activated-carbon treatment. Engineering bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment is a physicochemical process that removes a wide variety of contaminants by adsorbing them from liquid and gas streams. The treatment is most commonly used to separate organic contaminants from water or air; however, it can be used to remove a limited number of inorganic contaminants. In most cases, the contaminants are collected in concentrated form on the GAC, and further treatment is required. Site-specific treatability studies are generally necessary to document the applicability and potential performance of a GAC system. The bulletin provides information on the technology applicability, technology limitations, a technology description, the types of residuals produced, site requirements, latest performance data, status of the technology, and sources for further information.

  1. Nonlinear Force Propagation During Granular Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Abram H.; Petersen, Alec J.; Kondic, Lou; Behringer, Robert P.

    2015-04-01

    We experimentally study nonlinear force propagation into granular material during impact from an intruder, and we explain our observations in terms of the nonlinear grain-scale force relation. Using high-speed video and photoelastic particles, we determine the speed and spatial structure of the force response just after impact. We show that these quantities depend on a dimensionless parameter, M'=tcv0/d , where v0 is the intruder speed at impact, d is the particle diameter, and tc is the collision time for a pair of grains impacting at relative speed v0. The experiments access a large range of M' by using particles of three different materials. When M'≪1 , force propagation is chainlike with a speed, vf, satisfying vf∝d /tc. For larger M', the force response becomes spatially dense and the force propagation speed departs from vf∝d /tc, corresponding to collective stiffening of a strongly compressed packing of grains.

  2. Clustering and segregation in driven granular fluids.

    PubMed

    Opsomer, E; Vandewalle, N; Noirhomme, M; Ludewig, F

    2014-11-01

    In microgravity, the successive inelastic collisions in a granular gas can lead to a dynamical clustering of the particles. This transition depends on the filling fraction of the system, the restitution of the used materials and on the size of the particles. We report simulations of driven bi-disperse gas made of small and large spheres. The size as well as the mass difference imply a strong modification in the kinematic chain of collisions and therefore alter significantly the formation of a cluster. Moreover, the different dynamical behaviors can also lead to a demixing of the system, adding a few small particles in a gas of large ones can lead to a partial clustering of the taller type. We realized a detailed phase diagram recovering the encountered regimes and developed a theoretical model predicting the possibility of dynamical clustering in binary systems. PMID:25412823

  3. Sand transport, erosion and granular electrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrison, J. P.

    2012-06-01

    The transport of granular materials by wind has a major impact on our environment through sand/soil erosion and the generation and transport of atmospheric dust aerosols. Terrestrially the transport of dust involves billions of tons of material every year, influencing the global climate and impacting directly upon human health. Research in aeolian transport involves the inter-related fields of fluid dynamics, granular materials and electrification/electrostatics which are in themselves diverse and complex. This review only touches upon this intricacy, but aims to overview the latest work which is expanding our current understanding and outline the areas of advancement needed in the future. Presentation is made of current models for wind driven detachment/entrainment and the transport rates of sand and dust, including the effects of contact induced grain electrification. This ubiquitous phenomenon can affect grain transport through the generation of intense electric fields and processes of electrostatic assembly. Importantly the transport of sand is characterized by saltation, which is known to be an active process for erosion and therefore a source for dust and sand formation. Using novel erosion simulation techniques the link between grain transport rates and erosion rates has been quantified. Furthermore this can be linked to production rates for dust and has been associated with chemical and mineral alteration through a process of mechanical activation of fractured surfaces. This work has implications for the evolution of all terrestrial-like planetary surfaces. Studies in non-terrestrial environments force researchers to be less empirical, ultimately leading to a deeper understanding of these processes.

  4. Experimental observations of granular debris flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghilardi, P.

    2003-04-01

    Various tests are run using two different laboratory flumes with rectangular cross section and transparent walls. The grains used in a single experiment have an almost constant grain sizes; mean diameter ranges from 5 mm to 20 mm. In each test various measurements are taken: hydrograms, velocity distribution near the transparent walls and on the free surface, average flow concentration. Concentration values are measured taking samples. Velocity distributions are obtained from movies recorded by high speed video cameras capable of 350 frames per second; flow rates and depth hydrograms are computed from the same velocity distributions. A gate is installed at the beginning of one of the flumes; this gate slides normally to the bed and opens very quickly, reproducing a dam-break. Several tests are run using this device, varying channel slope, sediment concentration, initial mixture thickness before the gate. Velocity distribution in the flume is almost constant from left to right, except for the flow sections near the front. The observed discharges and velocities are less than those given by a classic dam break formula, and depend on sediment concentration. The other flume is fed by a mixture with constant discharge and concentration, and is mainly used for measuring velocity distributions when the flow is uniform, with both rigid and granular bed, and to study erosion/deposition processes near debris flow dams or other mitigation devices. The equilibrium slope of the granular bed is very close to that given by the classical equilibrium formulas for debris flow. Different deposition processes are observed depending on mixture concentration and channel geometry.

  5. Impact dynamics of granular jets with noncircular cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiang; Gordillo, Leonardo; Zhang, Wendy W.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.; Nagel, Sidney R.

    2014-04-01

    Using high-speed photography, we investigate two distinct regimes of the impact dynamics of granular jets with noncircular cross sections. In the steady-state regime, we observe the formation of thin granular sheets with anisotropic shapes and show that the degree of anisotropy increases with the aspect ratio of the jet's cross section. Our results illustrate the liquidlike behavior of granular materials during impact and demonstrate that a collective hydrodynamic flow emerges from strongly interacting discrete particles. We discuss the analogy between our experiments and those from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, where similar anisotropic ejecta from a quark-gluon plasma have been observed in heavy-ion impact.

  6. Granularity in superconductors: intrinsic properties and processing-dependent effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passos, W. A. C.; Lisboa-Filho, P. N.; Caparroz, R.; de Faria, C. C.; Venturini, P. C.; Araujo-Moreira, F. M.; Sergeenkov, S.; Ortiz, W. A.

    2001-05-01

    This contribution presents a selected set of results, obtained as part of a systematic investigation, evidencing that many effects exhibited by superconductors are distinct manifestations of granularity which, in turn, is envisaged as a break of symmetry. The Wohlleben effect, the fishtail anomaly, the magnetic remanence exhibited by Josephson junction arrays, and the jumps on the magnetic moment of superconducting samples of mesoscopic dimensions, are examples which we briefly review and discuss taking granularity as the basic ingredient. The emphasis of the present approach is to recognize the importance of granularity in every scenario intended to explain the magnetic properties of superconducting systems.

  7. Recurrent ameloblastoma of the mandible with unusual granular cell component.

    PubMed

    Argyris, Prokopios P; McBeain, Mackensie J T; Rake, Angela; Pambuccian, Stefan E; Gopalakrishnan, Rajaram; Koutlas, Ioannis G

    2015-06-01

    Ameloblastomas can present in various clinical and histomorphologic patterns. The granular cell variant accounts for only 3.5% to 5% of ameloblastomas. The aim of this case report is to present an example of ameloblastoma with unusual granular cell component, affecting a 63-year-old woman, in which both the inner and peripheral layers of follicles composed exclusively by eosinophilic granular cells. Assessment of the immunohistochemical and histochemical profile of the lesion was performed and the challenges of such a diagnosis were also addressed. PMID:25673632

  8. Proximity coupling of a granular film with a ferroelectric substrate and giant electroresistance effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udalov, O. G.; Chtchelkatchev, N. M.; Beloborodov, I. S.

    2014-08-01

    We study electron transport in granular film placed above the ferroelectric substrate. We show that the conductivity of granular film depends strongly on the ferroelectric state due to screening effects that modify the Coulomb blockade in granular film. In particular, the electric current in granular film is controlled by the direction of ferroelectric polarization. We show that the ferroelectric/granular film system has a large electroresistance effect. This effect can be utilized in memory and electric-field sensor applications.

  9. Stress and Temperature Distributions of Individual Particles in a Shock Wave Propagating through Dry and Wet Sand Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumaker, Merit; Stewart, Sarah T.; Borg, John P.

    2015-06-01

    Determining stress and temperature distributions of dynamically compacted particles is of interest to the geophysical and astrological research communities. However, these particle interactions during a shock event are not easily observed in planar shock experiments; it is with the utilization of mesoscale simulations that these granular particle interactions can be unraveled. Unlike homogenous materials, the overall averaged hugoniot state for heterogeneous granular materials differs from the individual stress and temperature states of particles during a shock event. From planar shock experiments on dry and wet sand mixtures, simulations were constructed using CTH. A baseline dry sand simulation was also setup to be compared to sand grains that possessed water particles between grains. It is from these simulations that the distributions of stress and temperatures for individual sand and water particles are presented and compared in this document.

  10. When matter matters

    SciTech Connect

    Easson, Damien A.; Sawicki, Ignacy; Vikman, Alexander E-mail: ignacy.sawicki@uni-heidelberg.de

    2013-07-01

    We study a recently proposed scenario for the early universe:Subluminal Galilean Genesis. We prove that without any other matter present in the spatially flat Friedmann universe, the perturbations of the Galileon scalar field propagate with a speed at most equal to the speed of light. This proof applies to all cosmological solutions — to the whole phase space. However, in a more realistic situation, when one includes any matter which is not directly coupled to the Galileon, there always exists a region of phase space where these perturbations propagate superluminally, indeed with arbitrarily high speed. We illustrate our analytic proof with numerical computations. We discuss the implications of this result for the possible UV completion of the model.

  11. Massive granular cell ameloblastoma with dural extension and atypical morphology

    PubMed Central

    Raghunath, Vandana; Rath, Rachna; Kamal, Firoz; Misra, Satya Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    Ameloblastomas are rare histologically benign, locally aggressive tumors arising from the oral ectoderm that occasionally reach a gigantic size. Giant ameloblastomas are a rarity these days with the advent of panoramic radiography in routine dental practice. Furthermore, the granular cell variant is an uncommon histological subtype of ameloblastoma where the central stellate reticulum like cells in tumor follicles is replaced by granular cells. Although granular cell ameloblastoma (GCA) is considered to be a destructive tumor with a high recurrence rate, the significance of granular cells in predicting its biologic behavior is debatable. However, we present a rare case of giant GCA of remarkable histomorphology showing extensive craniofacial involvement and dural extension that rendered a good prognosis following treatment. PMID:25395775

  12. Course 13: Self-organized Criticality in Granular Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, S. L.; Savitskaya, N. E.

    We study the critical state of a one-dimensional granular superconductor (multijunction SQUID with random arrangement of junctions) in an increasing magnetic field. We show that the system under consideration demonstrates the self-organized behavior.

  13. Eosinophilic and granular cell tumors of the breast.

    PubMed

    Damiani, S; Dina, R; Eusebi, V

    1999-05-01

    Eosinophilic and granular cell tumors of the breast are a heterogeneous group encompassing both epithelial and mesenchymal lesions. A granular appearance of the cytoplasm may be caused by the accumulation of secretory granules, mitochondria, or lysosomes. In the breast, mucoid carcinomas, carcinomas showing apocrine differentiation, and neuroendocrine carcinomas are well known entities, while tumors with oncocytic and acinic cell differentiation have been only recently recognized. An abundance of lysosomes is characteristic of Schwannian granular cell neoplasms, but smooth muscle cell tumors also may have this cytoplasmic feature. Awareness of all these possibilities when granular cells are found in breast lesions improves diagnostic accuracy and helps to avoid misdiagnosis of both benign lesions and malignant tumors. PMID:10452577

  14. Numerical simulation of impact cratering on granular material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Koji; Senshu, Hiroki; Matsui, Takafumi

    2006-02-01

    A new numerical code based on the Distinct Element Method (DEM) is developed to study the impact cratering processes on granular material. This code has a potential advantage to simulate the cratering process on granular material, since the movement of discrete particles can be treated. To show the physical plausibility of this code, we conduct 3-D numerical simulations of vertical impact into granular material targets that consist of 384,000 particles, and compare the results with those from experimental studies. It is shown that the excavation stage of cratering derived from experimental studies is represented well by our simulation: the size of the crater cavity, and the ejecta velocity and angle distributions are consistent with those obtained in laboratory experiments. The impact simulation code developed in this study is thus suggested to be useful for the analysis of the impact cratering process on granular material.

  15. Brownian motion in granular gases of viscoelastic particles

    SciTech Connect

    Bodrova, A. S. Brilliantov, N. V.; Loskutov, A. Yu.

    2009-12-15

    A theory is developed of Brownian motion in granular gases (systems of many macroscopic particles undergoing inelastic collisions), where the energy loss in inelastic collisions is determined by a restitution coefficient {epsilon}. Whereas previous studies used a simplified model with {epsilon} = const, the present analysis takes into account the dependence of the restitution coefficient on relative impact velocity. The granular temperature and the Brownian diffusion coefficient are calculated for a granular gas in the homogeneous cooling state and a gas driven by a thermostat force, and their variation with grain mass and size and the restitution coefficient is analyzed. Both equipartition principle and fluctuation-dissipation relations are found to break down. One manifestation of this behavior is a new phenomenon of 'relative heating' of Brownian particles at the expense of cooling of the ambient granular gas.

  16. REPEATED REDUCTIVE AND OXIDATIVE TREATMENTS ON GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fenton oxidation and Fenton oxidation preceded by reduction solutions were applied to granular activated carbon (GAC) to chemically regenerate the adsorbent. No adsorbate was present on the GAC so physicochemical effects from chemically aggressive regeneration of the carbon coul...

  17. GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON ADSORPTION AND INFRARED REACTIVATION: A CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study evaluated the effectiveness and cost of removing trace organic contaminants and surrogates from drinking water by granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption. The effect of multiple reactivations of spent GAC was also evaluated. Results indicated that reactivated GAC eff...

  18. Eddies, mixing and heat transfer in dense granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rognon, P.; Miller, T.; Einav, I.

    2013-06-01

    We investigate the ability of dense granular flows to transfer heat while flowing. Using discrete element simulations, we show that large correlated motions of grains develop in dense granular sheared layer, and lead to a strong heat transfer across streamlines. This process is similar to the convection induced by eddies in turbulent flows. However, granular eddies do not result from visco-inertial instability, but from the steric exclusion of closely packed grains. As a result, they seem to develop even at very low shear rates, which could have a significant practical interest. Beyond their different natures, classical turbulence and granular turbulence face similar challenges, and it is hoped that research in these two fields can benefit from each other.

  19. Inert plug formation in the DDT of granular energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Son, S.F.; Asay, B.W.; Bdzil, J.B.

    1995-09-01

    A mechanism is proposed to explain the {open_quotes}plugs{close_quotes} that have been observed in deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) of granular explosives. Numerical simulations are performed that demonstrate the proposed mechanism. Observed trends are reproduced.

  20. Wet Work and Barrier Function.

    PubMed

    Fartasch, Manigé

    2016-01-01

    Wet work defined as unprotected exposure to humid environments/water; high frequencies of hand washing procedures or prolonged glove occlusion is believed to cause irritant contact dermatitis in a variety of occupations. This review considers the recent studies on wet-work exposure and focuses on its influence on barrier function. There are different methods to study the effect of wet work on barrier function. On the one hand, occupational cohorts at risk can be monitored prospectively by skin bioengineering technology and clinical visual scoring systems; on the other hand, experimental test procedures with defined application of water, occlusion and detergents are performed in healthy volunteers. Both epidemiological studies and the results of experimental procedures are compared and discussed. A variety of epidemiological studies analyze occupational cohorts at risk. The measurement of transepidermal water loss, an indicator of the integrity of the epidermal barrier, and clinical inspection of the skin have shown that especially the frequencies of hand washing and water contact/contact to aqueous mixtures seem to be the main factors for the occurrence of barrier alterations. On the other hand, in a single cross-sectional study, prolonged glove wearing (e.g. occlusion for 6 h per shift in clean-room workers) without exposure to additional hazardous substances seemed not to affect the skin negatively. But regarding the effect of occlusion, there is experimental evidence that previously occluded skin challenged with sodium lauryl sulfate leads to an increased susceptibility to the irritant with an aggravation of the irritant reaction. These findings might have relevance for the real-life situation in so far as after occupational glove wearing, the skin is more susceptible to potential hazards to the skin even during leisure hours. PMID:26844906

  1. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  2. A Wet Chemistry Laboratory Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This picture of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) cell is labeled with components responsible for mixing Martian soil with water from Earth, adding chemicals and measuring the solution chemistry. WCL is part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument suite on board the Phoenix lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Electronic Structure of Wet DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervasio, Francesco Luigi; Carloni, Paolo; Parrinello, Michele

    2002-08-01

    The electronic properties of a Z-DNA crystal synthesized in the laboratory are investigated by means of density-functional theory Car-Parrinello calculations. The electronic structure has a gap of only 1.28eV. This separates a manifold of 12 occupied states which came from the ? guanine orbitals from the lowest empty states in which the electron is transferred to the Na+ from PO-4 groups and water molecules. We have evaluated the anisotropic optical conductivity. At low frequency the conductivity is dominated by the ?-->Na+ transitions. Our calculation demonstrates that the cost of introducing electron holes in wet DNA strands could be lower than previously anticipated.

  4. Wet/Dry Vacuum Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reimers, Harold; Andampour, Jay; Kunitser, Craig; Thomas, Ike

    1995-01-01

    Vacuum cleaner collects and retains dust, wet debris, and liquids. Designed for housekeeping on Space Station Freedom, it functions equally well in normal Earth Gravity or in microgravity. Generates acoustic noise at comfortably low levels and includes circuitry that reduces electromagnetic interference to other electronic equipment. Draws materials into bag made of hydrophobic sheet with layers of hydrophilic super-absorbing pads at downstream end material. Hydrophilic material can gel many times its own weight of liquid. Blower also provides secondary airflow to cool its electronic components.

  5. Wet coastal plain tundra III

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, J.P.; Gellman, S.T.; Pitelka, F.A.

    1980-01-01

    This year's census data for the wet coastal plain tundra in Alaska; North Slope Borough, 3 km SSE of Naval Arctic Research Laboratory, Barrow; 71/sup 0/ 18'N, 156/sup 0/ 38'W; Barrow Quadrangle, USGS reflect a decrease in the total number of species breeding. However, total breeding density rose by 82%. Lapland Longspurs (up 105%) accounted for half of this increase while the rest was spread among many species. There was a total of 8 species; 40.5 territorial males or females (162/km/sup 2/, 66/100 acres).

  6. Granular cells in ameloblastoma: An enigma in diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Aparna; Arora, Manpreet; Shetty, V. P.; Saluja, Pulin

    2015-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is an epithelial odontogenic tumor exhibiting diverse microscopic pattern that occurs singly or in combination with other patterns. This article describes a case of granular cell ameloblastoma (GCA) involving mandible in a 55-year-old male. The possibility of granular component is there in other odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. Sometimes dilemma exists in the diagnosis of such lesions. The purpose of this article is to unveil the hidden characteristics in GCA, which might help in differential diagnosis of GCA. PMID:26752883

  7. Dynamics of Granular Materials and Particle-Laden Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Swinney, Harry L.

    2007-07-11

    Rapid granular flows and particle-laden flows were studied in laboratory experiments, molecular dynamics simulations, and simulations of continuum equations. The research demonstrated that the inclusion of friction is crucial in realistic modeling of granular flows; hence extensive previous analyses and simulations by many researchers for frictionless particles must be reconsidered in the light of our work. We also made the first detailed comparison between experiment and the predictions of continuum theory for granular media (hydrodynamic equations). We found that shock waves easily form in granular flows since the speed of sound waves (pressure fluctuations) in a granular gas is small, typically 10 cm, while flow velocities are easily an order of magnitude larger. Our measurements on vertically oscillating granular layers led to the development of a novel technique for continuously separating particles of different sizes. Our study of craters formed by the impact of a projectile in a granular medium showed, surprisingly, that the time taken for a projectile to come to a rest in the granular layer is independent of the projectile’s impact energy. Another study supported by this grant examined a vertically oscillating layer of a mixture of cornstarch and water. The discovery of stable holes in the mixture was reported widely in the popular press, e.g., Science News [15 May 2004], “Imaging poking a liquid to create holes that persist like the holes in Swiss cheese. Incredible as that might sound, a group of scientists has done it.” Further experiments on glass spheres in an aqueous solution yielded the same holey fluid phenomenon, supporting our conjecture that such holes may occur in dense concentrations of particles in solution in industrial applications.

  8. A novel numerical method for radiation exchange in granular medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayal, Ram; Gambaryan-Roisman, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    A very simple numerical method is developed to determine the inter-particle radiation heat transfer in a granular powder bed. The method is completely independent of coordinate system and does not require any domain discretization. The solution procedure does not involve any matrix inversion, thus making it suitable candidate for radiation heat transfer problems involving large number of interacting surfaces, especially granular powder beds.

  9. Granular cells in ameloblastoma: An enigma in diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Dave, Aparna; Arora, Manpreet; Shetty, V P; Saluja, Pulin

    2015-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is an epithelial odontogenic tumor exhibiting diverse microscopic pattern that occurs singly or in combination with other patterns. This article describes a case of granular cell ameloblastoma (GCA) involving mandible in a 55-year-old male. The possibility of granular component is there in other odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. Sometimes dilemma exists in the diagnosis of such lesions. The purpose of this article is to unveil the hidden characteristics in GCA, which might help in differential diagnosis of GCA. PMID:26752883

  10. Particle deposition in granular media. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Tien, C.

    1980-01-01

    Studies performed under Contract DE-AC02-79-ER10386.A000 Particle Deposition in Granular Media during the period June 1, 1979 to date are described. These studies include the design and construction of apparatus for filtration experiments and a complete trajectory analysis for the calculation of the initial collection efficiency of granular media. The results of the trajectory analysis have been used to develop a generalized correlation of the collection efficiency.

  11. Granular materials: constitutive equations and strain localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, L.; Gu, C.

    2000-08-01

    Strain localization into shear bands is commonly observed in natural soil masses, as well as in human-built embankments, footings, retaining walls and other geotechnical structures. Numerical predictions for the process of shear band formation are critically dependent on the constitutive equations employed. In this paper, the plane strain "double-shearing" constitutive model (e.g., Spencer, A.J.M., 1964. A theory of the kinematics of ideal soils under plane strain conditions. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 12, 337-351; Spencer, A.J.M., 1982, Deformation of ideal granular materials. In: Hopkins, H.G., Sewell, M.J. (Eds.), Mechanics of Solids. Pergamon Press, Oxford and New York, pp. 607-652; Mehrabadi, M.M., Cowin, S.C., 1978. Initial planar deformation of dilatant granular materials. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 26, 269-284; Nemat-Nasser, S., Mehrabadi, M.M., Iwakuma, T. 1981. On certain macroscopic and microscopic aspects of plastic flow of ductile materials. In: Nemat-Nasser, S. (Ed.), Three-dimensional Constitutive Relations and Ductile Fracture. North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 157-172; Anand, L., 1983. Plane deformations of ideal granular materials. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 31, 105-122) is generalized to three dimensions including the effects of elastic deformation and pre-peak behavior. The constitutive model is implemented in a finite element program and is used to predict the formation of shear bands in plane strain compression, and plane strain cylindrical cavity expansion. The predictions from the model are shown to be in good quantitative agreement with the recent experiments of Han, C., Drescher, A., (1993. Shear bands in biaxial tests on dry coarse sand. Soils and Foundations 33, 118-132) and Alsiny, H., Vardoulakis, I., Drescher, A., (1992. Deformation localization in cavity inflation experiments on dry sand. Geotechnique 42, 395-410) on a dry sand. The constitutive model is also used to predict the stress state in a static sand pile — a topic which has occupied the attention of many investigators in recent years. In our simulations we model an initially loose sand mass as a cohesionless material with a mobilized internal friction coefficient which evolves from an initial value of zero to a saturation value. The formation of a sand pile is numerically modeled as a two-step process: (i) In the first step a conical sand mass is placed between a flat rigid surface and an axi-symmetric conical mold. Interaction between the sand mass and the rigid base plate is modeled using an interface friction coefficient which has the same value as the saturation value of the internal friction coefficient. The sand mass (which is confined between the base plate and the conical mold) is subjected to gravity loading, and the system is allowed to equilibrate. (ii) In the second step the conical mold is quickly lifted and the sand mass allowed to reach a new equilibrate, but slightly slumped configuration. In the process of slight slumping, there is non-homogeneous plastic deformation of the sand pile. This non-homogeneous plastic deformation, coupled with the evolving internal friction coefficient, naturally gives rise to a static stress state which exhibits the interesting feature that the vertical stress distribution at the base of the sand pile does not have a maximum under the apex of the cone, but shows a local dip there.

  12. Numerical tests of constitutive laws for dense granular flows.

    PubMed

    Lois, Gregg; Lematre, Anal; Carlson, Jean M

    2005-11-01

    We numerically and theoretically study the macroscopic properties of dense, sheared granular materials. In this process we first consider an invariance in Newton's equations, explain how it leads to Bagnold's scaling, and discuss how it relates to the dynamics of granular temperature. Next we implement numerical simulations of granular materials in two different geometries--simple shear and flow down an incline--and show that measurements can be extrapolated from one geometry to the other. Then we observe nonaffine rearrangements of clusters of grains in response to shear strain and show that fundamental observations, which served as a basis for the shear transformation zone (STZ) theory of amorphous solids [M. L. Falk and J. S. Langer, Phys. Rev. E. 57, 7192 (1998); M.R.S. Bull 25, 40 (2000)], can be reproduced in granular materials. Finally we present constitutive equations for granular materials as proposed by Lematre [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 064303 (2002)], based on the dynamics of granular temperature and STZ theory, and show that they match remarkably well with our numerical data from both geometries. PMID:16383599

  13. Rheology of granular materials: dynamics in a stress landscape.

    PubMed

    Bi, Dapeng; Chakraborty, Bulbul

    2009-12-28

    We present a framework for analysing the rheology of dense driven granular materials, based on a recent proposal of a stress-based ensemble. In this ensemble, fluctuations in a granular system near jamming are controlled by a temperature-like parameter, the angoricity, which is conjugate to the stress of the system. In this paper, we develop a model for slowly driven granular materials based on the stress ensemble and the idea of a landscape in stress space. The idea of an activated process driven by the angoricity has been shown by Behringer et al. (Behringer et al. 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 268301) to describe the logarithmic strengthening of granular materials. Just as in the soft glassy rheology (SGR) picture, our model represents the evolution of a small patch of granular material (a mesoscopic region) in a stress-based trap landscape. The angoricity plays the role of the fluctuation temperature in the SGR. We determine (i) the constitutive equation, (ii) the yield stress, and (iii) the distribution of stress dissipated during granular shearing experiments, and compare these predictions with the experiments of Hartley & Behringer (Hartley & Behringer 2003 Nature 421, 928-931.). PMID:19933128

  14. Effect of finite particle interaction time in granular systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, D.Z.; Rauenzahn, R.M.

    1998-07-01

    Almost all previously published theoretical papers that propose constitutive relations for granular flows use some form of kinetic theory, which neglects effects of finite particle interaction time and multiparticle interactions. In dense systems, these effects contain essential physics and determine the evolution of the stress system in granular flows. In this paper, the authors shall demonstrate the importance of these effects and study the behavior of the granular stress in a dense system. The particle interaction time is a random variable in a granular system, and they show that its probability distribution obeys an exponential law. The temporal decay of this probability represents the destruction of contacts between particles and is related to the relaxation of the collisional stress in a granular system. By considering the balance between creation and destruction of contacts, they derive a constitutive relation for collisional stress. Depending on the form of the model chosen to approximate forces developed during particle interactions, the constitutive relation can predict either viscoelastic or viscoplastic behavior of the collisional stress. Numerical simulations are performed to verify the theoretical findings and to study further the properties of dense granular systems.

  15. Complex Impact Craters Morphologies Created by Granular Projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartali, R.; Rodriguez-Lian, G.; Nahmad-Molinari, Y.; Ruiz-Suarez, C.; Sarocchi, D.

    2012-12-01

    Most, high and low energy, experiments, devoted to reproduce impact crater morphologies as those observed on planets and satellites, are done smashing solid projectiles on solid or granular targets. Our experiments, instead, are aimed to understand the behavior of granular projectiles impacting on granular targets. This approach is a by-product of the improvements in astronomical instrumentation and data processing capabilities, made during the past few years, which allowed the recognition of the granular structure of several asteroids. Planetary surfaces are also covered by regolith, produced by the fragmentation of impacting bodies, giving them, also, a granular structure. Comparing our experimental results with impact craters on the moon, mars and satellites, we can show that the different morphologies of complex impact craters are reproduced more faithfully by using granular materials for both the projectile and the target. C) Experimental central dome crater D) Un-named central dome crater on Mars E) Experimental central peak crater F) Tycho crater, Moon, central peak G) Experimental ray crater H) Kepler crater, Moon, ray crater

  16. Guest Editorial Special Issue on Granular/Symbolic Data Processing.

    PubMed

    Su, Shun-Feng; Pedrycz, Witold; Hong, Tzung-Pei; De Carvalho, Francisco De A T

    2016-02-01

    Granular/symbolic data processing is an emerging conceptual and computing paradigm of information processing. In the era of big data, the emergence of granular/symbolic processing has been motivated by the urgent need for intelligent transformation of empirical data that are now commonly available in vast quantities, into a human-manageable knowledge. In such an aggregation process, we hope to retain as much information as possible while making the findings easily understood and well-supported by the existing experimental evidence. Those aggregated entities are often referred to as symbolic or granular data. Research areas referred to as symbolic data analysis in statistics and multivariate data analysis address some of the fundamental or applied facets of granular computing. The theoretical fundamentals of granular/symbolic data processing are well-established. They involve set theory (interval mathematics), fuzzy sets, rough sets, and random sets linked together in a highly comprehensive treatment of this emerging paradigm. In addition to interval-based formalism of information granules, we also encounter histograms, distributions, lists of values, etc. Hence, granular/symbolic data processing hinges on a general computation theory that effectively uses granules such as classes, clusters, subsets, groups, and intervals to build an efficient computational model for complex applications realized in the presence of huge amounts of data, information, and knowledge. This research arises as a substantial shift from the current machine-centric to human-centric approach to information and knowledge. PMID:26742157

  17. The effectiveness of resistive force theory in granular locomotiona)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tingnan; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2014-10-01

    Resistive force theory (RFT) is often used to analyze the movement of microscopic organisms swimming in fluids. In RFT, a body is partitioned into infinitesimal segments, each of which generates thrust and experiences drag. Linear superposition of forces from elements over the body allows prediction of swimming velocities and efficiencies. We show that RFT quantitatively describes the movement of animals and robots that move on and within dry granular media (GM), collections of particles that display solid, fluid, and gas-like features. RFT works well when the GM is slightly polydisperse, and in the "frictional fluid" regime such that frictional forces dominate material inertial forces, and when locomotion can be approximated as confined to a plane. Within a given plane (horizontal or vertical) relationships that govern the force versus orientation of an elemental intruder are functionally independent of the granular medium. We use the RFT to explain features of locomotion on and within granular media including kinematic and muscle activation patterns during sand-swimming by a sandfish lizard and a shovel-nosed snake, optimal movement patterns of a Purcell 3-link sand-swimming robot revealed by a geometric mechanics approach, and legged locomotion of small robots on the surface of GM. We close by discussing situations to which granular RFT has not yet been applied (such as inclined granular surfaces), and the advances in the physics of granular media needed to apply RFT in such situations.

  18. [Granular cell tumors. Rare tumors of the neurohypophysis].

    PubMed

    Barrande, G; Kujas, M; Gancel, A; Turpin, G; Bruckert, E; Kuhn, J M; Luton, J P

    1995-10-14

    Granular cell tumours of neurohypophysis are rare. These tumours are more often encountered as incidental autopsy findings seen in up to 17% of unselected adult autopsy cases. There are few reports of parasellar granular cell tumours large enough to cause symptoms. We present three cases of neurohypophysis granular cell tumour and a review of the literature. In one patient, the asymptomatic granular cell tumour was incidentally discovered at surgical removal of a corticotroph microadenoma. The remaining 2 patients had a symptomatic tumour which caused neurological symptoms such as visual disturbance and headaches and endocrine disorders such as hypopituitarism or hyperprolactinaemia. In these 2 cases, computerized tomography showed a well-circumscribed, contrast-enhanced, intrasellar and suprasellar mass. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an isointense gadolinium-enhanced mass in T1-weighted images. Transsphenoidal partial resection was performed and histology was interpreted as a granular cell tumour. The immunohistochemical study was positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) in 1 of the 2 tumours and positive for S100 protein and vimentin in both tumours but negative for CD68. The histogenesis of neurohypophysis granular cell tumours is still controversial but ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies support the theory that they may arise from pituicytes, the glial cells of neurohypophysis. Management of these benign, slow-growing, tumours is based mainly on neurosurgical resection. Data from the literature do not support a beneficial effect of postoperative radiation therapy on postoperative recurrences. PMID:8545314

  19. Mars: Always Cold, Sometimes Wet?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Pascal; McKay, Christoper P.

    2003-01-01

    A synthesis of a diverse suite of observations of H2O-related landforms that are possible Mars analogs from terrestrial polar regions (Devon Island in the Arctic; the Dry Valleys of Antarctica) put into question any requirement for extended episode(s) of warm and wet climate in Mars past. Geologically transient episodes of localized H2O cycling, forced by exogenic impacts, enhanced endogenic heat flow, and/or orbit-driven short-term local environmental change under an otherwise cold, low pressure (=10(exp 2) mbar) global climate, may be sufficient to account for the martian surface's exposed record of aqueous activity. A Mars that was only sometimes locally warm and wet while remaining climatically cold throughout its history is consistent with results (difficulties) encountered in modeling efforts attempting to support warm martian climate hypotheses. Possible analogs from terrestrial cold climate regions for the recent gully features on Mars also illustrate how transient localized aqueous activity might, under specific circumstances, also occur on Mars under the present frigid global climatic regime.

  20. Elucidating the mysteries of wetting.

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Edmund Blackburn, III; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Grillet, Anne Mary; Sackinger, Philip A.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Emerson, John Allen; Ash, Benjamin Jesse; Heine, David R.; Brooks, Carlton, F.; Gorby, Allen D.

    2005-11-01

    Nearly every manufacturing and many technologies central to Sandia's business involve physical processes controlled by interfacial wetting. Interfacial forces, e.g. conjoining/disjoining pressure, electrostatics, and capillary condensation, are ubiquitous and can surpass and even dominate bulk inertial or viscous effects on a continuum level. Moreover, the statics and dynamics of three-phase contact lines exhibit a wide range of complex behavior, such as contact angle hysteresis due to surface roughness, surface reaction, or compositional heterogeneities. These thermodynamically and kinetically driven interactions are essential to the development of new materials and processes. A detailed understanding was developed for the factors controlling wettability in multicomponent systems from computational modeling tools, and experimental diagnostics for systems, and processes dominated by interfacial effects. Wettability probed by dynamic advancing and receding contact angle measurements, ellipsometry, and direct determination of the capillary and disjoining forces. Molecular scale experiments determined the relationships between the fundamental interactions between molecular species and with the substrate. Atomistic simulations studied the equilibrium concentration profiles near the solid and vapor interfaces and tested the basic assumptions used in the continuum approaches. These simulations provide guidance in developing constitutive equations, which more accurately take into account the effects of surface induced phase separation and concentration gradients near the three-phase contact line. The development of these accurate models for dynamic multicomponent wetting allows improvement in science based engineering of manufacturing processes previously developed through costly trial and error by varying material formulation and geometry modification.

  1. This technology is all wet

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The wet oxidation technology developed by Conor Pacific Environmental Technologies Inc. (CPET; Vancouver, British Columbia) is designed to eliminate hazardous and nonhazardous organic contaminants from liquid effluent. The technology, which originated in Denmark, uses oxygen homogeneously dissolved in water to treat organic contaminants. According to the company, the process eliminates hazardous and nonhazardous contaminants without generating pollutant emissions, making it relatively easy to permit. CPET says wet oxidation eliminates some inorganic compounds, such as cyanides, and all hazardous and nonhazardous organic pollutants, including those found in petroleum products, aromatic solvents, tar compounds, pesticides and plasticizers. The process also handles relatively high concentrations of such contaminants as phenol, oil, and coal, tar and wood preservatives. The technology can achieve up to 99.9999% destruction efficiencies. The process is exothermic, generating its own heat, and allows energy to be recovered and recycled. Some heating is required at start-up, and heat exchangers are used to overcome heat build-up later in the process.

  2. Experimental and Computational Techniques in Soft Condensed Matter Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olafsen, Jeffrey

    2010-09-01

    1. Microscopy of soft materials Eric R. Weeks; 2. Computational methods to study jammed Systems Carl F. Schrek and Corey S. O'Hern; 3. Soft random solids: particulate gels, compressed emulsions and hybrid materials Anthony D. Dinsmore; 4. Langmuir monolayers Michael Dennin; 5. Computer modeling of granular rheology Leonardo E. Silbert; 6. Rheological and microrheological measurements of soft condensed matter John R. de Bruyn and Felix K. Oppong; 7. Particle-based measurement techniques for soft matter Nicholas T. Ouellette; 8. Cellular automata models of granular flow G. William Baxter; 9. Photoelastic materials Brian Utter; 10. Image acquisition and analysis in soft condensed matter Jeffrey S. Olafsen; 11. Structure and patterns in bacterial colonies Nicholas C. Darnton.

  3. Granular flows on a dissipative base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louge, Michel Y.; Valance, Alexandre; Lancelot, Paul; Delannay, Renaud; Artières, Olivier

    2015-08-01

    We study inclined channel flows of sand over a sensor-enabled composite geotextile fabric base that dissipates granular fluctuation energy. We record strain of the fabric along the flow direction with imbedded fiber-optic Bragg gratings, flow velocity on the surface by correlating grain position in successive images, flow thickness with the streamwise shift of an oblique laser light sheet, velocity depth profile through a transparent side wall using a high-speed camera, and overall discharge rate. These independent measurements at inclinations between 33∘ and 37∘ above the angle of repose at 32.1 ±0 .8∘ are consistent with a mass flow rate scaling as the 3 /2 power of the flow depth, which is markedly different than flows on a rigid bumpy boundary. However, this power changes to 5 /2 when flows are forced on the sand bed below its angle of repose. Strain measurements imply that the mean solid volume fraction in the flowing layer above the angle of repose is 0.268 ±0.033 , independent of discharge rate or inclination.

  4. Granular media filtration: old process, new thoughts.

    PubMed

    Lawler, D F; Nason, J A

    2006-01-01

    The design of granular media filters has evolved over many years so that modern filters have larger media sizes and higher filtration velocities than in earlier times. The fundamental understanding of filtration has also improved over time, with current models that account reasonably for all characteristics of the media, the suspension and the filter operation. The methodology for design, however, has not kept pace with these improvements; current designs are based on pilot plants, past experience, or a simple guideline (the ratio of the bed depth to media grain size). We propose that design should be based universally on a characteristic removal length, with the provision of a bed depth that is some multiple of that characteristic length. This characteristic removal length is calculated using the most recent (and most complete) fundamental model and is based on the particle size with the minimum removal efficiency in a filter. The multiple of the characteristic length that yields the required bed depth has been calibrated to existing, successful filters. PMID:16752758

  5. Measurements of gravity driven granular channel flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facto, Kevin

    This dissertation presents experiments that studied two gravity driven granular channel flows. The first experiment used magnetic resonance imaging to measure the density and displacement distributions of poppy seeds flowing in a rough walled channel. Time-averaged measurements of normalized velocity and density showed little flow speed dependence. Instantaneous measurements, however, showed marked velocity dependence in the displacement distributions. There was evidence of aperiodic starting and stopping at lower flow speeds and the onset of density waves on a continuous flow at higher speeds. The second experiment measured forces in all three spatial directions at the boundary of a flow of steel balls. The relationship between the normal and the tangential forces were examined statistically and compared to the Coulomb friction model. For both large and small forces, the tangential and normal forces are unrelated, as there appears to be a strong tendency for the tangential force to maintain a value that will bear the weight the weight of the particles in flow.

  6. Penetration of projectiles into granular targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Surez, J. C.

    2013-06-01

    Energetic collisions of subatomic particles with fixed or moving targets have been very valuable to penetrate into the mysteries of nature. But the mysteries are quite intriguing when projectiles and targets are macroscopically immense. We know that countless debris wandering in space impacted (and still do) large asteroids, moons and planets; and that millions of craters on their surfaces are traces of such collisions. By classifying and studying the morphology of such craters, geologists and astrophysicists obtain important clues to understand the origin and evolution of the Solar System. This review surveys knowledge about crater phenomena in the planetary science context, avoiding detailed descriptions already found in excellent papers on the subject. Then, it examines the most important results reported in the literature related to impact and penetration phenomena in granular targets obtained by doing simple experiments. The main goal is to discern whether both schools, one that takes into account the right ingredients (planetary bodies and very high energies) but cannot physically reproduce the collisions, and the other that easily carries out the collisions but uses laboratory ingredients (small projectiles and low energies), can arrive at a synergistic intersection point.

  7. Isolation of Ureaplasma from bovine granular vulvitis.

    PubMed Central

    Ruhnke, H L; Doig, P A; MacKay, A L; Gagnon, A; Kierstead, M

    1978-01-01

    Cultures for mycoplasmatales, viruses and bacteria were made from bovine vulvar swabs to determine whether ureaplasma was associated with a clinical granular vulvitis observed in 16 Ontario dairy herds. Ureaplasma was isolated from 23.5% of 34 clinically normal cows, 74% of 27 cows with mild to moderate vulvar hyperemia but no discharge and 100% of 20 cows with acute vulvar hyperemia accompanied by purulent discharge. There were statistically significant differences in rates of isolation among clinical groups. Mycoplasma bovigenitalium was isolated from 7.7% and 20% of cows with moderate or acute vulvitis respectively but not from normal cows. Haemophilus somnus was isolated from 25% of cows with acute vulvitis. There were no significant differences in isolations of Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium pyogenes and alpha-hemolytic streptococcus between normal and clinically affected animals. Cultures of 135 repeat samples from 33 cows revealed that ureaplasma persisted in some animals for at least three months. No viruses were isolated from any of the animals in this study. PMID:352491

  8. The drainage of foamy granular suspensions.

    PubMed

    Haffner, Benjamin; Khidas, Yacine; Pitois, Olivier

    2015-11-15

    Foam-based materials are promising micro-structured materials with interesting thermal and acoustical properties. The control of the material morphology requires counteracting all the destabilizing mechanisms during their production, starting with the drainage process, which remains to be understood in the case of the complex fluids that are commonly used to be foamed. Here we perform measurements for the drainage velocity of aqueous foams made with granular suspensions of hydrophilic monodisperse particles and we show that the effect of the particles can be accounted by two parameters: the volume fraction of particles in the suspension (?p) and the confinement parameter (?), that compares the particle size to the size of passage through constrictions in the foam network. We report data over wide ranges for those two parameters and we identify all the regimes and transitions occurring in the ?p-? diagram. In particular, we highlight a transition which refers to the included/excluded configuration of the particles with respect to the foam network, and makes the drainage velocity evolve from its minimal value (fully included particles) to its maximal one (fully excluded particles). We also determine the conditions (?p,?) leading to the arrest of the drainage process. PMID:26218200

  9. Shear Jamming for Slippery Granular Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Dijksman, Joshua; Ren, Jie; Behringer, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Shear Jamming of granular materials was first found for systems of frictional disks, with a static friction coefficients ?s ~= 0 . 6 . Jamming by shear is obtained by starting from a zero-stress state with a packing fraction ?S <= ? <=?J between ?J (isotropic jamming) and a lowest ?S for shear jamming. This phenomenon is associated with strong anisotropy in stress and the contact network in the form of ``force chains,'' which are stabilized and/or enhanced by the presence of friction. The issue that we address experimentally is how reducing friction affects shear jamming. We use either Teflon disks, or disks that have been wrapped with Teflon, lowering the friction coefficient substantially from previous experiments. The Teflon disks were placed in a 2D shear apparatus (Ren et al., PRL 110, 018302 (2013)), with two rows of uncoated photoelastic particles at the periphery. The interior Teflon particles formed the ``system,'' and the outer ring of photoelastic particles provided force data. For Teflon disks, shear jamming was also observed, but the difference ?J -?S was smaller than for higher friction particles. Ongoing work is focused on studies using the Teflon-wrapped particles, which completely fill the apparatus. Currently at Merck & Co.

  10. Rheology of a sonofluidized granular packing.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Robledo, G A; Clément, E

    2009-12-01

    We report experimental measurements on the rheology of a dry granular material under a weak level of vibration generated by sound injection. First, we measure the drag force exerted on a wire moving in the bulk. We show that when the driving vibration energy is increased, the effective rheology changes drastically: going from a non-linear dynamical friction behavior --weakly increasing with the velocity-- up to a linear force-velocity regime. We present a simple heuristic model to account for the vanishing of the stress dynamical threshold at a finite vibration intensity and the onset of a linear force-velocity behavior. Second, we measure the drag force on spherical intruders when the dragging velocity, the vibration energy, and the diameters are varied. We evidence a so-called "geometrical hardening" effect for smaller-size intruders and a logarithmic hardening effect for the velocity dependence. We show that this last effect is only weakly dependent on the vibration intensity. PMID:19998051

  11. Wave propagation in random granular chains.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Manjunath M; Awasthi AP; Geubelle PH

    2012-03-01

    The influence of randomness on wave propagation in one-dimensional chains of spherical granular media is investigated. The interaction between the elastic spheres is modeled using the classical Hertzian contact law. Randomness is introduced in the discrete model using random distributions of particle mass, Young's modulus, or radius. Of particular interest in this study is the quantification of the attenuation in the amplitude of the impulse associated with various levels of randomness: two distinct regimes of decay are observed, characterized by an exponential or a power law, respectively. The responses are normalized to represent a vast array of material parameters and impact conditions. The virial theorem is applied to investigate the transfer from potential to kinetic energy components in the system for different levels of randomness. The level of attenuation in the two decay regimes is compared for the three different sources of randomness and it is found that randomness in radius leads to the maximum rate of decay in the exponential regime of wave propagation.

  12. Autophagy in granular corneal dystrophy type 2.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung-Il; Kim, Eung Kweon

    2016-03-01

    Autophagy is a lysosomal degradative process that is essential for cellular homeostasis and metabolic stress adaptation. Defective autophagy is involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases including granular corneal dystrophy type 2 (GCD2). GCD2 is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by substitution of histidine for arginine at codon 124 (R124H) in the transforming growth factor ?-induced gene (TGFBI) on chromosome 5q31. Transforming growth factor ?-induced protein (TGFBIp) is degraded by autophagy, but mutant-TGFBIp accumulates in autophagosomes and/or lysosomes, despite significant activation of basal autophagy, in GCD2 corneal fibroblasts. Furthermore, inhibition of autophagy induces cell death of GCD2 corneal fibroblasts through active caspase-3. As there is currently no pharmacological treatment for GCD2, development of novel therapies is required. A potential strategy for preventing cytoplasmic accumulation of mutant-TGFBIp in GCD2 corneal fibroblasts is to enhance mutant-TGFBIp degradation. This could be achieved by activation of the autophagic pathway. Here, we will consider the role and the potential therapeutic benefits of autophagy in GCD2, with focus on TGFBIp degradation, in light of the recently established role of autophagy in protein degradation. PMID:26386150

  13. Granular flows on a dissipative base.

    PubMed

    Louge, Michel Y; Valance, Alexandre; Lancelot, Paul; Delannay, Renaud; Artières, Olivier

    2015-08-01

    We study inclined channel flows of sand over a sensor-enabled composite geotextile fabric base that dissipates granular fluctuation energy. We record strain of the fabric along the flow direction with imbedded fiber-optic Bragg gratings, flow velocity on the surface by correlating grain position in successive images, flow thickness with the streamwise shift of an oblique laser light sheet, velocity depth profile through a transparent side wall using a high-speed camera, and overall discharge rate. These independent measurements at inclinations between 33∘ and 37∘ above the angle of repose at 32.1±0.8∘ are consistent with a mass flow rate scaling as the 3/2 power of the flow depth, which is markedly different than flows on a rigid bumpy boundary. However, this power changes to 5/2 when flows are forced on the sand bed below its angle of repose. Strain measurements imply that the mean solid volume fraction in the flowing layer above the angle of repose is 0.268±0.033, independent of discharge rate or inclination. PMID:26382391

  14. Acoustic signals generated in inclined granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Danielle S.; Jenkins, James T.; Keast, Stephen C.; Sachse, Wolfgang H.

    2015-10-01

    Spontaneous avalanching in specific deserts produces a low-frequency sound known as "booming." This creates a puzzle, because avalanches down the face of a dune result in collisions between sand grains that occur at much higher frequencies. Reproducing this phenomenon in the laboratory permits a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms for the generation of such lower frequency acoustic emissions, which may also be relevant to other dry granular flows. Here we report measurements of low-frequency acoustical signals, produced by dried "sounding" sand (sand capable of booming in the desert) flowing down an inclined chute. The amplitude of the signal diminishes over time but reappears upon drying of the sand. We show that the presence of this sound in the experiments may provide supporting evidence for a previously published "waveguide" explanation for booming. Also, we propose a model based on kinetic theory for a sheared inclined flow in which the flowing layer exhibits "breathing" modes superimposed on steady shearing. The predicted oscillation frequency is of a similar order of magnitude as the measurements, indicating that small perturbations can sustain oscillations of a low frequency. However, the frequency is underestimated, which indicates that the stiffness has been underestimated. Also, the model predicts a discrete spectrum of frequencies, instead of the broadband spectrum measured experimentally.

  15. Granular Material Flows with Interstitial Fluid Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Melany L.; Brennen, Christopher E.

    2004-01-01

    The research focused on experimental measurements of the rheological properties of liquid-solid and granular flows. In these flows, the viscous effects of the interstitial fluid, the inertia of the fluid and particles, and the collisional interactions of the particles may all contribute to the flow mechanics. These multiphase flows include industrial problems such as coal slurry pipelines, hydraulic fracturing processes, fluidized beds, mining and milling operation, abrasive water jet machining, and polishing and surface erosion technologies. In addition, there are a wide range of geophysical flows such as debris flows, landslides and sediment transport. In extraterrestrial applications, the study of transport of particulate materials is fundamental to the mining and processing of lunar and Martian soils and the transport of atmospheric dust (National Research Council 2000). The recent images from Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft dramatically depict the complex sand and dust flows on Mars, including dune formation and dust avalanches on the slip-face of dune surfaces. These Aeolian features involve a complex interaction of the prevailing winds and deposition or erosion of the sediment layer; these features make a good test bed for the verification of global circulation models of the Martian atmosphere.

  16. Enhancing bulk superconductivity by engineering granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayoh, James; García García, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    The quest for higher critical temperatures is one of the main driving forces in the field of superconductivity. Recent theoretical and experimental results indicate that quantum size effects in isolated nano-grains can boost superconductivity with respect to the bulk limit. Here we explore the optimal range of parameters that lead to an enhancement of the critical temperature in a large three dimensional array of these superconducting nano-grains by combining mean-field, semiclassical and percolation techniques. We identify a broad range of parameters for which the array critical temperature, TcArray, can be up to a few times greater than the non-granular bulk limit, Tc 0. This prediction, valid only for conventional superconductors, takes into account an experimentally realistic distribution of grain sizes in the array, charging effects, dissipation by quasiparticles and limitations related to the proliferation of thermal fluctuations for sufficiently small grains. For small resistances we find the transition is percolation driven. Whereas at larger resistances the transition occurs above the percolation threshold due to phase fluctuations. JM acknowledes support from an EPSRC Ph.D studentship, AMG acknowledges support from EPSRC, grant No. EP/I004637/1, FCT, grant PTDC/FIS/111348/2009 and a Marie Curie International Reintegration Grant PIRG07-GA-2010-268172.

  17. Drag-force regimes in granular impact.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Mukesh; Mohan, T R Krishna; Sen, Surajit

    2014-12-01

    We study the penetration dynamics of a projectile incident normally on a substrate comprising of smaller granular particles in three-dimensions using the discrete element method. Scaling of the penetration depth is consistent with experimental observations for small velocity impacts. Our studies are consistent with the observation that the normal or drag force experienced by the penetrating grain obeys the generalized Poncelet law, which has been extensively invoked in understanding the drag force in the recent experimental data. We find that the normal force experienced by the projectile consists of position and kinetic-energy-dependent pieces. Three different penetration regimes are identified in our studies for low-impact velocities. The first two regimes are observed immediately after the impact and in the early penetration stage, respectively, during which the drag force is seen to depend on the kinetic energy. The depth dependence of the drag force becomes significant in the third regime when the projectile is moving slowly and is partially immersed in the substrate. These regimes relate to the different configurations of the bed: the initial loose surface packed state, fluidized bed below the region of impact, and the state after the crater formation commences. PMID:25615080

  18. Force propagation in isostatic granular packs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krapf, Nathan William

    We investigate how forces spread through frictionless granular packs at the jamming transition. Previous work has indicated that such packs are isostatic, and thus obey a null stress law which, independent of the packing history, causes rays of stress to propagate away from a point force at oblique angles [1]. Prior verifications of the null stress law have used a sequential packing method which yields packs with anisotropic packing histories. We create packs without this anisotropy, and then later break the symmetry by adding a boundary. Our isotropic packs are very sensitive, and their responses to point forces diverge wildly, indicating that they cannot be described by any continuum stress model. We stabilize the packs by supplying an additional boundary, which makes the response much more regular. The response of the stabilized packs resembles what one would expect in a hyperstatic pack, despite the isostatic bulk. The expected stress rays characteristic of null stress behavior are not present. This suggests that isostatic packs do not need to obey a null stress condition. We argue that the rays may arise instead from more simple geometric considerations, such as preferred contact angles between beads. [1] A. V. Tkachenko and T. A. Witten, Physical Review E 60, 687 (1999).

  19. Wave propagation in random granular chains.

    PubMed

    Manjunath, Mohith; Awasthi, Amnaya P; Geubelle, Philippe H

    2012-03-01

    The influence of randomness on wave propagation in one-dimensional chains of spherical granular media is investigated. The interaction between the elastic spheres is modeled using the classical Hertzian contact law. Randomness is introduced in the discrete model using random distributions of particle mass, Young's modulus, or radius. Of particular interest in this study is the quantification of the attenuation in the amplitude of the impulse associated with various levels of randomness: two distinct regimes of decay are observed, characterized by an exponential or a power law, respectively. The responses are normalized to represent a vast array of material parameters and impact conditions. The virial theorem is applied to investigate the transfer from potential to kinetic energy components in the system for different levels of randomness. The level of attenuation in the two decay regimes is compared for the three different sources of randomness and it is found that randomness in radius leads to the maximum rate of decay in the exponential regime of wave propagation. PMID:22587093

  20. Dielectric elastomer actuators with granular coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpi, Federico; Frediani, Gabriele; Nanni, Massimo; De Rossi, Danilo

    2011-04-01

    So-called 'hydrostatically coupled' dielectric elastomer actuators (HC-DEAs) have recently been shown to offer new opportunities for actuation devices made of electrically responsive elastomeric insulators. HC-DEAs include an incompressible fluid that mechanically couples a dielectric elastomer based active part to a passive part interfaced to the load, so as to enable hydrostatic transmission. Drawing inspiration from that concept, this paper presents a new kind of actuators, analogous to HC-DEAs, except for the fact that the fluid is replaced by fine powder. The related technology, here referred to as 'granularly coupled' DEAs (GC-DEAs), relies entirely on solid-state materials. This permits to avoid drawbacks (such as handling and leakage) inherent to usage of fluids, especially those in liquid phase. The paper presents functionality and actuation performance of bubble-like GC-DEAs, in direct comparison with HC-DEAs. For this purpose, prototype actuators made of two pre-stretched membranes of acrylic elastomer, coupled via talcum powder (for GC-DEA) or silicone grease (for HC-DEA), were manufactured and comparatively tested. As compared to HC-DEAs, GC-DEAs showed a higher maximum stress, the same maximum relative displacement, and nearly the same bandwidth. The paper presents characterization results and discusses advantages and drawbacks of GC-DEAs, in comparison with HC-DEAs.